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Sample records for positive stool specimens

  1. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

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    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  2. Value of Tropheryma whipplei quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of Whipple disease: usefulness of saliva and stool specimens for first-line screening.

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    Fenollar, Florence; Laouira, Sonia; Lepidi, Hubert; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2008-09-01

    Whipple disease (WD) is a chronic infectious disease caused by Tropheryma whipplei. WD DNA has been found in stool and saliva specimens from patients and asymptomatic carriers. A total of 4418 samples that were sent to our center for determination of WD were tested by a T. whipplei-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on repetitive sequences. Definite WD was diagnosed in 71 patients, including 55 patients with classic WD (defined by positive results of periodic acid-Schiff staining and/or specific immunohistochemistry of small-bowel biopsy specimens) and 16 patients with localized WD (including patients with endocarditis, neurologic infection, and uveitis). Of the persons without WD, 2.3% had stool specimens positive for T. whipplei by PCR and 0.2% had saliva specimens positive for T. whipplei by PCR. Diagnosis of WD was likely in patients with positive results of both PCR of saliva specimens and PCR of stool specimens (positive predictive value, 95.2%). When the bacterial load was >10(4) colony-forming units per g of stool, the positive predictive value was 100%. A negative result of PCR of a saliva or stool specimen had a negative predictive value of 99.2% for classic WD. For localized WD, positive results of both PCR of saliva specimens and PCR of stool specimens had a sensitivity of 58% (compared with 94% for classic WD). The positive predictive value of testing of blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine specimens was 100% for each, and the positive predictive value for testing of duodenal biopsy specimens was 97.5%. T. whipplei-specific quantitative PCR of saliva and stool specimens should be performed as first-line noninvasive screening for WD. When the results for both types of specimens are positive, diagnosis of classic WD should be highly suspected, especially if a high bacterial load is detected. Because PCR of saliva and stool specimens lacks sensitivity for determination of localized WD, invasive samples should be tested on the

  3. Consistency of direct microscopic examination and ELISA in detection of Giardia in stool specimen among children

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    Zohreh Torabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the consistency of direct microscopic examination and ELISA for determination of Giadia in stool specimen. Method: Study population consisted of children with any clinical symptoms of Giardia infestation since last two weeks. Fresh stool specimen was collected from each child. The stools specimens were assessed by two methods of direct microscopic examination and ELISA.The degree of agreement between direct stool exam and ELISA was calculated by Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results: In this study, 124 children with age range 2-12 years were investigated. A total of 64 (61.7% and 79 (65.7% of children had Giardia by direct stool exam and ELISA test respectively. There was association between frequency of constipation and Giardia infection (P=0.036. The Cohen's kappa coefficient calculated for degree of agreement between direct stool exam and ELISA showed κ=0.756 (P<0.001. Conclusions: The frequency of Giardia infection in symptomatic children was high and there was high agreement rate between ELISA and direct stool smear.

  4. Techniques for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium oocysts from stool specimens.

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    Garcia, L S; Bruckner, D A; Brewer, T C; Shimizu, R Y

    1983-07-01

    Due to increasing numbers of patients with documented infections with Cryptosporidium and other coccidia, it is important for the physician and clinical laboratory to be aware of the appropriate diagnostic techniques necessary for organism recovery and identification. Although Cryptosporidium is found in the gastrointestinal tract, tissue biopsies may be insufficient for organism recovery; the examination of stool specimens is a noninvasive procedure and will provide better overall opportunities for organism recovery. Human clinical specimens were examined from 45 patients with confirmed cryptosporidiosis or suspected of having the infection. Tissue biopsy sections, fecal wet preparations, and permanent stained smears were examined. Stool specimens were submitted in 10% Formalin, 2.5% potassium dichromate, and polyvinyl alcohol and were examined for oocysts by using 15 different methods: phase-contrast and light microscopy; Sheather's sugar flotation; Formalin concentration techniques; 10% potassium hydroxide; Giemsa; trichrome; periodic acid-Schiff; modified periodic acid-Schiff; silver methenamine; acridine orange; auramine-rhodamine; Kinyoun acid-fast; Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin; and a modified acid-fast procedure. Each technique or combination of techniques was assessed by organism quantitation, organism morphology, and ease of visual recognition. Based on these comparative studies, the modified Ziehl-Neelsen carbolfuchsin stain on 10% Formalin-preserved stool is recommended for the recovery and identification of Cryptosporidium.

  5. Albendazole Stimulates the Excretion of Strongyloides stercoralis Larvae in Stool Specimens and Enhances Sensitivity for Diagnosis of Strongyloidiasis▿

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    Anamnart, Witthaya; Pattanawongsa, Attarat; Intapan, Pewpan Maleewong; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2010-01-01

    We succeeded in stimulation of excretion of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae in stool by oral administration of a single dose of 400 mg albendazole to strongyloidiasis patients. This result overcame the false-negative results of stool examination due to low larval numbers. Stool samples were collected from 152 asymptomatic strongyloidiasis patients in the morning, prior to eating. After breakfast, they were given a dose of 400 mg albendazole, and stool samples were collected the following morning. Agar plate culture (APC), modified formalin-ether concentration technique (MFECT), and direct-smear (DS) methods were used to examine stool specimens within 3 h after defecation. The results before and after albendazole was taken were compared. All APCs that were positive became negative after albendazole administration, while MFECT showed a 1.4- to 18.0-fold increase in larval numbers in 97.4% (148/152) of the samples. The DSs were positive in 3 out of 3 smears at a larval number of ≥45 larvae per g (lpg) of stool, and in 1or 2 out of 3 smears at a larval number between 35 and 44 lpg. At a larval number of albendazole administration became positive by MFECT after the treatment. Thus, MFECT can be effectively used for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis with prior administration of albendazole to the subject. PMID:20844212

  6. Evaluation of RIDA®GENE norovirus GI/GII real time RT-PCR using stool specimens collected from children and adults with acute gastroenteritis.

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    Kanwar, N; Hassan, F; Barclay, L; Langley, C; Vinjé, J; Bryant, P W; George, K St; Mosher, L; Matthews-Greer, J M; Rocha, M A; Beenhouwer, D O; Harrison, C J; Moffatt, M; Shastri, N; Selvarangan, R

    2018-04-10

    Norovirus is the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the United States. Widespread prevalence necessitates implementation of accurate norovirus detection assays in clinical diagnostic laboratories. To evaluate RIDA ® GENE norovirus GI/GII real-time RT-PCR assay (RGN RT-PCR) using stool samples from patients with sporadic AGE. Patients between 14 days to 101 years of age with symptoms of AGE were enrolled prospectively at four sites across the United States during 2014-2015. Stool specimens were screened for the presence of norovirus RNA by the RGN RT-PCR assay. Results were compared with a reference method that included conventional RT-PCR and sequencing of a partial region of the 5'end of the norovirus ORF2 gene. A total of 259 (36.0%) of 719 specimens tested positive for norovirus by the reference method. The RGN RT-PCR assay detected norovirus in 244 (94%) of these 259 norovirus positive specimens. The sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) of the RGN RT-PCR assay for detecting norovirus genogroup (G) I was 82.8% (63.5-93.5) and 99.1% (98.0-99.6) and for GII was 94.8% (90.8-97.2) and 98.6% (96.9-99.4), respectively. Seven specimens tested positive by the RGN-RT PCR that were negative by the reference method. The fifteen false negative samples were typed as GII.4 Sydney, GII.13, GI.3, GI.5, GI.2, GII.1, and GII.3 in the reference method. The RGN RT-PCR assay had a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of norovirus in stool specimens from patients with sporadic AGE. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Comparison of microscopy, ELISA, and real-time PCR for detection of Giardia intestinalis in human stool specimens

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    Beyhan, Yunus Emre; Taş Cengiz, Zeynep

    2017-08-23

    Background/aim: This study included patients who had digestive system complaints between August 2015 and October 2015. The research was designed to compare conventional microscopy with an antigen detection ELISA kit and the TaqMan-based real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique for detection of Giardia intestinalis in human stool specimens. Materials and methods: Samples were concentrated by formalin-ether sedimentation technique and microscopic examinations were carried out on wet mount slides. A commercially available ELISA kit (Giardia CELISA, Cellabs, Brookvale, Australia) was used for immunoassay. DNA was extracted from fecal samples of about 200 mg using the QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) and the LightCycler Nano system (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) was used for the TaqMan-based RT-PCR assay. Results: A total of 94 stool samples, 38 of them diagnosed positive (40.4%) and 56 of them diagnosed negative by microscopy, were selected for evaluation by antigen detection and molecular assays. The prevalence of G. intestinalis infection was found as 46.8% (n: 44) and 79.8% (n: 75) by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. RT-PCR revealed by far the highest positivity rate compared to the other two methods. The difference between these methods was found to be statistically significant (P PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of microscopy and ELISA were 50.7% and 100% and 53.3% and 79%, respectively. Conclusion: RT-PCR seems to be much more sensitive and beneficial for rapid and accurate diagnosis of G. intestinalis in human stools.

  8. Rapid diagnosis of diarrhea caused by Shigella sonnei using dipsticks; comparison of rectal swabs, direct stool and stool culture.

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    Claudia Duran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated a dipstick test for rapid detection of Shigella sonnei on bacterial colonies, directly on stools and from rectal swabs because in actual field situations, most pathologic specimens for diagnosis correspond to stool samples or rectal swabs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. sonnei lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-side chains using phase I-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles, and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 5 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 6 minutes. This is the optimal time for lecture to avoid errors of interpretation. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 4 x 10(6 CFU/ml of S. sonnei. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and different unrelated strains. When tested on 342 rectal swabs in Chile, specificity (281/295 was 95.3% (95% CI: 92.9% - 97.7% and sensitivity (47/47 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 95.5 % of cases (328/342 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 77% (95% CI: 65% - 86.5% and 100% respectively. When tested on 219 stools in Chile, Vietnam, India and France, specificity (190/198 was 96% (95% CI 92%-98% and sensitivity (21/21 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 96.3 % of cases (211/219 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 72.4% (95% CI 56.1%-88.6% and 100 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: This one-step dipstick test performed well for diagnosis of S. sonnei both on stools and on rectal swabs. These data confirm a preliminary study done in Chile.

  9. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in stool specimens by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the population of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

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    Barnawi, Abdulaziz B M; Tonkal, Abulkader M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Al-Braiken, Faten A

    2007-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly pathogenic Entamoeba sp. (E. histolytica), in patients attending three hospitals in Jeddah City, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz Hospital and King Fahad Hospital for gastro-intestinal troubles. 186 stool specimens were examined microscopically for parasites and by ELISA kit (E. histolytica II) for true E. histolytica. 83 samples (44.6%) were positive by microscopy for at least one parasite. Of which, 23 (12.4%) showed two parasites and 15 (8.1%) three parasites. Eight different parasite species were identified. The most prevalent were E. histolytica/dispar (n = 26, 31.3%) and Giardia lamblia (n = 13, 15.7%). Others were Blastocytosis hominis (n = 12, 14.5%), Entamoeba coli (n = 11, 13.3%), Trichuris trichuria (n = 8, 9.6%), Endolymax nana (n = 6, 7.2%), Hymenolepes nana (n = 4, 4.8%) and Chilomastix mesnili (n = 3, 3.6%). Only five stool samples (19%) from those identified by microscopy to contain E. histolytica/dispar, were E. histolytica positive by E. histolytica II ELISA. For the first time to the authors' knowledge the true prevalence of E. histolytica in Saudi Arabia was 2.7%. E. histolytica II ELISA proved to be a highly useful technique to differentiate pathogenic E. histolytica from non pathogenic E. dispar.

  10. A novel nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar DNA in stool samples

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    Parija Subhash C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background E. histolytica, a pathogenic amoeba, is indistinguishable in its cyst and trophozoite stages from those of non-pathogenic E. moshkovskii and E. dispar by light microscopy. We have developed a nested multiplex PCR targeting a 16S-like rRNA gene for differential detection of all the three morphologically similar forms of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar simultaneously in stool samples. Results The species specific product size for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar was 439, 553 and 174 bp respectively, which was clearly different for all the three Entamoeba species. The nested multiplex PCR showed a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100% for the demonstration of E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar DNA in stool samples. The PCR was positive for E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii and E. dispar in a total of 190 out of 202 stool specimens (94% sensitive that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture. All the 35 negative control stool samples that were negative for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by microscopy and culture were also found negative by the nested multiplex PCR (100% specific. The result from the study shows that only 34.6% of the patient stool samples that were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii by examination of stool by microscopy and/or culture, were actually positive for pathogenic E. histolytica and the remaining majority of the stool samples were positive for non-pathogenic E. dispar or E. moshkovskii as demonstrated by the use of nested multiplex PCR. Conclusion The present study reports a new nested multiplex PCR strategy for species specific detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii DNA in stool specimens. The test is highly specific, sensitive and also rapid, providing the results within 12 hours of receiving stool specimens.

  11. Evaluation of the BD Max Cdiff assay for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in human stool specimens.

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    Putsathit, Papanin; Morgan, Justin; Bradford, Damien; Engelhardt, Nelly; Riley, Thomas V

    2015-02-01

    The Becton Dickinson (BD) PCR-based GeneOhm Cdiff assay has demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting Clostridium difficile. Recently, the BD Max platform, using the same principles as BD GeneOhm, has become available in Australia. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of BD Max Cdiff assay for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile in an Australian setting. Between December 2013 and January 2014, 406 stool specimens from 349 patients were analysed with the BD Max Cdiff assay. Direct and enrichment toxigenic culture were performed on bioMérieux ChromID C. difficile agar as a reference method. isolates from specimens with discrepant results were further analysed with an in-house PCR to detect the presence of toxin genes. The overall prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile was 7.2%. Concordance between the BD Max assay and enrichment culture was 98.5%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the BD Max Cdiff assay were 95.5%, 99.0%, 87.5% and 99.7%, respectively, when compared to direct culture, and 91.7%, 99.0%, 88.0% and 99.4%, respectively, when compared to enrichment culture. The new BD Max Cdiff assay appeared to be an excellent platform for rapid and accurate detection of toxigenic C. difficile.

  12. Validation of the 3-day rule for stool bacterial tests in Japan.

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    Kobayashi, Masanori; Sako, Akahito; Ogami, Toshiko; Nishimura, So; Asayama, Naoki; Yada, Tomoyuki; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Kobayakawa, Masao; Yanase, Mikio; Masaki, Naohiko; Takeshita, Nozomi; Uemura, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Stool cultures are expensive and time consuming, and the positive rate of enteric pathogens in cases of nosocomial diarrhea is low. The 3-day rule, whereby clinicians order a Clostridium difficile (CD) toxin test rather than a stool culture for inpatients developing diarrhea >3 days after admission, has been well studied in Western countries. The present study sought to validate the 3-day rule in an acute care hospital setting in Japan. Stool bacterial and CD toxin test results for adult patients hospitalized in an acute care hospital in 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Specimens collected after an initial positive test were excluded. The positive rate and cost-effectiveness of the tests were compared among three patient groups. The adult patients were divided into three groups for comparison: outpatients, patients hospitalized for ≤3 days and patients hospitalized for ≥4 days. Over the 12-month period, 1,597 stool cultures were obtained from 992 patients, and 880 CD toxin tests were performed in 529 patients. In the outpatient, inpatient ≤3 days and inpatient ≥4 days groups, the rate of positive stool cultures was 14.2%, 3.6% and 1.3% and that of positive CD toxin tests was 1.9%, 7.1% and 8.5%, respectively. The medical costs required to obtain one positive result were 9,181, 36,075 and 103,600 JPY and 43,200, 11,333 and 9,410 JPY, respectively. The 3-day rule was validated for the first time in a setting other than a Western country. Our results revealed that the "3-day rule" is also useful and cost-effective in Japan.

  13. Detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium by real-time polymerase chain reaction in stool samples from patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Roberta Flávia Ribeiro Rolando

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the first genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidium isolates in Brazil using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A total of 1,197 faecal specimens from children and 10 specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were collected between 1999-2010 and screened using microscopy. Forty-eight Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive isolates were identified and analysed using a generic TaqMan assay targeting the 18S rRNA to detect Cryptosporidium species and two other TaqMan assays to identify Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. The 18S rRNA assay detected Cryptosporidium species in all 48 of the stool specimens. The C. parvum TaqMan assay correctly identified five/48 stool samples, while 37/48 stool specimens were correctly amplified in the C. hominis TaqMan assay. The results obtained in this study support previous findings showing that C. hominis infections are more prevalent than C. parvum infections in Brazil and they demonstrate that the TaqMan RT-PCR procedure is a simple, fast and valuable tool for the detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium species.

  14. A Novel Stool PCR Test for Helicobacter pylori May Predict Clarithromycin Resistance and Eradication of Infection at a High Rate.

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    Beckman, Erin; Saracino, Ilaria; Fiorini, Giulia; Clark, Courtney; Slepnev, Vladimir; Patel, Denise; Gomez, Clarissa; Ponaka, Reddy; Elagin, Vecheslav; Vaira, Dino

    2017-08-01

    Clarithromycin-based regimens are commonly used as a first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori -positive patients; however, resistance to clarithromycin has led to treatment failures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using stool samples to detect the presence of H. pylori DNA while concurrently detecting mutations associated with resistance to clarithromycin. For this purpose, total DNA was extracted from 294 raw stool specimens from H. pylori -positive and -negative patients. TaqMan real-time PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of H. pylori as well as to predict the phenotype of the organism and the related outcome for patients treated with clarithromycin. Clarithromycin resistance was determined upon analysis of the PCR result. Patients were also tested by a urea breath test and were subjected to esophagogastroduodenoscopy, followed by histology, culture, and a rapid urease test, in order to obtain a consensus patient infection status. Of 294 total stool samples, 227 were deemed true positive. The sensitivity of H. pylori detection by PCR was 93.8%. Of 213 true-positive samples that were sequenced, 36.2% showed point mutations associated with clarithromycin resistance (A2142C, A2142G, A2143G). The final correlation of the mutant genotypes as determined by sequencing with the eradication of infection was 86%. We found that Helicobacter pylori DNA can be detected in human stool specimens with high sensitivity and can therefore be used to determine the presence of the bacterium without obtaining a biopsy sample. Moreover, genotypic resistance to clarithromycin can be predicted without obtaining a biopsy sample, facilitating the choice of the right therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Multiplex PCR detection of Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica directly from dried stool samples from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea.

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    Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Antikainen, Jenni; Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Kantele, Anu

    2017-09-01

    In developing countries, diarrhoea is the most common cause of death for children under five years of age, with Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica as the most frequent pathogenic parasites. Traditional microscopy for stool parasites has poor sensitivity and specificity, while new molecular methods may provide more accurate diagnostics. In poor regions with sample storage hampered by uncertain electricity supply, research would benefit from a method capable of analysing dried stools. A real-time multiplex PCR method with internal inhibition control was developed for detecting Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum and Entamoeba histolytica directly from stool specimens. Applicability to dried samples was checked by comparing with fresh ones in a small test material. Finally, the assay was applied to dried specimens collected from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. The PCR's analytical sensitivity limit was 0.1 ng/ml for G. lamblia DNA, 0.01 ng/ml for E. histolytica DNA and 0.1 ng/ml for Cryptosporidium sp. In the test material, the assay performed similarly with fresh and dried stools. Of the 52 Guinea-Bissauan samples, local microscopy revealed a parasite in 15%, while PCR detected 62% positive for at least one parasite: 44% of the dried samples had Giardia, 23% Cryptosporidium and 0% E. histolytica. Our new multiplex real-time PCR for protozoa presents a sensitive method applicable to dried samples. As proof of concept, it worked well on stools collected from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. It provides an epidemiological tool for analysing dried specimens from regions poor in resources.

  16. Helicobacter pylori from Peptic Ulcer Patients in Uganda Is Highly Resistant to Clarithromycin and Fluoroquinolones: Results of the GenoType HelicoDR Test Directly Applied on Stool

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    Denish Calmax Angol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Around 70–90% of peptic ulcer disease (PUD is due to Helicobacter pylori and requires treatment with antimicrobials to which these bacteria are susceptible. Common H. pylori diagnostic tests do not provide drug susceptibility data. Using the GenoType HelicoDR PCR test designed for gastric biopsies for simultaneous detection of H. pylori and its resistance to clarithromycin (CLA/fluoroquinolones (FLQ, we present evidence for stool as an optional test specimen and also provide data on prevalence of H. pylori resistance to CLA and FLQ in Uganda. Methods. Stool from 142 symptomatic PUD patients at three hospitals in Kampala was screened for H. pylori using a rapid antigen test. The GenoType HelicoDR test was run on all H. pylori antigen positives to determine PCR positivity and resistance to CLA/FLQ. Results. Thirty-one samples (22% were H. pylori antigen positive, and 21 (68% of these were H. pylori PCR positive. Six of the 21 (29% were resistant to CLA and eight to FLQ (42%, while two gave invalid FLQ resistance results. Conclusion. Stool is a possible specimen for the GenoType HelicoDR test for rapid detection of H. pylori and drug resistance. In Uganda, Helicobacter pylori is highly resistant to CLA and FLQ.

  17. Evaluation of Patients with an Apparent False Positive Stool DNA Test: The Role of Repeat Stool DNA Testing.

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    Cooper, Gregory S; Markowitz, Sanford D; Chen, Zhengyi; Tuck, Missy; Willis, Joseph E; Berger, Barry M; Brenner, Dean E; Li, Li

    2018-03-07

    There is uncertainty as to the appropriate follow-up of patients who test positive on multimarker stool DNA (sDNA) testing and have a colonoscopy without neoplasia. To determine the prevalence of missed colonic or occult upper gastrointestinal neoplasia in patients with an apparent false positive sDNA. We prospectively identified 30 patients who tested positive with a commercially available sDNA followed by colonoscopy without neoplastic lesions. Patients were invited to undergo repeat sDNA at 11-29 months after the initial test followed by repeat colonoscopy and upper endoscopy. We determined the presence of neoplastic lesions on repeat evaluation stratified by results of repeat sDNA. Twelve patients were restudied. Seven patients had a negative second sDNA test and a normal second colonoscopy and upper endoscopy. In contrast, 5 of 12 subjects had a persistently positive second sDNA test, and 3 had positive findings, including a 3-cm sessile transverse colon adenoma with high-grade dysplasia, a 2-cm right colon sessile serrated adenoma with dysplasia, and a nonadvanced colon adenoma (p = 0.045). These corresponded to a positive predictive value of 0.60 (95% CI 0.17-1.00) and a negative predictive value of 1.00 (95% CI 1.00-1.00) for the second sDNA test. In addition, the medical records of all 30 subjects with apparent false positive testing were reviewed and no documented cases of malignant tumors were recorded. Repeat positive sDNA testing may identify a subset of patients with missed or occult colorectal neoplasia after negative colonoscopy for an initially positive sDNA. High-quality colonoscopy with careful attention to the right colon in patients with positive sDNA is critically important and may avoid false negative colonoscopy.

  18. Incidence of Giardia lamblia Subspecies by PCR-RFLP in Stool Specimens of Hospitalized Children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

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    Khosro Hazrati Tappeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent intestinal flagellate protozoa that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts causing severe intestinal disorder in children.This study was performed to determine subspecies of G.lamblia by the PCR-RFLP method, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase(gdhlocus, in hospitalized children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province,Iran and determining the infection transformational storages in this area.Overall, 720 stool specimens were collected from the hospitalized children, 34 samples were positive and Giardia cysts were detected under the microscope. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method and then washed with sterile distilled water to remove effectively the PCR inhibitors. Genomic DNA of G. lamblia isolates was extracted by freeze-thaw cycles followed by phenol/ chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. The single step PCR-RFLP assay was used to differentiate the assemblages between A and B, which were found in humans. In this method, 432 bp expected size was amplified, and then for detection of subspecies, specific restriction RsaI and BspLI enzymes were used.Totally 34 samples were positive in terms of Giardia cyst out of 720 examined samples microscopically, so the parasite spread rate is reported 4.72%. Analysis PCR-RFLP on these samples revealed that 28 samples (93.3% have the genotype BIII and 2 samples (6.7% belong to the subgroup BIV.PCR-RFLP is a proper analytical method for determining the genotype among parasite types, using the glutamate dehydrogenizes zone's genes. Based on the results, an animal origin of infection cycle is suggested.

  19. The effect of neutral and acidic oligosaccharides on stool viscosity, stool frequency and stool pH in preterm infants

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    Westerbeek, E. A. M.; Hensgens, R. L.; Mihatsch, W. A.; Boehm, G.; Lafeber, H. N.; van Elburg, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS)] in combination with acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) on stool viscosity, stool frequency and stool pH in preterm infants. In this explorative RCT, preterm infants

  20. Stool Gram stain

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    ... stool sample. The Gram stain method is sometimes used to quickly diagnose bacterial infections. How the Test is Performed You will need to collect a stool sample. There are many ways to collect the sample. You can catch the stool on plastic wrap that is loosely placed over the toilet bowl ...

  1. The complete genome of klassevirus – a novel picornavirus in pediatric stool

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    Ganem Donald

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea kills 2 million children worldwide each year, yet an etiological agent is not found in approximately 30–50% of cases. Picornaviral genera such as enterovirus, kobuvirus, cosavirus, parechovirus, hepatovirus, teschovirus, and cardiovirus have all been found in human and animal diarrhea. Modern technologies, especially deep sequencing, allow rapid, high-throughput screening of clinical samples such as stool for new infectious agents associated with human disease. Results A pool of 141 pediatric gastroenteritis samples that were previously found to be negative for known diarrheal viruses was subjected to pyrosequencing. From a total of 937,935 sequence reads, a collection of 849 reads distantly related to Aichi virus were assembled and found to comprise 75% of a novel picornavirus genome. The complete genome was subsequently cloned and found to share 52.3% nucleotide pairwise identity and 38.9% amino acid identity to Aichi virus. The low level of sequence identity suggests a novel picornavirus genus which we have designated klassevirus. Blinded screening of 751 stool specimens from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals revealed a second positive case of klassevirus infection, which was subsequently found to be from the index case's 11-month old twin. Conclusion We report the discovery of human klassevirus 1, a member of a novel picornavirus genus, in stool from two infants from Northern California. Further characterization and epidemiological studies will be required to establish whether klasseviruses are significant causes of human infection.

  2. Stool Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections and may be identified with a stool culture. Some important examples include: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other toxin- ... the toxin-producing C. difficile will be performed. Examples of other less common causes include: ... of stool cultures that are reported as negative usually reflect the ...

  3. The isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from stool samples in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A R; Al-Jumaili, I J; Bint, A J

    1986-01-01

    Three strains of Moellerella wisconsensis were isolated from a total of 400 stool specimens screened for this organism by means of a new selective medium developed in this laboratory. This is the first report of the isolation of this organism in the U.K. The exact role of M. wisconsensis in causing diarrhoea remains to be elucidated.

  4. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  5. Prevalence of Salmonella Excretion in Stool: A Community Survey in 2 Sites, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Justin; Nichols, Chelsea; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Sow, Amy Gassama; Løfberg, Sandra; Tall, Adama; Pak, Gi Deok; Aaby, Peter; Baker, Stephen; Clemens, John D; Espinoza, Ligia Maria Cruz; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Monteiro, Mario; Niang, Aissatou; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian; von Kalckreuth, Vera

    2016-03-15

    Chronic and convalescent carriers play an important role in the transmission and endemicity of many communicable diseases. A high incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection has been reported in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, yet the prevalence of Salmonella excretion in the general population is unknown. Stool specimens were collected from a random sample of households in 2 populations in West Africa: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, and Dakar, Senegal. Stool was cultured to detect presence of Salmonella, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on the isolated organisms. Stool was cultured from 1077 and 1359 individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Senegal, respectively. Salmonella Typhi was not isolated from stool samples at either site. Prevalence of NTS in stool samples was 24.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.5-35.1; n = 26/1077) per 1000 population in Guinea-Bissau and 10.3 (95% CI, 6.1-17.2; n = 14/1359) per 1000 population in Senegal. Evidence of NTS excretion in stool in both study populations indicates a possible NTS transmission route in these settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  7. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-09-15

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  8. 21 CFR 868.6700 - Anesthesia stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia stool. 868.6700 Section 868.6700 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6700 Anesthesia stool. (a) Identification. An anesthesia stool is a device intended for use as a stool for the anesthesiologist in the operating room. (b...

  9. Effective testing for pulmonary tuberculosis using Xpert MTB/RIF assay for stool specimens in immunocompetent Pakistani children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for stool-based diagnosis of pulmonary TB in immunocompetent children is useful in a resource poor setting. This is a valuable and noninvasive diagnostic alternative for the diagnosis of childhood TB and can be adapted by pediatric arms of national TB programs.

  10. Moellerella wisconsensis, a new genus and species of Enterobacteriaceae found in human stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman-Brenner, F W; Huntley-Carter, G P; Saitoh, Y; Steigerwalt, A G; Farmer, J J; Brenner, D J

    1984-04-01

    The name Moellerella wisconsensis is proposed for a group of the family Enterobacteriaceae previously called enteric group 46. The species name, wisconsensis, was coined because six of the nine strains were isolated in Wisconsin. M. wisconsensis strains were negative for indole production, Voges-Proskauer, H2S production, urea, phenylalanine deaminase, lysine and ornithine decarboxylases, arginine dihydrolase, gas production from D-glucose, acid production from trehalose, and motility; the strains were positive for methyl red, citrate (Simmons), and acid production from lactose and raffinose and resistant to colistin. DNAs from five strains of M. wisconsensis were highly related (80 to 93% in reactions assayed on hydroxyapatite at 60 degrees C and 78 to 97% at 75 degrees C) to 32P-labeled DNA of the proposed type strain (CDC 2896-78, ATCC 35017). Labeled DNA from this type strain was only 2 to 32% related (at 60 degrees C) to DNA from 49 strains of named and unnamed species of Enterobacteriaceae. Eight of nine M. wisconsensis strains were isolated from human stool samples. Clinical information on one strain was available, and it was found to be associated with a case of diarrhea. On MacConkey agar, colonies of M. wisconsensis were bright red with precipitated bile around them and thus were indistinguishable from Escherichia coli colonies. Future studies should focus on the isolation of this new organism and its relationship to human disease.

