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Sample records for positive subjective ratings

  1. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...

  2. Text and Subject Position after Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Easthope

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Althusser's achievement is that he redefined Marxism. He reconceptualizes history and totality in terms of different times, construes knowledge as the outcome of a process of construction, and interprets subjectivity as an effect of ideology and unconscious processes. Unfortunately, Althusser's functionalist view of ideology claims that the subject recognizes itself as a subject because it duplicates— reflects—an absolute subject. However, Lacan's notion of the mirror stage remedies this fault. Lacan's subject always misrecognizes itself in a process of contradiction that threatens the stability of any given social order. Moreover, unlike Foucault's subject, which is limited in that subjectivity is folded back into a vaguely expanded notion of "power," this revised Althusserian subject allows careful reading of texts. The critic does not simply read against the grain; he or she exposes the multiple points of identification offered the reader. For example, Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper" installs the reader in multiple positions: a devotee of high culture and the national canon, a lover of the verbal signifier and its play, a consumer of confessional discourse, and a masculine "I" desiring a laboring, singing woman.

  3. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrender, Curt

    2005-12-13

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  4. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrender, Curt [Morgan Hill, CA

    2007-01-23

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  5. Suicide Attempt in a Recently Diagnosed HIV Positive Subject: Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide Attempt in a Recently Diagnosed HIV Positive Subject: Is Pre and Post Counseling Still Being Adequately Practiced? ... A case of attempted suicide in a recently diagnosed HIV positive subject without adequate counseling is reported. Subject ... Key Words: Suicide Attempt, HIV/AIDS, Pre and Post test Counseling.

  6. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  7. Digitized video subject positioning and surveillance system for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Y.; Thompson, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Head motion is a significant contribution to the degradation of image quality of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies. Images from different studies must also be realigned digitally to be correlated when the subject position has changed. These constraints could be eliminated if the subject's head position could be monitored accurately. The authors have developed a video camera-based surveillance system to monitor the head position and motion of subjects undergoing PET studies. The system consists of two CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras placed orthogonally such that both face and profile views of the subject's head are displayed side by side on an RGB video monitor. Digitized images overlay the live images in contrasting colors on the monitor. Such a system can be used to (1) position the subject in the field of view (FOV) by displaying the position of the scanner's slices on the monitor along with the current subject position, (2) monitor head motion and alert the operator of any motion during the study and (3) reposition the subject accurately for subsequent studies by displaying the previous position along with the current position in a contrasting color

  8. DIDACTIC PRINCIPLES OF THE FORMATION OF STUDENTS’ SUBJECT POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garanina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subject position of a personality is the phenomenon that determines self-activity, identity, sovereignty, and positive dynamics of selfdevelopment, self-education, self-training and self-realization, i.e. those qualities which are necessary for a modern expert. Therefore, the development of the concept of formation and development of a subject position of a future expert during his/her vocational training is an urgent scientific and practical task.The aim of the present research is to prove theoretically the following issues: regularities of a formation process of a subject position of a student of a higher education institution; principles reflecting features of functioning of subject space; and requirements shown to the organization of this pedagogical process.Methodology and research methods. The methods involve the analysis of philosophical and psychology and pedagogical sources on the research problem; transspective, phenomenological, psychological, comparative, system, and structure-functional types of the analysis; deductive and inductive methods; comparison, generalization, synthesis, and abstraction.Results and scientific novelty. The concept «student’s subject position» is redefined; the concept includes such features as polysystemacity, multidimensionality, and multi-functionality. The characteristics of a person with a subject position are summarized; special attention is paid to his/her personal characteristics. The regularities of formation and development of the subject position of the student caused by internal mechanisms of self-updating, self-organization, self-development and self-improvement are found out. It is testified that these regularities are shown in the system of various social relations; depend on external impact, integrity and unity of a teaching and educational process; those regularities are characterized by heterochronism, emergence, and evolving. The research enables to present an overall

  9. Subjective visual vertical after treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Mian Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Otolith function can be studied by testing the subjective visual vertical, because the tilt of the vertical line beyond the normal range is a sign of vestibular dysfunction. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder of one or more labyrinthine semicircular canals caused by fractions of otoliths derived from the utricular macula. Objective: To compare the subjective visual vertical with the bucket test before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Methods: We evaluated 20 patients. The estimated position where a fluorescent line within a bucket reached the vertical position was measured before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Before repositioning maneuver, 9 patients (45.0% had absolute values of the subjective visual vertical above the reference standard and 2 (10.0% after the maneuver; the mean of the absolute values of the vertical deviation was significantly lower after the intervention (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a reduction of the deviations of the subjective visual vertical, evaluated by the bucket test, immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

  10. The Theater goes to the cinema: position subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Peres Martins

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the play “The Seven Kittens” (Os Sete Gatinhos, written in 1958 by the Brazilian playwright Nelson Rodrigues and its adaptation for the cinema, homonymous, direct by Neville D’ Almeida, launched in 1980. The theoretical approach which will serve as the basis for the above analysis will be the Anlysis of the Discourse of French oriented, as well as other theories that will help, as the reflections about lacanian subject by Bruce Fink (1998 and film studies by Ismail Xavier (2008. Fruit of the basic research of bibliographical and interpretative, this paper aims to present reflections about subject positions, devoting attention to the characters from the materiality of theatrical text, noting whether these positions are displaced in the filmic materiality. It will be verified beyond this possibility of subject positions, the inclusion or withdrawals of dialogues, the senses preserved, removed or added by means of elements that compose the whole of film production such as music, scenery, costumes, constitution of the image by means of the movement of the câmera (first and second plans, focus, etc., strategies aimed at the production of meanings by following the trends of the cinema of the years 70/80. This reflection is done while considering the materiality of the film is the result of a collective productions, led by a director, with different responsible for photography, set design, editing and soundtrack, as well as intervention in the creation of characters by each actor.

  11. Can slide positivity rates predict malaria transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Yan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a significant threat to population health in the border areas of Yunnan Province, China. How to accurately measure malaria transmission is an important issue. This study aimed to examine the role of slide positivity rates (SPR in malaria transmission in Mengla County, Yunnan Province, China. Methods Data on annual malaria cases, SPR and socio-economic factors for the period of 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and the Bureau of Statistics, Mengla, China. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to evaluate the relationship between socio-ecologic factors and malaria incidence. Results The results show that SPR was significantly positively associated with the malaria incidence rates. The SPR (β = 1.244, p = 0.000 alone and combination (SPR, β = 1.326, p  Conclusion SPR is a strong predictor of malaria transmission, and can be used to improve the planning and implementation of malaria elimination programmes in Mengla and other similar locations. SPR might also be a useful indicator of malaria early warning systems in China.

  12. Renegotiating "best treatment practice" and professional subject positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    the professionals strive for is being able to meet patients as humans rather than meeting them as diagnosed patients. I will explore how situated and local enactments of these treatment ideals, for example dissolving the role of expert have complex constitutive effects and create alternative subject positions...... other. The analysis indicates that an argument of prevention may be a reinforcing motivation factor and possibility of subjectivation for the personnel. A possibility to construct a story about oneself, that facilitates the staff development as self-managing professional, in line with modern management...... strategies, where governing strategies are made invisible, and where management strategies are converted to individual existential projects. A central argument is that the individual ethical project of the introduction of a new treatment approach melts together with psychiatric treatment. There is no longer...

  13. Self-stimulating rats combine subjective reward magnitude and subjective reward rate multiplicatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, M I; Gallistel, C R

    1998-07-01

    For rats that bar pressed for intracranial electrical stimulation in a 2-lever matching paradigm with concurrent variable interval schedules of reward, the authors found that the time allocation ratio is based on a multiplicative combination of the ratio of subjective reward magnitudes and the ratio of the rates of reward. Multiplicative combining was observed in a range covering approximately 2 orders of magnitude in the ratio of the rates of reward from about 1:10 to 10:1) and an order of magnitude change in the size of rewards. After determining the relation between the pulse frequency of stimulation and subjective reward magnitude, the authors were able to predict from knowledge of the subjective magnitudes of the rewards and the obtained relative rates of reward the subject's time allocation ratio over a range in which it varied by more than 3 orders of magnitude.

  14. Intensity modulation of cutaneous electrical stimulation: : EPs and subjective ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, E.M.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Marani, Enrico; Rutten, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Chronic pain research is increasingly focused on the neuroplastic mechanisms underlying subjective pain experience. The latter is often measured using reported pain intensity, e.g. using a numeric rating scale (NRS). Evoked Potentials (EPs) reflect the cortical representation of applied stimuli and

  15. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonisation in HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebold, D; Enoh, D O; Kinge, T N; Akam, W; Bumah, M K; Russow, K; Klammt, S; Loebermann, M; Fritzsche, C; Eyong, J E; Eppel, G; Kundt, G; Hemmer, C J; Reisinger, E C

    2014-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients in Europe and the USA, in Cameroon. Induced sputum samples from 237 patients without pulmonary symptoms (126 HIV-positive and 111 HIV-negative outpatients) treated at a regional hospital in Cameroon were examined for the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii by specific nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and staining methods. CD 4 counts and the history of antiretroviral therapy of the subjects were obtained through the ESOPE database system. Seventy-five of 237 study participants (31.6%) were colonised with Pneumocystis, but none showed active PCP. The Pneumocystis colonisation rate in HIV-positive subjects was more than double that of HIV-negative subjects (42.9% vs. 18.9%, P 500 cells/μl were colonised at a rate of 20.0%, subjects with CD 4 counts between 200 and 500 cells/μl of 42.5%, and subjects with CD 4 counts <200 cells/μl of 57.1%. Colonisation with Pneumocystis in Cameroon seems to be comparable to rates found in Western Europe. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures against Pneumocystis should be taken into account in HIV care in western Africa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Dynamics of a seismogenic fault subject to variable strain rate

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dragoni; A. Piombo

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of seismogenic faults is generally investigated under the assumption that they are subject to a constant strain rate. We consider the effect of a slowly variable strain rate on the recurrence times of earthquakes generated by a single fault. To this aim a spring-block system is employed as a low-order analog of the fault. Two cases are considered: a sinusoidal oscillation in the driver velocity and a monotonic change from one velocity value to another. In the f...

  17. [Are positive illusions adaptive?: self- and other-rating].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Miki

    2008-08-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between children's overly positive self-perceptions of their own social competence and mental health. Elementary school students (grades fourth to sixth, n=331) and their homeroom teachers (n=9) participated in the study. The positive illusion was measured by the difference between the self-rating and the other (homeroom teachers) -rating. And, the index of mental health was administered in both self-rating and other (homeroom teachers and same-sex classmates) -rating forms. Positive illusions about children's social competence were positively related to self-ratings of mental health. However, the present study also found detrimental effects of such positive illusions. Children with excessively positive views of their social competence were viewed by teachers and same-sex classmates as significantly more aggressive than those children who showed more evidence of self-devaluation. In addition, children with overly positive self-perceptions were not as accepted by same-sex classmates.

  18. Determinants of subjective health status of HIV positive mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immune deficiency virus (HIV), once dominated by infected males has become feminized especially in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of adults living with the condition are females. Positive life styles, belonging to social support ...

  19. Serological biomarkers in triage of FIT-positive subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Andersen, Berit

    2017-01-01

    with neoplastic lesions missed by increased cut-off levels appears to be much higher than expected. Therefore, tests that identify those patients missed by increased FIT cut-off levels must be developed. Preliminary results of determination of one of several biomarker entities currently under investigation show...... that nucleosome blood tests may be one option for identifying some of these patients. Implementation of a triage test consisting of FIT, blood-based biomarkers and plus/minus colonoscopy is suggested to identify subjects with FIT levels between the initial and the increased cut-off level that must be offered...

  20. Rate of injury and subjective benefits of gravitational wellness weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Bell, Regina; Al-Adawi, Samir; Alexandroni, Ariel; Dorvlo, Atsu; Burke, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary study using the "gravitational wellness" weightlifting technique demonstrated this to be a unique technique for loading the musculoskeletal system with extremely high loads over short arcs. This leads to rapid weekly strength gains using 30-minute weekly training sessions. This study was designed to further assess the benefit-risk ratio of the gravitational wellness weightlifting technique. This descriptive/retrospective study examined musculoskeletal and well-being outcomes as well as injuries reported by consecutive participants at one gravitational wellness gym. All adults presenting for training at the Atlanta, Georgia, gravitational wellness system facility over a 6-month period were invited to participate. Data were obtained by telephone interview concerning the presenting complaint/objective of training, subjective outcome, weights lifted, and injuries incurred during training. Of the 77 participants contacted via telephone, 92% agreed to participate (male, n=40; female, n=31). The participants ranged in age from 18 years to 69 years, with a mean age of 48.6 years. Of these, 42 (59%) presented to the gym with the objective of improving a defined musculoskeletal issue. The modal of these was chronic low-back pain. The subjects realized improvement on a 5-point Likert scale of 4.2/5 for their presenting complaint, and improved by 4.27/5 in their overall subjective health. There were no injuries. This study of consecutive participants at a gravitational wellness gym found that by lifting large weights over short arcs 3 0 minutes per week, participants significantly increased their strength, reduced their musculoskeletal pain, improve their subjective well-being, and reported a low rate of injury.

  1. Rate of injury and subjective benefits of gravitational wellness weightlifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke DT

    2014-09-01

    wellness gym found that by lifting large weights over short arcs 30 minutes per week, participants significantly increased their strength, reduced their musculoskeletal pain, improve their subjective well-being, and reported a low rate of injury. Keywords: gravitational wellness system, rate of injuries, weight training, descriptive study

  2. Imagining class : A study into material social class position, subjective identification, and voting behavior across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hooge, L.; Achterberg, P.H.J.; Reeskens, T.

    2018-01-01

    The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans’ material and subjective social class do not coincide.

  3. Constructing Unfinalizability: A Subject Positioning Analysis of a Couple's Therapy Session Hosted by Tom Andersen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Michael

    2018-03-08

    The notion of subject positions is a useful tool in thinking through therapeutic interactions. In this article, I discuss positioning as an everyday phenomenon, and highlight the relational and social power dynamics that shape the subject positions persons may inhabit. Analysis is presented of the positional dynamics that play out in the couple's therapy session facilitated by Tom Andersen. Analysis suggests that Andersen adopts a not-knowing, uncertain, and curious position, while constructing the couple as competent, unfinalizable persons able to negotiate the choice-points that arise in front of them. However, if subject positions are grounded in social power dynamics, the session leaves a particular question unanswered: How will these emergent positions take hold outside of the consulting room? © 2018 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  4. slide positivity rate of malaria among patients attending two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Key words: malaria, slide positivity rate, Kano metropolis. INTRODUCTION. Malaria has a worldwide distribution, affecting people of all ages, with an enormous burden amounting to. 300-500 million clinical cases per year, 80% of which occur in Africa (Lucas & Gills, 2003). Globally ten (10) new cases of malaria occur every ...

  5. Increased strength of concrete subject to high loading rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbach, M.

    1987-01-01

    Within the scope of this work various problems are discussed which occur in connection with concrete under high tensile loading rates (e.g. when a plane crashes on a nuclear power plant very high loads occur which act only for a very short time). Particularly the causes for the already frequently noticed increases in strength with increasing loading rates are investigated and also the question whether this increased strength can be taken into account when dimensioning a construction. (MM) [de

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL SUBJECTIVE POSITION OF MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga L. Zadvornaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of professional-subjective position of managerial staff of health care in the system of continuous professional education in the conditions of optimization of activities of the health system. Professional and subject position reflects the position of individual managers in a professional environment, its relationship to the quality of professional activity, to himself, to patients and colleagues to level their skills.Purpose/objectives: analysis of core competencies, forming the professional and subject position of heads of medical organizations; identify possible ways of development of professional-subjective position of managerial staff of the public health based on the use of modern technologies and active methods of training in system of continuous professional education. Methodology. In conducting the present study used data from official sources, literature review, scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, comparative analysis and modeling. The results of the study indicate the necessity of actualization of the subject position of heads of medical organizations. Conclusions /Significance. The necessity of formation and development of professional subjective position of the heads due to the needs of society and the health care system with modern requirements for quality management training of health. Professional and subject position is a characteristic feature of a highly qualified specialist in the area of governance, reflecting its active attitude toward self and professional activity, factor of efficiency of activity of medical organizations. The real practice of activity of medical organizations requires improved approaches in the preparation of healthcare managers. Most of the leaders are having difficulties, associated not only with necessity of development of universal and professional competences, but also the necessity of development of professional-subjective position

  7. Psilocybin links binocular rivalry switch rate to attention and subjective arousal levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Hasler, Felix; Pettigrew, John D; Wallis, Guy M; Liu, Guang B; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2007-12-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are simultaneously presented to each eye. During continual viewing of this stimulus, the observer will experience repeated switches between visual awareness of the two images. Previous studies have suggested that a slow rate of perceptual switching may be associated with clinical and drug-induced psychosis. The objective of the study was to explore the proposed relationship between binocular rivalry switch rate and subjective changes in psychological state associated with 5-HT2A receptor activation. This study used psilocybin, the hallucinogen found naturally in Psilocybe mushrooms that had previously been found to induce psychosis-like symptoms via the 5-HT2A receptor. The effects of psilocybin (215 microg/kg) were considered alone and after pretreatment with the selective 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg) in ten healthy human subjects. Psilocybin significantly reduced the rate of binocular rivalry switching and increased the proportion of transitional/mixed percept experience. Pretreatment with ketanserin blocked the majority of psilocybin's "positive" psychosis-like hallucinogenic symptoms. However, ketanserin had no influence on either the psilocybin-induced slowing of binocular rivalry or the drug's "negative-type symptoms" associated with reduced arousal and vigilance. Together, these findings link changes in binocular rivalry switching rate to subjective levels of arousal and attention. In addition, it suggests that psilocybin's effect on binocular rivalry is unlikely to be mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor.

  8. Is subjective social status a summary of life-course socioeconomic position?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Wasney de Almeida; Camelo, Lidyane; Viana, Maria Carmen; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2018-01-01

    Very little is known about the association between objective indicators of socioeconomic position in childhood and adolescence and low subjective social status in adult life, after adjusting for adult socioeconomic position. We used baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian states. Subjective social status was measured using the The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, which represents social hierarchy in the form of a 10-rung ladder with the top rung representing the highest subjective social status. Participants who chose the bottom four rungs in the ladder were assigned to the low subjective social status category. The following socioeconomic position indicators were investigated: childhood (maternal education), adolescence (occupational social class of the household head; participant's occupational social class of first job; nature of occupation of household head; participant's nature of occupation of first job), and adulthood (participant's occupational social class, nature of occupation and education). The associations between low subjective social status and socioeconomic position were determined using multiple logistic regression, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic position indicators from other stages of life. After adjustments, low socioeconomic position in childhood, adolescence and adulthood remained significantly associated with low subjective social status in adulthood with dose-response gradients. The magnitude of these associations was stronger for intra-individual than for intergenerational socioeconomic positions. Results suggest that subjective social status in adulthood is the result of a complex developmental process of acquiring socioeconomic self-perception, which is intrinsic to subjective social status and includes current and past, individual and family household experiences.

  9. Positive design : An introduction to design for subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how design can contribute to the happiness of individuals–to their subjective well-being. A framework for positive design is introduced that includes three main components of subjective well-being: pleasure, personal significance and virtue. Each component

  10. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  11. [As opposed to normal subjects, eyelid position doesn't interfere with postural behavior in blind subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, C; Rougier, P

    2009-12-01

    A previous study has shown some behavioral differences in normal subjects depending on the position of the eyelids: the postural behavior was varying if the subject had the eyes open in darkness or the eyes closed. In this study, we explore the possible role of vision on this behavior. The postural behavior of 12 blind and nine visually impaired participants was studied during undisturbed upright stance. In this sample, no difference was found in the conditions eyes open in the dark and eyes closed: the observed behavior in blind and visually impaired subjects is different compared to normal sighted subjects who show a visual preference even in total darkness when the eyes are open. Our two groups (blind and visually impaired) actually show a difference on the median frequency of the centre of gravity displacements. Our results suggest an adaptive mechanism of the central nervous system in healthy individuals to predominantly weigh visual cues when the eyelids remain open. Good visual acuity and time seem to be necessary for this process.

  12. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in and out of Management Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Eileen; Holst, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from the German Socio-economic Panel to examine gender differences in the extent to which self-reported subjective well-being was associated with occupying a high-level managerial position in the labour market, compared with employment in non-leadership, non-high-level managerial positions, unemployment, and non-labour market…

  13. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems

  14. Serological profile of incidentally detected asymptomatic HBsAg positive subjects (IDAHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, N.; Gill, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the serological profile of patients with incidentally detected positive hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) and to asses the risk factors. Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad from 1999 to 2003. Patients and Methods: All patients who presented to gastroenterology clinic of Shifa Intentional Hospital, Islamabad with positive HBsAg, detected incidentally, were tested for alamine transaminase (ALT), hepatitis Beantigen (HBeAg) and in certain cases hepatitis-B virus DNA (HBV DNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Their risk factors for acquisition of infection were assessed with specific questions. Results: A total of 224 patients were examined. One hundred sixty-four (73.2%) were male and 60 (26.8%) female. Mean age of all the subjects was 32.45 plus minus 11.85 years. Out of 224 patients, 48 (21.4%) were positive for HBeAg and 176 (78.6%) were negative. Out of 48 subjects who were positive for HBeAg, 36 underwent HBV DNA determination and 32 (88.8%) were positive for HBV DNA. Out of 176 subjects who had negative HBeAg, 46 had elevated ALT and in those HBV DNA was performed and 14 had positive HBV DNA. Most common risk factors detected in these patients were intramuscular injections and surgery, however, in a large number, risk factors were unknown. Conclusion: Twenty-one percent asymptomatic subjects with positive HBsAg were found to be HBeAg positive. A large number of subjects with negative HBeAg had HBV DNA positive suggesting presence of precore mutants. Intramuscular injections and surgery were noted to be frequent risk factors in these subjects. (author)

  15. Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed.

  16. Effect of Recumbent Body Positions on Dynamic Lung Function Parameters in Healthy Young Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arvind Kumar; Tiwari, Sunita; Verma, Dileep Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The change in body position can alter pulmonary functions parameters, therefore it is important to understand the physiological basis of these alteration. Ideally, spirometry is done in sitting position until the subject is unable to do so. Hospitalized patients often assume recumbent body positions irrespective of underlying pathology. Hence, need arises to find out best recumbent body positions for the benefit of these patients to make breathing comfortable for them. The aim of this study was to find out whether the change from the supine position to crook lying and Fowler's position (45° dorsal elevation) causes change in spirometric parameters. The present work was carried out at Department of Physiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow. A total 131 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Lung function was assessed using a PC-based spirometer according to American Thoracic Society guideline in the supine, crook lying and Fowler's position (45° dorsal elevation). The study consisted of 131 subjects (male 66%, female 34%), with mean age of 20.15±2.71 years and BMI 21.20±3.28 Kg/m 2 . Repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test was used to compare the mean values between each body position. Compared with the other two positions, Fowler's position showed significantly (p<0.05) higher values for FVC, FEV 1 , PEF, FEF 25-75% . Recumbent body position influences spirometric parameters in young healthy subjects. We demonstrated that spirometric values are higher in the Fowler's position than in the supine or crook lying position. The results of this study will help in the selection of the best alternative position for the spirometry in bed ridden patients.

  17. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  18. Evolutionary rate of a gene affected by chromosomal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J; Ashworth, A

    1999-09-09

    Genes evolve at different rates depending on the strength of selective pressure to maintain their function. Chromosomal position can also have an influence [1] [2]. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of mammalian sex chromosomes is a small region of sequence identity that is the site of an obligatory pairing and recombination event between the X and Y chromosomes during male meiosis [3] [4] [5] [6]. During female meiosis, X chromosomes can pair and recombine along their entire length. Recombination in the PAR is therefore approximately 10 times greater in male meiosis compared with female meiosis [4] [5] [6]. The gene Fxy (also known as MID1 [7]) spans the pseudoautosomal boundary (PAB) in the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus domesticus, C57BL/6) such that the 5' three exons of the gene are located on the X chromosome but the seven exons encoding the carboxy-terminal two-thirds of the protein are located within the PAR and are therefore present on both the X and Y chromosomes [8]. In humans [7] [9], the rat, and the wild mouse species Mus spretus, the gene is entirely X-unique. Here, we report that the rate of sequence divergence of the 3' end of the Fxy gene is much higher (estimated at 170-fold higher for synonymous sites) when pseudoautosomal (present on both the X and Y chromosomes) than when X-unique. Thus, chromosomal position can directly affect the rate of evolution of a gene. This finding also provides support for the suggestion that regions of the genome with a high recombination frequency, such as the PAR, may have an intrinsically elevated rate of sequence divergence.

  19. Fluid electrolyte excretion during different hypokinetic body positions of trained subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different body positions on renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes after exposure to 364 days of decreased number of steps per day (hypokinesia, HK). The studies were performed on 18 endurance trained male volunteers aged 19-24 years who had an average of VO 2max 67 ml/kg body/min. All volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the 1st group subjected to 12 h orthostatic position (OP) and 12 h clinostatic position (CP)/day, the 2nd group exposed to 8 h orthostatic position and 14 h clinostatic position/day, and the 3rd group submitted to 10 h orthostatic position and 16 h clinostatic position/day for 364 days. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept under an average of 3000 steps/day for 364 days. Diuresis and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium as well as excretion of creatine were determined in 24-h urine samples. By the end of the hypokinetic period all volunteers, regardless of their body position during HK, manifested a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes as compared to prehypokinetic period values. It was concluded that prolonged restriction of motor activity induced a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes in endurance trained subjects regardless to their body position and duration thereof per day.

  20. Positioning effects on lung ventilation in older normal subjects: a technegas study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.; McCarren, B.; Alison, J.; Cowell, S.F.; Leiper, C.; Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Sydney, NSW; El Zein, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: While the effects of positioning on the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of younger subjects has been relatively well investigated, this is not so in the older age group. Known age-associated changes in the respiratory system are proposed to alter the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of older people. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the effects of positioning on the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of older normal subjects. The distribution of ventilation in upright sitting and right side lying was measured in ten subjects using Technegas lung ventilation during tidal breathing. In the upright sitting position ventilation was preferentially distributed to the middle and basal regions (dependent regions). Right side lying ventilation was preferentially distributed to the right lung (dependent region). These results suggest that preferential distribution of ventilation to the dependent lung regions in older subjects is mainly due to the gravity-dependent gradient in pleural pressure. It is proposed that this distribution may partly result from loss of elasticity in the lungs with ageing. Predominantly, the distribution of ventilation in the lungs of older normal subjects in our study is similar to that previously described in younger subjects (Amis et al., 1984, Kaneko et al, 1966, Milic-Emili et al, 1966. This suggests that a similar pleural pressure gradient may exist in the lungs of older and younger subjects. This is an important implication as the majority of patients that physiotherapists treat with cardiopulmonary dysfunction are in the older age group. Further research is required to determine the effects of positioning on the distribution of ventilation in older patients with cardiopulmonary dysfunction to enable direct clinical implications to be made. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  1. Determinants of subjective health status of HIV positive mothers in NAUTH Nnewi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwabueze, S A; Adogu, P O U; Adinma, E D; Ifeadike, C O; Nnebue, C C; Ilika, A L; Ikechebelu, J I

    2012-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immune deficiency virus (HIV), once dominated by infected males has become feminized especially in sub-Saharan Africa where the majority of adults living with the condition are females. Positive life styles, belonging to social support groups and stigma-free HIV services by providers may have good impact on the quality of life of HIV-positive mothers. This study was aimed at assessing the determinants of subjective health status of HIV-positive mothers accessing prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi. This is a descriptive study in which 288 consenting HIV positive mothers were selected using the systematic sampling technique. Data on demographics, life style, social support, contraceptive use and subjective feeling about current health status were collected from the subjects using a pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 30.46 +/- 4.86 years. Majority (89.2%) of them were married while 55.2% were traders. A significantly higher proportion of the mothers on highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) (70.8%) than non users (29.2%) described their current health status as 'excellent' (p<0.001). Also a significantly higher proportion of condom users (99%) than pill users (1%) described their health status as 'excellent' (p<0.02). The same significantly higher proportions of 'excellent' response were given by subjects who engage in social support activities (p<0.001), who practice good feeding (p<0.01) andpersonal hygiene (p<0.01). Access to family planning services and HAART, participation in support group activities and positive lifestyle practices tend to improve subjective health status and should be comprehensively encouraged among the HIV positive mothers.

  2. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk prediction of ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial function in Lamin A/C mutation positive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselberg, Nina E; Edvardsen, Thor; Petri, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Lamin A/C gene may cause atrioventricular block, supraventricular arrhythmias, ventricular arrhythmias (VA), and dilated cardiomyopathy. We aimed to explore the predictors and the mechanisms of VA in Lamin A/C mutation-positive subjects.METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 41 Lamin A/C...

  4. Subjective discount rates in the general population and their predictive power for energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruderer Enzler, Heidi; Diekmann, Andreas; Meyer, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Why do people sometimes refrain from saving energy even if it would pay off in monetary terms? Subjective discount rates present one possible explanation for this lack of foresight, but little is known about their level and reliability in the general population. With regard to behavior, persons with lower discount rates are expected to accept additional costs upfront more readily than those with higher discount rates. Based on a representative nation-wide study, the Swiss Environmental Survey 2007, and a follow-up survey, our analyses reveal that on average subjective discount rates are well above market interest rates and moderately stable over a time interval of four years. Income and education are negatively correlated with discount rates. Contrary to expectations, we did not find convincing support for an impact of discount rates on energy saving behavior. - Highlights: • Results of a large panel study in Switzerland. • Mean subjective discount rates in population are well above market interest rates. • Subjective discount rates are moderately stable over four years. • Theory suggests impact of subjective discount rates on energy saving behavior. • However, subjective discount rates do not contribute to explanation of energy saving behavior

  5. ASSESSMENT AND COMPARISION OF CERVICAL JOINT POSITION SENSE IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC NECK PAIN vs NORMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberoi Mugdha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The abundance of mechanoreceptors in the cervical spine and their central and reflex afferent connections to the vestibular, visual and postural control system suggests that the cervical proprioceptive information provides important somatosensory information influencing postural stability, head orientation and eye movement control. Disturbances to the afferent input from the cervical region is thought to underlie symptoms of dizziness, unsteadiness, visual disturbances and signs of altered postural stability, cervical proprioception and head and eye movement control in people with chronic neck pain. This study aimed to assess and compare cervical joint position sense in subjects with chronic neck pain vs normals. Methods: Total 60 subjects, divided into two groups chronic neck pain group (n=30 (12 males and 18 females with mean age of 40.7 years and control group (n=30 with age and gender matched normal individuals were assessed for baseline data and demographic variables. Head repositioning accuracy test was used to assess cervical joint position sense in degrees. Results: The difference in the head repositioning error values were found to be extremely significant (p<0.0001 for all the neck movements for subjects with chronic neck pain as compared to normals. Conclusion: Cervical joint position sense in subjects with chronic neck pain is found to be altered as compared to age and gender matched normals.

  6. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  7. Reliability of Heart Rate Variability in Children: Influence of Sex and Body Position During Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Cristiane; Bertollo, Maurizio; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2017-05-01

    To examine which body position and indices present better reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) measures in children and to compare the HRV analyzed in different body positions between sexes. Twenty eutrophic prepubertal children of each sex participated in the study. The RR intervals were recorded using a portable heart rate monitor twice a day for 7 min in the supine, sitting, and standing positions. The reproducibility was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; two way mixed) and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV).Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare the sexes. High levels of reproducibility were indicated by higher ICC in the root-mean-square difference of successive normal RR intervals (RMSSD: 0.93 and 0.94) and Poincaré plot of the short-term RR interval variability (SD1: 0.92 and 0.94) parameters for boys and girls, respectively, in the supine position. The ICCs were lower in the sitting and standing positions for all HRV indices. In addition, the girls presented significantly higher values than the boys for SDNN and absolute high frequency (HF; p position. The supine position is the most reproducible for the HRV indices in both sexes, especially the vagal related indices.

  8. Assertive communication in condom negotiation: Insights from late adolescent couples’ subjective ratings of self and partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R.; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Gwadz, Marya V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically-involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Methods Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners’ level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Results Individuals’ assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, while moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Conclusions Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths’ ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. PMID:25937470

  9. Assertive Communication in Condom Negotiation: Insights From Late Adolescent Couples' Subjective Ratings of Self and Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Amy; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Gwadz, Marya V

    2015-07-01

    Assertive communication has been associated with higher levels of condom use among youth using self-report survey methodology. The purpose of this study was to examine the subjective ratings of assertiveness among young, romantically involved couples in the context of a condom negotiation task. Using an innovative video-recall procedure, 32 couples (64 youth) engaged in a videotaped condom negotiation task and then rated self and partners' level of assertiveness. Both individual ratings of assertiveness and couple-level assertiveness were assessed using dyadic hierarchical linear modeling. Individuals' assertiveness was positively associated with condom use. Unexpectedly, the overall level of assertiveness in couples showed a curvilinear association with condom use. Very high and very low assertiveness was associated with lower condom use, whereas moderate levels of assertiveness were associated with higher condom use. Moderate levels of assertiveness during condom negotiation may facilitate condom use in young couples. Increasing condom use among romantic partners may require developing interventions that strengthen youths' ability to engage in assertive communication strategies that balance emotional intimacy with self-advocacy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with metabolic risk factors in sedentary subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Moreno

    Full Text Available A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans.Circulating irisin levels (ELISA and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women. Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence.Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p = 0.006. Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p < 0.0001. The increase in irisin levels related to an active lifestyle was only observed in rural citizens (p = 0.014. Among sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides. The area of residence (β = - 0.592, p = < 0.0001 contributed independently to circulating irisin levels variance after controlling for age, gender, BMI, HOMAIR, triglycerides and physical activity.In sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels.

  11. Circulating irisin levels are positively associated with metabolic risk factors in sedentary subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; Delgado, Elías; Sanchez-Ragnarsson, Cecilia; Valdés, Sergio; Botas, Patricia; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans. Circulating irisin levels (ELISA) and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women). Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence. Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p = 0.006). Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides). The area of residence (β = - 0.592, p = sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels.

  12. Change in subjective social status following HIV diagnosis and associated effects on mental and physical health among HIV-positive gay men in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Wendy; Lyons, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of HIV diagnosis on subjective social status and if changes are linked to health outcomes. Two measures of subjective social status, socio-economic and standing in the community were examined in 342 Australian HIV-positive gay men in 2014. Participants recalled ratings at diagnosis were compared with current ratings. Self-reported mental (psychological distress, self-esteem, positive mental health and satisfaction with life) and physical health (self-rated health, CD4 count, viral load). Half of the participants reported improvements in subjective socio-economic status (59%) or standing in the community (52%) since diagnosis, yet one quarter reported socio-economic status (25%) or standing in the community had decreased (23%). Increases in either measure of subjective social status were linked to higher self-esteem, positive mental health, satisfaction with life and better self-rated health. Decreases in subjective social status, however, were strongly linked to poorer outcomes on all mental health measures. Decreases in standing in the community were also associated with poorer physical self-rated health. Most participants reported their subjective social status were the same or better since diagnosis. Changes in subjective social status following diagnosis were strongly linked to mental health outcomes. Those who reported a decrease in subjective social status were particularly vulnerable to mental health problems.

  13. Hazard rate for a two-channel protective system subject to a high demand rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.; Youngblood, R.; Melo, P.F.F.

    1989-01-01

    A basic figure of merit associated with a protective system for an industrial plant is the number of accidents expected to occur in the plant within a given period of time, with the system installed. By definition, in a plant equipped with a protective system, an accident can only happen if an initiating event (a demand) occurs while the protective system is unavailable, that is, while it is in one of its possible failed states. This means that the hazard rate or accident frequency depends on the demand rate and on the unavailability of the protective systems. It has long been recognized that the demand rate influences the unavailability of the protective system, and practical expressions incorporating that effect have been developed for single-channel (Lees, 1982) and multi-channel (Kumamoto and Henley 1978) protective systems. The effect has also been incorporated into a Markovian treatment of a plant protection system (Papazoglou and Cho, 1985). In a previous paper (Oliveira and Netto, 1987) a Markovian approach was used to derive analytical expressions for the evaluation of the plant hazard rate for a single-channel protective system, properly accounting for the effects of the demand and the repair rates. In this paper the authors present an extension of that model to the case of a plant equipped with a two-channel protective system

  14. Assessing positive emotional states in dogs using heart rate and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Manja; Buskas, Julia; Altimiras, Jordi; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-03-01

    Since most animal species have been recognized as sentient beings, emotional state may be a good indicator of welfare in animals. The goal of this study was to manipulate the environment of nine beagle research dogs to highlight physiological responses indicative of different emotional experiences. Stimuli were selected to be a more or a less positive food (meatball or food pellet) or social reward (familiar person or less familiar person). That all the stimuli were positive and of different reward value was confirmed in a runway motivation test. Dogs were tested individually while standing facing a display theatre where the different stimuli could be shown by lifting a shutter. The dogs approached and remained voluntarily in the test system. They were tested in four sessions (of 20s each) for each of the four stimuli. A test session consisted of four presentation phases (1st exposure to stimulus, post exposure, 2nd exposure, and access to reward). Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) responses were recorded during testing in the experimental room and also when lying resting in a quiet familiar room. A new method of 'stitching' short periods of HRV data together was used in the analysis. When testing different stimuli, no significant differences were observed in HR and LF:HF ratio (relative power in low frequency (LF) and the high-frequency (HF) range), implying that the sympathetic tone was activated similarly for all the stimuli and may suggest that dogs were in a state of positive arousal. A decrease of HF was associated with the meatball stimulus compared to the food pellet and the reward phase (interacting with the person or eating the food) was associated with a decrease in HF and RMSSD (root mean square of successive differences of inter-beat intervals) compared to the preceding phase (looking at the person or food). This suggests that parasympathetic deactivation is associated with a more positive emotional state in the dog. A similar reduction

  15. The impact of education on subjective discount rate in Ugandan villages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Chytilová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2010), s. 643-669 ISSN 0013-0079 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Keywords : education * subjective discount rate * rural populations * Uganda Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.392, year: 2010

  16. The Impact of Employment and Self-Rated Economic Condition on the Subjective Well-Being of Older Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Lee, Yura; Sangalang, Cindy; Harris, Lesley M

    2015-09-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated a relationship between socioeconomic factors and health among older adults, yet fewer studies have explored this relationship with older immigrants. This study aims to examine the influence of employment and self-rated economic condition on the subjective well-being of older Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants, aged 65 to 90, in Los Angeles County. Hierarchical regression was employed to explore the independent and interactive effects of employment status and self-rated economic condition. The study found that employment and self-rated economic status were positively associated with subjective well-being. Also, the interaction between employment and self-rated economic status was significantly associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, such that the influence of self-rated economic condition was stronger for unemployed older Korean immigrants compared with those who were employed. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that employment and self-rated economic condition are directly associated with subjective well-being for older Korean immigrants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Sample intake position and loading rates from nonpoint source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, P. E.; Daniel, T. C.; Stoffel, D.; Andraski, B.

    1980-01-01

    Paired water samples were simultaneously activated from two different vertical positions within the approach section of a flow-control structure to determine the effect of sample intake position on nonpoint runoff parameter concentrations and subsequent event loads. Suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP) and organic plus exchangeable nitrogen [(Or+Ex)-N] were consistently higher throughout each runoff event when sampled from the floor of the approach section as opposed to those samples taken at midstage. Dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus (DMRP) and ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations did not appear to be significantly affected by the vertical difference in intake position. However, the nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen [(NO3+NO2)-N] concentrations were much higher when sampled from the midstage position. Although the concentration differences between the two methods were not appreciable, when evaluated in terms of event loads, discrepancies were evident for all parameters. Midstage sampling produced event loads for SS, TP, (Or + Ex)-N, DMRP, NH4-N, and (NO3+NO2)-N that were 44,39,35,80,71, and 181%, respectively, of floor sampling loads. Differences in loads between the two methods are attributed to the midstage position, sampling less of the bed load. The correct position will depend on the objective; however, such differences should be recognized during the design phase of the monitoring program.

  18. Circulating CD34-positive cells, glomerular filtration rate and triglycerides in relation to hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Sato, Shimpei; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kadota, Koichiro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Serum triglycerides have been reported to be independently associated with the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is known to play a role in vascular disturbance. On the other hand, circulating CD34-positve cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, are reported to contribute to vascular repair. However, no studies have reported on the correlation between triglycerides and the number of CD34-positive cells. Since hypertension is well known factor for vascular impairment, the degree of correlation between serum triglycerides and circulating CD34-positve cells should account for hypertension status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 274 elderly Japanese men aged ≥ 60 years (range 60-79 years) undergoing general health checkups. Multiple linear regression analysis of non-hypertensive subjects adjusting for classical cardiovascular risk factors showed that although triglyceride levels (1SD increments; 64 mg/dL) did not significantly correlate with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (β = -2.06, p = 0.163), a significant positive correlation was seen between triglycerides and the number of circulating CD34-positive cells (β = 0.50, p = 0.004). In hypertensive subjects, a significant inverse correlation between triglycerides and GFR was observed (β = -2.66, p = 0.035), whereas no significant correlation between triglycerides and the number of circulating CD34-positive cells was noted (β = -0.004, p = 0.974). Since endothelial progenitor cells (CD34-positive cells) have been reported to contribute to vascular repair, our results indicate that in non-hypertensive subjects, triglycerides may stimulate an increase in circulating CD34-positive cells (vascular repair) by inducing vascular disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Subject-Specific Carpal Ligament Elongation in Extreme Positions, Grip, and the Dart Thrower's Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, Michael J.; Kamal, Robin N.; Moore, Douglas C.; Akelman, Edward; Wolfe, Scott W.; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the radiocarpal and dorsal capsular ligaments limit end-range wrist motion or remain strained during midrange wrist motion. Fibers of these ligaments were modeled in the wrists of 12 subjects over multiple wrist positions that reflect high demand tasks and the dart thrower's motion. We found that many of the volar and dorsal ligaments were within 5% of their maximum length throughout the range of wrist motion. Our finding of wrist ligament recruitment during midrange and end-range wrist motion helps to explain the complex but remarkably similar intersubject patterns of carpal motion. PMID:26367853

  20. Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fabio S; Rosa, Jose C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Hélio A; Caperuto, Erico C; Carnevali, Luiz C; Seelaender, Marília; Damaso, Ana R; Oyama, Lila M; de Mello, Marco T; Santos, Ronaldo V

    2010-08-04

    A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This phenomenon is supported by recent studies suggesting a chronic, low-grade inflammation status. Endotoxin derived from gut flora may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trained subjects at rest. Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7; highly trained subjects n = 7) were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (approximately 12 h). The plasmatic endotoxin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), ICAM/CD54, VCAM/CD106 and lipid profile levels were determined. Endotoxinemia was lower in the highly trained subject group relative to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.002). In addition, we observed a positive correlation between endotoxin and PAI-1 (r = 0.85, p < 0.0001), endotoxin and total cholesterol (r = 0.65; p < 0.01), endotoxin and LDL-c (r = 0.55; p < 0.049) and endotoxin and TG levels (r = 0.90; p < 0.0001). The plasma levels of MCP-1, ICAM/CD54 and VCAM/CD106 did not differ. These results indicate that a lifestyle associated with high-intensity and high-volume exercise induces favorable changes in chronic low-grade inflammation markers and may reduce the risk for diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Imagining class: A study into material social class position, subjective identification, and voting behavior across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hooge, Lorenzo; Achterberg, Peter; Reeskens, Tim

    2018-02-01

    The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans' material and subjective social class do not coincide. Seminal studies on voting behavior have suggested that members of lower classes are more likely to vote for the economic left and cultural right and that higher classes demonstrate the opposite pattern. Yet, these studies have on the one hand overlooked the possibility that there is a mismatch between the material class people can be classified in and the class they think they are part of, and on the other hand the consequences of this discordant class identification on voting behavior. Analyzing the 2009 wave of the European Elections Study, we find that the majority of the Europeans discordantly identify with the middle class, whereas only a minority of the lower and higher classes concordantly identify with their material social class. Further, material class only seems to predict economic voting behavior when it coincides with subjective class; for instance, individuals who have an inflated class identification are more likely to vote for the economic left, even when they materially can be classified as middle or high class. We conclude this paper with a discussion on scholarly debates concerning class and politics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p'saffected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p'ssmokers with less negative initial subjective ratings, greater false beliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Flow rates in the head and neck lymphatics after food stimulation in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1981-02-01

    In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value.

  5. Hypnosis modulates behavioural measures and subjective ratings about external and internal awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Athena; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Noirhomme, Quentin; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth; Laureys, Steven

    2015-12-01

    In altered subjective states, the behavioural quantification of external and internal awareness remains challenging due to the need for reports on the subjects' behalf. With the aim to characterize the behavioural counterpart of external and internal awareness in a modified subjective condition, we used hypnosis during which subjects remain fully responsive. Eleven right-handed subjects reached a satisfactory level of hypnotisability as evidenced by subjective reports on arousal, absorption and dissociation. Compared to normal wakefulness, in hypnosis (a) participants' self-ratings for internal awareness increased and self-ratings for external awareness decreased, (b) the two awareness components tended to anticorrelate less and the switches between external and internal awareness self-ratings were less frequent, and (c) participants' reaction times were higher and lapses in key presses were more frequent. The identified imbalance between the two components of awareness is considered as of functional relevance to subjective (meta)cognition, possibly mediated by allocated attentional properties brought about by hypnosis. Our results highlight the presence of a cognitive counterpart in resting state, indicate that the modified contents of awareness are measurable behaviourally, and provide leverage for investigations of more challenging altered conscious states, such as anaesthesia, sleep and disorders of consciousness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Noradrenergic α1 Receptor Antagonist Treatment Attenuates Positive Subjective Effects of Cocaine in Humans: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard; Brown, Gregory; Kosten, Thomas R.; Mahoney, James J.; Haile, Colin N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Preclinical research implicates dopaminergic and noradrenergic mechanisms in mediating the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of treatment with the noradrenergic α1 receptor antagonist doxazosin on the positive subjective effects of cocaine. Methods Thirteen non-treatment seeking, cocaine-dependent volunteers completed this single-site, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subjects study. In one study phase volunteers received placebo and in the other they received doxazosin, with the order counterbalanced across participants. Study medication was masked by over-encapsulating doxazosin tablets and matched placebo lactose served as the control. Study medication treatment was initiated at 1 mg doxazosin or equivalent number of placebo capsules PO/day and increased every three days by 1 mg. After receiving 4 mg doxazosin or equivalent number of placebo capsules participants received masked doses of 20 and 40 mg cocaine IV in that order with placebo saline randomly interspersed to maintain the blind. Results Doxazosin treatment was well tolerated and doxazosin alone produced minimal changes in heart rate and blood pressure. During treatment with placebo, cocaine produced dose-dependent increases in subjective effect ratings of “high”, “stimulated”, “like cocaine”, “desire cocaine”, “any drug effect”, and “likely to use cocaine if had access” (p<.001). Doxazosin treatment significantly attenuated the effects of 20 mg cocaine on ratings of “stimulated”, “like cocaine”, and “likely to use cocaine if had access” (p<.05). There were trends for doxazosin to reduce ratings of “stimulated”, “desire cocaine”, and “likely to use cocaine if had access” (p<.10). Conclusions Medications that block noradrenergic α1 receptors, such as doxazosin, may be useful as treatments for cocaine dependence, and should be evaluated further. Trial

  7. Socio-economic position and subjective health and well-being among older people in Europe: a systematic narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sanna; Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of older European populations have established that disability and morbidity vary with indicators of socio-economic position (SEP). We undertook a systematic narrative review of the literature to ascertain to what extent there is evidence of similar inequalities in the subjective health and well-being of older people in Europe. Relevant original research articles were searched for using Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy and Practice, Cinahl, Web of Science and International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS). We included studies of SEP and indicators of subjective health and well-being (self-rated health; life satisfaction; quality of life) conducted since 1991 using population-based samples of older people in Europe and published 1995-2013. A total of 71 studies were identified. Poorer SEP was associated with poorer subjective health and well-being. Associations varied somewhat depending on the SEP measure and subjective health and well-being outcome used. Associations were weaker when social support and health-related behaviours were adjusted for suggesting that these factors mediate the relationship between SEP and subjective health and well-being. Associations tended to be weaker in the oldest age groups. The patterns of associations by gender were not consistent and tended to diminish after adjusting for indicators of health and life circumstances. The results of this systematic narrative review of the literature demonstrate the importance of social influences on later life subjective health and well-being and indicate areas which need further investigation, such as more studies from Eastern Europe, more longitudinal studies and more research on the role of mediating factors.

  8. Heart rate reactivity associated to positive and negative food and non-food visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuoppa, Pekka; Tarvainen, Mika P; Karhunen, Leila; Narvainen, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    Using food as a stimuli is known to cause multiple psychophysiological reactions. Heart rate variability (HRV) is common tool for assessing physiological reactions in autonomic nervous system. However, the findings in HRV related to food stimuli have not been consistent. In this paper the quick changes in HRV related to positive and negative food and non-food visual stimuli are investigated. Electrocardiogram (ECG) was measured from 18 healthy females while being stimulated with the pictures. Subjects also filled Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire to determine their eating behavior. The inter-beat-interval time series and the HRV parameters were extracted from the ECG. The quick change in HRV parameters were studied by calculating the change from baseline value (10 s window before stimulus) to value after the onset of the stimulus (10 s window during stimulus). The paired t-test showed significant difference between positive and negative food pictures but not between positive and negative non-food pictures. All the HRV parameters decreased for positive food pictures while they stayed the same or increased a little for negative food pictures. The eating behavior characteristic cognitive restraint was negatively correlated with HRV parameters that describe decreasing of heart rate.

  9. Isometric arm strength and subjective rating of upper limb fatigue in two-handed carrying tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Chiu, Wen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Sustained carrying could result in muscular fatigue of the upper limb. Ten male and ten female subjects were recruited for measurements of isometric arm strength before and during carrying a load for a period of 4 minutes. Two levels of load of carrying were tested for each of the male and female subjects. Exponential function based predictive equations for the isometric arm strength were established. The mean absolute deviations of these models in predicting the isometric arm strength were in the range of 3.24 to 17.34 N. Regression analyses between the subjective ratings of upper limb fatigue and force change index (FCI) for the carrying were also performed. The results indicated that the subjective rating of muscular fatigue may be estimated by multiplying the FCI with a constant. The FCI may, therefore, be adopted as an index to assess muscular fatigue for two-handed carrying tasks.

  10. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Shoshani; Michelle Slone

    2017-01-01

    Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention co...

  12. Comparison of Hyoid Bone Position Among Cleft Lip Palate and Normal Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahaj, A.; Erum, G.; Ahmed, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the hyoid bone position between cleft lip/palate and normal patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences (DIEKIOHS), Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, from March 2012 to February 2013. Methodology: The sample for this study consisted of total 68 subjects among which Group 1 consisted of 34 nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (both unilateral and bilateral) and Group 2 included 34 subjects with normal facial morphology. Both groups included males and females with mean age 14.3 +- 0.1 year. Analysis was done on lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients including angulations taken as Hp-Mp, Hp-Ol, Hp-Sn, Cvt-Evt, Opt-Cvt, Nke, Sn-Vert, Cvt-Vert, Sn-Vert and linear distance of hyoid bone measured as C3-H, C3-RGN, and H-RGN. Results: Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) in C3-H, C3-Rgn, H-Rgn, and Sn-Cvt were found between cleft lip/palate group and normal group. Conclusion: Hyoid bone is located anteriorly and caudally in cleft lip and palate group. (author)

  13. The heart field effect: Synchronization of healer-subject heart rates in energy therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Christine Caldwell

    2008-01-01

    Recent health research has focused on subtle energy and vibrational frequency as key components of health and healing. In particular, intentional direction of bioenergy is receiving increasing scientific attention. This study investigates the effect of the healer's electromagnetic (EM) heart field upon subjects during energy healing as measured by synchronization of heart rates and scores on a Subjective Units of Distress (SUD) scale and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) inventory. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest design was used based on heart rate comparisons between healer and subject and correlated with pre-and posttest SUD and POMS scores. Subjects included those who sat within the 3- to 4-foot "strong" range of the independent variable, the healer's heart field, while performing self-application of WHEE (the wholistic hybrid derived from EMDR [eye movement desensitization and reprocessing], and EFT [emotional freedom technique]), a meridian-based tapping technique (n=50); and those who performed the same process beyond the 15- to 18-foot range of the healer's EM heart field (n=41). The dependent variables were heart rate, SUD, and POMS inventory. All subjects completed these measures within 1 hour. Study results showed statistically significant heart-rate synchronization with the intervention population. In addition, SUD and POMS scores demonstrated considerably more improvement than in the control population, indicating additional benefit beyond the meridian-based therapies, such as WHEE, alone. Additional findings and future research recommendations are presented in this article.