  11. Diagnostic efficacy of monoclonal antibody based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of Fasciola gigantica excretory/secretory antigens in both serum and stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheiry Mona K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was carried out to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (MoAb-based sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the diagnosis of active Fasciola gigantica infection in both serum and stool for comparative purposes. Methods From a panel of MoAbs raised against F. gigantica excretory/secretory antigens (ES Ags, a pair (12B/11D/3F and 10A/9D/10G was chosen due to its high reactivity and strict specificity to F. gigantica antigen by indirect ELISA. Results The two MoAbs were of the IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses, respectively. Using SDS-PAGE and EITB, the selected MoAbs recognized 83, 64, 45 and 26 kDa bands of ES Ags. The lower detection limit of ELISA assay was 3 ng/ml. In stool, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic efficacy of ELISA was 96%, 98.2 and 97.1%; while in serum they were 94%, 94.6% and 94.3%, respectively. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between ova count in stool of F. gigantica infected patients and the OD readings of ELISA in both stool and serum samples (r = 0.730, p Conclusions These data showed that the use of MoAb-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of F. gigantica coproantigens in stool specimens was superior to serum samples; it provides a highly efficient, non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of active F. gigantica infection.

  12. Stools - pale or clay-colored

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003129.htm Stools - pale or clay-colored To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stools that are pale, clay, or putty-colored may be due to problems ...

  13. [Bristol Stool Chart: Prospective and monocentric study of "stools introspection" in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarenco, G

    2014-09-01

    The Bristol Stool Chart (BSC) allows patients to identify their stool form using seven different images with accompanying written descriptors. Stool form was found to correlate better than stool frequency with whole-gut transit as measured by a radio-opaque marker study. This score is widely used in order to verify the presence of a constipation and to evaluate the therapeutic impact of various treatments. In our clinical practice, we was strongly surprised by the facility and the great precision of the patients to report their stool form, meaning that they usually and daily verify these stools. We wanted to precise the goals of a such attitude. Two questionnaires were proposed to healthy and voluntary subjects. Q1 was supposedly presented in order to verify the sensibility of a French version of BSC in a healthy population. Thus, Q1 precised the difficulties or not to understand pictures and written descriptors, asked about exhaustive analysis by means of BSC of stool form and bowel condition. All subjects with history of ano-rectal disorders or specific treatment for bowel dysfunction were excluded. After Q1 fulfilled, Q2 was proposed to the subjects. Q2 was designed to precise the goals of the patient when he look at his stool and the frequency of such an investigation. Finally a specific question concerning the subject opinion about this behavior in terms of bothersome, shame, or metaphysic interrogation. Eighty-five healthy subjects were recruited (42 female and 43 male). Mean age was 37.2 (sd = 15.7). Mean score of BCS was 2.07 (sd =1.05) (2.07 for female and 1.81 for male, P = 0.22). Number of categories of stool form was only 1 in 40%, 2 categories in 31%, 3 in 19%, 4 in 10%. Presence of a constipation defined by category 1 or 2 was found in 17% (23% in F, 12% in M, P = 0.075). Precision of BSC was noted as excellent in 68%, moderated in 18% and poor in 14%. BSC was considered as easy to use in 75%. Frequency of inspection of feces was systematic for 37%, 1

  14. Fecal specimens preparation methods for PCR diagnosis of human taeniosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Cáris Maroni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation and DNA extraction protocols for DNA amplification by PCR, which can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis, are described. DNA extracted from fecal specimens with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol and DNAzol® reagent had to be first purified to generate fragments of 170 pb and 600 pb by HDP2-PCR. This purification step was not necessary with the use of QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®. Best DNA extraction results were achieved after eggs disruption with glass beads, either with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol, DNAzol® reagent or QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®.

  15. Tumor containing fragment number influences immunohistochemistry positive rate of HER2 in biopsy specimens of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Yalan; Ge, Xiaowen; Jiang, Dongxian; Zhang, Ying; Ji, Yuan; Hou, Jun; Huang, Jie; Su, Jieakesu; Zeng, Haiying; Qin, Jing; Hou, Yingyong

    2017-05-26

    HER2 assessment in biopsy specimens of gastric cancer (GC) is challenging because of the intratumoral heterogeneity. False negative results may be get because of limited biopsy material. The aim of this study is to explore how tumor-containing fragment number and biopsy specimen number affect HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) positive rate. Eight hundred and ninety biopsy specimens and 459 paired resected specimens were collected. IHC staining of HER2 was performed. HER2 IHC positive (scored 3+) rate was compared based on tumor-containing fragment number, biopsy specimen number, average size and tumor tissue proportion of tumor-containing fragments. The positive predictability of biopsy specimens to resected specimens was analyzed based on tumor fragment number. HER2 IHC positive rates were 2.0, 3.5, 7.0, 13.2, 17.1, and 15.9% when tumor fragment numbers were 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. The rate rose with the increase of tumor fragment number (P = 0.004). ROC curve analysis showed that biopsy specimens exhibited positive predictability when tumor fragment number reached 3, but showed better performance when the number was ≥4 (P fragment number reached 4, no statistic differences were reached in either HER2 IHC positive rate or positive predictability with further increase of the number (P > 0.05). HER2 IHC positive rate was not associated with biopsy number (P = 0.127), average size of tumor fragments (P = 0.397), and tumor tissue proportion of tumor fragments (P = 0.825) directly. The number of tumor-containing fragments influences HER2 IHC positive (scored 3+) rate. Greater than or equal to 4 (≥4) tumor fragments give better results in the positive rate as well as positive predictability. We recommend the number of tumor containing fragments be described in the HER2 IHC pathology reports for clinical reference in endoscopic biopsy specimens of GC.

  16. Oral diosmectite reduces stool output and diarrhea duration in children with acute watery diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Christophe; Foo, Jimmy Lee Kok; Garnier, Philippe; Moore, Nicholas; Mathiex-Fortunet, Hèlène; Salazar-Lindo, Eduardo

    2009-04-01

    Diosmectite is a clay used to treat children with acute watery diarrhea. However, its effects on stool output reduction, the key outcome for pediatric antidiarrheal drugs, have not been shown. Two parallel, double-blind studies of diosmectite efficacy on stool reduction were conducted in children 1 to 36 months old in Peru (n = 300) and Malaysia (n = 302). Inclusion criteria included 3 or more watery stools per day for less than 72 hours and weight/height ratios of 0.8 or greater. Exclusion criteria were the need for intravenous rehydration, gross blood in stools, fever higher than 39 degrees C, or current treatment with antidiarrheal or antibiotic medications. Rotavirus status was determined. Diosmectite dosage was 6 g/day (children 1-12 months old) or 12 g/day (children 13-36 months old), given for at least 3 days, followed by half doses until complete recovery. Patients were assigned randomly to groups given diosmectite or placebo, in addition to oral rehydration solution (World Health Organization). Children in each study had comparable average ages and weights. The frequencies of rotavirus infection were 22% in Peru and 12% in Malaysia. Similar amounts of oral rehydration solution were given to children in the diosmectite and placebo groups. Stool output was decreased significantly by diosmectite in both studies, especially among rotavirus-positive children. In pooled data, children had a mean stool output of 94.5 +/- 74.4 g/kg of body weight in the diosmectite group versus 104.1 +/- 94.2 g/kg in the placebo group (P = .002). Diarrhea duration was reduced by diosmectite, which was well tolerated. These results show that diosmectite significantly decreased stool output in children with acute watery diarrhea, especially those who were rotavirus-positive.

  17. Clostridium difficile Testing Algorithm: Is There a Difference in Patients Who Test Positive by Enzyme Immunoassay vs. Those Who Only Test Positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Methodology?

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Jonathan; Odili, Ogheneruona; Craver, Mary Ashleigh; Mayen, Anthony; Purrman, Kyle; Rahman, Asem; Sang, Charlie Joseph; Cook, Paul P

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Testing for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) commonly involves checking for the presence of toxins A and B by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or nucleic acid amplification (NAA). The former is very specific, but not very sensitive. The latter is very sensitive. Beginning in 2011, our hospital incorporated an algorithm that involved testing liquid stool specimens for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin by EIA. For discrepant results, the stool specimen was tested for the ...

  18. Stool Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clean, sealable container before taking to the laboratory. Plastic wrap can also be used to line the diaper of an infant or toddler who is not yet using the toilet. The stool should be collected into clean, dry plastic jars with screw-cap lids. You can get ...

  19. Recovery of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci from children.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, M; Wadowsky, R M; Barbadora, K

    1990-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci (VRGPC) in the feces of children was initiated after several bacteremic infections with these organisms occurred at our hospital. A selective medium consisting of colistin-nalidixic acid agar, 5% sheep blood, vancomycin (5 mg/liter), and amphotericin B (8 mg/liter) was developed to isolate VRGPC. A single stool specimen submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory from each of 48 patients was inoculated onto the medium....

  20. Light Reflectance Spectroscopy to Detect Positive Surgical Margins on Prostate Cancer Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Monica S C; Lay, Aaron H; Wang, Xinlong; Kapur, Payal; Ozayar, Asim; Sayah, Maryam; Zeng, Li; Liu, Hanli; Roehrborn, Claus G; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative frozen section analysis is not routinely performed to determine positive surgical margins at radical prostatectomy due to time requirements and unproven clinical usefulness. Light reflectance spectroscopy, which measures light intensity reflected or backscattered from tissues, can be applied to differentiate malignant from benign tissue. We used a novel light reflectance spectroscopy probe to evaluate positive surgical margins on ex vivo radical prostatectomy specimens and correlate its findings with pathological examination. Patients with intermediate to high risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy were enrolled. Light reflectance spectroscopy was performed on suspected malignant and benign prostate capsule immediately following organ extraction. Each light reflectance spectroscopy at 530 to 830 nm was analyzed and correlated with pathological results. A regression model and forward sequential selection algorithm were developed for optimal feature selection. Eighty percent of light reflectance spectroscopy data were selected to train a logistic regression model, which was evaluated by the remaining 20% data. This was repeated 5 times to calculate averaged sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Light reflectance spectroscopy analysis was performed on 17 ex vivo prostate specimens, on which a total of 11 histologically positive and 22 negative surgical margins were measured. Two select features from 700 to 830 nm were identified as unique to malignant tissue. Cross-validation when performing the predictive model showed that the optical probe predicted positive surgical margins with 85% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 86% accuracy and an AUC of 0.95. Light reflectance spectroscopy can identify positive surgical margins accurately in fresh ex vivo radical prostatectomy specimens. Further study is required to determine whether such analysis may be used in real time to improve surgical decision making and decrease positive surgical margin rates

  1. First detection and genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in stool samples collected from children in Ghazni Province, eastern Afghanistan and evaluation of the PCR assay in formalin-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Anna; Karanis, Panagiotis; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    It is estimated that faecal-orally transmitted diseases are common in Afghanistan, as a consequence of poor hygienic standards of life and widespread contamination of water and food with both human and animal faeces. However, there is little information in the literature concerning infections caused by intestinal parasites in the Afghan population. In this study, we report the occurrence of Giardia intestinalis assemblages (A and B) in formalin-fixed stool samples collected from 245 Afghan schoolchildren living in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan. Detection of the parasite's DNA and genotyping was performed using real-time PCR, specific to the β-giardin gene of G. intestinalis. Positive results were recorded in 52 (21.2%) samples. Genotyping was successful in 39 faecal samples and showed the predominance of assemblage B of G. intestinalis in this population (15 assemblage A and 24 assemblage B). Co-infection with both genotypes A and B was detected in four samples. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of 10% buffered formalin fixative on the detection of G. intestinalis DNA using real-time PCR and nested PCR characterised by different lengths of PCR products (74 and 479 bp, respectively). The human faeces containing the Giardia cysts were tested for 16 weeks. Amplification of G. intestinalis DNA with real-time PCR was possible up to 6 weeks of preservation of stool sample in formalin, compared to only 2 weeks with nested PCR. This suggests that real-time PCR is a more suitable tool in cases where stool samples have to be kept in formalin for longer periods of time.

  2. Rotaviral and bacterial gastroenteritis in children during winter: an evaluation of physician ordering patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaly, Roy F; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Schindler, Sue A; Goldfarb, Johanna; Hall, Gerri S; Procop, Gary W

    2003-09-01

    Identification of the agents of infectious diarrhea may facilitate appropriate therapy and prevent inappropriate antibiotic use. To better define the etiology of infectious diarrhea for children <12 years in our community and to study the ordering patterns of physicians. We reviewed test results of stool specimens from children <12 years old at our institution (CCF) and those submitted through our reference laboratory for rotavirus enzyme immunoassay (REIA) and stool cultures for a 7-month period (11/1/00-6/1/01). For CCF patients, REIA and stool cultures for usual bacterial enteric pathogens (BEP) were performed, regardless of the test ordered (i.e. REIA alone, stool culture alone or both). We compared the results with the orders placed to determine if requests for rotavirus alone or bacterial stool culture alone missed BEP or rotavirus, respectively. Overall, REIAs were performed on 81% (538/661) of stool specimens, with 37% positive. Stool cultures were performed on 62% (408/661) of stool specimens, with 4.4% positive. Stool specimens (280) from CCF pediatric patients were evaluated for both rotavirus and BEP. Some 42% of REIA and 23% of stool cultures were ordered as single tests, while both tests were ordered for 35% of the patients. Of the REIA ordered alone, 34% were positive for rotavirus; however, 2.5% of these contained BEP that would have been missed. Of the stool cultures that were ordered alone, 8% were positive; however, 19% of these contained rotavirus that would have been missed. When both tests were ordered, 22% contained rotavirus and 2% contained BEP. Both rotavirus and bacterial enteric infections were missed with selective viral versus bacterial specific ordering patterns. A rotaviral screen prior to stool culture may be useful for children with diarrhea during the winter months.

  3. Development of selective medium for IMP-type carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in stool specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Norihisa; Kawahara, Ryuji; Akeda, Yukihiro; Shanmugakani, Rathina Kumar; Yoshida, Hisao; Hagiya, Hideharu; Hara, Naohiro; Nishi, Isao; Yukawa, Satomi; Asada, Rumiko; Sasaki, Yumi; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Noriko; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Tomono, Kazunori

    2017-03-24

    Identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in faecal specimens is challenging. This fact is particularly critical because low-level carbapenem-resistant organisms such as IMP-producing CPE are most prevalent in Japan. We developed a modified selective medium more suitable for IMP-type CPE. Fifteen reference CPE strains producing different types of β-lactamases were used to evaluate the commercially available CHROMagar KPC and chromID CARBA as well as the newly prepared MC-ECC medium (CHROMagar ECC supplemented with meropenem, cloxacillin, and ZnSO 4 ) and M-ECC medium (CHROMagar ECC supplemented with meropenem and ZnSO 4 ). A total of 1035 clinical samples were then examined to detect CPE using chromID CARBA and M-ECC medium. All tested strains producing NDM-, KPC-, and OXA-48-carbapenemases were successfully cultured in the media employed. Although most of the IMP-positive strains did not grow in CHROMagar KPC, chromID CARBA, or MC-ECC, all tested strains grew on M-ECC. When faecal samples were applied to the media, M-ECC medium allowed the best growth of IMP-type CPE with a significantly higher sensitivity (99.3%) than that of chromID CARBA (13.9%). M-ECC medium was determined as the most favourable selective medium for the detection of IMP-type CPE as well as other types of CPE.

  4. Stool consistency and stool frequency are excellent clinical markers for adequate colon preparation after polyethylene glycol 3350 cleansing protocol: a prospective clinical study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safder, Shaista; Demintieva, Yulia; Rewalt, Mary; Elitsur, Yoram

    2008-12-01

    Colon preparation for a colonoscopy in children is a difficult task because of the unpalatable taste and large volume of cleansing solution that needs to be consumed to ensure a clean colon. Consequently, an unprepared colon frequently occurs in routine practices, which causes early termination and a repeated procedure. (1) To assess the effectiveness of polyethylene glycol solution (PEG 3350) in preparing the colon of children scheduled for a colonoscopy and (2) to investigate clinical markers associated with an adequate colon preparation before a colonoscopy. A total of 167 children scheduled for a colonoscopy. In a prospective study, children scheduled for a colonoscopy were given PEG 3350 solution (1.5 g/kg per day, up to 100 g/d) over a 4-day preparation period. Each day, a simple questionnaire that documents the amount of liquid consumed, adverse effects, and the number and consistency of stool was completed by the parents. After a colonoscopy procedure, the colon preparation was assigned a number grade. The data were later assessed and were compared to determine the association between the grade of cleansing and the frequency and/or consistency of stool during preparation. Colon preparation was completed in 149 children, 133 of whom were adequately prepared. Inadequate preparation was found in 16 children; the procedure was terminated prematurely in 2 of these patients because of unacceptable conditions. No significant adverse effects were noted. A number of >or=5 stools/d, and liquid stool consistency in the last 2 days of preparation were associated with adequate colon preparation. PEG 3350 solution is safe, efficacious, and tolerable for children. Stool frequency and consistency in the last 2 days of preparation were excellent markers (positive predictive value 91%-95%), which predict an adequately clean colon before a colonoscopy in children.

  5. Stool frequency recording in severe acute malnutrition ('StoolSAM'); an agreement study comparing maternal recall versus direct observation using diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuijl, Wieger; Potani, Isabel; Bandsma, Robert; Baan, Anne; White, Sarah; Bourdon, Celine; Kerac, Marko

    2017-06-07

    Approximately 50% of the deaths of children under the age of 5 can be attributed to undernutrition, which also encompasses severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Diarrhoea is strongly associated with these deaths and is commonly diagnosed solely based on stool frequency and consistency obtained through maternal recall. This trial aims to determine whether this approach is equivalent to a 'directly observed method' in which a health care worker directly observed stool frequency using diapers in hospitalised children with complicated SAM. This study was conducted at 'Moyo' Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit, Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi. Participants were children aged 5-59 months admitted with SAM. We compared 2 days of stool frequency data obtained with next-day maternal-recall versus a 'gold standard' in which a health care worker observed stool frequency every 2 h using diapers. After study completion, guardians were asked their preferred method and their level of education. We found poor agreement between maternal recall and the 'gold standard' of directly observed diapers. The sensitivity to detect diarrhoea based on maternal recall was poor, with only 75 and 56% of diarrhoea cases identified on days 1 and 2, respectively. However, the specificity was higher with more than 80% of children correctly classified as not having diarrhoea. On day 1, the mean stool frequency difference between the two methods was -0.17 (SD; 1.68) with limits of agreement (of stool frequency) of -3.55 and 3.20 and, similarly on day 2, the mean difference was -0.2 (SD; 1.59) with limits of agreement of -3.38 and 2.98. These limits extend beyond the pre-specified 'acceptable' limits of agreement (±1.5 stool per day) and indicate that the 2 methods are non-equivalent. The higher the stool frequency, the more discrepant the two methods were. Most primary care givers strongly preferred using diapers. This study shows lack of agreement between the assessment of stool frequency in SAM

  6. Prevalence of mabDAS-1 positivity in biopsy specimens from the esophagogastric junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge-Wolf, Claudia; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A; Das, Kiron M; Timmer, Robin; Breumelhof, Ronald; Smout, André J P M; Amenta, Peter S; Griffel, Louis H

    2002-12-01

    Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a precursor for malignancies at the esophagogastric junction. A monoclonal antibody, mAbDAS-1, can probably identify cellular characteristics of IM before the appearance of goblet cells. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of mAbDAS-1 positivity in biopsies from the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) and to correlate this positivity with the presence of IM and clinical findings. In 559 patients, reflux symptoms were scored, and the presence of reflux esophagitis and hiatus hernia was evaluated during endoscopy. Two biopsy specimens were obtained from the SCJ. In a subset of patients (n = 99), biopsies from the endoscopically defined cardiac region (2 cm distal to proximal margin of gastric folds) were available. Biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Alcian Blue, modified Giemsa, and mAbDAS-1. mAbDAS-1 positivity was observed in the SCJ biopsies of 201 of 486 (41.4%) patients without IM and in 64 of 73 (87.7%) patients with IM. Patients without IM but with antibody positivity showed similar histological characteristics as patients with IM at the SCJ. Biopsies of 123 of 559 patients (22%) revealed a columnar-cuboidal epithelium, which was found to be mAbDAS-1 positive in 64.2% (77 of 123). Tissue specimens from the cardiac region without IM stained positive in 14.2% (13 of 91), 12 of those also stained at the SCJ. In patients without IM, a high prevalence of mAbDAS-1 positivity was observed. Biopsies of these patients showed similar histological characteristics as patients with IM. Although not all patients exhibiting this reactivity may develop IM, mAbDAS-1 reactivity may help in the understanding of the histogenesis of IM at the SCJ.

  7. Real time PCR to detect the environmental faecal contamination by Echinococcus multilocularis from red fox stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Millon, Laurence; Mouzon, Lorane; Umhang, Gérald; Raoul, Francis; Ali, Zeinaba Said; Combes, Benoît; Comte, Sébastien; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2014-03-17

    The oncosphere stage of Echinococcus multilocularis in red fox stools can lead, after ingestion, to the development of alveolar echinococcosis in the intermediate hosts, commonly small mammals and occasionally humans. Monitoring animal infection and environmental contamination is a key issue in public health surveillance. We developed a quantitative real-time PCR technique (qPCR) to detect and quantify E. multilocularis DNA released in fox faeces. A qPCR technique using a hydrolysis probe targeting part of the mitochondrial gene rrnL was assessed on (i) a reference collection of stools from 57 necropsied foxes simultaneously investigated using the segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT) (29 positive for E. multilocularis worms and 28 negative animals for the parasite); (ii) a collection of 114 fox stools sampled in the field: two sets of 50 samples from contrasted endemic regions in France and 14 from an E. multilocularis-free area (Greenland). Of the negative SSCT controls, 26/28 were qPCR-negative and two were weakly positive. Of the positive SSCT foxes, 25/29 samples were found to be positive by qPCR. Of the field samples, qPCR was positive in 21/50 (42%) and 5/48 (10.4%) stools (2 samples inhibited), originating respectively from high and low endemic areas. In faeces, averages of 0.1 pg/μl of DNA in the Jura area and 0.7 pg/μl in the Saône-et-Loire area were detected. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. The qPCR technique developed here allowed us to quantify environmental E. multilocularis contamination by fox faeces by studying the infectious agent directly. No previous study had performed this test in a one-step reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stool C difficile toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxin; Colitis - toxin; Pseudomembranous - toxin; Necrotizing colitis - toxin; C difficile - toxin ... be analyzed. There are several ways to detect C difficile toxin in the stool sample. Enzyme immunoassay ( ...

  9. Review: Diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based detection tests for Helicobacter Pylori in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadangi, Fatemeh; Yassi, Maryam; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2017-12-01

    Although different methods have been established to detect Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, identifying infected patients is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide pooled diagnostic accuracy measures for stool PCR test in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out on various sources, including MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and the Cochrane Library from April 1, 1999, to May 1, 2016. This meta-analysis adheres to the guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses report (PRISMA Statement). The clinical value of DNA stool PCR test was based on the pooled false positive, false negative, true positive, and true negative of different genes. Twenty-six of 328 studies identified met the eligibility criteria. Stool PCR test had a performance of 71% (95% CI: 68-73) sensitivity, 96% (95% CI: 94-97) specificity, and 65.6 (95% CI: 30.2-142.5) diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) in diagnosis of H. pylori. The DOR of genes which showed the highest performance of stool PCR tests was as follows: 23S rRNA 152.5 (95% CI: 55.5-418.9), 16S rRNA 67.9 (95%CI: 6.4-714.3), and glmM 68.1 (95%CI: 20.1-231.7). The sensitivity and specificity of stool PCR test are relatively in the same spectrum of other diagnostic methods for the detection of H. pylori infection. In descending order of significance, the most diagnostic candidate genes using PCR detection were 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and glmM. PCR for 23S rRNA gene which has the highest performance could be applicable to detect H. pylori infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of gastric infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqui, A.N.; Majid, U.; Ahmed, L.; Khalil, M.; Hussan, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen test (HpSA), compared with endoscopic histopathology for the diagnosis of gastric Helicobecter pylori infection. A total of 50 patients underwent endoscopy for gastric antral mucosal tissue biopsy for histopathology of H.pylori and advised for HpSA. Patient's information including age, gender, past history, presenting signs and symptoms, results of HpSA and histopathology were recorded. Sensitivity analysis was performed to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of HpSA. Among 50 patients, 48% males and 52% females (M: F 1: 1.08), a total of 27 (54%) were true positive while 20 (40%) were true negative. Two patients were false negative and only one was false positive. Sensitivity of HpSA was, therefore, 93.1%, specificity 95% and positive and negative predictive values were 96.42% and 90.9% respectively. Helicobacter pylori stool antigen was an accurate and reliable test for the diagnosis of gastric H. pylori infection. (author)

  11. Bloody or tarry stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... small intestine Diverticulosis (abnormal pouches in the colon) Hemorrhoids (common cause of bright red blood) Inflammatory bowel ... have an exam even if you think that hemorrhoids are causing the blood in your stool. In ...

  12. Clinical illnesses associated with isolation of dysgonic fermenter 3 from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, R N; Berry, C D; Phillips, M G; Hamilos, D L; Koneman, E W

    1992-02-01

    The clinical significance of the fastidious organism DF-3 isolated from stool cultures is unclear. We sought to improve our understanding of this organism and to further define its association with human disease. Stool cultures for DF-3 were obtained from three sources: an ongoing study of enteric pathogens in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, a screening procedure in which all stool samples submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin assay were cultured for DF-3, and stool samples submitted specifically for DF-3 culture. Retrospective clinical data were obtained from chart reviews of patients with positive cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and cell wall fatty acid analysis were performed for each DF-3 isolated. Eight isolates of DF-3 were obtained over a period of 8 months. All patients either had severe underlying disease or were immunocompromised, including three patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and two patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The spectrum of clinical disease ranged from chronic diarrhea with a well-defined response to therapy for DF-3 to an asymptomatic carrier state. Cell wall fatty acid analysis of these isolates demonstrated a consistent pattern with a large peak of 12-methyltetradecanoate. DF-3, a fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus, can be recovered from stool cultures of immunocompromised patients by using selective media. The presence of 12-methyltetradecanoate in cell wall fatty acid analysis assists in identification. The increased use of a selective medium-(cefoperazone-vancomycin-amphotericin B) in the evaluation of diarrhea in immunocompromised hosts, including persons with inflammatory bowel disease, may better define the association of DF-3 with human gastrointestinal disease.

  13. Disposal of children's stools and its association with childhood diarrhea in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawankule, Rahul; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Pedgaonkar, Sarang

    2017-01-05

    Children's stool disposal is often overlooked in sanitation programs of any country. Unsafe disposal of children's stool makes children susceptible to many diseases that transmit through faecal-oral route. Therefore, the study aims to examine the magnitude of unsafe disposal of children's stools in India, the factors associated with it and finally its association with childhood diarrhea. Data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in 2005-06 is used to carry out the analysis. The binary logistic regression model is used to examine the factors associated with unsafe disposal of children's stool. Binary logistic regression is also used to examine the association between unsafe disposal of children's stool and childhood diarrhea. Overall, stools of 79% of children in India were disposed of unsafely. The urban-rural gap in the unsafe disposal of children's stool was wide. Mother's illiteracy and lack of exposure to media, the age of the child, religion and caste/tribe of the household head, wealth index, access to toilet facility and urban-rural residence were statistically associated with unsafe disposal of stool. The odds of diarrhea in children whose stools were disposed of unsafely was estimated to be 11% higher (95% CI: 1.01-1.21) than that of children whose stools were disposed of safely. An increase in the unsafe disposal of children's stool in the community also increased the risk of diarrhea in children. We found significant statistical association between children's stool disposal and diarrhea. Therefore, gains in reduction of childhood diarrhea can be achieved in India through the complete elimination of unsafe disposal of children's stools. The sanitation programmes currently being run in India must also focus on safe disposal of children's stool.

  14. Assessment of commonly used pediatric stool scales: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, M; Nichols-Vinueza, D; Dhroove, G; Adams, P; Chogle, A

    2013-01-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and a modified child-friendly version (M-BSFS) are frequently used in clinical practice and research. These scales have not been validated in children. 3-D stool scale models may be better adapted to the child's development. To assess the usefulness of the BSFS, M-BSFS, and a newly developed 3-D stool scale in children. Fifty children were asked to rank the picture cards of the BSFS and 3-D models from hardest to softest and to match the pictures with descriptors for each stool type. Thirty percent of the children appropriately characterized the stools as hard, loose, or normal using the BSFS vs. 36.6% with the 3-D model (p=0.27). Appropriate correlation of stools as hard, loose, or normal consistency using the BSFS vs. the 3-D model by age group was: 6 to 11-year-olds, 27.5% vs. 33.3% (p=0.58) and 12 to 17-year-olds, 32.1% vs. 39.5% (p=0.41). Thirty-three percent correlated the BSFS pictures with the correct BSFS words, 46% appropriately correlated with the M-BSFS words, and 46% correlated the 3-D stool models with the correct wording. The BSFS and M-BSFS that are widely used as stool assessment instruments are not user-friendly for children. The 3-D model was not found to be better than the BSFS and the M-BSFS. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing ImmunoCard with two EIA assays for Clostridium difficile toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edward L; Seales, Diane; Drum, Hong

    2009-01-01

    To compare three Clostridium difficile EIA kits for the detection of C. difficile toxins from clinical specimens. A total of 287 fresh and stored stool specimens were tested using all three assays. Stools with discrepant results were sent to a reference laboratory for tissue cytotoxin assay. Trinity Medical Center, a community hospital with network hospitals. Patients with diarrhea submitted stools for detection of C. difficile toxins. Of the 287 stool specimens, 116 were positive and 171 negative for C. difficile toxins. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of Meridian EIA assay were 99.1, 97.7, 96.6, and 99.4%; ImmunoCard were 100, 98.2, 97.5, and 100%; BioStar OIA assay were 94, 98.8, 98.2, and 96% respectively. ImmunoCardprovides the best sensitivity (100%) for C. difficile toxins A and B detection. The BioStar OIA rapid test missed seven positive stool specimens possibly due to failure to detect toxin B. ImmunoCard has slightly higher predictive values, shorter turnaround time and greater convenience compared to the Meridian EIA Assay. ImmunoCard may be cost effective not only in smaller laboratories, but also in high volume laboratories, when used on a STAT basis or single request.

  16. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among HIV Positive Persons Who Are Naive and on Antiretroviral Treatment in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklemariam, Zelalem; Abate, Degu; Mitiku, Habtamu; Dessie, Yadeta

    2013-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infection affects the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV positive individuals who are naive and who are on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 371 (112 ART-naive group and 259 on ART) HIV positive individuals. Stool specimens were collected...

  17. Dipstick for rapid diagnosis of Shigella flexneri 2a in stool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridabano Nato

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an acute bloody diarrhoea, is a major public health burden in developing countries. In the absence of prompt and appropriate treatment, the infection is often fatal, particularly in young malnourished children. Here, we describe a new diagnostic test for rapid detection, in stool, at the bedside of patients, of Shigella flexneri 2a, the most predominant agent of the endemic form of the disease.The test is based on the detection of S.flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 2a-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 20 ng/ml of LPS is detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in under 15 minutes. The threshold of detection corresponds to a concentration of 5x10(7 CFU/ml of S. flexneri 2a, which provides an unequivocal positive reaction in three minutes in distilled water and reconstituted stools. The specificity is 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains, in culture. When tested in Vietnam, on clinical samples, the specificity and sensitivity were 99.2 and 91.5%, respectively. A decrease of the sensitivity during the evaluation on stool samples was observed after five weeks at room temperature and was due to moistening of the dipsticks caused by the humidity of the air during the fifth week of the evaluation. This drawback is now overcome by improving the packaging and providing dipsticks individually wrapped in waterproof bags.This simple dipstick-bases test represents a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  18. Optimal screening and donor management in a public stool bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerouni, Abbas; Burgess, James; Burns, Laura J; Wein, Lawrence M

    2015-12-17

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection and is being investigated as a treatment for other microbiota-associated diseases. To facilitate these activities, an international public stool bank has been created, which screens donors and processes stools in a standardized manner. The goal of this research is to use mathematical modeling and analysis to optimize screening and donor management at the stool bank. Compared to the current policy of screening active donors every 60 days before releasing their quarantined stools for sale, costs can be reduced by 10.3 % by increasing the screening frequency to every 36 days. In addition, the stool production rate varies widely across donors, and using donor-specific screening, where higher producers are screened more frequently, also reduces costs, as does introducing an interim (i.e., between consecutive regular tests) stool test for just rotavirus and C. difficile. We also derive a donor release (i.e., into the system) policy that allows the supply to approximately match an exponentially increasing deterministic demand. More frequent screening, interim screening for rotavirus and C. difficile, and donor-specific screening, where higher stool producers are screened more frequently, are all cost-reducing measures. If screening costs decrease in the future (e.g., as a result of bringing screening in house), a bottleneck for implementing some of these recommendations may be the reluctance of donors to undergo serum screening more frequently than monthly.

  19. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... This test is performed at home with disposable pads. You can buy the pads at the drug store without ...

  20. The effects of culture independent diagnostic testing on the diagnosis and reporting of enteric bacterial pathogens in Queensland, 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Fiona J; Stafford, Russell J; Carroll, Heidi; Robson, Jennifer Mb; Vohra, Renu; Nimmo, Graeme R; Bates, John; Kirk, Martyn D; Fearnley, Emily J; Polkinghorne, Benjamin G

    2017-09-01

    Changes in diagnostic laboratory testing procedures can impact on the number of cases notified and the public health surveillance of enteric pathogens. Culture independent diagnostic testing using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was introduced for the rapid detection of bacterial enteric pathogens in pathology laboratories in Queensland, Australia, from late 2013 onwards. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study using laboratory data to assess the impact of the introduction of PCR testing on four common enteric pathogens, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella and Yersinia, in Queensland between 2010 and 2014. The number of stool specimens tested and the proportion positive for each of the four pathogens increased in 2014 after the introduction of culture independent diagnostic testing. Among the specimens tested by both PCR and culture, 12% of Salmonella positive stools, 36% of Campylobacter positive stools, 74% of Shigella / enteroinvasive Escherichia coli positive stools and 65% of Yersinia positive stools were PCR positive only. Including those where culture was not performed, 19% of Salmonella positive stools, 44% of Campylobacter positive stools, 83% of Shigella positive stools and 79% of Yersinia positive stools had no cultured isolate available for further characterisation. The detection and tracking of foodborne and non-foodborne gastrointestinal outbreaks will become more difficult as culture independent diagnostic testing becomes more widespread. Until new techniques for characterisation of pathogens directly from clinical specimens have been developed, we recommend laboratories continue to culture specimens concurrently or reflexively with culture independent diagnostic tests. This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce the whole or part of this work in unaltered form for your own personal use or, if you are part of an organisation, for internal use within your organisation, but only if you or your

  1. Development of the Brussels Infant and Toddler Stool Scale ('BITSS'): protocol of the study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Szajewska, Hania; Benninga, Marc; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Dupont, Christophe; Faure, Christophe; Miqdadi, Mohamed; Osatakul, Seksit; Ribes-Konickx, Carmen; Saps, Miguel; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Franckx, Johan; Green, Robin; Hegar, Badriul; Lemmens, Roel; Salvatore, Silvia; Vieira, Mario; Verghote, Marc; Xinias, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSS) which consists of 7 photographs of different stool forms allows assessment of stool consistency (scale 1 for hard lumps to scale 7 for watery stools), in an objective manner in adults. The BSS is also sometimes used to characterise the stools of infants and young

  2. [Which are the most frequently occurring enteropathogenic bacteria in clinical practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, M; Gualzata, M D; Hollfelder, R; Viollier, A F; Viollier, M; Viollier, E H

    1988-12-10

    Diarrhea is an increasingly frequent clinical finding in Swiss medical practice. One reason is the volume of tourism in countries with different climatic and social circumstances. To obtain an overview of the enteropathogenic bacteria spectrum as a cause of diarrhea, we analyzed 11,163 stool specimens from a representative group of patients throughout Switzerland. Enteropathogenic bacteria were found in 15.2% of all specimens; 50% were Campylobacter jejuni/coli, 35% Salmonella spp., 8% Aeromonas hydrophila group, 4% Shigella spp. and 3% Yersinia enterocolitica. This distribution is taken for all age groups and for both sexes. In the infant age there was a maximum evidence of enteropathogenic bacteria of the female sex. In childhood this maximum concerned to the male sex. Patients older than fifty had no positive stool specimens. As expected the most frequent positive stool specimens were in summer.

  3. Difference in Ulex europaeus agglutinin I-binding activity of decay-accelerating factor detected in the stools of patients with colorectal cancer and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Hiroaki; Mizuno, Motowo; Nasu, Junichirou; Makidono, Chiho; Hiraoka, Sakiko; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Okada, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Teizo; Tsuji, Takao; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2004-03-01

    Expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), a complement-regulatory glycoprotein, is enhanced in colorectal-cancer (CC) cells and colonic epithelium in ulcerative colitis (UC), and stools from these patients contain increased amounts of DAF. Carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins are often altered during malignant transformation or inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether DAF molecules in patients with CC and those with UC differ with respect to oligosaccharide side chains. We analyzed DAF in stools and homogenates of colonic-tissue specimens obtained from patients with CC or UC using solid-phase enzyme-linked assay and Western blotting for reactivity with the lectins Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), wheat-germ agglutinin, peanut agglutinin, and concanavalin A. UEA-I bound to DAF in stools from patients with UC but not in that from the stools of CC patients, as demonstrated on the solid-phase enzyme-linked assay (P <.05, Mann-Whitney U test) and Western blotting. Binding of UEA-I was specifically inhibited by the addition of fucose. The difference in UEA-I reactivity with DAF was observed also in colonic-tissue homogenates from patients with UC and those with CC. DAF expressed in the mucosa and excreted into the stools of UC patients is different from that expressed in CC with regard to UEA-I reactivity. Future studies should be directed toward determining whether a qualitatively unique isoform of DAF is present, of which sugar chains are specific to CC in UC patients.

  4. Assessment of Commonly Used Pediatric Stool Scales: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Saps, M.; Nichols-Vinueza, D.; Dhroove, G.; Adams, P.; Chogle, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and a modified child-friendly version (M-BSFS) are frequently used in clinical practice and research. These scales have not been validated in children. 3-D stool scale models may be better adapted to the child's development. Aims: To assess the usefulness of the BSFS, M-BSFS, and a newly developed 3-D stool scale in children. Methods: Fifty children were asked to rank the picture cards of the BSFS and 3-D models from hardest to softest and...

  5. Management of stool land revenue in Ghana: A study of the Nkawie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... of stool lands, poor record keeping which often results in multiple sales and chieftaincy disputes ... Given the constitutional importance of stool lands, this research investigates the impact of stool ... To this end, the research assessed the performance of key stakeholders like the

  6. Undigested Pills in Stool Mimicking Parasitic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Fazia; Achakzai, Ilyas; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Background . Orally ingested medications now come in both immediate release and controlled release preparations. Controlled release preparations were developed by pharmaceutical companies to improve compliance and decrease frequency of pill ingestion. Case Report . A 67-year-old obese male patient presented to our clinic with focal abdominal pain that had been present 3 inches below umbilicus for the last three years. This pain was not associated with any trauma or recent heavy lifting. Upon presentation, the patient reported that for the last two months he started to notice pearly oval structures in his stool accompanying his chronic abdominal pain. This had coincided with initiation of his nifedipine pills for his hypertension. He reported seeing these undigested pills daily in his stool. Conclusion . The undigested pills may pose a cause of concern for both patients and physicians alike, as demonstrated in this case report, because they can mimic a parasitic infection. This can result in unnecessary extensive work-up. It is important to review the medication list for extended release formulations and note that the outer shell can be excreted whole in the stool.

  7. Stool patterns of Malaysian adults with functional constipation: association with diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlyn, Mena M; Nagarajah, Lee H L; Fatimah, A; Norimah, A K; Goh, K L

    2013-04-01

    Diet and lifestyle modification is commonly used in constipation management. As there is a dearth of studies on this topic in Malaysia, we aim to elucidate the relations between stool patterns, dietary intake and physical activity levels among adults with functional constipation. From a database collected via surveys at public events, a convenience sample of 100 adults diagnosed with Rome II-defined functional constipation was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After severity assessment using the Chinese Constipation Questionnaire, subjects completed 2-week bowel movement diaries to determine stool frequency, consistency and output. Dietary intake and physical activity levels were assessed twice using three-day 24-hour diet recalls and International Physical Activity Questionnaire, respectively. Ninety subjects who completed the study were included in the analysis. Mean weekly stool frequency was 3.9 +/- 1.9 times, consistency score was 2.6 +/- 0.6 (range 1.0-4.0), output was 11.0 +/- 6.3 balls (40 mm diameter) and severity score was 10.3 +/- 3.3 (range 5.0-22.0). Mean daily dietary intakes were: energy 1,719 +/- 427kcal, dietary fibre 15.0 +/- 4.9g and fluid 2.5 +/- 0.8L. The majority of subjects were physically inactive. Stool frequency and output were positively associated with dietary fibre (r(s) = 0.278, P < 0.01; r(s) = 0.226, P < 0.05) and fluid intake (r(s) = 0.257, P < 0.05; OR = 3.571, 95% CI [1.202-10.609]). Constipation severity was associated with higher physical activity levels (OR = 2.467, 95% CI [1.054-5.777]). Insufficient intake of dietary fibre and fluid are associated with aggravated constipation symptoms. Further studies are necessary to confirm usefulness of dietary intervention in treatment of constipation as dietary factors alone may not influence overall severity and stool consistency, an integral element of constipation.

  8. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Kurniawan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained with modified acid fast staining, and the rest of the concentrates were DNA extracted by freezing and thawing cycles and proteinase K digestion, then direct PCR was done to detect 18S rRNA gene.Result The proportion of positive stools for Cryptosporidium sp by acid fast staining from concentrated stools and 18S rRNA PCR were 4.8% and 34.6% respectively, which showed statistically significant difference.Conclusion The frequency of Cryptosporidium infection among children ≤ 3 years old was very high and stool storage in K2Cr2O7 for 13 months did not affect the PCR result. High prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection indicated high transmission in that area and the potential to be transmitted to other individuals such as the immunocompromised. (Med J Indones 2009;18:147-52Key words: 18S rRNA, cryptosporidiosis

  9. Prevalence of human cosaviruses in Tunisia, North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Dorra; Ben Farhat, Essia; Touzi, Henda; Meddeb, Zina; Ben Salah, Afif; Triki, Henda

    2015-06-01

    A new picornavirus, named human Cosavirus (HCoSV) was isolated recently from stools of children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and healthy children in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Since then, it was also isolated from patients from other countries. Five species are presently identified forming a new genus in the Picornaviridae family. This study reports the detection of HCoSV in stool specimens collected as part of the National Poliovirus surveillance Program in Tunisia, between 2011 and 2012, from patients with AFP and healthy individuals among their contacts. One hundred and ninety four stool samples were investigated by RT-PCR in the 5' non-coding region of the genome. A total of 64 specimens (33%) tested positive for HCoSV. HCoSV positive specimens were found in 36 cases with neurological syndromes and 28 of their healthy contacts. The highest rate of HCoSV infection (62.5%) occurred in children younger than 6 years of age. The sampling date of stool specimens suggested that HCoSV infection occurred regularly over time. Also, the sampling origin of stool specimen showed that HCoSV infection was detected in almost all the governorates of Tunisia from the North to the South of the country. This study is the first report of HCoSV prevalence in the North African region. It contributes to a better knowledge on the geographic distribution and the epidemiology of these viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Clinical illnesses associated with isolation of dysgonic fermenter 3 from stool samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, R N; Berry, C D; Phillips, M G; Hamilos, D L; Koneman, E W

    1992-01-01

    The clinical significance of the fastidious organism DF-3 isolated from stool cultures is unclear. We sought to improve our understanding of this organism and to further define its association with human disease. Stool cultures for DF-3 were obtained from three sources: an ongoing study of enteric pathogens in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, a screening procedure in which all stool samples submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin assay were cultured for DF-3, and sto...

  11. Comparison of three stool antigen assays with the 13C- urea breath test for the primary diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and monitoring treatment outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooton, Carmel

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The urea breath test (UBT) is the gold-standard non-invasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, however, the lack of availability of the UBT due to the high cost of the test, and in particular the need for expensive analytical instrumentation, limits the usefulness of this method. Stool antigen assays may offer an alternative non-invasive method for the diagnosis of infection. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of three stool antigen assays (HpSA, IDEIA HpStAR, and ImmunoCard STAT) against the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome. METHODS: A total of 102 patients attending two gastroenterology day-case clinics for the investigation of dyspepsia were included. Each patient provided breath and stool samples for analysis. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori by the validated UBT were prescribed triple therapy and invited to return for repeat breath and stool sample analysis 6 weeks post-treatment. RESULTS: Of the 102 patients tested, 48 were diagnosed with H. pylori infection by the UBT. The HpSA assay interpreted 38 of these as positive (79% sensitive). Of the 54 UBT-negative patients the HpSA assay interpreted all 54 as negative (100% specific). The IDEIA HpStAR assay correctly identified 44 patients as positive (92% sensitive) and 50 as negative (92.5% specific). The ImmunoCard STAT assay interpreted 38 patients as positive (79% sensitive) and 52 as negative (96.3% specific). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the IDEIA HpStAR stool antigen kit is the most accurate assay of the three assays evaluated, and possibly represents a viable alternative to the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome.

  12. Stool microbiome and metabolome differences between colorectal cancer patients and healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we used stool profiling to identify intestinal bacteria and metabolites that are differentially represented in humans with colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to healthy controls to identify how microbial functions may influence CRC development. Stool samples were collected from healthy a...

  13. Detection of Campylobacter in Stool and Determination of Significance by Culture, Enzyme Immunoassay, and PCR in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Amour, Caroline; Swai, Ndealilia; Taniuchi, Mami; Begum, Sharmin; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Tilley, Drake H.; Lee, Gwenyth; Shen, Zeli; Whary, Mark T.; Fox, James G.; McGrath, Monica; Kosek, Margaret; Haque, Rashidul

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter is a common bacterial enteropathogen that can be detected in stool by culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), or PCR. We compared culture for C. jejuni/C. coli, EIA (ProSpecT), and duplex PCR to distinguish Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli and non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter on 432 diarrheal and matched control stool samples from infants in a multisite longitudinal study of enteric infections in Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Peru. The sensitivity and specificity of culture were 8.5% and 97.6%, respectively, compared with the results of EIA and 8.7% and 98.0%, respectively, compared with the results of PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli. Most (71.6%) EIA-positive samples were positive by PCR for C. jejuni/C. coli, but 27.6% were positive for non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter species. Sequencing of 16S rRNA from 53 of these non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter samples showed that it most closely matched the 16S rRNA of C. hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii (56%), C. troglodytis (33%), C. upsaliensis (7.7%), and C. jejuni/C. coli (2.6%). Campylobacter-negative stool spiked with each of the above-mentioned Campylobacter species revealed reactivity with EIA. PCR detection of Campylobacter species was strongly associated with diarrhea in Peru (odds ratio [OR] = 3.66, P < 0.001) but not in Tanzania (OR = 1.56, P = 0.24) or Bangladesh (OR = 1.13, P = 0.75). According to PCR, Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli infections represented less than half of all infections with Campylobacter species. In sum, in infants in developing country settings, the ProSpecT EIA and PCR for Campylobacter reveal extremely high rates of positivity. We propose the use of PCR because it retains high sensitivity, can ascertain burden, and can distinguish between Campylobacter infections at the species level. PMID:24452175

  14. Dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and its potential use on stool samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe a test for rapid detection of S. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. dysenteriae 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 1-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 15 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 10 minutes. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 1.6×10⁶ CFU/ml and 4.9×10⁶ CFU/ml of S. dysenteriae 1, respectively. Optimal conditions to read the test have been determined to limit the risk of ambiguous results due to appearance of a faint yellow test band in some negative samples. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains in culture. When tested on 328 clinical samples in India, Vietnam, Senegal and France by laboratory technicians and in Democratic Republic of Congo by a field technician, the specificity (312/316 was 98.7% (95% CI:96.6-99.6% and the sensitivity (11/12 was 91.7% (95% CI:59.8-99.6%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 98.4 % of cases (323/328 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 73.3% (95% CI:44.8-91.1% and 99.7% (95% CI:98-100%. CONCLUSION: The initial findings presented here for a simple dipstick-based test to diagnose S. dysenteriae 1 demonstrates its promising potential to become a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  15. Broad-range (pan) Salmonella and Salmonella serotype typhi-specific real-time PCR assays: potential tools for the clinical microbiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, John J; Doyle, Laura J; Addison, Rachel M; Reller, L Barth; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W

    2005-03-01

    We describe broad-range salmonellae (ie, Salmonella) and Salmonella serotype Typhi-specific LightCycler (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. We validated these with a battery of 280 bacteria, 108 of which were salmonellae representing 20 serotypes. In addition, 298 isolates from 170 clinical specimens that were suspected to possibly represent Salmonella were tested with the pan- Salmonella assay. Finally, the pan-Salmonella assay also was used to test DNA extracts from 101 archived, frozen stool specimens, 55 of which were culture-positive for salmonellae. Both assays were 100% sensitive and specific when cultured isolates of the battery were tested. The pan- Salmonella assay also characterized correctly all salmonellae on the primary isolation agar and was 96% sensitive (53/55) and 96% specific (49/51) when nucleic acid extracts from direct stool specimens were tested. These assays represent potential tools the clinical microbiologist could use to screen suspect isolates or stool specimens for Salmonella.

  16. Comparison of three staining methods for the detection of intestinal microspora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Khanaliha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare three staining methods including: Calcofluor white, Chromotrope and Quick Hot Gram chromotrope used in diagnosis of intestinal microsporidial spores.One hundred and seventy five stool specimens were collected from patients referred to Laboratory of Intestinal Protozoology at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2012-2013. All of specimens were evaluated by nested PCR. The formalin-fixed stool samples were prepared from each specimen and dried at room temperature for 10 min, followed by 10 min methanol fixation. All the collected stool samples were evaluated blindly by calcofluor white, Chromotrope and Quick Hot Gram chromotrope staining methods separately.Microsporidial spores were recognized using Chromotrope, Quick Hot Gram chromotrope and Calcofluor white, in16 of 18 (88.8%, 17 of 18 (94.4% and 18 of 18(100% samples that were positive by nested PCR respectively. Regarding 14 stool samples that were negative by nested PCR, 14 cases were negative by chromotrope and Quick hot Gram chromotrope and 13 samples were negative by Calcofluor white. One discordant sample interpreted as false positive.Calcofluor white staining had the best performance for the detection of intestinal Microsprora spores and can be used as initial screen test for the detection of intestinal Microspora spp.

  17. Further development of the radioimmunoassay for carcinoembryonic antigen and the use of the measurement of the carcinoembryonic antigen in stools. Weiterentwicklung des Radioimmunoassay fuer carcino-embryonales Antigen und Anwendung auf die Messung von carcino-embryonalem Antigen im Stuhl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britsch, R F

    1982-01-01

    A specific, direct CEA-RTA is presented with sequential saturation and double antibody separation and using guinea pig CEA anti-serums, whose isolated CEA was marked with /sup 125/I for tracer production and used as was for a CEA standard. This RIA was tested on serum from patients with colorectal and stomach-esophagus carcinomas and from healthy persons, whereby it showed a good sensitivity in comparison to control serums on the market. CEA is also present in a high concentration in the stools, however very nonhomogeneously distributed, by patients as well as healthy persons. An increased stool CEA value does not necessarily indicate a carcinomatic disease or even a preliminary stage. During a screening a carcinomatic intestinal disorder should not be looked for intensively unless there are first several positive stool CEA values or additional positive blood evidence in the stool. Simultaneously carried out determinations of serum and stool CEA allows for the discovery of more patients as the use of only one. (TRV)

  18. Stool frequency recording in severe acute malnutrition ('StoolSAM'); an agreement study comparing maternal recall versus direct observation using diapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuijl, Wieger; Potani, Isabel; Bandsma, Robert; Baan, Anne; White, Sarah; Bourdon, Celine; Kerac, Marko

    2017-01-01

    Background: Approximately 50% of the deaths of children under the age of 5 can be attributed to undernutrition, which also encompasses severe acute malnutrition (SAM). Diarrhoea is strongly associated with these deaths and is commonly diagnosed solely based on stool frequency and consistency

  19. Specimen holder for an electron microscope and device and method for mounting a specimen in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, H.W.; Latenstein van Voorst, A.; Westra, C.; Hoveling, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    A specimen holder for an electron microscope, comprising a bar-shaped body provided adjacent one end with means for receiving a specimen, with means being present for screening the specimen from the environment at least temporarily in airtight and moisture-proof manner in a first position, which

  20. Modification of stool's water content in constipated infants: management with an adapted infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Marina M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation is a common occurrence in formula-fed infants. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of a formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium, in compliance with the official regulations, on stool water content, as well as a parental assessment of constipation. Materials and methods Thirty healthy term-born, formula-fed infants, aged 4-10 weeks, with functional constipation were included. All infants were full-term and fed standard formula. Exclusion criteria were preterm and/or low birth weight, organic constipation, being breast fed or fed a formula specially designed to treat constipation. Stool composition was measured by near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA and parents answered questions about crying associated with defecation and stool consistency at baseline and after two weeks of the adapted formula. Results After 2 weeks of the adapted formula, stool water content increased from 71 +/- 8.1% to 84 +/- 5.9%, (p Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that an adapted formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium increases stool water content and improves symptoms of constipation in term-born, formula-fed infants. A larger randomized placebo-controlled trial is indicated.

  1. Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Swierczewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can detect E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum simultaneously using fresh or frozen stool. The present study evaluated the Triage Micro Parasite Panel in detecting E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum compared to O&P examination in 266 stool samples collected at medical facilities in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity results for the Triage Micro Parasite Panel were: for E. histolytica/E. dispar: 100%, 100%, G. lamblia: 100%, 100% and C. parvum: 73%, 100%. There was no evidence of cross reactivity using the kit with other parasites identified in the stool specimens. These results indicate that the Triage Micro Parasite Panel is a highly sensitive kit that can be used for screening purposes in large scale studies or outbreak investigations or as a possible alternative to O&P examination.

  2. Novel artificial stool material for external quality assurance (EQA) on a fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT): The confirmed utility of stable hemoglobin and an internal standard material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Ryota; Yamada, Miyu; Takehara, Shizuka; Sakurabayashi, Ikunosuke; Watanabe, Katsunori

    2018-04-16

    The fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT), which detects lower gastrointestinal bleeding, is widely accepted for population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs. However, the FIT screening process has not been standardized yet, and standardizing the pre-analytical phase and establishing an external quality assurance (EQA) program compliant with ISO requirements is urgently needed. Although there have been various attempts to establish EQA materials suitable for FIT, no materials have yet been reported to have sufficient uniformity and acceptable immunochemical stability of hemoglobin (Hb). The Health Care Technology Foundation (HECTEF; Tokyo Japan) is now developing a ready-to-use artificial stool containing Hb and an internal standard, glycerol. Accordingly, we verified the adaptability and efficacy of this material for the evaluation of the specimen collection phase of FIT. This material uniformly contained both Hb and glycerol. The glycerol allowed us to estimate the weight of the collected artificial stool and to correct the Hb concentration with the estimated weight. Furthermore, the stability of both Hb and glycerol were confirmed to be sufficient for an EQA material under appropriate storage, in-use, repeated freeze-thaw, and heated conditions. These in-house performance characteristics suggest that HECTEF artificial stool is acceptable as an EQA material for FIT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on objective measures of diarrhea: impact of stool viscosity on common gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRorie, J; Zorich, N; Riccardi, K; Bishop, L; Filloon, T; Wason, S; Giannella, R

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of olestra and sorbitol consumption on three accepted objective measures of diarrhea (stool output >250 g/day, liquid/watery stools, bowel movement frequency >3/day), and how stool composition influences reports of common gastrointestinal symptoms. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of sorbitol (40 g/day in candy), a poorly absorbed sugar-alcohol with known osmotic effects, with those of olestra (20 or 40 g/day in potato chips), a nonabsorbed fat, on objective measures of stool composition and GI symptoms. Sixty-six subjects resided on a metabolic ward for 12 days: 2 days lead-in, 4 days baseline, 6 days treatment. Sorbitol 40 g/day resulted in loose/liquid stools within 1-3 h of consumption. In contrast, olestra resulted in a dose-responsive stool softening effect after 2-4 days of consumption. Subjects reported "diarrhea" when mean stool apparent viscosity (peak force (PF), g) decreased from a perceived "normal" (mean +/- SE, 1355 +/- 224 g PF; firm stool) to loose (260 +/- 68 g PF) stool. Mean apparent viscosity of stool during treatment: placebo, 1363 +/- 280 g (firm); olestra 20 g/day 743 +/- 65 g (soft); olestra 40 g/day, 563 +/- 105 g (soft); and sorbitol 40 g/day, 249 +/- 53 g (loose). Of the 1098 stool samples collected, 38% (419/1098) were rated by subjects as "diarrhea," yet only 2% of treatment days (all in the sorbitol treatment group) met commonly accepted criteria for a clinical diarrhea. Sorbitol, but not olestra, increased the severity of abdominal cramping, urgency and nausea compared to placebo. Olestra consumption, at levels far in excess of normal snacking conditions, resulted in a gradual stool softening effect after several days of consumption, did not meet any of the three objective measures of diarrhea, and did not increase GI symptoms. Sorbitol consumption, at only 80% of the dose requiring a "laxative effect" information label, resulted in rapid onset loose

  4. Occurrence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter in Raw Poultry Meat, Environmental and Pigeon Stools Collected in Open-Air Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellio, Alberto; Traversa, Amaranta; Adriano, Daniela; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Colzani, Alberto; Gili, Stefano; Dondo, Alessandro; Gallina, Silvia; Grattarola, Carla; Maurella, Cristiana; Zoppi, Simona; Zuccon, Fabio; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-08-28

    Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis for confirmed human cases in European Union during 2011. Poultry meat was very often implicated in Campylobacter infections in humans. In Italy commerce of raw poultry meat is common in open-air markets: these areas can be considered at high risk of bacterial contamination due to the high presence birds like pigeons. The aim of this study was to collect data about the contamination by thermotolerant Campylobacter of raw poultry meat commercialised in open-air markets, of work-surfaces in contact with poultry meat and of pigeon stools sampled in the market areas in Turin, Northern Italy. Between September 2011 and December 2012, 86 raw poultry meat samples, 86 environmental swabs and 108 animal samples were collected in 38 open-air markets. Analysis were carried out according to ISO10272-1:2006 standard. C.coli was detected in 2.3% (2/86) of raw poultry meat samples, whereas no swab (0/86) resulted positive. Of pigeon stool 28% (30/107) was positive for C.jejuni (83.3% C.jejuni subsp . jejuni and 16.7% C.jejuni subsp . doylei ). C.jejuni subsp. jejuni was isolated from 1 dead pigeon . Our results showed lower rates of contamination than those reported at retail in Europe. Although samples were collected in areas at high risk of contamination, raw poultry meat and work surfaces reported a low level of presence of thermotolerant Campylobacter . The high percentage of C.jejuni isolated from pigeon stools showed the importance of a continuous application of preventive measures by the food business operators and the surveillance activity by the Competent Authority.

  5. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in children by noninvasive stool Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay. Augustine O. Ebonyi, Emeka Ejeliogu, Stanley T. Odigbo, Martha Omoo Ochoga, Stephen Oguche, Anejo-Okopi A. Joseph ...