  14. Tomographic evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in malocclusion subjects: condylar morphology and position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merigue, Luciana Fonseca; Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; Alemida, Marcio Rodrigues; Conti, Ana Claudia de Castro Ferreira; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate condyle concentricity and morphology, and their association with Class I and II malocclusions (Angle). The sample consisted of 49 individuals of both genders, between 11 and 35 years old, divided into two groups, G1: 26 patients with Class I malocclusion, and G2: 23 patients with Class II malocclusion, selected for orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of the condyle morphology and position was performed by the same previously calibrated examiner using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the subjects. The CBCT scans were analyzed by means of a 3D program (Dolphin 11.5, Dolphin Imaging and Management Solutions, Chatsworth, CA, USA), with a 25% level of sensitivity. The images obtained from the coronal slices were employed for the condyle morphology analysis, which classified the condyle form as rounded, as flat or convex, and as triangular or angled. The sagittal slices were used to classify further the condyles as concentric and displaced anteriorly or posteriorly. A clinical examination was also performed, including TMJ and muscle palpation. The kappa test was used to evaluate investigator calibration; the Chi-square and paired t-tests were used for analysis. The convex and anteriorly positioned condyles were found most frequently, regardless of the type of malocclusion. No association was observed between the groups regarding condylar characteristics. (author)

  15. Tomographic evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in malocclusion subjects: condylar morphology and position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merigue, Luciana Fonseca; Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; Alemida, Marcio Rodrigues [Universidade do Norte do Parana (UNOPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Conti, Ana Claudia de Castro Ferreira [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (USC), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima, E-mail: accfconti@uol.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), Maringa, P (Brazil). Departamento de Odontologia

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate condyle concentricity and morphology, and their association with Class I and II malocclusions (Angle). The sample consisted of 49 individuals of both genders, between 11 and 35 years old, divided into two groups, G1: 26 patients with Class I malocclusion, and G2: 23 patients with Class II malocclusion, selected for orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of the condyle morphology and position was performed by the same previously calibrated examiner using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the subjects. The CBCT scans were analyzed by means of a 3D program (Dolphin 11.5, Dolphin Imaging and Management Solutions, Chatsworth, CA, USA), with a 25% level of sensitivity. The images obtained from the coronal slices were employed for the condyle morphology analysis, which classified the condyle form as rounded, as flat or convex, and as triangular or angled. The sagittal slices were used to classify further the condyles as concentric and displaced anteriorly or posteriorly. A clinical examination was also performed, including TMJ and muscle palpation. The kappa test was used to evaluate investigator calibration; the Chi-square and paired t-tests were used for analysis. The convex and anteriorly positioned condyles were found most frequently, regardless of the type of malocclusion. No association was observed between the groups regarding condylar characteristics. (author)

  16. Multi-Functional Sensor System for Heart Rate, Body Position and Movement Intensity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael MAO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-functional wearable sensor has been developed with multi-axis accelerometer, disposable hydro-gel electrodes, and analog filtering components. This novel sensor implementation can be used for detecting common body positions, movement intensity, and measures bio-potential signals for ECG and heart rate analysis. Based on the novel sensor principle, a prototype combines position detection, heart rate detection, and motion intensity level detection together in a handheld device that records the physiological information and wirelessly transmits the signals through Bluetooth to a mobile phone. Static body positions such as standing/sitting, lying supine, prone, and on the sides have been detected with high accuracy (97.7 % during the subject tests. Further, an algorithm that detects body movement intensity that can potentially be applied in real-time monitoring physical activity level is proposed based on average variance values. Motion intensity results show variance values increase and exercise intensity increases for almost all of the cases. A clear relation between movement intensity level shown by an increase in frequency and/or speed of exercise increases the variance values detected in all three spatial axes.

  17. Personality in Free-Ranging Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus) Males: Subjective Ratings and Recorded Behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, M.; Lhota, S.; Weiss, A.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Adamová, T.; Pluháček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2008), s. 379-389 ISSN 0735-7036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : trait rating * questionnaires * behavioral indices Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2008

  18. 29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.118 Contracts for carriage... carriage. The contracts excluded from the reach of the Act by this exemption are typically those where... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates. 4...

  19. A Framework for Control System Design Subject to Average Data-Rate Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Eduardo; Derpich, Milan; Østergaard, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies discrete-time control systems subject to average data-rate limits. We focus on a situation where a noisy linear system has been designed assuming transparent feedback and, due to implementation constraints, a source-coding scheme (with unity signal transfer function) has to be ...

  20. Assessment of effects of differences in trunk posture during Fowler’s position on hemodynamics and cardiovascular regulation in older and younger subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Satoshi; Endo, Yutaka; Kubota, Mitsue; Shigemasa, Tomohiko

    2017-01-01

    Background Downward shifts in blood volume with changing position generally cause tachycardic responses. Age-related decreases in vagal nerve activity could contribute to orthostatic hypotension in older individuals. Fowler’s position is a reclined position with the back between 30° and 60°, used to facilitate breathing, eating, and other routine daily activities in frail and elderly patients. Objective This study examined whether stroke volume (SV) was higher and heart rate (HR) lower in Fowler’s position with an upright upper trunk than in Fowler’s position with the whole trunk upright in both older and younger subjects, based on the assumption that lower HR would result from reduced sympathetic activation in older individuals. Methods We assessed hemodynamics and HR variability from electrocardiography, noninvasive arterial pressure and impedance cardiography in 11 younger male subjects (age range, 20–22 years) and 11 older male subjects (age range, 64–79 years), using three positions: supine, or Fowler’s positions with either 30° of lower trunk inclination and 60° of upper trunk inclination (UT60) or 60° of whole trunk inclination (WT60). Comparisons were then made between age groups and between positions. Results Reductions in SV and tachycardic response were smaller with UT60 than with WT60, in both younger and older subjects. In addition, reduced tachycardic response with upright upper trunk appeared attributable to decreased vagal withdrawal in younger subjects and to reduced sympathetic activation in older subjects. Conclusion Our findings indicate that an upright upper trunk during Fowler’s position allowed maintenance of SV and inhibited tachycardic response compared to an upright whole trunk regardless of age, although the autonomic mechanisms underlying tachycardic responses differed between younger and older adults. An upright upper trunk in Fowler’s position might help to reduce orthostatic stress and facilitate routine

  1. Spectral analyses of systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability and their association with cognitive performance in elderly hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, W B; Matoso, J M D; Maltez, M; Gonçalves, T; Casanova, M; Moreira, I F H; Lourenço, R A; Monteiro, W D; Farinatti, P T V; Soares, P P; Oigman, W; Neves, M F T; Correia, M L G

    2015-08-01

    Systolic hypertension is associated with cognitive decline in the elderly. Altered blood pressure (BP) variability is a possible mechanism of reduced cognitive performance in elderly hypertensives. We hypothesized that altered beat-to-beat systolic BP variability is associated with reduced global cognitive performance in elderly hypertensive subjects. In exploratory analyses, we also studied the correlation between diverse discrete cognitive domains and indices of systolic BP and heart rate variability. Disproving our initial hypothesis, we have shown that hypertension and low education, but not indices of systolic BP and heart rate variability, were independent predictors of lower global cognitive performance. However, exploratory analyses showed that the systolic BP variability in semi-upright position was an independent predictor of matrix reasoning (B = 0.08 ± .03, P-value = 0.005), whereas heart rate variability in semi-upright position was an independent predictor of the executive function score (B = -6.36 ± 2.55, P-value = 0.02). We conclude that myogenic vascular and sympathetic modulation of systolic BP do not contribute to reduced global cognitive performance in treated hypertensive subjects. Nevertheless, our results suggest that both systolic BP and heart rate variability might be associated with modulation of frontal lobe cognitive domains, such as executive function and matrix reasoning.

  2. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children’s mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children’s learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.

  3. Flow rates in the head and neck lymphatics after food stimulation in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, P.; Buhl, J.; Jansen, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Central Hospital Randers; Municipal Hospital Aarhus

    1981-01-01

    In 22 healthy subjects lymph transport flow rates was studied in the head lymphatics after food stimulation, mastication (chewing) and taste. After food stimulation there was a significantly higher transport rate (0.67 meter/hour) than after taste (0.57 meter/hour) and mastication (0.55 meter/hour). The calculation of transport flow rate was independent of quantitative distribution of radioactivity in the head and neck lymphatics, and it could therefore perhaps be of clinical value. (orig.) [de

  4. Refining Time-Activity Classification of Human Subjects Using the Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maogui; Li, Wei; Li, Lianfa; Houston, Douglas; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Detailed spatial location information is important in accurately estimating personal exposure to air pollution. Global Position System (GPS) has been widely used in tracking personal paths and activities. Previous researchers have developed time-activity classification models based on GPS data, most of them were developed for specific regions. An adaptive model for time-location classification can be widely applied to air pollution studies that use GPS to track individual level time-activity patterns. Time-activity data were collected for seven days using GPS loggers and accelerometers from thirteen adult participants from Southern California under free living conditions. We developed an automated model based on random forests to classify major time-activity patterns (i.e. indoor, outdoor-static, outdoor-walking, and in-vehicle travel). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the contribution of the accelerometer data and the supplemental spatial data (i.e. roadway and tax parcel data) to the accuracy of time-activity classification. Our model was evaluated using both leave-one-fold-out and leave-one-subject-out methods. Maximum speeds in averaging time intervals of 7 and 5 minutes, and distance to primary highways with limited access were found to be the three most important variables in the classification model. Leave-one-fold-out cross-validation showed an overall accuracy of 99.71%. Sensitivities varied from 84.62% (outdoor walking) to 99.90% (indoor). Specificities varied from 96.33% (indoor) to 99.98% (outdoor static). The exclusion of accelerometer and ambient light sensor variables caused a slight loss in sensitivity for outdoor walking, but little loss in overall accuracy. However, leave-one-subject-out cross-validation showed considerable loss in sensitivity for outdoor static and outdoor walking conditions. The random forests classification model can achieve high accuracy for the four major time-activity categories. The model also performed well

  5. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    , it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...... the exergy concept to the built indoor environment, additional results are going to be explored. By using the data available so far of operative temperature (to), the human body exergy consumption rates increase as to increases above 24°C or decreases below 22°C at relative humidity (RH) lower than 50...

  6. Stratification of antibody-positive subjects by antibody level reveals an impact of immunogenicity on pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Hoofring, Sarah A; Wu, Yu; Vu, Thuy; Ma, Peiming; Swanson, Steven J; Chirmule, Narendra; Starcevic, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The availability of highly sensitive immunoassays enables the detection of antidrug antibody (ADA) responses of various concentrations and affinities. The analysis of the impact of antibody status on drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is confounded by the presence of low-affinity or low-concentration antibody responses within the dataset. In a phase 2 clinical trial, a large proportion of subjects (45%) developed ADA following weekly dosing with AMG 317, a fully human monoclonal antibody therapeutic. The antibody responses displayed a wide range of relative concentrations (30 ng/mL to >13 μg/mL) and peaked at various times during the study. To evaluate the impact of immunogenicity on PK, AMG 317 concentration data were analyzed following stratification by dose group, time point, antibody status (positive or negative), and antibody level (relative concentration). With dose group as a stratifying variable, a moderate reduction in AMG 317 levels (AMG 317 levels was revealed when antibody data was stratified by both time point and antibody level. In general, high ADA concentrations (>500 ng/mL) and later time points (week 12) were associated with significantly (up to 97%) lower trough AMG 317 concentrations. The use of quasi-quantitative antibody data and appropriate statistical methods was critical for the most comprehensive evaluation of the impact of immunogenicity on PK.

  7. Merging physical parameters and laboratory subjective ratings for the soundscape assessment of urban squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Maffei, Luigi; Di Gabriele, Maria; Gallo, Veronica

    2013-07-01

    An experimental study was carried out in 20 squares in the center of Rome, covering a wide range of different uses, sonic environments, geometry, and architectural styles. Soundwalks along the perimeter of each square were performed during daylight and weekdays taking binaural and video recordings, as well as spot measurements of illuminance. The cluster analysis performed on the physical parameters, not only acoustic, provided two clusters that are in satisfactory agreement with the "a priori" classification. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to five physical parameters, two main components were obtained which might be associated to two environmental features, namely, "chaotic/calm" and "open/enclosed." On the basis of these two features, six squares were selected for the laboratory audio-video tests where 32 subjects took part filling in a questionnaire. The PCA performed on the subjective ratings on the sonic environment showed two main components which might be associated to two emotional meanings, namely, "calmness" and "vibrancy." The linear regression modeling between five objective parameters and the mean value of subjective ratings on chaotic/calm and enclosed/open attributes showed a good correlation. Notwithstanding these interesting results being limited to the specific data set, it is worth pointing out that the complexity of the soundscape quality assessment can be more comprehensively examined merging the field measurements of physical parameters with the subjective ratings provided by field and/or laboratory tests.

  8. Modeling the time--varying subjective quality of HTTP video streams with rate adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C

    2014-05-01

    Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.

  9. Reproducibility of heart rate variability parameters measured in healthy subjects at rest and after a postural change maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Dantas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV provides important information about cardiac autonomic modulation. Since it is a noninvasive and inexpensive method, HRV has been used to evaluate several parameters of cardiovascular health. However, the internal reproducibility of this method has been challenged in some studies. Our aim was to determine the intra-individual reproducibility of HRV parameters in short-term recordings obtained in supine and orthostatic positions. Electrocardiographic (ECG recordings were obtained from 30 healthy subjects (20-49 years, 14 men using a digital apparatus (sampling ratio = 250 Hz. ECG was recorded for 10 min in the supine position and for 10 min in the orthostatic position. The procedure was repeated 2-3 h later. Time and frequency domain analyses were performed. Frequency domain included low (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz and high frequency (HF, 0.15-0.4 Hz bands. Power spectral analysis was performed by the autoregressive method and model order was set at 16. Intra-subject agreement was assessed by linear regression analysis, test of difference in variances and limits of agreement. Most HRV measures (pNN50, RMSSD, LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio were reproducible independent of body position. Better correlation indexes (r > 0.6 were obtained in the orthostatic position. Bland-Altman plots revealed that most values were inside the agreement limits, indicating concordance between measures. Only SDNN and NNv in the supine position were not reproducible. Our results showed reproducibility of HRV parameters when recorded in the same individual with a short time between two exams. The increased sympathetic activity occurring in the orthostatic position probably facilitates reproducibility of the HRV indexes.

  10. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  11. Assessment of potential Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, clays when subjected to high rates of heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueira, R.L.; Pereira, L.M.; Dutra, R.P.S.; Nascimento, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we study three clays of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, to evaluate the potential them when subjected to high rates of heating. The samples were formed by pressing and subject to rates of 5 deg C / min, 10 deg C / min and 15 deg C / min, with temperature of 950 deg C. This study determined the technological properties of the samples. The mineralogical composition was identified by X-ray diffraction. The chemical composition was determined by Xray fluorescence. The Atterberg limits, were used to classify the samples on the plasticity. Were also performed: dilatometry, size analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of the processing variables and the intrinsic characteristics of each material indicates that the RX clay showed the best results for the manufacture of blocks and tiles. The techniques used in this study were efficient and the initial objectives were achieved. (author)

  12. A single dose of dark chocolate increases parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Machado DUARTE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of a single dose of dark chocolate (70% cocoa on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty-one healthy subjects (aged 18-25 years; both sexes were divided into two groups: 10 subjects in the white chocolate (7.4 g group and 21 in the dark chocolate (10 g group; measurements were performed at the university's physiology lab. An electrocardiogram measured the sympathovagal balance by spectral and symbolic analysis. Results: A single dose of dark chocolate significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate. After consuming 10 g of dark chocolate, significant increases were observed for heart rate variability, standard deviation of RR intervals standard deviation of all NN intervals, square root of the mean squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals root mean square of successive differences, and an increase in the high frequency component in absolute values, representing the parasympathetic modulation. Conclusion: In conclusion the importance of our results lies in the magnitude of the response provoked by a single dose of cocoa. Just 10 g of cocoa triggered a significant increase in parasympathetic modulation and heart rate variability. These combined effects can potentially increase life expectancy because a reduction in heart rate variability is associated with several cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality.

  13. Textured insoles reduce vertical loading rate and increase subjective plantar sensation in overground running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Ewen, Alistair; Caplan, Nicholas; O'leary, David; Smith, Neil; Stoneham, Richard; Saxby, Lee

    2018-05-01

    The effect of textured insoles on kinetics and kinematics of overground running was assessed. 16 male injury-free-recreational runners attended a single visit (age 23 ± 5 yrs; stature 1.78 ± 0.06 m; mass 72.6 ± 9.2 kg). Overground 15-m runs were completed in flat, canvas plimsolls both with and without textured insoles at self-selected velocity on an indoor track in an order that was balanced among participants. Average vertical loading rate and peak vertical force (F peak ) were captured by force platforms. Video footage was digitised for sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle angles at foot strike and mid stance. Velocity, stride rate and length and contact and flight time were determined. Subjectively rated plantar sensation was recorded by visual scale. 95% confidence intervals estimated mean differences. Smallest worthwhile change in loading rate was defined as standardised reduction of 0.54 from a previous comparison of injured versus non-injured runners. Loading rate decreased (-25 to -9.3 BW s -1 ; 60% likely beneficial reduction) and plantar sensation was increased (46-58 mm) with the insole. F peak (-0.1 to 0.14 BW) and velocity (-0.02 to 0.06 m s -1 ) were similar. Stride length, flight and contact time were lower (-0.13 to -0.01 m; -0.02 to-0.01 s; -0.016 to -0.006 s) and stride rate was higher (0.01-0.07 steps s -1 ) with insoles. Textured insoles elicited an acute, meaningful decrease in vertical loading rate in short distance, overground running and were associated with subjectively increased plantar sensation. Reduced vertical loading rate could be explained by altered stride characteristics.

  14. Does Subjective Left-Right Position Have a Causal Effect on Support for Redistribution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    characteristics as instruments for left-right position, can be used to estimate the causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution. I analyze data on Sweden, Germany, and Norway from the two first waves of the European Social Survey and find first that left-right position is endogenous...... to support for redistribution, and second consistent with theory, that a causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution exists which is stronger than previously shown....

  15. Serial position effects in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early and moderate Alzheimer's disease compared with healthy comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, B; Deisenhammer, E A; Marksteiner, J; Papousek, I; Fink, A; Weiss, E M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the serial position effects in memory can differentiate patients with different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from healthy controls and patients with different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The serial position effects was tested with the CERAD word list task in 184 persons (39 healthy control subjects, 15 amnestic MCI single domain subjects, 23 amnestic MCI multiple domain subjects, 31 nonamnestic MCI subjects, 45 early or mild AD patients, and 31 moderate AD patients). With progression of dementia, memory deficits increased and the impairment in the primacy effect during the learning trials advanced, whereas the recall of recent items was less impaired. The serial position profile of nonamnestic MCI patients resembled that of healthy control subjects, whereas amnestic MCI patients showed poorer performance in all 3 positions but no significant difference as a function of serial word position. Analyses of the serial position effect may be a useful complement to clinical neuropsychological measures for distinguishing amnestic MCI patients from normal aging and patients with different stages of dementia. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Urine osmolality in treatment-naïve HIV-positive subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urine osmolality is not commonly evaluated in routine clinical practice and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subjects. The factors that influence urine osmolality have not been completely identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate urine osmolality in treatment‑naïve HIV subjects and to identify the factors that may ...

  17. Instantaneous Metabolic Cost of Walking: Joint-Space Dynamic Model with Subject-Specific Heat Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustyn Roberts

    Full Text Available A subject-specific model of instantaneous cost of transport (ICOT is introduced from the joint-space formulation of metabolic energy expenditure using the laws of thermodynamics and the principles of multibody system dynamics. Work and heat are formulated in generalized coordinates as functions of joint kinematic and dynamic variables. Generalized heat rates mapped from muscle energetics are estimated from experimental walking metabolic data for the whole body, including upper-body and bilateral data synchronization. Identified subject-specific energetic parameters-mass, height, (estimated maximum oxygen uptake, and (estimated maximum joint torques-are incorporated into the heat rate, as opposed to the traditional in vitro and subject-invariant muscle parameters. The total model metabolic energy expenditure values are within 5.7 ± 4.6% error of the measured values with strong (R2 > 0.90 inter- and intra-subject correlations. The model reliably predicts the characteristic convexity and magnitudes (0.326-0.348 of the experimental total COT (0.311-0.358 across different subjects and speeds. The ICOT as a function of time provides insights into gait energetic causes and effects (e.g., normalized comparison and sensitivity with respect to walking speed and phase-specific COT, which are unavailable from conventional metabolic measurements or muscle models. Using the joint-space variables from commonly measured or simulated data, the models enable real-time and phase-specific evaluations of transient or non-periodic general tasks that use a range of (aerobic energy pathway similar to that of steady-state walking.

  18. Acupuncture Deqi Intensity and Propagated Sensation along Channels May, Respectively, Differ due to Different Body Positions of Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Zhu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture as an essential component of complementary and alternative medicine is gradually recognized and accepted by the mainstream of contemporary medicine. For obtaining preferable clinical effectiveness, Deqi is commonly regarded as efficacy predictor and parameter which is necessary to be achieved. Influential factors for acupuncture efficacy, like Deqi sensation as well as propagated sensation along channels (PSCs, enjoyed a long history in acupuncture basic research. Concerning this study, taking into account different positions on acupuncture Deqi sensation and PSCs, we would like to attest whether different body positions for subjects during needling procedure yield differed acupuncture Deqi sensation, particularly in terms of intensity, and PSCs. Methods. We used self-controlled method and selected 30 healthy subjects to perform needle insertion at Futu point (ST32 bilaterally. Then they were instructed to record the value of intensity of acupuncture sensation and the length and width of PSCs after removing the needle. Results. In regard to intensity of Deqi, kneeling seat position is stronger than supine position, accounting for 90% of the total number of subjects. In length of PSCs, kneeling seat position is greater than supine position, accounting for 56.7%. In width of PSCs, kneeling seat position is greater than supine position, accounting for 66.7%. Conclusion. Our findings show that needle inserting at Futu point (ST32 in kneeling seat position achieve better needle sensation and provide reference for clinical.

  19. Prognostic value of ambulatory heart rate revisited in 6928 subjects from 6 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence relating mortality and morbidity to heart rate remains inconsistent. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 6928 subjects (not on beta-blockers; mean age: 56.2 years; 46.5% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden......, Uruguay, and China. We computed standardized hazard ratios for heart rate, while stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 850, 325, and 493 deaths accrued for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality......, respectively. The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal end points was 805, 363, 439, and 324 for cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, and coronary events, respectively. Twenty-four-hour heart rate predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.15) and noncardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.18) mortality but not cardiovascular...

  20. A Computational Framework to Optimize Subject-Specific Hemodialysis Blood Flow Rate to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.

  1. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W. [ICIEE/BYG, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Iwamatsu, Toshiya [Faculty of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Asada, Hideo [Architech Consulting Co., Tokyo (Japan); Dovjak, Mateja [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schellen, Lisje [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning (Netherlands); Shukuya, Masanori [Laboratory of Building Environment, Tokyo City University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Application of the exergy concept to research on the built environment is a relatively new approach. It helps to optimize climate conditioning systems so that they meet the requirements of sustainable building design. As the building should provide a healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation. Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 C or decreases below 22 C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established. (author)

  2. Subjective Ratings of Beauty and Aesthetics: Correlations With Statistical Image Properties in Western Oil Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Thomas; Redies, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    For centuries, oil paintings have been a major segment of the visual arts. The JenAesthetics data set consists of a large number of high-quality images of oil paintings of Western provenance from different art periods. With this database, we studied the relationship between objective image measures and subjective evaluations of the images, especially evaluations on aesthetics (defined as artistic value) and beauty (defined as individual liking). The objective measures represented low-level statistical image properties that have been associated with aesthetic value in previous research. Subjective rating scores on aesthetics and beauty correlated not only with each other but also with different combinations of the objective measures. Furthermore, we found that paintings from different art periods vary with regard to the objective measures, that is, they exhibit specific patterns of statistical image properties. In addition, clusters of participants preferred different combinations of these properties. In conclusion, the results of the present study provide evidence that statistical image properties vary between art periods and subject matters and, in addition, they correlate with the subjective evaluation of paintings by the participants. PMID:28694958

  3. Exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapular muscles do not improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Proprioception is essential for shoulder neuromuscular control and shoulder stability. Exercise of the rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles is an important part of shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle exercises on shoulder joint position sense. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a control or training group. The subjects in the training group received closed-chain and open-chain exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles for four weeks. Shoulder joint position sense errors in elevation, including the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints, was measured. After four weeks of exercise training, strength increased overall in the training group, which demonstrated the effect of exercise on the muscular system. However, the changes in shoulder joint position sense errors in any individual joint of the subjects in the training group were not different from those of the control subjects. Therefore, exercises specifically targeting individual muscles with low intensity may not be sufficient to improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects. Future work is needed to further investigate which types of exercise are more effective in improving joint position sense, and the mechanisms associated with those changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of chronic neck pain on cervical joint position error (JPE): Comparison between young and elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmari, Khalid A; Reddy, Ravi Shankar; Silvian, Paul; Ahmad, Irshad; Nagaraj, Venkat; Mahtab, Mohammad

    2017-11-06

    Evaluation of cervical joint position sense in subjects with chronic neck pain has gained importance in recent times. Different authors have established increased joint position error (JPE) in subjects with acute neck pain. However, there is a paucity of studies to establish the influence of chronic neck pain on cervical JPE. The objective of the study was to understand the influence of chronic neck pain on cervical JPE, and to examine the differences in cervical JPE between young and elderly subjects with chronic neck pain. Forty-two chronic neck pain patients (mean age 47.4) were compared for cervical JPE with 42 age-matched healthy subjects (mean age 47.8), using a digital inclinometer. The cervical JPE were measured in flexion, extension, and rotation in right and left movement directions. The comparison of JPE showed significantly larger errors in subjects with chronic neck pain when compared to healthy subjects (ppain revealed no significant differences (P> 0.05) in cervical JPE. Cervical joint position sense is impaired in subjects with chronic neck pain.

  5. The Position and Mobility of the Shoulder, Spinal Column and Pelvis in Seated Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Considerable muscle atrophy was observed in the right shoulder. In the spinal column, tissues overlying the right sacroiliac joint felt firmer than over...subject #23 had fewer clinical findings for joint dysfunction than in the other two subjects, but the physician noted more soft tissue observations than...There was also a mild scoliotic curvature with left convexity observed at T4-6. n the pelvis, the left lumbosacral and sacroiliac joints seened to

  6. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours to diffe...... to different air quality conditions. A re-analysis of the CO2 measurements obtained in two independent studies showed that human CO2 emission rates were affected by air quality (P......Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...

  7. Alterations in the Rate of Limb Movement Using a Lower Body Positive Pressure Treadmill Do Not Influence Respiratory Rate or Phase III Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Buono; Marissa Burnsed-Torres; Bethany Hess; Kristine Lopez; Catherine Ortiz; Ariel Girodo; Karen Lolli; Brett Bloom; David Bailey; Fred W. Kolkhorst

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alterations in rate of limb movement on Phase III ventilation during exercise, independent of metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline. Subjects completed five submaximal exercise bouts on a lower body positive pressure treadmill (AlterG P 200). The percent body weight for the five exercise bouts was 100, 87, 75, 63, and 50% and each was matched for carbon dioxide production (V CO2 ). Naturally, to match the V CO2 while reducin...

  8. HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis rate of positive donations among blood donations in Mali: lower rates among volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, A; Kouriba, B; Baby, M; Murphy, E; Lefrere, J-J

    2009-01-01

    Good data on background seroprevalence of major transfusion transmitted infections is lacking in Mali. We gathered data on the rate of positive donations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis among blood donations in Mali for calendar year 2007. Donations with repeatedly reactive results on screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were considered to be seropositive. Rate of positive donations per blood unit collected was 2.6% for HIV, 3.3% for HCV, 13.9% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.3% for syphilis. For HIV, HBsAg and syphilis, rate of positive donations was significantly (pdonations from replacement donors than those from volunteer donors, while HCV rate of positive donations was similar in the two groups. Rate of positive donations was also significantly (p<0.0001) lower in blood units from regular than from first-time donors. These data reinforce WHO recommendations for increasing the number of regular, volunteer blood donors in Africa.

  9. Increasing the bit rate in OCDMA systems using pulse position modulation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Vahid R; Saghari, Poorya; Haghi, Mahta; Ebrahimi, Paniz; Willner, Alan E

    2007-09-17

    We have experimentally demonstrated two novel pulse position modulation techniques, namely Double Pulse Position Modulation (2-PPM) and Differential Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) in Time-Wavelength OCDMA systems that will operate at a higher bit rate compared to traditional OOK-OCDMA systems with the same bandwidth. With 2-PPM technique, the number of active users will be more than DPPM while their bit rate is almost the same. Both techniques provide variable quality of service in OCDMA networks.

  10. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  11. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: Beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Meredith, Steven E.; Evatt, Daniel P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. Objectives This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. Methods Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., Beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., Beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., Beverage A or B). Effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. Results A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings, and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. Conclusions Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine. PMID:28108773

  12. Serum C-reactive protein and thioredoxin levels in subjects with mildly reduced glomerular filtration rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishimura Eiji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a newly recognized high-risk condition for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and previous studies reported the changes in inflammation and oxidative stress in advanced stages of CKD. We compared the levels of serum biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress between subjects with normal and mildly reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Methods The subjects were 182 participants of a health check-up program including those with normal (≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, N = 79 and mildly reduced eGFR (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2, N = 103 which was calculated based on serum creatinine, age and sex. We excluded those with reduced eGFR 2. No one had proteinuria. We measured serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP and thioredoxin (TRX as the markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, respectively. Results As compared with subjects with normal eGFR, those with mildly reduced eGFR had increased levels of both CRP and TRX. Also, eGFR was inversely correlated with these biomarkers. The associations of eGFR with these biomarkers remained significant after adjustment for age and sex. When adjustment was done for eight possible confounders, CRP showed significant association with systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and non-HDL-C, whereas TRX was associated with sex significantly, and with eGFR and systolic blood pressure at borderline significance. Conclusions We showed the increased levels of CRP and TRX in subjects with mildly reduced eGFR. The eGFR-CRP link and the eGFR-TRX link appeared to be mediated, at least partly, by the alterations in blood pressure and plasma lipids in these subjects.

  13. Do Electrochemiluminescence Assays Improve Prediction of Time to Type 1 Diabetes in Autoantibody-Positive TrialNet Subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Alexandra; Pyle, Laura; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Michels, Aaron; Krischer, Jeffrey; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Steck, Andrea K

    2016-10-01

    To explore whether electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays can help improve prediction of time to type 1 diabetes in the TrialNet autoantibody-positive population. TrialNet subjects who were positive for one or more autoantibodies (microinsulin autoantibody, GAD65 autoantibody [GADA], IA-2A, and ZnT8A) with available ECL-insulin autoantibody (IAA) and ECL-GADA data at their initial visit were analyzed; after a median follow-up of 24 months, 177 of these 1,287 subjects developed diabetes. Univariate analyses showed that autoantibodies by radioimmunoassays (RIAs), ECL-IAA, ECL-GADA, age, sex, number of positive autoantibodies, presence of HLA DR3/4-DQ8 genotype, HbA1c, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measurements were all significantly associated with progression to diabetes. Subjects who were ECL positive had a risk of progression to diabetes within 6 years of 58% compared with 5% for the ECL-negative subjects (P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were compared, with the base model including age, sex, OGTT measurements, and number of positive autoantibodies by RIAs. The model with positivity for ECL-GADA and/or ECL-IAA was the best, and factors that remained significantly associated with time to diabetes were area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide, fasting C-peptide, AUC glucose, number of positive autoantibodies by RIAs, and ECL positivity. Adding ECL to the Diabetes Prevention Trial risk score (DPTRS) improved the receiver operating characteristic curves with AUC of 0.83 (P < 0.0001). ECL assays improved the ability to predict time to diabetes in these autoantibody-positive relatives at risk for developing diabetes. These findings might be helpful in the design and eligibility criteria for prevention trials in the future. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Enhancing student engagement to positively impact mathematics anxiety, confidence and achievement for interdisciplinary science subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, Yvette L.; Gyuris, Emma; Connolly, Sean R.

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary science educators must equip their students with the knowledge and practical know-how to connect multiple disciplines like mathematics, computing and the natural sciences to gain a richer and deeper understanding of a scientific problem. However, many biology and earth science students are prejudiced against mathematics due to negative emotions like high mathematical anxiety and low mathematical confidence. Here, we present a theoretical framework that investigates linkages between student engagement, mathematical anxiety, mathematical confidence, student achievement and subject mastery. We implement this framework in a large, first-year interdisciplinary science subject and monitor its impact over several years from 2010 to 2015. The implementation of the framework coincided with an easing of anxiety and enhanced confidence, as well as higher student satisfaction, retention and achievement. The framework offers interdisciplinary science educators greater flexibility and confidence in their approach to designing and delivering subjects that rely on mathematical concepts and practices.

  15. Assessment of effects of differences in trunk posture during Fowler’s position on hemodynamics and cardiovascular regulation in older and younger subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Kubota,1 Yutaka Endo,1 Mitsue Kubota,1 Tomohiko Shigemasa2 1School of Nursing and Rehabilitation Sciences at Odawara, International University of Health and Welfare, Odawara, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Cardiology, International University of Health and Welfare Atami Hospital, Atami, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Downward shifts in blood volume with changing position generally cause tachycardic responses. Age-related decreases in vagal nerve activity could contribute to orthostatic hypotension in older individuals. Fowler’s position is a reclined position with the back between 30° and 60°, used to facilitate breathing, eating, and other routine daily activities in frail and elderly patients. Objective: This study examined whether stroke volume (SV was higher and heart rate (HR lower in Fowler’s position with an upright upper trunk than in Fowler’s position with the whole trunk upright in both older and younger subjects, based on the assumption that lower HR would result from reduced sympathetic activation in older individuals. Methods: We assessed hemodynamics and HR variability from electrocardiography, noninvasive arterial pressure and impedance cardiography in 11 younger male subjects (age range, 20–22 years and 11 older male subjects (age range, 64–79 years, using three positions: supine, or Fowler’s positions with either 30° of lower trunk inclination and 60° of upper trunk inclination (UT60 or 60° of whole trunk inclination (WT60. Comparisons were then made between age groups and between positions. Results: Reductions in SV and tachycardic response were smaller with UT60 than with WT60, in both younger and older subjects. In addition, reduced tachycardic response with upright upper trunk appeared attributable to decreased vagal withdrawal in younger subjects and to reduced sympathetic activation in older subjects. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that an upright upper trunk during Fowler’s position allowed

  16. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in subjects with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sandra R; Peixoto, Camila Bernardo; Caldas, Daniele Manhães; Silva, Eline Barboza; Akiti, Tiyomi; Nucci, Márcio; de Uzeda, Milton

    2002-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between salivary flow and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. Sialometry and Candida colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were taken from 112 subjects who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire. Chewing-stimulated whole saliva was collected and streaked in Candida plates and counted in 72 hours. Species identification was accomplished under standard methods. There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts (P =.007) when subjects with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). In addition, the median sialometry of men was significantly greater than that of women (P =.003), even after controlling for confounding variables like underlying disease and medications. Sjögren's syndrome was associated with low salivary flow rate (P =.007). There was no relationship between the median Candida CFU counts and gender or age. There was a high frequency (28%) of mixed colonization. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, followed by C parapsilosis, C tropicalis, and C krusei. In subjects with high Candida CFU counts there was an inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts.

  17. Position, Possession or Process? Understanding Objective and Subjective Employability during University-to-Work Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay-Somerville, Belgin; Scholarios, Dora

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to understand predictors of objective (i.e. job offers, employment status and employment quality) and subjective (i.e. perceived) graduate employability during university-to-work transitions. Using survey data from two cohorts of graduates in the UK (N = 293), it contrasts three competing theoretical approaches to employability:…

  18. Urine Osmolality in Treatment-naïve HIV-positive Subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-01

    Mar 1, 2017 ... commonly evaluated in routine clinical practice and in human ... the variables and urine osmolality and the strength of variables to ... function, and weight were common in treatment-naïve HIV subjects who had ... Nigeria, underweight and obesity, urine osmolality ..... associated with a salt-losing syndrome.

  19. Subjective Social Status and Positive Indicators of Well-Being among Emerging Adult College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…

  20. Socioeconomic position and subjective oral health: findings for the adult population in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Watt, Richard G; Fuller, Elizabeth; Steele, Jimmy G; Shen, Jing; Morris, Stephen; Wildman, John; Tsakos, Georgios

    2014-08-09

    The objective of this study was to assess socioeconomic inequalities in subjective measures of oral health in a national sample of adults in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. We analysed data from the 2009 Adult Dental Health Survey for 8,765 adults aged 21 years and over. We examined inequalities in three oral health measures: self-rated oral health, Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), and Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP). Educational attainment, occupational social class and household income were included as socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted and from the regression coefficients, predictive margins and conditional marginal effects were estimated to compare predicted probabilities of the outcome across different SEP levels. We also assessed the effect of missing data on our results by re-estimating the regression models after imputing missing data. There were significant differences in predicted probabilities of the outcomes by SEP level among dentate, but not among edentate, participants. For example, persons with no qualifications showed a higher predicted probability of reporting bad oral health (9.1 percentage points higher, 95% CI: 6.54, 11.68) compared to those with a degree or equivalent. Similarly, predicted probabilities of bad oral health and oral impacts were significantly higher for participants in lower income quintiles compared to those in the highest income level (p oral health among adults in England, Wales and Northern Ireland with stronger gradients for those at younger ages.

  1. Bilateral hegu acupoints have the same effect on the heart rate variability of the healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangjun, Wang; Yuying, Tian; Shuyong, Jia; Wenting, Zhou; Weibo, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Background. The specificity of acupuncture points (acupoints) is one of the key concepts in traditional acupuncture theory, but the question of whether there is adequate scientific evidence to prove or disprove specificity has been vigorously debated in recent years. Acupoint laterality is an important aspect of acupoint specificity. Data is particularly scarce regarding the laterality of the same channel, namesake acupoint located on opposite sides of the body. Our previous study results suggest that Neiguan acupoint (PC6) has the laterality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hegu (LI4) also has laterality from the perspective of heart rate variability. Methods. A total of twenty-eight healthy female volunteers were recruited for this study and were randomly separated into the group I (n = 14) and the group II (n = 14) according to the register order. In the group I, left LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and the right LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. In the group II, right LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and left LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. Electrocardiogram was recorded and heart rate variability was analyzed. Results. The results show that there were no significant differences of heart rate variablity between the group I and the group II in the time domain and in the frequency domain. Conclusions. Bilateral Hegu acupoints have the same effect on the heart rate variability of the healthy subjects.

  2. Bilateral Hegu Acupoints Have the Same Effect on the Heart Rate Variability of the Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The specificity of acupuncture points (acupoints is one of the key concepts in traditional acupuncture theory, but the question of whether there is adequate scientific evidence to prove or disprove specificity has been vigorously debated in recent years. Acupoint laterality is an important aspect of acupoint specificity. Data is particularly scarce regarding the laterality of the same channel, namesake acupoint located on opposite sides of the body. Our previous study results suggest that Neiguan acupoint (PC6 has the laterality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hegu (LI4 also has laterality from the perspective of heart rate variability. Methods. A total of twenty-eight healthy female volunteers were recruited for this study and were randomly separated into the group I (n=14 and the group II (n=14 according to the register order. In the group I, left LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and the right LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. In the group II, right LI4 was stimulated in the first epoch and left LI4 was stimulated in the second epoch. Electrocardiogram was recorded and heart rate variability was analyzed. Results. The results show that there were no significant differences of heart rate variablity between the group I and the group II in the time domain and in the frequency domain. Conclusions. Bilateral Hegu acupoints have the same effect on the heart rate variability of the healthy subjects.

  3. Estimation of Circadian Body Temperature Rhythm Based on Heart Rate in Healthy, Ambulatory Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Kim, Han Byul; Jang, Seungjin; Kim, Beomoh; Hong, Seungbum; Kim, Sungwan; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-03-01

    Core body temperature is a reliable marker for circadian rhythm. As characteristics of the circadian body temperature rhythm change during diverse health problems, such as sleep disorder and depression, body temperature monitoring is often used in clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of current thermometers in circadian rhythm monitoring is impractical in daily life. As heart rate is a physiological signal relevant to thermoregulation, we investigated the feasibility of heart rate monitoring in estimating circadian body temperature rhythm. Various heart rate parameters and core body temperature were simultaneously acquired in 21 healthy, ambulatory subjects during their routine life. The performance of regression analysis and the extended Kalman filter on daily body temperature and circadian indicator (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) estimation were evaluated. For daily body temperature estimation, mean R-R interval (RRI), mean heart rate (MHR), or normalized MHR provided a mean root mean square error of approximately 0.40 °C in both techniques. The mesor estimation regression analysis showed better performance than the extended Kalman filter. However, the extended Kalman filter, combined with RRI or MHR, provided better accuracy in terms of amplitude and acrophase estimation. We suggest that this noninvasive and convenient method for estimating the circadian body temperature rhythm could reduce discomfort during body temperature monitoring in daily life. This, in turn, could facilitate more clinical studies based on circadian body temperature rhythm.

  4. Stratification of Antibody-Positive Subjects by Antibody Level Reveals an Impact of Immunogenicity on Pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lei; Hoofring, Sarah A.; Wu, Yu; Vu, Thuy; Ma, Peiming; Swanson, Steven J.; Chirmule, Narendra; Starcevic, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The availability of highly sensitive immunoassays enables the detection of antidrug antibody (ADA) responses of various concentrations and affinities. The analysis of the impact of antibody status on drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is confounded by the presence of low-affinity or low-concentration antibody responses within the dataset. In a phase 2 clinical trial, a large proportion of subjects (45%) developed ADA following weekly dosing with AMG 317, a fully human monoclonal antibody therapeutic....

  5. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  6. Enhancing the Educational Subject: Cognitive Capitalism, Positive Psychology and Well-Being Training in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…

  7. Test-retest reliability of joint position and kinesthetic sense in the elbow of healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B.; Lund, Hans Aage; Hansen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Proprioception is an important effect measure in neuromuscular function training in physiotherapy. Reliability studies of methods for measuring proprioception are few on joint position sense (JPS) and threshold to detection of a passive movement (TDPM) on the elbow. The aim was to study test-rete...

  8. Personality, self-rated health, and subjective age in a life-span sample: the moderating role of chronological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Demulier, Virginie; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The present study tested whether chronological age moderates the association between subjective age and self-rated health and personality in a community-dwelling life-span sample (N = 1,016; age range: 18-91 years). Self-rated health, extraversion, and openness to experience were associated with a younger subjective age at older ages. Conscientious individuals felt more mature early in life. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not related to subjective age at older ages. These findings suggest that with aging self-rated health and personality traits are increasingly important for subjective age. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  10. Effect of chest tube position on the success rate of pleurodesis: A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyasu Takemura

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: In malignant pleural effusion, the success rates of pleurodesis may be similar regardless of the position of the tube. However, this is a retrospective study with insufficient participants. Hence, further investigation is required.

  11. What constitutes a good life? Cultural differences in the role of positive and negative affect in subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-08-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect-but not recalled negative affect-for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans' life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life.

  12. What Constitutes a Good Life? Cultural Differences in the Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-01-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  13. Positional variation of applicators during low dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Ponni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to know the effect of variation in position of applicators to the dose received by the tumor volume, critical organs such as rectum and bladder and the correlation of variation on the clinical outcome.Material and methods: 36 patients with histologically proven cervical cancer, undergoing intracavitary brachythe - rapy (ICBT from October 2005 to December 2006 were the subjects of the study. Two pairs of orthogonal X-ray films were taken: one prior to loading of sources and the other after removal of sources. These patients were followed up as per the RTOG criteria.Results: The median duration of insertion was 25 hours with a median follow up period of 6.7 months. The translational variation of the applicator position for all patients was 3 mm and 1 mm (2 SD, respectively, in the patient’s lateral and antero-posterior direction. The rotational variation was 3 and 4 degrees (2 SD in the patient’s transverse and sagittal planes. Detailed analysis of source movement showed following changes in median dose: point A: 14%, point B: 2%, point P: 1%, Rectum 1: 3.5%, Rectum 2: 4% and Bladder: 9.1%. The incidence of rectal toxicity was 6/36(16.7% and that of bladder was 1/36 (2.8%. When the variables were grouped to evaluate the relationship, our study showed statistically significant relationship between: R2 and rectal toxicity (p value: 0.002, point A and rectal toxicity (Pearson: 0.792, lateral displacement/anteroposterior displacement and rectal toxicity (p value: 0.012/0.003, beta angle and R2 (p value: 0.002.Conclusions: The geometric relationships between the ICBT applicators and the critical structures vary during the course of low dose rate brachytherapy. Source movement does result in significant dose alterations in terms of increased rate of complications, but its impact on cure rates needs to be studied in the future.

  14. Case-positive versus case-negative designs for low-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, T. X.

    1982-03-01

    Case polarity design choices are discussed. Two examples of case-negative designs are presented. One battery is thionyl chloride limited and the other is lithium limited. The case-positive design is thionyl chloride limited. It is found that the case-positive/case-negative design consideration does not seem to have much bearing on storage. However, during low rate discharge, the case-negative cells show a steadily decreasing capacity as you go to lower and lower rates.

  15. High Strain Rate Response of 7055 Aluminum Alloy Subject to Square-spot Laser Shock Peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Zhu, Ying; Li, Liuhe; Guo, Wei; Peng, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The influences of laser pulse energy and impact time on high strain rate response of 7055 aluminum alloy subject to square-spot laser shock peening (SLSP) were investigate. Microstructural evolution was characterized by OM, SEM and TEM. Microhardness distribution and in-depth residual stress in 15 J with one and two impacts and 25 J with one and two impacts were analyzed. Results show that the original rolling structures were significantly refined due to laser shock induced recrystallization. High density of microdefects was generated, such as dislocation tangles, dislocation wall and stacking faults. Subgrains and nanograins were induced in the surface layer, resulting in grain refinement in the near surface layer after SLSP. Compressive residual stresses with maximum value of more than -200 MPa and affected depths of more than 1 mm can be generated after SLSP. Impact time has more effectiveness than laser pulse energy in increasing the magnitude of residual stress and achieving thicker hardening layer.

  16. Assessing teachers' positive psychological functioning at work: Development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L; Long, Anna C J; Cook, Clayton R

    2015-06-01

    This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (TSWQ) with 2 samples of educators-a general sample of 185 elementary and middle school teachers, and a target sample of 21 elementary school teachers experiencing classroom management challenges. The TSWQ is an 8-item self-report instrument for assessing teachers' subjective wellbeing, which is operationalized via subscales measuring school connectedness and teaching efficacy. The conceptualization and development processes underlying the TSWQ are described, and results from a series of preliminary psychometric and exploratory analyses are reported to establish initial construct validity. Findings indicated that the TSWQ was characterized by 2 conceptually sound latent factors, that both subscales and the composite scale demonstrated strong internal consistency, and that all scales demonstrated convergent validity with self-reported school supports and divergent validity with self-reported stress and emotional burnout. Furthermore, results indicated that TSWQ scores did not differ according to teachers' school level (i.e., elementary vs. middle), but that they did differ according to unique school environment (e.g., 1 middle school vs. another middle school) and teacher stressors (i.e., general teachers vs. teachers experiencing classroom management challenges). Results also indicated that, for teachers experiencing classroom challenges, the TSWQ had strong short-term predictive validity for psychological distress, accounting for approximately half of the variance in teacher stress and emotional burnout. Implications for theory, research, and the practice of school psychology are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Subjective evaluation of HDTV stereoscopic videos in IPTV scenarios using absolute category rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Barkowsky, M.; Cousseau, R.; Brunnström, K.; Olsson, R.; Le Callet, P.; Sjöström, M.

    2011-03-01

    Broadcasting of high definition (HD) stereobased 3D (S3D) TV are planned, or has already begun, in Europe, the US, and Japan. Specific data processing operations such as compression and temporal and spatial resampling are commonly used tools for saving network bandwidth when IPTV is the distribution form, as this results in more efficient recording and transmission of 3DTV signals, however at the same time it inevitably brings quality degradations to the processed video. This paper investigated observers quality judgments of state of the art video coding schemes (simulcast H.264/AVC or H.264/MVC), with or without added temporal and spatial resolution reduction of S3D videos, by subjective experiments using the Absolute Category Rating method (ACR) method. The results showed that a certain spatial resolution reduction working together with high quality video compressing was the most bandwidth efficient way of processing video data when the required video quality is to be judged as "good" quality. As the subjective experiment was performed in two different laboratories in two different countries in parallel, a detailed analysis of the interlab differences was performed.

  18. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis of primary school children in Geoje island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Jin; Lee, Bo Young; Chung, Hyun Kee; Lee, Young Sun; Lee, Kun Hee; Chung, Hae Jin

    2003-01-01

    The status of pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) egg positive rate of primary school children in Geoje island was investigated by using adhesive cellotape anal swap method, in September, 2002. Total egg positive rates of E. vermicularis were 9.8% (74/754) and those of male and female were 10.8% and 8.7%, respectively. Among three schools examined, Myeongsa primary school showed the highest egg positive rate (12.6%) followed by Yeoncho [9.8% (26/266)] and Geoje [9.1% (35/385)]. As for the age groups, the 2nd grade had the highest egg positive rate (15.3%), whereas the 5th grade showed the lowest egg positive rate (2.6%). The above result led us to confirm that the egg positive rates of E. vermicularis in primary school children in Geoje island were not significantly different from the those in the whole country including urban and rural areas, showing more than 10%. PMID:12666734

  19. HEART RATE, MOOD STATES, AND RATING OF PERCEIVED EXERTION AMONG ELDERLY SUBJECTS DURING 3.5 HOURS OF RECREATIONAL ALPINE SKIING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Krautgasser

    2012-12-01

    immediate positive psychological effects on the elderly subjects. Furthermore, recreational alpine skiing has a positive effect on MS ratings reflecting wellbeing, while generating age-appropriate moderate RPE values in elderly alpine skiers.

  20. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Function are Positively Related Among Participants with Mild and Subjective Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckenschneider, Tim; Askew, Christopher David; Rüdiger, Stefanie; Cristina Polidori, Maria; Abeln, Vera; Vogt, Tobias; Krome, Andreas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Lawlor, Brian; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    By 2030, about 74 million people will be diagnosed with dementia, and many more will experience subjective (SCI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As physical inactivity has been identified to be a strong modifiable risk factor for dementia, exercise and physical activity (PA) may be important parameters to predict the progression from MCI to dementia, but might also represent disease trajectory modifying strategies for SCI and MCI. A better understanding of the relationship between activity, fitness, and cognitive function across the spectrum of MCI and SCI would provide an insight into the potential utility of PA and fitness as early markers, and treatment targets to prevent cognitive decline. 121 participants were stratified into three groups, late MCI (LMCI), early MCI (EMCI), and SCI based on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Cognitive function assessments also included the Trail Making Test A+B, and a verbal fluency test. PA levels were evaluated with an interviewer-administered questionnaire (LAPAQ) and an activity monitor. An incremental exercise test was performed to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness and to determine exercise capacity relative to population normative data. ANCOVA revealed that LMCI subjects had the lowest PA levels (LAPAQ, p = 0.018; activity monitor, p = 0.041), and the lowest exercise capacity in relation to normative values (p = 0.041). Moreover, a modest correlation between MoCA and cardiorespiratory fitness (r = 0.25; p cognitive impairment PA and exercise capacity might present a marker for the risk of further cognitive decline. This finding warrants further investigation using longitudinal cohort studies.

  1. Lymphocyte subsets are influenced by positivity levels in healthy subjects before and after mild acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Nisini, Roberto; Castellani, Valeria; Vittorio, Pasquali; Alessandri, Guido; Vincenzo, Ziparo; Claudia, Ferlito; Valentina, Germano; Andrea, Picchianti Diamanti; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Milanetti, Francesca; Salerno, Gerardo; Vincenzo, Visco; Mario, Pietrosanti; Aniballi, Eros; Simonetta, Salemi; Angela, Santoni; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, the possible association of positivity (POS), recently defined as general disposition to view life under positive outlook, with immune markers and post-stress modifications, was analyzed. Circulating lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels were evaluated before and after a standard mild acute stress test, in 41 healthy students, previously selected by a questionnaire for their level of POS (high [POS-H] and low [POS-L]). The CD3 + and CD4 + cell frequency was higher in the POS-H students before and after acute stress. CD4 + subpopulation analysis revealed baseline higher terminally differentiated frequency in the POS-H, whereas higher effector memory frequency was present in the POS-L students. Moreover, the frequency of post-stress B cells was higher in the POS-H students. The mild-stress test was associated to an increase of the IL-10 mean values, while mean values of the other cytokines tested did not change significantly. It is tempting to speculate that IL-10 may work as biomarker of response to acute mild stress and that POS-H may be associated to a better capacity of the immune system to contrast the disturbing effects of mild acute stress. Yet further studies on lymphocyte subset absolute number and function of larger and different populations are needed to definitively prove these preliminary observations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Comparison of Holistic versus Decomposed Rating of Position Analysis Questionnaire Work Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephanie K.; Harvey, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Examined technique for improving cost-effectiveness of Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) in job analysis. Professional job analysts, industrial psychology graduate students familiar with PAQ, and PAQ-unfamiliar undergraduates made direct holistic ratings of PAQ dimensions for four familiar jobs. Comparison of holistic ratings with decomposed…

  3. Attribute Ratings and Profiles of the Job Elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Lloyd D.; McCormick, Ernest J.