  6. The effect of inclined step stool on the quality of chest compression during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong-Woo; Lee, Byung Kook; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Park, Sang Wook; Choi, Sung Soo; Lee, Chang-Hee; Ryu, So-Yeon

    2014-08-01

    A step stool is an ordinary device to improve the quality of chest compression (CC) during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We investigated the effect of an inclined step stool on the quality of CC during CPR on a hospital bed. We conducted a randomized crossover study of simulation using a manikin. Two different methods of CC were performed and compared: CC using a flat stool and CC using an inclined (20°) stool. Each session of CC was performed for 2 minutes using a metronome at a rate of 110 beats per minute. The primary outcome was the depth of CC. The adequate CC rate, duty cycle, rate of incomplete recoil, and the angle between the arm of the participants and the bed were also measured. The median value of the mean depth of CC was 50.5 mm (45.0-57.0 mm) in the flat stool group and 54.5 mm (47.0-58.3 mm) in the inclined stool group (P = .014). The adequate CC rate was significantly higher in the inclined stool group (84.2% [37.6%-99.1%] vs 57.0% [15.2%-95.0%]; P = .016). The duty cycle and the rate of incomplete recoil were comparable between the 2 groups. The angles between the arm of the participants and the bed were more vertical in the inclined stool group (84.0° ± 5.2° vs 81.0° ± 4.8°; P = .014). Using an inclined stool resulted in an improvement in the depth of CC and the adequate CC rate without increasing the rate of incomplete chest recoil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of rotavirus genotypes associated with acute diarrhoea in Zimbabwean children less than five years old before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, Arnold; Berejena, Chipo; Nziramasanga, Pasipanodya; Ticklay, Ismail; Gonah, Archebald; Nathoo, Kusum; Manangazira, Portia; Mangwanya, Douglas; Marembo, Joan; Mwenda, Jason M; Weldegebriel, Goitom; Seheri, Mapaseka; Tate, Jacqueline E; Yen, Catherine; Parashar, Umesh; Mujuru, Hilda

    2018-04-05

    Sentinel surveillance for diarrhoea is important to monitor changes in rotavirus epidemiological trends and circulating genotypes among children under 5 years before and after vaccine introduction. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care introduced rotavirus vaccine in national immunization program in May 2014. Active hospital-based surveillance for diarrhoea was conducted at 3 sentinel sites from 2008 to 2016. Children aged less than 5 years, who presented with acute gastroenteritis as a primary illness and who were admitted to a hospital ward or treated at the emergency unit, were enrolled and had a stool specimen collected and tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Genotyping of positive stools was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and genotyping assays. Pre-vaccine introduction, 10% of all positive stool specimens were genotyped and all adequate positive stools were genotyped post-vaccine introduction. During the pre-vaccine period, a total of 6491 acute gastroenteritis stools were collected, of which 3016 (46%) tested positive for rotavirus and 312 (10%) of the rotavirus positive stools were genotyped. During the post-vaccine period, a total of 3750 acute gastroenteritis stools were collected, of which 937 (25%) tested positive for rotavirus and 784 (84%) were genotyped. During the pre-vaccine introduction the most frequent genotype was G9P[8] (21%) followed by G2P[4] (12%), G1P[8] (6%), G2P[6] (5%), G12P[6] (4%), G9P[6] (3%) and G8P[4] (3%). G1P[8] (30%) was most dominant two years after vaccine introduction followed by G9P[6] (20%), G2P[4] (15%), G9P[8] (11%) and G1P[6] (4%). The decline in positivity rate is an indication of early vaccine impact. Diversity of circulating strains underscores the importance of continued monitoring and strain surveillance after vaccine introduction. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. [On the use of FTA technology for collection, archieving, and molecular analysis of microsporidia dna from clinical stool samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, O I; Dem'ianov, A V; Bovers, L S; Did'e, E S; Sokolova, Iu Ia

    2011-01-01

    The FTA technology was applied for sampling, archiving, and molecular analysis of the DNA isolated from stool samples to diagnose and identify microsporidia, the intracellular opportunistic parasites which induce malabsortion syndrome in immunosuppressed humans, particularly in patients with AIDS. Microsporidia DNA was successfully amplified in 6 of 50 stool samples of HIV-positive patients of the S. P. Botkin Memorial Infectious Disease Hospital (St. Petersburg) applied to FTA cards (FTA-Cars, Whatman Inc. Florham Park, NJ, USA). Amplicons (the fragments of rDNA) were directly sequenced, and microsporidia species--Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. cuniculi, E. hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi--were identified in Genbank by NCBI BLAST program. The FTA method of DNA immobilization is especially promising for epidemiological and field population studies which involve genotyping of microsporidia species and isolates.

  9. Optimization of Quantitative PCR Methods for Enteropathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Amour, Caroline; Nshama, Rosemary; Walongo, Thomas; Maro, Athanasia; Mduma, Esto; Platts-Mills, James; Boisen, Nadia; Nataro, James; Haverstick, Doris M.; Kabir, Furqan; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Silapong, Sasikorn; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mason, Carl; Begum, Sharmin; Haque, Rashidul; Praharaj, Ira; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. Here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. First, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized with diarrhea in Tanzania. Swabs generally yielded a higher quantification cycle (Cq) (average 29.7, standard deviation 3.5 vs. 25.3 ± 2.9 from stool, P<0.001) but were still able to detect 80% of pathogens with a Cq < 30 in stool. Second, a simplified total nucleic acid (TNA) extraction procedure was compared to separate DNA and RNA extractions and showed 92% (318/344) sensitivity and 98% (951/968) specificity, with no difference in Cq value for the positive results (ΔCq(DNA+RNA-TNA) = -0.01 ± 1.17, P = 0.972, N = 318). Third, we devised a quantification scheme that adjusts pathogen quantity to the specimen’s extraction and amplification efficiency, and show that this better estimates the quantity of spiked specimens than the raw target Cq. In sum, these methods for enteropathogen quantification, stool sample collection, and nucleic acid extraction will be useful for laboratories studying enteric disease. PMID:27336160

  10. Anemia and risk factors in HAART naïve and HAART experienced HIV positive persons in south west Ethiopia: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lealem Gedefaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and its treatment cause a range of hematological abnormalities. Anemia is one of the commonly observed hematologic manifestations in HIV positive persons and it has multifactorial origin. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of anemia in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART naïve and HAART experienced HIV positive persons. METHODS: A facility-based comparative cross sectional study was conducted in Jimma University Specialized Hospital from February 1 to March 30, 2012. A total of 234 HIV positive persons, 117 HAART naïve and 117 HAART experienced, were enrolled in this study. Blood and stool specimens were collected from each participant. Blood specimens were examined for complete blood count, CD4 count and blood film for malaria hemoparasite; whereas stool specimens were checked for ova of intestinal parasites. Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical data of the participants were collected using pre-tested questionnaire. Statistical analysis of the data (Chi-square, student's t-test, logistic regression was done using SPSS V-16. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 23.1%. The prevalence of anemia in HAART naïve and HAART experienced persons was 29.9% and 16.2%, respectively (P = 0.014. Presence of opportunistic infections (P = 0.004, 95% CI = 1.69-15.46, CD4 count <200 cells/µl (P = 0.001, 95% CI = 2.57-36.89 and rural residence (P = 0.03, 95% CI = 1.12-10.39 were found to be predictors of anemia for HAART naïve participants. On the other hand, HAART regimen (ZDV/3TC/NVP (P = 0.019, 95% CI = 0.01-1.24 and the duration of HAART (P = 0.007, 95% CI = 0.003-0.40.24 were found to be predictors of anemia for HAART experienced groups. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia in HAART naïve persons was higher than HAART experienced persons. Risk factors for anemia in HAART naïve and HAART experienced HIV positive persons were different. Hence

  11. Sediminibacillus massiliensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a stool sample of a young Senegalese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghor, Bruno; Bassène, Hubert; Khelaifia, Saber; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Ruimy, Raymond; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier; Lagier, Jean-Christophe

    2018-07-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, referred to as strain Marseille-P3518 T , was isolated from a stool sample with 2% NaCl concentration from a healthy 15-year-old male living in Dielmo, a village in Senegal. Cells are aerobic, rod-shaped and motile and display endospore formation. Strain Marseille-P3518 T can grow in a medium with 0-20% (w/v) sodium chloride (optimally at 5-7.5% w/v). The major fatty acids were 12-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (45.8%), 13-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (26.9%) and 12-methyl-tridecanoic acid (12.8%). The genome is 4,347,479 bp long with 42.1% G+C content. It contains 4282 protein-coding and 107 RNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain Marseille-P3518 T is a member of the Bacillaceae family and is closely related to Sediminibacillus albus (97.4% gene sequence similarity). Strain Marseille-P3518 T was clearly differentiated from its phylogenetic neighbors on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic features. Strain Marseille-P3518 T is, therefore, considered to be a novel representative of the genus Sediminibacillus, for which the name Sediminibacillus massiliensis sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is Marseille-P3518 T (CSUR P3518T, DSM69894).

  12. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  13. Significant association between renal function and amyloid-positive area in renal biopsy specimens in AL amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kidney is a major target organ for systemic amyloidosis that often affects the kidney including proteinura, and elevated serum creatinine (Cr. The correlation between amount of amyloid deposits and clinical parameters is not known. The aim of this study was to clarify correlation the amyloid area in all renal biopsy specimen and clinical parameters. Methods Fifty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of AL amyloidosis participated in the study. All patients showed amyloid deposits in renal biopsies. We retrospectively investigated the correlation between clinical data and amyloid occupied area in whole renal biopsy specimens. Results The area occupied by amyloid was less than 10% in 57 of the 58 patients, and was under 2% in 40. For statistical analyses, %amyloid-positive areas were transformed to common logarithmic values (Log10%amyloid. Cr showed significant correlation with Log10%amyloid and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR showed the significant negative correlation. Patient age, cleatinine clearance (Ccr, blood urea nitorogen, and urinary protein was not significantly correlated with Log10%amyloid. The correlation with other clinical factors such as sex, and serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins, compliments was evaluated. None of these factors significantly correlated with Log10%amyloid. According to sex- and age- adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, Log10%amyloid had significant positive association with Cr and significant negative association with eGFR. Conclusion There is significant association between amyloid-positive area in renal tissue and renal function, especially Cr and eGFR. The level of Cr and eGFR may be a marker of amount of amyloid in renal tissue.

  14. The effect of step stool use and provider height on CPR quality during pediatric cardiac arrest: A simulation-based multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Lin, Yiqun; Nadkarni, Vinay; Wan, Brandi; Duff, Jonathan; Brown, Linda; Bhanji, Farhan; Kessler, David; Tofil, Nancy; Hecker, Kent; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to explore whether a) step stool use is associated with improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality; b) provider adjusted height is associated with improved CPR quality; and if associations exist, c) determine whether just-in-time (JIT) CPR training and/or CPR visual feedback attenuates the effect of height and/or step stool use on CPR quality. We analysed data from a trial of simulated cardiac arrests with three study arms: No intervention; CPR visual feedback; and JIT CPR training. Step stool use was voluntary. We explored the association between 1) step stool use and CPR quality, and 2) provider adjusted height and CPR quality. Adjusted height was defined as provider height + 23 cm (if step stool was used). Below-average height participants were ≤ gender-specific average height; the remainder were above average height. We assessed for interaction between study arm and both adjusted height and step stool use. One hundred twenty-four subjects participated; 1,230 30-second epochs of CPR were analysed. Step stool use was associated with improved compression depth in below-average (female, p=0.007; male, pstep stool use (pStep stool use is associated with improved compression depth regardless of height. Increased provider height is associated with improved compression depth, with visual feedback attenuating the effects of height and step stool use.

  15. Recovery of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M; Wadowsky, R M; Barbadora, K

    1990-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey of vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci (VRGPC) in the feces of children was initiated after several bacteremic infections with these organisms occurred at our hospital. A selective medium consisting of colistin-nalidixic acid agar, 5% sheep blood, vancomycin (5 mg/liter), and amphotericin B (8 mg/liter) was developed to isolate VRGPC. A single stool specimen submitted to the clinical microbiology laboratory from each of 48 patients was inoculated onto the medium. Plates were incubated at 35 degrees C with 5% carbon dioxide and examined at 24, 48, and 72 h. Susceptibilities were determined by broth microdilution. A total of 14 isolates from 11 of 48 (22%) children were recovered. The density of growth ranged from a single colony to 2+. The VRGPC were identified as Leuconostoc lactis (n = 2), Lactobacillus confusus (n = 4), Enterococcus species (n = 5), and Lactococcus lactis (n = 3). One strain of Lactobacillus confusus was recovered from both the stool and the blood of one of these patients. The MICs of vancomycin were 4 micrograms/ml for one of the isolates, 8 micrograms/ml for four of the isolates, and more than 16 micrograms/ml for the remaining eight isolates. All isolates were susceptible to both penicillin and ampicillin. Only 1 of the 11 children had received prior treatment with vancomycin. We conclude that low concentrations of VRGPC may be common in the gastrointestinal tracts of children.

  16. Serum specimens with double HBsAg/HBsAb (s-system) or HBeAg/HBeAb (e-system) positive markers (by ELISA) cross-checked with RIA or ECLIA--a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Hongqun; Li Xiaolong; Ye Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To cross-check the unusually high double positive rate of s- or e-system tested with ELISA in sera specimens from hepatitis B patients with two other methods of assay (RIA or ECLIA). Methods: Double positive s- or e-system sera specimens (tested with ELISA) were randomly selected to be cross-checked with RIA or ECLIA. Results: The double positive rate in the specimens checked with RIA was only 31.8% for s-system and 3.37% for e- system. In the case of ECLIA, the double positive rate was 17.65% and 9.09% respectively. The results obtained with both RIA and ECLIA were significantly lower than the results with ELISA (P 0.05). Conclusion: The unusually high double positive rate of s- or e- system in HBVM detection with ELISA was due to false positiveness and results from RIA were more consistent with the results from ECLIA. (authors)

  17. Método rápido para la observación de Cryptosporidium en heces Rapid method for detection of cryptosporidium in stools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Barona

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1990 y diciembre de 1991 se examinaron 120 muestras de materia fecal de niños o adultos que consultaron por diarrea, sugestiva de ser causada por Cryptosporidium spp. En todos los casos se realizó la coloración con Lugol-Nigroslna, que proponemos, y se hizo la confirmación con la de Ziehl Neelsen modificada, pese a su limitación de teñir con el mismo patrón de coloración el Cryptosporldium y estructuras diferentes a él. En 20 (16.6% muestras (12 de niños y 8 de adultos se identificaron ooquistes de Cryptosporldlum spp y todas se confirmaron como positivas por la coloración de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Dado que no siempre es fácil la observación de parásitos de poca prevalencia sugerimos esta coloración como ensayo de rutina porque ayuda a distinguir los ooquistes de Cryptosporidium y mejora la observación de todos los protozoarios.

    We examined 120 stool specimens from patients with diarrheal disease, suspected of being infected with Cryptosporidium. Preliminary observation was made with a Lugol-Nigrosine stain and confirmation with modified Ziehl-Neelsen. Twenty specimens (12 from children and 8 from adults (16.6% were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts andevery one of them was confirmed with ZN stain. Since It may be difficult to detect low-prevalence parasites we suggest routine use of Lugol-Nigrosine which is useful for the detection of Cryptosporidium as well as of other protozoa.

  18. Magnetic resonance colonography without bowel cleansing using oral and rectal stool softeners (fecal cracking) - a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Kuehle, Christiane; Herborn, Christoph U.; Goehde, Susanne C.; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Goyen, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effect of oral and rectal stool softeners on dark-lumen magnetic resonance (MR) colonography without bowel cleansing. Ten volunteers underwent MR colonography without colonic cleansing. A baseline examination was performed without oral or rectal administration of stool softeners. In a second set, volunteers ingested 60 ml of lactulose 24 h prior to MR examination. In a third examination, water as a rectal enema was replaced by a solution of 0.5%-docusate sodium (DS). A fourth MR examination was performed, in conjunction with both oral administration of lactulose and rectal application of DS. A T1-weighted data set was acquired at scanning times of 0, 5 and 10 min after colonic filling. A fourth data set was acquired 75 s after i.v. injection of contrast agent. Signal intensity of stool was calculated for all colonic segments. Without oral ingestion of lactulose or rectal enema with DS stool signal intensity was high and did not decrease over time. However, lactulose and DS caused a decrease in stool signal intensity. Both substances together led to a decreasing signal intensity of feces. Combination of lactulose and DS provided the lowest signal intensity of stool. Thus, feces could hardly be distinguished from dark rectal enema allowing for the assessment of the colonic wall. (orig.)

  19. An optimized work-flow to reduce time-to-detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) using direct testing from rectal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, C; Kiernan, M G; Finnegan, C; O'Hara, M; Power, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2017-05-04

    Rapid detection of patients with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is essential for the prevention of nosocomial cross-transmission, allocation of isolation facilities and to protect patient safety. Here, we aimed to design a new laboratory work-flow, utilizing existing laboratory resources, in order to reduce time-to-diagnosis of CPE. A review of the current CPE testing processes and of the literature was performed to identify a real-time commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that could facilitate batch testing of CPE clinical specimens, with adequate CPE gene coverage. Stool specimens (210) were collected; CPE-positive inpatients (n = 10) and anonymized community stool specimens (n = 200). Rectal swabs (eSwab™) were inoculated from collected stool specimens and a manual DNA extraction method (QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit) was employed. Extracted DNA was then processed on the Check-Direct CPE® assay. The three step process of making the eSwab™, extracting DNA manually and running the Check-Direct CPE® assay, took method of CPE screening; average time-to-diagnosis of 48/72 h. Utilizing this CPE work-flow would allow a 'same-day' result. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing results, as is current practice, would remain a 'next-day' result. In conclusion, the Check-Direct CPE® assay was easily integrated into a local laboratory work-flow and could facilitate a large volume of CPE screening specimens in a single batch, making it cost-effective and convenient for daily CPE testing.

  20. Brazilian Portuguese translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reproducibility assessment of the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Debora Rodrigues; Oliveira, Isabelle Stefan de Faria; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva; Oliveira Junior, Wilson Elias de; Comes, Giovana Tuccille; Cassettari, Vanessa Mello Granado; Self, Mariella Marie; Lourenção, Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda

    2018-03-15

    To translate and culturally adapt the modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children into Brazilian Portuguese, and to evaluate the reproducibility of the translated version. The stage of translation and cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to an internationally accepted methodology, including the translation, back-translation, and pretest application of the translated version to a sample of 74 children to evaluate the degree of understanding. The reproducibility of the translated scale was assessed by applying the final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children to a sample of 64 children and 25 healthcare professionals, who were asked to correlate a randomly selected description from the translated scale with the corresponding representative illustration of the stool type. The final version of Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children were evidently reproducible, since almost complete agreement (k>0,8) was obtained among the translated descriptions and illustrations of the stool types, both among the children and the group of specialists. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children was shown to be reliable in providing very similar results for the same respondents at different times and for different examiners. The Brazilian Portuguese modified Bristol Stool Form Scale for children is reproducible; it can be applied in clinical practice and in scientific research in Brazil. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. PREVALENSI CACING PADA MURID SEKOLAH DASAR WAJIB BELAJAR PELAYANAN GERAKAN TERPADU PENGENTASAN KEMISKINAN DAERAH KUMUH DI WILAYAH DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiana Mardiana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminthiasis Prevalence Among Compulsory Learning of Public School Children In The Slum Areas of Poverty Elimination Integrated Program in Jakarta Province.Helminthiasis study among compulsory learning of public school children poverty elimination (SD-WGT-Taskin integrated movement in the slum areas was conducted. An activities werw perfonned inNorth Jakarta and East Jakarta townships in 2003. There are seven SD-WGT-Taskin in North Jakartatownship and three in East Jakarta township. There were two SD-WGT-Taskin that randomly selected from each township. All student in the SD-WGT-Taskin are the school age children that strayed as the beggar, waste pickes from the poverty families in the slum areas. These children were collected and toughtin the governmental public school building during after noon. In order to determine the helminthiasis prevalence, the stool specimen were collected from the students, floated by MgSo4 and examined under microscope. It was found that 50 (49,02% out at 102 stool specimen from Nort Jakarta were found positive of helminth eggs, of 12 (9,80% out 128 stool specimen from East Jakarta were found positive of helminth eggs. It was found also that 40 (80,00% out of 50 positive helminth eggs from Nort Jakarta were A.lumbricoides eggs, 10 (20,00% were positive of T. trichiura while for Ancylostoma sp. Egg was found negative. Of 13 (68,42% out 19 specimen from South Jakarta were found positive of A. lombricoides egg,6 (31,82% specimen were T. trichiura eggs while ancylostoma sp eggs was found negative. Of 62(74,70% out 83 specimen from West Jakarta were found positive of A. lombricoides egg, 21(25,30% specimen were T. trichiura eggs while ancylostoma sp eggs was found negative. Of 7 (58,33% out 12 specimen from East Jakarta were found positive of A. lombricoides egg, 5 (41 ,67% specimen were T.trichiura eggs while ancylostoma sp eggs was found negative. It is concluded that helminthiasis among the student who study in SD

  2. Treatment guidelines for primary nonretentive encopresis and stool toileting refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, B R; Marcus, B A; Pitner, S L

    1999-04-15

    Nonretentive encopresis refers to inappropriate soiling without evidence of fecal constipation and retention. This form of encopresis accounts for up to 20 percent of all cases. Characteristics include soiling accompanied by daily bowel movements that are normal in size and consistency. An organic cause for nonretentive encopresis is rarely identified. The medical assessment is usually normal, and signs of constipation are noticeably absent. A full developmental and behavioral assessment should be made to establish that the child is ready for intervention to correct encopresis and to identify any barriers to success, particularly disruptive behavior problems. Successful interventions depend on the presence of soft, comfortable bowel movements and addressing toilet refusal behavior. Daily scheduled positive toilet sits are recommended. Incentives may be used to reinforce successful defecation during these sits. A plan for management of stool withholding should be agreed on by the parents/caretakers and the family physician before intervention.

  3. Prevalence and genetic diversity of norovirus among patients with acute diarrhea in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Alejandra; Arvelo, Wences; Hall, Aron J; López, María R; López, Beatriz; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D; Lindblade, Kim A

    2013-07-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks and sporadic cases of diarrhea in industrialized countries. To study the prevalence and genetic diversity of NoVs in Guatemala, stool specimens were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory patients presenting with diarrhea (≥3 loose or liquid stools in a 24-hr period) who were enrolled in a prospective surveillance system in the Departments of Santa Rosa (October 2007 to August 2010) and Quetzaltenango (August 2009 to August 2010), Guatemala. Specimens were tested for rotavirus, enteric bacteria, and parasites by routine methods and for genogroups I and II NoV by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. A total of 2,403 stool specimens were collected from hospitalized (n = 528) and ambulatory patients (n = 1,875). Overall, 341 (14%) samples tested positive for NoVs including 114 (22%) hospitalized and 227 (12%) ambulatory patients. NoVs disease peaked during the winter (November-January) months. Among the 341 NoVs-positive patients, 32 (9%) were also positive for rotavirus, 32 (9%) for bacteria, and 9 (3%) for protozoa. Nucleotide sequences were obtained from 84 samples collected from hospitalized children aged Guatemala. The findings highlight the need to implement laboratory diagnostics for NoVs to improve appropriate clinical management of diarrheal diseases and guide vaccine development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Screening for long-term poliovirus excretion among children with primary immunodeficiency disorders: preparation for the polio posteradication era in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazzad, Hossain M S; Rainey, Jeanette J; Kahn, Anna-Lea; Mach, Ondrej; Liyanage, Jayantha B L; Alam, Ahmed Nawsher; Kawser, Choudhury A; Hossain, Asgar; Sutter, Roland; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-11-01

    Persons with primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDD) who receive oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) may transmit immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) and cause paralytic polio. The objective of this study was to identify children with PIDD in Bangladesh, and estimate the proportion with chronic poliovirus excretion. Patients admitted at 5 teaching hospitals were screened for PIDD according to standardized clinical case definitions. PIDD was confirmed by age-specific quantitative immunoglobulin levels. Stool specimens were collected from patients with confirmed PIDD. From February 2011 through January 2013, approximately 96 000 children were screened, and 53 patients were identified who met the clinical case definition for PIDD. Thirteen patients (24%) had age-specific quantitative immunoglobulins results that confirmed PIDD. Of these, 9 (69%) received OPV 3-106 months before stool specimen collection. Among 11 patients, stool specimens from 1 patient tested positive for polioviruses 34 months after OPV ingestion. However, the poliovirus isolate was not available for genetic sequencing, and a subsequent stool specimen 45 days later was negative. The risk of chronic poliovirus excretion among children with PIDD in Bangladesh seems to be low. The national polio eradication program should incorporate strategies for screening for poliovirus excretion among patients with PIDD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Stool DNA Test is More Accurate than the Plasma Septin 9 Test in Detecting Colorectal Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlquist, David A.; Taylor, William R.; Mahoney, Douglas W.; Zou, Hongzhi; Domanico, Michael; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Boardman, Lisa A.; Berger, Barry M.; Lidgard, Graham P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Several noninvasive tests have been developed for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We compared the sensitivities of a multi-marker test for stool DNA (sDNA) and a plasma test for methylated Septin 9 (SEPT9) in identifying patients with large adenomas or CRC. Methods We analyzed paired stool and plasma samples from 30 patients with CRC and 22 with large adenomas from Mayo Clinic archives. Stool (n=46) and plasma (n=49) samples from age- and sex-matched patients with normal colonoscopy results were used as controls. The sDNA test is an assay for methylated BMP3, NDRG4, vimentin, and TFPI2; mutant KRAS; the β-actin gene, and quantity of hemoglobin (by the porphyrin method). It was performed blindly at Exact Sciences (Madison WI); the test for SEPT9 was performed at ARUP Laboratories (Salt Lake City UT). Results were considered positive based on the manufacturer's specificity cutoff values of 90% and 89%, respectively. Results The sDNA test detected adenomas (median 2 cm, range 1–5 cm) with 82% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 60%–95%); SEPT9 had 14% sensitivity (95% CI, 3%–35%; P=.0001). The sDNA test identified patients with CRC with 87% sensitivity (95% CI, 69%–96%); SEPT9 had 60% sensitivity (95% CI, 41%–77%; P=.046). The sDNA test identified patients with stage I–III CRC with 91% sensitivity (95% CI, 71%–99%); SEPT9 had 50% sensitivity (95% CI, 28%–72%; P=.013); for stage IV CRC, sensitivity values were 75% (95% CI, 35%–97%) and 88% (95% CI, 47%–100%), respectively (P=.56). False-positive rates were 7% for the sDNA test and 27% for SEPT9. Conclusions Based on analyses of paired samples, the sDNA test detects non-metastatic CRC and large adenomas with significantly greater levels of sensitivity than the SEPT9 test. These findings might be used to modify approaches for CRC prevention and early detection. PMID:22019796

  6. New ultrasonographic evaluation of stool and/or gas distribution for treatment of chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Noriaki; Kamada, Tomoari; Hata, Jiro; Haruma, Ken

    2018-03-01

    The first aim of this study was to develop a new ultrasonographic method (US) to evaluate stool and/or gas distribution. The second aim was to apply this method to compare stool and/or gas distribution between healthy subjects and patients with chronic constipation and evaluate whether US parameters could be an alternative to the colonic transit time (CTT). We enrolled seven healthy volunteers (four men, three women; mean age 29.3 ± 5.2 years) who underwent US and computed tomography (CT) on the same day to evaluate the reproducibility of US results. We then enrolled 268 patients with chronic constipation (94 men, 174 women; mean age 63.3 ± 4.2 years) and 66 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (controls). The transverse diameters of four segments of the colon [ascending (AC), transverse (TC), descending (DC), and sigmoid (SC)] and the rectum (R) were measured, and their stool and/or gas distribution was evaluated using the constipation index (CI) [AC + TC + DC + SC + R/5] and left/right (L/R) distribution [(DC + SC)/(AC + TC)]. The CTT was assessed using radiopaque markers. All healthy subjects underwent US and CT successfully, with a sufficiently high reproducibility coefficient for this method and significant correlation between the US and CT parameters. The stool and/or gas distribution evaluated by US showed a significant difference in one of the US parameters between healthy subjects and patients, and the CI was an indirect indicator for the CTT. These findings may assist physicians evaluate stool and/or gas distribution of patients with chronic constipation, which is an indirect indicator for CTT.

  7. Evaluation of an interdisciplinary re-isolation policy for patients with previous Clostridium difficile diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, N; Eagan, J A; Gillern, P; Armstrong, D; Sepkowitz, K A

    1998-12-01

    Diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile is increasingly recognized as a nosocomial problem. The effectiveness and cost of a new program to decrease nosocomial spread by identifying patients scheduled for readmission who were previously positive for toxin was evaluated. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center is a 410-bed comprehensive cancer center in New York City. Many patients are readmitted during their course of cancer therapy. In 1995 as a result of concern about the nosocomial spread of C difficile, we implemented a policy that all patients who were positive for C difficile toxin in the previous 6 months with no subsequent toxin-negative stool as an outpatient would be placed into contact isolation on readmission pending evaluation of stool specimens. Patients who were previously positive for C difficile toxin were identified to infection control and admitting office databases via computer. Admitting personnel contacted infection control with all readmissions to determine whether a private room was required. Between July 1, 1995, and June 30, 1996, 47 patients who were previously positive for C difficile toxin were readmitted. Before their first scheduled readmission, the specimens for 15 (32%) of these patients were negative for C difficile toxin. They were subsequently cleared as outpatients and were readmitted without isolation. Workup of the remaining 32 patients revealed that the specimens for 7 patients were positive for C difficile toxin and 86 isolation days were used. An additional 25 patients used 107 isolation days and were either cleared after a negative specimen was obtained in-house or discharged without having an appropriate specimen sent. Four patients (9%) had reoccurring C difficile after having toxin-negative stools. We estimate (because outpatient specimens were not collected) the cost incurred at $48,500 annually, including the incremental cost of hospital isolation and equipment. Our policy to control the spread of nosocomial C

  8. Genome sequence and description of Paenibacillus ihuae strain GD6 sp. nov., isolated from the stool of a 62-year-old Frenchman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Al-Bayssari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus ihuae strain GD6 (=CSUR P892 = DSMZ 45751T is the new type strain collected from the stool of a 69-year-old Frenchman admitted to an intensive care unit and receiving a 10-day course of imipenem at the time of stool collection. This is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. We describe here the features of this organism, together with its complete genome sequence and annotation. The genome size is 6 719 043 bp with 49.6% G+C content and contains 6211 protein-coding and 65 sRNA genes, including four 5S rRNA genes, one 16S rRNA gene and one 23S rRNA gene. Keywords: Culturomics, Paenibacillus ihuae, taxonogenomics

  9. Agreement Between Home-Based Measurement of Stool Calprotectin and ELISA Results for Monitoring Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Anke; Knol, Mariska; Kobold, Anneke Muller; Bootsman, Josette; Dijkstra, Gerard; van Rheenen, Patrick F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: An increasing number of physicians use repeated measurements of stool calprotectin to monitor intestinal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). A lateral flow-based rapid test allows patients to measure their own stool calprotectin values at home. The

  10. Is PCR the Next Reference Standard for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma in Stool? A Comparison with Microscopy in Senegal and Kenya.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, L.; Brienen, E.; Mbow, M.; Ochola, E.A,; Mboup, S.; Karanja, D.M.; Secor, W.E.; Polman, K.; Lieshout, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The current reference test for the detection of S. mansoni in endemic areas is stool microscopy based on one or more Kato-Katz stool smears. However, stool microscopy has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current schistosomiasis control programs. A highly specific

  11. Impact of changing from staining to culture techniques on detection rates of Campylobacter spp. in routine stool samples in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Lorena; Varela, Carmen; Haecker, Thomas; Morales, Sara; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-05-13

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, but sensitive diagnostic methods such as culture are expensive and often not available in resource limited settings. Therefore, direct staining techniques have been developed as a practical and economical alternative. We analyzed the impact of replacing Campylobacter staining with culture for routine stool examinations in a private hospital in Chile. From January to April 2014, a total of 750 consecutive stool samples were examined in parallel by Hucker stain and Campylobacter culture. Isolation rates of Campylobacter were determined and the performance of staining was evaluated against culture as the gold standard. Besides, isolation rates of Campylobacter and other enteric pathogens were compared to those of past years. Campylobacter was isolated by culture in 46 of 750 (6.1 %) stool samples. Direct staining only identified three samples as Campylobacter positive and reached sensitivity and specificity values of 6.5 and 100 %, respectively. In comparison to staining-based detection rates of previous years, we observed a significant increase of Campylobacter cases in our patients. Direct staining technique for Campylobacter had a very low sensitivity compared to culture. Staining methods might lead to a high rate of false negative results and an underestimation of the importance of campylobacteriosis. With the inclusion of Campylobacter culture, this pathogen became a leading cause of intestinal infection in our patient population.