    The primary purpose of this study was to obtain estimates of the human attribute requirements of the job elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). A secondary purpose was to explore the reliability of job-related ratings as a function of the number of raters. A taxonomy of 76 human attributes was used and ratings of the relevance of…

  4. Can Raters with Reduced Job Descriptive Information Provide Accurate Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Ratings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lee; Harvey, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Job-naive raters provided with job descriptive information made Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) ratings which were validated against ratings of job analysts who were also job content experts. None of the reduced job descriptive information conditions enabled job-naive raters to obtain either acceptable levels of convergent validity with…

  5. High frequency of positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (ATPO) in adult subjects without known thyroid disease, Santiago de Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanas, Alejandra; Letelier, Carolina; Caamano, Edgardo; Massardo, Teresa; Gonzalez, Patricio; Araya, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    Background: Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies have a pathogenic role in Hashimoto thyroiditis. Between 10 and 19% of individuals without thyroid disease, have positive titers of these antibodies. Aim: To study the frequency of positive titers of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in healthy individuals. Material and Methods: A blood sample, to measure anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by chemiluminescence assay, was obtained from 67 women and 62 men aged 45 ± 14 years, without a personal or familiar history of thyroid diseases and normal thyroid palpation. The cutoff point of the manufacturer to consider positive a titer of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies was set at 35 IU/ml. Results: Twenty-eight women and 28 men had positive antibody titers (43% of the sample). Subjects in the upper tercile of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody titers had a higher TSH than those in the second tercile, although within normal limits (1.73 ± 0.74 and 1.37 ± 0.59 mlU/L, respectively p = 0.02) Conclusions: Forty three percent of the studied subjects without personal or familial history of thyroid diseases had positive titers of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Further prospective studies should evaluate whether this observation discloses an increase in thyroid autoimmune disease in a population with increased iodine intake

  6. Do Electrochemiluminescence Assays Improve Prediction of Time to Type 1 Diabetes in Autoantibody-Positive TrialNet Subjects?

    OpenAIRE

    Fouts, Alexandra; Pyle, Laura; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Michels, Aaron; Krischer, Jeffrey; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Steck, Andrea K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore whether electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays can help improve prediction of time to type 1 diabetes in the TrialNet autoantibody-positive population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS TrialNet subjects who were positive for one or more autoantibodies (microinsulin autoantibody, GAD65 autoantibody [GADA], IA-2A, and ZnT8A) with available ECL-insulin autoantibody (IAA) and ECL-GADA data at their initial visit were analyzed; after a median follow-up of 24 months, 177 of these 1,2...

  7. Sexual Health and Positive Subjective Well-Being in Partnered Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David M; Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-07-01

    We examine the associations between different patterns of sexual behavior and function and three indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) covering eudemonic, evaluative, and affective well-being in a representative sample of partnered older people. Using data from a Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q) in Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class analysis identified groups characterized by distinctive patterns of sexual behavior and function and then examined their link to SWB. Eudemonic SWB was measured using a revised 15-item version of the CASP-19, evaluative SWB using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and affective SWB using the 8-item version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Sexual behavior and function was best described by six classes among men and five classes among women. These ranged from high sexual desire, frequent partnered sexual activities, and few sexual problems (Class 1) to low sexual desire, infrequent/no sexual activity, and problems with sexual function (Class 5([women])/6([men])). Men and women who reported either infrequent/no sexual activity, or were sexually active but reported sexual problems, generally had lower SWB than those individuals identified in Class 1. Poorer SWB in men was more strongly associated with sexual function difficulties, whereas in women desire and frequency of partnered activities appeared more important in relation to SWB. Within the context of a partnered relationship continuing sexual desire, activity and functioning are associated with higher SWB, with distinctive patterns for women and men. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Dose titration of BAF312 attenuates the initial heart rate reducing effect in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legangneux, Eric; Gardin, Anne; Johns, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown transient decreases in heart rate (HR) following administration of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators including BAF312. This study was conducted to determine whether dose titration of BAF312 reduces or eliminates these effects. Fifty-six healthy subjects were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive BAF312 in one of two dose titration (DT) regimens (DT1 and DT2: 0.25-10 mg over 9-10 days), no titration (10 mg starting dose) or placebo. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. Neither DT1 nor DT2 resulted in clinically significant bradycardia or atrioventricular conduction effects. Both titration regimens showed a favourable difference on each of days 1-12 vs. the non-titration regimen on day 1 for HR effects (P titration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 1.23) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.09, 1.18) for DT2 (both P titration HRs showed considerable separation from placebo throughout the study. There was no statistically significant reduction in HR vs. placebo on day 1 in either titration regimen. On days 3-7 subjects in DT1 and DT2 experienced minor reductions in HR vs. placebo (approximately 5 beats min⁻¹; P ≤ 0.0001). From days 9-12, HRs in both titration regimens were comparable with placebo. Both titration regimens effectively attenuated the initial bradyarrhythmia observed on day 1 of treatment with BAF312 10 mg. © 2012 Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (NIBIR). British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. [Primary study on characteristics of insulin secretion rate, metabolic clearance rate and sensitivity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects from multiplex diabetic pedigrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, J; Cheng, H; Li, F

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of insulin secretion rate (ISR), metabolic clearance rate (MCR-I) and sensitivity and to explore their relationship with obesity in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects from multiplex diabetic pedigrees (MDP). Fifteen subjects with normal glucose tolerance and 11 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients from MDP were included in the study. Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) was performed. Glucose, insulin (INS) and connecting-peptide (C-P) concentrations were measured. A computer procedure devised by our laboratory was used to calculate the value of ISR at each time point, then MCR-I was acquired. Insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated according to minimal model technique about glucose in FSIVGTT. The ISR curve in control group was biphasic, while in non-insulin. In non-insulin-dependent diabetic group, areas under the curves of C-P (AUCC) and ISR level (AUCS) measured during 0 approximately 16 min were 7.9 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 2.8 nmol.min(-1).L(-1), and 6.1 nmol +/- 2.2 nmol, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in control group 17.7 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 4.92 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) and 12.3 nmol +/- 3.9 nmol (P < 0.01). The two parameters were slightly higher than those in control group 155 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 44 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) vs 101 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) +/- 30 nmol.min(-1).L(-1) and 76 nmol +/- 26 nmol vs 54 nmol +/- 20.0 nmol (P < 0.05)measured during 16 approximately 180 min. There was no significant difference, between the two groups about the amount of insulin secretion during 3 hours (82 nmol +/- 28nmol vs 68 nmol +/- 21 nmol, P = 0.2). In control group, there were significant positive correlation, between AUCS, waist-hip ratio (WHR), and body surface area, (BSA) and significant negative correlation between MCR-I, SI and WHR, BSA (P < 0.01), and also between MCR-I and SI. In non-insulin-dependent diabetic group, AUCS were significantly correlated with body mass

  10. Efficacy of Positive Thinking Training on the Family Process and Subjective Wellbeing of Female Heads of Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد خدایاری فرد

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of positive thinking training on family process and subjective wellbeing of female heads of household. The method was a semi-experimental with pretest-posttest and control group; and the study population included all female heads of household residing in Chaharbagh, Alborz province, who have at least one primary school-kid.  Using available sampling method, 50 women were selected among school-students’ mothers, and were randomly assigned into two equal groups of experimental and control groups. Both groups filled Self-Report Family Process Scale (SFPS and Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SWQ. The experimental group received positive thinking training for eight 2-hours-sessions. Then, all participants were assessed again as the posttest. The data were analyzed by covariance analysis method. Findings showed that after the intervention family process scores of experimental group had been significantly improved, while subjective wellbeing scores had not significantly enhanced. Therefore, it can be told that the present program was effective in increasing the family process, though it went ineffective in improving subjective wellbeing in these irritable individuals. Thus, altering and enriching the program and conducting further investigations seems necessary.

  11. Strong subjective recovery as a protective factor against the effects of positive symptoms on quality of life outcomes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2014-08-01

    Interest in recovery from schizophrenia has been growing steadily, with much of the focus on remission from psychotic symptoms and a return to functioning. Less is known about the experience of subjective recovery and its relationships with other important outcomes, such as quality of life and the formation and sustenance of social connections. This study sought to address this gap in knowledge by examining the links between self perceived recovery, symptoms, and the social components of quality of life. Sixty eight veterans with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who were participating in a study of cognitive remediation and work were concurrently administered the Recovery Assessment Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale (QLS). Linear regression analyses demonstrated that subjective recovery moderated the relationship between positive symptoms and both QLS intrapsychic foundations scores and QLS instrumental role functioning after controlling for negative symptoms. Further examination of this interaction revealed that for individuals with substantial positive symptoms, higher levels of subjective recovery were associated with better instrumental role functioning and intrapsychic foundational abilities. Greater self perceived recovery is linked with stronger quality of life, both in regards to the cognitive and affective bases for socialization and active community involvement, even in the presence of substantial psychotic symptoms. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS): climate satisfaction evaluation based on subjective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Yang, Shing-Ru; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Climate not only influences the behavior of people in urban environments but also affects people's schedules and travel plans. Therefore, providing people with appropriate long-term climate evaluation information is crucial. Therefore, we developed an innovative climate assessment system based on field investigations conducted in three cities located in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The field investigations included the questionnaire surveys and climate data collection. We first analyzed the relationship between the participants and climate parameters comprising physiologically equivalent temperature, air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, cloud cover, and precipitation. Second, we established the neutral value, comfort range, and dissatisfied range of each parameter. Third, after verifying that the subjects' perception toward the climate parameters vary based on individual preferences, we developed the customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS) approach, which featured functions such as personalized and default climate suitability information to be used by users exhibiting varying demands. Finally, we performed calculations using the climate conditions of two cities during the past 10 years to demonstrate the performance of the CRACS approach. The results can be used as a reference when planning activities in the city or when organizing future travel plans. The flexibility of the assessment system enables it to be adjusted for varying regions and usage characteristics.

  13. Egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis among preschool children in Cheongju, Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seokha; Jeon, Hyeong Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the prevalence of pinworm infection, the egg positive rate of Enterobius vermicularis was examined using the adhesive cello-tape anal swab method in 1,512 preschool children sampled from a total of 20 kindergartens in Cheongju city, in November to December of 2004 (951 children from 13 kindergartens) and September to October of 2005 (561 from 7 kindergartens). The overall egg positive rate was found to be 7.9% (119/1,512); 9.3% (73/784) for boys and 6.3% (46/728) for girls, respectively. The 5-year age group evidenced the highest egg positive rate (10.9%, 47/430) among the examined age groups. As compared to those reported from previous works (ranged from 9.2 to 26.1%), the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the Cheongju city area is relatively low. PMID:16969064

  14. Influence of Elastic Bandage and Neoprene Sleeve on Knee Position Sense and Pain in Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basir Majdoleslami

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate whether a neoprene sleeve and elastic bandage around the knee joint of subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA would , in short term (a reduce pain (b improve knee joint position sense and comparison of their effect with each other if they have. Materials & Methods: In a semi-experimental study, 30 subjects (11 men, 19 women, age between 33-75 with unilateral knee OA. Subjects had to have at least 2cm from 10cm visual analogue scale (VAS of knee pain for study entry.All patients were randomly assigned to either an elastic bandage or a neoprene sleeve. One week later they were assigned to the opposite selection. Joint position sense was assessed in the sitting position using an electrogoniometer and pain by VAS where 0cm equals no pain and 10 cm equals worst pain. Knee pain and JPS were assessed for each selection one week apart. During each visit assessment were performed at baseline and after 20 min of bandage/neoprene sleeve application. Results: the mean of scores for knee variables JPS and VAS was taken and paired-t test and Wilcoxon signed rank test was employed to calculate the different between two trails. Neoprene sleeve had significant effect on knee JPS (P=0.037. But elastic bandage had no effect (P=0.631. Both of them had significantly reduced knee pain. (P=0.000 Conclusion: In subjects with both neoprene sleeve and elastic bandage reduced knee pain with more effect of neoprene sleeve. Only the neoprene sleeve had effect on knee JPS.

  15. Dynamics of heart rate variability analysed through nonlinear and linear dynamics is already impaired in young type 1 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Naiara M; Giacon, Thais R; Pacagnelli, Francis L; Barbosa, Marianne P C R; Valenti, Vitor E; Vanderlei, Luiz C M

    2016-10-01

    Autonomic diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and studies using heart rate variability to investigate these individuals have shown inconclusive results regarding autonomic nervous system activation. Aims To investigate the dynamics of heart rate in young subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus through nonlinear and linear methods of heart rate variability. We evaluated 20 subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 23 healthy control subjects. We obtained the following nonlinear indices from the recurrence plot: recurrence rate (REC), determinism (DET), and Shanon entropy (ES), and we analysed indices in the frequency (LF and HF in ms2 and normalised units - nu - and LF/HF ratio) and time domains (SDNN and RMSSD), through analysis of 1000 R-R intervals, captured by a heart rate monitor. There were reduced values (p<0.05) for individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with healthy subjects in the following indices: DET, REC, ES, RMSSD, SDNN, LF (ms2), and HF (ms2). In relation to the recurrence plot, subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus demonstrated lower recurrence and greater variation in their plot, inter-group and intra-group, respectively. Young subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus have autonomic nervous system behaviour that tends to randomness compared with healthy young subjects. Moreover, this behaviour is related to reduced sympathetic and parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system.

  16. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 541 - Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Light Duty Truck Lines With Theft Rates Below the 1990/91 Median Theft Rate, Subject to the Requirements of This Standard B Appendix B to Part 541... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt. 541, App. B...

  17. Objective and subjective rating of tonal noise radiated from UK wind farms: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This final report provides data on the assessment of tonal noise radiation from wind turbines in the United Kingdom. Both objective and subjective assessments of the noise pollution from various wind farms are incorporated in the study. Previous subjective tests are verified here using a larger subject and sample size compared to the initial study. The study also aims to produce an objective automatic tonal assessment procedure which identifies tones and broad band masking noise in wind farm radiated noise spectra. (UK)

  18. Position specific variation in the rate of evolution intranscription factor binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Kellis, Manolis; Lander, EricS.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2003-08-28

    The binding sites of sequence specific transcription factors are an important and relatively well-understood class of functional non-coding DNAs. Although a wide variety of experimental and computational methods have been developed to characterize transcription factor binding sites, they remain difficult to identify. Comparison of non-coding DNA from related species has shown considerable promise in identifying these functional non-coding sequences, even though relatively little is known about their evolution. Here we analyze the genome sequences of the budding yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, S. paradoxus and S. mikataeto study the evolution of transcription factor binding sites. As expected, we find that both experimentally characterized and computationally predicted binding sites evolve slower than surrounding sequence, consistent with the hypothesis that they are under purifying selection. We also observe position-specific variation in the rate of evolution within binding sites. We find that the position-specific rate of evolution is positively correlated with degeneracy among binding sites within S. cerevisiae. We test theoretical predictions for the rate of evolution at positions where the base frequencies deviate from background due to purifying selection and find reasonable agreement with the observed rates of evolution. Finally, we show how the evolutionary characteristics of real binding motifs can be used to distinguish them from artifacts of computational motif finding algorithms. As has been observed for protein sequences, the rate of evolution in transcription factor binding sites varies with position, suggesting that some regions are under stronger functional constraint than others. This variation likely reflects the varying importance of different positions in the formation of the protein-DNA complex. The characterization of the pattern of evolution in known binding sites will likely contribute to the effective use of comparative

  19. High Strain Rate Deformation Mechanisms of Body Centered Cubic Material Subjected to Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, William

    Low carbon steel is the most common grade of structural steel used; it has carbon content of 0.05% to 0.25% and very low content of alloying elements. It is produced in great quantities and provides material properties that are acceptable for many engineering applications, particularly in the construction industry in which low carbon steel is widely used as the strengthening phase in civil structures. The overall goal of this dissertation was to investigate the deformation response of A572 grade 50 steel when subjected to impact loading. This steel has a 0.23% by weight carbon content and has less than 2% additional alloying elements. The deformation mechanisms of this steel under shock loading conditions include both dislocation motion and twin formation. The goal of this work was achieved by performing experimental, analytical and numerical research in three integrated tasks. The first is to determine the relationship between the evolution of deformation twins and the impact pressure. Secondly, a stress criterion for twin nucleation during high strain rate loading was developed which can account for the strain history or initial dislocation density. Lastly, a method was applied for separating the effects of dislocations and twins generated by shock loading in order to determine their role in controlling the flow stress of the material. In this regard, the contents of this work have been categorically organized. First, the active mechanisms in body centered cubic (BCC) low carbon steel during shock loading have been determined as being a composed of the competing mechanisms of dislocations and deformation twins. This has been determined through a series of shock loading tests of the as-received steel. The shock loading tests were done by plate impact experiments at several impact pressures ranging from 2GPa up to 13GPa using a single stage light gas gun. A relationship between twin volume fraction and impact pressure was determined and an analytical model was

  20. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  1. Students’ Professional Self-Education Ability as a Base for Developing the Subjective Position in Training Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Rosina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the students-psychologists’ readiness for the sub- jective educational activity, the peculiarities of the subjective position of the activities in question being described. The author regards the professional self-educational abil- ity as the key element of educational subjectivity. The essence and structure of the discussed phenomenon along with its main components – motivational, intellectual, regu- lating and reflexive – are revealed by means of interdisciplinary theoretical analysis and systematic theoretical and applied modeling.The schemes of the structural organization of the professional self-educational ability for the students-psychologists are given to provide the psychological guidelines for developing the upgrading educational programs corresponding with the require- ments of the Higher School Reorganization. 

  2. Proficiency in Positive versus Negative Emotion Identification and Subjective Well-being among Long-term Married Elderly Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ePetrican

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive versus negative emotions and a close partner’s well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1 and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease (Study 2, which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female expressing one positive (i.e., happiness and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1’s neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance. Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive versus negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  3. Proficiency in positive vs. negative emotion identification and subjective well-being among long-term married elderly couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive vs. negative emotions and a close partner's well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1) and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease (Study 2), which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female) expressing one positive (i.e., happiness) and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear) basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1's neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative) emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance). Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive) emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive vs. negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  4. Alterations in the rate of limb movement using a lower body positive pressure treadmill do not influence respiratory rate or phase III ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J; Burnsed-Torres, Marissa; Hess, Bethany; Lopez, Kristine; Ortiz, Catherine; Girodo, Ariel; Lolli, Karen; Bloom, Brett; Bailey, David; Kolkhorst, Fred W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alterations in rate of limb movement on Phase III ventilation during exercise, independent of metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline. Subjects completed five submaximal exercise bouts on a lower body positive pressure treadmill (AlterG P 200). The percent body weight for the five exercise bouts was 100, 87, 75, 63, and 50% and each was matched for carbon dioxide production (V CO2 ). Naturally, to match the V CO2 while reducing the body weight up to 50% of normal required a significant increase in the treadmill speed from 3.0 ± 0.1 to 4.1 ± 0.2 mph, which resulted in a significant (P body weight) to 133 ± 6 at 4.1 mph (i.e., 50% of body weight). The most important finding was that significant increases in step frequency did not significantly alter minute ventilation or respiratory rate. Such results do not support an important role for the rate of limb movement in Phase III ventilation during submaximal exercise, when metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline are controlled.

  5. Alterations in the Rate of Limb Movement Using a Lower Body Positive Pressure Treadmill Do Not Influence Respiratory Rate or Phase III Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Buono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alterations in rate of limb movement on Phase III ventilation during exercise, independent of metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline. Subjects completed five submaximal exercise bouts on a lower body positive pressure treadmill (AlterG P 200. The percent body weight for the five exercise bouts was 100, 87, 75, 63, and 50% and each was matched for carbon dioxide production (VCO2. Naturally, to match the VCO2 while reducing the body weight up to 50% of normal required a significant increase in the treadmill speed from 3.0±0.1 to 4.1±0.2 mph, which resulted in a significant (P<0.05 increase in the mean step frequency (steps per minute from 118±10 at 3 mph (i.e., 100% of body weight to 133±6 at 4.1 mph (i.e., 50% of body weight. The most important finding was that significant increases in step frequency did not significantly alter minute ventilation or respiratory rate. Such results do not support an important role for the rate of limb movement in Phase III ventilation during submaximal exercise, when metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline are controlled.

  6. Reflex control of heart rate in normal subjects in relation to age: a data base for cardiac vagal neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, W.; van Brederode, J. F.; de Rijk, L. G.; Borst, C.; Dunning, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the heart rate changes induced by forced breathing and by standing up in 133 healthy subjects in the age range 10-65 years in order to establish a data base for studies on parasympathetic heart rate control in autonomic neuropathy. Test results declined with age. Log-transformation was

  7. Linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in healthy subjects and after acute myocardial infarction in patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Kunz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the use of linear and nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV in healthy subjects and in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Heart rate (HR was recorded for 15 min in the supine position in 10 patients with AMI taking β-blockers (aged 57 ± 9 years and in 11 healthy subjects (aged 53 ± 4 years. HRV was analyzed in the time domain (RMSSD and RMSM, the frequency domain using low- and high-frequency bands in normalized units (nu; LFnu and HFnu and the LF/HF ratio and approximate entropy (ApEn were determined. There was a correlation (P < 0.05 of RMSSD, RMSM, LFnu, HFnu, and the LF/HF ratio index with the ApEn of the AMI group on the 2nd (r = 0.87, 0.65, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.64 and 7th day (r = 0.88, 0.70, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.87 and of the healthy group (r = 0.63, 0.71, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.74, respectively. The median HRV indexes of the AMI group on the 2nd and 7th day differed from the healthy group (P < 0.05: RMSSD = 10.37, 19.95, 24.81; RMSM = 23.47, 31.96, 43.79; LFnu = 0.79, 0.79, 0.62; HFnu = 0.20, 0.20, 0.37; LF/HF ratio = 3.87, 3.94, 1.65; ApEn = 1.01, 1.24, 1.31, respectively. There was agreement between the methods, suggesting that these have the same power to evaluate autonomic modulation of HR in both AMI patients and healthy subjects. AMI contributed to a reduction in cardiac signal irregularity, higher sympathetic modulation and lower vagal modulation.

  8. False-Positive Rate of AKI Using Consensus Creatinine–Based Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jennie; Fernandez, Hilda; Shashaty, Michael G.S.; Negoianu, Dan; Testani, Jeffrey M.; Berns, Jeffrey S.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Use of small changes in serum creatinine to diagnose AKI allows for earlier detection but may increase diagnostic false–positive rates because of inherent laboratory and biologic variabilities of creatinine. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We examined serum creatinine measurement characteristics in a prospective observational clinical reference cohort of 2267 adult patients with AKI by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes creatinine criteria and used these data to create a simulation cohort to model AKI false–positive rates. We simulated up to seven successive blood draws on an equal population of hypothetical patients with unchanging true serum creatinine values. Error terms generated from laboratory and biologic variabilities were added to each simulated patient’s true serum creatinine value to obtain the simulated measured serum creatinine for each blood draw. We determined the proportion of patients who would be erroneously diagnosed with AKI by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes creatinine criteria. Results Within the clinical cohort, 75.0% of patients received four serum creatinine draws within at least one 48-hour period during hospitalization. After four simulated creatinine measurements that accounted for laboratory variability calculated from assay characteristics and 4.4% of biologic variability determined from the clinical cohort and publicly available data, the overall false–positive rate for AKI diagnosis was 8.0% (interquartile range =7.9%–8.1%), whereas patients with true serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dl (representing 21% of the clinical cohort) had a false–positive AKI diagnosis rate of 30.5% (interquartile range =30.1%–30.9%) versus 2.0% (interquartile range =1.9%–2.1%) in patients with true serum creatinine values false–positive rates caused by inherent variability of serum creatinine at higher baseline values, potentially misclassifying patients with CKD in AKI studies. PMID

  9. False-Positive Rate of AKI Using Consensus Creatinine-Based Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jennie; Fernandez, Hilda; Shashaty, Michael G S; Negoianu, Dan; Testani, Jeffrey M; Berns, Jeffrey S; Parikh, Chirag R; Wilson, F Perry

    2015-10-07

    Use of small changes in serum creatinine to diagnose AKI allows for earlier detection but may increase diagnostic false-positive rates because of inherent laboratory and biologic variabilities of creatinine. We examined serum creatinine measurement characteristics in a prospective observational clinical reference cohort of 2267 adult patients with AKI by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes creatinine criteria and used these data to create a simulation cohort to model AKI false-positive rates. We simulated up to seven successive blood draws on an equal population of hypothetical patients with unchanging true serum creatinine values. Error terms generated from laboratory and biologic variabilities were added to each simulated patient's true serum creatinine value to obtain the simulated measured serum creatinine for each blood draw. We determined the proportion of patients who would be erroneously diagnosed with AKI by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes creatinine criteria. Within the clinical cohort, 75.0% of patients received four serum creatinine draws within at least one 48-hour period during hospitalization. After four simulated creatinine measurements that accounted for laboratory variability calculated from assay characteristics and 4.4% of biologic variability determined from the clinical cohort and publicly available data, the overall false-positive rate for AKI diagnosis was 8.0% (interquartile range =7.9%-8.1%), whereas patients with true serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dl (representing 21% of the clinical cohort) had a false-positive AKI diagnosis rate of 30.5% (interquartile range =30.1%-30.9%) versus 2.0% (interquartile range =1.9%-2.1%) in patients with true serum creatinine values false-positive rates caused by inherent variability of serum creatinine at higher baseline values, potentially misclassifying patients with CKD in AKI studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  11. Association between disk position and degenerative bone changes of the temporomandibular joints: an imaging study in subjects with TMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Daniel; Sylvester, Daniel Cortés; Exss, Eduardo; Marholz, Carlos; Millas, Rodrigo; Moncada, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and relationship between disk position and degenerative bone changes in the temporomandibular joints (TMJ), in subjects with internal derangement (ID). MRI and CT scans of 180 subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were studied. Different image parameters or characteristics were observed, such as disk position, joint effusion, condyle movement, degenerative bone changes (flattened, cortical erosions and irregularities), osteophytes, subchondral cysts and idiopathic condyle resorption. The present study concluded that there is a significant association between disk displacement without reduction and degenerative bone changes in patients with TMD. The study also found a high probability of degenerative bone changes when disk displacement without reduction is present. No association was found between TMD and condyle range of motion, joint effusion and/or degenerative bone changes. The following were the most frequent morphological changes observed: flattening of the anterior surface of the condyle; followed by erosions and irregularities of the joint surfaces; flattening of the articular surface of the temporal eminence, subchondral cysts, osteophytes; and idiopathic condyle resorption, in decreasing order.

  12. Reductions in Children's Vicariously Learnt Avoidance and Heart Rate Responses Using Positive Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2016-03-23

    Recent research has indicated that vicarious learning can lead to increases in children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for stimuli and that these fear responses can subsequently be reversed using positive modeling (counterconditioning). The current study investigated children's vicariously acquired avoidance behavior, physiological responses (heart rate), and attentional bias for stimuli and whether these could also be reduced via counterconditioning. Ninety-six (49 boys, 47 girls) 7- to 11-year-olds received vicarious fear learning for novel stimuli and were then randomly assigned to a counterconditioning, extinction, or control group. Fear beliefs and avoidance preferences were measured pre- and post-learning, whereas avoidance behavior, heart rate, and attentional bias were all measured post-learning. Control group children showed increases in fear beliefs and avoidance preferences for animals seen in vicarious fear learning trials. In addition, significantly greater avoidance behavior, heart rate responding, and attentional bias were observed for these animals compared to a control animal. In contrast, vicariously acquired avoidance preferences of children in the counterconditioning group were significantly reduced post-positive modeling, and these children also did not show the heightened heart rate responding to fear-paired animals. Children in the extinction group demonstrated comparable responses to the control group; thus the extinction procedure showed no effect on any fear measures. The findings suggest that counterconditioning with positive modelling can be used as an effective early intervention to reduce the behavioral and physiological effects of vicarious fear learning in childhood.

  13. Heart rate variability in the standing position reflects training adaptation in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravé, Guillaume; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier

    2016-08-01

    To show that heart rate variability (HRV) in the standing position better reflects the way in which athletes adapt to training in so-called intermittent sports than the indicator of resting parasympathetic tone usually employed in endurance sports. Twenty professional soccer players (intermittent sport) took part in a 5-week training session divided into three successive periods: "Warm-up", "Intensive training" and "Tapering". At the beginning and end of each of the three periods, a stand test was carried out and the heart rate was recorded, beat by beat (Polar Team 2). We analysed HRV to determine the indicator mostly used to demonstrate training adaptation in endurance sports (lnRMSSD supine, natural logarithm of root mean square of the successive differences) as well as indicators obtained by means of spectral analysis in both supine and standing position. A decrease in heart rate was observed in the supine position at rest during training (-5.2 ± 1.3 bpm) while lnRMSSD and spectral analysis indicators remained unchanged. The "Warm-up" caused an increase in spectral analysis total power in standing position which was further highlighted by "Tapering" (3.39 ± 0.09, 3.61 ± 0.08 and 3.65 ± 0.09 log ms(2), respectively). However, the autonomic changes are probably more complex than a change in autonomic activity or balance since spectral analysis autonomic indicators remained unchanged. HRV in the standing position could monitor training adaptation in intermittent sports contrary to the indicator usually employed in endurance sports. However, the significance of the HRV change in the standing position during training remains unclear.

  14. Mammography Clinical Image Quality and the False Positive Rate in a Canadian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Marie-Hélène; Théberge, Isabelle; Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Dufresne, Michel-Pierre; Pelletier, Éric; Brisson, Jacques

    2018-05-01

    The study sought to determine if mammography quality is associated with the false positive (FP) rate in the Quebec breast cancer screening program in 2004 and 2005. Mammography quality of a random sample of screen-film mammograms was evaluated by an expert radiologist following the criteria of the Canadian Association of Radiologists. For each screening examination, scores ranging from 1 (poor quality) to 5 (excellent quality) were attributed for positioning, compression, contrast, exposure level, sharpness, and artifacts. A final overall quality score (lower or higher) was also given. Poisson regression models with robust estimation of variance and adjusted for potential confounding factors were used to assess associations of mammography quality with the FP rate. Among 1,209 women without cancer, there were 104 (8.6%) FPs. Lower overall mammography quality is associated with an increase in the FP rate (risk ratio [RR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.1; P = .07) but this increase was not statistically significant. Artifacts were associated with an increase in the FP rate (RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.3; P = .01) whereas lower quality of exposure level was related to a reduction of the FP rate (RR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.0; P = .01). Lower quality scores for all other quality attributes were related to a nonstatistically significant increase in the FP rate of 10%-30%. Artifacts can have a substantial effect on the FP rate. The effect of overall mammography quality on the FP rate may also be substantial and needs to be clarified. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of spatial dose-rate distribution using a position sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Torii, T.; Nozaki, T.; Ando, H.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the radiation detectors using plastic scintillation fibers (PSF) have been developed to measure the positions exposed to radiation such as neutrons and high energy charged particles. In particular, the time of flight (TOF) method for measuring the difference of time that two directional signals of scintillation light reach both ends of a PSF is a rather simple method for the measurement of the spatial distribution of fast neutron fluence rate. It is possible to use the PSF in nuclear facility working areas because of its flexibility, small diameter and long length. In order to apply TOF method to measure spatial gamma dose rate distribution, the characteristic tests of a detector using PSFs were carried out. First, the resolution of irradiated positions and the counting efficiency were measured with collimated gamma ray. The sensitivity to unit dose rate was also obtained. The measurement of spatial dose rate distribution was also carried out. The sensor is made of ten bundled PSFs, and the experimental setup is described. The experiment and the results are reported. It was found that the PSF detector has the good performance to measure spatial gamma dose rate distribution. (K.I.)

  16. Approximate entropy and point correlation dimension of heart rate variability in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storella, R J; Wood, H W; Mills, K M

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of nonlinear dynamics to heart rate variability in healthy humans was examined using surrogate data analysis. Several measures of heart rate variability were used and compared. Heart rates were recorded for three hours and original data sets of 8192 R-R intervals created. For each...... original data set (n = 34), three surrogate data sets were made by shuffling the order of the R-R intervals while retaining their linear correlations. The difference in heart rate variability between the original and surrogate data sets reflects the amount of nonlinear structure in the original data set....... Heart rate variability was analyzed by two different nonlinear methods, point correlation dimension and approximate entropy. Nonlinearity, though under 10 percent, could be detected with both types of heart rate variability measures. More importantly, not only were the correlations between...

  17. Subjective assessment of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality: reliability and stability of trait ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Diane M

    2008-10-01

    A 46-item rating scale was used to obtain personality ratings from 75 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from 7 zoological parks. Factor analysis revealed five personality dimensions similar to those found in previous research on primate personality: Agreeableness, Dominance, Neuroticism, Extraversion and Intellect. There were significant sex and age differences in ratings on these dimensions, with males rated more highly on Dominance and older chimpanzees rated as more agreeable but less extraverted than younger chimpanzees. Interobserver agreement for most individual trait items was high, but tended to be less reliable for trait terms expressing more subtle social or cognitive abilities. Personality ratings for one zoo were found to be largely stable across a 3-year period, but highlighted the effects of environmental factors on the expression of personality in captive chimpanzees.

  18. Explicit, Implicit, and Subjective Rating Measures of Situation Awareness in a Monitoring Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    range of the subjects’ weapon (referred to as "envelope sensitivity" and calculated as A’ see Macmillan and Creelman , 1990). In his experiment...1982). Design and analysis: A researchers handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Macmillan, N. A., and Creelman , C. D. (1990). Response

  19. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    in central and local postural sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. During sleep, characteristic variations in subcutaneous blood flow were disclosed. The 133Xe washout curve could be divided into three segments with significantly different slopes. Approximately 90 min after the subject went to sleep...

  20. Microcrack Evolution and Associated Deformation and Strength Properties of Sandstone Samples Subjected to Various Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Feng Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of micro-cracks in rocks under different strain rates is of great importance for a better understanding of the mechanical properties of rocks under complex stress states. In the present study, a series of tests were carried out under various strain rates, ranging from creep tests to intermediate strain rate tests, so as to observe the evolution of micro-cracks in rock and to investigate the influence of the strain rate on the deformation and strength properties of rocks. Thin sections from rock samples at pre- and post-failure were compared and analyzed at the microscale using an optical microscope. The results demonstrate that the main crack propagation in the rock is intergranular at a creep strain rate and transgranular at a higher strain rate. However, intergranular cracks appear mainly around the quartz and most of the punctured grains are quartz. Furthermore, the intergranular and transgranular cracks exhibit large differences in the different loading directions. In addition, uniaxial compressive tests were conducted on the unbroken rock samples in the creep tests. A comparison of the stress–strain curves of the creep tests and the intermediate strain rate tests indicate that Young’s modulus and the peak strength increase with the strain rate. In addition, more deformation energy is released by the generation of the transgranular cracks than the generation of the intergranular cracks. This study illustrates that the conspicuous crack evolution under different strain rates helps to understand the crack development on a microscale, and explains the relationship between the micro- and macro-behaviors of rock before the collapse under different strain rates.

  1. Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.. Methods and Material: Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group ( P < 0.001 measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. ( P < 0.001. The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group ( P < 0.001. The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors achieved due to training in yoga.

  2. Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim : The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.. Materials and Methods : Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group ( P < 0.001 measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. ( P < 0.001. The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group ( P < 0.001. The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors achieved due to training in yoga.

  3. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...

  4. Depressed mood, positive affect, and heart rate variability in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi R; Whitehead, Daisy L; Rakhit, Roby; Steptoe, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    To test associations between heart rate variability (HRV), depressed mood, and positive affect in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Depression is associated with impaired HRV post acute cardiac events, but evidence in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is inconsistent. Seventy-six patients (52 men, 24 women; mean age = 61.1 years) being investigated for suspected CAD on the basis of symptomatology and positive noninvasive tests, completed 24-hour electrocardiograms. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered, and positive and depressed affect was measured over the study period with the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). A total of 46 (60.5%) patients were later found to have definite CAD. HRV was analyzed, using spectral analysis. Typical diurnal profiles of HRV were observed, with greater normalized high frequency (HF) and lower normalized low frequency (LF) power in the night compared with the day. BDI depression scores were not consistently associated with HRV. But positive affect was associated with greater normalized HF power (p = .039) and reduced normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of age, gender, medication with beta blockers, CAD status, body mass index, smoking, and habitual physical activity level. In patients with definite CAD, depressed affect assessed using the DRM was associated with reduced normalized HF power and heightened normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of covariates. Relationships between depression and HRV in patients with CAD may depend on affective experience over the monitoring period. Enhanced parasympathetic cardiac control may be a process through which positive affect protects against cardiovascular disease.

  5. HIV-Positive Patients' Perceptions of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Relation to Subjective Time: Imprinting, Domino Effects, and Future Shadowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, David; Toupin, Isabelle; Engler, Kim; Lènàrt, Andràs; Lebouché, Bertrand

    2018-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment adherence barriers are major concerns in HIV care. They are multiple and change over time. Considering temporality in patients' perceptions of adherence barriers could improve adherence management. We explored how temporality manifests itself in patients' perceptions of adherence barriers. We conducted 2 semi-structured focus groups on adherence barriers with 12 adults with HIV which were analyzed with grounded theory. A third focus group served to validate the results obtained. Three temporal categories were manifest in HIV-positive patients' perceptions of barriers: (1) imprinting (events with lasting impacts on patients), (2) domino effects (chain of life events), and (3) future shadowing (apprehension about long-term adherence). An overarching theme, weathering (gradual erosion of abilities to adhere), traversed these categories. These temporalities explain how similar barriers may be perceived differently by patients. They could be useful to providers for adapting their interventions and improving understanding of patients' subjective experience of adherence.

  6. Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation Change Patterns During 6-min Walk Test in Subjects With Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Terada, Jiro; Yahaba, Misuzu; Kawata, Naoko; Jujo, Takayuki; Nagashima, Kengo; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-12-26

    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is commonly performed to assess functional status in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, changes in heart rate and oxygen saturation ( S pO 2 ) patterns during 6MWT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remain unclear. Thirty-one subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were retrospectively evaluated to examine the relationships between the change in heart rate (Δheart rate), heart rate acceleration time, slope of heart rate acceleration, heart rate recovery during the first minute after 6MWT (HRR1), change in S pO 2 (Δ S pO 2 ), S pO 2 reduction time, and S pO 2 recovery time during 6MWT, and the severity of pulmonary hemodynamics assessed by right heart catheterization and echocardiography. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension had significantly longer heart rate acceleration time (144.9 ± 63.9 s vs 96.0 ± 42.5 s, P = .033), lower Δheart rate (47.4 ± 16.9 vs 61.8 ± 13.6 beats, P = .02), and lower HRR1 (13.3 ± 9.0 beats vs 27.1 ± 9.2 beats, P pulmonary hypertension. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension also had significantly longer S pO 2 reduction time (178.3 ± 70.3 s vs 134.3 ± 58.4 s, P = .03) and S pO 2 recovery time (107.6 ± 35.3 s vs 69.8 ± 32.7 s, P = .004) than did subjects with mild chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed only mean pulmonary arterial pressure independently was associated with heart rate acceleration time and slope of heart rate acceleration. Heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT is predominantly associated with pulmonary hemodynamics in subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Evaluating heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT may serve a safe and convenient way to follow the change in pulmonary hemodynamics. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Sleep electroencephalography and heart rate variability interdependence amongst healthy subjects and insomnia/schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Vargas, Ramiro; Schilling, Claudia; Schredl, Michael; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of interdependencies within autonomic nervous system has gained increasing importance to characterise healthy and psychiatric disordered subjects. The present work introduces a biosignal processing approach, suggesting a computational resource to estimate coherent or synchronised interactions as an eventual supportive aid in the diagnosis of primary insomnia and schizophrenia pathologies. By deploying linear, nonlinear and statistical methods upon 25 electroencephalographic and electrocardiographic overnight sleep recordings, the assessment of cross-correlation, wavelet coherence and [Formula: see text]:[Formula: see text] phase synchronisation is focused on tracking discerning features amongst the clinical cohorts. Our results indicate that certain neuronal oscillations interact with cardiac power bands in distinctive ways responding to standardised sleep stages and patient groups, which promotes the hypothesis of subtle functional dynamics between neuronal assembles and (para)sympathetic activity subject to pathophysiological conditions.

  8. Measuring aging rates of mice subjected to caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; van Heemst, Diana; van Bodegom, David; Bonkowski, Michael S; Sun, Liou Y; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling have been shown to counteract aging in mice. The effects of these interventions on aging are examined through age-dependent survival or through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale fitted to the Gompertz model. However, these methods have limitations that impede a fully comprehensive disclosure of these effects. Here we examine the effects of these interventions on murine aging through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale without fitting them to a model like the Gompertz model. Whereas these interventions negligibly and non-consistently affected the aging rates when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale, they caused the aging rates to increase at higher ages and to higher levels when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale. These results add to the debate whether these interventions postpone or slow aging and to the understanding of the mechanisms by which they affect aging. Since different methods yield different results, it is worthwhile to compare their results in future research to obtain further insights into the effects of dietary, genetic, and other interventions on the aging of mice and other species.

  9. SUBJECTIVE CURE RATES AFTER TVT PROCEDURE FOR TREATMENT OF FEMALE URINARY INCONTINENCE – A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY

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    Igor But

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to assess the subjective cure rate after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT procedure in patients with stress (SUI and mixed (MUI urinary incontinence.Methods. This is a questionnaire based study done in 43 patients with SUI and 52 patients with MUI. In the assessement of the subjective cure rate the visual analogue scale and the symptom assessment index (SAI were used. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics.Results. The subjective cure rate assessed 19.6 months after TVT amounted to 89.3%. Urinary incontinence after TVT procedure was noted in 26 patients (27.4% and the majority of these women (73.1% were diagnosed with MUI. In patients with SUI and postoperative stable bladder a higher success rate was observed (96.7%. In 18.6% patients with SUI, de novo overactive bladder symptoms occurred. These patients estimated a significantly (p = 0.027 lower cure rate (81.9% after TVT procedure. In patients with MUI, the cure rate after TVT amounted to 85.6%. The subjective cure rate was lower (79.4% in case of persistent overactive bladder symptoms. However, it was significantly higher (97.5% in case of a postoperatively stable bladder (p = 0.016. In the group of MUI patients, the symptoms of overactive bladder disease resolved spontaneously in 17 patients (32.7% postoperatively. The patients were satisfied with TVT and 92.6% would recommend this procedure to others.Conclusions. The TVT procedure is a very effective method of treatment for stress as well as mixed urinary incontinence. The success rate of the procedure is high, however, it is influenced by bladder activity.

  10. Spatial positioning of all 24 chromosomes in the lymphocytes of six subjects: evidence of reproducible positioning and spatial repositioning following DNA damage with hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet B.

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    Dimitrios Ioannou

    Full Text Available The higher-order organization of chromatin is well-established, with chromosomes occupying distinct positions within the interphase nucleus. Chromatin is susceptible to, and constantly assaulted by both endogenous and exogenous threats. However, the effects of DNA damage on the spatial topology of chromosomes are hitherto, poorly understood. This study investigates the organization of all 24 human chromosomes in lymphocytes from six individuals prior to- and following in-vitro exposure to genotoxic agents: hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet B. This study is the first to report reproducible distinct hierarchical radial organization of chromosomes with little inter-individual differences between subjects. Perturbed nuclear organization was observed following genotoxic exposure for both agents; however a greater effect was observed for hydrogen peroxide including: 1 More peripheral radial organization; 2 Alterations in the global distribution of chromosomes; and 3 More events of chromosome repositioning (18 events involving 10 chromosomes vs. 11 events involving 9 chromosomes for hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet B respectively. Evidence is provided of chromosome repositioning and altered nuclear organization following in-vitro exposure to genotoxic agents, with notable differences observed between the two investigated agents. Repositioning of chromosomes following genotoxicity involved recurrent chromosomes and is most likely part of the genomes inherent response to DNA damage. The variances in nuclear organization observed between the two agents likely reflects differences in mobility and/or decondensation of chromatin as a result of differences in the type of DNA damage induced, chromatin regions targeted, and DNA repair mechanisms.

  11. When does poor subjective financial position hurt the elderly? Testing the interaction with educational attainment using a national representative longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Christy; Huang, Nicole; Tang, Gao-Jun; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2011-03-17

    Several studies have demonstrated that perceived financial status has a significant impact on health status among the elderly. However, little is known about whether such a subjective perception interacts with objective socioeconomic status (SES) measures such as education that affect the individual's health. This research used data from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle Age and Elderly in Taiwan (SHLS) conducted by the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health in Taiwan. Waves 1996, 1999 and 2003 were used. The sample consisted of 2,387 elderly persons. The interactive effects of self-rated satisfaction with financial position and educational attainment were estimated. Self-rated health (SRH), depressive symptom (measured by CES-D) and mortality were used to measure health outcomes. Significant interaction effect was found for depressive symptoms. Among those who were dissatisfied with their financial position, those who were illiterate had an odds ratio (OR) of 8.3 (95% CI 4.9 to 14.0) for having depressive symptoms compared with those who were very satisfied with their financial position. The corresponding OR for those with college or above was only 2.7 (95% CI 1.0 to 7.3). No significant interaction effect was found for SRH and mortality. Although poor financial satisfaction was found to be related to poorer health, the strongest association for this effect was observed among those with low educational attainment, and this is especially true for depressive symptoms. Subjective financial status among the elderly should be explored in conjunction with traditional measures of SES.

  12. Aberrant coupling within and across the default mode, task-positive, and salience network in subjects at risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotruba, Diana; Michels, Lars; Buechler, Roman; Metzler, Sibylle; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Gerstenberg, Miriam; Walitza, Susanne; Kollias, Spyros; Rössler, Wulf; Heekeren, Karsten

    2014-09-01

    The task-positive network (TPN) is anticorrelated with activity in the default mode network (DMN), and possibly reflects competition between the processing of external and internal information, while the salience network (SN) is pivotal in regulating TPN and DMN activity. Because abnormal functional connectivity in these networks has been related to schizophrenia, we tested whether alterations are also evident in subjects at risk for psychosis. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was tested in 28 subjects with basic symptoms reporting subjective cognitive-perceptive symptoms; 19 with attenuated or brief, limited psychotic symptoms; and 29 matched healthy controls. We characterized spatial differences in connectivity patterns, as well as internetwork connectivity. Right anterior insula (rAI) was selected as seed region for identifying the SN; medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC) for the DMN and TPN. The 3 groups differed in connectivity patterns between the MPFC and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC), and between the rAI and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). In particular, the typically observed antagonistic relationship in MPFC-rDLPFC, rAI-PCC, and internetwork connectivity of DMN-TPN was absent in both at-risk groups. Notably, those connectivity patterns were associated with symptoms related to reality distortions, whereas enhanced connectivity strengths of MPFC-rDLPFC and TPN-DMN were related to poor performance in cognitive functions. We propose that the loss of a TPN-DMN anticorrelation, accompanied by an aberrant spatial extent in the DMN, TPN, and SN in the psychosis risk state, reflects the confusion of internally and externally focused states and disturbance of cognition, as seen in psychotic disorders. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. MOTOR UNIT FIRING RATES DURING SPASMS IN THENAR MUSCLES OF SPINAL CORD INJURED SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eZijdewind

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury. Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical spinal cord injury. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG, surface EMG, and force were recorded during thenar muscle spasms that occurred spontaneously or that were triggered by movement of a shoulder or leg. Most spasms were submaximal (mean: 39%, SD: 33 of the force evoked by median nerve stimulation at 50 Hz with strong relationships between EMG and force (R2>0.69. Unit recruitment occurred over a wide force range (0.2-103% of 50 Hz force. Significant unit rate modulation occurred during spasms (frequency at 25% maximal force: 8.8 Hz, 3.3 SD; at maximal force: 16.1 Hz, 4.1 SD. Mean recruitment frequency (7.1 Hz, 3.2 SD was significantly higher than derecruitment frequency (5.4 Hz, 2.4 SD. Coactive unit pairs that fired for more than 4 s showed high (R2>0.7, n=4 or low (R2:0.3-0.7, n=12 rate-rate correlations, and derecruitment reversals (21 pairs, 29%. Later recruited units had higher or lower maximal firing rates than lower threshold units. These discrepant data show that coactive motoneurons are driven by both common inputs and by synaptic inputs from different sources during muscle spasms. Further, thenar motoneurons can still fire at high rates in response to various peripheral inputs after spinal cord injury, supporting the idea that low maximal voluntary firing rates and forces in thenar muscles result from reduced descending drive.

  14. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, K S; Zareena; Hegde, Shashikanth; Arun Kumar, M S

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  15. Assessment of salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, pH, and flow rate in healthy subjects, periodontitis, and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to estimate and compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, magnesium, salivary flow rate, and pH of unstimulated saliva and oral hygiene status of healthy subjects, subjects with periodontitis and dental caries, and to correlate salivary calcium level with number of intact teeth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 48 systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 18-55 years, which was further divided into three groups: healthy, periodontitis, and dental caries. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, the number of intact teeth, and active carious lesions were recorded. Estimation of inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, and magnesium was performed spectrophotometrically using Vitros 5.1 FS. Statistical analysis was performed using the one-way analysis of variance test at 5% significance level. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene status in periodontitis group compared to dental caries and healthy group. Conclusion: Subjects with increased inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate, and poor oral hygiene are at a higher risk of developing periodontitis. Since there is increased remineralization potential, these subjects have more number of intact teeth compared to the dental caries group.

  16. Cross-cultural patterns in dynamic ratings of positive and negative natural emotional behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Ian; McKeown, Gary; McRorie, Margaret; Vukicevic, Tijana

    2011-02-18

    Studies of cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion have typically compared rates of recognition of static posed stimulus photographs. That research has provided evidence for universality in the recognition of a range of emotions but also for some systematic cross-cultural variation in the interpretation of emotional expression. However, questions remain about how widely such findings can be generalised to real life emotional situations. The present study provides the first evidence that the previously reported interplay between universal and cultural influences extends to ratings of natural, dynamic emotional stimuli. Participants from Northern Ireland, Serbia, Guatemala and Peru used a computer based tool to continuously rate the strength of positive and negative emotion being displayed in twelve short video sequences by people from the United Kingdom engaged in emotional conversations. Generalized additive mixed models were developed to assess the differences in perception of emotion between countries and sexes. Our results indicate that the temporal pattern of ratings is similar across cultures for a range of emotions and social contexts. However, there are systematic differences in intensity ratings between the countries, with participants from Northern Ireland making the most extreme ratings in the majority of the clips. The results indicate that there is strong agreement across cultures in the valence and patterns of ratings of natural emotional situations but that participants from different cultures show systematic variation in the intensity with which they rate emotion. Results are discussed in terms of both 'in-group advantage' and 'display rules' approaches. This study indicates that examples of natural spontaneous emotional behaviour can be used to study cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion.

  17. Cross-cultural patterns in dynamic ratings of positive and negative natural emotional behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Sneddon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion have typically compared rates of recognition of static posed stimulus photographs. That research has provided evidence for universality in the recognition of a range of emotions but also for some systematic cross-cultural variation in the interpretation of emotional expression. However, questions remain about how widely such findings can be generalised to real life emotional situations. The present study provides the first evidence that the previously reported interplay between universal and cultural influences extends to ratings of natural, dynamic emotional stimuli.Participants from Northern Ireland, Serbia, Guatemala and Peru used a computer based tool to continuously rate the strength of positive and negative emotion being displayed in twelve short video sequences by people from the United Kingdom engaged in emotional conversations. Generalized additive mixed models were developed to assess the differences in perception of emotion between countries and sexes. Our results indicate that the temporal pattern of ratings is similar across cultures for a range of emotions and social contexts. However, there are systematic differences in intensity ratings between the countries, with participants from Northern Ireland making the most extreme ratings in the majority of the clips.The results indicate that there is strong agreement across cultures in the valence and patterns of ratings of natural emotional situations but that participants from different cultures show systematic variation in the intensity with which they rate emotion. Results are discussed in terms of both 'in-group advantage' and 'display rules' approaches. This study indicates that examples of natural spontaneous emotional behaviour can be used to study cross-cultural variations in the perception of emotion.

  18. Characterization of a New Fully Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Subjected to High Strain Rate Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, H.; Tamboura, S.; Fitoussi, J.; BenDaly, H.; Tcharkhtchi, A.

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is the complete physicochemical characterization and strain rate effect multi-scale analysis of a new fully recycled carbon fiber reinforced composites for automotive crash application. Two composites made of 20% wt short recycled carbon fibers (CF) are obtained by injection molding. The morphology and the degree of dispersion of CF in the matrixes were examined using a new ultrasonic method and SEM. High strain tensile behavior up to 100 s-1 is investigated. In order to avoid perturbation due to inertial effect and wave propagation, the specimen geometry was optimized. The elastic properties appear to be insensitive to the strain rate. However, a high strain rate effect on the local visco-plasticity of the matrix and fiber/matrix interface visco-damageable behavior is emphasized. The predominant damage mechanisms evolve from generalized matrix local ductility at low strain rate regime to fiber/matrix interface debonding and fibers pull-out at high strain rate regime.

  19. Reliability and Validity of the Clinical Dementia Rating for Community-Living Elderly Subjects without an Informant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR scale is widely used to assess cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. It requires collateral information from a reliable informant who is not available in many instances. We adapted the original CDR scale for use with elderly subjects without an informant (CDR-NI and evaluated its reliability and validity for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia among community-dwelling elderly subjects. Method: At two consecutive visits 1 week apart, nurses trained in CDR assessment interviewed, observed and rated cognitive and functional performance according to a protocol in 90 elderly subjects with suboptimal cognitive performance [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE Results: The CDR-NI scores (0, 0.5, 1 showed good internal consistency (Crohnbach's a 0.83-0.84, inter-rater reliability (κ 0.77-1.00 for six domains and 0.95 for global rating and test-retest reliability (κ 0.75-1.00 for six domains and 0.80 for global rating, good agreement (κ 0.79 with the clinical assessment status of MCI (n = 37 and dementia (n = 4 and significant differences in the mean scores for MMSE, MOCA and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ANOVA global p Conclusion: Owing to the protocol of the interviews, assessments and structured observations gathered during the two visits, CDR-NI provides valid and reliable assessment of MCI and dementia in community-living elderly subjects without an informant.