  12. Not Your Run-of-the-Mill Art-Room Stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Rose-Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    An art room should be a garden of visual stimulation, born of creativity, inquiry, critical thinking and intellectual conversation--and a little collaboration is not a bad thing either! When the author unpacked the new stools for her art room at the high school, she envisioned something more beautiful than the brown masonite circles that…

  13. Survey of gastrointestinal reactions to foods in adults in relation to atopy, presence of mucus in the stools, swelling of joints and arthralgia in patients with gastrointestinal reactions to foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, U; Hanson, L A; Ahlstedt, S

    1996-12-01

    Food intolerance in adults is mostly associated with vague symptoms and not clearly related to atopy and food allergy. A combination of different pathogenetic mechanisms may be responsible for the symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe patients with a history of food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in relation to the presence of mucus in the stools, joint swelling and arthralgia and to determine whether or not there is an association between the presence of these parameters, atopic disease and the presence of immune complexes in serum. Fifty-eight patients consecutively referred to our clinic with food-related gastrointestinal symptoms were investigated. Thirty-five patients (60%) had mucus in their stools, 24 patients (41%) complained about joint swelling and 41 patients (71%) had arthralgia. There were no correlations between these parameters and atopy according to Phadiatope test or skin prick test (SPT). No correlations were found between the occurrence of mucus in the stools, arthralgia and joint swelling. There were significantly higher levels of circulating immune complexes in patients with a history of arthralgia compared with patients with no such history (P mucus in the stools. However, there were significant positive correlations between food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in the following instances: chocolate-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and mucus in the stools (P = 0.006), vegetable-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and mucus in the stools (P = 0.002) and meat-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and mucus in the stools (P = 0.003). In a group of individuals without food-related symptoms investigated separately, a very low frequency of mucus in the stools, joint swelling and arthralgia was seen (none, two and three individuals of the 20 subjects, respectively). Of 41 patients with immediate onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, 20 were atopic according to Phadiatope and SPT. Of 11 patients with late onset of symptoms 10 were negative in

  14. One Hundred False-Positive Amphetamine Specimens Characterized by Liquid Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Stephanie J; Doyle, Kelly; Chang, Annie; Concheiro-Guisan, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A; Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L

    2016-01-01

    Some amphetamine (AMP) and ecstacy (MDMA) urine immunoassay (IA) kits are prone to false-positive results due to poor specificity of the antibody. We employed two techniques, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and an in silico structure search, to identify compounds likely to cause false-positive results. Hundred false-positive IA specimens for AMP and/or MDMA were analyzed by an Agilent 6230 time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Separately, SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts) was used as an in silico structure search to generate a library of compounds that are known to cross-react with AMP/MDMA IAs. Chemical formulas and exact masses of 145 structures were then compared against masses identified by TOF. Compounds known to have cross-reactivity with the IAs were identified in the structure-based search. The chemical formulas and exact masses of 145 structures (of 20 chemical formulas) were compared against masses identified by TOF. Urine analysis by HRMS correlates accurate mass with chemical formulae, but provides little information regarding compound structure. Structural data of targeted antigens can be utilized to correlate HRMS-derived chemical formulas with structural analogs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Environmental charging of spacecraft-tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 2: Specimen 6 to 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Blech, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/USAF program on the Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists, in part, of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicles were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that no discharges were obtained with the quartz-fiber-fabric-covered multilayer insulation specimen. The taped aluminized polyester grounding system used on all specimens did not appear to grossly deteriorate with time; however, the specimens require specific external pressure to maintain constant grounding system resistance.

  16. Dual-energy CT characteristics of colon and rectal cancer allows differentiation from stool by dual-source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdeniz, İlknur; İdilman, İlkay S; Köklü, Seyfettin; Hamaloğlu, Erhan; Özmen, Mustafa; Akata, Deniz; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) characteristics of colorectal cancer and investigate effectiveness of DECT method in differentiating tumor from stool in patients with colorectal cancer. Fifty consecutive patients with colorectal tumors were enrolled. Staging was performed by DECT (80-140 kV) using dual-source CT after rectal air insufflation and without bowel preparation. Both visual and quantitative analyses were performed at 80 kV and 140 kV, on iodine map and virtual noncontrast (VNC) images. All colorectal tumors had homogeneous pattern on iodine map. Stools demonstrated heterogeneous pattern in 86% (43/50) and homogeneous pattern in 14% (7/50) on iodine maps and were less visible on VNC images. Median density of tumors was 54 HU (18-100 HU) on iodine map and 28 HU (11-56 HU) on VNC images. Median density of stool was 36.5 HU (8-165 HU) on iodine map and -135.5 HU (-438 HU to -13 HU) on VNC images. The density of stools was significantly lower than tumors on both iodine map and VNC images (P VNC images was -1 HU with area under the curve of 1 and a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Density or visual analysis of iodine map and VNC DECT images allow accurate differentiation of tumor from stool.

  17. Utility of a stool antigen test to detect the incidence of helicobacter pylori infection and familial and community enviromental risk factors for this infection in pediatric age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sabbi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: helicobacter pylori (hp infection is mainly acquired during childhood; it is recognised as a cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer and it has been classified as a group A carcinogen by World health organization. the exact mode of transmission is as yet, not known. Aim of our study has been to identify risk factors associated with helicobacter pylori infection in a preschool and school population and to confirm if hp antigen in faeces is useful as screening in epidemiological studies. Methods: We interviewed, with questionnaire, 400 children (203 male; age range 3-10 years; mean age 6 years of 3 different schools and stool samples were collected of all children too. 35 of 400 (8% children underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of a suspect of upper gastrointestinal disease. Results: stool were collected from 400 school children and 35 of them shown positivity of hp antigen test. A questionnaire about presence of nausea, vomit, recurrent abdominal pain, family size, parent’s occupations and education, use of antibiotics, country of birth of child and parents, personal hygiene, breast feeding, presence of the animals was completed. 35 children with positive hp stool antigen test and a suspicious of upper gastrointestinal disease (recurrent abdominal pain, diurnal or nocturnal abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, iron deficiency underwent to esophagogastroduodenoscopy (egdS that demonstrated antral gastritis and positive histology and urease rapid test. Conclusions: the results of this study suggest that risk factors for hp infection are low socioeconomics factors, hygiene and living conditions and that hp antigen in faeces is useful as screening test.

  18. Utility of a stool antigen test to detect the incidence of helicobacter pylori infection and familial and community enviromental risk factors for this infection in pediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, T; Dall'Oglio, L; De Angelis, P; Torroni, E; Colistro, F; Azzolina, M; Santoni, A; Di Ciommo, V; Benedetto, M

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is mainly acquired during childhood; it is recognised as a cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer and it has been classified as a group A carcinogen by World Health Organization. The exact mode of transmission is as yet, not known. Aim of our study has been to identify risk factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in a preschool and school population and to confirm if Hp antigen in faeces is useful as screening in epidemiological studies. We interviewed, with questionnaire, 400 children (203 male; age range 3-10 years; mean age 6 years) of 3 different schools and stool samples were collected of all children too. 35 of 400 (8%) children underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of a suspect of upper gastrointestinal disease. stool were collected from 400 school children and 35 of them shown positivity of Hp antigen test. A questionnaire about presence of nausea, vomit, recurrent abdominal pain, family size, parent's occupations and education, use of antibiotics, country of birth of child and parents, personal hygiene, breast feeding, presence of the animals was completed. 35 children with positive Hp stool antigen test and a suspicious of upper gastrointestinal disease (recurrent abdominal pain, diurnal or nocturnal abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, iron deficiency) underwent to esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS) that demonstrated antral gastritis and positive histology and urease rapid test. the results of this study suggest that risk factors for Hp infection are low socioeconomics factors, hygiene and living conditions and that Hp antigen in faeces is useful as screening test.

  19. Comparison of 2 chromogenic media for the detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae stool carriage in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blane, Beth; Brodrick, Hayley J; Gouliouris, Theodore; Ambridge, Kirsty E; Kidney, Angela D; Ludden, Catherine M; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Török, M Estée; Peacock, Sharon J

    2016-03-01

    ChromID ESBL agar and Brilliance ESBL agar were compared for the isolation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae from 298 stools. These had comparable sensitivity and selectivity for the 116 positive samples. Pre-enrichment with cefpodoxime and extending incubation to 48 hours after direct plating both significantly increased sensitivity but reduced selectivity of both agars. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Hałasa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey. Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75% in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  1. Oral Supplementation with Bovine Colostrum Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Stool Concentrations of Zonulin in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hałasa, Maciej; Maciejewska, Dominika; Baśkiewicz-Hałasa, Magdalena; Machaliński, Bogusław; Safranow, Krzysztof; Stachowska, Ewa

    2017-04-08

    Increased intestinal permeability has been implicated in various pathologies, has various causes, and can develop during vigorous athletic training. Colostrum bovinum is a natural supplement with a wide range of supposed positive health effects, including reduction of intestine permeability. We assessed influence of colostrum supplementation on intestinal permeability related parameters in a group of 16 athletes during peak training for competition. This double-blind placebo-controlled study compared supplementation for 20 days with 500 mg of colostrum bovinum or placebo (whey). Gut permeability status was assayed by differential absorption of lactulose and mannitol (L/M test) and stool zonulin concentration. Baseline L/M tests found that six of the participants (75%) in the colostrum group had increased intestinal permeability. After supplementation, the test values were within the normal range and were significantly lower than at baseline. The colostrum group Δ values produced by comparing the post-intervention and baseline results were also significantly lower than the placebo group Δ values. The differences in stool zonulin concentration were smaller than those in the L/M test, but were significant when the Δ values due to intervention were compared between the colostrum group and the placebo group. Colostrum bovinum supplementation was safe and effective in decreasing of intestinal permeability in this series of athletes at increased risk of its elevation.

  2. Evaluation and Comparison of Enzyme Immunoassay (Eia and Acid Fast Staining with Confirmation by Immunofluorescent Antibody Assay for Detection of Cryptosporidium Species in Infants and Young Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dorostcar Moghaddam

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cryptosporidiosis is prevalent world wide, causing a variety of problems ranging from acute, self-limiting diarrhea to fatal cases in immunocompromised persons, particulary those with acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS. Diagnosis of Cryptosporidium is made by identification of oocysts in stool specimens. The detection is most commonly made by the acid-fast staining method followed by microscopic examination which has low specificity and sensitivity. Material and Methods: In the present study, we evaluated diagnostic utility of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA, which detects Cryptosporidium-Specific antigen (CSA in 204 unprocessed stool specimens obtained from patients less than 3 years of age. Results: When compared with the routine screening procedure applied in this field study (screening by acid-fast staining and microscopy after concentration of positive results by IFA, both sensitivity and specificity were 98%. Of the 139 specimens negative by microscopy, 13 (9.3% were positive by EIA, 11 of which were confirmed by inhibition with antibody to Cryptosporidia-specific antigen. Conclusion: The EIA is an important tool for identifying Cryptosporidium in fecal specimens in field studies since it is sensitive, specific, simple to use and unaffected by the presence of a preservative.

  3. Identification and antibiotic sensitivity test of bacteria from stools of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty stool samples from 65 female and 85 male patients with acute diarrhoea from the Central Hospital, Agbor (Nigeria) were examined to ascertain the likelihood of cholera outbreak in Agbor. The samples were preserved in Carey-Blair semi-solid medium, inoculated directly on blood agar, McConkey agar ...

  4. Differential clinical features and stool findings in shigellosis and amoebic dysentery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; McGlaughlin, R.; Kabir, I.; Butler, T.

    1987-01-01

    To obtain information that could assist the clinician to differentiate between shigellosis and amoebic dysentery, we compared clinical features and stool findings in 58 adult male patients in Bangladesh. Mean values indicated that patients with invasive amoebiasis were older and had a longer

  5. Yersinia enterocolitica bacteremia and enterocolitis in a previously healthy 20-month-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takao; Suzuki, Teruaki; Kawase, Jun; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Nanao, Kenji

    2012-10-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a gram-negative bacillus that can cause illness ranging from a self-limiting enterocolitis to life-threatening bacteremia. Y. enterocolitica biotype 1B, serotype O:8 (1B/O:8), is the most pathogenic of the Yersinia species because of the presence of the high-pathogenicity island and the Yersinia virulence plasmid (pYV). Here, we report a pediatric case of Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8 bacteremia and enterocolitis. A 20-month-old girl was admitted to hospital with fever,pharyngitis, and abdominal pain on day 2. Blood culture on admission was positive for Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8. Stool culture on day 5 after cefotaxime treatment was also positive for Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8, but only after cold enrichment at 4°C for 3 weeks. PCR assays identified the pYV only in stool specimens, indicating that strains from routine blood culture at 37°C lacked the pYV. The present case showed the usefulness of stool culture with cold enrichment and agglutination test for the diagnosis of Y. enterocolitica infection. We would therefore like to emphasize the importance of collection and preservation of stool specimens for the identification of pYV. To our knowledge, this is the first reported pediatric case of Y. enterocolitica 1B/O:8 bacteremia.

  6. Validation of a simple stool diary used by caregivers to document diarrhea among young children in a low-income country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte; Namusoke, Hanifa; Nabukeera-Barungi, Nicolette

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Development and validation of a simple stool diary for caretakers collecting data on stool frequency and consistency among young children in a low-income country. METHODS: Focus group studies evaluated how diarrhea was understood by caregivers (content validity). The sensitivity......, reliability, and correlations between dehydration and diary scores (construct validity) were tested in a clinical trial. RESULTS: Caregivers recognized and understood the concept and severity of diarrhea. Stool frequency and liquid consistency decreased in children admitted with diarrhea (p 

  7. The influence of serial fecal sampling on the diagnosis of giardiasis in humans, dogs, and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchôa, Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Macieira, Daniel de Barros; Almosny, Nádia Regina Pereira

    2017-08-24

    Giardia infection is a common clinical problem in humans and pets. The diagnosis of giardiasis is challenging as hosts intermittently excrete protozoan cysts in their feces. In the present study, we comparatively evaluated two methods of serial fecal sampling in humans, dogs, and cats from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Faust et al. technique was used to examine fecal specimens collected in triplicate from 133 patients (52 humans, 60 dogs, and 21 cats). Specimens from 74 patients were received from the group assigned to carry out sampling on consecutive days - 34 humans, 35 dogs, and 5 cats, and specimens from 59 patients were received from the group assigned to carry out sampling on non-consecutive, separate days - 18 human beings, 25 dogs, and 16 cats. G. duodenalis cysts were found in stools of 30 individuals. Multiple stool sampling resulted in an increase in the number of samples that were positive for Giardia in both groups. The authors therefore conclude that multiple stool sampling increases the sensitivity of the Faust et al . technique to detect G. duodenalis cysts in samples from humans, cats and dogs.

  8. Efficiency of Direct Microscopy of Stool Samples Using an Antigen-Specific Adhesin Test for Entamoeba Histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu İrvem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol’s iodine for pre-diagnosis. Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E. histolytica in stool samples collected from 788 patients residing in the Anatolian region of İstanbul who presented with gastrointestinal complaints. We used the information obtained to evaluate the effectiveness of microscopic examinations when used in combination with the E. histolytica adhesin antigen test. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Methods: Preparations of stool samples stained with Native-Lugol’s iodine were evaluated using the E. histolytica adhesin test and examined using standard light microscopy at ×40 magnification. Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Of 788 samples, 38 (4.8% were positive for E. histolytica adhesin antigens. When evaluated together with the presences of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cysts, and trophozoites, respectively, using logistic regression analysis, leukocyte positivity was significantly higher. The odds ratio of leukocyte positivity increased adhesin test-positivity by 2,530-fold (95% CI=1.01–6.330. Adhesin test-positivity was significant (p=0.047. Conclusion: In line with these findings, the consistency between the presence of cysts and erythrocytes and adhesin test-positivity was found to be highly significant, but that of higher levels of leukocytes was found to be discordant. It was concluded that leukocytes and trophozoites were

  9. Development of a polymerase chain reaction applicable to rapid and sensitive detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in human stool samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Mi Choi, Kyung; Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lim, Sung-Bin; Cha, Seok Ho; Park, Yun-Kyu; Pak, Jhang Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Hong, Sung-Jong; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic examination of eggs of parasitic helminths in stool samples has been the most widely used classical diagnostic method for infections, but tiny and low numbers of eggs in stool samples often hamper diagnosis of helminthic infections with classical microscopic examination. Moreover, it is also difficult to differentiate parasite eggs by the classical method, if they have similar morphological characteristics. In this study, we developed a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular diagnostic method for detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in stool samples. Nine primers were designed based on the long-terminal repeat (LTR) of C. sinensis retrotransposon1 (CsRn1) gene, and seven PCR primer sets were paired. Polymerase chain reaction with each primer pair produced specific amplicons for C. sinensis, but not for other trematodes including Metagonimus yokogawai and Paragonimus westermani. Particularly, three primer sets were able to detect 10 C. sinensis eggs and were applicable to amplify specific amplicons from DNA samples purified from stool of C. sinensis-infected patients. This PCR method could be useful for diagnosis of C. sinensis infections in human stool samples with a high level of specificity and sensitivity. PMID:23916334

  10. Study of the Prevalence of Causative Bacterial&Protozoal Agents of in Stool Samples of 470 Gastroenteritis Patients Referring to the Nikoopour Clinic in Yazd,Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Sharifi

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Interoduction: Gasteroenteritis is one of the problems worth consideration all over the world. It is one of the important causes of mortality, especially in children < 5 years of age, in developing countries including Iran. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the demographic conditions influencing the presence of causative bacteria and protozoa, followed by antibiograms of isolated bacteria from stool samples of patients with gasteroenteritis referring to Nikoopour Clinic in the city of Yazd, Iran from 1998 – 2001. Materials and method: A total of 470 samples were microbiologically examined by direct method, culture and then antibiogramed. In order to isolate the possible bacteria, differential and selected media were used. Also, wet – mount technique was applied for detection of protozoa. Results: Results revealed that 272 samples (57.9% were infected by pathogenic bacteria or protozoa. 138 (50.8% pathogenic specimens were from male patients and the remaining 134(49.3% were from female patients. Isolated species were: Enteropathogenic E.coli 117(43%, Shigella 51(18.8%, Salmonella.interetidis 25(9.2%, C.jejuni 16(5.9%, Giardia lambdia 51(18.8% and Amoebae spp 12(4.4%. The most commonly detected shigella species was dysenteriae, (74.5% while boydii with 2% was the least common type observed in the specimens. Except shigella, all the other bacteria were more common in males than female, but insignificant statistically. In order to determine the sensitivity and/or resistance of pathogenic bacteria, antibiogram test was performed using selected antibiotic disks such as Ampicillin, Nalidixic Acid, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin and Sulfamethaxazole. Conclusion: Results revealed that some patients were probably infected by pathogenic factors other than bacteria or protozoa. Since all viruses and parasites are almost resistant to antibiotics and on the other hand, administration of antibiotics may lead to resistance of bacterial agents

  11. Role of specimen US for predicting resection margin status in breast conserving therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, M; Telegrafo, M; Introna, T; Coi, L; Rella, L; Ranieri, V; Cirili, A; Stabile Ianora, A A; Angelelli, G

    2015-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of specimen ultrasound (US) for predicting resection margin status in women undergoing breast conserving therapy for US-detected cancer, having the histological findings as the reference standard. A total of 132 consecutive patients (age range, 34-87 years; mean, 51 years) underwent breast-conserving surgery for US-detected invasive breast cancer. All surgical specimens underwent US examination. The presence of lesion within the specimen and its distance from the specimen margins were assessed considering a threshold distance between the lesion and specimen margins of 10 mm. US findings were then compared with the pathological ones and specimen US. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for predicting histological margin status were evaluated, having the histological findings as the reference standard. The histological examination detected invasive ductal carcinoma in 96/132 (73%) cases, invasive lobular carcinoma in 32/132 (24%), mucinous carcinoma in 4/132 (3%). The pathological margin analysis revealed 96/132 (73%) negative margins and 36 (27%) close/positive margins. US examination detected all 132 breast lesions within the surgical specimens. 110 (83%) negative margins and 22 (17%) positive margins were found on US. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, PPV and NPV of 44%, 94%, 80%, 73% and 82%, respectively, were found for specimen US. Specimen US represents a time and cost saving imaging tool for evaluating the presence of US detected-breast lesion within surgical specimen and for predicting the histological margin status.

  12. Analytic and clinical performance of cobas HPV testing in anal specimens from HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Chen, Jie; Lorey, Thomas S; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Boyle, Sean; Sadorra, Mark; Tang, Scott Dahai; Darragh, Teresa M; Castle, Philip E

    2014-08-01

    Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common, and the incidence of anal cancer is high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To evaluate the performance of HPV assays in anal samples, we compared the cobas HPV test (cobas) to the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping assay (LA) and cytology in HIV-infected MSM. Cytology and cobas and LA HPV testing were conducted for 342 subjects. We calculated agreement between the HPV assays and the clinical performance of HPV testing and HPV genotyping alone and in combination with anal cytology. We observed high agreement between cobas and LA, with cobas more likely than LA to show positive results for HPV16, HPV18, and other carcinogenic types. Specimens testing positive in cobas but not in LA were more likely to be positive for other markers of HPV-related disease compared to those testing negative in both assays, suggesting that at least some of these were true positives for HPV. cobas and LA showed high sensitivities but low specificities for the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (AIN2/3) in this population (100% sensitivity and 26% specificity for cobas versus 98.4% sensitivity and 28.9% specificity for LA). A combination of anal cytology and HPV genotyping provided the highest accuracy for detecting anal precancer. A higher HPV load was associated with a higher risk of AIN2/3 with HPV16 (P(trend) < 0.001), HPV18 (P(trend) = 0.07), and other carcinogenic types (P(trend) < 0.001). We demonstrate that cobas can be used for HPV detection in anal cytology specimens. Additional tests are necessary to identify men at the highest risk of anal cancer among those infected with high-risk HPV. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. and improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    to a combination of Bifidobacterium longum LA 101, Lactobacillus helveticus LA 102, Lactococcus lactis LA 103 and Streptococcus thermophilus LA 104 and improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency. The food that is the subject of the health claim is a combination of four bacterial strains—B. longum...... proposed by the applicant is "improves stool frequency". The Panel considers that improvement of bowel function by increasing stool frequency, provided that it does not result in diarrhoea, is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel considers that the human study provided for the substantiation...... of the claim did not find an increase in stool frequency following consumption of a combination of the bacterial strains which is the subject of the claim. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of B. longum LA 101, L...

  14. Enterovirus D68 detection in respiratory specimens: Association with severe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Ilka; Fatoux, Marie; Lazrek, Mouna; Alidjinou, Enagnon K; Mirand, Audrey; Henquell, Cécile; Dewilde, Anny; Hober, Didier

    2017-07-01

    Molecular techniques increased the number of documented respiratory infections. In a substantial number of cases the causative agent remains undetected. Since August 2014, an increase in Enterovirus(EV)-D68 infections was reported. We aimed to investigate epidemiology and clinical relevance of EV-D68. From June to December 2014 and from September to December 2015, 803 and 847 respiratory specimens, respectively, were tested for respiratory viruses with a multiplex RT-PCR. This multiplex RT-PCR does not detect EV-D68. Therefore, 457 (2014) and 343 (2015) specimens with negative results were submitted to an EV-specific-RT-PCR. EV-positive specimens were tested with an EV-D68-specific-RT-PCR and genotyped. Eleven specimens of 2014 tested positive in the EV-specific-RT-PCR and of these seven were positive in the EV-D68-specific-RT-PCR. Typing confirmed these as EV-D68. Median age of EV-D68-positive patients was 3 years (1 month-91 years). Common symptoms included fever (n = 6, 86%), respiratory distress (n = 5, 71%), and cough (n = 4, 57%). All EV-D68-positive patients were admitted to hospital, 4 (57%) were admitted to intensive care units and 6 (86%) received oxygen. One patient suffered from acute flaccid paralysis. Seven specimens of 2015 were positive in the EV-specific-RT-PCR but negative in the EV-D68-specific-RT-PCR. In conclusion, use of an EV-specific-RT-PCR allowed us to detect EV-D68 circulation in autumn 2014 that was not detected by the multiplex RT-PCR and was associated with severe disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Multiplex PCR-based assay for detection of Bordetella pertussis in nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Michaels, R H; Libert, T; Kingsley, L A; Ehrlich, G D

    1996-11-01

    A multiplex PCR-based assay was developed for the detection of Bordetella pertussis in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The assay simultaneously amplified two separate DNA targets (153 and 203 bp) within a B. pertussis repetitive element and a 438-bp target within the beta-actin gene of human DNA (PCR amplification control). PCR products were detected by a sensitive and specific liquid hybridization gel retardation assay. A total of 496 paired nasopharyngeal swab specimens were tested by both the PCR-based assay and culture. Although 30 (6%) of the specimens inhibited the amplification of the beta-actin target, in all 29 specimens studied, the inhibition disappeared on repeat testing or was easily overcome with a 1:8 dilution or less of specimen digest. Of the 495 specimen pairs yielding a final evaluable result by the PCR-based assay, 19.0% were positive by the PCR-based assay, whereas 13.9% were positive by culture (P < 0.0001). After resolving the PCR-positive, culture-negative results by testing an additional aliquot from these specimens by the multiplex PCR-based assay, the PCR-based assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 98.9 and 99.7%, respectively, compared with values of 73.4 and 100%, respectively, for culture. In comparison with patients with culture-confirmed pertussis, those with PCR-positive, culture-negative results were older and more likely to have had prolonged cough, immunization with pertussis vaccine, or treatment with erythromycin. This multiplex PCR-based assay is substantially more sensitive than culture and identifies specimens that contain inhibitors of PCR.

  16. Novel Stool-Based Protein Biomarkers for Improved Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Linda J W; de Wit, Meike; Pham, Thang V; Coupé, Veerle M H; Hiemstra, Annemieke C; Piersma, Sander R; Oudgenoeg, Gideon; Scheffer, George L; Mongera, Sandra; Sive Droste, Jochim Terhaar; Oort, Frank A; van Turenhout, Sietze T; Larbi, Ilhame Ben; Louwagie, Joost; van Criekinge, Wim; van der Hulst, Rene W M; Mulder, Chris J J; Carvalho, Beatriz; Fijneman, Remond J A; Jimenez, Connie R; Meijer, Gerrit A

    2017-12-19

    The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for detecting hemoglobin is used widely for noninvasive colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but its sensitivity leaves room for improvement. To identify novel protein biomarkers in stool that outperform or complement hemoglobin in detecting CRC and advanced adenomas. Case-control study. Colonoscopy-controlled referral population from several centers. 315 stool samples from one series of 12 patients with CRC and 10 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples) and a second series of 81 patients with CRC, 40 with advanced adenomas, and 43 with nonadvanced adenomas, as well as 129 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples); 72 FIT samples from a third independent series of 14 patients with CRC, 16 with advanced adenomas, and 18 with nonadvanced adenomas, as well as 24 persons without colorectal neoplasia (control samples). Stool samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify protein combinations that differentiated CRC or advanced adenoma from control samples. Antibody-based assays for 4 selected proteins were done on FIT samples. In total, 834 human proteins were identified, 29 of which were statistically significantly enriched in CRC versus control stool samples in both series. Combinations of 4 proteins reached sensitivities of 80% and 45% for detecting CRC and advanced adenomas, respectively, at 95% specificity, which was higher than that of hemoglobin alone (P control samples (P control samples. Proof of concept that such proteins can be detected with antibody-based assays in small sample volumes indicates the potential of these biomarkers to be applied in population screening. Center for Translational Molecular Medicine, International Translational Cancer Research Dream Team, Stand Up to Cancer (American Association for Cancer Research and the Dutch Cancer Society), Dutch Digestive Foundation, and VU

  17. Evaluation of stool microbiota signatures in two cohorts of Asian (Singapore and Indonesia newborns at risk of atopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Kaw Yan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have suggested that demographic and lifestyle factors could shape the composition of fecal microbiota in early life. This study evaluated infant stool microbiota signatures in two Asian populations, Singapore (n = 42 and Indonesia (n = 32 with contrasting socioeconomic development, and examined the putative influences of demographic factors on these human fecal associated bacterial signatures. Results Longitudinal analysis showed associations of geographical origin with Clostridium leptum, Atopobium and Bifidobacterium groups. Mode of delivery had the largest effect on stool microbiota signatures influencing the abundance of four bacterial groups. Significantly higher abundance of bacterial members belonging to the Bacteroides-Prevotella, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium groups, but lower abundance of Lactobacilli-Enterococci group members, were observed in vaginal delivered compared to caesarean delivered infants. Demographic factors influencing the structure of infants stool microbiota during the first year of life included breastfeeding, age of weaning, sibship size and exposure to antibiotics. Conclusions Differences in stool microbiota signatures were observed in relation to various demographic factors. These features may confound studies relating to the association of the structure of fecal microbiota and the predisposition to human modern disease.