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Clinical Dementia Rating for Community-Living Elderly Subjects without an Informant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Chong, Mei Sian; Lim, Wee Shiong; Lee, Tih Shih; Yap, Philip; Ng, Tze Pin

    2013-01-01

    The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is widely used to assess cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. It requires collateral information from a reliable informant who is not available in many instances. We adapted the original CDR scale for use with elderly subjects without an informant (CDR-NI) and evaluated its reliability and validity for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among community-dwelling elderly subjects. At two consecutive visits 1 week apart, nurses trained in CDR assessment interviewed, observed and rated cognitive and functional performance according to a protocol in 90 elderly subjects with suboptimal cognitive performance [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) reliability (κ 0.77-1.00 for six domains and 0.95 for global rating) and test-retest reliability (κ 0.75-1.00 for six domains and 0.80 for global rating), good agreement (κ 0.79) with the clinical assessment status of MCI (n = 37) and dementia (n = 4) and significant differences in the mean scores for MMSE, MOCA and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ANOVA global p reliable assessment of MCI and dementia in community-living elderly subjects without an informant.

  1. Measuring Cognitive Load during Simulation-Based Psychomotor Skills Training: Sensitivity of Secondary-Task Performance and Subjective Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A.; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance…

  2. Probing background ionization: positive streamers with varying pulse repetition rate and with a radioactive admixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijdam, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U; Wormeester, G

    2011-01-01

    Positive streamers need a source of free electrons ahead of them to propagate. A streamer can supply these electrons by itself through photo-ionization, or the electrons can be present due to external background ionization. Here we investigate the effects of background ionization on streamer propagation and morphology by changing the gas composition and the repetition rate of the voltage pulses, and by adding a small amount of radioactive 85 Kr. We find that the general morphology of a positive streamer discharge in high-purity nitrogen depends on background ionization: at lower background ionization levels the streamers branch more and have a more feather-like appearance. This is observed both when varying the repetition rate and when adding 85 Kr, though side branches are longer with the radioactive admixture. But velocities and minimal diameters of streamers are virtually independent of the background ionization level. In air, the inception cloud breaks up into streamers at a smaller radius when the repetition rate and therefore the background ionization level is higher. When measuring the effects of the pulse repetition rate and of the radioactive admixture on the discharge morphology, we found that our estimates of background ionization levels are consistent with these observations; this gives confidence in the estimates. Streamer channels generally do not follow the paths of previous discharge channels for repetition rates of up to 10 Hz. We estimate the effect of recombination and diffusion of ions and free electrons from the previous discharge and conclude that the old trail has largely disappeared at the moment of the next voltage pulse; therefore the next streamers indeed cannot follow the old trail.

  3. Acute systemic effects of inhaled salbutamol in asthmatic subjects expressing common homozygous beta2-adrenoceptor haplotypes at positions 16 and 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel K C; Bates, Caroline E; Lipworth, Brian J

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms at positions 16 and 27, and the acute systemic beta2-adrenoceptor effects of inhaled salbutamol is unclear. We therefore elected to evaluate the influence of common homozygous beta2-adrenoceptor haplotypes on the acute systemic beta2-adrenoceptor effects following inhaled salbutamol in asthmatic subjects. An initial database search of 531 asthmatic subjects identified the two commonest homozygous haplotypes at positions 16 and 27 to be Arg16-Gln27 (12%) and Gly16-Glu27 (19%). After a 1-week washout period where all beta2-adrenoceptor agonists were withdrawn, 16 Caucasian subjects (Arg16-Gln27: n = 8 and Gly16-Glu27: n = 8) were given a single dose of inhaled salbutamol (1200 microg), followed by serial blood sampling for serum potassium, along with measurements of diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, at 5-min intervals for 20 min. The two groups were well matched for age, sex, FEV1, and inhaled corticosteroid dose. Baseline values for serum potassium, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly different comparing Arg16-Gln27 vs Gly16-Glu27. The mean +/- SEM maximum serum potassium change from baseline over 20 min was significantly greater (P = 0.04) for Arg16-Gln27: -0.37 +/- 0.05 mmol l(-1) vs Gly16-Glu27: -0.23 +/- 0.04 mmol l(-1); 95% CI for difference: -0.01 to -0.28 mmol l(-1). The maximum diastolic blood pressure change from baseline over 20 min was significantly greater (P = 0.0008) for Arg16-Gln27: -13 +/- 1 mmHg vs Gly16-Glu27: -4 +/- 2 mmHg; 95% CI for difference: -5, 14 mmHg. There was no significant difference comparing the maximum heart rate change from baseline for Arg16-Gln27: 10 +/- 3 beats min(-1) vs Gly16-Glu27: 10 +/- 3 beats min(-1). Caucasian asthmatic subjects with the Arg16-Gln27 haplotype exhibited a greater systemic response to inhaled salbutamol, compared with those with the Gly16-Glu27 haplotype. The attenuated beta2-adrenoceptor response in the Gly16-Glu27

  4. Subjective rating and objective evaluation of the acoustic and indoor climate conditions in video conferencing rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauervig-Jørgensen, Charlotte; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Toftum, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    Today, face-to-face meetings are frequently replaced by video conferences in order to reduce costs and carbon footprint related to travels and to increase the company efficiency. Yet, complaints about the difficulty of understanding the speech of the participants in both rooms of the video...... conference occur. The aim of this study is to find out the main causes of difficulties in speech communication. Correlation studies between subjective perceptions were conducted through questionnaires and objective acoustic and indoor climate parameters related to video conferencing. Based on four single...

  5. Effects of childhood socioeconomic position on subjective health and health behaviours in adulthood: how much is mediated by adult socioeconomic position?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blakely Tony

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult socioeconomic position (SEP is one of the most frequently hypothesised indirect pathways between childhood SEP and adult health. However, few studies that explore the indirect associations between childhood SEP and adult health systematically investigate the mediating role of multiple individual measures of adult SEP for different health outcomes. We examine the potential mediating role of individual measures of adult SEP in the associations of childhood SEP with self-rated health, self-reported mental health, current smoking status and binge drinking in adulthood. Methods Data came from 10,010 adults aged 25-64 years at Wave 3 of the Survey of Family, Income and Employment in New Zealand. The associations between childhood SEP (assessed using retrospective information on parental occupation and self-rated health, self-reported psychological distress, current smoking status and binge drinking were determined using logistic regression. Models were adjusted individually for the mediating effects of education, household income, labour market activity and area deprivation. Results Respondents from a lower childhood SEP had a greater odds of being a current smoker (OR 1.70 95% CI 1.42-2.03, reporting poorer health (OR 1.82 95% CI 1.39-2.38 or higher psychological distress (OR 1.60 95% CI 1.20-2.14 compared to those from a higher childhood SEP. Two-thirds to three quarters of the association of childhood SEP with current smoking (78%, and psychological distress (66% and over half the association with poor self-rated health (55% was explained by educational attainment. Other adult socioeconomic measures had much smaller mediating effects. Conclusions This study suggests that the association between childhood SEP and self-rated health, psychological distress and current smoking in adulthood is largely explained through an indirect socioeconomic pathway involving education. However, household income, area deprivation and labour

  6. Free triiodothyronine levels are positively associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoli; Zheng, Xiao; Guan, Liying; Jiang, Zhi; Lin, Haiyan; Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Yikun; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Chunxiao; Guan, Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between thyroid function and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among euthyroid subjects have produced conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between thyroid function and the presence of NAFLD in a large-sample middle-aged euthyroid subjects. A total of 2576 euthyroid subjects who underwent health check-up were included. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasonography. Conventional risk factors for NAFLD were assessed as well as serum levels of TSH, FT3 and FT4. Levels of FT3 were significantly higher in NAFLD group (5.12 ± 0.58 versus 4.84 ± 0.58 pmol/L, adjusted p = 0.000) than non-NAFLD group, while levels of TSH and FT4 were comparable between NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups (TSH: 2.13 ± 0.90 versus 2.20 ± 0.93 mIU/L, adjusted p = 0.190; FT4: 16.41 ± 2.04 versus 16.18 ± 2.06 pmol/L, adjusted p = 0.146, respectively). Levels of FT3 were positively correlated with components of metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that high level of FT3 was an independent predictor for NAFLD (odds ratio: 1.253, p = 0.040). The relationship between FT4 and NAFLD in women was different according to menopausal status, with negative association in pre-menopausal women (OR: 0.777, 95% CI: 0.617-0.979, p = 0.032) and null association in post-menopausal women (OR: 1.037, 95% CI: 0.841-1.277, p = 0.736). Our findings suggested that high levels of FT3 were significantly associated with NAFLD among middle-aged euthyroid subjects independently of known metabolic risk factors. A negative correlation of serum FT4 level with NAFLD was only observed in pre-menopausal women.

  7. Motor unit firing rates during spasms in thenar muscles of spinal cord injured subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Bakels, Robert; Thomas, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms) commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical

  8. Changes of Aldosterone Secretion Rate Following Furosemide Administration in Normotensive Subjects with High Sodium Intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ho Kyung; Ryu, Yong Wun; Koh, Joo Hwan

    1976-01-01

    Marked augmentation of urinary aldosterone excretion following furosemide administration was observed in previous experiment. In this study, author measured the changes of aldosterone secretion after furosemide administration in normotensive young volunteers with high sodium intake. After intravenous injection of 1.2- 3 H-aldosterone, urine samples were collected in course of time until 24 hours after the injection. Furosemide administration was done at 30 minutes prior to aldosterone injection. Specific activities of 3H-aldosterone during and after diuresis were measured and aldosterone secretion rates were calculated dividing the doses by specific activities. Results were as followed. 1) Furosemide resulted in a marked increase in urinary aldosterone excretion. 2) Furosemide lead to an increase in both sodium and potassium excretion. 3) Aldosterone secretion rate was also increase d during furosemide diuresis, but the rate was smaller than that of urinary excretion. 4) Continuous modest increase in aldosterone secretion rate was shown after diuresis and total excess amount of aldosterone secretion for 24 hrs was equivalent to the amount of aldosterone excretion produced by diruesis. 5) Abrupt marked loss of circulating aldosterone produced by diuresis was supplemented by long lasting increase in secretion for over twenty four hours.

  9. Error rates of a full-duplex system over EGK fading channels subject to laplacian interference

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Elsawy, Hesham; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    modulation schemes is studied and a unified closed-form expression for the average symbol error rate is derived. To this end, we show the effective downlink throughput gain, harvested by employing FD communication at a BS that serves HD users, as a function

  10. Cortical atrophy rates in Alzheimer's patients and subjects with mild cognitive impairment from the AddNeuroMed data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Westman, Eric; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida

    2010-01-01

    Background: The AddNeuroMed project is a multi-centre European project which aims to identify biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we measured the rate of cortical atrophy in AD patients, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls (HC) using MRI. Methods...... quality control for both the acquisition and image processing were included in the study. Cortical thickness was measured using FACE (fast accurate cortex extraction) and averaged within main lobes using a stereotaxic atlas. Atrophy rates were calculated as percent decrease in cortical thickness and rate...

  11. A phantom for verification of dwell position and time of a high dose rate brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madebo, M.; Kron, T.; Pillainayagam, J.; Franich, R.

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy of dwell position and reproducibility of dwell time are critical in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. A phantom was designed to verify dwell position and dwell time reproducibility for an Ir-192 HDR stepping source using Computed Radiography (CR). The central part of the phantom, incorporating thin alternating strips of lead and acrylic, was used to measure dwell positions. The outer part of the phantom features recesses containing different absorber materials (lead, aluminium, acrylic and polystyrene foam), and was used for determining reproducibility of dwell times. Dwell position errors of <1 mm were easily detectable using the phantom. The effect of bending a transfer tube was studied with this phantom and no change of clinical significance was observed when varying the curvature of the transfer tube in typical clinical scenarios. Changes of dwell time as low as 0.1 s, the minimum dwell time of the treatment unit, could be detected by choosing dwell times over the four materials that produce identical exposure at the CR detector.

  12. False positive rate of carbon monoxide saturation by pulse oximetry of emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lindell K; Churchill, Susan K; Deru, Kayla; Cooney, Darryl

    2013-02-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are non-specific. Diagnosis requires suspicion of exposure, confirmed by measuring ambient CO levels or carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). An FDA-approved pulse oximeter (Rad-57) can measure CO saturation (S(pCO)). The device accuracy has implications for clinical decision-making. From April 1 to August 15, 2008, study personnel measured S(pCO) and documented demographic factors at time of clinical blood draw, in a convenience sample of 1,363 subjects presenting to the emergency department at Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah. The technician then assayed COHb. COHb and S(pCO) values were compared by subject; false positive or negative values were defined as S(pCO) at least 3 percentage points greater or less than COHb level, reported by the manufacturer to be ± 1 SD in performance. In 1,363 subjects, 613 (45%) were male, 1,141 (84%) were light-skinned, 14 in shock, 4 with CO poisoning, and 122 (9%) met the criteria for a false positive value (range 3-19 percentage points), while 247 (18%) met the criteria for a false negative value (-13 to -3 percentage points). Risks for a false positive S(pCO) reading included being female and having a lower perfusion index. Methemoglobin, body temperature, and blood pressure also appear to influence the S(pCO) accuracy. There was variability among monitors, possibly related to technician technique, as rotation of monitors among technicians was not enforced. While the Rad-57 pulse oximeter functioned within the manufacturer's specifications, clinicians using the Rad-57 should expect some S(pCO) readings to be significantly higher or lower than COHb measurements, and should not use S(pCO) to direct triage or patient management. An elevated S(pCO) could broaden the diagnosis of CO poisoning in patients with non-specific symptoms. However, a negative S(pCO) level in patients suspected of having CO poisoning should never rule out CO poisoning, and should always be confirmed by COHb. © 2013

  13. Automation of the positioning of a laser anemometer flow rate measurement bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobillot, G.

    1998-01-01

    The laser anemometry technique is commonly used by the Core Hydraulics Laboratory of the CEA for the determination of the field of flow rates inside fuel rod bundles. The adjustment of measurement point coordinates represents an important part of the velocimetry campaign. In order to increase the number of measurements and the preciseness of the positioning operation, the automation of these preliminary tasks was decided. This work describes first the principle of Doppler laser velocimetry, the components of the measurement system and their functioning conditions. Then, the existing software for tuning and measurement is presented. A new software, called PAMELA, for the automatic positioning of the laser anemometer using a moving table with 5 degrees of freedom, has been developed and tested. This software, written with the LabView language, advises the operator, drives the bench and executes the tunings with a greater precision than manually. (J.S.)

  14. A remote handling rate-position controller for telemanipulating in a large workspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, Jorge; Ferre, Manuel; Suárez-Ruiz, Francisco; Aracil, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new haptic rate-position controller, which allows manipulating a slave robot in a large workspace using a small haptic device. This control algorithm is very effective when the master device is much smaller than the slave device. Haptic information is displayed to the user so as to be informed when a change in the operation mode occurs. This controller allows performing tasks in a large remote workspace by using a haptic device with a reduced workspace such as Phantom. Experimental results have been carried out using a slave robot from Kraft Telerobotics and a commercial haptic interface as a master device. A curvature path following task has been simulated using the proposed controller which was compared with the force-position control algorithm. Results obtained show that higher accuracy is obtained when the proposed method is used, spending a similar amount of time to perform the task

  15. A remote handling rate-position controller for telemanipulating in a large workspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Jorge, E-mail: jordi.barrio@upm.es; Ferre, Manuel, E-mail: m.ferre@upm.es; Suárez-Ruiz, Francisco, E-mail: fa.suarez@upm.es; Aracil, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.aracil@upm.es

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a new haptic rate-position controller, which allows manipulating a slave robot in a large workspace using a small haptic device. This control algorithm is very effective when the master device is much smaller than the slave device. Haptic information is displayed to the user so as to be informed when a change in the operation mode occurs. This controller allows performing tasks in a large remote workspace by using a haptic device with a reduced workspace such as Phantom. Experimental results have been carried out using a slave robot from Kraft Telerobotics and a commercial haptic interface as a master device. A curvature path following task has been simulated using the proposed controller which was compared with the force-position control algorithm. Results obtained show that higher accuracy is obtained when the proposed method is used, spending a similar amount of time to perform the task.

  16. High dose-rate brachytherapy source localization: positional resolution using a diamond detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, T; Suchowerska, N; Bilek, M M; McKenzie, D R; Ng, N; Kron, T

    2003-01-01

    A potential real-time source position verification process for high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment is described. This process is intended to provide immediate confirmation that a treatment is proceeding according to plan, so that corrective action can be taken if necessary. We show that three dosimeters are in principle sufficient and demonstrate the feasibility of the process using a diamond detector and an Ir-192 source. An error analysis including all identified sources of error shows that this detector is capable of locating the distance to the source to within 2 mm for distances up to 12 cm. This positional accuracy is less than the diameter of typical HDR catheters indicating that a diamond detector can be used to accurately determine the distance to the source. The uncertainty in the distance is found to increase with distance

  17. Influence of Subjectivity in Geological Mapping on the Net Penetration Rate Prediction for a Hard Rock TBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongbeom; Macias, Francisco Javier; Jakobsen, Pål Drevland; Bruland, Amund

    2018-05-01

    The net penetration rate of hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBM) is influenced by rock mass degree of fracturing. This influence is taken into account in the NTNU prediction model by the rock mass fracturing factor ( k s). k s is evaluated by geological mapping, the measurement of the orientation of fractures and the spacing of fractures and fracture type. Geological mapping is a subjective procedure. Mapping results can therefore contain considerable uncertainty. The mapping data of a tunnel mapped by three researchers were compared, and the influence of the variation in geological mapping was estimated to assess the influence of subjectivity in geological mapping. This study compares predicted net penetration rates and actual net penetration rates for TBM tunneling (from field data) and suggests mapping methods that can reduce the error related to subjectivity. The main findings of this paper are as follows: (1) variation of mapping data between individuals; (2) effect of observed variation on uncertainty in predicted net penetration rates; (3) influence of mapping methods on the difference between predicted and actual net penetration rate.

  18. A study of diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Jayapal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR reflects the strength and condition of respiratory muscles and the degree of airflow limitation in large airways. PEFR shows hour to hour variation that follows a specific pattern in asthmatics and healthy individuals. Adequate data is not available for the diurnal variation in normal individuals who are students in professional courses and had a sedentary life style. Hence, this study was undertaken to study the diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rates in healthy adult female subjects in South India. Materials and Methods: Peak expiratory flow rate was recorded in 50 adult healthy female students aged 18-23 years and studying in professional courses. Mini Wright′s peak flow meter was used to measure the peak expiratory flow rate. PEFR were recorded at 7-8 a.m., 10-11 a.m., 1-2 p.m., 4-5 p.m., and 7-8 p.m. for two consecutive days. Results: On analysis of PEFR records of individual subjects, it was seen that there was an overall dip in the morning at 7-8 h PEFR, which increased in the daytime, peaking in the afternoon at 1-2 p.m. and eventually decreased in the night. Subjects did not show the peak PEFR values at the same time point, 10% of subjects had a rise in PEFR in the early morning, afternoon (1-2 p.m. peak was observed in 48% subjects and evening (4-5 p.m. peak was observed in 16% subjects. 14% subjects showed a peak in the night time (7-8 p.m. PEFR values. Conclusion: This study provided the preliminary reference data of diurnal variation of peak expiratory flow rate in healthy adults. Since, there is a variation in the peak expiratory flow rate recorded during different time points of the day; hence, to compare the PEFR between individuals it is advisable to record the PEFR at the same time point.

  19. High dose-rate brachytherapy source position quality assurance using radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.D.C.; Devic, S.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, radiographic film has been used to verify high-dose-rate brachytherapy source position accuracy by co-registering autoradiographic and diagnostic images of the associated applicator. Filmless PACS-based clinics that do not have access to radiographic film and wet developers may have trouble performing this quality assurance test in a simple and practical manner. We describe an alternative method for quality assurance using radiochromic-type film. In addition to being easy and practical to use, radiochromic film has some advantages in comparison with traditional radiographic film when used for HDR brachytherapy quality assurance

  20. Error rates of a full-duplex system over EGK fading channels subject to laplacian interference

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2017-07-31

    This paper develops a mathematical paradigm to study downlink error rates and throughput for half-duplex (HD) terminals served by a full-duplex (FD) base station (BS). Particularly, we study the dominant intra-cell interferer problem that appears between HD users scheduled on the same FD-channel. The distribution of the dominant interference is first characterized via its distribution function, which is derived in closed-form. Assuming Nakagami-m fading, the probability of error for different modulation schemes is studied and a unified closed-form expression for the average symbol error rate is derived. To this end, we show the effective downlink throughput gain, harvested by employing FD communication at a BS that serves HD users, as a function of the signal-to-interference-ratio when compared to an idealized HD interference and noise free BS operation.

  1. On a class of adjustable rate mortgage loans subject to a strict balance principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We describe the background and the basic funding mechanisms for the type of adjustable rate mortgageloans that were introduced in the Danish market in 1996. Each loan is funded separately by tap issuingpass-through mortgage bonds (`strict balance principle'). The novelty is a funding mechanism...... that usesa roll-over strategy, where long term loans are funded by sequentially issuing short term pass-throughbonds, and the first issuer of these loans obtained a patent on the funding principles in 1999. Publiclyavailable descriptions of the principles leave an impression of very complicated numerical...... algorithms.The algorithms described here show that the essentials can be reduced to a `back of an envelope' complexity.Keywords: Adjustable rate mortgages, balance principle, patent, yield curve riding...

  2. Medical students' subjective ratings of stress levels and awareness of student support services about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Norgren Jaconelli, Sanna; Lampe, Lisa; Malhi, Gin S; Hunt, Glenn

    2013-06-01

    To descriptively assess medical students' concerns for their mental and emotional state, perceived need to conceal mental problems, perceived level of support at university, knowledge and use of student support services, and experience of stresses of daily life. From March to September 2011, medical students at an Australian university were invited to complete an anonymous online survey. 475 responses were received. Students rated study and examinations (48.9%), financial concerns (38.1%), isolation (19.4%) and relationship concerns (19.2%) as very or extremely stressful issues. Knowledge of available support services was high, with 90.8% indicating they were aware of the university's medical centre. Treatment rates were modest (31.7%). Students' concerns about their mental state were generally low, but one in five strongly felt they needed to conceal their emotional problems. Despite widespread awareness of appropriate support services, a large proportion of students felt they needed to conceal mental and emotional problems. Overall treatment rates for students who were greatly concerned about their mental and emotional state appeared modest, and, although comparable with those of similarly aged community populations, may reflect undertreatment. It would be appropriate for universities to address stressors identified by students. Strategies for encouraging distressed students to obtain appropriate assessment and treatment should also be explored. Those students who do seek healthcare are most likely to see a primary care physician, suggesting an important screening role for these health professionals.

  3. ROTATION RATE DIFFERENCES OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS BETWEEN ±60° LATITUDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X. J.; Xie, J. L., E-mail: shixiangjun@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Based on a cross-correlation analysis of the Carrington synoptic maps of solar photospheric magnetic fields from Carrington Rotations Nos. 1625 to 2135 (from 1975 February to 2013 March), the sidereal rotation rates of the positive and negative magnetic fields in the latitude range of ±60° are obtained, and the rotation rate differences between them are investigated. The time–latitude distribution of the rate differences is shown, which looks like a butterfly diagram at the low and middle latitudes. For comparison, the time–latitude distribution of the longitudinally averaged photospheric magnetic fields is shown. We conclude that the magnetic fields having the same polarity as the leading sunspots at a given hemisphere rotate faster than those exhibiting the opposite polarity at low and middle latitudes. However, at higher latitudes, the magnetic fields having the same polarity as the leading sunspots at a given hemisphere do not always rotate faster than those with the opposite polarity. Furthermore, the relationship between the rotation rate differences and solar magnetic fields is studied through a correlation analysis. Our result shows that the correlation coefficients between them reach maximum values at 13° (14°) latitude in the northern (southern) hemisphere, and change sign at 28° latitude in both hemispheres, then reach their minimum values at 58° (53°) latitude in the northern (southern) hemisphere.

  4. Citation rate and perceived subject bias in the amphibian-decline literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmer, Michel E; Bishop, Phillip J

    2011-02-01

    As a result of global declines in amphibian populations, interest in the conservation of amphibians has grown. This growth has been fueled partially by the recent discovery of other potential causes of declines, including chytridiomycosis (the amphibian chytrid, an infectious disease) and climate change. It has been proposed that researchers have shifted their focus to these novel stressors and that other threats to amphibians, such as habitat loss, are not being studied in proportion to their potential effects. We tested the validity of this proposal by reviewing the literature on amphibian declines, categorizing the primary topic of articles within this literature (e.g., habitat loss or UV-B radiation) and comparing citation rates among articles on these topics and impact factors of journals in which the articles were published. From 1990 to 2009, the proportion of papers on habitat loss remained fairly constant, and although the number of papers on chytridiomycosis increased after the disease was described in 1998, the number of published papers on amphibian declines also increased. Nevertheless, papers on chytridiomycosis were more highly cited than papers not on chytridiomycosis and were published in journals with higher impact factors on average, which may indicate this research topic is more popular in the literature. Our results were not consistent with a shift in the research agenda on amphibians. We believe the perception of such a shift has been supported by the higher citation rates of papers on chytridiomycosis. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Objective and subjective rating of tonal noise radiated from UK wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The radiation of noise to the environment is currently a major issue with regard to U.K. wind farm developments. The reason for this concern is not that wind turbines are unduly noisy, but rather because wind farms are often located in rural areas where background noise levels can fall very low. The fact that background noise levels fall so low in these areas means that the permissible noise radiation from wind farms must also be kept similarly low if nuisance to local residents is to be avoided. However, ensuring that the overall noise level of the wind farm does not exceed the pre-existing background noise level by more than a set amount is not the whole story. Noise radiated from wind turbines can exhibit characteristics that set it apart from the natural background noises typically found in quiet rural areas, where ''natural'' background noises might include the sound of the wind blowing through trees, or the sound of running water. One of the acoustic characteristics that can be attributed to some wind turbines is the radiation of tonal noise from mechanical plant located in the nacelles. It is well accepted that tonal components in otherwise broad band, or ''characterless'', noise, can increase the subjective perception of that noise. Account for increased annoyance due to tones is found in both of the British Standards which relate to environmental noise; BS4142 and BS7445. (UK)

  6. Measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in normal and diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampetro, O.; Clerico, A.; Cruschelli, L.; Miccoli, R.; Dipalma, L.; Navalesi, R.

    1987-01-01

    The chemico-clinical characteristics of two commercial RIA kits for the measurement of urinary albumin excretion in normal and diabetic subjects were compared. The chief difference between the two methods concerns the bound/free separation of the antigen, since one employs the second antybody plus PEG (Sclavo Kit), while the other uses the solid phase [antiserum bound to sepharose (Pharmacia kit)]. The two RIA methods have demonstrated a similar degree of sensitivity, feasibility and cost. The precision of the two RIAs was also similar, although the Sclavo kit has shown a better precision for lower albumin concentrations and the Pharmacia kit for higher values. In diabetic patients, elevated urinary albumin concentrations (>60 mg/L) have been found more frequently than low values (<5 mg/L); hence the Pharmacia kit seems to be preferable, because it less frequently needs dilution of urinary sample for measuring with a better precision supranormal urinary albumin values. A significant bias (about 15%) was found between the two RIAs. Bias between different albumin RIA methods could partially explain the differences of normal values previously reported in the literature

  7. A rotation-symmetric, position-sensitive annular detector for maximum counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igel, S.

    1993-12-01

    The Germanium Wall is a semiconductor detector system containing up to four annular position sensitive ΔE-detectors from high purity germanium (HPGe) planned to complement the BIG KARL spectrometer in COSY experiments. The first diode of the system, the Quirl-detector, has a two dimensional position sensitive structure defined by 200 Archimedes' spirals on each side with opposite orientation. In this way about 40000 pixels are defined. Since each spiral element detects almost the same number of events in an experiment the whole system can be optimized for maximal counting rates. This paper describes a test setup for a first prototype of the Quirl-detector and the results of test measurements with an α-source. The detector current and the electrical separation of the spiral elements were measured. The splitting of signals due to the spread of charge carriers produced by an incident ionizing particle on several adjacent elements was investigated in detail and found to be twice as high as expected from calculations. Its influence on energy and position resolution is discussed. Electronic crosstalk via signal wires and the influence of noise from the magnetic spectrometer has been tested under experimental conditions. Additionally, vacuum feedthroughs based on printed Kapton foils pressed between Viton seals were fabricated and tested successfully concerning their vacuum and thermal properties. (orig.)

  8. Physiological, biochemical and productive changes in sesame genotypes subjected to different rates of water replenishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. R. Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The sesame crop has stood out due to the high nutritional content of its seeds, in addition to being able to be cultivated in the tropical and subtropical regions such as Northeast Brazil. Thus, it is necessary to identify the physiological, biochemical and productive changes related to the tolerance to stress. Objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological, biochemical and productive aspects of sesame genotypes as a function of different rates of water replenishment. The experiment was carried out at the Embrapa Cotton Experimental Unit, located in the municipality of Barbalha-CE, Brazil, under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, with treatments in a factorial scheme (4 × 6, corresponding to four irrigation depths (40, 70, 100 and 130% ETo and six sesame genotypes (G1 = T3-EGSGO3; G2 = T7-EGSGO7; G3 = T5-EGSGO5; G4 = T2-EGSGO2; G5 = T6-EGSGO6; G6 = T4-EGSG04, with three replicates. Data corresponding to the following variables were collected: leaf area, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content in leaf, electrolyte leakage, catalase, peroxidase, yield and oil content. The genotypes did not differ statistically and there were differences in the variables between the water replacement rates. Increments in growth and, consequently, in production, enzymatic activity, oil content and maximum production potential were observed with water depths between 75 and 90% ETo. Contents of chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids, were increased with the application of 80% ETo.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY THROUGH FINITE ELEMENT METHOD OF LIDS USED IN CYLINDRICAL VESSEL IN HORIZONTAL POSITION SUBJECT TO INTERNAL PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio V. Ibarra-Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work a study of the cylindrical vessels in horizontal position and subject to internal pressure is carried out, where lids are one of the main components of this equipment. The Autodesk Inventor pro. 2016 is used to make the geometrical characterization of these elements: parametric solid modeler, assembles and surfaces for the mechanical design of complex parts. The different geometric forms of the lids and bottoms analyzed in this work are: flat-circular with or without flange, elliptical with different values of the K factor, torispherical with different values of the M factor and the hemispherical bottoms. Using the Finate Element Method (FEM, a comparative study is made about the behavior of the stress and strain in the different geometrical forms mentioned before, being demonstrated that although the best resistance and rigidity values are presented by the hemispherical bottoms and the best options of production by the flat-circulars, they are not the bottoms used the most in this vessels, being the elliptic bottoms those of more use. The results obtained allow optimizing the design and knowing the thickness limit in the most requested areas.

  10. Complete characteristics of rating estimations economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamid Nurislamovich Gizatullin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper allocates complete characteristics of indicators of economic development of subjects of the Russian Federation. Their system representation has appeared more informative, than system of simple social and economic indexes as allows reflecting variety of communications between them, providing preserving and development of researched objects. It is established that at deterioration of state of the economy of regions of their structure change the role in formation of base indicators. At the first stage it is expressed by change of a vector of development with an opposite direction; on the second — in transition from an optimum condition of available structures on periphery; on the third — in the termination of their participation in forming of under laying echelons. At transition of subsystems of social and economic indexes from the first on the second echelon the contribution of the moved potential from structures «resource-product» and «process» for elements of activization increases, for structures «object», on the contrary, decreases, while for final elements the opposite situation is observed. As approaching the top echelon there is a reduction of interaction of base indicators from structures «resource-product» and «process», and on the contrary, growth to structures «object». The conclusion is drawn that successful social and economic activity of regions is determined by synchronous interaction of all allocated structures («resource-product», «process» and «object». Use of the offered algorithm on the basis of complete characteristics allows not only to find out problem regions, but also shows possibility of management on the basis of revealed statistical regularities their condition by forming of optimum mutual relations between the allocated subsystems and, finally, creation of the big possibilities for realization of the having potential

  11. A screening approach for classroom acoustics using web-based listening tests and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Waye, Kerstin; Magnusson, Lennart; Fredriksson, Sofie; Croy, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Perception of speech is crucial in school where speech is the main mode of communication. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a web based approach including listening tests and questionnaires could be used as a screening tool for poor classroom acoustics. The prime focus was the relation between pupils' comprehension of speech, the classroom acoustics and their description of the acoustic qualities of the classroom. In total, 1106 pupils aged 13-19, from 59 classes and 38 schools in Sweden participated in a listening study using Hagerman's sentences administered via Internet. Four listening conditions were applied: high and low background noise level and positions close and far away from the loudspeaker. The pupils described the acoustic quality of the classroom and teachers provided information on the physical features of the classroom using questionnaires. In 69% of the classes, at least three pupils described the sound environment as adverse and in 88% of the classes one or more pupil reported often having difficulties concentrating due to noise. The pupils' comprehension of speech was strongly influenced by the background noise level (pcomprehension. Of the pupils' descriptions of acoustic qualities, clattery significantly (pcomprehension. Clattery was furthermore associated to difficulties understanding each other, while the description noisy was associated to concentration difficulties. The majority of classrooms do not seem to have an optimal sound environment. The pupil's descriptions of acoustic qualities and listening tests can be one way of predicting sound conditions in the classroom.

  12. Basal metabolic rate is positively correlated with parental investment in laboratory mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K.; Konarzewski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The assimilation capacity (AC) hypothesis for the evolution of endothermy predicts that the maternal basal metabolic rate (BMR) should be positively correlated with the capacity for parental investment. In this study, we provide a unique test of the AC model based on mice from a long-term selection experiment designed to produce divergent levels of BMR. By constructing experimental families with cross-fostered litters, we were able to control for the effect of the mother as well as the type of pup based on the selected lines. We found that mothers with genetically determined high levels of BMR were characterized by higher parental investment capacity, measured as the offspring growth rate. We also found higher food consumption and heavier visceral organs in the females with high BMR. These findings suggested that the high-BMR females have higher energy acquisition abilities. When the effect of the line type of a foster mother was controlled, the pup line type significantly affected the growth rate only in the first week of life, with young from the high-BMR line type growing more rapidly. Our results support the predictions of the AC model. PMID:23282996

  13. Rates of Amyloid Imaging Positivity in Patients With Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Santos, Miguel A.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Iaccarino, Leonardo; Ayakta, Nagehan; Tammewar, Gautam; Lobach, Iryna; Henry, Maya L.; Hubbard, Isabel; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Spinelli, Edoardo; Miller, Zachary A.; Pressman, Peter S.; O’Neil, James P.; Ghosh, Pia; Lazaris, Andreas; Meyer, Marita; Watson, Christa; Yoon, Soo Jin; Rosen, Howard J.; Grinberg, Lea; Seeley, William W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Jagust, William J.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The ability to predict the pathology underlying different neurodegenerative syndromes is of critical importance owing to the advent of molecule-specific therapies. OBJECTIVE To determine the rates of positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid positivity in the main clinical variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective clinical-pathologic case series was conducted at a tertiary research clinic specialized in cognitive disorders. Patients were evaluated as part of a prospective, longitudinal research study between January 2002 and December 2015. Inclusion criteria included clinical diagnosis of PPA; availability of complete speech, language, and cognitive testing; magnetic resonance imaging performed within 6 months of the cognitive evaluation; and PET carbon 11–labeled Pittsburgh Compound-B or florbetapir F 18 brain scan results. Of 109 patients referred for evaluation of language symptoms who underwent amyloid brain imaging, 3 were excluded because of incomplete language evaluations, 5 for absence of significant aphasia, and 12 for presenting with significant initial symptoms outside of the language domain, leaving a cohort of 89 patients with PPA. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Clinical, cognitive, neuroimaging, and pathology results. RESULTS Twenty-eight cases were classified as imaging-supported semantic variant PPA (11 women [39.3%]; mean [SD] age, 64 [7] years), 31 nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (22 women [71.0%]; mean [SD] age, 68 [7] years), 26 logopenic variant PPA (17 women [65.4%]; mean [SD] age, 63 [8] years), and 4 mixed PPA cases. Twenty-four of 28 patients with semantic variant PPA (86%) and 28 of 31 patients with nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (90%) had negative amyloid PET scan results, while 25 of 26 patients with logopenic variant PPA (96%) and 3 of 4 mixed PPA cases (75%) had positive scan results. The amyloid positive semantic variant PPA and nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA cases

  14. Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Culture confirmation of gonococcal infection by recall of subjects found to be positive by nucleic acid amplification tests in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a routine notification of general practitioners to recall nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive subjects for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to confirm gonococcal infection in the community....

  16. Subjective social status and trajectories of self-rated health status: a comparative analysis of Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fujiwara, Takeo; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-11-28

    Japanese society is more egalitarian than the United States as is reflected by the lower degree of prevalence of social inequalities in health. We examined whether subjective socioeconomic status is associated with different trajectories of self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relationship differs between the United States and Japan. We analyzed the responses of 3968 Americans from the survey Midlife in the United States, 2004-06, and the responses of 989 Japanese from the survey Midlife in Japan, 2008. We conducted a multilevel analysis with three self-ratings of health (10 years ago, current and 10 years in the future) nested within individuals and nested within 10 levels of subjective social status. Age, sex, educational level and subjective financial situation were adjusted. After making statistical adjustments for confounding variables, respondents in Japan continued to report lower average levels of health. However, the rate of expected decline in SRH over the next decade was strongly socially patterned in the United States, whereas it was not in Japan. The Japanese showed no disparity in the anticipated trajectory of SRH over time, whereas the Americans showed a strong social class gradient in future trajectories of SRH. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Estimation of breathing rate in thermal imaging videos: a pilot study on healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Pereira, Carina; Yu, Xinchi; Czaplik, Michael; Blazek, Vladimir; Venema, Boudewijn; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-12-01

    Diverse studies have demonstrated the importance of monitoring breathing rate (BR). Commonly, changes in BR are one of the earliest and major markers of serious complications/illness. However, it is frequently neglected due to limitations of clinically established measurement techniques, which require attachment of sensors. The employment of adhesive pads or thoracic belts in preterm infants as well as in traumatized or burned patients is an additional paramount issue. The present paper proposes a new robust approach, based on data fusion, to remotely monitor BR using infrared thermography (IRT). The algorithm considers not only temperature modulation around mouth and nostrils but also the movements of both shoulders. The data of these four sensors/regions of interest need to be further fused to reach improved accuracy. To investigate the performance of our approach, two different experiments (phase A: normal breathing, phase B: simulation of breathing disorders) on twelve healthy volunteers were performed. Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) was simultaneously acquired to validate our results. Excellent agreements between BR estimated with IRT and gold standard were achieved. While in phase A a mean correlation of 0.98 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.28 bpm was reached, in phase B the mean correlation and the RMSE hovered around 0.95 and 3.45 bpm, respectively. The higher RMSE in phase B results predominantly from delays between IRT and gold standard in BR transitions: eupnea/apnea, apnea/tachypnea etc. Moreover, this study also demonstrates the capability of IRT to capture varied breathing disorders, and consecutively, to assess respiratory function. In summary, IRT might be a promising monitoring alternative to the conventional contact-based techniques regarding its performance and remarkable capabilities.

  18. Acute Consumption of Resistant Starch Reduces Food Intake but Has No Effect on Appetite Ratings in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; García-Vázquez, Carlos; Servin-Cruz, Magda Z; Rodríguez-Hernández, Arturo; Araiza-Saldaña, Claudia I; Nolasco-Coleman, Ana M; Díaz-Zagoya, Juan C

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies have shown the benefits of native banana starch (NBS) supplementation in improving glucose metabolism and reducing body weight (BW) in humans. However, the effect of this starch on appetite regulation is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NBS rich resistant starch on subjective measurements of appetite, energy intake, and appetite hormones in healthy subjects. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were also assessed. In a randomized, single-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy young subjects consumed a beverage containing either 40 g of NBS or 40 g of digestible corn starch (DCS) on two separate occasions. Effects on appetite were estimated using visual analogue scales (VAS) and satiety hormone responses. At the end of the intervention, participants were provided with a pre-weighed ad libitum homogeneous test meal. After a washout period of 1 week, subjects received the alternative treatment. NBS supplementation induced a reduction in food intake, glucose area under the curve (AUC)-180 min, and insulin AUC-180 min. However, there was no associated effect on the subjective appetite ratings or gut hormones. NBS supplementation may help to reduce meal size and control BW.

  19. Do you want some spiritual support? Different rates of positive response to chaplains' versus nurses' offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuz, Marco; Dürst, Anne-Véronique; Faouzi, Mohamed; Pétremand, Daniel; Reichel, Virginie; Ortega, Barbara; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Access to spiritual support appears to be important in the hospital setting. The offer of spiritual support can be done by different providers such as doctors, nurses or chaplains. Who should initiate or coordinate this spiritual care. This study addresses the following questions: 1) How many patients accept spiritual proposition? 2) What is the better mode of proposition? The study's objectives are the assessment and comparison of the rates of acceptance to an offer of spiritual support made by nurses and chaplains. Two hundred twenty-three consecutive hospitalized patients hospitalized received a proposal of spiritual support and were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. Results revealed that 85.8% of patients accepted the offer in the chaplains' group and 38.5% in the nurses' group. Acceptance of the offer of spiritual support was positively associated with the proposal being made by the chaplains by the frequency of meditation and age, and negatively related to physical well-being.

  20. A high false positive rate for Kepler planetary candidates of giant stars using asterodensity profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliski, David H.; Kipping, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Asterodensity profiling (AP) is a relatively new technique for studying transit light curves. By comparing the mean stellar density derived from the transit light curve to that found through an independent method, AP provides information on several useful properties such as orbital eccentricity and blended light. We present an AP survey of 41 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs), with a single transiting candidate, for which the target star's mean stellar density has been measured using asteroseismology. The ensemble distribution of the AP measurements for the 31 dwarf stars in our sample shows excellent agreement with the spread expected if the KOIs were genuine and have realistic eccentricities. In contrast, the same test for the 10 giants in our sample reveals significant incompatibility at >4σ confidence. While extreme eccentricities could be invoked, this hypothesis requires four of the KOIs to contact their host star at periastron passage, including the recently claimed confirmation of Kepler-91b. After carefully examining several hypotheses, we conclude that the most plausible explanation is that the transiting objects orbit a different star to that measured with asteroseismology—cases we define as false-positives. Based on the AP distribution, we estimate a false-positive rate (FPR) for Kepler's giant stars with a single transiting object of FPR ≅ 70% ± 30%.

  1. Assessment of quality of life in HAART-treated HIV-positive subjects with body fat redistribution in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Nigel J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of HAART has initially improved the quality of life (QoL of HIV-positive (HIV+ patients, however body fat redistribution (BFR and metabolic disorders associated with long-term HAART use may attenuate this improvement. As access to treatment improves in sub-Saharan Africa, the disfiguring nature of BFR (peripheral atrophy and/or central adiposity may deter treatment adherence and initiatives and decrease QoL. We examined the relationship between BFR and domains of QoL in HAART-treated HIV+ African men and women with (HIV+BFR, n = 50 and without (HIV+noBFR, n = 50 BFR in Rwanda. Results HIV+ subjects with BFR were less satisfied with their body image (4.3 ± 0.1 versus 1.5 ± 0.2; p 2 = 0.691; p = 0.009 and marital status was associated with psychological (r2 = 0.593; p = 0.019 and social relationships (r2 = 0.493; p = 0.007. CD4 count (r2 = 0.648; p = 0.003 and treatment duration (r2 = 0.453; p = 0.003 were associated with HIV HAART-specific domain of wellbeing. HIV+ Rwandan women with BFR were significantly more affected by abdominal adiposity (p Conclusion Body fat alterations negatively affect psychological and social domains of quality of life. These symptoms may result in stigmatization and marginalization mainly in HAART-treated African women, adversely affecting HAART adherence and treatment initiatives. Efforts to evaluate self-perceived body fat changes may improve patients' wellbeing, HAART adherence and treatment outcomes and contribute towards stability in quality of life continuum.

  2. Association of salivary calcium, phosphate, pH and flow rate on oral health: A study on 90 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiyaz, Mohamed; Ramesh, Amitha; Ramalingam, Karthikeyan; Thomas, Biju; Shetty, Sucheta; Prakash, Prashanth

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to compare inorganic salivary calcium, phosphate, flow rate and pH of un-stimulated saliva and oral hygiene of healthy subjects, patients with periodontitis and dental caries and to correlate salivary calcium level with the number of intact teeth. The present study consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 and 55 years and were divided into three groups, periodontitis, dental caries and controls. Oral hygiene index-simplified, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and number of teeth present, teeth with active carious lesions were recorded. Salivary flow rate and pH was recorded and subjected to biochemical investigation. Estimation of inorganic calcium and phosphate was performed by colorimetric method. Results showed statistically significant increase in salivary inorganic calcium and phosphate levels, poor oral hygiene status, pH and salivary flow rate in patients with periodontitis when compared with dental caries group and controls. Individuals who have increased salivary inorganic calcium, phosphate, pH, flow rate and maintain poor oral hygiene could be at a higher risk for developing periodontitis and may have less dental caries and more number of intact teeth.

  3. The effect of air bubble position after blastocyst transfer on pregnancy rates in IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Brooke E; Lathi, Ruth B; Henne, Melinda B; Fisher, Stephanie L; Milki, Amin A

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between air bubble position after blastocyst transfer (BT) and pregnancy rates (PRs). Retrospective cohort study. University-based infertility center. Three hundred fifteen consecutive nondonor BTs by a single provider. Catheters were loaded with 25 μL of culture media, 20 μL of air, 25 μL of media containing the blastocysts, 20 μL of air, and a small amount of additional media. The distance from the air bubble to the fundus, as seen on abdominal ultrasound examination, was measured at the time of transfer. Air bubble location was categorized as 20 mm from the fundus. Clinical pregnancy rate. After controlling for age, parity, FSH and frozen transfers, and accounting for repeated cycles per patient, the PRs for both the >20-mm (38.3%) and the 10-20-mm (42.0%) from the fundus group were significantly reduced compared with the group in which the bubble was Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chloromethylisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone (CMI/MI) use test with a shampoo on patch-test-positive subjects. Results of a multicentre double-blind crossover trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Lahti, A; Hannuksela, M

    1995-01-01

    A randomized, multicentre, double-blind, 2-period crossover study with 2 shampoos was performed on subjects patch-test-positive to 100 ppm CMI/MI. One shampoo was preserved with 15 ppm a.i. CMI/MI, the other with 0.3% imidazolidinyl urea (IU). 27 subjects from 5 European dermatology clinics...... participated. 1 subject discontinued use after severe adverse reactions to the CMI/MI-preserved shampoo and did not evaluate the other shampoo. Another 2 subjects developed moderate symptoms with the CMI/MI-preserved shampoo and discontinued its use, but tolerated the IU-preserved shampoo for the full 2-week...... period. 2 subjects discontinued use after 1 or 2 washes after severe adverse reactions to the IU-preserved shampoo. 1 of these subjects tolerated the CMI/MI-preserved shampoo for 2 weeks without any untoward effects. However, the majority of subjects had negative findings on the scalp, face, neck...

  5. Relationship Between Pretraining Subjective Wellness Measures, Player Load, and Rating-of-Perceived-Exertion Training Load in American College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govus, Andrew D; Coutts, Aaron; Duffield, Rob; Murray, Andrew; Fullagar, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI -8.4, -0.3; SMD -0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players' capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  6. Self-rated health status and subjective health complaints associated with health-promoting lifestyles among urban Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingru; Wang, Tian; Li, Fei; Xiao, Ya; Bi, Jianlu; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Wu, Liuguo; Wu, Shengwei; Liu, Yanyan; Luo, Ren; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH) and subjective health complaints (SHC) of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II). Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL. Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%), eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%), and insomnia (1542, 18.9%). Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000) and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37). Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.

  7. Self-rated health status and subjective health complaints associated with health-promoting lifestyles among urban Chinese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Cheng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether self-rated health status (SRH and subjective health complaints (SHC of urban Chinese women are associated with their health-promoting lifestyles (HPL.We conducted a cross-sectional study on 8142 eligible Chinese participants between 2012 and 2013. Demographic and SHC data were collected. Each subject completed the SRH questionnaire and the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II. Correlation and binary regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of SRH and SHC with HPL.Both SRH and HPL of urban Chinese women were moderate. The most common complaints were fatigue (1972, 24.2%, eye discomfort (1571, 19.3%, and insomnia (1542, 18.9%. Teachers, highly educated subjects and elderly women had lower SRH scores, while college students and married women had better HPL. All items of HPLP-II were positively correlated with SRH (r = 0.127-0.533, P = 0.000 and negatively correlated with SHC to a significant extent (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40-11.37.Aspects of HPL, particularly stress management and spiritual growth, are associated with higher SRH and lower SHC ratings among urban Chinese women. Physical activity and health responsibility are additionally related to reduced fatigue and nervousness. We believe that these findings will be instrumental in encouraging researchers and urban women to adopt better health-promoting lifestyles with different priorities in their daily lives.

  8. Exploring the Legionella pneumophila positivity rate in hotel water samples from Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepin Özen, Nevgün; Tuğlu Ataman, Şenay; Emek, Mestan

    2017-05-01

    The genus Legionella is a fastidious Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in natural waters and man made water supply systems. Legionella pneumophila is the aetiological agent of approximately 90% of reported Legionellosis cases, and serogroup 1 is the most frequent cause of infections. Legionnaires' disease is often associated with travel and continues to be a public health concern at present. The correct water management quality practices and rapid methods for analyzing Legionella species in environmental water is a key point for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity rates and serotyping of Legionella species from water samples in the region of Antalya, Turkey, which is an important tourism center. During January-December 2010, a total of 1403 samples of water that were collected from various hotels (n = 56) located in Antalya were investigated for Legionella pneumophila. All samples were screened for L. pneumophila by culture method according to "ISO 11731-2" criteria. The culture positive Legionella strains were serologically identified by latex agglutination test. A total of 142 Legionella pneumophila isolates were recovered from 21 (37.5%) of 56 hotels. The total frequency of L. pneumophila isolation from water samples was found as 10.1%. Serological typing of 142 Legionella isolates by latex agglutination test revealed that strains belonging to L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 predominated in the examined samples (85%), while strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were less numerous (15%). According to our knowledge, our study with the greatest number of water samples from Turkey demonstrates that L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 is the most common isolate. Rapid isolation of L. pneumophila from environmental water samples is essential for the investigation of travel related outbreaks and the possible resources. Further studies are needed to have epidemiological data and to determine the types of L

  9. Genomic study and Medical Subject Headings enrichment analysis of early pregnancy rate and antral follicle numbers in Nelore heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Junior, G. A.; Perez, B. C.; Cole, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    be considered in a functional enrichment analysis to identify biological mechanisms involved in fertility. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were detected using the MESHR package, allowing the extraction of broad meanings from the gene lists provided by the GWAS. The estimated heritability for HP was 0.28 +/- 0...... gains. In this study, we performed a genomewide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants associated with reproductive traits in Nelore beef cattle. Heifer pregnancy (HP) was recorded for 1,267 genotyped animals distributed in 12 contemporary groups (CG) with an average pregnancy rate of 0...

  10. Effect of smoking on lung function, respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases amongst HIV-positive subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking prevalence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive subjects is about three times of that in the general population. However, whether the extremely high smoking prevalence in HIV-positive subjects affects their lung function is unclear, particularly whether smoking decreases lung function more in HIV-positive subjects, compared to the general population. We conducted this study to determine the association between smoking and lung function, respiratory symptoms and diseases amongst HIV-positive subjects. Results Of 120 enrolled HIV-positive subjects, 119 had an acceptable spirogram. Ninety-four (79% subjects were men, and 96 (81% were white. Mean (standard deviation [SD] age was 43.4 (8.4 years. Mean (SD of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 percent of age, gender, race and height predicted value (%FEV1 was 93.1% (15.7%. Seventy-five (63% subjects had smoked 24.0 (18.0 pack-years. For every ten pack-years of smoking increment, %FEV1 decreased by 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.6%, -0.6%, after controlling for gender, race and restrictive lung function (R2 = 0.210. The loss of %FEV1 in our subjects was comparable to the general population. Compared to non-smokers, current smokers had higher odds of cough, sputum or breathlessness, after adjusting for highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART use, odds ratio OR = 4.9 (95% CI: 2.0, 11.8. However respiratory symptom presence was similar between non-smokers and former smokers, OR = 1.0 (95% CI: 0.3, 2.8. All four cases of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had smoked. Four of ten cases of restrictive lung disease had smoked (p = 0.170, and three of five asthmatic subjects had smoked (p = 1.000. Conclusions Cumulative cigarette consumption was associated with worse lung function; however the loss of %FEV1 did not accelerate in HIV-positive population compared to the general population. Current smokers had higher odds of respiratory symptoms

  11. Silver linings and candles in the dark: differences among positive coping strategies in predicting subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Michelle N

    2006-05-01

    Ideal coping strategies enhance positive aspects of well-being as well as reduce distress. Although researchers have identified several "positive coping" strategies, it is unclear which are most strongly associated with well-being or whether all strategies are equally appropriate for all kinds of stressors. Participants completed well-being measures, and described the most negative event of the day and their emotion regulation strategies for the next 7 days. Dispositional use of positive emotion-inducing coping strategies was most strongly associated with positive aspects of well-being. Use of positive coping did not decrease with increased objective stress during the week, and use of particular strategies was partly predicted by the types of stressors that were reported. Implications for theories of positive coping are discussed. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Positive predictive value of device-detected atrial high-rate episodes at different rates and durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, Elizabeth S; Israel, Carsten W; Nair, Girish M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pacemakers can automatically identify and catalog atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs). While most AHREs represent true atrial tachyarrhythmia/atrial fibrillation (AT/AF), a review of stored electrograms suggests that a substantial proportion do not. As AHREs may lead to the initiation o...

  13. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  14. Relationship between Autonomic Markers of Heart Rate and Subjective Indicators of Recovery Status in Male, Elite Badminton Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.

  15. Effect of mental challenge induced by movie clips on action potential duration in normal human subjects independent of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Nicholas; Hanson, Ben; Bishop, Martin; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Bostock, Julian; Western, David; Cooklin, Michael; O'Neil, Mark; Wright, Matthew; Razavi, Reza; Gill, Jaswinder; Taggart, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Mental stress and emotion have long been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in animal models and humans. The effect of mental challenge on ventricular action potential duration (APD) in conscious healthy humans has not been reported. Activation recovery intervals measured from unipolar electrograms as a surrogate for APD (n=19) were recorded from right and left ventricular endocardium during steady-state pacing, whilst subjects watched an emotionally charged film clip. To assess the possible modulating role of altered respiration on APD, the subjects then repeated the same breathing pattern they had during the stress, but without the movie clip. Hemodynamic parameters (mean, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, and rate of pressure increase) and respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (P=0.001). APD decreased during the stressful parts of the film clip, for example, for global right ventricular activation recovery interval at end of film clip 193.8 ms (SD, 14) versus 198.0 ms (SD, 13) during the matched breathing control (end film left ventricle 199.8 ms [SD, 16] versus control 201.6 ms [SD, 15]; P=0.004). Respiration rate increased during the stressful part of the film clip (by 2 breaths per minute) and was well matched in the respective control period without any hemodynamic or activation recovery interval changes. Our results document for the first time direct recordings of the effect of a mental challenge protocol on ventricular APD in conscious humans. The effect of mental challenge on APD was not secondary to emotionally induced altered respiration or heart rate. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Feeding rates affect stress and non-specific immune responses of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala subjected to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding rates on stress response, innate immunity and hypoxia resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding rates (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% of body weight/day) for 60 days. Then, fish were subjected to hypoxic conditions and haemato-immunological parameters were analyzed pre- and post-challenge. Low feed ration resulted in decreased liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione contents. Inadequate feeding also adversely affected the immune functions of fish, as was characterized by the relatively low haemato-immunological parameters (including alternative complement (ACH50), myeloperoxidase (MPO), plasma protein profiles and transferring) and high hypoxia-induced mortality. High feed ration did not lead to the improvement in antioxidant capability, immune responses and survival. In addition, plasma cortisol, glucose and transferrin levels as well as lysozyme activities all increased significantly after hypoxia challenge, whereas the opposite was true for plasma ACH50 and MPO activities as well as protein profiles in terms of hypoxia challenge. An interaction between feeding rate and hypoxia was also observed in plasma cortisol, glucose and protein profiles. In conclusion, a feeding rate of 4-5% of body weight/day is optimal to boost the innate immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. Low ration resulted in decreased antioxidant capability, compromised immune functions and reduced hypoxia resistance, while over feeding did not benefit the health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The differentiated assessment of damage to economy of subjects of the Siberian Federal District from road and transport accident rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Artur I.; Svistunova, Vera A.; Petrova, Daria A.

    2018-01-01

    The results of assessment of damage from the road accident rate in subjects of the Siberian Federal District (SFD) of the Russian Federation are presented in the article. The thesis about spatial differentiation of the Gross Regional Product (GRP) losses in different regions of the country because of people’s death and injuries in the road accidents (RA) and due to formations of property and ecological damage was chosen as a working hypothesis. The calculations, carried out for 12 subjects of the SFD, confirmed this idea. The range of calculated values of economic damage from road accident rate (in % of GRP) was from 1.3 (Tomsk region) to 12.6 (Republic of Tyva) in 2015. In article the attempt to explain the received result by heterogeneous development of economics in various Russian regions is made. The consequence of it is a heterogeneous quality of people’s life and quite various perception of life value by inhabitants of different regions that influences their life safety level.

  18. Subjective health complaints and self-rated health: are expectancies more important than socioeconomic status and workload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Eline; Odeen, Magnus; Eriksen, Hege R; Indahl, Aage; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Hetland, Jørn; Harris, Anette

    2014-06-01

    The associations between socioeconomic status (SES), physical and psychosocial workload and health are well documented. According to The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS), learned response outcome expectancies (coping, helplessness, and hopelessness) are also important contributors to health. This is in part as independent factors for health, but coping may also function as a buffer against the impact different demands have on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effect of SES (as measured by level of education), physical workload, and response outcome expectancies on subjective health complaints (SHC) and self-rated health, and if response outcome expectancies mediate the effects of education and physical workload on SHC and self-rated health. A survey was carried out among 1,746 Norwegian municipal employees (mean age 44.2, 81 % females). Structural Equation Models with SHC and self-rated health as outcomes were conducted. Education, physical workload, and response outcome expectancies, were the independent 28 variables in the model. Helplessness/hopelessness had a stronger direct effect on self-rated health and SHC than education and physical workload, for both men and women. Helplessness/hopelessness fully mediated the effect of physical workload on SHC for men (0.121), and mediated 30 % of a total effect of 0.247 for women. For women, education had a small but significant indirect effect through helplessness/hopelessness on self-rated health (0.040) and SHC (-0.040), but no direct effects were found. For men, there was no effect of education on SHC, and only a direct effect on self-rated health (0.134). The results indicated that helplessness/hopelessness is more important for SHC and health than well-established measures on SES such as years of education and perceived physical workload in this sample. Helplessness/hopelessness seems to function as a mechanism between physical workload and health.

  19. New England observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted August stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  20. New England observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change points

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The shapefile contains points with associated observed and predicted July stream/river temperature maximum positive daily rate of change in New England based on a...

  1. Grouping subjects based on conditioning criteria reveals differences in acquisition rates and in strength of conditioning-specific reflex modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2017-11-01

    Averaging behavioral data such as the nictitating membrane response (NMR) across subjects can conceal important individual and group differences. Analyses were conducted of NMR data from rabbits that were grouped based on the point during NMR conditioning when subjects produced 8 conditioned responses (CR) in a set of 10 trials. This resulted in five groups (Early Day 1, Late Day 1, Early Day 2, Late Day 2, Early Day 3) in which group differences in CR acquisition rates were found. Percent (%) CRs were not found to increase monotonically and between-session differences in % CR were found. Conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) of the NMR is a type of enhanced reflexive responding of the NMR that is detected when the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) following paired classical conditioning. CRM occurred in some subjects in all five groups. Subjects from both the group that was fastest and the group that was slowest to reach the learning criterion had unconditioned response (UR) topographies following NMR conditioning that strongly resembled the CR-UR response sequence elicited during NMR conditioning. This finding was most pronounced when the US duration used to assess CRM was equivalent to that used during NMR conditioning, further evidence to support the hypothesis that CRM is a CR that has generalized from the CS to the US. While grouping data based on conditioning criteria did not facilitate identifying individuals more predisposed to exhibiting CRM, strong CRM only occurred in the groups that reached the conditioning criterion the fastest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The reliability and validity of subjective notational analysis in comparison to global positioning system tracking to assess athlete movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğramac, Sera N; Watsford, Mark L; Murphy, Aron J

    2011-03-01

    Subjective notational analysis can be used to track players and analyse movement patterns during match-play of team sports such as futsal. The purpose of this study was to establish the validity and reliability of the Event Recorder for subjective notational analysis. A course was designed, replicating ten minutes of futsal match-play movement patterns, where ten participants undertook the course. The course allowed a comparison of data derived from subjective notational analysis, to the known distances of the course, and to GPS data. The study analysed six locomotor activity categories, focusing on total distance covered, total duration of activities and total frequency of activities. The values between the known measurements and the Event Recorder were similar, whereas the majority of significant differences were found between the Event Recorder and GPS values. The reliability of subjective notational analysis was established with all ten participants being analysed on two occasions, as well as analysing five random futsal players twice during match-play. Subjective notational analysis is a valid and reliable method of tracking player movements, and may be a preferred and more effective method than GPS, particularly for indoor sports such as futsal, and field sports where short distances and changes in direction are observed.

  3. Assessing the evolutionary rate of positional orthologous genes in prokaryotes using synteny data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lespinet Olivier

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of completely sequenced microbial genomes has revealed how fluid these genomes are. Detecting synteny blocks requires reliable methods to determining the orthologs among the whole set of homologs detected by exhaustive comparisons between each pair of completely sequenced genomes. This is a complex and difficult problem in the field of comparative genomics but will help to better understand the way prokaryotic genomes are evolving. Results We have developed a suite of programs that automate three essential steps to study conservation of gene order, and validated them with a set of 107 bacteria and archaea that cover the majority of the prokaryotic taxonomic space. We identified the whole set of shared homologs between two or more species and computed the evolutionary distance separating each pair of homologs. We applied two strategies to extract from the set of homologs a collection of valid orthologs shared by at least two genomes. The first computes the Reciprocal Smallest Distance (RSD using the PAM distances separating pairs of homologs. The second method groups homologs in families and reconstructs each family's evolutionary tree, distinguishing bona fide orthologs as well as paralogs created after the last speciation event. Although the phylogenetic tree method often succeeds where RSD fails, the reverse could occasionally be true. Accordingly, we used the data obtained with either methods or their intersection to number the orthologs that are adjacent in for each pair of genomes, the Positional Orthologous Genes (POGs, and to further study their properties. Once all these synteny blocks have been detected, we showed that POGs are subject to more evolutionary constraints than orthologs outside synteny groups, whichever the taxonomic distance separating the compared organisms. Conclusion The suite of programs described in this paper allows a reliable detection of orthologs and is useful for evaluating gene

  4. Test-positive rate at CT colonography is increased by rectal bleeding and/or unexplained weight loss, unlike other common gastrointestinal symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, D.; Materne, R.; Ouhadi, R.; Mancini, I.; Aouachria, S.A.; Nchimi, A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the rate of significant colonic and extra-colonic abnormalities at computed tomography colonography (CTC), according to symptoms and age. We retrospectively evaluated 7361 consecutive average-risk subjects (3073 males, average age: 60.3 ± 13.9; range 18–96 years) for colorectal cancer (CRC) who underwent CTC. They were divided into three groups according to clinical symptoms: 1343 asymptomatic individuals (group A), 899 patients with at least one “alarm” symptom for CRC, including rectal bleeding and unexplained weight loss (group C), and 5119 subjects with other gastrointestinal symptoms (group B). Diagnostic and test-positive rates of CTC were established using optical colonoscopy (OC) and/or surgery as reference standard. In addition, clinically significant extra-colonic findings were noted. 903 out of 7361 (12%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11–0.13) subjects had at least one clinically significant colonic finding at CTC. CTC true positive fraction and false positive fraction were respectively 637/642 (99.2%, 95%CI 0.98–0.99) and 55/692 (7.95%, 95%CI 0.05–0.09). The pooled test-positive rate in group C (138/689, 20.0%, 95%CI 0.17–0.23) was significantly higher than in both groups A (79/1343, 5.9%, 95%CI 0.04–0.07) and B (420/5329, 7.5%, 95%CI 0.07–0.08) (p < 0.001). Aging and male gender were associated to a higher test positive rate. The rate of clinically significant extra-colonic findings was significantly higher in group C (44/689, 6.4%, 95%CI 0.04–0.08) versus groups A (26/1343, 1.9%, 95%CI 0.01–0.02) and B (64/5329, 1.2%, 95%CI 0.01–0.02) (p < 0.001). Both test-positive and significant extra-colonic finding rates at CTC are significantly increased in the presence of “alarm” gastrointestinal symptoms especially in older patients

  5. Heart rate and blood pressure interactions during attempts to consciously raise or lower heart rate and blood pressure in normotensive subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdon, Peter; Murray, Alan; Langley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) during conscious control under visual biofeedback and background noise conditions. Normotensive volunteers were instructed to (i) decrease and (ii) increase HR (group A, n = 16) or BP (group B, n = 16). After instructions to lower HR or BP there was no significant change in HR or BP for either group. After instructions to raise HR, HR increased significantly (13.8 ± 1.3 beats min −1 , P < 0.0001) and BP did not change. However, following instructions to raise BP, both HR and BP increased significantly: systolic BP (5.2 ± 1.5 mmHg, P < 0.001), diastolic BP (3.5 ± 0.9 mmHg, P < 0.001) and HR (8.6 ± 1.3 beats min −1 , P < 0.0001). Biofeedback and background noise did not alter the relative change in HR or BP. In conclusion, normotensive subjects were unable to reduce BP or HR under conscious control. Subjects were able to increase both HR and BP, and voluntary increases in HR did not alter BP, while voluntary increases in BP also increased HR indicating distinct HR/BP interactions during conscious control

  6. Proficiency in Positive versus Negative Emotion Identification and Subjective Well-being among Long-term Married Elderly Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca ePetrican; Morris eMoscovitch; Cheryl eGrady

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive versus negative emotions and a close partner’s well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1) and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed...

  7. 17 CFR 240.14e-2 - Position of subject company with respect to a tender offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disclosing that the subject company: (1) Recommends acceptance or rejection of the bidder's tender offer; (2... accordance with such laws, regulations and policies. (d) Exemption for cross-border tender offers. The... with respect to a tender offer. 240.14e-2 Section 240.14e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  8. Prevalence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele in amyloid β positive subjects across the spectrum of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Niklas; Groot, Colin; Jansen, Willemijn J

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its prevalence is unclear because earlier studies did not require biomarker evidence of amyloid β (Aβ) pathology. METHODS: We included 3451 Aβ+ subjects (853 AD-type dementia, 1810 mild cog...

  9. Vaccination against hepatitis A and B in persons subject to homelessness in inner Sydney: vaccine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Roslyn G; Ferson, Mark J; Orr, Karen J; McCarthy, Michele A; Botham, Susan J; Stern, Jerome M; Lucey, Adrienne

    2010-04-01

    To determine acceptance, completion rates and immunogenicity of the standard vaccination schedule for hepatitis A (HAV) and B (HBV) in persons subject to homelessness. A convenience sample of clients (n=201) attending a medical clinic for homeless and disadvantaged persons in Sydney was enrolled. Serological screening for HAV and HBV was undertaken. An appropriate vaccination program was instituted. Post-vaccination serology determined serological response. Although many clients had serological evidence of past infection, at least 138 (69%) clients had the potential to benefit from vaccination. For hepatitis A and B vaccinations, completion rates were 73% (73 of 100 clients) and 75% (69 of 92 clients), respectively; after vaccination, protective antibody was found in 98.2% (56 of 57) and 72% (36 of 50) of clients, respectively. A successful vaccination program can be mounted with a vulnerable population. We consider a clinic with a well-established history of acceptance and utilisation by the target group; a low staff turnover and regular clientele; inclusion of vaccination as part of routine client care; and counselling (part of pre- and post-serological testing) essential components in achieving good vaccination completion rates. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. A constitutive model for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-static and dynamic tension tests were conducted to study the mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites at strain rates ranging from 0.0001/s to 1000/s and at temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 650 °C Based on the experimental results, a constitutive model, which considers the effects of strain rate and temperature on hot deformation behavior, was proposed for particulate-reinforced titanium matrix composites subjected to high strain rates and high temperatures by using Zener-Hollomon equations including Arrhenius terms. All the material constants used in the model were identified by fitting Zener-Hollomon equations against the experimental results. By comparison of theoretical predictions presented by the model with experimental results, a good agreement was achieved, which indicates that this constitutive model can give an accurate and precise estimate for high temperature flow stress for the studied titanium matrix composites and can be used for numerical simulations of hot deformation behavior of the composites.

  11. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Shigeki; Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  12. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masami [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kabasawa, Hiroyuki [GE Healthcare, Japan Applied Science Laboratory, Hino (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  13. Prospective assessment of the false positive rate of the Australian snake venom detection kit in healthy human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimorakiotakis, Vasilios Bill; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-03-01

    The Snake Venom Detection Kit (SVDK; bioCSL Pty Ltd, Australia) distinguishes venom from the five most medically significant snake immunotypes found in Australia. This study assesses the rate of false positives that, by definition, refers to a positive assay finding in a sample from someone who has not been bitten by a venomous snake. Control unbroken skin swabs, simulated bite swabs and urine specimens were collected from 61 healthy adult volunteers [33 males and 28 females] for assessment. In all controls, simulated bite site and urine samples [a total of 183 tests], the positive control well reacted strongly within one minute and no test wells reacted during the ten minute incubation period. However, in two urine tests, the negative control well gave a positive reaction (indicating an uninterpretable test). A 95% confidence interval for the false positive rate, on a per-patient rate, derived from the findings of this study, would extend from 0% to 6% and, on a per-test basis, it would be 0-2%. It appears to be a very low incidence (0-6%) of intrinsic true false positives for the SVDK. The clinical impresssion of a high SVDK false positive rate may be mostly related to operator error. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, chronic kidney disease and antiretroviral drug use in HIV-positive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; de Wit, Stephane; Sedlacek, Dalibor; Beniowski, Marek; Gatell, Jose; Phillips, Andrew N.; Ledergerber, Bruno; Lundgren, Jens D.; Losso, M.; Elias, C.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Suetnov, O.; Clumeck, N.; Poll, B.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Rozsypal, H.; Sedlacek, D.; Nielsen, J.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Hansen, A.-B. E.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Oestergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J.-P.; Girard, P.-M.; Livrozet, J. M.; Vanhems, P.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Rockstroh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in HIV-positive persons might be caused by both HIV and traditional or non-HIV-related factors. Our objective was to investigate long-term exposure to specific antiretroviral drugs and CKD. Design: A cohort study including 6843 HIV-positive persons with at

  15. Click trains and the rate of information processing: does "speeding up" subjective time make other psychological processes run faster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke A; Allely, Clare S; Wearden, John H

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments demonstrated that a 5-s train of clicks that have been shown in previous studies to increase the subjective duration of tones they precede (in a manner consistent with "speeding up" timing processes) could also have an effect on information-processing rate. Experiments used studies of simple and choice reaction time (Experiment 1), or mental arithmetic (Experiment 2). In general, preceding trials by clicks made response times significantly shorter than those for trials without clicks, but white noise had no effects on response times. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated the effects of clicks on performance on memory tasks, using variants of two classic experiments of cognitive psychology: Sperling's (1960) iconic memory task and Loftus, Johnson, and Shimamura's (1985) iconic masking task. In both experiments participants were able to recall or recognize significantly more information from stimuli preceded by clicks than those preceded by silence.

  16. Estimation of Subjective Mental Work Load Level with Heart Rate Variability by Tolerance to Driver's Mental Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Michimasa; Oguri, Koji

    Most of the traffic accidents have been caused by inappropriate driver's mental state. Therefore, driver monitoring is one of the most important challenges to prevent traffic accidents. Some studies for evaluating the driver's mental state while driving have been reported; however driver's mental state should be estimated in real-time in the future. This paper proposes a way to estimate quantitatively driver's mental workload using heart rate variability. It is assumed that the tolerance to driver's mental workload is different depending on the individual. Therefore, we classify people based on their individual tolerance to mental workload. Our estimation method is multiple linear regression analysis, and we compare it to NASA-TLX which is used as the evaluation method of subjective mental workload. As a result, the coefficient of correlation improved from 0.83 to 0.91, and the standard deviation of error also improved. Therefore, our proposed method demonstrated the possibility to estimate mental workload.

  17. Heart rate variability analysis in healthy subjects, patients suffering from congestive heart failure and heart transplanted patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argentina Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find parameters to characterize heart rate variability (HRV and discriminate healthy subjects and patients with heart diseases. The parameters used for discrimination characterize the different components of HRV memory (short and long and are extracted from HRV recordings using parametric as well as non parametric methods. Thus, the parameters are: spectral components at low frequencies (LH and high frequencies (HF which are associated with the short memory of HRV and the long memory parameter (d obtained from autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA models. In the non parametric context, short memory (α1 and long memory (α2 parameters are obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. The sample used in this study contains 24-hour Holter HRV recordings of 30 subjects: 10 healthy individuals, 10 patients suffering from congestive heart failure and 10 heart transplanted patients from the Noltisalis database. It was found that short memory parameters present higher values for the healthy individuals whereas long memory parameters present higher values for the diseased individuals. Moreover, there is evidence that ARFIMA modeling allows the discrimination between the 3 groups under study, being advantageous over DFA.

  18. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: Multiparametric MR imaging-directed intraoperative frozen-section analysis to reduce the rate of positive surgical margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; Padhani, Anwar R; Summers, Paul; Renne, Giuseppe; Alessi, Sarah; Raimondi, Sara; Matei, Deliu V; Renne, Salvatore L; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Bellomi, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether use of multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-directed intraoperative frozen-section (IFS) analysis during nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy reduces the rate of positive surgical margins. This retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data was approved by an institutional ethics committee, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Data were reviewed for 134 patients who underwent preoperative multiparametric MR imaging (T2 weighted, diffusion weighted, and dynamic contrast-material enhanced) and nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, during which IFS analysis was used, and secondary resections were performed when IFS results were positive for cancer. Control patients (n = 134) matched for age, prostate-specific antigen level, and stage were selected from a pool of 322 patients who underwent nerve-sparing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy without multiparametric MR imaging and IFS analysis. Rates of positive surgical margins were compared by means of the McNemar test, and a multivariate conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio of positive surgical margins for patients who underwent MR imaging and IFS analysis compared with control subjects. Eighteen patients who underwent MR imaging and IFS analysis underwent secondary resections, and 13 of these patients were found to have negative surgical margins at final pathologic examination. Positive surgical margins were found less frequently in the patients who underwent MR imaging and IFS analysis than in control patients (7.5% vs 18.7%, P = .01). When the differences in risk factors are taken into account, patients who underwent MR imaging and IFS had one-seventh the risk of having positive surgical margins relative to control patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.15; 95% confidence interval: 0.04, 0.61). The significantly lower rate of positive surgical margins compared with that in control patients provides

  19. Girls, Boys and Subject Choice: A Report on Sex Differences in Participation Rates in Subjects in Western Australian Government Secondary Schools. Discussion Paper No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra; Fitzpatrick, Jim

    Many of the issues confronting schools and society relate to the changing roles of males and females. Concern has also been expressed over the preparedness of graduates to face an uncertain job market and rapid technological change. To study the relationship between school subject choice and career opportunities for Australian youth, school…

  20. Tumor containing fragment number influences immunohistochemistry positive rate of HER2 in biopsy specimens of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Yalan; Ge, Xiaowen; Jiang, Dongxian; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Yuan; Hou, Jun; Huang, Jie; Su, Jieakesu; Zeng, Haiying; Qin, Jing; Hou, Yingyong

    2017-05-26

    HER2 assessment in biopsy specimens of gastric cancer (GC) is challenging because of the intratumoral heterogeneity. False negative results may be get because of limited biopsy material. The aim of this study is to explore how tumor-containing fragment number and biopsy specimen number affect HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) positive rate. Eight hundred and ninety biopsy specimens and 459 paired resected specimens were collected. IHC staining of HER2 was performed. HER2 IHC positive (scored 3+) rate was compared based on tumor-containing fragment number, biopsy specimen number, average size and tumor tissue proportion of tumor-containing fragments. The positive predictability of biopsy specimens to resected specimens was analyzed based on tumor fragment number. HER2 IHC positive rates were 2.0, 3.5, 7.0, 13.2, 17.1, and 15.9% when tumor fragment numbers were 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. The rate rose with the increase of tumor fragment number (P = 0.004). ROC curve analysis showed that biopsy specimens exhibited positive predictability when tumor fragment number reached 3, but showed better performance when the number was ≥4 (P fragment number reached 4, no statistic differences were reached in either HER2 IHC positive rate or positive predictability with further increase of the number (P > 0.05). HER2 IHC positive rate was not associated with biopsy number (P = 0.127), average size of tumor fragments (P = 0.397), and tumor tissue proportion of tumor fragments (P = 0.825) directly. The number of tumor-containing fragments influences HER2 IHC positive (scored 3+) rate. Greater than or equal to 4 (≥4) tumor fragments give better results in the positive rate as well as positive predictability. We recommend the number of tumor containing fragments be described in the HER2 IHC pathology reports for clinical reference in endoscopic biopsy specimens of GC.

  1. Structured health care for subjects with diabetic foot ulcers results in a reduction of major amputation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective We tested the effects of structured health care for the diabetic foot in one region in Germany aiming to reduce the number of major amputations. Research design and methods In a prospective study we investigated patients with diabetic foot in a structured system of outpatient, in-patient and rehabilitative treatment. Subjects were recruited between January 1st, 2000 and December 31, 2007. All participants underwent a two-year follow-up. The modified University of Texas Wound Classification System (UT) was the basis for documentation and data analysis. We evaluated numbers of major amputations, rates of ulcer healing and mortality. In order to compare the effect of the structured health care program with usual care in patients with diabetic foot we evaluated the same parameters at another regional hospital without interdisciplinary care of diabetic foot (controls). Results 684 patients with diabetic foot and 508 controls were investigated. At discharge from hospital 28.3% (structured health care program, SHC) vs. 23.0% (controls) of all ulcers had healed completely. 51.5% (SHC) vs. 49.8% (controls) were in UT grade 1. Major amputations were performed in 32 subjects of the structured health care program group (4.7%) vs. 110 (21.7%) in controls (p<0.0001). Mortality during hospitalization was 2.5% (SHC) vs. 9.4% in controls (p<0.001). Conclusions With the structured health care program we achieved a significant reduction of major amputation rates by more than 75% as compared to standard care. PMID:23497152

  2. High prevalence of impaired glucose homeostasis and myopathy in asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic 3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation-positive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, A.L.; Jeppesen, T.D.; Vissing, J.

    2009-01-01

    combinations. Consequently, it is difficult to predict the "phenotypic risk profile" of 3243A>G mutation-positive subjects. The 3243A>G mutation coexists in cells with wild-type mtDNA, a phenomenon called heteroplasmy. The marked variability in mutation loads in different tissues is the main explanation...

  3. Using the global positioning satellite system to determine attitude rates using doppler effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.

  4. Self-rated health, ethnicity and social position in a deprived neighborhood in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Kronborg Bak, Carsten; Andersen, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years the close connection between SES and differences in health between ethnic groups have been subject to growing interest among researchers, and some studies have found an association between ethnicity and long term illness and poor health. However, there is limited resear...

  5. Effect of facial self-resemblance on the startle response and subjective ratings of erotic stimuli in heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, Andre; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    Cues of kinship are predicted to increase prosocial behavior due to the benefits of inclusive fitness, but to decrease approach motivation due to the potential costs of inbreeding. Previous studies have shown that facial resemblance, a putative cue of kinship, increases prosocial behavior. However, the effects of facial resemblance on mating preferences are equivocal, with some studies finding that facial resemblance decreases sexual attractiveness ratings, while other studies show that individuals choose mates partly on the basis of similarity. To further investigate this issue, a psychophysiological measure of affective processing, the startle response, was used in this study, assuming that differences in approach motivation to erotic pictures will modulate startle. Male volunteers (n = 30) viewed 30 pictures of erotic female nudes while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by acoustic noise probes. The female nude pictures were digitally altered so that the face either resembled the male participant or another participant, or were not altered. Non-nude neutral pictures were also included. Importantly, the digital alteration was undetected by the participants. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant and clearly reduced startle eyeblink magnitude as compared to neutral pictures. Participants showed greater startle inhibition to self-resembling than to other-resembling or non-manipulated female nude pictures, but subjective pleasure and arousal ratings did not differ among the three erotic picture categories. Our data suggest that visual facial resemblance of opposite-sex nudes increases approach motivation in men, and that this effect was not due to their conscious evaluation of the erotic stimuli.

  6. Sonographic evaluation of the fetal spine position and success rate of manual rotation of the fetus in occiput posterior position: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masturzo, Bianca; Farina, Antonio; Attamante, Lorenza; Piazzese, Annalisa; Rolfo, Alessandro; Gaglioti, Pietro; Todros, Tullia

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate whether sonographic (US) diagnosis of the fetal spine position could increase the success rate of manual rotation of the fetal occiput (MRFO) in second-stage arrest in persistent occiput posterior position (OPP). In this randomized controlled parallel single-center trial, 58 nulliparous in second-stage arrest of labor with fetus in cephalic presentation and OPP diagnosed by US were randomly assigned to group A where the fetal spine position was not known by the operator or to group B where the operator knew it. The main outcome was the success of MRFO in the two groups. Secondary outcomes were perineal injuries, blood loss, duration of expulsive period, and neonatal APGAR at 5 minutes. A priori knowledge of the spine position improves the success of the MRFO (41.4% group A versus 82.8% group B, p value < 0.001), the percentage of spontaneous deliveries (27.6% group A versus 69% group B, p value = 0.01), and maternal outcome (intact perineum and blood loss). No differences were detected on the neonatal side. MRFO is a safe and useful procedure that should be performed in second-stage arrest in OPP. A better performance was observed when supported by the US knowledge of the spine position. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:472-476, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Subject positioning in the BOD POD® only marginally affects measurement of body volume and estimation of percent body fat in young adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten W Peeters

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether subject positioning would affect the measurement of raw body volume, thoracic gas volume, corrected body volume and the resulting percent body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography (ADP. METHODS: Twenty-five young adult men (20.7±1.1 y, BMI = 22.5±1.4 kg/m(2 were measured using the BOD POD® system using a measured thoracic gas volume sitting in a 'forward bent' position and sitting up in a straight position in random order. RESULTS: Raw body volume was 58±124 ml (p<0.05 higher in the 'straight' position compared to the 'bent' position. The mean difference in measured thoracic gas volume (bent-straight = -71±211 ml was not statistically significant. Corrected body volume and percent body fat in the bent position consequently were on average 86±122 ml (p<0.05 and 0.5±0.7% (p<0.05 lower than in the straight position respectively. CONCLUSION: Although the differences reached statistical significance, absolute differences are rather small. Subject positioning should be viewed as a factor that may contribute to between-test variability and hence contribute to (inprecision in detecting small individual changes in body composition, rather than a potential source of systematic bias. It therefore may be advisable to pay attention to standardizing subject positioning when tracking small changes in PF are of interest. The cause of the differences is shown not to be related to changes in the volume of isothermal air in the lungs. It is hypothesized and calculated that the observed direction and magnitude of these differences may arise from the surface area artifact which does not take into account that a subject in the bent position exposes more skin to the air in the device therefore potentially creating a larger underestimation of the actual body volume due to the isothermal effect of air close to the skin.

  8. Positive, negative, and bipolar questions: The effect of question polarity on ratings of text readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kamoen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For decades, survey researchers have known that respondents give different answers to attitude questions worded positively (X is good. Agree-Disagree, negatively (X is bad. Agree-Disagree or on a bipolar scale (X is bad-good. This makes survey answers hard to interpret, especially since findings on exactly how the answers are affected are conflicting. In the current paper, we present twelve studies in which the effect of question polarity was measured for a set of thirteen contrastive adjectives. In each study, the same adjectives were used so the generalizability of wording effects across studies could be examined for each word pair. Results show that for five of the word pairs an effect of question wording can be generalized. The direction of these effects are largely consistent: respondents generally give the same answers to positive and bipolar questions, but they are more likely to disagree with negative questions than to agree with positive questions or to choose the positive side of the bipolar scale. In other words, respondents express their opinions more positively when the question is worded negatively. Even though answers to the three wording alternatives sometimes differ, results also show that reliable answers can be obtained with all three wording alternatives. So, for survey practice, these results suggest that all three wording alternatives may be used for attitude measurement.

  9. A study of requested CT head examinations and their positive yield rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Requests for CT examinations are ever increasing, partly due to the excellent clinical information they can provide for patient management and partly due to a perceived need for 'evidence' that everything has been done to diagnose a patient correctly. This has led to many CT examinations being done on patients where many of the radiology community does not necessarily feel CT will yield a positive finding, i.e. in their eyes - a possible unjustified use of radiation. To determine whether this was in fact true, or merely a perception, a study was performed by medical imaging and physics staff at the Royal Brisbane Hospital to determine statistics of positive yield for CT head exams. 600 CT head examinations from the Emergency Department at the Royal Brisbane Hospital were retrospectively examined and their findings were tabulated under various clinical categories to determine positive yield statistics. These categories were also tabulated with the radiologists advice as to whether they would have expected a positive finding. For several categories the positive yield for CT head exams was so low as to be considered negligible. Other categories, although low were still considered significant. These will be presented to the emergency department along with a suggested protocol for requesting CT head exams. It was unfortunate that this study had to be performed to prove to clinical staff that medical imaging staff members do in general have an excellent idea of what will show up in an x-ray and what will not! However, it was useful to be able to categorise 'positive yield' statistics into such specific classes. The next step is to try and communicate these findings to staff to create more trust and better communication between departments. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  10. Negligible Egg Positive Rate of Enterobius vermicularis and No Detection of Head Lice among Orphanage Children in Busan and Ulsan, Korea (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea.

  11. Measurement of the depolarization rate of positive muons in copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauster, W.B.; Heffner, R.H.; Huang, C.Y.; Hutson, R.L.; Leon, M.; Parkin, D.M.; Schillaci, M.E.; Triftshaeuser, W.; Wampler, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Positive muon spin rotation experiments for polycrystalline Cu and Al from 19 K to temperatures near the melting points are reported. At low temperatures, the depolarization associated with localization of the muons at octahedral interstitial sites is seen in Cu, while in Al only slight depolarization is observed below 250 K. At high temperatures, no evidence for trapping of positive muons at vacancies in thermal equilibrium is found for either metal. It is concluded that the muons either diffuse too slowly to find vacancies or, if they do find vacancies, are bound too weakly to remain trapped. (author)

  12. Fish community reassembly after a coral mass mortality: higher trophic groups are subject to increased rates of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David; Pinyol-Gallemí, Aleix; Alcoverro, Teresa; Arthur, Rohan

    2015-05-01

    Since Gleason and Clements, our understanding of community dynamics has been influenced by theories emphasising either dispersal or niche assembly as central to community structuring. Determining the relative importance of these processes in structuring real-world communities remains a challenge. We tracked reef fish community reassembly after a catastrophic coral mortality in a relatively unfished archipelago. We revisited the stochastic model underlying MacArthur and Wilson's Island Biogeography Theory, with a simple extension to account for trophic identity. Colonisation and extinction rates calculated from decadal presence-absence data based on (1) species neutrality, (2) trophic identity and (3) site-specificity were used to model post-disturbance reassembly, and compared with empirical observations. Results indicate that species neutrality holds within trophic guilds, and trophic identity significantly increases overall model performance. Strikingly, extinction rates increased clearly with trophic position, indicating that fish communities may be inherently susceptible to trophic downgrading even without targeted fishing of top predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Stochastic Analysis of the Efficiency of a Wireless Power Transfer System Subject to Antenna Variability and Position Uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marco; Stockman, Gert-Jan; Rogier, Hendrik; Vande Ginste, Dries

    2016-07-19

    The efficiency of a wireless power transfer (WPT) system in the radiative near-field is inevitably affected by the variability in the design parameters of the deployed antennas and by uncertainties in their mutual position. Therefore, we propose a stochastic analysis that combines the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) theory with an efficient model for the interaction between devices in the radiative near-field. This framework enables us to investigate the impact of random effects on the power transfer efficiency (PTE) of a WPT system. More specifically, the WPT system under study consists of a transmitting horn antenna and a receiving textile antenna operating in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band at 2.45 GHz. First, we model the impact of the textile antenna's variability on the WPT system. Next, we include the position uncertainties of the antennas in the analysis in order to quantify the overall variations in the PTE. The analysis is carried out by means of polynomial-chaos-based macromodels, whereas a Monte Carlo simulation validates the complete technique. It is shown that the proposed approach is very accurate, more flexible and more efficient than a straightforward Monte Carlo analysis, with demonstrated speedup factors up to 2500.

  14. Stochastic Analysis of the Efficiency of a Wireless Power Transfer System Subject to Antenna Variability and Position Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rossi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a wireless power transfer (WPT system in the radiative near-field is inevitably affected by the variability in the design parameters of the deployed antennas and by uncertainties in their mutual position. Therefore, we propose a stochastic analysis that combines the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC theory with an efficient model for the interaction between devices in the radiative near-field. This framework enables us to investigate the impact of random effects on the power transfer efficiency (PTE of a WPT system. More specifically, the WPT system under study consists of a transmitting horn antenna and a receiving textile antenna operating in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM band at 2.45 GHz. First, we model the impact of the textile antenna’s variability on the WPT system. Next, we include the position uncertainties of the antennas in the analysis in order to quantify the overall variations in the PTE. The analysis is carried out by means of polynomial-chaos-based macromodels, whereas a Monte Carlo simulation validates the complete technique. It is shown that the proposed approach is very accurate, more flexible and more efficient than a straightforward Monte Carlo analysis, with demonstrated speedup factors up to 2500.

  15. Stochastic Analysis of the Efficiency of a Wireless Power Transfer System Subject to Antenna Variability and Position Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marco; Stockman, Gert-Jan; Rogier, Hendrik; Vande Ginste, Dries

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of a wireless power transfer (WPT) system in the radiative near-field is inevitably affected by the variability in the design parameters of the deployed antennas and by uncertainties in their mutual position. Therefore, we propose a stochastic analysis that combines the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) theory with an efficient model for the interaction between devices in the radiative near-field. This framework enables us to investigate the impact of random effects on the power transfer efficiency (PTE) of a WPT system. More specifically, the WPT system under study consists of a transmitting horn antenna and a receiving textile antenna operating in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band at 2.45 GHz. First, we model the impact of the textile antenna’s variability on the WPT system. Next, we include the position uncertainties of the antennas in the analysis in order to quantify the overall variations in the PTE. The analysis is carried out by means of polynomial-chaos-based macromodels, whereas a Monte Carlo simulation validates the complete technique. It is shown that the proposed approach is very accurate, more flexible and more efficient than a straightforward Monte Carlo analysis, with demonstrated speedup factors up to 2500. PMID:27447632

  16. High Classification Rates for Continuous Cow Activity Recognition using Low-cost GPS Positioning Sensors and Standard Machine Learning Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Torben; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2011-01-01

    activities. By preprocessing the raw cow position data, we obtain high classification rates using standard machine learning techniques to recognize cow activities. Our objectives were to (i) determine to what degree it is possible to robustly recognize cow activities from GPS positioning data, using low...... and their activities manually logged to serve as ground truth. For our dataset we managed to obtain an average classification success rate of 86.2% of the four activities: eating/seeking (90.0%), walking (100%), lying (76.5%), and standing (75.8%) by optimizing both the preprocessing of the raw GPS data...

  17. Technical position on items and activities in the high-level waste geologic repository program subject to quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.B.; Bilhorn, S.G.; Kennedy, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    This document provides guidance on how to identify items and activities subject to Quality Assurance in the high-level nuclear waste repository program for pre-closure and post-closure phases of the repository. In the pre-closure phase, structures, systems and components essential to the prevention or mitigation of an accident that could result in an off-site radiation dose of 0.5rem or greater are termed ''important to safety''. In the post-closure phase, the barriers which are relied on to meet the containment and isolation requirements are defined as ''important to waste isolation''. These structures, systems, components, and barriers, and the activities related to their characterization, design, construction, and operation are required to meet quality assurance (QA) criteria to provide confidence in the performance of the geologic repository. The list of structures, systems, and components important to safety and engineered barriers important to waste isolation is referred to as the ''Q-List'' and lies within the scope of the QA program. 10 refs

  18. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, chronic kidney disease and antiretroviral drug use in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with at least three serum creatinine measurements and corresponding body weight measurements from 2004 onwards. METHODS:: CKD was defined as either confirmed (two measurements >/=3 months apart) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 ml/min per 1.73 m or below for persons with baseline eGFR of above...... cumulative exposure to tenofovir [incidence rate ratio (IRR) per year 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.25, P ... increased rate of CKD. Consistent results were observed in wide-ranging sensitivity analyses, although of marginal statistical significance for lopinavir/r. No other antiretroviral dugs were associated with increased incidence of CKD. CONCLUSION:: In this nonrandomized large cohort, increasing exposure...

  19. The tell-tale heart: heart rate fluctuations index objective and subjective events during a game of chess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, María J; Petroni, Agustín; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    During a decision-making process, the body changes. These somatic changes have been related to specific cognitive events and also have been postulated to assist decision-making indexing possible outcomes of different options. We used chess to analyze heart rate (HR) modulations on specific cognitive events. In a chess game, players have a limited time-budget to make about 40 moves (decisions) that can be objectively evaluated and retrospectively assigned to specific subjectively perceived events, such as setting a goal and the process to reach a known goal. We show that HR signals events: it predicts the conception of a plan, the concrete analysis of variations or the likelihood to blunder by fluctuations before to the move, and it reflects reactions, such as a blunder made by the opponent, by fluctuations subsequent to the move. Our data demonstrate that even if HR constitutes a relatively broad marker integrating a myriad of physiological variables, its dynamic is rich enough to reveal relevant episodes of inner thought.

  20. Crevicular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity and Rate of Tooth Movement of Female Orthodontic Subjects under Different Continuous Force Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study is aimed to compare the effects of two different orthodontic forces on crevicular alkaline phosphatase activity, rate of tooth movement, and root resorption. Materials and Methods. Twelve female subjects of class II division 1 malocclusion participated. Maxillary canines with bonded fixed appliances acted as the tested teeth, while their antagonists with no appliances acted as the controls. Canine retraction was performed using nickel titanium coil spring that delivered forces of 100 gm or 150 gm to either side. Crevicular fluid was analyzed for ALP activity, and study models were casted to measure tooth movements. Root resorption was assessed using periapical radiographs before and after the force application. Results. ALP activity at the mesial sites peaked at week 1 for 150 gm group with significant differences when compared with the 100 gm group. Cumulative canine movements were significantly greater in the 150 gm force (2.10 ± 0.50 mm than in the 100 gm force (1.57 ± 0.44 mm. No root resorption was in the maxillary canines after retraction. Conclusions. A force of 150 gm produced faster tooth movements and higher ALP activity compared with the 100 gm group and had no detrimental effects such as root resorption.

  1. An observation on positive rate of HBsAg in the urine of patients suffering from positive serum HBsAg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixun, Lin; Mingzheng, Zeng; Xiaoling, Chai [Wuhan Eighth Municipal Hospital, HB (China). Dept. of Laboratory

    1989-08-01

    In 1983, the Virus Research Office of the Shanxi Research Insitute of Preventive Medicine found out the granules of hepatitis B virus from the urine of patients and proved that this kind of virus can be spread through the urine. With the help of self-developed method of radio immunoelectrophoresis, our research office has purified and concentrated the urine of the patients suffering from positive serum HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen). Among them 25 are male, and another 25 are female. The result shows that the positive rate of HBsAg accounts for 80%. This is of important significance to the care of urine specimens, the protection of experimentalists and the development of clinical medicine.

  2. Low Nicotine Content Descriptors Reduce Perceived Health Risks and Positive Cigarette Ratings in Participants Using Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Joel, Danielle L; Strasser, Andrew A; Donny, Eric C

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how smokers perceive reduced nicotine content cigarettes will be important if the FDA and global regulatory agencies implement reduced nicotine product standards for cigarettes. Prior research has shown that some smokers incorrectly believe "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Similar misunderstandings of health risk could also apply to reduced nicotine cigarettes. To date, most studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes have blinded subjects to the nicotine content. Therefore, little is known about how smokers experience reduced nicotine content cigarettes when they are aware of the reduced content, and how use may be impacted. The present study was a within-subjects experiment with 68 adult daily smokers who smoked two identical very low nicotine content Quest 3 (0.05 mg nicotine yield) cigarettes. Subjects were told that one cigarette contained "average" nicotine content, and the other contained "very low" nicotine content. After smoking each cigarette, subjects completed subjective measures about their smoking experience. Subjects rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as less harmful to their health overall compared to the "average" nicotine cigarette; this effect held true for specific smoking-related diseases. Additionally, they rated the "very low" nicotine cigarette as having less desirable subjective effects than the "average" nicotine cigarette and predicted having greater interest in quitting smoking in the future if only the "very low" nicotine cigarette was available. Explicit knowledge of very low nicotine content changes smokers' perceptions of very low nicotine content cigarettes, resulting in reduced predicted harm, subjective ratings and predicted future use. Before a reduced nicotine product standard for cigarettes can be implemented, it is important to understand how product information impacts how smokers think about and experience very low nicotine content cigarettes. Prior research has shown that smokers

  3. Subjective Well-Being in Older Chinese and Korean Immigrants in the United States: Effects of Self-Rated Health and Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Jun, Hyeyoun; Lee, Jisun; Linton, Kristen; Kim, Meehye; Browne, Colette

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of association between self-rated health and employment status on subjective well-being among older Chinese and Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were collected from 171 Chinese and 205 Korean older adult immigrants living in Los Angeles County. The primary variables included demographic data, subjective index of well-being, self-rated health, and employment status. Data support the association between self-rated health and subjective well-being for both groups. Employment, education, and age were associated with the level of subjective well-being only for older Korean immigrants. Similarities and differences were noted in these two Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest the need to develop health promotion services for both populations and employment opportunities targeted more so for Korean older immigrants to further support their subjective well-being. Results may have implications for other for older immigrants.

  4. False-Positive Rate Determination of Protein Target Discovery using a Covalent Modification- and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Erin C.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2 % and analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  5. Dual diagnosis vs. triple diagnosis in HIV: a comparative study to evaluate the differences in psychopathology and suicidal risk in HIV positive male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M; Kumar, K; Garg, P D

    2013-12-01

    The problem of triple diagnosis of HIV, substance abuse and psychiatric disorders is a complex one with difficult solutions. HIV disease progression is affected by substance use as well as psychiatric illness burden due to both direct as well as indirect factors. Continuing substance abuse with poor drug adherence coexists with psychiatric disorders leading to increased morbidity and mortality. A total of 100 HIV positive subjects comprising of two groups each having 50 subjects with and without substance abuse were assessed using detailed history, mental state examination, WHO schedule for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry (SCAN 2.0) and Beck's Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS). Statistical analysis used Chi-Square test, Fischer's exact test, Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, univariate and multiple regression analysis, univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. p-Valueabuse, as compared to subjects without substance use. Suicidal risk was significantly increased (pabuse did not increase the risk. Substance abuse inflicts a much greater burden on HIV positive individuals as compared to subjects without substance use. Concomitant substance abuse resulted in significantly increased duration of illness and psychiatric morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative determination of caffeine and alcohol in energy drinks and the potential to produce positive transdermal alcohol concentrations in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Jessica; Simons, Kelsie; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-alcoholic energy drinks could result in positive "alcohol alerts" based on transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) using a commercially available electrochemical monitoring device. Eleven energy drinks were quantitatively assayed for both ethanol and caffeine. Ethanol concentrations for all of the non-alcoholic energy drinks ranged in concentration from 0.03 to 0.230% (w/v) and caffeine content per 8-oz serving ranged from 65 to 126 mg. A total of 15 human subjects participated in the study. Subjects consumed between 6 and 8 energy drinks over an 8-h period. The SCRAM II monitoring device was used to determine TACs every 30 min before, during, and after the study. None of the subjects produced TAC readings that resulted in positive "alcohol alerts". TAC measurements for all subjects before, during and after the energy drink study period (16 h total) were study consumed a quantity of non-alcoholic energy drink that greatly exceeds what would be considered typical. Based on these results, it appears that energy drink consumption is an unlikely explanation for elevated TACs that might be identified as potential drinking episodes or "alcohol alerts" using this device.

  7. Positive correlation between occlusion rate and nidus size of proton beam treated brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomquist, Erik; Ronne Engström, Elisabeth; Borota, Ljubisa

    2016-01-01

    symptoms, clinical course, the size of AVM nidus and rate of occlusion was collected. Outcome parameters were the occlusion of the AVM, clinical outcome and side effects.Results. The rate of total occlusion was overall 68%. For target volume 0-2cm3 it was 77%, for 3-10 cm3 80%, for 11-15 cm3 50% and for 16...... of these had no effect and the other only partial occlusion from proton beams. Two thirds of those presenting with seizures reported an improved seizure situation after treatment.Conclusion. Our observations agree with earlier results and show that proton beam irradiation is a treatment alternative for brain......Background. Proton beam radiotherapy of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the brain has been performed in Uppsala since 1991. An earlier study based on the first 26 patients concluded that proton beam can be used for treating large and medium sized AVMs that were considered difficult to treat...

  8. Front-end electronics for high rate, position sensitive neutron detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, B; Harder, J A; Hrisoho, A; Radeka, V; Smith, G C

    2002-01-01

    Advanced neutron detectors for experiments at new spallation sources will require greater counting rate capabilities than previously attainable. This necessitates careful design of both detector and readout electronics. As part of a new instrument for protein crystallography at LANSCE, we are constructing a detector whose concept was described previously (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-46 (1999) 1916). Here, we describe the signal processing circuit, which is well suited for sup 3 He detectors with a continuous interpolating readout. The circuit is based on standard charge preamplification, transmission of this signal over 20 meters or so, followed by sample and hold using a second order gated baseline restorer. This latter unit provides high rate capability without requiring pole-zero and tail cancellation circuits. There is also provision for gain-adjustment. The circuits are produced in surface mounted technology.

  9. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects......, Redmond, WA), and UAER was determined through three overnight urine samples. The subjects with parental type 2 diabetes had significantly lower heart rate variation in all three bedside tests (P

  10. A Position of Influence: Variation in Offender\\ud Identification Rates by Location in a Lineup

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Michael; Synnott, John

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have identified several threats to the validity of the use of the lineup as a test\\ud of true recognition. One concern is related to the structure of the simultaneous lineup. It is argued here that a simultaneous presentation of an array nonetheless requires the viewer to undertake sequential processing of the items in the array. This sequential pattern is unlikely to be random and therefore the position of a culprit in a lineup may have a significant effect on the accuracy of wit...

  11. Reporting instructions significantly impact false positive rates when reading chest radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, John W.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Lewis, Sarah J. [The University of Sydney, Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Lidcombe, NSW (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    To determine the impact of specific reporting tasks on the performance of radiologists when reading chest radiographs. Ten experienced radiologists read a set of 40 postero-anterior (PA) chest radiographs: 21 nodule free and 19 with a proven solitary nodule. There were two reporting conditions: an unframed task (UFT) to report any abnormality and a framed task (FT) reporting only lung nodule/s. Jackknife free-response operating characteristic (JAFROC) figure of merit (FOM), specificity, location sensitivity and number of true positive (TP), false positive (FP), true negative (TN) and false negative (FN) decisions were used for analysis. JAFROC FOM for tasks showed a significant reduction in performance for framed tasks (P = 0.006) and an associated decrease in specificity (P = 0.011) but no alteration to the location sensitivity score. There was a significant increase in number of FP decisions made during framed versus unframed tasks for nodule-containing (P = 0.005) and nodule-free (P = 0.011) chest radiographs. No significant differences in TP were recorded. Radiologists report more FP decisions when given specific reporting instructions to search for nodules on chest radiographs. The relevance of clinical history supplied to radiologists is called into question and may induce a negative effect. (orig.)

  12. Reporting instructions significantly impact false positive rates when reading chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, John W.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Lewis, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of specific reporting tasks on the performance of radiologists when reading chest radiographs. Ten experienced radiologists read a set of 40 postero-anterior (PA) chest radiographs: 21 nodule free and 19 with a proven solitary nodule. There were two reporting conditions: an unframed task (UFT) to report any abnormality and a framed task (FT) reporting only lung nodule/s. Jackknife free-response operating characteristic (JAFROC) figure of merit (FOM), specificity, location sensitivity and number of true positive (TP), false positive (FP), true negative (TN) and false negative (FN) decisions were used for analysis. JAFROC FOM for tasks showed a significant reduction in performance for framed tasks (P = 0.006) and an associated decrease in specificity (P = 0.011) but no alteration to the location sensitivity score. There was a significant increase in number of FP decisions made during framed versus unframed tasks for nodule-containing (P = 0.005) and nodule-free (P = 0.011) chest radiographs. No significant differences in TP were recorded. Radiologists report more FP decisions when given specific reporting instructions to search for nodules on chest radiographs. The relevance of clinical history supplied to radiologists is called into question and may induce a negative effect. (orig.)