  18. Reduction in specimen labeling errors after implementation of a positive patient identification system in phlebotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Aileen P; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Goonan, Ellen M; Lobo, Margaret M; Bates, Michael M; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Bates, David W; Melanson, Stacy E F

    2010-06-01

    Ensuring accurate patient identification is central to preventing medical errors, but it can be challenging. We implemented a bar code-based positive patient identification system for use in inpatient phlebotomy. A before-after design was used to evaluate the impact of the identification system on the frequency of mislabeled and unlabeled samples reported in our laboratory. Labeling errors fell from 5.45 in 10,000 before implementation to 3.2 in 10,000 afterward (P = .0013). An estimated 108 mislabeling events were prevented by the identification system in 1 year. Furthermore, a workflow step requiring manual preprinting of labels, which was accompanied by potential labeling errors in about one quarter of blood "draws," was removed as a result of the new system. After implementation, a higher percentage of patients reported having their wristband checked before phlebotomy. Bar code technology significantly reduced the rate of specimen identification errors.

  19. Improved amplification efficiency on stool samples by addition of spermidine and its use for non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Roperch, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-29

    Background Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QM-MSP) is a promising method for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis from stool samples. Difficulty in eliminating PCR inhibitors of this body fluid has been extensively reported. Here, spermidine is presented as PCR facilitator for the detection of stool DNA methylation biomarkers using QM-MSP. We examined its effectiveness with NPY, PENK and WIF1, three biomarkers which we have previously shown to be of relevance to CRC. Results We determined an optimal window for the amplification of the albumin (Alb) gene (100 ng of bisulfite-treated stool DNA added of 1 mM spermidine) at which we report that spermidine acts as a PCR facilitator (AE = 1680%) for SG RT-PCR. We show that the amplification of methylated PENK, NPY and WIF1 is considerably facilitated by QM-MSP as measured by an increase of CMI (Cumulative Methylation Index, i.e. the sum of the three methylation values) by a factor of 1.5 to 23 fold in individual samples, and of 10 fold in a pool of five samples. Conclusions We contend that spermidine greatly reduces the problems of PCR inhibition in stool samples. This observed feature, after validation on a larger sampling, could be used in the development of stool-based CRC diagnosis tests.

  20. LUMINEX®: a new technology for the simultaneous identification of five Entamoeba spp. commonly found in human stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Helena Lúcia Carneiro; Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Bandea, Rebecca; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Peralta, José Mauro; Da Silva, Alexandre Januário

    2013-03-15

    Six species of the genus Entamoeba, i.e., E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. polecki, E. coli, and E. hartmanii can be found in human stools. Among these, only E. histolytica is considered to be pathogenic, causing intestinal and extra-intestinal disease, but it is morphologically identical to E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. In general, E. polecki, E. coli, and E. hartmanii can be differentiated morphologically from E. histolytica, but some of their diagnostic morphologic features may overlap creating issues for the differential diagnosis. Moreover, the previous inability to differentiate among Entamoeba species has limited epidemiologic information on E histolytica. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, high-throughput screening method using Luminex technique for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba species. PCR amplification was performed with biotinylated Entamoeba sp 18S rRNA gene primers, designed to amplify a fragment ranging from 382 to 429 bp of the Entamoeba spp studied. Regions of this fragment that could differentiate among E. histolytica, E. moshkovskii, E. dispar, E. hartmanii and E. coli were selected to design hybridization probes to link to Luminex beads. The assay was standardized with cloned DNA samples of each species and evaluated with 24 DNA extracts from samples obtained from individuals diagnosed with these amebas in their stools. Using this approach we were able to correctly identify E. histoltyica, E. dispar, E hartmanni, E. coli and E. moshkovskii in all specimens studied. From twenty four samples tested by microscopy, PCR/DNA Sequencing and real-time PCR, 100% agreed with PCR-Luminex assay for identification of E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. histolytica, and E. coli. These results show that this method could be used in the diagnostic detection of Entamoeba spp in fecal samples. This diagnostic test was useful to clearly distinguish E histolytica from other species and also to

  1. Detection of Colorectal Cancer by a Quantitative Fluorescence Determination of DNA Amplification in Stool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Calistri

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA amplification of exfoliated cells in stool repre sents an inexpensive and rapid test, but has only 50% to 60% sensitivity. A new quantitative method, calle( fluorescence long DNA, was developed and validate( in our laboratory on stool obtained from 86 patient., with primary colorectal cancer and from 62 health individuals. It consists of the amplification of stoo DNA with fluorescence primers and the quantification of the amplification using a standard curve. Results are arbitrarily expressed in nanograms. The potential of thi new method compared to the conventional approact was analyzed in a subgroup of 94 individuals (51 patients and 38 healthy volunteers. In the presen series, DNA amplification analysis showed a specific ity of 97% and a sensitivity of only 50%. Conversely fluorescence DNA evaluation, using the best cutoff o 25 ng, showed a sensitivity of about 76% and a spec ificity of 93%. Similar sensitivity was observed regard less of Dukes stage, tumor location, and size, thu., also permitting the detection of early-stage tumors The present study seems to indicate that quantitative fluorescence DNA determination in stool successfully identifies colorectal cancer patients with a sensitivity comparable, if not superior, to that of multiple gene analysis but at a lower cost and in a shorter time.

  2. Agreement for HPV genotyping detection between self-collected specimens on a FTA cartridge and clinician-collected specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, YaoYao; Gravitt, Patti E.; Howard, Roslyn; Eby, Yolanda J.; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Belinda; Feng, Changyan; Qiao, You-Lin; Castle, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    The current method of transporting self-collected cervicovaginal specimen for HPV DNA testing relies on liquid based medium, which is challenging and expensive to transport. A novel, dry storage and transportation device, Whatman indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge, avoids some of the pitfalls of liquid-based medium. This method has been shown to be comparable to liquid-based collection medium, but relative performance of self-collected (SC) and clinician-collected (CC) samples onto FTA cards has not been reported. The objective of this study is to compare the analytic performance of self- and clinician-collected samples onto FTA cartridges for the detection of carcinogenic HPV using Linear Array. There was a 91% agreement, 69% positive agreement, and kappa of 0.75 between the clinician-collected and self-collected specimens for detection of any carcinogenic HPV genotype. When the HPV results were categorized hierarchically according to cervical cancer risk, there was no difference in the distribution of the HPV results for the clinician- and self-collected specimens (p = 0.7). This study concludes that FTA elute cartridge is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs considering using self-collected specimen and HPV testing. Larger studies with clinical endpoints are now needed to assess the clinical performance. PMID:23370404

  3. Scanning transmission ion micro-tomography (STIM-T) of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwertner, Michael; Sakellariou, Arthur; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman

    2006-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was applied to sets of Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) projections recorded at the LIPSION ion beam laboratory (Leipzig) in order to visualize the 3D-mass distribution in several specimens. Examples for a test structure (copper grid) and for biological specimens (cartilage cells, cygospore) are shown. Scanning Transmission Micro-Tomography (STIM-T) at a resolution of 260 nm was demonstrated for the first time. Sub-micron features of the Cu-grid specimen were verified by scanning electron microscopy. The ion energy loss measured during a STIM-T experiment is related to the mass density of the specimen. Typically, biological specimens can be analysed without staining. Only shock freezing and freeze-drying is required to preserve the ultra-structure of the specimen. The radiation damage to the specimen during the experiment can be neglected. This is an advantage compared to other techniques like X-ray micro-tomography. At present, the spatial resolution is limited by beam position fluctuations and specimen vibrations

  4. Microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among European reference laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Botero-Kleiven, S; Castelli, F; Chiodini, P L; Edwards, H; Köhler, N; Gulletta, M; Lebbad, M; Manser, M; Matthys, B; N'Goran, E K; Tannich, E; Vounatsou, P; Marti, H

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of different European reference laboratories in diagnosing helminths and intestinal protozoa, using an ether-concentration method applied to sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-preserved faecal samples. In total, 102 stool specimens were analysed during a cross-sectional parasitological survey in urban farming communities in Côte d'Ivoire. Five SAF-preserved faecal samples were prepared from each specimen and forwarded to the participating reference laboratories, processed and examined under a microscope adhering to a standard operating procedure (SOP). Schistosoma mansoni (cumulative prevalence: 51.0%) and hookworm (cumulative prevalence: 39.2%) were the predominant helminths. There was excellent agreement (kappa > 0.8; p protozoa were Entamoeba coli (median prevalence: 67.6%), Blastocystis hominis (median prevalence: 55.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (median prevalence: 47.1%). Substantial agreement among reference laboratories was found for E. coli (kappa = 0.69), but only fair or moderate agreement was found for other Entamoeba species, Giardia intestinalis and Chilomastix mesnili. There was only poor agreement for B. hominis, Isospora belli and Trichomonas intestinalis. In conclusion, although common helminths were reliably diagnosed by European reference laboratories, there was only moderate agreement between centres for pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Continued external quality assessment and the establishment of a formal network of reference laboratories is necessary to further enhance both accuracy and uniformity in parasite diagnosis.

  5. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens at Muhondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite causing amebiasis. ... The infection occurs by ingestion of mature cyst in fecally contaminated food, water or hands. ... hand before eating and after using latrines) ; (ii) avoiding fecal contamination of food, water, and utensils ; and (iii) boiling drinking water before consumption.

  6. Limitations in the use of 14C-glycocholate breath and stool bile acid determinations in patients with chronic diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.; Walker, K.; Thomson, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of a modified 14 C-glycocholate breath test on 165 consecutive in-patients being investigated for chronic diarrhea showed that the measurement of 14 CO 2 between 3 and 6 h after oral dosing of 5 microCi of 14 C-glycocholic acid was of only limited use to distinguish between patients with Crohn's disease (CD), idiopathic bile salt wastage (IBW), or ileal resection (IR) from those with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Continuing 14 CO 2 collections for up to 24 h was of little more help in establishing the presence of bacterial overgrowth syndrome (BOS) and in distinguishing between BOS and CD. Stool bile acid measurements were of use in differentiating between IBW and IBS, but did not distinguish between CD and BOS or between CD and IR. Since the range of normal values was defined by measurements in the IBS group, a positive test was specific for an organic cause of chronic diarrhea. Even so, the sensitivity of the test was relatively low: CD, 53%; IR, 23%; IBW, 14 %; and BOS, 10%. We believe that the 24-h 14 C-glycocholic breath test combined with the measurement of stool bile acids represents a screening test of only limited use for the identification of organic causes of chronic diarrhea

  7. Prevalence of enteroviruses in healthy populations and excretion of pathogens in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease in a highly endemic area of southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wu

    Full Text Available Etiological carriers and the excretion of the pathogens causing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD in healthy persons, patients, and asymptomatic persons infected with HFMD as ongoing infection sources may play an important role in perpetuating and spreading epidemics of HFMD. The aims of this study were to determine the carrier status of EV-A71 and CV-A16 in healthy populations, as well as the duration of EV-A71 and CV-A16 shedding in the stools of HFMD patients in an epidemic area of southwest China. A cross-sectional study and a follow-up study were conducted in three HFMD endemic counties of Yunnan Province. Six hundred sixty-seven healthy subjects were recruited to participate in the cross-sectional study, and two stool specimens were collected from each subject. Among the healthy subjects, 90 (13.5% tested positive for viral isolation, but neither EV-A71 nor CV-A16 was detected in healthy individuals. Of the 150 patients with probable HFMD, 55.3% (83/150 tested positive for viral isolation with presented serotypes such as EV-A71 (51.81%, 43/83, CV-A16 (32.53%, 27/83, other EVs (13.25%, 11/83, and mixed EV-A71 and CV-A16 (2.41%, 2/83. The longest duration of EV-A71 and CV-A16 shedding in stool specimens from patients with HFMD was >46 days after onset. The positive rate of EV-A71 in the stool specimens of confirmed patients dropped to 50% by the end of the third week, and the same occurred with CV-A16 by the end of approximately the seventh week after onset. Although carriers of major causative agents of HFMD in healthy populations are fewer in number, the prolonged shedding of pathogens in patients with HFMD may serve as an important factor in perpetuating and spreading HFMD epidemics.

  8. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  9. Agreement for HPV genotyping detection between self-collected specimens on a FTA cartridge and clinician-collected specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yaoyao; Gravitt, Patti E; Howard, Roslyn; Eby, Yolanda J; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Belinda; Feng, Changyan; Qiao, You-Lin; Castle, Philip E

    2013-04-01

    The current method of transporting self-collected cervicovaginal specimen for HPV DNA testing relies on liquid based medium, which is challenging and expensive to transport. A novel, dry storage and transportation device, Whatman indicating FTA™ Elute Cartridge, avoids some of the pitfalls of liquid-based medium. This method has been shown to be comparable to liquid-based collection medium, but relative performance of self-collected (SC) and clinician-collected (CC) samples onto FTA cards has not been reported. The objective of this study is to compare the analytic performance of self- and clinician-collected samples onto FTA cartridges for the detection of carcinogenic HPV using Linear Array. There was a 91% agreement, 69% positive agreement, and kappa of 0.75 between the clinician-collected and self-collected specimens for detection of any carcinogenic HPV genotype. When the HPV results were categorized hierarchically according to cervical cancer risk, there was no difference in the distribution of the HPV results for the clinician- and self-collected specimens (p=0.7). This study concludes that FTA elute cartridge is a promising method of specimen transport for cervical cancer screening programs considering using self-collected specimen and HPV testing. Larger studies with clinical endpoints are now needed to assess the clinical performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an approach in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coronato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe the frequency of parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One hundred and five stool samples were collected and processed by the coproparasitological techniques ethyl acetate sedimentation and centrifuge-flotation using saturated sugar solution. Parasites were detected in 81.9% of the samples, hookworm being the most prevalent, followed by Trichuris vulpis. Ascaris sp. eggs were also found. A high level of evolutive forms of parasites with public health risk was found in stool samples of the environment studied. We propose that health education programs, allied to an improvement of human and animal health care, must be employed to reduce the environmental contamination.

  11. Preliminary investigation of candidate specimens for the Egyptian environmental specimen bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawky, S.; Amer, H.; Schladot, J.D.; Ostapczuk, P.; Emons, H.; Abou El-Nour, F.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of establishing an environmental monitoring program related to environmental specimen banking in egypt, some candidate specimens from the aquatic environment (Fish muscle, fish liver; mussels) were investigated. The selection of specimens and sampling sites is described. Specimens are chemically characterised with respect to some major and trace elements and the results are compared with data obtained from comparable specimens collected in aquatic ecosystems of germany

  12. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytdal, Scott P; DeBess, Emilio; Lee, Lore E; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D; Hall, Aron J

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP) health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0-98 years). Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested). In addition, 22 (2%) of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2%) were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1%) were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children age (outpatient incidence = 25.6 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 152.2 per 1,000 person-years), followed by older adults aged >65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per 1,000 person

  13. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P Grytdal

    Full Text Available Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE. However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0-98 years. Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested. In addition, 22 (2% of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2% were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1% were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children 65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per 1,000 person-years. Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person

  14. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytdal, Scott P.; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses and other viral pathogens are increasingly recognized as frequent causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). However, few laboratory-based data are available on the incidence of AGE caused by viral pathogens in the U.S. This study examined stool specimens submitted for routine clinical diagnostics from patients enrolled in Kaiser Permanente (KP) health plans in metro Portland, OR, and the Maryland, District of Columbia, and northern Virginia geographic areas to estimate the incidence of viral enteropathogens in these populations. Over a one-year study period, participating laboratories randomly selected stools submitted for routine clinical diagnostics for inclusion in the study along with accompanying demographic and clinical data. Selected stools were tested for norovirus, rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus using standardized real-time RT-PCR protocols. Each KP site provided administrative data which were used in conjunction with previously published data on healthcare utilization to extrapolate pathogen detection rates into population-based incidence rates. A total of 1,099 specimens collected during August 2012 to September 2013 were included. Mean age of patients providing stool specimens was 46 years (range: 0–98 years). Noroviruses were the most common viral pathogen identified among patients with AGE (n = 63 specimens, 6% of specimens tested). In addition, 22 (2%) of specimens were positive for rotavirus; 19 (2%) were positive for sapovirus; and 7 (1%) were positive for astrovirus. Incidence of norovirus-associated outpatient visits was 5.6 per 1,000 person-years; incidence of norovirus disease in the community was estimated to be 69.5 per 1,000 person-years. Norovirus incidence was highest among children incidence = 25.6 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 152.2 per 1,000 person-years), followed by older adults aged >65 years (outpatient incidence = 7.8 per 1,000 person-years; community incidence = 75.8 per 1,000 person

  15. A multiplex PCR/LDR assay for simultaneous detection and identification of the NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Mark S; Pingle, Maneesh; Das, Sanchita; Hussain, Aashiq; Ocheretina, Oksana; Charles, Macarthur; Larone, Davise H; Spitzer, Eric D; Golightly, Linnie; Barany, Francis

    2014-06-01

    Enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. The goal of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR/ligation detection reaction (LDR) assay for the detection of all NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. To validate the PCR/LDR assay, clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp., Vibrio spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were tested. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were assessed using a large number of seeded culture-negative stool specimens and a smaller set of clinical specimens from Haiti. The overall sensitivity ranged from 91% to 100% (median 100%) depending on the species. For the majority of organisms, the sensitivity was 100%. The overall specificity based on initial testing ranged from 98% to 100% depending on the species. After additional testing of discordant samples, the lowest specificity was 99.4%. PCR/LDR detected additional category B agents (particularly diarrheagenic E. coli) in 11/40 specimens from Haiti that were culture-positive for V. cholerae and in approximately 1% of routine culture-negative stool specimens from a hospital in New York. This study demonstrated the ability of the PCR/LDR assay to detect a large comprehensive panel of category B enteric bacterial pathogens as well as mixed infections. This type of assay has the potential to provide earlier warnings of possible public health threats and more accurate surveillance of food and water-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transmission of norovirus among NBA players and staff, winter 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rishi; Yen, Catherine; Wikswo, Mary; Gregoricus, Nicole A; Provo, Jace E; Parashar, Umesh D; Hall, Aron J

    2011-12-01

    In December 2010, 24 players and staff members from 13 National Basketball Association teams were affected with gastroenteritis symptoms. Four of 5 stool specimens from ill players and staff tested positive for norovirus genogroup II. We document evidence of transmission both within teams and, potentially, between teams in 2 instances.

  17. Evaluation of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards as sampling devices for detection of rotavirus in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Ka Ian; Esona, Mathew D; Williams, Alice; Ndze, Valantine N; Boula, Angeline; Bowen, Michael D

    2015-09-15

    Rotavirus is the most important cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotavirus vaccines are available and rotavirus surveillance is carried out to assess vaccination impact. In surveillance studies, stool samples are stored typically at 4°C or frozen to maintain sample quality. Uninterrupted cold storage is a problem in developing countries because of power interruptions. Cold-chain transportation of samples from collection sites to testing laboratories is costly. In this study, we evaluated the use of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA(®) cards for storage and transportation of samples for virus isolation, EIA, and RT-PCR testing. Infectious rotavirus was recovered after 30 days of storage on Sensi-Discs™ at room temperature. We were able to genotype 98-99% of samples stored on Sensi-Discs™ and FTA(®) cards at temperatures ranging from -80°C to 37°C up to 180 days. A field sampling test using samples prepared and shipped from Cameroon, showed that both matrices yielded 100% genotyping success compared with whole stool and Sensi-Discs™ demonstrated 95% concordance with whole stool in EIA testing. The utilization of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA(®) cards for stool sample storage and shipment has the potential to have great impact on global public health by facilitating surveillance and epidemiological investigations of rotavirus strains worldwide at a reduced cost. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Evaluation of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards as sampling devices for detection of rotavirus in stool samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Ka Ian; Esona, Mathew D.; Williams, Alice; Ndze, Valentine N.; Boula, Angeline; Bowen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most important cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotavirus vaccines are available and rotavirus surveillance is carried out to assess vaccination impact. In surveillance studies, stool samples are stored typically at 4°C or frozen to maintain sample quality. Uninterrupted cold storage is a problem in developing countries because of power interruptions. Cold-chain transportation of samples from collection sites to testing laboratories is costly. In this study, we evaluated the use of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards for storage and transportation of samples for virus isolation, EIA, and RT-PCR testing. Infectious rotavirus was recovered after 30 days of storage on Sensi-Discs™ at room temperature. We were able to genotype 98–99% of samples stored on Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards at temperatures ranging from −80°C to 37°C up to 180 days. A field sampling test using samples prepared and shipped from Cameroon, showed that both matrices yielded 100% genotyping success compared with whole stool and Sensi-Discs™ demonstrated 95% concordance with whole stool in EIA testing. The utilization of BBL™ Sensi-Discs™ and FTA® cards for stool sample storage and shipment has the potential to have great impact on global public health by facilitating surveillance and epidemiological investigations of rotavirus strains worldwide at a reduced cost. PMID:26022083

  19. High frequency of multiple HPV types in cervical specimens from Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlhede, Nina; Bonde, Jesper; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    distribution among cervical specimens from more than 1000 Danish women. We also examined the HPV type distribution and the frequency of single and multiple HPV types for specimens from 113 women who underwent conization and were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or worse (CIN2+). Using...... microarray technology, we found that 49% of the HPV-positive patients were infected with multiple HPV types. Among the CIN2+ diagnosed women, this frequency was 41%. The most frequently found high-risk HPV type was HPV-16, which was found in 25% of the HPV-positive cervical specimens. Among the HPV positive...... CIN2+ diagnosed women, 48% were HPV-16 positive. Women younger than 30 years of age had a higher frequency of multiple infections (61%) than women older than 30 years (39%). We conclude that cervical infection with multiple HPV types is common among women in all age groups and among women...

  20. Detection of adenovirus in nasopharyngeal specimens by radioactive and nonradioactive DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyypiae, T.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of adenovirus DNA in clinical specimens was analyzed by nucleic acid hybridization assays by both radioactive and enzymatic detection systems. The sensitivity of the hybridization tests was in the range of 10 to 100 pg of homologous adenovirus DNA. Minimal background was noticed with unrelated viral and nonviral DNA. Twenty-four nasopharyngeal mucus aspirate specimens, collected from children with acute respiratory infection, were assayed in the hybridization tests and also by an enzyme immunoassay for adenovirus hexon antigen which was used as a reference test. Sixteen specimens positive by the enzyme immunoassay also were positive in the two nucleic acid hybridization tests, and the remaining eight specimens were negative in all of the tests. The results indicate that nucleid acid hybridization tests with both radioactive and nonradioactive probes can be used for diagnosis of microbial infections

  1. [Automated RNA amplification for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillon, V; Houriez, F; Buze, M; Lagrange, P; Herrmann, J-L

    2006-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) directly on clinical respiratory specimens is essential for a correct management of patients suspected of tuberculosis. For this purpose PCR-based kits are available to detect MTB in respiratory specimen but most of them need at least 4 hours to be completed. New methods, based on TRC method (TRC: Transcription Reverse transcription Concerted--TRCRapid M. Tuberculosis--Tosoh Bioscience, Tokyo, Japon) and dedicated monitor have been developed. A new kit (TRC Rapid M. tuberculosis and Real-time monitor TRCRapid-160, Tosoh Corporation, Japan) enabling one step amplification and real-time detection of MTB 16S rRNA by a combination of intercalative dye oxazole yellow-linked DNA probe and isothermal RNA amplification directly on respiratory specimens has been tested in our laboratory. 319 respiratory specimens were tested in this preliminary study and results were compared to smear and culture. Fourteen had a positive culture for MTB. Among theses samples, smear was positive in 11 cases (78.6%) and TRC process was positive in 8 cases (57.1%). Overall sensitivity of TRC compared to smear positive samples is 73%. Theses first results demonstrated that a rapid identification of MTB was possible (less than 2 processing hours for 14 specimens and about 1 hour for 1 specimen) in most cases of smear positive samples using ready to use reagents for real time detection of MTB rRNA in clinical samples. New pretreatment and extraction reagents kits to increase the stability of the sputum RNA and the extraction efficiency are now tested in our laboratory.

  2. Variation in the limit-of-detection of the ProSpecT Campylobacter microplate enzyme immunoassay in stools spiked with emerging Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanić, Krunoslav; Midwinter, Anne Camilla; Marshall, Jonathan Craig; Rogers, Lynn Elizabeth; Biggs, Patrick Jon; Acke, Els

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter enteritis in humans is primarily associated with C. jejuni/coli infection. The impact of other Campylobacter spp. is likely to be underestimated due to the bias of culture methods towards Campylobacter jejuni/coli diagnosis. Stool antigen tests are becoming increasingly popular and appear generally less species-specific. A review of independent studies of the ProSpecT® Campylobacter Microplate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) developed for C. jejuni/coli showed comparable diagnostic results to culture methods but the examination of non-jejuni/coli Campylobacter spp. was limited and the limit-of-detection (LOD), where reported, varied between studies. This study investigated LOD of EIA for Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter hyointestinalis and Campylobacter helveticus spiked in human stools. Multiple stools and Campylobacter isolates were used in three different concentrations (10(4)-10(9)CFU/ml) to reflect sample heterogeneity. All Campylobacter species evaluated were detectable by EIA. Multivariate analysis showed LOD varied between Campylobacter spp. and faecal consistency as fixed effects and individual faecal samples as random effects. EIA showed excellent performance in replicate testing for both within and between batches of reagents, in agreement between visual and spectrophotometric reading of results, and returned no discordance between the bacterial concentrations within independent dilution test runs (positive results with lower but not higher concentrations). This study shows how limitations in experimental procedures lead to an overestimation of consistency and uniformity of LOD for EIA that may not hold under routine use in diagnostic laboratories. Benefits and limitations for clinical practice and the influence on estimates of performance characteristics from detection of multiple Campylobacter spp. by EIA are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Outbreak of diarrhoea among participants of a triathlon and a duathlon on 12 July 2015 in Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkkali, S; Joosten, R; Fanoy, E; Pijnacker, R; VAN Beek, J; Brandwagt, D; VAN Pelt, W

    2017-07-01

    On 12 July 2015, a triathlon competition with 900 participants took place in Utrecht, the Netherlands. An outbreak investigation was initiated after 56 participants reported health complaints. An online questionnaire was sent to 700 participants. Stool specimens from six participants and four water specimens were collected from the swimming location. A total of 239 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate: 34%), 73 (31%) of them met the case definition for acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). A total of 67% of the respondents were male and the median age was 38 years. Almost half (42%) of swimmers reported health complaints. Consumption of energy drinks and ingesting ⩾3 mouthfuls of canal water were identified as risk factors for AGI among swimmers only (adjusted relative risks (aRR) 1·6; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1·0-2·5 and aRR 2·6; 95% CI 1·5-4·8). The collected water specimens tested positive for norovirus genogroup I and rotavirus and stool specimens tested positive for norovirus genogroup II. Our findings indicate that the outbreak could have been caused by exposure to norovirus during swimming. Swimmers should get information about the health risks for making an informed choice about participating. For future events, the organisers decided to change the swimming location from a canal to a recreational lake.

  4. Impact of specimen adequacy on the assessment of renal allograft biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, S; Geldenhuys, L; Guler, S; Imamoglu, A; Molinari, M

    2016-01-01

    The Banff classification was introduced to achieve uniformity in the assessment of renal allograft biopsies. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of specimen adequacy on the Banff classification. All renal allograft biopsies obtained between July 2010 and June 2012 for suspicion of acute rejection were included. Pre-biopsy clinical data on suspected diagnosis and time from renal transplantation were provided to a nephropathologist who was blinded to the original pathological report. Second pathological readings were compared with the original to assess agreement stratified by specimen adequacy. Cohen's kappa test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. Forty-nine specimens were reviewed. Among these specimens, 81.6% were classified as adequate, 6.12% as minimal, and 12.24% as unsatisfactory. The agreement analysis among the first and second readings revealed a kappa value of 0.97. Full agreement between readings was found in 75% of the adequate specimens, 66.7 and 50% for minimal and unsatisfactory specimens, respectively. There was no agreement between readings in 5% of the adequate specimens and 16.7% of the unsatisfactory specimens. For the entire sample full agreement was found in 71.4%, partial agreement in 20.4% and no agreement in 8.2% of the specimens. Statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test yielded a P value above 0.25 showing that - probably due to small sample size - the results were not statistically significant. Specimen adequacy may be a determinant of a diagnostic agreement in renal allograft specimen assessment. While additional studies including larger case numbers are required to further delineate the impact of specimen adequacy on the reliability of histopathological assessments, specimen quality must be considered during clinical decision making while dealing with biopsy reports based on minimal or unsatisfactory specimens.

  5. Blood specimen labelling errors: Implications for nephrology nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duteau, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is the foundation of high-quality health care, as recognized both nationally and worldwide. Patient blood specimen identification is critical in ensuring the delivery of safe and appropriate care. The practice of nephrology nursing involves frequent patient blood specimen withdrawals to treat and monitor kidney disease. A critical review of the literature reveals that incorrect patient identification is one of the major causes of blood specimen labelling errors. Misidentified samples create a serious risk to patient safety leading to multiple specimen withdrawals, delay in diagnosis, misdiagnosis, incorrect treatment, transfusion reactions, increased length of stay and other negative patient outcomes. Barcode technology has been identified as a preferred method for positive patient identification leading to a definitive decrease in blood specimen labelling errors by as much as 83% (Askeland, et al., 2008). The use of a root cause analysis followed by an action plan is one approach to decreasing the occurrence of blood specimen labelling errors. This article will present a review of the evidence-based literature surrounding blood specimen labelling errors, followed by author recommendations for completing a root cause analysis and action plan. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) will be presented as one method to determine root cause, followed by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) as a framework for implementation of strategies to reduce blood specimen labelling errors.

  6. [A norovirus-borne outbreak caused by contaminated bottled spring water in a school, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-chuan; Lin, Jun-fen; Gao, Jie; Yao, Wen-ting; Wen, Dong; Liu, Guang-tao; Han, Jian-kang; Ma, Hui-lai; Zhang, Li-jie; Zhu, Bao-ping

    2011-08-01

    To study a local hospital reported acute gastroenteritis in a boarding school on its source of infection, mode of transmission and risk factors of the infection. A suspected case was defined as who had developed diarrhea (≥ 3 times/day) or vomiting among teachers or students of the school, during April 19 - 30, 2010. A confirmed case was from a probable case plus tested positive for norovirus in stool specimens by using RT-PCR. Stool specimens of cases and environmental specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis. In a case-control study, we compared exposures to sources of bottled water, consumption of bottled water, and hygienic habits of 220 probable or confirmed cases from April 21 - 23 in the peak of the outbreak, together with another 220 controls, with frequency-matched by school grade. 20.3% of the 1536 students but none of the teachers developed the disease. 98.6% of the cases (n = 217) and 85.5% (n = 188) of the controls had drunk bottled water in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 12.3, 95%CI: 3.7 - 40.9). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 41.5% (n = 78) of the controls had drunk unboiled bottled water in classroom (OR(M-H) = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.6). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 48.4% (n = 91) of the controls had drunk bottled mixed water (boiled and unboiled) in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.1 - 7.0). Stool specimens from 3 cases and one bottle of uncovered bottled water in classroom showed positive of having norovirus genotype II. Coliforms was cultured much higher rates than standard deviations in the bottled water. The factory making the bottled water was not licensed or having strict disinfection facilities. Bottled spring water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this outbreak.