  13. HIV positivity but not HPV/p16 status is associated with higher recurrence rate in anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joshua E; Panico, Vinicius J A; Marconato, Heloisa M F; Sherr, David L; Christos, Paul; Pirog, Edyta C

    2013-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a pathogenic factor of squamous cell carcinoma in various mucosal locations, including anal carcinoma (ACA). It is also known that patients positive for HIV are at high risk of ACA. The goal of this study was to examine clinical outcome in ACA in relation to HPV/p16 positivity, histologic tumor differentiation, and HIV status. Patients with oropharyngeal cancers that are positive for HPV and show overexpression of p16 as well as having non-keratinizing/basaloid histology have been reported to have better outcomes following chemoradiation (CRT). However, such relationships in ACA remain unknown. Forty-two patients with SCC of the anus treated with CRT between 1997 and 2009 were identified. The tumors were subclassified as either non-keratinizing (including basaloid) or keratinizing categories. HPV testing was performed using SPF10-PCR, and all cases were immunostained for p16. There were 23 men and 19 women; 43% of men and 11% of women were HIV-positive (p = 0.04). Fifty-five percent of patients had local disease (stages I and II) and 41% were stages III and IV, with 4% stage unknown. All tumors were positive for high-oncogenic risk HPVs, and all were positive with p16 immunostain. Sixty-four percent of tumors were non-keratinizing/basaloid and 36 % were keratinizing. The keratinizing tumors were more common in HIV-positive patients (67%), whereas non-keratinizing/basaloid tumors were more common in HIV-negative patients (77%) (p = 0.008). Thirty-one percent of patients had recurrence of disease, including 50% HIV-positive patients and 23% HIV-negative patients (p = 0.09). There was no difference in the recurrence rate between non-keratinizing and keratinizing tumor subtypes (p = 0.80). The 24-month recurrence-free survival for the cohort was 66% (95% CI = 46%, 81%), with HIV-positive patients having worse recurrence-free survival compared to HIV-negative patients (HR = 2.85, 95% CI = 0.95, 8.53; p = 0

  14. Design of a test device for subjecting materials to high strain rates: with application in nuclear area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todesco, Sergio R.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: sergio.todesco@usp.br, E-mail: csmucsi@ipen.br, E-mail: jelrossi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a design of a device to gather characteristic data of materials subjected to high strain rates, this device named after the eminent English engineer Sir Bertram Hopkinson 'Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar', from here will be designated SHPB. More specifically, this work is inseparably linked to the development of packing for transportation of highly radioactive substances as a part to the general scope of a CAPES project in partnership with the CCTM Materials Department of IPEN, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, linked to the University of Sao Paulo. The development of the device is part of a scope, and collection of data necessary for the design and construction of this packing. The SHPB device can be divided into two parts, the first part concerning the mechanical design. The second, data collection that is indeed the challenging part of the device, and proper tests. The present paper, specifically, will only deals with the mechanical design of the device, importantly, divided into two parts, the size of the bars, which are the impact bar, the input bar, and the output bar, and the size of the impact device. The sizing of the bars involve knowledge of the concept of elastic waves in solid media for the length of the bars to serve as a wave-guide, which will cause a deformation of the specimen, and enables recording of these waves for data analysis. The impact device must be robust enough to produce the stress wave to deform the specimen, but not to plastically deform the bars, which have to continue throughout the test within the elastic range. (author)

  15. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka (Japan); Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui Medical University (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc{sub real}). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc{sub sim}) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC{sub real}) and simulated input function (AUC{sub IFsim}) and percent error between CMRGlc{sub real} and CMRGlc{sub sim} were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165{+-}69 vs 100{+-}9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%{+-}1.3% vs 3.5%{+-}2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%{+-}2.2% vs 2.9%{+-}1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%{+-}4.6% vs 3.4%{+-}2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  16. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi; Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc real ). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc sim ) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC real ) and simulated input function (AUC IFsim ) and percent error between CMRGlc real and CMRGlc sim were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165±69 vs 100±9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%±1.3% vs 3.5%±2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%±2.2% vs 2.9%±1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%±4.6% vs 3.4%±2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  17. Design of a test device for subjecting materials to high strain rates: with application in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todesco, Sergio R.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a device to gather characteristic data of materials subjected to high strain rates, this device named after the eminent English engineer Sir Bertram Hopkinson 'Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar', from here will be designated SHPB. More specifically, this work is inseparably linked to the development of packing for transportation of highly radioactive substances as a part to the general scope of a CAPES project in partnership with the CCTM Materials Department of IPEN, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, linked to the University of Sao Paulo. The development of the device is part of a scope, and collection of data necessary for the design and construction of this packing. The SHPB device can be divided into two parts, the first part concerning the mechanical design. The second, data collection that is indeed the challenging part of the device, and proper tests. The present paper, specifically, will only deals with the mechanical design of the device, importantly, divided into two parts, the size of the bars, which are the impact bar, the input bar, and the output bar, and the size of the impact device. The sizing of the bars involve knowledge of the concept of elastic waves in solid media for the length of the bars to serve as a wave-guide, which will cause a deformation of the specimen, and enables recording of these waves for data analysis. The impact device must be robust enough to produce the stress wave to deform the specimen, but not to plastically deform the bars, which have to continue throughout the test within the elastic range. (author)

  18. Influence of Elastic Bandage and Neoprene Ankle Support on Ankle Position Sense and Pain in Subjects with Ankle Sprain (Grade I & II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basir Majdoleslami

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate whether a neoprene ankle support and elastic bandage around the ankle joint of subjects with ankle sprain (grade I&II would , in short term (a reduce pain (b improve ankle joint position sense and comparison of their effect with each other if they have. Materials & Methods: In a semi-experimental study, 30 subjects (16men, 14 women, age between 16-52 with ankle sprain grade I&II. Subjects had to have at least 2cm from 10cm visual analogue scale (VAS of ankle pain for study entry. All patients were randomly assigned to either an elastic bandage or a neoprene ankle support. One week later they were assigned to the opposite selection. Joint position sense was assessed in the sitting position using an electrogoniometer and pain by VAS where 0cm equals no pain and 10 cm equals worst pain. ankle pain and JPS were assessed for each selection one week apart. During each visit assessment were performed at baseline and after 20 min of bandage/neoprene ankle support application. Results: the mean of scores for ankle variables JPS and VAS was taken and paired-t test and Wilcoxon signed rank test was employed to calculate the different between two trails. Neoprene ankle support had significant effect on ankle JPS (P=0.034. But elastic bandage had no effect (P=0.539. Both of them had significantly reduced ankle pain. (P=0.000  Conclusion: In subjects with both neoprene ankle support and elastic bandage reduced ankle pain with more effect of neoprene ankle support. Only the neoprene ankle support had effect on knee JPS.

  19. Differential rate in decline in ovarian reserve markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with control subjects: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Asima K; Kao, Chia-Ning; Quinn, Molly; Lenhart, Nikolaus; Rosen, Mitchell; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather

    2018-03-01

    To estimate rates of ovarian aging in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) subjects versus a community control population. Longitudinal. Tertiary academic center. PCOS subjects diagnosed according to the 2004 Rotterdam criteria were systematically enrolled in a PCOS cohort study. The comparison control subjects were from the Ovarian Aging study, a prospective longitudinal study of ovarian aging in healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. Clinical data collection over two study visits. Antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian volume (OV), and antimüllerian hormone level (AMH). PCOS subjects were found to have higher baseline values for all ovarian reserve markers compared with control subjects. Univariate models indicated that, compared with control subjects, PCOS patients experienced significantly faster rates of decline for both AFC and AMH. Change in OV did not differ significantly. To account for potential confounder effects, multiple analysis of covariance models were evaluated for the best fit, considering age, body mass index, and baseline ovarian reserve markers. Adjusted models demonstrated that PCOS patients do not experience a significant difference in AFC decline compared with control subjects, but they do experience a faster rate of decline in AMH (POvarian aging in PCOS is characterized by a more rapid decline in AMH and a slower decline in OV compared with control subjects. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a high-count-rate neutron detector with position sensitivity and high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.; Sandoval, J.

    1996-01-01

    While the neutron scattering community is bombarded with hints of new technologies that may deliver detectors with high-count-rate capability, high efficiency, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high resolution across large areas, only the time-tested, gas-filled 3 He and scintillation detectors are in widespread use. Future spallation sources with higher fluxes simply must exploit some of the advanced detector schemes that are as yet unproved as production systems. Technologies indicating promise as neutron detectors include pixel arrays of amorphous silicon, silicon microstrips, microstrips with gas, and new scintillation materials. This project sought to study the competing neutron detector technologies and determine which or what combination will lead to a production detector system well suited for use at a high-intensity neutron scattering source

  1. Study on the Deposition Rate Depending on Substrate Position by Using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ion beams have been used for over thirty years to modify materials in manufacturing of integrated circuits, and improving the corrosion properties of surfaces. Recently, the requirements for ion beam processes are becoming especially challenging in the following areas : ultra shallow junction formation for LSI fabrication, low damage high rate ion beam sputtering and smoothing, high quality functional surface treatment for electrical and optical properties. Ion beam sputtering is an attractive technology for the deposition of thin film coatings onto a broad variety of polymer, Si-wafer, lightweight substrates. Demand for the decoration metal is increasing. In addition, lightweight of parts is important, because of energy issues in the industries. Although a lot of researches have been done with conventional PVD methods for the deposition of metal or ceramic films on the surface of the polymer, there are still adhesion problems.

  2. Enough positive rate of paraspinal mapping and diffusion tensor imaging with levels which should be decompressed in lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Biao; Zhong, Zhi-Wei; Li, Chun-Sheng; Bai, Bo

    2016-07-01

    In lumbar spinal stenosis, correlating symptoms and physical examination findings with decompression levels based on common imaging is not reliable. Paraspinal mapping (PM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may be possible to prevent the false positive occurrences with MRI and show clear benefits to reduce the decompression levels of lumbar spinal stenosis than conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) + neurogenic examination (NE). However, they must have enough positive rate with levels which should be decompressed at first. The study aimed to confirm that the positive of DTI and PM is enough in levels which should be decompressed in lumbar spinal stenosis. The study analyzed the positive of DTI and PM as well as compared the preoperation scores to the postoperation scores, which were assessed preoperatively and at 2 weeks, 3 months 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. 96 patients underwent the single level decompression surgery. The positive rate among PM, DTI, and (PM or DTI) was 76%, 98%, 100%, respectively. All post-operative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale for back pain (VAS-BP) and visual analog scale for leg pain (VAS-LP) scores at 2 weeks postoperatively were measured improvement than the preoperative ODI, VAS-BP and VAS-LP scores with statistically significance (p-value = 0.000, p-value = 0.000, p-value = 0.000, respectively). In degenetive lumbar spinal stenosis, the positive rate of (DTI or PM) is enough in levels which should be decompressed, thence using the PM and DTI to determine decompression levels will not miss the level which should be operated. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of effect of blood pressure and heart rate changes in different positions (lying and sitting on hypotension incidence rate after spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Manouchehrian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the relatively high prevalence of hypotension (20% -40% after spinal anesthesia as well as the adverse effects of hypotension on mother and baby, it is better to prevent hypotension as much as possible. Therefore, this study is aimed to determine the relationship between postural blood pressure and heart rate changes and hypotension incidence rate after spinal anesthesia in cesarean section.63 women aging18 to 45years old with fullterm pregnancy, who were candidate for caesarean section with spinal anesthesia, entered the study. Afterwards, the diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressures as well as the heart rate (pulse in different positions (sitting, lying, and left lateral were measured. After spinal anesthesia, the patients' blood pressure was measured and recorded every minute until the10thmin, then every 3 minute until the15thmin, and then every 5 minute until the end of cesarean section. Data analysis was performed using SPSS (ver. 19 software, descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Bonferroni test. In this study, the hypotension incidence rate was 30% and the orthostatic variation rate of the systolic blood pressure in more than half of the people was between 4.39 to 13.49psi, which showed the highest variation compared to the diastolic pressure, mean arterial blood pressure (or: mean arterial pressure [MAP], and heart(pulse. Considering the correlation coefficient of 0.27, the systolic blood pressure in the lateral position has the highest relationship with the incidence of hypotension. The postural systolic blood pressure changes in patients prior to the spinal anesthesia can be a predictive factor for the post-spinal hypotension incidence.

  4. Considering subject positions with Biesta

    OpenAIRE

    Välitalo, R. (Riku)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract People who attended the ICPIC conference last summer were given a opportunity to consider some perspectives offered by the acknowledged scholar and educational thinker, Gert Biesta. His presentation in Madrid focused on exploring the educational significance of doing philosophy with children from a particular viewpoint. Biesta addressed the question of whether Philosophy for Children (P4C) movement can offer something more than a clear head, that is, a critical, creative, caring a...

  5. High prevalence of impaired glucose homeostasis and myopathy in asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic 3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation-positive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, A.L.; Jeppesen, T.D.; Vissing, J.

    2009-01-01

    controls were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test. Twenty-six adult 3243A>G carriers with unknown myopathy status and 17 healthy controls had a maximal cycle test and a muscle biopsy performed. The mutation loads were quantified in blood and muscle biopsies and correlated to the clinical......INTRODUCTION: The point mutation of 3243A>G mtDNA is the most frequent cause of mitochondrial diabetes, often presenting as the syndrome maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD). The mutation may also cause myopathy, ataxia, strokes, ophthalmoplegia, epilepsy, and cardiomyopathy in various...... combinations. Consequently, it is difficult to predict the "phenotypic risk profile" of 3243A>G mutation-positive subjects. The 3243A>G mutation coexists in cells with wild-type mtDNA, a phenomenon called heteroplasmy. The marked variability in mutation loads in different tissues is the main explanation...

  6. Validity of an ankle joint motion and position sense measurement system and its application in healthy subjects and patients with ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chueh-Ho; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Lu, Liang-Hsuan; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Sung, Wen-Hsu

    2016-07-01

    Ankle motion and proprioception in multiple axis movements are crucial for daily activities. However, few studies have developed and used a multiple axis system for measuring ankle motion and proprioception. This study was designed to validate a novel ankle haptic interface system that measures the ankle range of motion (ROM) and joint position sense in multiple plane movements, investigating the proprioception deficits during joint position sense tasks for patients with ankle instability. Eleven healthy adults (mean ± standard deviation; age, 24.7 ± 1.9 years) and thirteen patients with ankle instability were recruited in this study. All subjects were asked to perform tests to evaluate the validity of the ankle ROM measurements and underwent tests for validating the joint position sense measurements conducted during multiple axis movements of the ankle joint. Pearson correlation was used for validating the angular position measurements obtained using the developed system; the independent t test was used to investigate the differences in joint position sense task performance for people with or without ankle instability. The ROM measurements of the device were linearly correlated with the criterion standards (r = 0.99). The ankle instability and healthy groups were significantly different in direction, absolute, and variable errors of plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion (p ankle joint motion and position sense measurement system is valid and can be used for measuring the ankle ROM and joint position sense in multiple planes and indicate proprioception deficits for people with ankle instability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cancer incidence among a cohort of subjects exposed to low-dose rate chronic radiation exposure in utero and after birth in the techa riverbank villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Hall, P.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste by the Mayak Production Association (PA) into the Techa River since 1949 till 1956 the population of the Riverside villages was exposed to a protracted effect of combined (external and internal) radiation. The 1-st-generation offspring of exposed residents born on 01.01.1950 and later were exposed both in utero and after birth. In all, 46 cancer cases, including 4 cases of leukemia, were registered among the study cohort members numbering 7,890 subjects born in the Techa Riverside villages in the Chelyabinsk province over the period since 1950 till 1998. No significant differences were noted in cancer incidence rates between men and women. Cancer incidence in the offspring's cohort was by 30-35% higher compared with the unexposed population of the USSR and Russia, the differences, however, are statistically insignificant. No influence of the parents total gonadal dose on cancer development in offspring was observed. The positive dose-effect dependence of cancer incidence on both antenatal and postnatal exposure was traced

  8. The positive impact of European subsidies on soil erosion rates in orange plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Taguas, Tani; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion in orchards and vineyards has been found non-sustainable due to bare soils due to the use of herbicides and tillage (Novara et al., 2011; Taguas et al., 2015; Ochoa et al., 2016; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016a; 2016b; 2016c). Citrus plantations in sloping terrains are also non-sustainable from the soil erosion point of view due high erosion rates and the damage caused on infra-structures (Cerdà et al., 2009; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2015). This is not uncommon in Mediterranean type Ecosystems (Cerdà et al., 2010) but there is a need to reduce the soil and water losses to achieve sustainability (Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). The use of mulches, geotextiles, catch crops, and vegetation was found to be very successful as a sustainable strategy to reduce the soil losses (Giménez Morera et al., 2010; Mwango et al., 2016; Nawaz et al., 2016; Nishigaki et al., 2016; Prosdocimi et al., 2016). Nowadays, chipped branches are applied in orchards and vineyards because of European subsidies; however little scientific data is available on the impact of the chipped branches mulch on soil erosion. In an orange plantation in Eastern Valencia, at the L'Alcoleja experimental station the impact of these chipped branches was tested under 45 mm h-1 rainfall simulations on laboratory plots of 0.5 m2 under with different covers of chipped branches. The results show that with a cover of 20 % with chipped branches soil erosion reduces by 78 %. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K. 2015. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL, SOIL, 1, 117-129, doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015, Cerdà, A. and M. F. Jurgensen

  9. Similar elimination rates of glucagon-like peptide-1 in obese type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Agersø, H; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of GLP-1 in healthy subjects and type 2 diabetic patients after iv bolus doses ranging from 2.5-25 nmol/subject. Bolus injections iv of 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol of GLP-1 and a meal test were performed in six type 2 diabetic patients [age, mean (range): 56 (48...... response seen after ingestion of a standard breakfast meal must therefore be caused by a decreased secretion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients....

  10. Resting metabolic rate does not change in response to different types of training in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Brinkløv, Cecilie Fau; Thorsen, Ida Kær

    2017-01-01

    , total body mass (TBM), fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass were all associated with RMR. Changes in RMR were associated with changes in TBM and fat mass, and subjects who decreased body mass and fat mass also decreased their RMR. No associations were seen between changes in physical fitness, glycemic...... control, or FFM and changes in RMR. Conclusion: Neither short-term continuous or interval-type training, nor longer term interval training affects RMR in subjects with T2D when no overall changes in body composition are seen. If training occurs concomitant with a reduction in fat mass, however, RMR...

  11. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients but not in Helicobacter pylori-positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiaer, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality was pres......BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. METHODS: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE2 were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positive). RESULTS: In healthy...... for the abnormally high gastric secretion of bicarbonate in inactive DU patients. The defective duodenal secretion of bicarbonate observed in these patients may be a consequence of previous ulceration rather than the mere presence of H. pylori infection....

  12. Low positivity rate after systematic screening for Trichomonas vaginalis in three patient cohorts from general practitioners, STI clinic and a national population-based chlamydia screening study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, Tanja H.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; Dirks, Anne; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this multi-cohort study is to investigate the positivity rate of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among three distinct Dutch patient populations and its relation with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) positivity. Few studies have been performed in Europe where TV positivity rate seems to be low.

  13. Positive outcomes influence the rate and time to publication, but not the impact factor of publications of clinical trial results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Suñé

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Publication bias may affect the validity of evidence based medical decisions. The aim of this study is to assess whether research outcomes affect the dissemination of clinical trial findings, in terms of rate, time to publication, and impact factor of journal publications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All drug-evaluating clinical trials submitted to and approved by a general hospital ethics committee between 1997 and 2004 were prospectively followed to analyze their fate and publication. Published articles were identified by searching Pubmed and other electronic databases. Clinical study final reports submitted to the ethics committee, final reports synopses available online and meeting abstracts were also considered as sources of study results. Study outcomes were classified as positive (when statistical significance favoring experimental drug was achieved, negative (when no statistical significance was achieved or it favored control drug and descriptive (for non-controlled studies. Time to publication was defined as time from study closure to publication. A survival analysis was performed using a Cox regression model to analyze time to publication. Journal impact factors of identified publications were recorded. Publication rate was 48·4% (380/785. Study results were identified for 68·9% of all completed clinical trials (541/785. Publication rate was 84·9% (180/212 for studies with results classified as positive and 68·9% (128/186 for studies with results classified as negative (p<0·001. Median time to publication was 2·09 years (IC95 1·61-2·56 for studies with results classified as positive and 3·21 years (IC95 2·69-3·70 for studies with results classified as negative (hazard ratio 1·99 (IC95 1·55-2·55. No differences were found in publication impact factor between positive (median 6·308, interquartile range: 3·141-28·409 and negative result studies (median 8·266, interquartile range: 4·135-17·157. CONCLUSIONS

  14. Effect of the Stroop test performed in supine position on the heart rate variability in both genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazan, Rastislav; Filcikova, Diana; Mravec, Boris

    2017-12-01

    The effect of Stroop test (ST)-induced stress on autonomic nervous system activity is often examined via measurement of heart rate variability (HRV). However, HRV may be significantly affected by interfering factors, including vocalization and inappropriate body position. Surprisingly, published studies ignore these issues, so the aim of our study was to test the innovative procedure for correct HRV measurement in individuals exposed to ST. Moreover, we examined possible gender differences in HRV and heart rate (HR) during ST. Healthy participants (21 men, 34 women) were placed in a supine position (no orthostatic activation) and then exposed to a 5 min relaxation period and a 5 min period of computerized ST (no vocalization). We found significant differences in HR and HRV parameters in both genders during ST when compared to relaxation (baseline) values. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in HR and HRV between males and females (except for a higher baseline HR in women). Also, reactivity to ST stress (difference between baseline and ST value) showed no gender differences. In conclusion, when performed in a supine position and without vocalization, the ST induces significant stress-related changes of HR and HRV in both genders, with no gender differences in the magnitude of reaction to ST stress. This experimental procedure can be used for correct examination of mental stress-related changes in the autonomic nervous system, and is particularly useful for examining mixed-gender experimental groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer: pathologic complete response rate, predictive and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P.C. Buzatto

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review the pathologic complete response (pCR rate from patients (n=86 with stage II and III HER2-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy at our institution from 2008 to 2013 and to determine possible predictive and prognostic factors. Immunohistochemistry for hormone receptors and Ki-67 was carried out. Clinical and pathological features were analyzed as predictive factors of response to therapy. For survival analysis, we used Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate 5-year survival rates and the log-rank test to compare the curves. The addition of trastuzumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved pCR rate from 4.8 to 46.8%, regardless of the number of preoperative trastuzumab cycles (P=0.0012. Stage II patients achieved a higher response rate compared to stage III (P=0.03. The disease-free and overall survivals were not significantly different between the group of patients that received trastuzumab in the neoadjuvant setting (56.3 and 70% at 5 years, respectively and the group that initiated it post-operatively (75.8 and 88.7% at 5 years, respectively. Axillary pCR post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab was associated with reduced risk of recurrence (HR=0.34; P=0.03 and death (HR=0.21; P=0.02. In conclusion, we confirmed that trastuzumab improves pCR rates and verified that this improvement occurs even with less than four cycles of the drug. Hormone receptors and Ki-67 expressions were not predictive of response in this subset of patients. Axillary pCR clearly denotes prognosis after neoadjuvant target therapy and should be considered to be a marker of resistance, providing an opportunity to investigate new strategies for HER2-positive treatment.

  16. A high count rate position decoding and energy measuring method for nuclear cameras using Anger logic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.H.; Li, H.; Uribe, J.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for processing signals from Anger position-sensitive detectors used in gamma cameras and PET is proposed for very high count-rate imaging where multiple-event pileups are the norm. This method is designed to sort out and recover every impinging event from multiple-event pileups while maximizing the collection of scintillation signal for every event to achieve optimal accuracy in the measurement of energy and position. For every detected event, this method cancels the remnant signals from previous events, and excludes the pileup of signals from following events. The remnant subtraction is exact even for multiple pileup events. A prototype circuit for energy recovery demonstrated that the maximum count rates can be increased by more than 10 times comparing to the pulse-shaping method, and the energy resolution is as good as pulse shaping (or fixed integration) at low count rates. At 2 x 10 6 events/sec on NaI(Tl), the true counts acquired with this method is 3.3 times more than the delay-line clipping method (256 ns clipping) due to events recovered from pileups. Pulse-height spectra up to 3.5 x 10 6 events/sec have been studied. Monte Carlo simulation studies have been performed for image-quality comparisons between different processing methods

  17. Study on influence of flow rates on voids in waxy crude oil subjected to dynamic and static cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma T. Chala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The assumption of constant yield stress in the conventional restart pressure equation neglects the effects of thermal shrinkage and gas voids formation, which in turn resulted in an over-designed production piping systems. This paper presents a study on the effects of flow rates on the formation of voids in gelled waxy crude oil. A flow loop rig simulating offshore waxy crude oil transportation was used to produce a gel. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI was used to scan the gelled crude oil over the three planes. Waxy crude oil underwent both dynamic and static cooling to observe the effects of volume flow rates on the voids formed in wax-oil gel. Volume flow rate was found to have different influences on the intra-gel voids in the pipeline. A volume flow rate of 5 L/min resulted in a maximum total voids volume of 6.98% while 20 L/min produced a minimum total voids volume of 5.67% in the entire pipe. Slow flow rates resulted in a larger voids volume near the pipe wall. In contrast, faster flow rates produced insignificantly higher voids volume around pipe core. Generally, slower flow rates favoured the formation of higher total voids volume following sufficient steady time of wax crystal formation, producing larger voids areas in gelled waxy crude oil.

  18. Sagittal Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Profiles in Upright Standing and Lying Prone Positions Among Healthy Subjects: Influence of Various Biometric Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Walid; Coomans, Ysaline; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Klein, Paul; Sobczak, Stéphane; Dugailly, Pierre-Michel

    2015-08-01

    A prospective study was performed on the assessment of both thoracic and lumbar spine sagittal profiles (from C7 to S1). To propose a new noninvasive method for measuring the spine curvatures in standing and lying prone positions and to analyze their relationship with various biometric characteristics. Modifications of spine curvatures (i.e. lordosis or kyphosis) are of importance in the development of spinal disorders. Studies have emphasized the development of new devices to measure the spine sagittal profiles using a noninvasive and low-cost method. To date, it has not been applied for analyzing both lumbar and thoracic alterations for various positioning. Seventy-five healthy subjects (mean 22.6 ± 4.3 yr) were recruited to participate in this study. Thoracic and lumbar sagittal profiles were assessed in standing and lying prone positions using a 3D digitizer. In addition, several biometric data were collected including maximal trunk isometric strength for flexion and extension movement. Statistical analysis consisted in data comparisons of spine profiles and a multivariate analysis including biometric features, to classify individuals considering low within- and high between-variability. Kyphosis and lordosis angles decreased significantly from standing to lying prone position by an average of 13.4° and 16.6°, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed a sample clustering of 3 homogenous subgroups. The first group displayed larger lordosis and flexibility, and had low data values for height, weight, and strength. The second group had lower values than the overall trend of the whole sample, whereas the third group had larger score values for the torques, height, weight, waist, body mass index, and kyphosis angle but a reduced flexibility. The present results demonstrate a significant effect of the positioning on both thoracic and lumbar spine sagittal profiles and highlight the use of cluster analysis to categorize subgroups after biometric characteristics

  19. Effect of treatment with reserpine on the change in filtration rate of Mytilus edulis subjected to dissolved copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, R.; Grant, A.M.; Maccoy, N.E.J.

    1984-12-01

    Exposure of specimens of Mytilus edulis to dissolved copper leads to a fall in the filtration rate measured in whole animals. The copper concentration leading to a 50% reduction in the filtration rate was found to be 0.094 mg I/sup -1/. This effect was abolished on depletion of the monoamine content of the animal using reserpine. It is suggested that there may be a chemosensory mechanism present in the animals which responds to increased levels of metals in the seawater leading to a reduction in the rate of ciliary beating and mediated via the branchial nerve. 15 references, 2 figures.

  20. An improved in-house lysis-filtration protocol for bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottles with high identification rates by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Sachio; Murata, Syota; Miyabe, Akiko; Satoh, Mamoru; Takiwaki, Masaki; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio

    2018-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now a well-established method for identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures. Pretreatments to effectively remove non-bacterial proteins are a prerequisite for successful identification, and a variety of protocols have been reported. Although commercially available kits, mainly the Sepsityper Kit, are increasingly used, the identification rates reported often are not satisfactory, particularly for Gram-positive isolates. We developed a new, in-house lysis-filtration protocol and prospectively evaluated its performance compared to the Sepsityper kit. The in-house protocol consists of three simple steps: lysis by ammonium chloride, aspiration with a syringe fitted with a 0.45-μm membrane, and centrifugation to collect microbes. The novel protocol requires only 20 min. Performance of the in-house protocol was evaluated using a total of 117 monomicrobial cases of positive blood culture. Medium from blood culture bottles was pretreated by the in-house protocol or the commercial kit, and isolated cells were subjected to direct identification by mass spectrometry fingerprinting in parallel with conventional subculturing for reference identification. The overall MALDI-TOF MS-based identification rates with score > 1.7 and > 2.0 obtained using the in-house protocol were 99.2% and 85.5%, respectively, whereas those obtained using the Sepsityper Kit were 85.4% and 61.5%, respectively. For Gram-positive cases, the in-house protocol yielded scores >1.7 and > 2.0 at 98.5% and 76.1%, respectively, whereas the commercial kit yielded these scores at 76.1% and 43.3%, respectively. Although these are preliminary results, these values suggest that this easy lysis-filtration protocol deserves assessment in a larger-scale test. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A new method for calculating energy release rate in tunnel excavation subjected to high in situ stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qinghua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on energy theory, energy release rate (EER and local energy release rate (LEER, a new index called FERR (Fractional Energy Release Rate is proposed, and this method can not only evaluate the risk of rock burst, but also can point out the location of high risk and the scale of rockburst. The FERR index is applied to the TBM assembling tunnel in Jinping Hydro Power Station II to evaluate the scale and intensity of rockburst, as well as the location where rockburst occurs. With FDM method adopted, the energy release rate of 3 excavation plans are calculated and the scale and risk of rockburst is evaluated, and the location of high risk of rockburst is also mapped. With FERR used in the evaluation, the rockburst is nicely controlled which ensured the safety and construction schedule of the project.

  2. Condition-based maintenance for a system subject to a non-homogeneous wear process with a wear rate transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouladirad, Mitra, E-mail: mitra.fouladirad@utt.f [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Grall, Antoine [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay, FRE CNRS 2848, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this paper is to propose an adaptive maintenance model for a gradually deteriorating system. The system considered initially deteriorates with a nominal deterioration rate and at an unknown time the system's deterioration rate changes and the new deterioration rate is a time-dependent function. To deal with the transition of mode of deterioration in the framework of the maintenance decision rule an adequate online change detection algorithm is used. The maintenance decision rule is chosen in order to minimise the total maintenance cost including the cost of unavailability. The main result of this paper is to point out the interest of using a detection algorithm and hence the appreciation of a decision rule which takes into account transitions in the deterioration rate.

  3. Condition-based maintenance for a system subject to a non-homogeneous wear process with a wear rate transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouladirad, Mitra; Grall, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose an adaptive maintenance model for a gradually deteriorating system. The system considered initially deteriorates with a nominal deterioration rate and at an unknown time the system's deterioration rate changes and the new deterioration rate is a time-dependent function. To deal with the transition of mode of deterioration in the framework of the maintenance decision rule an adequate online change detection algorithm is used. The maintenance decision rule is chosen in order to minimise the total maintenance cost including the cost of unavailability. The main result of this paper is to point out the interest of using a detection algorithm and hence the appreciation of a decision rule which takes into account transitions in the deterioration rate.

  4. Self-motion perception and vestibulo-ocular reflex during whole body yaw rotation in standing subjects: the role of head position and neck proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, Roberto; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Kyriakareli, Artemis; Schieppati, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2011-04-01

    Self-motion perception and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were studied during whole body yaw rotation in the dark at different static head positions. Rotations consisted of four cycles of symmetric sinusoidal and asymmetric oscillations. Self-motion perception was evaluated by measuring the ability of subjects to manually track a static remembered target. VOR was recorded separately and the slow phase eye position (SPEP) was computed. Three different head static yaw deviations (active and passive) relative to the trunk (0°, 45° to right and 45° to left) were examined. Active head deviations had a significant effect during asymmetric oscillation: the movement perception was enhanced when the head was kept turned toward the side of body rotation and decreased in the opposite direction. Conversely, passive head deviations had no effect on movement perception. Further, vibration (100 Hz) of the neck muscles splenius capitis and sternocleidomastoideus remarkably influenced perceived rotation during asymmetric oscillation. On the other hand, SPEP of VOR was modulated by active head deviation, but was not influenced by neck muscle vibration. Through its effects on motion perception and reflex gain, head position improved gaze stability and enhanced self-motion perception in the direction of the head deviation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Salivary protein concentration, flow rate, buffer capacity and pH estimation: A comparative study among young and elderly subjects, both normal and with gingivitis and periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaila, Mulki; Pai, G Prakash; Shetty, Pushparaj

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the salivary protein concentration in gingivitis and periodontitis patients and compare the parameters like salivary total protein, salivary albumin, salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and flow rate in both young and elderly patients with simple methods. One hundred and twenty subjects were grouped based on their age as young and elderly. Each group was subgrouped (20 subjects) as controls, gingivitis and periodontitis. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from patients and flow rate was noted down during collection of the sample. Salivary protein estimation was done using the Biuret method and salivary albumin was assessed using the Bromocresol green method. pH was estimated with a pHmeter and buffering capacity was analyzed with the titration method. Student's t-test, Fisher's test (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD (ANOVA) tests were used for statistical analysis. A very highly significant rise in the salivary total protein and albumin concentration was noted in gingivitis and periodontitis subjects of both young and elderly. An overall decrease in salivary flow rate was observed among the elderly, and also the salivary flow rate of women was significantly lower than that of men. Significant associations between salivary total protein and albumin in gingivitis and periodontitis were found with simple biochemical tests. A decrease in salivary flow rate among elderly and among women was noted.

  6. Low-threshold mechanoreceptors play a frequency-dependent dual role in subjective ratings of mechanical allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löken, Line S; Duff, Eugene P; Tracey, Irene

    2017-12-01

    In the setting of injury, myelinated primary afferent fibers that normally signal light touch are thought to switch modality and instead signal pain. In the absence of injury, touch is perceived as more intense when firing rates of Aβ afferents increase. However, it is not known if varying the firing rates of Aβ afferents have any consequence to the perception of dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA). We hypothesized that, in the setting of injury, the unpleasantness of DMA would be intensified as the firing rates of Aβ afferents increase. Using a stimulus-response protocol established in normal skin, where an increase in brush velocity results in an increase of Aβ afferent firing rates, we tested if brush velocity modulated the unpleasantness of capsaicin-induced DMA. We analyzed how changes in estimated low-threshold mechanoreceptor firing activity influenced perception and brain activity (functional MRI) of DMA. Brushing on normal skin was perceived as pleasant, but brushing on sensitized skin produced both painful and pleasant sensations. Surprisingly, there was an inverse relationship between Aβ firing rates and unpleasantness such that brush stimuli that produced low firing rates were most painful and those that elicited high firing rates were rated as pleasant. Concurrently to this, we found increased cortical activity in response to low Aβ firing rates in regions previously implicated in pain processing during brushing of sensitized skin, but not normal skin. We suggest that Aβ signals do not merely switch modality to signal pain during injury. Instead, they exert a high- and low-frequency-dependent dual role in the injured state, with respectively both pleasant and unpleasant consequences. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We suggest that Aβ signals do not simply switch modality to signal pain during injury but play a frequency-dependent and dual role in the injured state with both pleasant and unpleasant consequences. These results provide a framework to resolve the

  7. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Keihani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects.Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25 and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35 were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate (<0.1% was designed to present these patterns on LED. Twenty two normal subjects (aged 23–30 (25 ± 2.1 yrs were enrolled. Visual analog scale (VAS was used for subjective fatigue evaluation after presentation of each stimulus pattern. PSD, CCA, and LASSO methods were employed to analyze SSVEP responses. The data including SSVEP features and fatigue rate for different visual stimuli patterns were statistically evaluated.Results: All 9 visual stimuli patterns elicited SSVEP responses. Overall, obtained accuracy rates were 88.35% for PSD and > 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s. High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24% than simple patterns group (98.48%. Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features (P < 0.0005. Overall, there was no significant difference between the VAS of rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], (P = 0.63. Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65] as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25

  8. Standardized laryngeal videostroboscopic rating : Differences between untrained and trained male and female subjects, and effects of varying sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Miller, DG

    To determine the influence of the factors gender, vocal training, sound intensity, pitch, and aging on vocal function, videolaryngostroboscopic images of 214 subjects, subdivided according to gender and status of vocal training, were evaluated by three judges with standardized rating scales,

  9. A Case for Adjusting Subjectively Rated Scores in the Advanced Placement Tests. Program Statistics Research. Technical Report No. 94-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    A case is presented for adjusting the scores for free response items in the Advanced Placement (AP) tests. Using information about the rating process from the reliability studies, administrations of the AP test for three subject areas, psychology, computer science, and English language and composition, are analyzed. In the reliability studies, 299…

  10. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of a Polymer Matrix Composite with Different Microstructures Subjected to Off-Axis Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the comprehensive influence of three microstructure parameters (fiber cross-section shape, fiber volume fraction, and fiber off-axis orientation and strain rate on the macroscopic property of a polymer matrix composite. During the analysis, AS4 fibers are considered as elastic solids, while the surrounding PEEK resin matrix exhibiting rate sensitivities are described using the modified Ramaswamy-Stouffer viscoplastic state variable model. The micromechanical method based on generalized model of cells has been used to analyze the representative volume element of composites. An acceptable agreement is observed between the model predictions and experimental results found in the literature. The research results show that the stress-strain curves are sensitive to the strain rate and the microstructure parameters play an important role in the behavior of polymer matrix.

  11. SU-G-BRB-03: Assessing the Sensitivity and False Positive Rate of the Integrated Quality Monitor (IQM) Large Area Ion Chamber to MLC Positioning Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, E McKenzie; DeMarco, J; Steers, J; Fraass, B [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To examine both the IQM’s sensitivity and false positive rate to varying MLC errors. By balancing these two characteristics, an optimal tolerance value can be derived. Methods: An un-modified SBRT Liver IMRT plan containing 7 fields was randomly selected as a representative clinical case. The active MLC positions for all fields were perturbed randomly from a square distribution of varying width (±1mm to ±5mm). These unmodified and modified plans were measured multiple times each by the IQM (a large area ion chamber mounted to a TrueBeam linac head). Measurements were analyzed relative to the initial, unmodified measurement. IQM readings are analyzed as a function of control points. In order to examine sensitivity to errors along a field’s delivery, each measured field was divided into 5 groups of control points, and the maximum error in each group was recorded. Since the plans have known errors, we compared how well the IQM is able to differentiate between unmodified and error plans. ROC curves and logistic regression were used to analyze this, independent of thresholds. Results: A likelihood-ratio Chi-square test showed that the IQM could significantly predict whether a plan had MLC errors, with the exception of the beginning and ending control points. Upon further examination, we determined there was ramp-up occurring at the beginning of delivery. Once the linac AFC was tuned, the subsequent measurements (relative to a new baseline) showed significant (p <0.005) abilities to predict MLC errors. Using the area under the curve, we show the IQM’s ability to detect errors increases with increasing MLC error (Spearman’s Rho=0.8056, p<0.0001). The optimal IQM count thresholds from the ROC curves are ±3%, ±2%, and ±7% for the beginning, middle 3, and end segments, respectively. Conclusion: The IQM has proven to be able to detect not only MLC errors, but also differences in beam tuning (ramp-up). Partially supported by the Susan Scott Foundation.

  12. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihani, Ahmadreza; Shirzhiyan, Zahra; Farahi, Morteza; Shamsi, Elham; Mahnam, Amin; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Haidari, Mohsen R; Jafari, Amir H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD) has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz) to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25) and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35) were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate ( 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s). High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24%) than simple patterns group (98.48%). Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features ( P rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], ( P = 0.63). Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65]) as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25-30-35). Discussion and Conclusion: Overall, rhythmic and simple pattern groups had higher and similar accuracy rates. Rhythmic stimuli patterns showed insignificantly lower fatigue rate than simple patterns. We conclude that both rhythmic and simple visual high frequency sine wave stimuli require further research for human subject SSVEP-BCI studies.

  13. Impact of subject related factors and position of flight control stick on acquisition of simulated flying skills using a flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bo-Keun

    Increasing demand on aviation industry calls for more pilots. Thus, pilot training systems and pilot-candidate screening systems are essential for civil and military flying training institutes. Before actual flight training, it is not easy to determine whether a flight trainee will be successful in the training. Due to the high cost of actual flight training, it would be better if there were low cost methods for screening and training candidates prior to the actual flight training. This study intended to determine if subject related factors and flight control stick position have an impact on acquisition of simulated flying skills using a PC-based flight simulator. The experimental model was a factorial design with repeated measures. Sixty-four subjects participated in the experiment and were divided into 8 groups. Experiment consisted of 8 sessions in which performance data, such as heading, altitude and airspeed were collected every 15 seconds. Collected data were analyzed using SAS statistical program. Result of multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the three independent variables: nationality, computer game experience, and flight stick position have significant impact on acquiring simulated flying skill. For nationality, Americans recorded higher scores in general (mean: 81.7) than Koreans (mean: 78.9). The difference in mean scores between Americans and Koreans was 2.8 percent. Regarding computer game experience, the difference between high experience group (82.3) and low experience group (78.3) is significant. For high experience group, American side-stick group recorded the highest (mean: 85.6), and Korean side-stick group (mean: 77.2) scored the lowest. For the low experience group, American center-stick group scored the highest (80.6), and the Korean side-stick group (74.2) scored the lowest points. Therefore, there is a significant difference between high experience group and low experience group. The results also reveal that the center

  14. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients, but not in Helicobacter pylori positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Mertz-Nielsen; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiær, Hanne

    1996-01-01

    Background: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. Methods: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE(2) were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positivr). Results: In healthy...... be responsible for the abnormally high gastric secretion of bicarbonate in inactive DU patients. Th; defective duodenal secretion of bicarbonate observed in these patients may be a consequence of previous ulceration rather than the mere presence of H. pylori infection....

  15. Measuring cognitive task demands using dual task methodology, subjective self-ratings, and expert judgments : A Validation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Révész, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgements in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 ESL teachers. The students, 48 English

  16. Measuring Cognitive Task Demands Using Dual-Task Methodology, Subjective Self-Ratings, and Expert Judgments: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Andrea; Michel, Marije; Gilabert, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the usefulness of dual-task methodology, self-ratings, and expert judgments in assessing task-generated cognitive demands as a way to provide validity evidence for manipulations of task complexity. The participants were 96 students and 61 English as a second language (ESL) teachers. The students, 48 English native speakers and…

  17. A Linear Programming Approach to Routing Control in Networks of Constrained Nonlinear Positive Systems with Concave Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Heather M.; Dousse, Nicholas; Langbort, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    We consider control design for positive compartmental systems in which each compartment's outflow rate is described by a concave function of the amount of material in the compartment.We address the problem of determining the routing of material between compartments to satisfy time-varying state constraints while ensuring that material reaches its intended destination over a finite time horizon. We give sufficient conditions for the existence of a time-varying state-dependent routing strategy which ensures that the closed-loop system satisfies basic network properties of positivity, conservation and interconnection while ensuring that capacity constraints are satisfied, when possible, or adjusted if a solution cannot be found. These conditions are formulated as a linear programming problem. Instances of this linear programming problem can be solved iteratively to generate a solution to the finite horizon routing problem. Results are given for the application of this control design method to an example problem. Key words: linear programming; control of networks; positive systems; controller constraints and structure.

  18. C-reactive protein, heart rate variability and prognosis in community subjects with no apparent heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, A; Nielsen, OW; Rasmussen, Verner

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) both indicate poor prognosis. An inverse association between HRV and CRP has been reported, suggesting an interaction between inflammatory and autonomic systems. However, the prognostic impact of this interact...... of four HRV measures were significantly associated with increased rate of death or myocardial infarction. In a Cox model with CRP >or=2.5 microg mL(-1), standard deviation for the mean value of the time between normal complexes...... examinations, and 24-h Holter monitoring. Four time domain measures of HRV were studied. All were prospectively followed for up to 5 years. RESULTS: Mean age was 64 years (55-75). During the follow-up, 46 total deaths and 11 cases of definite acute myocardial infarction were observed. Both CRP and three...

  19. Risk Stratification by 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in 5322 Subjects From 11 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    subjects (median age, 51.8 years; 43.1% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations, who had baseline measurements of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP(24)) and eGFR. We computed hazard ratios using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Median follow-up was 9.3 years. In fully adjusted models......, which included both ABP(24) and eGFR, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.008) both total (513 deaths) and cardiovascular (206) mortality; eGFR only predicted cardiovascular mortality (P=0.012). Furthermore, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.0056) fatal combined with nonfatal events as a result of all cardiovascular causes...... (555 events), cardiac disease (335 events), or stroke (218 events), whereas eGFR only predicted the composite cardiovascular end point and stroke (P≤0.035). The interaction terms between ABP(24) and eGFR were all nonsignificant (P≥0.082). For cardiovascular mortality, the composite cardiovascular end...

  20. Rate response of neurons subject to fast or frozen noise: from stochastic and homogeneous to deterministic and heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijani, Azadeh Khajeh; Richardson, Magnus J E

    2011-07-01

    The response of a neuronal population to afferent drive can be expected to be sensitive to both the distribution and dynamics of membrane voltages within the population. Voltage fluctuations can be driven by synaptic noise, neuromodulators, or cellular inhomogeneities: processes ranging from millisecond autocorrelation times to effectively static or "frozen" noise. Here we extend previous studies of filtered fluctuations to the experimentally verified exponential integrate-and-fire model. How fast or frozen fluctuations affect the steady-state rate and firing-rate response are both examined using perturbative solutions and limits of a 1 + 2 dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The central finding is that, under conditions of a more-or-less constant population voltage variance, the firing-rate response is only weakly dependent on the fluctuation filter constant: The voltage distribution is the principal determinant of the population response. This result is unexpected given the nature of the systems underlying the extreme limits of fast and frozen fluctuations; the first limit represents a homogeneous population of neurons firing stochastically, whereas the second limit is equivalent to a heterogeneous population of neurons firing deterministically.

  1. Does the Temporal Asymmetry of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability Change during Regular Walking? A Pilot Study of Healthy Young Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinpei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration and deceleration patterns in heartbeat fluctuations distribute asymmetrically, which is known as heart rate asymmetry (HRA. It is hypothesized that HRA reflects the balancing regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. This study was designed to examine whether altered autonomic balance during exercise can lead to HRA changes. Sixteen healthy college students were enrolled, and each student undertook two 5-min ECG measurements: one in a resting seated position and another while walking on a treadmill at a regular speed of 5 km/h. The two measurements were conducted in a randomized order, and a 30-min rest was required between them. RR interval time series were extracted from the 5-min ECG data, and HRA (short-term was estimated using four established metrics, that is, Porta’s index (PI, Guzik’s index (GI, slope index (SI, and area index (AI, from both raw RR interval time series and the time series after wavelet detrending that removes the low-frequency component of <~0.03 Hz. Our pilot data showed a reduced PI but unchanged GI, SI, and AI during walking compared to resting seated position based on the raw data. Based on the wavelet-detrended data, reduced PI, SI, and AI were observed while GI still showed no significant changes. The reduced PI during walking based on both raw and detrended data which suggests less short-term HRA may underline the belief that vagal tone is withdrawn during low-intensity exercise. GI may not be sensitive to short-term HRA. The reduced SI and AI based on detrended data suggest that they may capture both short- and long-term HRA features and that the expected change in short-term HRA is amplified after removing the trend that is supposed to link to long-term component. Further studies with more subjects and longer measurements are warranted to validate our observations and to examine these additional hypotheses.

  2. Low temperature leaf photosynthesis of a Miscanthus germplasm collection correlates positively to shoot growth rate and specific leaf area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xiurong; Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2016-01-01

    and CO2 response curves were obtained from 11 of the genotypes, and shoot growth rate was measured under field conditions. Key Results A positive linear relationship was found between SLA and light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) across genotypes, and also between shoot growth rate under cool field...... conditions and A1000 at 14 °C in a climate chamber. When lowering the temperature from 24 to 14 °C, one M. sacchariflorus exhibited significantly higher Asat and maximum photosynthetic rate in the CO2 response curve (Vmax) than other genotypes at 14 °C, except M. × giganteus ‘Hornum’. Several genotypes...... returned to their pre-chilling A1000 values when the temperature was increased to 24 °C after 24 d growth at 14 °C. Conclusions One M. sacchariflorus genotype had similar or higher photosynthetic capacity than M. × giganteus, and may be used for cultivation together with M. × giganteus or for breeding new...

  3. Extralevatory abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) does not result in reduced rate of tumor perforation or rate of positive circumferential resection margin: a nationwide database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mads; Fischer, Anders; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the oncological results and possible benefits associated with extralevatory abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) when compared with conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE). ELAPE was introduced in 2007 with the purpose of reducing the rate of positive resection margins after resection of low rectal cancers. Preliminary studies have shown promising results. No large-scale or nationwide data have been presented. Database study based on data from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's prospective database. Data on all ELAPEs and APEs performed in Denmark in the period January 1, 2009, through August 2012 were retrieved and evaluated for differences in demography, tumor characteristics, and oncological results. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for resection with a positive circumferential resection margin (CRM+). A total of 554 patients were included, 301(54%) were operated by ELAPE; 253(46%) by APE. Sixty-three percent were men, median (interquartile range) age was 69 (61-76 years) years, and tumors removed had predominantly T-stages T2 and T3 (32% and 45%, respectively). Overall, CRM+ was found in 13% of patients. When divided according to type of procedure, we found no significant differences in demography and tumor T- and N-stages. Resections with a CRM+ were more common after ELAPE (16% vs 7%; P = 0.006). After uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses, surgery by ELAPE remained a risk factor for a CRM+ [odds ratio, 2.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-5.12); P = 0.006). In this nationwide study, resection of low rectal cancers by ELAPE did not improve short-term oncological results, when compared with conventional APE.

  4. LOW FALSE POSITIVE RATE OF KEPLER CANDIDATES ESTIMATED FROM A COMBINATION OF SPITZER AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Désert, Jean-Michel; Brown, Timothy M.; Charbonneau, David; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, François; Ballard, Sarah; Latham, David W.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Borucki, William J.; Knutson, Heather A.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Deming, Drake; Ford, Eric B.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Seager, Sara

    2015-01-01

    NASA’s Kepler mission has provided several thousand transiting planet candidates during the 4 yr of its nominal mission, yet only a small subset of these candidates have been confirmed as true planets. Therefore, the most fundamental question about these candidates is the fraction of bona fide planets. Estimating the rate of false positives of the overall Kepler sample is necessary to derive the planet occurrence rate. We present the results from two large observational campaigns that were conducted with the Spitzer Space Telescope during the the Kepler mission. These observations are dedicated to estimating the false positive rate (FPR) among the Kepler candidates. We select a sub-sample of 51 candidates, spanning wide ranges in stellar, orbital, and planetary parameter space, and we observe their transits with Spitzer at 4.5 μm. We use these observations to measures the candidate’s transit depths and infrared magnitudes. An authentic planet produces an achromatic transit depth (neglecting the modest effect of limb darkening). Conversely a bandpass-dependent depth alerts us to the potential presence of a blending star that could be the source of the observed eclipse: a false positive scenario. For most of the candidates (85%), the transit depths measured with Kepler are consistent with the transit depths measured with Spitzer as expected for planetary objects, while we find that the most discrepant measurements are due to the presence of unresolved stars that dilute the photometry. The Spitzer constraints on their own yield FPRs between 5% and depending on the Kepler Objects of Interest. By considering the population of the Kepler field stars, and by combining follow-up observations (imaging) when available, we find that the overall FPR of our sample is low. The measured upper limit on the FPR of our sample is 8.8% at a confidence level of 3σ. This observational result, which uses the achromatic property of planetary transit signals that is not investigated

  5. LOW FALSE POSITIVE RATE OF KEPLER CANDIDATES ESTIMATED FROM A COMBINATION OF SPITZER AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Désert, Jean-Michel; Brown, Timothy M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Charbonneau, David; Torres, Guillermo; Fressin, François; Ballard, Sarah; Latham, David W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bryson, Stephen T.; Borucki, William J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Batalha, Natalie M. [San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Ford, Eric B. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Seager, Sara, E-mail: desert@colorado.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02159 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    NASA’s Kepler mission has provided several thousand transiting planet candidates during the 4 yr of its nominal mission, yet only a small subset of these candidates have been confirmed as true planets. Therefore, the most fundamental question about these candidates is the fraction of bona fide planets. Estimating the rate of false positives of the overall Kepler sample is necessary to derive the planet occurrence rate. We present the results from two large observational campaigns that were conducted with the Spitzer Space Telescope during the the Kepler mission. These observations are dedicated to estimating the false positive rate (FPR) among the Kepler candidates. We select a sub-sample of 51 candidates, spanning wide ranges in stellar, orbital, and planetary parameter space, and we observe their transits with Spitzer at 4.5 μm. We use these observations to measures the candidate’s transit depths and infrared magnitudes. An authentic planet produces an achromatic transit depth (neglecting the modest effect of limb darkening). Conversely a bandpass-dependent depth alerts us to the potential presence of a blending star that could be the source of the observed eclipse: a false positive scenario. For most of the candidates (85%), the transit depths measured with Kepler are consistent with the transit depths measured with Spitzer as expected for planetary objects, while we find that the most discrepant measurements are due to the presence of unresolved stars that dilute the photometry. The Spitzer constraints on their own yield FPRs between 5% and depending on the Kepler Objects of Interest. By considering the population of the Kepler field stars, and by combining follow-up observations (imaging) when available, we find that the overall FPR of our sample is low. The measured upper limit on the FPR of our sample is 8.8% at a confidence level of 3σ. This observational result, which uses the achromatic property of planetary transit signals that is not investigated

  6. Investigating the Effectiveness of Case-based Learning Instruction on Students’ Understanding the Subject of Reaction Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Ünal SÜMEN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of case-based learning related to reaction rate on students’ conceptual understanding and conceptual change. In this respect, a class of 11th grade students in an Anatolian High School in the center of Izmir city was chosen randomly as experimental group (n=26 and another as control group (n=22. Reaction rate unit was taught to the experimental group within case-based learning method, and to the control group through activities defined in Chemistry curriculum. Comprehension Test developed by Cakmakci (2005 was utilized as data collecting instrument. The Comprehension Test was applied simultaneously to both experimental and control groups before and after the teaching. The data collected via the Comprehension Test was analyzed in terms of both quantity and quality. As a result of the study, it was noted that there was a significant difference between the groups after the instruction in favor of the experimental group. Also, it was determined that case-based learning was more effective in promoting conceptual change and assuring higher level of conceptual understanding for students.

  7. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eRuffini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT on ANS activity through changes of High Frequency, a heart rate variability index indicating the parasympathetic activity, in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group.Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults, both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in 3 groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920.Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 minutes.Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency rate (p<0.001, and decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency rate (p<0.01; results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p<0.001 and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p<0.05. Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  8. Predictors of estimated glomerular filtration rate progression, stabilization or improvement after chronic renal impairment in HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Lene; Mocroft, Amanda; Kirk, Ole

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this analysis were to investigate predictors of progression, stabilization or improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after development of chronic renal impairment (CRI) in HIV-positive individuals. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. METHODS......: The Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study participants progressing to CRI defined as confirmed, at least 3 months apart, and eGFR 70 ml/min per 1.73 m or less were included in the analysis. The median of all eGFRs measured 24-36 months post-CRI was compared with the median e......GFR defining CRI, and changes were grouped into improvement (>+10 ml/min per 1.73 m), stabilization (-10 to +10 ml/min per 1.73 m) and progression (

  9. Mobile System for the Measurement of Dose Rates with locations determined by means of satellite positioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A.; Rio, L.M. del; Macias, J.A.; Vasco, J.

    1998-01-01

    Our laboratory has been developing and implementing a Real Time Radiological Warning Network around the Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant since 1990. It consists of six gamma dosimetry stations, two devices for the detection of radio-iodines and alpha, beta, and gamma emissions in air, a monitor for the continuous measurement of gamma radiation in water, and two basic meteorological stations. In this context, we have developed a mobile station endowed with a device for the measurement of dose rates which uses satellite positioning technology (GPS) so that it can be located remotely. The information gathered is sent back to our central laboratory in real/or deferred time through the digital mobile telephone network. A twofold utility is foreseen for this station: (a) action in the case of a radiological alert situation detected by our network, and (b) the performance of radiological-dosimetric studies of distant geographical zones. (Author)

  10. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  11. Examining the Center: Positions, Dominance, and Star Formation Rates of Most Massive Group Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Jennifer L.; Parker, Laura C.; McGee, Sean; Mulchaey, John S.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Balogh, Michael; Wilman, David; Group Environment Evolution Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The group environment is believed to be the stage for many galaxy transformations, helping evolve blue star-forming galaxies to red passive ones. In local studies of galaxy clusters, the central member is usually a single dominant giant galaxy at the center of the potential with little star formation thought to be the result of galaxy mergers. In nearby groups, a range of morphologies and star formation rates are observed and the formation history is less clear. Further, the position and dominance of the central galaxy cannot be assumed in groups, which are less massive and evolved than clusters. To understand the connections between global group properties and properties of the central group galaxy at intermediate redshift, we examine galaxy groups from the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC) catalog, including both optically- and X-ray-selected groups at redshift z~0.4. The sample is diverse, containing a range in overall mass and evolutionary state. The number of groups is significant, membership is notably complete, and measurements span the IR to the UV allowing the properties of the members to be connected to those of the host groups. Having investigated trends in the global group properties previously, including mass and velocity substructure, we turn our attention now to the galaxy populations, focusing on the central regions of these systems. The most massive and second most massive group galaxies are identified by their stellar mass. The positions of the most massive galaxies (MMGs) are determined with respect to both the luminosity-weighted and X-ray center. Star formation rates are used to explore the fraction of passive/quiescent versus star-forming MMGs and the dominance of the MMGs in our group sample is also tested. Determinations of these characteristics and trends constitute the important first steps toward a detailed understanding of the relationships between the properties of host groups and their most massive galaxies and the

  12. The effect of inclined position on stone free rates in patients with lower caliceal stones during SWL session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakiroglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the outcomes of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL combined with inclined position and SWL alone in patients with lower pole calyx stones. Methods: Seven hundred forty patients who underwent SWL treatment for lower pole renal stones with a total diameter of 2 cm or less were prospectively randomized into two groups. They were comparable in terms of age, sex, and stone diameters. Patients with lower calyceal stones (4-20 mm were randomized to SWL (368 patients or SWL with simultaneous inclination (372 patients with 30o head down Trendelenburg position. Shock wave and session numbers were standardized according to stone size. Additional standardized shock waves were given to patients with stone fragments determined by kidney urinary bladder film and ultrasound at weeks 1, 4, 10. Results: The overall stone free rate (SFR was 73% (268/368 in patients with SWL alone and 81% (300/372 in SWL with inclination at the end of 12th week (p = 0.015. No significant adverse events were noted in both treatment groups. Conclusion: Simultaneous inclination of patients during SWL session increase SFR in lower caliceal stones significantly compared to SWL treatment alone.

  13. Rates of sexual history taking and screening in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Alasdair; Lord, Emily; Forsythe, Annabel; Sherrard, Jackie

    2017-03-01

    A case note audit was undertaken of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) to ascertain whether national guidelines for taking sexual histories, including recreational drug use and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening were being met. The notes of 142 HIV-positive men seen in 2015 were available, of whom 85 were MSM. Information was collected regarding sexual history, recreational drug use documentation, sexually transmitted infection screen offer and test results. Seventy-seven (91%) of the MSM had a sexual history documented, of whom 60 (78%) were sexually active. STI screens were offered to 58/60 (97%) of those who were sexually active and accepted by 53 (91%). Twelve (23%) of these had an STI. A recreational drug history was taken in 63 (74%) with 17 (27%) reporting use and 3 (5%) chemsex. The high rate of STIs highlights that regular screening in this group is essential. Additionally, the fact that over a quarter reported recreational drug use and given the increasing concern around chemsex, questions about this should be incorporated into the sexual history proforma.

  14. Anteroposterior condylar position: a comparative study between subjects with normal occlusion and patients with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio; Campos, Marcio José da Silva; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2013-10-29

    The present study aimed to determine and compare the anteroposterior position of the condyle in the mandibular fossa between groups of asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusion and asymptomatic subjects with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions. Thirty persons with normal occlusion, 30 with Class I malocclusion, 30 with Class II Division 1, and 30 with Class III had computed tomography scans of their temporomandibular joints. The anterior joint space/posterior joint space (AJS/PJS) ratio was determined for the right and left joints. The paired t test was used to analyze the AJS/PJS ratio between both sides for each group. The ANOVA test was applied to verify the differences between the groups for the measurements of the right and left sides. In case the ANOVA test confirmed significance, the Dunnett's t test was performed to compare the groups of malocclusion with that of normal occlusion. The paired t test between the AJS/PJS relationships in the right and left sides showed the following p values: Class I (0.168), Class II Division 1 (0.662), Class III (0.991), and normal occlusion (0.390). The ANOVA test showed a p value of 0.445 for the comparisons of the right side and 0.040 for the left side. The Dunnett's t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the Class II group and the normal occlusion group (p value of 0.026) in the joints of the left side. Bilateral symmetry and lack of condyle centralization were common characteristics among all groups. The greatest condylar decentralization was observed in the Class II group, whereas the least condylar decentralization was found in the normal occlusion group.

  15. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle N; Howell, Tony

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence12

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. PMID:27422504

  17. Positioning the 5'-flap junction in the active site controls the rate of flap endonuclease-1-catalyzed DNA cleavage

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Bo

    2018-02-09

    Flap endonucleases catalyze cleavage of single-stranded DNA flaps formed during replication, repair and recombination, and are therefore essential for genome processing and stability. Recent crystal structures of DNA-bound human flap endonuclease (hFEN1) offer new insights into how conformational changes in the DNA and hFEN1 may facilitate the reaction mechanism. For example, previous biochemical studies of DNA conformation performed under non-catalytic conditions with Ca2+ have suggested that base unpairing at the 5\\'-flap:template junction is an important step in the reaction, but the new structural data suggest otherwise. To clarify the role of DNA changes in the kinetic mechanism, we measured a series of transient steps - from substrate binding to product release - during the hFEN1-catalyzed reaction in the presence of Mg2+. We found that while hFEN1 binds and bends DNA at a fast, diffusion-limited rate, much slower Mg2+-dependent conformational changes in DNA around the active site are subsequently necessary and rate-limiting for 5\\'-flap cleavage. These changes are reported overall by fluorescence of 2-aminopurine at the 5\\'-flap:template junction, indicating that local DNA distortion (e.g., disruption of base stacking observed in structures), associated with positioning the 5\\'-flap scissile phosphodiester bond in the hFEN1 active site, controls catalysis. hFEN1 residues with distinct roles in the catalytic mechanism, including those binding metal ions (Asp-34, Asp-181), steering the 5\\'-flap through the active site and binding the scissile phosphate (Lys-93, Arg-100), and stacking against the base 5\\' to the scissile phosphate (Tyr-40), all contribute to these rate-limiting conformational changes, ensuring efficient and specific cleavage of 5\\'-flaps.

  18. Positioning the 5'-flap junction in the active site controls the rate of flap endonuclease-1-catalyzed DNA cleavage

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Bo; Hamdan, Samir; Hingorani, Manju M

    2018-01-01

    Flap endonucleases catalyze cleavage of single-stranded DNA flaps formed during replication, repair and recombination, and are therefore essential for genome processing and stability. Recent crystal structures of DNA-bound human flap endonuclease (hFEN1) offer new insights into how conformational changes in the DNA and hFEN1 may facilitate the reaction mechanism. For example, previous biochemical studies of DNA conformation performed under non-catalytic conditions with Ca2+ have suggested that base unpairing at the 5'-flap:template junction is an important step in the reaction, but the new structural data suggest otherwise. To clarify the role of DNA changes in the kinetic mechanism, we measured a series of transient steps - from substrate binding to product release - during the hFEN1-catalyzed reaction in the presence of Mg2+. We found that while hFEN1 binds and bends DNA at a fast, diffusion-limited rate, much slower Mg2+-dependent conformational changes in DNA around the active site are subsequently necessary and rate-limiting for 5'-flap cleavage. These changes are reported overall by fluorescence of 2-aminopurine at the 5'-flap:template junction, indicating that local DNA distortion (e.g., disruption of base stacking observed in structures), associated with positioning the 5'-flap scissile phosphodiester bond in the hFEN1 active site, controls catalysis. hFEN1 residues with distinct roles in the catalytic mechanism, including those binding metal ions (Asp-34, Asp-181), steering the 5'-flap through the active site and binding the scissile phosphate (Lys-93, Arg-100), and stacking against the base 5' to the scissile phosphate (Tyr-40), all contribute to these rate-limiting conformational changes, ensuring efficient and specific cleavage of 5'-flaps.

  19. Estimation of Most Favorable Optical Window Position Subject to Achieve Finest Optical Control of Lateral DDR IMPATT Diode Designed to Operate at W-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Acharyya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimum position of the optical window (OW of illuminated lateral double-drift region (DDR impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT device has been determined subject to achieve the finest optical control of both DC and RF properties of the device. The OW is a tiny hole that has to be created on the oxide layer through which the light energy of appropriate wavelength can be coupled to the space charge region of the device. A non-sinusoidal voltage is assumed to be applied across the diode and the corresponding terminal current response is obtained from a two-dimensional (2-D large-signal (L-S simulation technique developed by the authors for illuminated lateral DDR IMPATT diode. Both the DC and L-S properties of the illuminated device based on Si, designed to operate at W-band frequencies (75 – 110 GHz are obtained from the said L-S simulation. Simulation is carried out for different incident optical power levels of different wavelengths (600 – 1000 nm by varying the position of the fixed sized OW on the oxide layer along the direction of electrical conduction of the device. Results show that, the most favorable optical tuning can be achieved when the OW is entirely created over the p-type depletion layer, i.e. when the photocurrent is purely electron dominated. Also the 700 nm wavelength is found to be most suitable wavelength for obtaining the maximum optical modulation of both DC and RF properties of the device.

  20. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  1. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  2. Positive Rates and Factors Associated with Abnormal Lung Function of Greenhouse Workers in China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojun; Gao, Panjun; Gu, Yishuo; Xiao, Pei; Liu, Mengxuan; Chen, Juan; Cen, Yacai; Ma, Wenjun; Li, Tao

    2017-08-24

    Since the number of greenhouse workers are increasing in China, this observational cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate lung function and discuss the potential risk factors, to provide evidence in the surveillance of greenhouse workers' health. 678 greenhouse workers in Gansu Province, China were enrolled. A questionnaire which included demographic and occupational information was used. Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁), and FEV₁:FVC ratios (FEV₁/FVC), maximal expiratory flow after 50% of the FVC has not been exhaled (MEF 50 ), maximal expiratory flow after 25% of the FVC has not been exhaled (MEF 25 ) and maximal mid-expiratory flow curve (MMEF) were measured as lung function indicators. The mean values and standard deviations (SDs) of VC% predicted, FVC% predicted, FEV₁% predicted and FEV₁/FVC ratio were 106.07 ± 13.36, 107.60 ± 13.95, 97.19 ± 14.80 and 89.76 ± 10.78 respectively. The positive rates of above four and abnormal lung ventilation function were 2.9%, 2.8%, 11.2%, 4.6% and 6.5% respectively. Gender, age, BMI and number of greenhouses owned were influence factors of lung ventilation function ( p greenhouses owned were influence factors for small airway function ( p greenhouse might influence lung function of the workers. Small airway function indicators could be used as priority indicators for the surveillance of greenhouse workers' health.

  3. Asymmetric simple exclusion process with position-dependent hopping rates: Phase diagram from boundary-layer analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Sutapa

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study a one-dimensional totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with position-dependent hopping rates. Under open boundary conditions, this system exhibits boundary-induced phase transitions in the steady state. Similarly to totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes with uniform hopping, the phase diagram consists of low-density, high-density, and maximal-current phases. In various phases, the shape of the average particle density profile across the lattice including its boundary-layer parts changes significantly. Using the tools of boundary-layer analysis, we obtain explicit solutions for the density profile in different phases. A detailed analysis of these solutions under different boundary conditions helps us obtain the equations for various phase boundaries. Next, we show how the shape of the entire density profile including the location of the boundary layers can be predicted from the fixed points of the differential equation describing the boundary layers. We discuss this in detail through several examples of density profiles in various phases. The maximal-current phase appears to be an especially interesting phase where the boundary layer flows to a bifurcation point on the fixed-point diagram.

  4. Effects of rates and time of zeolite application on controlling runoff generation and soil loss from a soil subjected to a freeze-thaw cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Behzadfar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many factors such as freeze-thaw (FT cycle influence soil behavior. Application of soil amendments can play an important role on runoff time commencement (RT, volume (RV and soil loss (SL on soils subjected to FT cycles. However, limited studies have been documented on this subject. The present study was therefore carried out under rainfall simulation circumstances to investigate the effect of different rates of zeolite application to control the effects of FT on basic hydrological variables such as runoff production and soil loss. Towards this attempt, the effect of application of different rates of 250, 500 and 750 g m−2 of zeolite applied before, during and after the occurrence of FT cycle on RT, RV and SL was assessed in a completely randomized design. Treatments were set up in two categories viz. control (without zeolite application, and three rates and times of zeolite application in small 0.25 m2-experimental plots in three replications. The results showed that application of zeolite had significant effects on hydrological behavior of soil induced by FT cycles. Application rate of 750 g m−2 prior to FT cycle increased RT and reduced RV and SL at rates of 644%, 68% and 91%, respectively. The results also verified that zeolite could successfully mitigate the impacts of FT cycle on the main soil hydrological variables of soil profile induced by FT cycle. It is accordingly recommended to employ zeolite as an effective amendment to control soil erosion in steep and degraded rangelands where surface soil is exposed to rainfall and runoff.

  5. Determination of subjective similarity for pairs of masses and pairs of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms: Comparison of similarity ranking scores and absolute similarity ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert A.; Shiraishi, Junji; Suzuki, Kenji; Newstead, Gillian M.; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    The presentation of images that are similar to that of an unknown lesion seen on a mammogram may be helpful for radiologists to correctly diagnose that lesion. For similar images to be useful, they must be quite similar from the radiologists' point of view. We have been trying to quantify the radiologists' impression of similarity for pairs of lesions and to establish a ''gold standard'' for development and evaluation of a computerized scheme for selecting such similar images. However, it is considered difficult to reliably and accurately determine similarity ratings, because they are subjective. In this study, we compared the subjective similarities obtained by two different methods, an absolute rating method and a 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) method, to demonstrate that reliable similarity ratings can be determined by the responses of a group of radiologists. The absolute similarity ratings were previously obtained for pairs of masses and pairs of microcalcifications from five and nine radiologists, respectively. In this study, similarity ranking scores for eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were determined by use of the 2AFC method. In the first session, the eight pairs of masses and eight pairs of microcalcifications were grouped and compared separately for determining the similarity ranking scores. In the second session, another similarity ranking score was determined by use of mixed pairs, i.e., by comparison of the similarity of a mass pair with that of a calcification pair. Four pairs of masses and four pairs of microcalcifications were grouped together to create two sets of eight pairs. The average absolute similarity ratings and the average similarity ranking scores showed very good correlations in the first study (Pearson's correlation coefficients: 0.94 and 0.98 for masses and microcalcifications, respectively). Moreover, in the second study, the correlations between the absolute ratings and the ranking scores were also

  6. Aerobic exercise acutely prevents the endothelial dysfunction induced by mental stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome: the role of shear rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Allan R K; Fernandes, Igor A; Rocha, Natália G; Costa, Lucas S; Rocha, Helena N M; Mattos, João D M; Vianna, Lauro C; Silva, Bruno M; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2014-04-01

    Mental stress induces transient endothelial dysfunction, which is an important finding for subjects at cardiometabolic risk. Thus, we tested whether aerobic exercise prevents this dysfunction among subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether an increase in shear rate during exercise plays a role in this phenomenon. Subjects with MetS participated in two protocols. In protocol 1 (n = 16), endothelial function was assessed using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Subjects then underwent a mental stress test followed by either 40 min of leg cycling or rest across two randomized sessions. FMD was assessed again at 30 and 60 min after exercise or rest, with a second mental stress test in between. Mental stress reduced FMD at 30 and 60 min after the rest session (baseline: 7.7 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.5%, and 60 min: 3.9 ± 0.5%, P exercise prevented this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 7.2 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline). Protocol 2 (n = 5) was similar to protocol 1 except that the first period of mental stress was followed by either exercise in which the brachial artery shear rate was attenuated via forearm cuff inflation or exercise without a cuff. Noncuffed exercise prevented the reduction in FMD (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.7%, 30 min: 7.0 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline), whereas cuffed exercise failed to prevent this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.6%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.8%, and 60 min: 4.1 ± 0.9%, P exercise prevented mental stress-induced endothelial dysfunction among subjects with MetS, and an increase in shear rate during exercise mediated this effect.

  7. Whole-gene positive selection, elevated synonymous substitution rates, duplication, and indel evolution of the chloroplast clpP1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Erixon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synonymous DNA substitution rates in the plant chloroplast genome are generally relatively slow and lineage dependent. Non-synonymous rates are usually even slower due to purifying selection acting on the genes. Positive selection is expected to speed up non-synonymous substitution rates, whereas synonymous rates are expected to be unaffected. Until recently, positive selection has seldom been observed in chloroplast genes, and large-scale structural rearrangements leading to gene duplications are hitherto supposed to be rare. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We found high substitution rates in the exons of the plastid clpP1 gene in Oenothera (the Evening Primrose family and three separate lineages in the tribe Sileneae (Caryophyllaceae, the Carnation family. Introns have been lost in some of the lineages, but where present, the intron sequences have substitution rates similar to those found in other introns of their genomes. The elevated substitution rates of clpP1 are associated with statistically significant whole-gene positive selection in three branches of the phylogeny. In two of the lineages we found multiple copies of the gene. Neighboring genes present in the duplicated fragments do not show signs of elevated substitution rates or positive selection. Although non-synonymous substitutions account for most of the increase in substitution rates, synonymous rates are also markedly elevated in some lineages. Whereas plant clpP1 genes experiencing negative (purifying selection are characterized by having very conserved lengths, genes under positive selection often have large insertions of more or less repetitive amino acid sequence motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found positive selection of the clpP1 gene in various plant lineages to correlated with repeated duplication of the clpP1 gene and surrounding regions, repetitive amino acid sequences, and increase in synonymous substitution rates. The present study sheds light on the

  8. Comparison of injury rates between cadets with limb length inequalities and matched control subjects over 1 year of military training and athletic participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Donald Lee; Moore, Josef H; Slivka, Erin M; Hatler, Brian S

    2006-06-01

    To compare lower-limb overuse injury and low back pain incidence among cadets with and without limb length inequality (LLI) over 1 year of military training and athletic participation. A total of 1,100 cadets were screened for LLIs; 126 of 1,100 were identified to have a LLI of > 0.5 cm and were assigned a matched control cadet. Injury rates, numbers of visits to sick call, and numbers of days spent on medical excusal during a 1-year period were then compared for the 252 cadets. There was no difference in prevalence of injury between the groups and no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the groups in injury rates, visits to sick call, or number of days spent on medical excusal. These findings do not support any increased incidence of injuries in a young, healthy, athletic, military population with mild LLIs, compared with matched control subjects without LLIs, over 1 year.

  9. Efficacy of Executive Functions Training (Response Inhibition on the Rate of Impulsivity in Preschool Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Single-Subject Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoush Kavianpour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the efficacy of executive functions training (response inhibition on the rate of impulsivity in preschool children with developmental coordination disorder in Isfahan city.  Materials & Methods: The participants of this study were three preschool children which were recognized to have developmental coordination disorder. To collect data, we used NEPSY neuropsychology test, Conner’s parent rating scale, Wechsler intelligence scale for children, basic motor ability tests and clinical interview. A single-subject method with MBD design research methodology was used as well. Results: The results of the data chart analysis based on descriptive statistics' and visual analysis indices revealed that the intervention has been effective on the three participants (PND of 80%, 70% and 70% for test number one, two and three, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that response inhibition executive function training can reduce level of impulsivity.

  10. Subjective Positive and Negative Sleep Variables Differentially Affect Cellular Immune Activity in a Breast Cancer Survivor: A Time-series Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Singer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on a breast cancer survivor suffering from cancer-related fatigue (CaRF and depression investigated the bidirectional relationship between cellular immune activity and subjective sleep. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years before the study, currently in remission collected her full urine output for 28 days in 12-h intervals (8:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.. These urine samples were used to determine urinary neopterin (cellular immune activation marker and creatinine concentrations via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Each morning, the patient answered questions on five sleep variables: sleep quality (SQ, sleep recreational value (SRV, total sleep time (TST, total wake time (TWT, and awakenings during sleep period (ADS. For the purpose of this study, the time series of the nighttime urinary neopterin levels and the five sleep variables were determined. Using centered moving average (CMA smoothing and cross-correlational analysis, this study showed that increases in the positive sleep variables SQ and SRV were followed by urinary neopterin concentration decreases after 96–120 h (SQ, lag 4: r = −0.411; p = 0.044; SRV: lag 4: r = −0.472; p = 0.021 and 120–144 h (SRV, lag 5: r = −0.464; p = 0.026. Increases in the negative sleep variable TWT, by contrast, were followed by increases in urinary neopterin concentrations 72–96 h later (lag 3: r = 0.522; p = 0.009. No systematic effects in the other direction, i.e., from urinary neopterin levels to sleep, were observed in this study. Although preliminary, the findings of this study highlight the benefit of carefully investigating temporal delays and directions of effects when studying the dynamic relationship between sleep and immune variables in the natural context of everyday life.

  11. Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate and pH Among Areca Nut Chewers and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Subjects: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima; Dyasanoor, Sujatha

    2015-09-01

    To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR) and salivary pH among areca nut chewers, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and apparently healthy individuals. A comparative study was conducted to assess and compare the SFR and pH among 135 outpatients (45 areca nut chewers + 45 OSMF + 45 control) at The Oxford Dental College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, India. Subjects were interviewed using structural proforma and Modified Schirmer strips and pH paper were implemented for assessing SFR and pH respectively. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 software. A statistically significant increase in SFR (35.7 mm at 3rd minutes) among areca nut group and a decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd minutes) when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd minutes). The mean pH among areca nut, OSMF and control groups was 6.76, 6.82, and 6.74 respectively with no statistical significance. The observation and findings of the study clearly showed hypersalivation among areca nut group and hyposalivation among OSMF group, with no significant change in salivary pH when compared to healthy subjects.

  12. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  13. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Ae Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV, prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS. Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2–3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  14. Effect of PGX, a novel functional fibre supplement, on subjective ratings of appetite in overweight and obese women consuming a 3-day structured, low-calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacinik, V; Lyon, M; Purnama, M; Reimer, R A; Gahler, R; Green, T J; Wood, S

    2011-12-12

    Dietary factors that help control perceived hunger might improve adherence to calorie-reduced diets. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing a three-day, low-calorie diet with PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a highly viscous fibre, on subjective ratings of appetite compared with a placebo. In a double-blind crossover design with a 3-week washout, 45 women (aged 38±9 years, body mass index 29.9±2.8 kg m(-2)) were randomised to consume a 1000-kcal per day diet for 3 days, supplemented with 5 g of PGX or placebo at each of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Subjective appetite was assessed using 100 mm visual analogue scales that were completed daily before, between and after consumption of meals. Thirty-five women completed the study. Consumption of PGX compared with placebo led to significantly lower mean area under the curve for hunger on day 3 (440.4 versus 375.4; P=0.048), prospective consumption on day 3 (471.0 versus 401.8; P=0.017) and the overall 3-day average (468.6 versus 420.2; P=0.026). More specifically, on day 3 PGX significantly reduced total appetite, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption for 2.5 and 4.5 h after lunch and before dinner times, with hunger also being reduced 2.5 h after dinner (P<0.05). The results show that adding 5 g of PGX to meals during consumption of a low-calorie diet reduces subjective ratings of prospective consumption and increases the feelings of satiety, especially during afternoon and evening. This highly viscous polysaccharide may be a useful adjunct to weight-loss interventions involving significant caloric reductions.

  15. Comparison of three continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) interfaces in healthy Beagle dogs during medetomidine-propofol constant rate infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Carolina; Joerger, Fabiola B; Kutter, Annette P N; Waldmann, Andreas; Ringer, Simone K; Böehm, Stephan H; Iff, Samuel; Mosing, Martina

    2018-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of three continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) interfaces in dogs on gas exchange, lung volumes, amount of leak during CPAP and rebreathing in case of equipment failure or disconnection. Randomized, prospective, crossover, experimental trial. Ten purpose-bred Beagle dogs. Dogs were in dorsal recumbency during medetomidine-propofol constant rate infusions, breathing room air. Three interfaces were tested in each dog in a consecutive random order: custom-made mask (M), conical face mask (FM) and helmet (H). End-expiratory lung impedance (EELI) measured by electrical impedance tomography was assessed with no interface (baseline), with the interface only (No-CPAP for 3 minutes) and at 15 minutes of 7 cmH 2 O CPAP (CPAP-delivery). PaO 2 was assessed at No-CPAP and CPAP-delivery, partial pressure of inspired carbon dioxide (PICO 2 ; rebreathing assessment) at No-CPAP and the interface leak (ΔP leak ) at CPAP-delivery. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used for statistical analysis (pCPAP-delivery, all interfaces increased EELI by 7% (pCPAP, less rebreathing occurred with M (0.5 kPa, 4 mmHg) than with FM (1.8 kPa, 14 mmHg) and with H (1.4 kPa, 11 mmHg), but also lower PaO 2 was measured with M (9.3 kPa, 70 mmHg) than with H (11.9 kPa, 90 mmHg) and FM (10.8 kPa, 81 mmHg). All three interfaces can be used to provide adequate CPAP in dogs. The leak during CPAP-delivery and the risk of rebreathing and hypoxaemia, when CPAP is not maintained, can be significant. Therefore, animals should always be supervised during administration of CPAP with any of the three interfaces. The performance of the custom-made M was not superior to the other interfaces. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The sensitivity and specificity of subjective memory complaints and the subjective memory rating scale, deterioration cognitive observee, mini-mental state examination, six-item screener and clock drawing test in dementia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlall, S; Chipps, J; Bhigjee, A I; Pillay, B J

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of dementia screening depends on the availability of suitable screening tools with good sensitivity and specificity to confidently distinguish normal age-related cognitive decline from dementia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of 7 screening measures for dementia. A sample of 140 participants aged ≥60 years living in a residential facility for the aged were assessed clinically and assigned caseness for dementia using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revised diagnostic criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of a selection of the following screening measures were tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for individual and combined tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Six-Item Screener (SIS), Subjective Memory Complaint, Subjective Memory Complaint Clinical (SMCC), Subjective Memory Rating Scale (SMRS), Deterioration Cognitive Observee (DECO) and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT). Using ROC analyses, the SMCC, MMSE and CDT were found to be 'moderately accurate' in screening for dementia with an area under the curve (AUC) >0.70. The AUCs for the SIS (0.526), SMRS (0.661) and DECO (0.687) classified these measures as being 'less accurate'. At recommended cutoff scores, the SMCC had a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 45.7%; the MMSE had a sensitivity of 63.6% and a specificity of 76.0%, and the CDT had a sensitivity of 44.4% and a specificity of 88.9%. Combining the SMCC and MMSE did not improve their predictive power except for a modest increase when using the sequential rule. The SMCC is composed of valid screening questions that have high sensitivity, are simple to administer and ideal for administration at the community or primary health care level as a first level of 'rule-out' screening. The MMSE can be included at a second stage of screening at the general hospital level and the CDT in specialist clinical settings. Sequential use of the

  17. Human Papillomavirus neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies induced in HIV-positive subjects after vaccination with quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Helena; Nielsen, Lars Toft; Sehr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-one HIV-infected individuals (61 men and 30 women) were randomized to vaccination either with quadrivalent (Gardasil™) or bivalent (Cervarix™) HPV vaccine. Neutralizing and specific HPV-binding serum antibodies were measured at baseline and 12 months after the first vaccine dose. Presence...... of neutralizing and binding antibodies had good agreement (average Kappa for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 was 0.65). At baseline, 88% of subjects had antibodies against at least one genital HPV. Following vaccination with Cervarix™, all subjects became seropositive for HPV16 and 18. After Gardasil......™ vaccination, 96% of subjects seroconverted for HPV16 and 73% for HPV18. Levels of HPV16-specific antibodies were 10IU in 85% of study subjects after vaccination. Antibodies against non-vaccine HPV types appeared after Gardasil...

  18. The addition of locust bean gum but not water delayed the gastric emptying rate of a nutrient semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björgell Ola

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the previous studies regarding the effects of gel-forming fibres have considered the gastric emptying of liquid or solid meals after the addition of pectin or guar gum. The influence of locust bean gum, on gastric emptying of nutrient semisolid meals in humans has been less well studied, despite its common occurrence in foods. Using a standardised ultrasound method, this study was aimed at investigating if the gastric emptying in healthy subjects could be influenced by adding locust been gum, a widely used thickening agent, or water directly into a nutrient semisolid test meal. Methods The viscosity of a basic test meal (300 g rice pudding, 330 kcal was increased by adding Nestargel (6 g, 2.4 kcal, containing viscous dietary fibres (96.5% provided as seed flour of locust bean gum, and decreased by adding 100 ml of water. Gastric emptying of these three test meals were evaluated in fifteen healthy non-smoking volunteers, using ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral area to estimate the gastric emptying rate (GER. Results The median value of GER with the basic test meal (rice pudding was estimated at 63 %, (range 47 to 84 %, (the first quartile = 61 %, the third quartile = 69 %. Increasing the viscosity of the rice pudding by adding Nestargel, resulted in significantly lower gastric emptying rates (p p = 0.28 compared to the GER of the basic test meal. Conclusions We conclude that the addition of locust bean gum to a nutrient semisolid meal has a major impact on gastric emptying by delaying the emptying rate, but that the addition of water to this test meal has no influence on gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

  19. The predictive value of self-rated health in the presence of subjective memory complaints on permanent nursing home placement in elderly primary care patients over 4-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    self-rated health (SRH) predicts nursing home (NH) placement; subjective memory complaints (SMC) too. However, the predictive value of SRH in the presence of SMC is unclear.......self-rated health (SRH) predicts nursing home (NH) placement; subjective memory complaints (SMC) too. However, the predictive value of SRH in the presence of SMC is unclear....

  20. Fractional esterification rate of cholesterol and ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol are powerful predictors of positive findings on coronary angiography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frohlich, J.; Dobiášová, Milada

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2003), s. 1873-1880 ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA MZd NA6590 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : fractional esterification rate of cholesterol (FERHDL) * coronary angiography * markers of atherosclerotic lesions Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.538, year: 2003

  1. Evaluating the impacts of landscape positions and nitrogen fertilizer rates on dissolved organic carbon on switchgrass land seeded on marginally yielding cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Liming; Kumar, Sandeep; Mbonimpa, Eric G; Hong, Chang Oh; Owens, Vance N; Neupane, Ram P

    2016-04-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through leaching into the soils is another mechanism of net C loss. It plays an important role in impacting the environment and impacted by soil and crop management practices. However, little is known about the impacts of landscape positions and nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates on DOC leaching in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). This experimental design included three N fertilizer rates [0 (low); 56 (medium); 112 (high) kg N ha(-1)] and three landscape positions (shoulder, backslope and footslope). Daily average DOC contents at backslope were significantly lower than that at shoulder and footslope. The DOC contents from the plots that received medium N rate were also significantly lower than the plots that received low N rates. The interactions of landscape and N rates on DOC contents were different in every year from 2009 to 2014, however, no significant consistent trend of DOC contents was observed over time. Annual average DOC contents from the plots managed with low N rate were higher than those with high N rate. These contents at the footslope were higher than that at the shoulder position. Data show that there is a moderate positive relationship between the total average DOC contents and the total average switchgrass biomass yields. Overall, the DOC contents from leachate in the switchgrass land were significantly influenced by landscape positions and N rates. The N fertilization reduced DOC leaching contents in switchgrass field. The switchgrass could retain soil and environment sustainability to some extent. These findings will assist in understanding the mechanism of changes in DOC contents with various parameters in the natural environment and crop management systems. However, use of long-term data might help to better assess the effects of above factors on DOC leaching contents and loss in the switchgrass field in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Power Spectral Analysis of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Healthy and Arrhythmia Subjects by the Adaptive Continuous Morlet Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sewak SINGH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Power spectral analysis of short-term heart rate variability (HRV can provide instant valuable information to understand the functioning of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system. In this study, an adaptive continuous Morlet wavelet transform (ACMWT method has been used to describe the time-frequency characteristics of the HRV using band power spectra and the median value of interquartile range. Adaptation of the method was based on the measurement of maximum energy concentration. The ACMWT has been validated on synthetic signals (i.e. stationary, non-stationary as slow varying and fast changing frequency with time modeled as closest to dynamic changes in HRV signals. This method has been also tested in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN to show its robustness towards the noise. From the results of testing on synthetic signals, the ACMWT was found to be an enhanced energy concentration estimator for assessment of power spectral of short-term HRV time series compared to adaptive Stockwell transform (AST, adaptive modified Stockwell transform (AMST, standard continuous Morlet wavelet transform (CMWT and Stockwell transform (ST estimators at statistical significance level of 5%. Further, the ACMWT was applied to real HRV data from Fantasia and MIT-BIH databases, grouped as healthy young group (HYG, healthy elderly group (HEG, arrhythmia controlled medication group (ARCMG, and supraventricular tachycardia group (SVTG subjects. The global results demonstrate that spectral indices of low frequency power (LFp and high frequency power (HFp of HRV were decreased in HEG compared to HYG subjects (p<0.0001. While LFp and HFp indices were increased in ARCMG compared to HEG (p<0.00001. The LFp and HFp components of HRV obtained from SVTG were reduced compared to other group subjects (p<0.00001.

  3. Prediction of basal metabolic rate in overweight/obese and non-obese subjects and its relation to pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghani, Tarig H; Alawad, Azza O; Ibrahim, Rihab M; Abdelmoniem, Asim M

    2015-08-15

    Few studies investigated the association between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and indicators of pulmonary function. This study was conducted to estimate BMR in overweight/obese and non-obese healthy subjects using four commonly used predictive equations and to investigate its relation to the indicators of lung function tests (LFT). A cross sectional study was conducted in Tabuk University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. A total of 201 students (98 males and 103 females) participated in the study. Four different values of BMR were calculated for each participant using four different predictive equations (Harris-Benedict, Mifflin, FAO/WHO/UNU and Henry-Rees). A portable All-flow spirometer (Clement Clarke International, Harlow, UK) was used for measurements of LFT. Significantly higher values of spirometric indicators (p BMR values predicted with the four equations were significantly higher in the males compared to the females and among the overweight/obese compared to the non-obese subjects (p BMR values and the indicators of LFT was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Mean values of LFT indicators are not related to the estimated values of BMR. A practical calculation of BMR based on direct measurement of oxygen consumption is recommended to confirm the absence of this association.

  4. Entre a sujeição e o domínio, vibra a posição sujeito: reverberações éticas de uma concepção do sujeito como lugar enunciativo Between subjection and dominance, vibrates the position of subject: ethical reverberations of a conception of the subject as a place of enunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Moschen Rickes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe pensar as condições de possibilidade que sustentam a emergência do lugar sujeito. Para tanto, reflete sobre as posições enunciativas, sobre os lugares sujeito produzidos pelas diferentes articulações sociais estabelecidas nos modos orais e letrados de produção, acúmulo e transmissão dos saberes, desdobrando a tese freudiana (Freud, 1920/1974, retomada por Lacan (1954-1955/1987, de que é impossível pensar o singular alijado das condições do laço social que o determina.The article intends to ponder the conditions of possibility that support the emergence of the subject-place. For that, it reflects upon the enunciative positions and upon the subject-places produced by the different social articulations established on the oral and literate forms of production, accumulation and transmission of knowledge, expanding the Freudian thesis (Freud, 1920/1974, redeveloped by Lacan (1954-1955/1987, that it is impossible to think the particular when disconnected from the conditions of the social lace by which it is determined.

  5. A within-subject longitudinal study of the effects of positive job experiences and generalized workplace harassment on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoobler, Jenny M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Lemmon, Grace; Rosa, Jose A

    2010-10-01

    Drawing on the mobilization-minimization hypothesis, this research examines the influence of positive job experiences and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) on employee job stress and well-being over time, postulating declines in the adverse influence of GWH between Time 1 and 2 and less pronounced declines in the influence of positive job experiences over this same timeframe of approximately one year. A national sample of 1,167 workers polled via telephone at two time periods illustrates that negative job experiences weigh more heavily on mental health than do positive job experiences in the short-term. In the long-term, GWH's association with mental health and job stress was diminished. But its effects on job stress, and mental health, and physical health persist over one year, and, in the case of long-term mental health, GWH overshadows the positive mental health effects of positive job experiences. The research also argues for a reconceptualization of GWH and positive job experiences as formative latent variables on theoretical grounds. © 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Positive Psychology in the Class: The Effectiveness of a Teaching Method Based on Subjective Well-Being and Engagement Increasing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is investigate that the effectiveness of a teaching method which is based on subjective well-being increasing activities and engagement increasing activities, has been developed for university students in the present study. The method of the present study is a mixed method. Thus, the most important feature of it has…

  7. Blood homocysteine and fasting insulin levels are reduced and erythrocyte sedimentation rates increased with a glycophospholipid-vitamin formulation: a retrospective study in older subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita R. Ellithorpe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevations in Homocyteine (Hcys levels in the blood have been correlated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and stroke, loss of cognition and memory, and other chronic medical conditions. Objective: A retrospective study was initiated to determine if Hcys levels and other blood markers were altered in subjects taking an oral functional food supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids (NT Factor® and vitamins. Methods: Thirty-five patients (28 females, 7 males, Av. Age=60.7±9.6 years who had used the functional food Advanced Physician’s FormulaTM with NTFactor® in tablet form each day were enrolled in a retrospective study on blood chemistry. This retrospective study followed a prospective study on the use of the same supplement to reduce fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue. Participants were patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis or other fatiguing illnesses. Subjects had blood drawn over a 6-month period, and routine blood testing was performed. In this laboratory study the results were analyzed for differences, and statistical analyses were performed. Results: All participants responded in the study and showed an average reduction of 31.8% in Hcys levels (from 10.85±0.42 to 7.40±0.42 µmol/L; t-test, p<0.001; Wilcoxon, p<0.001. Women responded better than men: women (from 11.06±0.50 to 8.67±0.82 µmol/L, 34.4% reduction, t-test, p< 0.001; Wilcoxon, p<0.001 versus men (from 10.80±0.51 to 7.01±0.47 µmol/L, 21.6% reduction, t-test, p< 0.0862. Differences were also found in fasting insulin levels (from 12.80±3.11 to 5.30±1.77 µIU/mL, 58.6% reduction, t-test, p<0.005 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. ESR increased from 10.5±2.21 to 20.19±3.20 mm/hr (92.2% increase, t-test, p<0.0314; Wilcoxon, p<0.0154. Other tests were not significantly different after 6 months of supplement, there were no side effects from the test supplement, and none of the participants had

  8. Rate of positive autoimmune markers in Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers: a case-control study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Sanaz; Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Meysam; Mollahosseini, Farzad; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Miri, Rahele; Hatef Fard, MohammadReza; Sahebari, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection with high prevalence in the north-east of Iran, particularly in Mashhad, can lead to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and a variety of autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the presence of autoimmune markers in HTLV carries. Serum samples were obtained from blood donors in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. One hundred and five HTLV-1 positive (cases) and 104 age- and sex-matched HTLV-1 negative donors (controls) were assessed for presence of serum autoimmune markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean ages of cases and controls were 40.8 ± 9.4 and 41.5 ± 9.3 years, respectively (P = 0.5). In the case group, 81.9% and in the control group 83.7% were male (P = 0.74). The frequency of positive antinuclear antibodies and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in the serum of the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.68 and P = 0.62, respectively). Only one antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive case (1%) was observed in the group and no anti-phospholipid immunoglobulin G positivity was observed. The frequency of rheumatoid factor (RF) was greater in case group than in the control group, although the difference was not significant (P = 0.08). The amount of RF in all 12 RF positive sera were higher than normal levels (33-37 IU/mL). Because we failed to detect any significant relation between serum autoimmune markers and HTLV-1 infection, and because of the relatively low prevalence of autoimmune diseases, it could be concluded that healthy HTLV-1 carriers do not produce rheumatologic-related auto-antibodies more than the healthy population. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Testing for HPV as an objective measure for quality assurance in gynecologic cytology: positive rates in equivocal and abnormal specimens and comparison with the ASCUS to SIL ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Vincent; Nanji, Shabin; Tambouret, Rosemary H; Wilbur, David C

    2007-04-25

    Inappropriate use of the category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) can result in overtreatment or undertreatment of patients, which may decrease the cost effectiveness of screening. Quality assurance tools, such as the ASCUS to squamous intraepithelial lesion ratio (ASCUS:SIL) and case review, are imperfect. High-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing is an objective test for a known viral carcinogen, and hrHPV may be more useful in monitoring the quality of ASCUS interpretations. hrHPV rates for cytologic diagnoses and patient age groups were calculated for a 2-year period. All hrHPV results for ASCUS and SIL over a 17-month period were analyzed by patient age group, over time, and by individual cytopathologist to compare hrHPV rates with the corresponding ASCUS:SIL. The hrHPV positive rate for SIL was >90%, and it was 32.6% for ASCUS. Stratification by patient age showed that approximately 50% of patients younger than 30 years and older than 70 years of age were hrHPV positive, whereas other patients had a lower rate ranging from 14% to 34%. The overall ASCUS:SIL was 1.42, and the overall hrHPV positive rate was 39.9%. Over time and by individual cytopathologist, the hrHPV rate performed similarly to the ASCUS:SIL. The analysis by patient age showed a high statistical correlation (R(2) = 0.9772) between the 2 methods. Despite differences between these techniques, the hrHPV rate closely recapitulates the ASCUS:SIL. When used together, the 2 methods can complement each other. The desirable hrHPV-positive range appears to be 40% to 50%; however, this may vary based on the patient population. The hrHPV rate is as quick and cost effective as determining the ASCUS:SIL. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  10. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanis Barnard

    Full Text Available A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli, potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

  11. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Shanis; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Passalacqua, Chiara; Beghelli, Valentina; Capra, Alexa; Normando, Simona; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

  12. Evaluation of three-dimensional navigator-gated whole heart MR coronary angiography: The importance of systolic imaging in subjects with high heart rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yenwen; Tadamura, Eiji; Yamamuro, Masaki; Kanao, Shotaro; Nakayama, Kazuki; Togashi, Kaori

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of heart rate (HR) on magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA) image quality in diastolic and systolic phases. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven healthy volunteers (9 men; 33 ± 9 years, HR 53-110 bpm), were evaluated with the electrocardiography and three-dimensional navigator-gating MRCA in a 1.5-T MR scanner (Avanto, Siemens) in diastolic and systolic phases (steady-state free precession; TR/TE/flip angle = 3.2 ms/1.6 ms/90 o ). The timing of scanning was individually adapted to the cardiac rest periods obtained in the prescanning, by visually identifying when the movement of right coronary artery was minimized during diastole and systole. Images of two phases were side-by-side compared on a four-point scale (from 1 = poor to 4 = excellent visibility; score of 3 or 4 as diagnostic). Results: Of 13 subjects with HR ≤65 bpm (low HR group, mean 59.8 ± 4.9 bpm, range 53-65), the image quality scores were significantly better than that with higher heart rates (73.9 ± 9.0 bpm, range 68-110) in diastolic MRCA. The image quality was significantly improved during systole in high HR group. Overall, 91.3% of low HR group had MRCA image of diagnostic quality acquired at diastole, while 88.3% of high HR group had diagnostic images at systole by segmental analysis (p = NS). Conclusions: MRCA at systole offered superior quality in patients with high heart rates

  13. Evaluation of pregnancy rates of Bos indicus cows subjected to different synchronization ovulation protocols using injectable progesterone or an intravaginal device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pregnancy rate in Nelore cows (Bos indicus that were subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI using different protocols consisting of injectable progesterone (P4 or an intravaginal device (impregnated with P4. Multiparous cows 72-84 months in age, 30-45 days postpartum, were selected on the basis of the absence of a corpus luteum (CL and follicles < 8 mm after transrectal palpation and ultrasound examinations. On a random day of the estrus cycle (D0, the selected animals (n = 135 were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 45 each. Group I (injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours received 250 mg of injectable P4 and 2 mg EB on D0; on D7, they received 500 µg of cloprostenol; on D8, 300 IU of eCG and 1 mg of EB were administered; and finally, FTAI was performed 36 hours after the application of EB. Group II (injectable P4/FTAI 48 hours received the same protocol as Group I, except that the FTAI was performed 48 hours after ovulation induction. The animals of Group III (Control/CIDR received a conventional protocol for FTAI using an intravaginal device (D0: P4 and 2 mg EB; D8: device removal, 500 µg cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, 1 mg EB; and FTAI performed 48 hours after removal of the device. The results showed that cows synchronized with the conventional protocol for FTAI (Control/CIDR had a higher pregnancy rate (60 %, 27/45 than those synchronized with an injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (33.33 %; 15/45, P = 0.010. However, the group receiving injectable P4 group/FTAI 48 hours had a similar pregnancy rate (48.9 %; 22/45; P = 0.290 when compared to both the group receiving the conventional protocol and that receiving injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (P = 0.134. Although the injectable P4 may affect pregnancy rate with the FTAI performed in 36 hours, we found similar pregnancy rates from cows inseminated 48 hours after induction ovulation, considering injectable or intravaginal P4. Therefore, we suggest that

  14. [Positive Distribution Rate of Coombs Test in Patients with Clinical Anemia and Blood Transfusion and Its Effect on Clinical Blood Transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Duan, Yu-Han

    2018-02-01

    To study the positive distribution rate of Coombs test in patients with clinical anemia and blood transfusion, and its effect on clinical blood transfusion. Seventy patients with hemoglobin level in the normal range were enrolled into control group, while 130 patients with anemia or blood transfusion who' s hemoglobin level was lower comfirmed by micro-column gel antihuman globin detection card and 70 surgical patients with anemia or blood transfusion who' s hemoglobin level was lower comfirmed by micro-column gel anti-human globin card were enrolled into anemia or blood transfusion (A or BT) group. And coomb' s test performed for all the patients, in which the positive patients in Department of Internal Medicine need to be re-typed. Among 70 surgical patients with anemia or blood transfusion, 14 cases were directly detected to be anti-human globine positive with detection rate 20%; among 130 internal medicine patients with anemia or blood transfusion, 54 cases were directly detected to be anti-human globine positive with detection rate 41.4%. Among 270 cases, the highest positive rate (66.7%) was observed in patients with 50-59 g/L of hemoglobin. According to type test, the samples of 54 patients with anemia in Department of Internal Medicine, who were directly selected to be anti-human globin positive, could be divided into anti-C3d(7 cases, accounting for 13.0%), anti-IgG(12 cases accounting for, 22.2%) and anti-C3d+anti-IgG(35 cases, accounting for 64.8%), while according to diseases, the anti-human globin positive ratio was high in tumor cancer, hephropathy and gastroenteropathy patients, and patients in intensive care unit, moreover the blood transfusion frequency of these patients was higher than that of patients with anti-human globin negative(Pblood transfusion, so as to ensure the effectiveness of blood transfusion.

  15. Decreased Heart Rate Variability in HIV Positive Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: Importance of Blood Glucose and Cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    whether autonomic dysfunction is present in an ART treated HIV population and if so to identify factors of importance. METHODS: HIV patients receiving ART for at least 12 months (n¿=¿97) and an age-matched control group of healthy volunteers (n¿=¿52) were included. All were non-diabetic and had never......-intervals (RMSSD) or the percent of differences between adjacent NN intervals greater than 50 ms (pNN50). In the HIV positives, haemoglobin A1c correlated inversely with SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50 (pcorrelated inversely with RMSSD and pNN50 (p...4 cell count nor CD4 nadir correlated with time or phase domain HRV variables. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate autonomic dysfunction is present in HIV positives patients even with suppressed viral load due to ART. The dysfunction is correlated with HbA1c and hypercholesterolemia but not to duration of HIV...

  16. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

  17. Inflammation and renal function after a four-year follow-up in subjects with unimpaired glomerular filtration rate: results from the observational, population-based CARLA cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Medenwald

    Full Text Available There is evidence that chronic inflammation is associated with the progression/development of chronic renal failure; however, relations in subjects with preserved renal function remain insufficiently understood.To examine the association of inflammation with the development of renal failure in a cohort of the elderly general population.After excluding subjects with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and missing data, the cohort incorporated 785 men and 659 women (aged 45-83 years. Follow-up was performed four years after baseline. Covariate adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association of plasma/serum concentrations of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1, C-reactive protein (CRP, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 with change in eGFR/creatinine. The areas under the curve (AUCs from receiver operating characteristics (ROCs were estimated.In adjusted models sTNF-R1 was distinctively associated with a decline in eGFR in men (0.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 per 100 pg/mL sTNF-R1; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8, but not in women. A similar association could not be found for CRP or IL-6. Estimates of sTNF-R1 in the cross-sectional analyses were similar between sexes, while CRP and IL-6 were not relevantly associated with eGFR/creatinine.In the elderly male general population with preserved renal function sTNF-R1 predicts the development of renal failure.

  18. Inferences of body energy reserves on conception rate of suckled Zebu beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination followed by natural mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Torres-Júnior, J R S; Demétrio, C G B; Sá Filho, M F; Gimenes, L U; Penteado, L; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S

    2014-09-01

    The influence of body condition score (BCS), rump fat thickness (RFAT), and live weight (LW), and the changes in these parameters during the interval from 165 of prepartum (i.e., 125 days of prior gestation) to 112 postpartum on first service conception and pregnancy rates were investigated in suckled Zebu (Bos indicus) beef cows (n = 266) subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI) followed by natural mating. The aforementioned parameters were recorded at 165 ± 14 days (mean ± standard error) prepartum (concurrent with the weaning of previous calf), at parturition, and at 42 ± 7 days (at the onset of the synchronization of ovulation protocol), 82 ± 7 days (30 days after TAI), and 112 ± 7 days (60 days after TAI) postpartum. At the start of the breeding season (BS), cows were subjected to a synchronization of ovulation program for TAI. Bulls were placed with cows 10 days after TAI and remained until the end of the study (112 days postpartum). Cows with the highest BCS at parturition had an increased probability of first service conception rate at 60 days after TAI (P = 0.02) and a reduced probability of occurrence of pregnancy loss (P = 0.05). Also, cows had a greater likelihood of conceiving postpartum if they had greater RFAT and BCS at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) and at parturition (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cows that had an increase in RFAT and BCS during the dry period (i.e., interval from weaning of the previous calf to parturition) also had a greater likelihood of conceiving (P = 0.03 and P = 0.06, respectively) during the BS. Among the different time points, RFAT and BCS at parturition had the largest impact on risk of conception during the BS. The LW was a poor predictor of conception during the BS (P = 0.11-0.68) except for LW at 165 ± 14 days prepartum (P = 0.01). Collectively, the findings indicated that the likelihood of conception during the BS

  19. The Influence of Base Rate and Case Information on Health-Risk Perceptions: A Unified Model of Self-Positivity and Self-Negativity

    OpenAIRE

    Dengfeng Yan; Jaideep Sengupta

    2013-01-01

    This research examines how consumers use base rate (e.g., disease prevalence in a population) and case information (e.g., an individual's disease symptoms) to estimate health risks. Drawing on construal level theory, we propose that consumers' reliance on base rate (case information) will be enhanced (weakened) by psychological distance. A corollary of this premise is that self-positivity (i.e., underestimating self-risk vs. other-risk) is likely when the disease base rate is high but the cas...

  20. The effect of addition of primary positive salts, complex salt, on the ionic strength and rate constant at various temperatures by reaction kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurade, S. S.; Ramteke, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have investigated the rate of reaction by using ionic strength at different temperatures. The main goal of this experiment is to determine the relation between ionic strength with reaction rate, reaction time and rate constant with temperature. It is observed that the addition of positive salt indicate the increasing ionic strength with increase in run time at various temperatures. Thus the temperature affects the speed of reaction and mechanism by which chemical reaction occurs and time variable plays vital role in the progress of reaction at different temperatures.