  7. Multiplex PCR detection of Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica directly from dried stool samples from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Antikainen, Jenni

    2017-01-01

    and specificity, while new molecular methods may provide more accurate diagnostics. In poor regions with sample storage hampered by uncertain electricity supply, research would benefit from a method capable of analysing dried stools. Methods: A real-time multiplex PCR method with internal inhibition control...... microscopy revealed a parasite in 15%, while PCR detected 62% positive for at least one parasite: 44% of the dried samples had Giardia, 23% Cryptosporidium and 0% E. histolytica. Conclusions: Our new multiplex real-time PCR for protozoa presents a sensitive method applicable to dried samples. As proof...

  8. Development of resistance welding process. 4. Preparation of pressuring enclosed creep test specimen of 7A material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hideo; Seki, Masayuki; Ishibashi, Fujio; Hirako, Kazuhito; Tsukada, Tatsuya

    2001-02-01

    Mechanical strength in the position welded by resistance welding system was examined in 1999. The test specimens were destroyed in the welding position in a shorter time than expected in the creep test. Therefore, test specimens were prepared to evaluate the cause of destruction. Inner-pressure enclosed creep test specimens were prepared by resistance welding method. Cladding material with low deviation of thickness and high re-crystallization rate was used. Heat treatment after resistance welding was performed to remove the influence of residual stress and the precipitation of carbides. (1) Before preparation of specimens, the welding condition was fixed. Three test specimens were prepared. Two specimens without heat treatment were transported to MMS in Oarai Engineering Center on Aug. 4, 2000. One specimen with heat treatment was transported to MMS after evaluating the residual stress to get optimum heat treatment condition. (2) Specimens were prepared with welding end plugs to both ends of ferritic ODS cladding. Enclosing sides were welded with highly strong Ferritic/Martensitic steel end plugs. The other sides were welded with ferritic ODS end plugs. (3) Some kinds of electrical wave data were obtained during performing welding. Welding position was evaluated with supersonic detector after performing welding. (4) Mechanical strength of welding position in high temperature 800degC was confirmed to be equal to or larger than that of cladding material. The highly qualified specimens in the present were successfully prepared. (author)

  9. Routine Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain Is Specific for the Diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Gastrointestinal Biopsy Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; DeRoche, Tom C; Salih, Ziyan T; Qasem, Shadi A

    2018-03-01

    Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a serious complication in immunocompromised patients; clinicians often expect expedited results for biopsy specimens. Our goal is to determine the accuracy of identification of CMV on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. A total of 361 biopsy specimens from 273 patients with suspicion for CMV infection were retrieved. CMV was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 37 specimens acquired from 33 individual patients (average age = 54 years). Among the CMV-positive patients, 29 (88%) were reported to be immunosuppressed. Colon was the most common affected location. Of 37 CMV-positive specimens by IHC, 28 were positive by H&E (76%), 6 were negative (16%), and 3 were suspicious (8%). Of the 29 positive specimens on H&E, 28 were confirmed by IHC (97%) and 1 was indeterminate (3%). The sensitivity and specificity of H&E were 84% and 94%, respectively; the positive predictive value was 97%, and the negative predictive value was 93% ( P < .00001). Our results show that a preliminary diagnosis of CMV infection, based on H&E stains, can be reported with high specificity and low risk for false-positive results. Suspicious cases should be deferred pending the result of IHC stains.

  10. Enhanced radiometric detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by using filter-concentrated bovine fecal specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.T.; Kenefick, K.B.; Sockett, D.C.; Lambrecht, R.S.; McDonald, J.; Jorgensen, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial radiometric medium, BACTEC 12B, was modified by addition of mycobactin, egg yolk suspension, and antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid). Decontaminated bovine fecal specimens were filter concentrated by using 3-microns-pore-size, 13-mm-diameter polycarbonate filters, and the entire filter was placed into the radiometric broth. Comparison of the radiometric technique with conventional methods on 603 cattle from 9 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected herds found that of 75 positive specimens, the radiometric technique detected 92% while conventional methods detected 60% (P less than 0.0005). Only 3.9% of radiometric cultures were contaminated. To measure the effect of filter concentration of specimens on the detection rate, 5 cattle with minimal and 5 with moderate ileum histopathology were sampled weekly for 3 weeks. M. paratuberculosis was detected in 33.3% of nonfiltered specimens and 76.7% of filtered specimens (P less than 0.005). Detection rates were directly correlated with the severity of disease, and the advantage of specimen concentration was greatest on fecal specimens from cattle with low-grade infections. Detection times were also correlated with infection severity: 13.4 +/- 5.9 days with smear-positive specimens, 27.9 +/- 8.7 days with feces from cows with typical subclinical infections, and 38.7 +/- 3.8 days with fecal specimens from cows with low-grade infections. Use of a cocktail of vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid for selective suppression of nonmycobacterial contaminants was better than the commercial product PANTA (Becton Dickinson Microbiologic Systems, Towson, Md.) only when specimens contained very low numbers of M. paratuberculosis

  11. Design of a radiation facility for very small specimens used in radiobiology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Jeraj, Robert

    2008-06-01

    A design of a radiation facility for very small specimens used in radiobiology is presented. This micro-irradiator has been primarily designed to irradiate partial bodies in zebrafish embryos 3-4 mm in length. A miniature x-ray, 50 kV photon beam, is used as a radiation source. The source is inserted in a cylindrical brass collimator that has a pinhole of 1.0 mm in diameter along the central axis to produce a pencil photon beam. The collimator with the source is attached underneath a computer-controlled movable table which holds the specimens. Using a 45° tilted mirror, a digital camera, connected to the computer, takes pictures of the specimen and the pinhole collimator. From the image provided by the camera, the relative distance from the specimen to the pinhole axis is calculated and coordinates are sent to the movable table to properly position the samples in the beam path. Due to its monitoring system, characteristic of the radiation beam, accuracy and precision of specimen positioning, and automatic image-based specimen recognition, this radiation facility is a suitable tool to irradiate partial bodies in zebrafish embryos, cell cultures or any other small specimen used in radiobiology research.

  12. HER2 testing on core needle biopsy specimens from primary breast cancers: interobserver reproducibility and concordance with surgically resected specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Hitoshi; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Umemura, Shinobu; Yamamoto, Sohei; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Osamura, Robert Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2) status based on core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens is mandatory for identification of patients with primary breast cancer who will benefit from primary systemic therapy with trastuzumab. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of HER2 testing with CNB specimens from primary breast cancers in terms of interobserver reproducibility and comparison with surgically resected specimens. A total of 100 pairs of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CNB and surgically resected specimens of invasive breast carcinomas were cut into sections. All 100 paired sections were subjected to HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and 27 paired sections were subjected to that by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the results being evaluated by three and two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement levels in terms of judgment and the concordance of consensus scores between CNB samples and the corresponding surgically resected specimens were estimated as the percentage agreement and κ statistic. In CNB specimens, the percentage interobserver agreement of HER2 scoring by IHC was 76% (κ = 0.71) for 3 × 3 categories (0-1+ versus 2+ versus 3+) and 90% (κ = 0.80) for 2 × 2 categories (0-2+ versus 3+). These levels were close to the corresponding ones for the surgically resected specimens: 80% (κ = 0.77) for 3 × 3 categories and 92% (κ = 0.88) for 2 × 2 categories. Concordance of consensus for HER2 scores determined by IHC between CNB and the corresponding surgical specimens was 87% (κ = 0.77) for 3 × 3 categories, and 94% (κ = 0.83) for 2 × 2 categories. Among the 13 tumors showing discordance in the mean IHC scores between the CNB and surgical specimens, the results of consensus for FISH results were concordant in 11. The rate of successful FISH analysis and the FISH positivity rate in cases with a HER2 IHC score of 2+ differed among specimens processed at

  13. HER2 testing on core needle biopsy specimens from primary breast cancers: interobserver reproducibility and concordance with surgically resected specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Sohei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2 status based on core needle biopsy (CNB specimens is mandatory for identification of patients with primary breast cancer who will benefit from primary systemic therapy with trastuzumab. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of HER2 testing with CNB specimens from primary breast cancers in terms of interobserver reproducibility and comparison with surgically resected specimens. Methods A total of 100 pairs of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CNB and surgically resected specimens of invasive breast carcinomas were cut into sections. All 100 paired sections were subjected to HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC and 27 paired sections were subjected to that by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, the results being evaluated by three and two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement levels in terms of judgment and the concordance of consensus scores between CNB samples and the corresponding surgically resected specimens were estimated as the percentage agreement and κ statistic. Results In CNB specimens, the percentage interobserver agreement of HER2 scoring by IHC was 76% (κ = 0.71 for 3 × 3 categories (0-1+ versus 2+ versus 3+ and 90% (κ = 0.80 for 2 × 2 categories (0-2+ versus 3+. These levels were close to the corresponding ones for the surgically resected specimens: 80% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories and 92% (κ = 0.88 for 2 × 2 categories. Concordance of consensus for HER2 scores determined by IHC between CNB and the corresponding surgical specimens was 87% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories, and 94% (κ = 0.83 for 2 × 2 categories. Among the 13 tumors showing discordance in the mean IHC scores between the CNB and surgical specimens, the results of consensus for FISH results were concordant in 11. The rate of successful FISH analysis and the FISH positivity rate in cases with a HER2 IHC score of

  14. Characterization of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli isolates in Jordanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehabi, Asem A; Bulos, Najawa-Kuri; Hajjaj, Kamal G

    2003-01-01

    In a prospective study carried out among Jordanian children in Amman, a total of 73/250 (29.2%) stool specimens were positive for 1 or more diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli strains using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. This study indicated that diarrhoeagenic E. coli isolates were found frequently more in stools of children with diarrhoea (34%) than without diarrhoea (23.1%), but without any significant difference (p > 0.05). The predominant diarrhoeagenic E. coli strains associated with diarrhoea were enteropathogenic E. coli (11.3%), followed by enterotoxigenic E. coli (9.8%) and enteroaggrative E. coli (9%), whereas in the control group these were 4.3%, 11.1% and 6%, respectively. Enteroinvasive E. coli strains (2.9%) were found only in stools of children with diarrhoea. This study revealed the absence of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli in both diarrhoeal and control stools, and found that diarrhoeagenic E. coli isolates were highly resistance to tetracycline (55%), co-trimoxazole (60%) and ampicillin (89%), which are commonly used antibiotics in Jordan.

  15. Synchrotron radiation microprobe quantitative analysis method for biomedical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qing; Shao Hanru

    1994-01-01

    Relative changes of trace elemental content in biomedical specimens are obtained easily by means of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis (SXRFM). However, the accurate assignment of concentration on a g/g basis is difficult. Because it is necessary to know both the trace elemental content and the specimen mass in the irradiated volume simultaneously. the specimen mass is a function of the spatial position and can not be weighed. It is possible to measure the specimen mass indirectly by measuring the intensity of Compton scattered peak for normal XRF analysis using a X-ray tube with Mo anode, if the matrix was consisted of light elements and the specimen was a thin sample. The Compton peak is not presented in fluorescence spectrum for white light SXRFM analysis. The continuous background in the spectrum was resulted from the Compton scattering with a linear polarization X-ray source. Biomedical specimens for SXRFM analysis, for example biological section and human hair, are always a thin sample for high energy X-ray, and they consist of H,C,N and O etc. light elements, which implies a linear relationship between the specimen mass and the Compton scattering background in the high energy region of spectrum. By this way , it is possible to carry out measurement of concentration for SXRFM analysis

  16. Reducing Overutilization of Testing for Clostridium difficile Infection in a Pediatric Hospital System: A Quality Improvement Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, J Michael; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Jackson, Mary Anne; Myers, Angela L

    2016-01-01

    Study objectives included addressing overuse of Clostridium difficile laboratory testing by decreasing submission rates of nondiarrheal stool specimens and specimens from children ≤12 months of age and determining resultant patient and laboratory cost savings associated with decreased testing. A multifaceted initiative was developed, and components included multiple provider education methods, computerized order entry modifications, and automatic declination from laboratory on testing stool specimens of nondiarrheal consistency and from children ≤12 months old. A run chart, demonstrating numbers of nondiarrheal plus infant stool specimens submitted over time, was developed to analyze the initiative's impact on clinicians' test-ordering practices. A p-chart was generated to evaluate the percentage of these submitted specimens tested biweekly over a 12-month period. Cost savings for patients and the laboratory were assessed at the study period's conclusion. Run chart analysis revealed an initial shift after the interventions, suggesting a temporary decrease in testing submission; however, no sustained differences in numbers of specimens submitted biweekly were observed over time. On the p-chart, the mean percentage of specimens tested before the intervention was 100%. After the intervention, the average percentage of specimens tested dropped to 53.8%. Resultant laboratory cost savings totaled nearly $3600, and patient savings on testing charges were ∼$32 000. Automatic laboratory declination of nondiarrheal stools submitted for CDI testing resulted in a sustained decrease in the number of specimens tested, resulting in significant laboratory and patient cost savings. Despite multiple educational efforts, no sustained changes in physician ordering practices were observed. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Analysis of 13C-mixed triacylglycerol in stool by bulk (EA-IRMS) and compound specific (GC/MS) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C; Ling, S C; Preston, T; Weaver, L T

    2002-06-01

    This paper was presented in poster form at the 17th International Congress of Nutrition, August 27-31, Vienna, Austria (Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 2001; 45(Suppl.1):349). Some of the data were also presented in poster form at the British Society of Gastroenterology Meeting, March 18-21, Glasgow, UK (Gut 2001; 48(Suppl.1):A91). The 13C-mixed triacylglycerol (MTG) breath test is used to measure intraluminal fat digestion. In normal digestion, 20-40% of the ingested 13C label is recovered in breath CO2. We aimed to identify the proportions of ingested label excreted in stool, as well as breath following ingestion of 13C-MTG by children with impaired exocrine pancreatic function and healthy controls. 13C enrichment of breath samples was measured by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and cumulative percent dose recovered (cPDR) in 10 h was calculated. Total 13C of a faecal fat extract from each stool was measured by elemental analyser-IRMS, and 13C enrichment and concentration of the TBDMS derivative of octanoic acid was measured by GC/MS after hydrolysis of the fat extract. Stool 5-day cPDR was calculated. Mean breath cPDR was 35%. Mean cPDR in stool by combustion-IRMS and GC/ MS, respectively, was 0.8% and 1.0%. Therefore, the remaining 64% of the 13C label must remain in the body and variability in breath cPDR is due to postabsorptive rather than predigestive factors.

  18. Determination of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens by detecting of the cpa and cpe genes in stool samples of human origin, associated to gastrointestinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropeza Barrios, Gletty

    2014-01-01

    A molecular methodology is provided to the Centro Nacional de Referencia de Bacteriologia (CNRB) of the Instituto Costarricense de Investigacion y Ensenanza en Nutricion y Salud. An opportune diagnosis is realized of enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in stool samples of sporadic cases and cases associated to foodborne disease outbreaks. DNA extraction of the white microorganism was performed through the methodology implemented in the CNRB. The technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were adapted and standardized to establish the identification of C. perfringens to species level and detection of cpe gene coding for enterotoxin. The sensitivity of the method was determined in a selective culture medium for C. perfringens (Tryptose sulfite cycloserine Agar). A detection limit of about 2,3 x 10 4 CFU/ml was reached for the cpe gene and at least 2,8 x 10 2 CFU/ml for the cpa gene. Retrospective analysis of 61 samples of diarrheal stool suspicious by C. perfringens is performed to evaluate the efficacy of the technique. Three outbreaks caused by C. perfringens were identified and a 10% of positivity in the samples were obtained analyzed during the period between July 2012-March 2014 [es

  19. Impact of 6-month frozen storage of cervical specimens in alkaline buffer conditions on human papillomavirus genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMere, Brandon J; Howell, Renee; Fetterman, Barbara; Shieh, Jen; Castle, Philip E

    2008-08-01

    The impact of 6-month storage of cervical specimens under alkaline conditions that occurs as the result of Hybrid Capture 2 testing on human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping is not well documented. To examine this issue, 143 frozen hc2-positive specimens in specimen transport medium were selected at random from each of the following groups: specimens stored for 6 months, 4 months, and 2.5 months under alkaline pH (pH 12-13) and specimens stored 1 month at neutral pH (pH 6-7) as controls. Specimens were tested in a masked fashion for 20 HPV genotypes (HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73, and 82) using a prototype, research-use-only GP5+/6+ L1 consensus PCR method and multiplex hybridization using Luminex xMAP for detection of specific HPV genotypes One control specimen had missing test results. There were no statistical differences in the number of HPV genotypes detected, number of carcinogenic HPV genotypes detected, or in the signal strength among HPV-positive results across groups. Six-month frozen storage of cervical specimens at alkaline pH had little impact on testing for HPV genotypes among hc2-positive women using this HPV genotyping method.

  20. Clinical evaluation of a mobile digital specimen radiography system for intraoperative specimen verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbing; Ebuoma, Lilian; Saksena, Mansi; Liu, Bob; Specht, Michelle; Rafferty, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Use of mobile digital specimen radiography systems expedites intraoperative verification of excised breast specimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a such a system for verifying targets. A retrospective review included 100 consecutive pairs of breast specimen radiographs. Specimens were imaged in the operating room with a mobile digital specimen radiography system and then with a conventional digital mammography system in the radiology department. Two expert reviewers independently scored each image for image quality on a 3-point scale and confidence in target visualization on a 5-point scale. A target was considered confidently verified only if both reviewers declared the target to be confidently detected. The 100 specimens contained a total of 174 targets, including 85 clips (49%), 53 calcifications (30%), 35 masses (20%), and one architectural distortion (1%). Although a significantly higher percentage of mobile digital specimen radiographs were considered poor quality by at least one reviewer (25%) compared with conventional digital mammograms (1%), 169 targets (97%), were confidently verified with mobile specimen radiography; 172 targets (98%) were verified with conventional digital mammography. Three faint masses were not confidently verified with mobile specimen radiography, and conventional digital mammography was needed for confirmation. One faint mass and one architectural distortion were not confidently verified with either method. Mobile digital specimen radiography allows high diagnostic confidence for verification of target excision in breast specimens across target types, despite lower image quality. Substituting this modality for conventional digital mammography can eliminate delays associated with specimen transport, potentially decreasing surgical duration and increasing operating room throughput.

  1. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp infection by PCR and modified acid fast staining from potassium dichromate preserved stool

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Kurniawan; Sri W. Dwintasari; Herbowo A. Soetomenggolo; Septelia I. Wanandi

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify the frequency of Cryptosporidium infection in children below 3 years old by examining concentrated long term preserved stool using PCR detection of 18S rRNA gene and compared with modified acid fast staining technique.Methods Hundred eighty eight stools from children ≤ 3 years old were stored for 13 months in 2.5% K2Cr2O7 solution at 40C. Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated by water-ether concentration technique. The concentrates were smeared onto object glass and stained wi...

  2. Mathematical inference on helminth egg counts in stool and its applications in mass drug administration programmes to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, Bruno; Anderson, Roy M; Berkvens, Dirk; Charlier, Johannes; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Speybroeck, Niko; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Aelst, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we present a hierarchical model based on faecal egg counts (FECs; expressed in eggs per 1g of stool) in which we first describe the variation in FECs between individuals in a particular population, followed by describing the variance due to counting eggs under a microscope separately for each stool sample. From this general framework, we discuss how to calculate a sample size for assessing a population mean FEC and the impact of an intervention, measured as reduction in FECs, for any scenario of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) epidemiology (the intensity and aggregation of FECs within a population) and diagnostic strategy (amount of stool examined (∼sensitivity of the diagnostic technique) and examination of individual/pooled stool samples) and on how to estimate prevalence of STH in the absence of a gold standard. To give these applications the most wide relevance as possible, we illustrate each of them with hypothetical examples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementation of a Clinical Decision Support Tool for Stool Cultures and Parasitological Studies in Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, D; Richter, S S; Asamoto, K; Wyllie, R; Tuttle, R; Procop, G W

    2017-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that stool culture and parasitological examinations are of minimal to no value after 3 days of hospitalization. We implemented and studied the impact of a clinical decision support tool (CDST) to decrease the number of unnecessary stool cultures (STCUL), ova/parasite (O&P) examinations, and Giardia / Cryptosporidium enzyme immunoassay screens (GC-EIA) performed for patients hospitalized >3 days. We studied the frequency of stool studies ordered before or on day 3 and after day 3 of hospitalization (i.e., categorical orders/total number of orders) before and after this intervention and denoted the numbers and types of microorganisms detected within those time frames. This intervention, which corresponded to a custom-programmed hard-stop alert tool in the Epic hospital information system, allowed providers to override the intervention by calling the laboratory, if testing was deemed medically necessary. Comparative statistics were employed to determine significance, and cost savings were estimated based on our internal costs. Before the intervention, 129/670 (19.25%) O&P examinations, 47/204 (23.04%) GC-EIA, and 249/1,229 (20.26%) STCUL were ordered after 3 days of hospitalization. After the intervention, 46/521 (8.83%) O&P examinations, 27/157 (17.20%) GC-EIA, and 106/1,028 (10.31%) STCUL were ordered after 3 days of hospitalization. The proportions of reductions in the number of tests performed after 3 days and the associated P values were 54.1% for O&P examinations ( P < 0.0001), 22.58% for GC-EIA ( P = 0.2807), and 49.1% for STCUL ( P < 0.0001). This was estimated to have resulted in $8,108.84 of cost savings. The electronic CDST resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of evaluations of stool cultures and the number of parasitological examinations for patients hospitalized for more than 3 days and in a cost savings while retaining the ability of the clinician to obtain these tests if clinically indicated. Copyright © 2017

  4. Detection of colorectal serrated polyps by stool DNA testing: comparison with fecal immunochemical testing for occult blood (FIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell I Heigh

    Full Text Available Precursors to 1/3 of colorectal cancer (CRC, serrated polyps have been under-detected by screening due to their inconspicuous, non-hemorrhagic, and proximal nature. A new multi-target stool DNA test (multi-target sDNA shows high sensitivity for both CRC and advanced adenomas. Screen detection of serrated polyps by this approach requires further validation. We sought to assess and compare noninvasive detection of sessile serrated polyps (SSP ≥ 1 cm by sDNA and an occult blood fecal immunochemical test (FIT.In a blinded prospective study, a single stool sample used for both tests was collected from 456 asymptomatic adults prior to screening or surveillance colonoscopy (criterion standard. All 29 patients with SSP ≥ 1 cm were included as cases and all 232 with no neoplastic findings as controls. Buffered stool samples were processed and frozen on receipt; Exact Sciences performed sDNA in batches using optimized analytical methods. The sDNA multi-marker panel targets methylated BMP3 (mBMP3 and NDRG4, mutant KRAS, β-actin, and hemoglobin. FIT (Polymedco OC-FIT Check was performed in separate lab ≤ 2 days post defecation and evaluated at cutoffs of 50 (FIT-50 and 100 ng/ml (FIT-100.MEDIAN AGES: cases 61 (range 57-77, controls 62 (52-70, p = NS. Women comprised 59% and 51%, p = NS, respectively. SSP median size was 1.2 cm (1-3 cm, 93% were proximal, and 64% had synchronous diminutive polyps. Among multi-target sDNA markers, mBMP3 proved highly discriminant for detection of SSP ≥ 1 cm (AUC = 0.87, p<0.00001; other DNA markers provided no incremental sensitivity. Hemoglobin alone showed no discrimination (AUC = 0.50, p = NS. At matched specificities, detection of SSP ≥ 1 cm by stool mBMP3 was significantly greater than by FIT-50 (66% vs 10%, p = 0.0003 or FIT-100 (63% vs 0%, p<0.0001.In a screening and surveillance setting, SSP ≥ 1 cm can be detected noninvasively by stool assay of exfoliated DNA markers, especially mBMP3. FIT appears to

  5. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile toxinotypes in infected patients at a tertiary care center in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhaiber, Romy; Araj, George F; Kissoyan, Kohar Annie B; Cheaito, Katia A; Matar, Ghassan M

    2015-07-30

    Due to the increase in the incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diseases at a tertiary care center in Lebanon, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalent C. difficile toxinotypes. The immunocard method was used to test for toxins A and B in 88 collected stool samples, followed with API 20A to confirm for C. difficile. PCR amplification of the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene, the toxin encoding genes tcdA, and tcdB, followed by toxinotyping, were performed on recovered isolates and stool specimens. Out of the 88 stool samples obtained, 30 (65.2%) were Immunocard positive, culture and or tpi positive for C. difficile. Of the 30 isolates, 4 were PCR negative for the tcdA and tcdB genes (A-B-), and 26 were PCR positive for the tcdA and / or tcdB genes with 4 being A+B+, 1 A+B-, and 21 A-B+. The results of toxinotyping showed that 2 isolates belonged to toxinotype 0, 4 to toxinotype XI, 2 to toxinotype XII, 1 to toxinotype XVI, 1(A+B-) and twenty (A-B+) designated as toxinotype 0-like. C. difficile was detected in 65.2% of patients' stools with prevalence of toxinotype 0-like. Identification of toxinotypes of C. difficile is important to determine the virulence potential of strains and control their spread.

  6. Comparative performance of PCR-based assay versus microscopy and culture for the direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical respiratory specimens in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araj, G F; Talhouk, R S; Itani, L Y; Jaber, W; Jamaleddine, G W

    2000-09-01

    American University of Beirut Medical Center, Lebanon. To assess the performance of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers that flank 542 bp within IS6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) vs. microscopy and BACTEC culture, in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. A total of 82 clinical respiratory pulmonary specimens and 73 samples from BACTEC vials were tested by the three methods. Of 24 smear-positive culture-positive (SP-CP) and 11 smear-negative culture-positive (SN-CP) TB specimens, PCR detected 83% and 64%, respectively. Among 17 specimens yielding mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), the PCR was positive in 33% SP-CP and 14% SN-CP specimens. Among the 73 BACTEC vials, PCR was positive in 36 of 38 (95%) yielding culture-positive TB, and in one of 20 (5%) yielding culture positive MOTT. None of the 30 smear-negative culture-negative (SN-CN) clinical specimens and 15 of the CN vials were positive by PCR. The overall sensitivity of PCR was 77% and 95% for TB detection in respiratory specimens and BACTEC vials, respectively, and the specificity was 94% in both. Because a substantial number of TB cases are missed, especially in SN-CP specimens, a PCR-based assay utilizing these primers cannot be used reliably, alone, in clinical laboratory diagnosis of mycobacterial respiratory infections.

  7. High-Throughput Testing of Urogenital and Extragenital Specimens for Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae with Cobas® CT/NG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Elizabeth M; Hardy, David; Krevolin, Mark; Gohl, Peter; Bertram, Alexander; Arcenas, Rodney; Seiverth, Britta; Schneider, Tanja; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    We compared the analytical and clinical performance of cobas ® CT/NG for use on the Cobas ® 6800/8800 Systems with the Cobas ® 4800 CT/NG Test from urogenital and extragenital specimens in over 12,000 specimens from both male and female subjects in Germany and the United States. The analytical sensitivity was ≤40 EB/ml for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and ≤1 CFU/ml for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). Using clinical specimens, the overall percent agreement with the Cobas ® 4800 CT/NG Test was >98.5%. Across urogenital specimens, there were 93 discrepant specimens; 76 (93.8%) of 81 CT discrepant specimens were 6800+/4800- and 10 (83.3%) of 12 NG discrepant specimens were 6800+/4800-. Sequencing verified CT results for 45 (61.6%) of 73 samples positive by 6800 and 1 (20%) of 5 positive by 4800. Similarly, 7 (70.0%) of 10 NG samples positive by 6800 and 1 of 2 positive by 4800 were confirmed by sequencing. Among discrepant extragenital specimens (all 6800+/4800-), 7 (50%) of 14 oropharyngeal and 23 (76.7%) of 30 anorectal CT discordant samples were confirmed as CT positive by sequencing; all 8 anorectal and 20 (90.9%) of 22 oropharyngeal NG discordant results were also confirmed as NG positive. In conclusion, Cobas ® CT/NG for use on the Cobas ® 6800/8800 Systems provides high-throughput automated solutions for sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening programs.

  8. Molecular detection of candida species from hospitalized patient’s specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardoso, José Luis; Martínez-Rivera, María Ángeles; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; López-Martínez, Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    To identify the most frequent Candida species in specimens from patients hospitalized in different medical centers of Mexico City, with suspected fungal infection. Specimens were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 28°C for 72 h. In addition, DNA was extracted. Isolates were grown on CHROMagar Candida™, at 37°C for 48 h. The molecular identification was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for four species. Eighty one specimens were processed and included: bronchial lavage, pleural, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, ascites and bile fluids; blood, sputum, bone marrow, oro-tracheal cannula and ganglion. By culture, 30 samples (37%) were positive, and by PCR, 41 (50.6%). By PCR, the frequency of species was: Candida albicans 82.9%, Candida tropicalis 31.7%, Candida glabrata 24.4%, and Candida parapsilosis 4.9%. In 34.1% of specimens a species mixture was detected suggesting a co-infection: Two species in five specimens (C. albicans-C tropicalis and C. albicans-C glabrata), and three species in three specimens (C. albicans-C. glabrata-C. tropicalis). The PCR is an useful tool for detection the most common Candida species causing infection in hospitalized patients, it avoids the requirement of culture weather we start from clinical specimen and it favors the early diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  9. Natural Type 3/Type 2 Intertypic Vaccine-Related Poliovirus Recombinants with the First Crossover Sites within the VP1 Capsid Coding Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Yan, Dongmei

    2010-01-01

    Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008.......Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008....

  10. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Bridges

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin. Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans.

  11. Relating Stool Microbial Metabolite Levels, Inflammatory Markers and Dietary Behaviors to Screening Colonoscopy Findings in a Racially/Ethnically Diverse Patient Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Kristina M.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Wang, Zhiwen; Ahmed, Ishfaq; Sullivan, Debra K.; Umar, Shahid; Buckles, Daniel C.; Greiner, K. Allen; Hester, Christina M.