  1. Hot or Not: The Role of Instructor Quality and Gender on the Formation of Positive Illusions among Students Using RateMyProfessors.com

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Theyson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Existing literature indicates that physical attractiveness positively affects variables such as income, perceived employee quality and performance evaluations. Similarly, in the academic arena, studies indicate instructors who are better looking receive better teaching evaluations from their students. Previous analysis of the website RateMyProfessors.com confirms this, indicating that instructors who are viewed by students as - hot- receive higher - quality- ratings than those who are - not.- However, psychology literature indicates that perceptions of attractiveness are influenced by positive illusions, a property whereby individuals with higher quality relationships view each other more positively than objective observers. This paper uses data from Rate My Professors to investigate the existence of positive illusions in the instructor-student relationship. It finds that positive illusions exist, suggesting that existing literature overestimates the premium associated with physical attractiveness. Furthermore, the source of these illusions varies significantly between male and female instructors with important implications for the role of gender in workplace evaluations, hiring, promotion, and tenure.

  2. The prevalence of positive reactions in the atopy patch test with aeroallergens and food allergens in subjects with atopic eczema: a European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsow, U; Laifaoui, J; Kerschenlohr, K; Wollenberg, A; Przybilla, B; Wüthrich, B; Borelli, S; Giusti, F; Seidenari, S; Drzimalla, K; Simon, D; Disch, R; Borelli, S; Devillers, A C A; Oranje, A P; De Raeve, L; Hachem, J-P; Dangoisse, C; Blondeel, A; Song, M; Breuer, K; Wulf, A; Werfel, T; Roul, S; Taieb, A; Bolhaar, S; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C; Brönnimann, M; Braathen, L R; Didierlaurent, A; André, C; Ring, J

    2004-12-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) was proposed to evaluate IgE-mediated sensitizations in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The prevalence and agreement with clinical history and specific IgE (sIgE) of positive APT reactions was investigated in six European countries using a standardized method. A total of 314 patients with AE in remission were tested in 12 study centers on clinically uninvolved, non-abraded back skin with 200 index of reactivity (IR)/g of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat dander, grass, and birch pollen allergen extracts with defined major allergen contents in petrolatum. Extracts of egg white, celery and wheat flour with defined protein content were also patch tested. APT values were evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h according to the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (ETFAD) guidelines. In addition, skin-prick test (SPT) and sIgE and a detailed history on allergen-induced eczema flares were obtained. Previous eczema flares, after contact with specific allergens, were reported in 1% (celery) to 34% (D. pteronyssinus) of patients. The frequency of clear-cut positive APT reactions ranged from 39% with D. pteronyssinus to 9% with celery. All ETFAD intensities occured after 48 and 72 h. Positive SPT (16-57%) and elevated sIgE (19-59%) results were more frequent. Clear-cut positive APT with all SPT and sIgE testing negative was seen in 7% of the patients, whereas a positive APT without SPT or sIgE for the respective allergen was seen in 17% of the patients. APT, SPT and sIgE results showed significant agreement with history for grass pollen and egg white (two-sided Pr > /Z/ atopic controls, no positive APT reaction was seen. Aeroallergens and food allergens are able to elicit eczematous skin reactions after epicutaneous application. As no gold standard for aeroallergen provocation in AE exists, the relevance of aeroallergens for AE flares may be evaluated by APT in addition to SPT and sIgE. The data may contribute to the international

  3. Breast-Conservative Surgery With Close or Positive Margins: Can the Breast Be Preserved With High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinot, Jose Luis; Roldan, Susana; Maronas, Maria; Tortajada, Isabel; Carrascosa, Maria; Chust, Maria Luisa; Estornell, Marian; Mengual, Jose Luis; Arribas, Leoncio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the likelihood of preserving the breast in women who show close or positive margins after conservative surgery for early breast carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Since 1996, 125 women with less than 5 mm or positive margins and positive separate cavity margin sampling were entered in a prospective trial with high-dose radiotherapy. A standard dose of 50 Gy to the whole breast was followed by a high-dose-rate brachytherapy application delivering 3 fractions of 4.4 Gy in 24 hours. The median follow-up was 84 months. Results: There were only seven local recurrences, with an actuarial local control rate of 95.8% at 5 years and 91.1% at 9 years. Actuarial overall and cause-specific survival rates were 92.6% and 95% at 5 years and 86.7% and 90.4% at 9 years, respectively. Late fibrosis was the most common complication, in 30% of patients, with good or excellent cosmetic results in 77%. The final result was that 95.2% of breasts were preserved. Conclusions: Close or positive-margin breast cancer can be well managed with a high-dose boost in a wide tumor bed by means of high-dose-rate brachytherapy. This technique can avoid mastectomy or poor cosmetic resection, with minimal risk of local or general failure

  4. Diffuse thyroid uptake incidentally found on 1'8{sup F}-Flurodeoxygluse position emission tomography in subjects without cancer history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Choi, Joon Young; Choi, Yoon Ho; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Moon, Seung Hwan; Jang, Su Jin; Cheo, Yeam Seung; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    We investigated the clinical significance of incidental diffuse thyroid uptake (DTU) on 1{sup 8F}-FDG PET in subjects without a history of cancer. This study included 2062 studies from adults who underwent 1{sup 8F}-FDG PET as a cancer screening program. Subjects were divided into the following two groups: with (group I) or without (group II) DTU. The presence of DTU and the thyroid visual grading score were compared with thyroid function tests, serum anti-microsomal antibody (AMA) levels, and the presence of diffuse parenchymal change (DPC) on ultrasonography (USG). DTU was found in 6.6% of the scans (137/2062). Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and AMA levels were significantly higher in group I than in group II. Increased AMA level (55.1%) and DPC (48.7%) were more frequently found in group I (p < 0.001). The proportion of subjects with any abnormal results in serum free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, TSH, or AMA levels or DPC on USG was significantly higher in group I than in group II (71.5% vs. 10.6%, p < 0.001), and was significantly and gradually increased according to the visual grading score group (0 vs. 1-2 vs. 3-4 = 10.6% vs. 58.5% vs. 90.9%, p < 0.001). TSH and is AMA levels were significantly increased according to the visual grading score. The presence or degree of incidental DTU on 1{sup 8F}-FDG PET is closely correlated with increased serum AMA and TSH levels, and the presence of DPC on USG. Therefore, the most plausible pathological cause of DTU may be cell damage by an autoimmune mechanism.

  5. Assessment of effects of differences in trunk posture during Fowler’s position on hemodynamics and cardiovascular regulation in older and younger subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota,Satoshi; Endo,Yutaka; Kubota,Mitsue; Shigemasa,Tomohiko

    2017-01-01

    Satoshi Kubota,1 Yutaka Endo,1 Mitsue Kubota,1 Tomohiko Shigemasa2 1School of Nursing and Rehabilitation Sciences at Odawara, International University of Health and Welfare, Odawara, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Cardiology, International University of Health and Welfare Atami Hospital, Atami, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Downward shifts in blood volume with changing position generally cause tachycardic responses. Age-related decreases in vagal nerve activity could contribute to orthostati...

  6. Evidence of circadian rhythm, oxygen regulation capacity, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between forced and spontaneous maximal metabolic rates in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C Svendsen

    Full Text Available Animal metabolic rate is variable and may be affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, but such relationships remain poorly understood in many primitive fishes, including members of the family Acipenseridae (sturgeons. Using juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the objective of this study was to test four hypotheses: 1 A. fulvescens exhibits a circadian rhythm influencing metabolic rate and behaviour; 2 A. fulvescens has the capacity to regulate metabolic rate when exposed to environmental hypoxia; 3 measurements of forced maximum metabolic rate (MMR(F are repeatable in individual fish; and 4 MMR(F correlates positively with spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMR(S. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, and a standard chase protocol was employed to elicit MMR(F. Trials lasting 24 h were used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR and MMR(S. Repeatability and correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S were analyzed using residual body mass corrected values. Results revealed that A. fulvescens exhibit a circadian rhythm in metabolic rate, with metabolism peaking at dawn. SMR was unaffected by hypoxia (30% air saturation (O(2sat, demonstrating oxygen regulation. In contrast, MMR(F was affected by hypoxia and decreased across the range from 100% O(2sat to 70% O(2sat. MMR(F was repeatable in individual fish, and MMR(F correlated positively with MMR(S, but the relationships between MMR(F and MMR(S were only revealed in fish exposed to hypoxia or 24 h constant light (i.e. environmental stressor. Our study provides evidence that the physiology of A. fulvescens is influenced by a circadian rhythm and suggests that A. fulvescens is an oxygen regulator, like most teleost fish. Finally, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S support the conjecture that MMR(F represents a measure of organism performance that could be a target of natural selection.

  7. Heart rate response and rating of perceived exertion in novice subjects during Indoor Cycling Session Respuesta de la frecuencia cardiaca y percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo en principiantes, durante la práctica de ciclismo Indoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Cycling has become a popular cardio-vascular activity for group exercise classes in the fitness centers. The purposes of this study were to measure the heart rate response and rating of perceived exertion in novice subjects performing a 45-min indoor cycling session. Fifty-nine subjects volunteered ranged from 13 to 48 years (mean ± SD, age: 32.1 ± 10.2 years old were recruited from the clients of a private fitness club. They participated in a 45-min Spinning cycle indoor session. Heart rate was measured during the session and the overall rating of perceived exertion (overall-RPE was measured to finish the session. The indoor cycling session was comprised of a warm-up (10 min, followed by a 25 min trial (cardiovascular phase of flat, run, seated climb and standing climb activities, followed by a cool down (10 min. The mean values of percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR and overall-RPE in the session were 62.1% ± 10.5% and 14.2 ± 1.8 point, respectively. The most time of the session was associated to moderate and hard intensities. The intensity during indoor cycling class in novice adults ranged from moderate to hard values. These data suggest that indoor cycling must be considered a high-intensity exercise mode of exercise for novice subjects.

    Key Words: indoor cycling; RPE; cardiovascular exercise; fitness.

    El Ciclismo Indoor es una actividad para practicar ejercicio físico de manera colectiva muy popular en los centros de fitness. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta de la frecuencia cardiaca, las intensidades alcanzadas y la percepción de esfuerzo percibida en sujetos principiantes durante una sesión de ciclismo indoor. Cincuenta y nueve sujetos voluntarios, de un centro deportivo privado, con edades de 13 a 48 años (media ± desviación típica: 32,1 ± 10,2 años participaron en este estudio. La frecuencia cardiaca fue registrada durante toda la sesi

  8. Positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with survival rates of NSCLC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yujin; Wang, Liancong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Guan; Wang, Yuezhen; Lai, Xiaojing; Li, Jianqiang

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic and predictive importance of p53, c-erbB2 and multidrug resistance proteins (MRP) expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins in 152 tumor samples from resected primary NSCLCs was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of proteins, survival and clinicopathological characteristics was investigated in 152 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery. The positive rates of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression were 53.9 (82/152), 44.1 (67/152) and 43.4% (66/152), respectively. Overall survival rates of patients were markedly correlated with the overexpression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins. One, 2- and 3-year survival rates of patients exhibiting a positive expression of these proteins were 72.6, 54.8 and 32.2%, respectively. These rates were lower compared with those of patients with a negative expression of these proteins (92.1, 78.5 and 63.4%) (P=0.02, 0.01 or 0.00, respectively). Results of Cox's regression analysis showed that c-erbB2 expression and cell differentiation were independent prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC. These findings suggest that the positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with the survival rates of NSCLC patients. Detection of positive p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression may be a useful predictive indicator of prognosis. Positive c-erbB2 expression is an independent prognostic factor, with a potential to be used as a predictive indicator of chemotherapy efficacy in NSCLC patients.

  9. Assessing the kidney function parameters glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow with dynamic FDG-PET/MRI in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Barbara K; Baltzer, Pascal; Fueger, Barbara; Hamboeck, Martina; Nakuz, Thomas; Papp, Laszlo; Rasul, Sazan; Sundar, Lalith Kumar Shiyam; Hacker, Marcus; Staudenherz, Anton

    2018-05-09

    A method was developed to assess the kidney parameters glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) from 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) concentration behavior in kidneys, measured with positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Twenty-four healthy adult subjects prospectively underwent dynamic simultaneous PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Time activity curves (TACs) were obtained from the dynamic PET series, with the guidance of MR information. Patlak analysis was performed to determine the GFR, and based on integrals, ERPF was calculated. Results were compared to intra-individually obtained reference values determined from venous blood samples. Total kidney GFR and ERPF as estimated by dynamic PET/MRI were highly correlated to their reference values (r = 0.88/p dynamic FDG PET/MRI scans in healthy kidneys. This has advantages for patients getting a routine scan, where additional examinations for kidney function estimation could be avoided. Further studies are required for transferring this PET/MRI method to PET/CT applications.

  10. Interval Breast Cancer Rates and Histopathologic Tumor Characteristics after False-Positive Findings at Mammography in a Population-based Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvind, Solveig; Sagstad, Silje; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Chen, Ying; Roman, Marta; Lee, Christoph I

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To compare rates and tumor characteristics of interval breast cancers (IBCs) detected after a negative versus false-positive screening among women participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Materials and Methods The Cancer Registry Regulation approved this retrospective study. Information about 423 445 women aged 49-71 years who underwent 789 481 full-field digital mammographic screening examinations during 2004-2012 was extracted from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Rates and odds ratios of IBC among women with a negative (the reference group) versus a false-positive screening were estimated by using logistic regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis and county of residence. Results A total of 1302 IBCs were diagnosed after 789 481 screening examinations, of which 7.0% (91 of 1302) were detected among women with a false-positive screening as the most recent breast imaging examination before detection. By using negative screening as the reference, adjusted odds ratios of IBCs were 3.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6, 4.2) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.8, 4.4) for women with a false-positive screening without and with needle biopsy, respectively. Women with a previous negative screening had a significantly lower proportion of tumors that were 10 mm or less (14.3% [150 of 1049] vs 50.0% [seven of 14], respectively; P false-positive screening with benign biopsy. A retrospective review of the screening mammographic examinations identified 42.9% (39 of 91) of the false-positive cases to be the same lesion as the IBC. Conclusion By using a negative screening as the reference, a false-positive screening examination increased the risk of an IBC three-fold. The tumor characteristics of IBC after a negative screening were less favorable compared with those detected after a previous false-positive screening. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  11. A quantification of predation rates, indirect positive effects on plants, and foraging variation of the giant tropical ant, Paraponera clavata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A. Dyer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available While a clear consensus is emerging that predators can play a major role in shaping terrestrial communities, basic natural history observations and simple quantifications of predation rates in complex terrestrial systems are lacking. The potential indirect effect of a large predatory ant, Paraponera clavata Fabricius (Formicidae: Ponerinae, on herbivores was determined on rainforest trees at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica and Barro Colorado Island in Panama. Prey and other food brought back to nests by 75 colonies of P. clavata were quantified, taking into account temporal, seasonal, and microhabitat variation for both foraging activity and composition of foraging booty. The dispersion and density of ant colonies and combined density with the mean amounts of prey retrieval were used to calculate rates of predation per hectare in the two forests. In addition, herbivory was measured on trees containing P. clavata and on trees where the ants were not foraging. Colonies at La Selva brought back significantly more nectar plus prey than those at Barro Colorado Island, but foraging patterns were similar in the two forests. At both forests, the ants were more active at night, and there was no significant seasonal or colonial variation in consumption of nectar, composition of foraging booty, and overall activity of the colonies. At La Selva, trees containing P. clavata colonies had the same levels of folivory as nearest neighbor trees without P. clavata but had significantly lower folivory than randomly selected trees. Predation by this ant was high in both forests, despite its omnivorous diet. This insect predator is part of potentially important top-down controls in these wet and moist forests.

  12. Specificity and false positive rates of the Test of Memory Malingering, Rey 15-item Test, and Rey Word Recognition Test among forensic inpatients with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christopher M; Glassmire, David M; Zanolini, Shanna Jordan; Wolf, Amanda

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the specificity and false positive (FP) rates of the Rey 15-Item Test (FIT), Word Recognition Test (WRT), and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in a sample of 21 forensic inpatients with mild intellectual disability (ID). The FIT demonstrated an FP rate of 23.8% with the standard quantitative cutoff score. Certain qualitative error types on the FIT showed promise and had low FP rates. The WRT obtained an FP rate of 0.0% with previously reported cutoff scores. Finally, the TOMM demonstrated low FP rates of 4.8% and 0.0% on Trial 2 and the Retention Trial, respectively, when applying the standard cutoff score. FP rates are reported for a range of cutoff scores and compared with published research on individuals diagnosed with ID. Results indicated that although the quantitative variables on the FIT had unacceptably high FP rates, the TOMM and WRT had low FP rates, increasing the confidence clinicians can place in scores reflecting poor effort on these measures during ID evaluations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Positive effects of a healthy snack (fruit) versus an unhealthy snack (chocolate/crisps) on subjective reports of mental and physical health: a preliminary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew Paul; Rogers, Rosannagh

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown associations between type of snack and wellbeing. These studies have been cross-sectional and the aim of the present research was to examine this topic using an intervention study. A between-subjects intervention study was carried out. Volunteers (100 students, mean age = 19.00 years; 27 male, 73 female) completed online questionnaires measuring anxiety and depression, fatigue, somatic symptoms, cognitive difficulties, and distress at baseline. They were then randomly assigned to one of two snacking conditions - chocolate/crisps or fruit. Volunteers consumed one snack item in the mid-afternoon each day for 10 days. At the end of the intervention, the volunteers completed the questionnaires again. Analyses of the baseline data confirmed that consumption of chocolate was associated with greater emotional eating and depression. Analyses of covariance, with the baseline data as covariates, were carried out on the post-intervention responses. The results showed that consumption of fruit was associated with lower anxiety, depression, and emotional distress than consumption of crisps/chocolate. Similarly, scores for somatic symptoms, cognitive difficulties, and fatigue were greater in the crisps/chocolate condition. These results extend findings from cross-sectional studies and give a clearer indication of causal effects of different types of snacks on wellbeing.

  14. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Nonpharmacological Interventions for Old-Old Subjects with a Clinical Dementia Rating of 0.5: The Kurihara Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakatsuka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence as to the benefits of nonpharmacological interventions for the boundary state between normal aging and dementia [mild cognitive impairment or a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR of 0.5] remains weak due to a lack of positive controls. Aims: To directly compare the effects of cognitive interventions (CI, physical activities (PA and a group reminiscence approach (GRA, we conducted a pilot study on the basis of a cluster randomized controlled trial design. Method: A total of 127 participants aged >74 years with a CDR of 0.5 were cluster randomized into three groups for CI, PA and GRA. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of weekly group sessions and home assignments. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail Making Test part A (TMT-A, word fluency (WF, 6-meter walk time and Quality of Life (QOL Face Scale scores were evaluated as primary outcomes. Results: Methodology-related benefits of CI and PA were found for MMSE scores and walk time, respectively. TMT-A, WF and QOL Face Scale scores improved irrespective of the methodologies used. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that CI and PA may be beneficial to cognitive and physical abilities, respectively. Executive functions and QOL may improve irrespective of the intervention methodologies used.

  15. Elemental depth profiles and plasma etching rates of positive-tone electron beam resists after sequential infiltration synthesis of alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yuki; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    By scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM–EDS), we investigated the elemental depth profiles of organic electron beam resist films after the sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) of inorganic alumina. Although a 40-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film was entirely hybridized with alumina, an uneven distribution was observed near the interface between the substrate and the resist as well as near the resist surface. The uneven distribution was observed around the center of a 100-nm-thick PMMA film. The thicknesses of the PMMA and CSAR62 resist films decreased almost linearly as functions of plasma etching period. The comparison of etching rate among oxygen reactive ion etching, C3F8 reactive ion beam etching (RIBE), and Ar ion beam milling suggested that the SIS treatment enhanced the etching resistance of the electron beam resists to chemical reactions rather than to ion collisions. We proposed oxygen- and Ar-assisted C3F8 RIBE for the fabrication of silica imprint molds by electron beam lithography.

  16. Reduction of exposure to ultrafine particles by kitchen exhaust hoods: the effects of exhaust flow rates, particle size, and burner position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Donghyun; Wallace, Lance; Nabinger, Steven; Persily, Andrew

    2012-08-15

    Cooking stoves, both gas and electric, are one of the strongest and most common sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes. UFP have been shown to be associated with adverse health effects such as DNA damage and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. This study investigates the effectiveness of kitchen exhaust hoods in reducing indoor levels of UFP emitted from a gas stove and oven. Measurements in an unoccupied manufactured house monitored size-resolved UFP (2 nm to 100 nm) concentrations from the gas stove and oven while varying range hood flow rate and burner position. The air change rate in the building was measured continuously based on the decay of a tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride, SF(6)). The results show that range hood flow rate and burner position (front vs. rear) can have strong effects on the reduction of indoor levels of UFP released from the stove and oven, subsequently reducing occupant exposure to UFP. Higher range hood flow rates are generally more effective for UFP reduction, though the reduction varies with particle diameter. The influence of the range hood exhaust is larger for the back burner than for the front burner. The number-weighted particle reductions for range hood flow rates varying between 100 m(3)/h and 680 m(3)/h range from 31% to 94% for the front burner, from 54% to 98% for the back burner, and from 39% to 96% for the oven. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of central sleep apnea during continous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome at an altitude of 2640 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazurto Zapata, Maria Angelica; Martinez-Guzman, William; Vargas-Ramirez, Leslie; Herrera, Karen; Gonzalez-Garcia, Mauricio

    2015-03-01

    The occurrence of central apneas when applying positive pressure (CPAP) to patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is called complex sleep apnea (CompSA). This causes poor adherence to CPAP and persistence of symptoms. In Bogota, a city located at an altitude of 2640 m above sea level, chronic hypoxemia can generate certain instability of the respiratory system during sleep which could increase the presence of central apnea. The aim was to establish the prevalence of central apnea (central apnea index >5/h) in adults with moderate or severe OSAS during CPAP titration, and the factors associated with this. Patients over 18 years old with OSAS were referred to the Fundacion Neumologica Colombiana Sleep Center, from January 2008 to June 2010. Polysomnogram (PSG) for CPAP titration was performed according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. The prevalence was calculated and the clinical and baseline PSG factors associated with the CompSA were analyzed. We included 988 patients, 58% men. CompSA prevalence was 11.6%. Factors associated with CompSA were: central apneas in the baseline PSG (OR: 5.34 [3.49-8.16]), history of heart failure (OR: 2.53 [1.58-4.07]), and male sex (OR: 1.68 [1.06-2.69]). The prevalence of complex sleep apnea in Bogota (11.6%) was intermediate compared to the reported in lower altitudes. The factors associated with the development of CompSA were male sex, heart failure, and the presence of central apnea in the baseline PSG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood disappearance rate of /sup 198/Au-colloid and changes of hepatic blood flow during position change in normal persons and in patients with various hepatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, B Y [Capital Armed Forces General Hospital, Seoul (Republic of Korea); Hong, K S; Koh, C S; Lee, M [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea). Coll. of Medicine

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the blood disappearance rate of /sup 198/Au-colloid and to evaluate the change of hepatic blood flow during position change from supine to erect, we measured the half time of blood disappearance rate of 7,1/sup 98/Au-colloid using external counting method in 94 normal persons and in 77 patients with various hepatic diseases. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In normal control, the mean blood disappearance half time of /sup 198/Au-colloid in supine position was 2.7+-0.4 minutes. There was no significant difference of hepatic blood flow in age and sex. 2. In acute hepatitits, chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, the mean blood disappearance half times in supine position were 3.0+-0.45, 3.5+-0.74, 7.2+-3.6 minutes respectively. The hepatic blood flow of the patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased than that of normal control. 3. In the normal control and acute hepatitis, the decreaces of the hepatic blood flow during the position change from supine to erect were 27.7% and 22.6% respectively.

  19. The blood disappearance rate of 198Au-colloid and changes of hepatic blood flow during position change in normal persons and in patients with various hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, B.Y.; Hong, K.S.; Koh, C.S.; Lee, M.

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the blood disappearance rate of 198 Au-colloid and to evaluate the change of hepatic blood flow during position change from supine to erect, we measured the half time of blood disappearance rate of 7,1 98 Au-colloid using external counting method in 94 normal persons and in 77 patients with various hepatic diseases. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In normal control, the mean blood disappearance half time of 198 Au-colloid in supine position was 2.7+-0.4 minutes. There was no significant difference of hepatic blood flow in age and sex. 2. In acute hepatitits, chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, the mean blood disappearance half times in supine position were 3.0+-0.45, 3.5+-0.74, 7.2+-3.6 minutes respectively. The hepatic blood flow of the patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased than that of normal control. 3. In the normal control and acute hepatitis, the decreaces of the hepatic blood flow during the position change from supine to erect were 27.7% and 22.6% respectively. (author)

  20. The Blood Disappearance Rate of 198Au-Colloid and Changes of Hepatic Blood Flow During Position Change in Normal Persons and in Patients with Various Hepatic Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bo Yeon; Hong, Kee Suk; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the blood disappearance rate of 198 Au-colloid and to evaluate the change of hepatic blood flow during position change from supine to erect, we measured the half time of blood disappearance rate of 198 Au-colloid using external counting method in 94 normal persons and in 77 patients with various hepatic diseases. The results obtained were as follows: 1) In normal control, the mean blood disappearance half time of 198 Au-colloid in supine position was 2.7±0.4 minutes. There was no significant difference of hepatic blood flow in age and sex. 2) In acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, the mean blood disappearance half times in supine position were 3.0±0.45, 3.5±0.74, 7.2±3.6 minutes respectively. The hepatic blood flow of the patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis were significantly decreased than that of normal control. 3) In the normal control and acute hepatitis, the decreases of the hepatic blood flow during the position change from supine to erect were 27.7% and 22.6% respectively.

  1. Happy Family Kitchen II: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a community-based positive psychology family intervention for subjective happiness and health-related quality of life in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Henry C Y; Mui, Moses; Wan, Alice; Ng, Yin-Lam; Stewart, Sunita M; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2016-07-29

    Most positive psychology interventions conducted in the West have been focused on the individual. Family relationships are highly valued in the Chinese collectivist culture, and it is of interest to know whether family-focused interventions can improve the well-being of Chinese people. We have previously reported the effectiveness of a positive psychology family intervention in terms of family well-being. Based on the data derived from the Happy Family Kitchen II project, this paper examines the effectiveness of a community-based positive psychology family intervention on subjective happiness and health-related quality of life. Thirty-one social service units and schools organized intervention programs for 2070 participants in Hong Kong. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, participants were randomly assigned on the basis of computer-generated numbers into the intervention group or the control group. The intervention programs emphasized one of five positive psychology themes: joy, gratitude, flow, savoring, and listening. The control group engaged in activities unrelated to the intervention, such as arts and crafts workshops. Subjective happiness and mental and physical quality of life were assessed at baseline and at 4 weeks and 12 weeks postintervention. Data of 1261 participants were analyzed. The results showed that the intervention was more effective than the control condition in improving subjective happiness, with a small effect size, at 12 weeks postintervention (β = .15, p = .020, Cohen's d = .16). However, there were no improvements in mental and physical quality of life in the intervention group compared with the control group at 4 weeks (β = .39, p = .494, d = .05; β = -.10, p = 1.000, d = -.01, respectively) and 12 weeks postintervention (β = .71, p = .233, d = .08; β = -.05, p = 1.000, d = -.01, respectively). Furthermore, the booster session was no more effective than the tea

  2. The elimination rates of intact GIP as well as its primary metabolite, GIP 3-42, are similar in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Agersø, Henrik; Lauritsen, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    in the two groups and ranged from 8 to 21 l per subject. The primary metabolite, GIP 3-42, generated through the action of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), was eliminated with a mean half-life of 17.5 and 20.5 min in patients and healthy subjects (NS). CONCLUSION: Elimination of GIP is similar in obese type...... 2 diabetic patients and matched healthy subjects. Differences in elimination of GIP and its primary metabolite, therefore, do not seem to contribute to the defective insulinotropic effect of GIP in type 2 diabetes....

  3. SU-G-201-03: Automation of High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Quality Assurance: Development of a Radioluminescent Detection System for Simultaneous Detection of Activity, Timing, and Positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C; Xing, L; Fahimian, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accuracy of positioning, timing and activity is of critical importance for High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy delivery. Respective measurements via film autoradiography, stop-watches and well chambers can be cumbersome, crude or lack dynamic source evaluation capabilities. To address such limitations, a single device radioluminescent detection system enabling automated real-time quantification of activity, position and timing accuracy is presented and experimentally evaluated. Methods: A radioluminescent sheet was fabricated by mixing Gd?O?S:Tb with PDMS and incorporated into a 3D printed device where it was fixated below a CMOS digital camera. An Ir-192 HDR source (VS2000, VariSource iX) with an effective active length of 5 mm was introduced using a 17-gauge stainless steel needle below the sheet. Pixel intensity values for determining activity were taken from an ROI centered on the source location. A calibration curve relating intensity values to activity was generated and used to evaluate automated activity determination with data gathered over 6 weeks. Positioning measurements were performed by integrating images for an entire delivery and fitting peaks to the resulting profile. Timing measurements were performed by evaluating source location and timestamps from individual images. Results: Average predicted activity error over 6 weeks was .35 ± .5%. The distance between four dwell positions was determined by the automated system to be 1.99 ± .02 cm. The result from autoradiography was 2.00 ± .03 cm. The system achieved a time resolution of 10 msec and determined the dwell time to be 1.01 sec ± .02 sec. Conclusion: The system was able to successfully perform automated detection of activity, positioning and timing concurrently under a single setup. Relative to radiochromic and radiographic film-based autoradiography, which can only provide a static evaluation positioning, optical detection of temporary radiation induced luminescence enables dynamic

  4. A retrospective cohort analysis comparing pregnancy rates among HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATEL, Rena C.; ONONO, Maricianah; GANDHI, Monica; BLAT, Cinthia; HAGEY, Jill; SHADE, Starley B.; VITTINGHOFF, Eric; BUKUSI, Elizabeth A.; NEWMANN, Sara J.; COHEN, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Given recent concerns of efavirenz reducing the efficacy of contraceptive implants, we sought to determine if pregnancy rates differ among HIV-positive women using various contraceptive methods and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-positive women aged 15–45 years enrolled in HIV care facilities in western Kenya from January 2011 to December 2013. Pregnancy was diagnosed clinically and the primary exposure was a combination of contraceptive method and ART regimen. We used Poisson models, adjusting for repeated measures, as well as demographic, behavioral and clinical factors, to compare pregnancy rates among women on different contraceptive/ART combinations. Findings 24,560 women contributed 37,635 years of follow-up with 3,337 incident pregnancies. Among women using implants, adjusted pregnancy incidence for nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART users were 1·1 (95% CI 0·72–1·5) and 3·3 (95% CI 1·8–4·8) per 100 women-years (w-y), respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 3·0, 95% CI 1·3–4·6). Among women using depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), adjusted pregnancy incidence for nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART users were 4·5 (95% CI 3·7–5·2) and 5·4 (95% CI 4·0–6·8) per 100 w-y, respectively (aIRR 1·2, 95% CI 0·91–1·5). Women using other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods, experienced 3·1–4·1 higher rates of pregnancy than women using implants, with 1·6–2·8 higher rates specifically among women using efavirenz-based ART. Interpretation While HIV-positive women using implants on efavirenz-based ART faced three times higher risk of contraceptive failure than those on nevirapine-based ART, these women still experienced lower contraceptive failure rates than women on all other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods

  5. Pregnancy rates in HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rena C; Onono, Maricianah; Gandhi, Monica; Blat, Cinthia; Hagey, Jill; Shade, Starley B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Newmann, Sara J; Cohen, Craig R

    2015-11-01

    Concerns have been raised about efavirenz reducing the effectiveness of contraceptive implants. We aimed to establish whether pregnancy rates differ between HIV-positive women who use various contraceptive methods and either efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. We did this retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive women aged 15-45 years enrolled in 19 HIV care facilities supported by Family AIDS Care and Education Services in western Kenya between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013. Our primary outcome was incident pregnancy diagnosed clinically. The primary exposure was a combination of contraceptive method and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based ART regimen. We used Poisson models, adjusting for repeated measures, and demographic, behavioural, and clinical factors, to compare pregnancy rates among women receiving different contraceptive and ART combinations. 24,560 women contributed 37,635 years of follow-up with 3337 incident pregnancies. In women using implants, adjusted pregnancy incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.72-1.5) for nevirapine-based ART users and 3.3 per 100 person-years (1.8-4.8) for efavirenz-based ART users (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-4.6). In women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, adjusted pregnancy incidence was 4.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 3.7-5.2) for nevirapine-based ART users and 5.4 per 100 person-years (4.0-6.8) for efavirenz-based ART users (adjusted IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.91-1.5). Women using other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods, had 3.1-4.1 higher rates of pregnancy than did those using implants, with 1.6-2.8 higher rates in women using efavirenz-based ART. Although HIV-positive women using implants and efavirenz-based ART had a three-times higher risk of contraceptive failure than did those using nevirapine-based ART, these women still had lower contraceptive failure rates than did those receiving all other

  6. Ultrasound protocols to measure carotid intima-media thickness in trials; comparison of reproducibility, rate of progression, and effect of intervention in subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia and subjects with mixed dyslipidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, Soner; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Shear, Charles L.; Evans, Greg W.; Visseren, Frank L.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Current ultrasound protocols to measure carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in trials rather differ. The ideal protocol combines high reproducibility with a high precision in the measurement of the rate of change in CIMT over time and with a precise estimate of a treatment effect. To

  7. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  8. High hepatitis E virus antibody positive rates in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, M Y; Gao, H; Yan, X X; Qu, W J; Sun, Y K; Fu, G W; Yan, Y L

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E (HE) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HEV infection among dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west region of China. A total of 4,490 dog serum samples and 2,206 relative practitioner serum samples were collected from 18 pet hospitals and dog farms in Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou province, and the anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA. The results showed that the total positive rate of anti-HEV antibodies was 36.55% with the highest rate in city stray dogs, and the differences in distinct species and growth phases were significant. The positive rate of anti-HEV antibody in veterinarian and farm staff-related practitioners was significantly higher than the general population. The finding of the present survey suggested that high HEV seroprevalence in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west area of China poses a significant public health concern. It is urgent to improve integrated strategies to detect, prevent and control HEV infection in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in this area. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Trophic position and metabolic rate predict the long-term decay process of radioactive cesium in fish: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Doi

    Full Text Available Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (¹³⁷Cs can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term ¹³⁷Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1 trophic position could predict the day of maximum ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2 the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish.

  10. High-dose Extended-Field Irradiation and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Cervical Cancer With Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy and toxicity of extended-field radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma and positive para-aortic nodes. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the results for 33 women with Stage IB-IVB cervical cancer. Each patient had received 59.4 Gy, including a three-dimensional conformal boost to the para-aortic lymph nodes and 41.4-50.4 Gy of external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis. Each patient also underwent six or seven applications of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (median, 5 Gy to point A at each session). Results: The median follow-up period of surviving patients was 39 months. The most common acute toxicity was hematologic, observed in 23 women. Severe acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 3 and 4 patients, respectively. More than three-quarters of patients showed a complete response, encompassing the primary mass, metastatic pelvic, and para-aortic lymph nodes. Of the 33 women, 15 had no evidence of disease, 6 had persistent disease, 4 developed in-field failures, and 6 developed distant failures. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rate was 47% and 42%, respectively. Conclusion: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with extended-field radiotherapy is feasible in women with uterine cervical carcinoma and positive para-aortic lymph nodes, with acceptable late morbidity and a high survival rate, although it was accompanied by substantial acute toxicity.

  11. Real-Time Verification of a High-Dose-Rate Iridium 192 Source Position Using a Modified C-Arm Fluoroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Takayuki, E-mail: nose-takayuki@nms.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nippon Medical School Tamanagayama Hospital, Tama (Japan); Chatani, Masashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai (Japan); Otani, Yuki [Department of Radiology, Kaizuka City Hospital, Kaizuka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Kumita, Shinichirou [Department of Radiology, Nippon Medical School Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy misdeliveries can occur at any institution, and they can cause disastrous results. Even a patient's death has been reported. Misdeliveries could be avoided with real-time verification methods. In 1996, we developed a modified C-arm fluoroscopic verification of an HDR Iridium 192 source position prevent these misdeliveries. This method provided excellent image quality sufficient to detect errors, and it has been in clinical use at our institutions for 20 years. The purpose of the current study is to introduce the mechanisms and validity of our straightforward C-arm fluoroscopic verification method. Methods and Materials: Conventional X-ray fluoroscopic images are degraded by spurious signals and quantum noise from Iridium 192 photons, which make source verification impractical. To improve image quality, we quadrupled the C-arm fluoroscopic X-ray dose per pulse. The pulse rate was reduced by a factor of 4 to keep the average exposure compliant with Japanese medical regulations. The images were then displayed with quarter-frame rates. Results: Sufficient quality was obtained to enable observation of the source position relative to both the applicators and the anatomy. With this method, 2 errors were detected among 2031 treatment sessions for 370 patients within a 6-year period. Conclusions: With the use of a modified C-arm fluoroscopic verification method, treatment errors that were otherwise overlooked were detected in real time. This method should be given consideration for widespread use.

  12. MMP-7 expression may influence the rate of distant recurrences and disease-specific survival in HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Seija I; Jouhi, Lauri; Mohamed, Hesham; Haglund, Caj; Mäkitie, Antti A; Atula, Timo; Hagström, Jaana; Mäkinen, Laura K

    2018-05-02

    The objective of this study was to determine if matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) expression is related to human papilloma virus (HPV) status, clinical parameters, and outcome in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Tumor tissue specimens from 201 OPSCC patients treated with curative intent were available for immunohistochemistry, and the samples were stained with monoclonal MMP-7 antibody. All the patients were followed up at least 3 years or until death. MMP-7 expression did not differ between HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients. MMP-7 was not prognostic among patients with HPV-negative OPSCC. In the HPV-positive subgroup, patients with moderate, high, or very high MMP-7 expression had significantly worse 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) (56.6%) than patients with absent, or low MMP-7 expression (77.2%), and MMP-7 expression appeared as a prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis. In addition, among HPV-positive OPSCC with moderate, high, or very high MMP-7 expression, the 5-year distant recurrence-free survival was significantly lower (69.6%) than in those who had low or absent MMP-7 expression (97.5%). Our results suggest that among HPV-positive OPSCC patients, high MMP-7 expression is related to worse 5-year DSS and increased rate of distant recurrences.

  13. Two ways of constructing the reader`s subject position: a discursive analysis of the newspaper language of the newspapers Diário Catarinense and Hora de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Braga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze, based on French Discourse Analysis, how the newspapers Diário Catarinense and Hora de Santa Catarina produce different reader`s subject positions. This research is justified by the fact that both newspapers are products of the same media company. The starting point was the hypothesis that there would be in the market two types of readers, thus the two products do not compete with each other, but they would complement each other in the coverage of a reading area. Reading here is treated as a process of production of sense effects. The work is based on Orlandi`s thinking about the conception of reading, as well as in the distinction between real and virtual reader. We do also present the clues included in the statements which inferences are essential to apprehend the said and the unsaid which, by means of a comparative analysis, was used to understand the production of different reader’s subject position. The analysis points out that the newspapers DC and Hora present similar characteristics in regard to the process of transmitting information, howevereach newspaper interrelates with its target public in a different way through the use of language and in the manner of production of news. It leads to the construction of different positions of these readers in relation to the information which is transmitted, because, making use of uttering strategies, these newspapers ideologically mark the readers of DC as being more lettered than the ones of Hora.

  14. Difference in the craniocaudal gradient of the maximum pixel value change rate between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and normal subjects using sub-mGy dynamic chest radiography with a flat panel detector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Ueyama, Masako; Abe, Takehiko; Araki, Tetsuro; Abe, Takayuki; Nishino, Mizuki; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hatabu, Hiroto; Kudoh, Shoji

    2017-07-01

    To compare the craniocaudal gradients of the maximum pixel value change rate (MPCR) during tidal breathing between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and normal subjects using dynamic chest radiography. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and all participants provided written informed consent. Forty-three COPD patients (mean age, 71.6±8.7 years) and 47 normal subjects (non-smoker healthy volunteers) (mean age, 54.8±9.8 years) underwent sequential chest radiographs during tidal breathing in a standing position using dynamic chest radiography with a flat panel detector system. We evaluated the craniocaudal gradient of MPCR. The results were analyzed using an unpaired t-test and the Tukey-Kramer method. The craniocaudal gradients of MPCR in COPD patients were significantly lower than those in normal subjects (right inspiratory phase, 75.5±48.1 vs. 108.9±42.0s -1 cm -1 , P<0.001; right expiratory phase, 66.4±40.6 vs. 89.8±31.6s -1 cm -1 , P=0.003; left inspiratory phase, 75.5±48.2 vs. 108.2±47.2s -1 cm -1 , P=0.002; left expiratory phase, 60.9±38.2 vs. 84.3±29.5s -1 cm -1 , P=0.002). No significant differences in height, weight, or BMI were observed between COPD and normal groups. In the sub-analysis, the gradients in severe COPD patients (global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease [GOLD] 3 or 4, n=26) were significantly lower than those in mild COPD patients (GOLD 1 or 2, n=17) for both right and left inspiratory/expiratory phases (all P≤0.005). A decrease of the craniocaudal gradient of MPCR was observed in COPD patients. The craniocaudal gradient was lower in severe COPD patients than in mild COPD patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  16. The coffee diterpene cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate of large VLDL apolipoprotein B in healthy normolipidemic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de B.; Caslake, M.J.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Bedford, D.; Demacker, P.N.; Katan, M.B.; Packard, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Cafestol is a diterpene in unfiltered coffee that raises plasma triacylglycerol in humans. Objective: We studied whether cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate or by decreasing the fractional catabolic rate of VLDL1 [Svedberg flotation unit (Sf)

  17. Subjective and objective measurement of the intelligibility of synthesized speech impaired by the very low bit rate STANAG 4591 codec including packet loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Počta, P.; Beerends, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the intelligibility of speech coded by the STANAG 4591 standard codec, including packet loss, using synthesized speech input. Both subjective and objective assessments are used. It is shown that this codec significantly degrades intelligibility when compared to a standard

  18. Difference in diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing in a standing position between COPD patients and normal subjects: Time-resolved quantitative evaluation using dynamic chest radiography with flat panel detector system (“dynamic X-ray phrenicography”)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Ueyama, Masako; Abe, Takehiko; Araki, Tetsuro; Abe, Takayuki; Nishino, Mizuki; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic X-ray phrenicography is a useful method for the evaluation of the diaphragms. • Its radiation dose is comparable to conventional two projection chest radiography. • Diaphragm motion during tidal breathing is larger in COPD than in normal subjects. • Higher BMI is also associated with increased excursions of the bilateral diaphragm. - Abstract: Objectives: To quantitatively compare diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing in a standing position between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and normal subjects using dynamic chest radiography. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine COPD patients (35 males; age, 71.3 ± 8.4 years) and 47 normal subjects (non-smoker healthy volunteers) (20 males; age, 54.8 ± 9.8 years) underwent sequential chest radiographs during tidal breathing using dynamic chest radiography with a flat panel detector system. We evaluated the excursions and peak motion speeds of the diaphragms. The results were analyzed using an unpaired t-test and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The excursions of the diaphragms in COPD patients were significantly larger than those in normal subjects (right, 14.7 ± 5.5 mm vs. 10.2 ± 3.7 mm, respectively, P < 0.001; left, 17.2 ± 4.9 mm vs. 14.9 ± 4.2 mm, respectively, P = 0.022). Peak motion speeds in inspiratory phase were significantly faster in COPD patients compared to normal subjects (right, 16.3 ± 5.0 mm/s vs. 11.8 ± 4.2 mm/s, respectively, P < 0.001; left, 18.9 ± 4.9 mm/s vs. 16.7 ± 4.0 mm/s, respectively, P = 0.022). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that having COPD and higher body mass index were independently associated with increased excursions of the bilateral diaphragm (all P < 0.05), after adjusting for other clinical variables. Conclusions: Time-resolved quantitative evaluation of the diaphragm using dynamic chest radiography demonstrated that the diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing in a standing position is larger and

  19. Difference in diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing in a standing position between COPD patients and normal subjects: Time-resolved quantitative evaluation using dynamic chest radiography with flat panel detector system (“dynamic X-ray phrenicography”)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yoshitake, E-mail: yamada@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Ueyama, Masako, E-mail: ueyamam@fukujuji.org [Department of Health Care, Fukujuji Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, 3-1-24 Matsuyama, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8522 (Japan); Abe, Takehiko, E-mail: takehikoabe@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Fukujuji Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, 3-1-24 Matsuyama, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8522 (Japan); Araki, Tetsuro, E-mail: TARAKI@partners.org [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Abe, Takayuki, E-mail: abe.t@keio.jp [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Biostatistics Unit at Clinical and Translational Research Center, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki, E-mail: Mizuki_Nishino11@dfci.harvard.edu [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Jinzaki, Masahiro, E-mail: jinzaki@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto, E-mail: hhatabu@partners.org [Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); and others

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Dynamic X-ray phrenicography is a useful method for the evaluation of the diaphragms. • Its radiation dose is comparable to conventional two projection chest radiography. • Diaphragm motion during tidal breathing is larger in COPD than in normal subjects. • Higher BMI is also associated with increased excursions of the bilateral diaphragm. - Abstract: Objectives: To quantitatively compare diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing in a standing position between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and normal subjects using dynamic chest radiography. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine COPD patients (35 males; age, 71.3 ± 8.4 years) and 47 normal subjects (non-smoker healthy volunteers) (20 males; age, 54.8 ± 9.8 years) underwent sequential chest radiographs during tidal breathing using dynamic chest radiography with a flat panel detector system. We evaluated the excursions and peak motion speeds of the diaphragms. The results were analyzed using an unpaired t-test and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The excursions of the diaphragms in COPD patients were significantly larger than those in normal subjects (right, 14.7 ± 5.5 mm vs. 10.2 ± 3.7 mm, respectively, P < 0.001; left, 17.2 ± 4.9 mm vs. 14.9 ± 4.2 mm, respectively, P = 0.022). Peak motion speeds in inspiratory phase were significantly faster in COPD patients compared to normal subjects (right, 16.3 ± 5.0 mm/s vs. 11.8 ± 4.2 mm/s, respectively, P < 0.001; left, 18.9 ± 4.9 mm/s vs. 16.7 ± 4.0 mm/s, respectively, P = 0.022). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that having COPD and higher body mass index were independently associated with increased excursions of the bilateral diaphragm (all P < 0.05), after adjusting for other clinical variables. Conclusions: Time-resolved quantitative evaluation of the diaphragm using dynamic chest radiography demonstrated that the diaphragmatic motion during tidal breathing in a standing position is larger and

  20. Establishment of Alleycropped Hybrid Aspen “Crandon” in Central Iowa, USA: Effects of Topographic Position and Fertilizer Rate on Aboveground Biomass Production and Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Hall

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid poplars have demonstrated high productivity as short rotation woody crops (SRWC in the Midwest USA, and the hybrid aspen “Crandon” (Populus alba L. × P. grandidenta Michx. has exhibited particularly promising yields on marginal lands. However, a key obstacle for wider deployment is the lack of economic returns early in the rotation. Alleycropping has the potential to address this issue, especially when paired with crops such as winter triticale which complete their growth cycle early in the summer and therefore are expected to exert minimal competition on establishing trees. In addition, well-placed fertilizer in low rates at planting has the potential to improve tree establishment and shorten the rotation, which is also economically desirable. To test the potential productivity of “Crandon” alleycropped with winter triticale, plots were established on five topographic positions with four different rates of fertilizer placed in the planting hole. Trees were then harvested from the plots after each of the first three growing seasons. Fertilization resulted in significant increases in branch, stem, and total aboveground biomass across all years, whereas the effects of topographic position varied by year. Allocation between branches and stems was found to be primarily a function of total aboveground biomass.

  1. The Role of Cultural Values in Motivating the Competencies of Hindu Balinese Human Resources in Tourism to Gain Manager Level Positions in Rated Hotels in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyawati .

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to the new era of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC since year 2015 – Bali, as the primary gateway of Indonesian tourism, must improve the quality of Hindu Balinese human resources in tourism (HB HRT. Winata (2014: 6 explained that adat istiadat (customs and traditions is one of the cause for their low commitment in their job, as HB HRT often take leave due to adat obligations. Therefore, one of the impact, as in the case of a hotel in Kuta, is that hotels often  avoid recruiting HB HRT. Hence, issue to be discussed in this study is to understand the role of Balinese Cultural Values as a potential and as an obstacle in HBHRT’s competency to achieve managerial positions in star-rated hotels in Bali. The research will use a concurrent triangulation method on data collected through interviews and questionaires.While sampling will be done with Purposive Sampling method on star-rated hotels located in Sanur, Kuta and Nusa Dua. Finally, the data analysis will be carried out by referring to Motivation Theory (McClelland, 1976, Competency Theory (Spencer and Spencer, 1993, Value Orientations Theory (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, 1961, through a descriptive interpretative qualitative approach as well as a quantitative approach based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA statistics. The research results will show that based on the data, HB HRT have good set of competencies, and these good competencies are inseparable from their background of Balinese Cultural Values (BCV, mainly derived from Hindu culture and religion. As part of upholding their culture, a HB HRT is a person with pawongan concept of harmonious relationship between human beings indicated by 79.1% people with tresna (love, the parhyangan concept of harmonious relationship between human beings and God indicated by 75% people engaging in dharma yatra pilgrimages and study, and the palemahan concept of harmonious relationship between human beings and nature indicated by 69

  2. Insulin's acute effects on glomerular filtration rate correlate with insulin sensitivity whereas insulin's acute effects on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption correlate with salt sensitivity in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Bakker, SJL; Serne, EH; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    1999-01-01

    Background. Insulin induces increasing distal tubular sodium reabsorption. Opposite effects of insulin to offset insulin-induced sodium retention are supposedly increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreases in proximal tubular sodium reabsorption. Defects in these opposing effects

  3. The effects of interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate oxidation rates in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Wallis, Gareth A.; Pedersen, Bente K.

    2016-01-01

    Background For unknown reasons, interval training often reduces body weight more than energy-expenditure matched continuous training. We compared the acute effects of time-duration and oxygen-consumption matched interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC...... (MMTT, 450 kcal) was consumed by the subjects 45 min after completion of the intervention with blood samples taken regularly. Results Exercise interventions were successfully matched for total oxygen consumption (CW = 1641 ± 133 mL/min; IW = 1634 ± 126 mL/min, P > 0.05). EPOC was higher after IW (8......, free fatty acids and glycerol concentrations, and glycerol kinetics were increased comparably during and after IW and CW compared to CON. Conclusions Interval exercise results in greater EPOC than oxygen-consumption matched continuous exercise during a post-exercise MMTT in subjects with T2D, whereas...

  4. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA,muscle strength, EMG and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anne

    2004-01-01

    , maximal isometric strength, RFD, and muscle activation in elderly men and women recovering from long-term muscle disuse and subsequent hip surgery. The improvement in both muscle mass and neural function is likely to have important functional implications for elderly individuals........ Thirty subjects completed the trial. In the strength-training group, significant increases were observed in maximal isometric muscle strength (24%, P impulse (27-32%, P

  5. A model for prediction of fume formation rate in gas metal arc welding (GMAW), globular and spray modes, DC electrode positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J H; Hewitt, P J; Redding, C A; Workman, A D

    2001-03-01

    Prediction of fume formation rate during metal arc welding and the composition of the fume are of interest to occupational hygienists concerned with risk assessment and to manufacturers of welding consumables. A model for GMAW (DC electrode positive) is described based on the welder determined process parameters (current, wire feed rate and wire composition), on the surface area of molten metal in the arc and on the partial vapour pressures of the component metals of the alloy wire. The model is applicable to globular and spray welding transfer modes but not to dip mode. Metal evaporation from a droplet is evaluated for short time increments and total evaporation obtained by summation over the life of the droplet. The contribution of fume derived from the weld pool and spatter (particles of metal ejected from the arc) is discussed, as are limitations of the model. Calculated droplet temperatures are similar to values determined by other workers. A degree of relationship between predicted and measured fume formation rates is demonstrated but the model does not at this stage provide a reliable predictive tool.

  6. Fracto-mechanoluminescent light emission of EuD4TEA-PDMS composites subjected to high strain-rate compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyeon; Castaño, Nicolas; Bhakta, Raj; Kimberley, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to understand light emission characteristics of fracto-mechanoluminescent (FML) europium tetrakis(dibenzoylmethide)-triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. As a sensing material that can play a pivotal role for the self-powered impact sensor technology, it is important to understand transformative light emission characteristics of the FML EuD4TEA crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. First, EuD4TEA crystals were synthesized and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to fabricate EuD4TEA-PDMS composite test specimens. Second, the prepared EuD4TEA-PDMS composites were tested using the modified Kolsky bar setup equipped with a high-speed camera. Third, FML light emission was captured to yield 12 bit grayscale video footage, which was processed to quantify the FML light emission. Finally, quantitative parameters were generated by taking into account pixel values and population of pixels of the 12 bit grayscale images to represent FML light intensity. The FML light intensity was correlated with high strain-rate compressive strain and strain rate to understand the FML light emission characteristics under high strain-rate compressive loading that can result from impact occurrences.

  7. Self- and other-estimates of multiple abilities in Britain and Turkey: a cross-cultural comparison of subjective ratings of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Arteche, Adriane; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Keser, Askin; Swami, Viren

    2009-12-01

    This study is part of a programmatic research effort into the determinants of self-assessed abilities. It examined cross-cultural differences in beliefs about intelligence and self- and other-estimated intelligence in two countries at extreme ends of the European continent. In all, 172 British and 272 Turkish students completed a three-part questionnaire where they estimated their parents', partners' and own multiple intelligences (Gardner (10) and Sternberg (3)). They also completed a measure of the 'big five' personality scales and rated six questions about intelligence. The British sample had more experience with IQ tests than the Turks. The majorit