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the United States, yet it is treatable and preventable. African Americans have higher incidence of CRC than other racial/ethnic groups, however, it is unclear whether this disparity is primarily due to environmental or biological factors. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced by bacteria in the colon and are known to be inversely related to CRC progression. The aim of this study is to investigate how stool SCFA levels, markers of inflammation in stool and dietary intake relate to colonoscopy findings in a diverse patient population. Stool samples from forty-eight participants were analyzed for SCFA levels and inflammatory markers (lysozyme, secretory IgA, lactoferrin). Additionally, participants completed the National Cancer Institute’s Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II) to report dietary intake over the past year. Subsequently, the majority of participants underwent screening colonoscopy. Our results showed that African Americans had higher total levels of SCFAs in stool than other racial/ethnic groups, significantly lower intake of non-starchy vegetables and similar inflammatory marker expression and colonoscopy outcomes, compared to others. This work is an initial exploration into the biological and clinical factors that may ultimately inform personalized screening approaches and clinical decision-making to improve colorectal cancer disparities for African Americans. PMID:29495356

  12. Application of small specimens to fracture mechanics characterization of irradiated pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, M.A.; Wallin, K.; McCabe, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, precracked Charpy V-notch (PCVN) specimens were used to characterize the fracture toughness of unirradiated and irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels in the transition region by means of three-point static bending. Fracture toughness at cleavage instability was calculated in terms of elastic-plastic K Jc values. A statistical size correction based upon weakest-link theory was performed. The concept of a master curve was applied to analyze fracture toughness properties. Initially, size-corrected PCVN data from A 533 grade B steel, designated HSST Plate O2, were used to position the master curve and a 5% tolerance bound for K Jc data. By converting PCVN data to IT compact specimen equivalent K Jc data, the same master curve and 5% tolerance bound curve were plotted against the Electric Power Research Institute valid linear-elastic K Jc database and the ASME lower bound K Ic curve. Comparison shows that the master curve positioned by testing several PCVN specimens describes very well the massive fracture toughness database of large specimens. These results give strong support to the validity of K Jc with respect to K Ic in general and to the applicability of PCVN specimens to measure fracture toughness of reactor vessel steels in particular. Finally, irradiated PCVN specimens of other materials were tested, and the results are compared to compact specimen data. The current results show that PCVNs demonstrate very good capacity for fracture toughness characterization of reactor pressure vessel steels. It provides an opportunity for direct measurement of fracture toughness of irradiated materials by means of precracking and testing Charpy specimens from surveillance capsules. However, size limits based on constraint theory restrict the operational test temperature range for K Jc data from PCVN specimens. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  13. Detection of Salmonella typhi by nested polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and stool samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, Mochammad; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen in blood, urine, and stool samples from 131 patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever. The sensitivity of blood culture, the PCRs with blood, urine, and feces,

  14. Emerging Intestinal Microsporidia Infection in HIV(+/AIDS Patients in Iran: Microscopic and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirjalali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Microsporidia have been known as opportunistic obligate intracellular parasites particularly in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of most prevalent intestinal microsporida parasites in HIV(+/AIDS patients. In this study, intestinal microsporidia infection was determined in HIV(+/AIDS patients using microscopic and molecular methods.Stool samples were collected from HIV(+/AIDS patients during 12 months. All of the stool specimens washed with PBS (pH: 7.5. Slim slides were prepared from each sample and were examined using light microscope with 1000X magnification. DNA extraction carried out in microscopic positive samples. DNA amplification and genus/species identification also performed by Nested-PCR and sequencing techniques.From 81 stool samples, 25 were infected with microsporidia species and E. bieneusi were identified in all of positive samples. No Encephalitozoon spp. was identified in 81 collected samples using specific primers.E. bieneusi is the most prevalent intestinal microsporidia in immunocompromised patients of Iran. On the other hand, Nested-PCR using specific primers for ssu rRNA gene is an appropriate molecular method for identification of E. bieneusi.

  15. NEW TRIASSIC ASTEROIDEA (ECHINODERMATA SPECIMENS AND THEIR EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL B. BLAKE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition saw the disappearance of asteroid stem groups and the ascent of the crown group, but late Paleozoic and Triassic asteroids are rare and transition events are poorly documented. Three new Middle and Late Triassic specimens augment existing data; included are a specimen of Trichasteropsis weissmanni from Germany, a specimen of Trichasteropsis? sp. indet. from Italy, and a possible member of the extant Poraniidae from Slovenia. Presence of a small ossicle at the interbrachial midline and adjacent to the marginal series of the new T. weissmanni specimen is consistent with similar expressions not only of other trichasteropsids but also occurrence of two interbrachial ossicles in Paleozoic, stem-group asterozoans; presence is in turn consistent with a hypothesis of derivation of the axillary/odontophore coupling from two ossicles rather than direct derivation of the crown-group odontophore from a single stem-group axillary. Morphology of Trichasteropsis? sp. indet., including, for example, the evenly-tapering arms are reminiscent of those of diverse crown-group asteroids whereas the enlarged distal arms of T. weissmanni are unique, the morphology of T? sp. indet. thereby potentially indicative of a plesiomorphic, stemward positioning within the Trichasteropsiidae. The range of the Poraniidae is tentatively extended to the Carnian. Similarities shared by the Poraniidae and the Trichasteropsiidae suggest stemward positioning within crown-group diversification; however, known Triassic fossils do not appear closely related to extant taxa identified in recent molecular studies as basal within the crown-group. A temperate climate is suggested as preferred by the Triassic asteroids rather than a tropical, warmer one.

  16. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Holder Supported in Specimen Rack ER25MR08.002 ...

  17. [Identification and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of strictly anaerobic bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Katarzyna; Rokosz, Alicja; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; łuczak, MirosŁaw

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify anaerobic strains isolated in 2001 from clinical specimens obtained from patients of Warsaw hospital and to evaluate a susceptibility of these strains to antimicrobial agents. In 2001 two hundred and twenty five clinical strains of obligate anaerobes were cultured, which were identified in the automatic ATB system (bioMérieux, France) using biochemical tests API 20 A. Drug-susceptibility of strains was determined also in ATB system with the use of ATB ANA strips. C. difficile strains were isolated on selective CCCA medium. Toxins A/B of C. difficile directly in stool specimens were detected by means of ELISA test (TechLab, USA). Fifty four strains of Gram-negative anaerobes (B. fragilis strains dominated) and 171 strains of Gram-positive anaerobes (the greatest number of strains belonged to genus Peptostreptococcus) were cultured from clinical specimens. In the cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea 28 C. difficile strains were isolated and C. difficile toxins A/B were detected in 39 stool samples. The most active in vitro antimicrobials against Gram-negative anaerobes were metronidazole, imipenem, ticarcillin combined with clavulanic acid and piperacillin with tazobactam. Gram-positive, clinical strains of anaerobes were the most susceptible in vitro to beta-lactam antibiotics combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors (amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate) and imipenem.

  18. Is one sputum specimen as good as two during follow-up cultures for monitoring multi drug resistant tuberculosis patients in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Burugina Nagaraja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In India, the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP has adopted the strategy of examining two specimens during follow-up culture examinations to monitor the treatment response of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incremental yield of the second sputum specimen during follow-up culture examinations among patients with MDR-TB and the effect on case management on changing from two to one specimen follow-up strategy. METHODS: A cross sectional record review of MDR-TB patients registered during 2008-09 under RNTCP was undertaken in three MDR-TB treatment sites of India. RESULTS: Of 1721 pairs of follow-up sputum culture examinations done among 220 MDR-TB patients, 451(26% were positive with either of the two specimens; 29(1.7% were culture positive only on the second specimen indicating the incremental yield. To detect one additional culture positive result on the second specimen, 59 specimens needed to be processed. If we had examined only one specimen, we would have missed 29 culture-positive results. By current RNTCP guidelines, however, a single specimen policy would have altered case management in only 3(0.2% instances, where patients would have missed a one month extension of the intensive phase of MDR-TB treatment. There is no meaningful advantage in using two specimens for the monitoring of MDR-TB patients. A single specimen policy could be safely implemented with negligible clinical effect on MDR-TB patients and favourable resource implications for RNTCP.

  19. Comparison of premier CAMPY enzyme immunoassay (EIA), ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA, and ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY tests with culture for laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Paul A; Chen, Li; Holiday, Iris; Rawling, Russell A; Novak-Weekley, Susan M; Quinlan, Tammy; Musser, Kimberlee A

    2010-11-01

    Campylobacter enteritis is a food-borne or waterborne illness caused almost exclusively by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by Campylobacter coli. These organisms produce indistinguishable clinical diseases and together represent the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States and the leading cause of enteric infection throughout the world. The conventional approach to the laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis is based on the recovery of the organism from a stool specimen, which requires the use of a specialized medium incubated at 42°C for several days in an artificially created microaerophilic environment. Recently, several commercially available enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) have been developed for the direct detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in stool specimens. This study compared conventional culture with three EIA methods, the Premier CAMPY EIA (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), the ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in 485 patient stool samples. Discordant results were arbitrated by using an in-house, real-time PCR assay that was developed and validated by a public health reference laboratory. Following analyses of the discrepant specimens by PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of both the Premier CAMPY and ProSpecT Campylobacter EIAs were 99.3% and 98%, respectively, while the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.2%. By use of the PCR test as the reference standard, culture detected 127 of 135 Campylobacter-positive stool specimens, yielding a sensitivity of 94.1%. These results showed that the three EIAs evaluated in this study provide a rapid and reliable alternative for the laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections with C. jejuni and C. coli and that conventional culture may no longer be recognized as the "gold standard" for

  20. Comparison of Premier CAMPY Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA), ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA, and ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY Tests with Culture for Laboratory Diagnosis of Campylobacter Enteric Infections ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Paul A.; Chen, Li; Holiday, Iris; Rawling, Russell A.; Novak-Weekley, Susan M.; Quinlan, Tammy; Musser, Kimberlee A.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter enteritis is a food-borne or waterborne illness caused almost exclusively by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, by Campylobacter coli. These organisms produce indistinguishable clinical diseases and together represent the second most common cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States and the leading cause of enteric infection throughout the world. The conventional approach to the laboratory diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis is based on the recovery of the organism from a stool specimen, which requires the use of a specialized medium incubated at 42°C for several days in an artificially created microaerophilic environment. Recently, several commercially available enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) have been developed for the direct detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in stool specimens. This study compared conventional culture with three EIA methods, the Premier CAMPY EIA (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), the ProSpecT Campylobacter EIA (Remel, Lenexa, KS), and the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test (Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH), for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in 485 patient stool samples. Discordant results were arbitrated by using an in-house, real-time PCR assay that was developed and validated by a public health reference laboratory. Following analyses of the discrepant specimens by PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of both the Premier CAMPY and ProSpecT Campylobacter EIAs were 99.3% and 98%, respectively, while the ImmunoCard STAT! CAMPY test had a sensitivity of 98.5% and a specificity of 98.2%. By use of the PCR test as the reference standard, culture detected 127 of 135 Campylobacter-positive stool specimens, yielding a sensitivity of 94.1%. These results showed that the three EIAs evaluated in this study provide a rapid and reliable alternative for the laboratory diagnosis of enteric infections with C. jejuni and C. coli and that conventional culture may no longer be recognized as the “gold standard” for

  1. EAMJ Aetiology Sep 09.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-09

    Sep 9, 2009 ... Laboratory testing: Bacteria were isolated by culture after inoculating stool .... for isolation of multiple pathogens from one stool specimen. ... Asymptomatic Adjusted Odds. P-value. Adjusted. (n=436). (n=562). Ratio* (95%.

  2. Sequencing historical specimens: successful preparation of small specimens with low amounts of degraded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, John S; Maddison, David R

    2017-11-01

    Despite advances that allow DNA sequencing of old museum specimens, sequencing small-bodied, historical specimens can be challenging and unreliable as many contain only small amounts of fragmented DNA. Dependable methods to sequence such specimens are especially critical if the specimens are unique. We attempt to sequence small-bodied (3-6 mm) historical specimens (including nomenclatural types) of beetles that have been housed, dried, in museums for 58-159 years, and for which few or no suitable replacement specimens exist. To better understand ideal approaches of sample preparation and produce preparation guidelines, we compared different library preparation protocols using low amounts of input DNA (1-10 ng). We also explored low-cost optimizations designed to improve library preparation efficiency and sequencing success of historical specimens with minimal DNA, such as enzymatic repair of DNA. We report successful sample preparation and sequencing for all historical specimens despite our low-input DNA approach. We provide a list of guidelines related to DNA repair, bead handling, reducing adapter dimers and library amplification. We present these guidelines to facilitate more economical use of valuable DNA and enable more consistent results in projects that aim to sequence challenging, irreplaceable historical specimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Transmission electron microscopy of bulk specimens over 10 µm in thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamatsu, Sunao, E-mail: sadamatsu@mech.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kagoshima University, Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaki; Higashida, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsumura, Syo [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Ultramicroscopy Research Center, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    We succeeded the observation of microstructures in bulk-sized specimens of over 10 µm in thickness by employing a technique that combines transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-filtered imaging based on electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). This method is unique in that it incorporates the inelastically scattered electrons into the imaging process. Using this technique, bright and sharp images of dislocations in crystalline silicon specimens as thick as 10 µm were obtained. A calibration curve to determine foil thickness of such a thick specimen was also derived. This method simply extends the observable thickness range in TEM. If combined with tilt series of observation over a significant range of angle, it will disclose three dimensional nanostructures in a µm-order block of a specimen, promoting our understanding of the controlling mechanisms behind various bulky material properties. - Highlights: • We developed a method which enables thick specimens to be observed using EF-TEM. • The effects of energy filter width and position on images were determined. • We suggested a method to determine the thickness of a thick film sample. • We achieved observation of microstructures in specimens with a thickness of 10 µm.

  4. Comparison of polycarbonate and cellulose acetate membrane filters for isolation of Campylobacter concisus from stool samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde Nielsen, Hans; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove

    2013-01-01

    One thousand seven hundred ninety-one diarrheic stool samples were cultivated for Campylobacter spp. We found a high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus with use of a polycarbonate filter (n = 114) compared to a cellulose acetate filter (n = 79) (P polycarbonate filter is superior...

  5. Urine specimen detection of zolpidem use in patients with pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Lindsey M; Atayee, Rabia S; Best, Brookie M; Morello, Candis M; Ma, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined zolpidem and concurrent opioid, benzodiazepine, other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and alcohol use. Urine specimens were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Specimens were tested for zolpidem (n = 71,919) and separated into a provider-reported medication list documenting (n = 5,257) or not documenting zolpidem use (n = 66,662). Zolpidem-positive specimens were further separated into reported and unreported use cohorts. The total number of zolpidem-positive specimens in the reported and unreported use cohorts was 3,391 and 3,190, respectively. Non-informed prescribers were 4.4% (3,190/71,919) among the general population and 48.5% (3,190/6,581) when only zolpidem users were considered. In the zolpidem user population, the most common concurrent opioids in both cohorts were hydrocodone and oxycodone. Alprazolam and clonazepam were higher in the unreported use cohort (P ≤ 0.05). The unreported use cohort also had a higher detection of zolpidem plus a benzodiazepine (49.7 vs. 46%; P ≤ 0.05), zolpidem plus an opioid and a benzodiazepine (40.8% vs. 37.4%; P ≤ 0.05) and zolpidem plus an opioid, a benzodiazepine, and an other CNS depressant (12.9 vs. 10.9%; P ≤ 0.05). Concurrent use of zolpidem, an opioid, a benzodiazepine and an other CNS depressant is prevalent in a pain patient population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Improved specimen reconstruction by Hilbert phase contrast tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bastian; Joos, Friederike; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2008-11-01

    The low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in images of unstained specimens recorded with conventional defocus phase contrast makes it difficult to interpret 3D volumes obtained by electron tomography (ET). The high defocus applied for conventional tilt series generates some phase contrast but leads to an incomplete transfer of object information. For tomography of biological weak-phase objects, optimal image contrast and subsequently an optimized SNR are essential for the reconstruction of details such as macromolecular assemblies at molecular resolution. The problem of low contrast can be partially solved by applying a Hilbert phase plate positioned in the back focal plane (BFP) of the objective lens while recording images in Gaussian focus. Images recorded with the Hilbert phase plate provide optimized positive phase contrast at low spatial frequencies, and the contrast transfer in principle extends to the information limit of the microscope. The antisymmetric Hilbert phase contrast (HPC) can be numerically converted into isotropic contrast, which is equivalent to the contrast obtained by a Zernike phase plate. Thus, in-focus HPC provides optimal structure factor information without limiting effects of the transfer function. In this article, we present the first electron tomograms of biological specimens reconstructed from Hilbert phase plate image series. We outline the technical implementation of the phase plate and demonstrate that the technique is routinely applicable for tomography. A comparison between conventional defocus tomograms and in-focus HPC volumes shows an enhanced SNR and an improved specimen visibility for in-focus Hilbert tomography.

  7. Performance evaluation of direct saline stool microscopy, Formol ether concentration and Kato Katz diagnostic methods for intestinal parasitosis in the absence of gold standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, Tadesse; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-07-01

    The parasite load within the sample and the amount of sample taken during examination greatly compromise the sensitivity of direct saline stool microscopy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2011 in Bahir Dar city among 778 fresh single stool samples to evaluate the performance of direct saline (DS), Kato Katz (KK) and Formol ether concentration (FEC) methods against the 'Gold' standard. Among 778 stool samples from school age children, the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites was recorded by FEC (55.1%). The sensitivity of DS, FEC and KK were 61.1%, 92.3% and 58.7%, respectively. FEC is more sensitive than DS and KK. Hence, use of the latter is preferred. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 3.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    chickens had Campylobacter jejuni; these are potential source of human infection. Isolation rate in developing .... use and animals kept at home. Stool collection and ... specimens were analyzed within 3 hrs of collection. A loop full stool ...

  9. Comparison of fastsure tb dna and mgit 960 for the detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Mirza, I.A.; Abbasi, S.A.; Ali, S.; Zia, F.; Ahmed, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of Fastsure TB DNA with fully automated MGIT 960 method for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) in clinical specimens. Study Design: Comparative cross sectional study. Methodology: After decontamination procedure, the clinical specimens were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification. Extracted DNA was separated in a separate tube provided with fastsure TB DNA kit and was then inserted into the cartridge provided and results were observed within 30 minutes. For Processing in MGIT 960, OADC and PANTA were added to the clinical specimens after decontamination and then the tubes were processed in MGIT 960. Results: A total of 80 specimens were tested by both MGIT 960 and fastsure TB DNA. On MGIT 960 system, 57 specimens showed growth of MTB while 23 were negative. On Fastsure TB DNA, 47 Specimens were tested as positive and 33 specimens showed negative result. Sensitivity and specificity of Fastsure TB DNA method was calculated to be 82.45 % and 100 % respectively, while positive and negative predictive values were 100 % and 69.69 % respectively. Conclusion: Fast sure TB DNA is a rapid and accurate method for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) from clinical specimens. (author)

  10. Validation of methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) for the detection of stool DNA methylation in colorectal neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhujun; Li, Bingsheng; Wang, Guozhen; Zhu, Weisi; Wang, Zhongqiu; Lin, Jinfeng; Xu, Angao; Wang, Xinying

    2014-04-20

    Methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) is a new technique for assaying DNA methylation, but its feasibility for assaying stool in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is unknown. First, the MS-HRM and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) detection limits were tested. Second, the methylation statuses of SFRP2 and VIM were analyzed in stool samples by MS-HRM, and in matching tumor and normal colon tissues via bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP). Third, a case-control study evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MS-HRM relative to results obtained with MSP and the fecal immunochemical test (FIT). Finally, the linearity and reproducibility of MS-HRM were assessed. The detection limits of MS-HRM and MSP were 1% and 5%, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivities of MS-HRM (87.3%, 55/63) in stool and BSP in matching tumor tissue (92.1%, 58/63) were highly consistent (κ=0.744). The MS-HRM assay detected 92.5% (37/40) methylation in CRCs, 94.4% (34/36) in advanced adenomas, and 8.8% (5/57) in normal controls. The results of MS-HRM analysis were stable and reliable and showed fairly good linearity for both SFRP2 (PHRM shows potential for CRC screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Splitting tests on rock specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J D; Stagg, K G

    1970-01-01

    Splitting tests are described for a square-section sandstone specimens line loaded through steel or timber packings on the top face and supported on the bottom face either on similar packings (type A specimen) or directly on the lower platen plate of the testing machine (type B specimens). The stress distribution across the vertical central plane and the horizontal central plane were determined from a linear elastic finite element analysis for both types. Two solutions were obtained for the type B specimen: one assuming no friction between the base of the specimen and the platen plate and the other assuming no relative slip between the surfaces. Vertical and horizontal strains were measured at the center of the specimens for all loads up to failure.

  12. Identification of serotypes and virulence markers of Escherichia coli isolated from human stool and urine samples in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Osman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic-uremic syndrome are associated with Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC. There are others DEC (Diarrhoeagenic E. coli pathotypes responsible for outbreaks and others toxins associated to these. Most clinical signs of disease arise as a consequence of the production of Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1, Stx2 or combinations of these toxins. Other major virulence factors include E. coli haemolysin (hlyA, and intimin, the product of the eaeA gene that is involved in the attaching and effacing adherence phenotype. Materials and Methods: In this study, the PCR assay was used to detect 12 E. coli genes associated with virulence (stx1, stx2, hylA, Flic h7 , stb, F41, K99, sta, F17, LT-I, LT-II and eaeA. Results: A total of 108 E. coli strains were serotyped into 64 typable strains. The investigated strains from the stool, 8/80 (10% strains were O 164:K, while the 56/110 strains isolated from the urine were O126:K71 (44/110, 40% and O 86:K 61 (12/110, 11%. The distribution pattern of the detected virulence genes was observed to be in the following order: F17 (10% from the stool and 44% from the urine, Sta (10% from the stool, hylA (10% from the stool and 44% from the urine, Stb (44% from the urine and stx1 (27% from the urine. The 8 faecal strains encoded a combination of the F17, Sta and hylA genes, while the 56 urine strains encoded a combination of the F17 0+ Stb + hylA (44/110, 40% and Stx1 only (12/60, 20%. Conclusion: This is the first report on the molecular characterization of E. coli diarrhoeagenic strains in Egypt and the first report on the potential role of E. coli in diarrhoea and urinary tract infections in a localized geographic area where the people engage in various occupational activities.

  13. Comparison of the compositions of the stool microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula, cow milk-based formula, or breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained.

  14. Detection of iso-α-acids to confirm beer consumption in postmortem specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Luke N; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Drummer, Olaf H

    2015-01-01

    Iso-α-acids (IAAs) can be used as markers for the consumption of beer. Postmortem specimens from a range of coronial cases were analyzed for IAAs in order to determine the prevalence of beer consumption and any correlation to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). A total of 130 cases were included in this study including those where beer was mentioned in the case circumstances, cases where beer was not mentioned specifically but alcohol was detected, and cases where neither beer was mentioned nor a positive BAC was present. Available blood, serum, vitreous humour and urine specimens were analyzed. Of the 50 cases where beer was mentioned, 86% had one or more IAAs detected. In cases that only had a positive BAC (n = 60), 57% of these cases also showed the presence of these beer markers. IAAs were detected in specimens obtained from traumatized, burnt, and decomposed cases with a mention of beer consumption or where BAC was positive in blood. No IAAs were detected in cases where BAC was negative. There was little or no correlation between blood IAA concentrations and BAC. This study demonstrates the possible detection of IAAs as a marker for beer consumption. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis in a hotel in Singapore, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, P; Tay, J; Ang, L W; Tien, W S; Thu, M; Lee, P; Pang, Q Y; Tang, Y L; Lee, K Y; Maurer-Stroh, S; Gunalan, V; Cutter, J; Goh, K T

    2017-02-01

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis affected 453 attendees (attack rate 28·5%) of six separate events held at a hotel in Singapore. Active case detection, case-control studies, hygiene inspections and microbial analysis of food, environmental and stool samples were conducted to determine the aetiology of the outbreak and the modes of transmission. The only commonality was the food, crockery and cutlery provided and/or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen. Stool specimens from 34 cases and 15 food handlers were positive for norovirus genogroup II. The putative index case was one of eight norovirus-positive food handlers who had worked while they were symptomatic. Several food samples and remnants tested positive for Escherichia coli or high faecal coliforms, aerobic plate counts and/or total coliforms, indicating poor food hygiene. This large common-source outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis was caused by the consumption of contaminated food and/or contact with contaminated crockery or cutlery provided or handled by the hotel's Chinese banquet kitchen.

  16. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy are Positively Associated with Immune Responses to an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Bangladeshi Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ikhtear Uddin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enteropathy (EE is a poorly understood condition that refers to chronic alterations in intestinal permeability, absorption, and inflammation, which mainly affects young children in resource-limited settings. Recently, EE has been linked to suboptimal oral vaccine responses in children, although immunological mechanisms are poorly defined. The objective of this study was to determine host factors associated with immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine (OCV. We measured antibody and memory T cell immune responses to cholera antigens, micronutrient markers in blood, and EE markers in blood and stool from 40 Bangladeshi children aged 3-14 years who received two doses of OCV given 14 days apart. EE markers included stool myeloperoxidase (MPO and alpha anti-trypsin (AAT, and plasma endotoxin core antibody (EndoCab, intestinal fatty acid binding protein (i-FABP, and soluble CD14 (sCD14. We used multiple linear regression analysis with LASSO regularization to identify host factors, including EE markers, micronutrient (nutritional status, age, and HAZ score, predictive for each response of interest. We found stool MPO to be positively associated with IgG antibody responses to the B subunit of cholera toxin (P = 0.03 and IgA responses to LPS (P = 0.02; plasma sCD14 to be positively associated with LPS IgG responses (P = 0.07; plasma i-FABP to be positively associated with LPS IgG responses (P = 0.01 and with memory T cell responses specific to cholera toxin (P = 0.01; stool AAT to be negatively associated with IL-10 (regulatory T cell responses specific to cholera toxin (P = 0.02, and plasma EndoCab to be negatively associated with cholera toxin-specific memory T cell responses (P = 0.02. In summary, in a cohort of children 3-14 years old, we demonstrated that the majority of biomarkers of environmental enteropathy were positively associated with immune responses after vaccination with an OCV.

  17. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam

    2014-10-01

    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  18. Use of globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) to link herbarium specimen records to physical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gil; Sweeney, Patrick; Gilbert, Edward

    2018-02-01

    With the advent of the U.S. National Science Foundation's Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections program and related worldwide digitization initiatives, the rate of herbarium specimen digitization in the United States has expanded exponentially. As the number of electronic herbarium records proliferates, the importance of linking these records to the physical specimens they represent as well as to related records from other sources will intensify. Although a rich and diverse literature has developed over the past decade that addresses the use of specimen identifiers for facilitating linking across the internet, few implementable guidelines or recommended practices for herbaria have been advanced. Here we review this literature with the express purpose of distilling a specific set of recommendations especially tailored to herbarium specimen digitization, curation, and management. We argue that associating globally unique identifiers (GUIDs) with physical herbarium specimens and including these identifiers in all electronic records about those specimens is essential to effective digital data curation. We also address practical applications for ensuring these associations.

  19. The effect of changing stool collection processes on compliance in nationwide organized screening using a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in Korea: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye Young; Suh, Mina; Baik, Hyung Won; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Chan Wha; Oh, Jae Hwan; Lee, You Kyoung; Han, Dong Soo; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2014-11-26

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening by fecal occult blood test (FOBT) significantly reduces CRC mortality, and compliance rates directly influence the efficacy of this screening method. The aim of this study is to investigate whether stool collection strategies affect compliance with the FOBT. In total, 3,596 study participants aged between 50 and 74 years will be recruited. The study will be conducted using a randomized controlled trial, with a 2 × 2 factorial design resulting in four groups. The first factor is the method of stool-collection device distribution (mailing vs. visiting the clinic) and the second is the type of stool-collection device (sampling kit vs. conventional container). Participants will be randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) sampling kit received by mail; (2) conventional container received by mail; (3) sampling kit received at the clinic; (4) conventional container received at the clinic (control group). The primary outcome will be the FOBT compliance rate; satisfaction and intention to be rescreened in the next screening round will also be evaluated. The rates of positive FOBT results and detection of advanced adenomas or cancers through colonoscopies will also be compared between the two collection containers. Identifying a method of FOBT that yields high compliance rates will be a key determinant of the success of CRC screening. The findings of this study will provide reliable information for health policy makers to develop evidence-based strategies for a high compliance rate. KCT0000803 Date of registration in primary registry: 9 January, 2013.

  20. Intraoperative specimen radiography in patients with nonpalpable malignant breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmachtenberg, C.; Engelken, F.; Fischer, T.; Bick, U.; Poellinger, A.; Fallenberg, E.M. [Charite, Berlin (Germany). Radiology

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Specimen mammography of nonpalpable wire-localized breast lesions is the standard in breast-conserving surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative 2-view specimen mammography in different cancer types. Materials and Methods: After ethics approval, 3 readers retrospectively evaluated margins on 266 2-view specimen radiographs. They determined the closest margin and the orientation. The results were correlated with the histopathology (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] and contingency coefficient [CC]) and compared (Wilcoxon test). Results: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 115 (43 %), IDC in 75 (28 %), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 57 (22 %) and rare cancers (CA) in 19 specimens (7 %). The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive value (P/NPV) of specimen mammography were 0.50/0.86 and 0.86/0.50 for CA, 0.42/0.68 and 0.48/0.63 for IDC, 0.36/0.81 and 0.69/0.51 for ILC, and 0.22/0.78 and 0.68/0.32 for IDC+DCIS. Readers correctly identified the orientation of the closest margin in at least one view in an average of 149 specimens (56 %). CCs were between 0.680 (IDC) and 0.912 (CA), suggesting a moderate correlation between radiographic and histological orientation. The correlations were worse for the radiographic and histological distances, with ICC ranging from 0.238 (ILC) to 0.475 (CA). The Wilcoxon test revealed overestimation of the radiographic margins compared to the histological ones for DCIS. Conclusion: Our results suggest that specimen radiography has relatively good overall specificity and good PPV, while the sensitivity and NPV are low for DCIS. A negative result on specimen radiography does not rule out histologically involved margins. (orig.)

  1. Intraoperative specimen radiography in patients with nonpalpable malignant breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmachtenberg, C; Engelken, F; Fischer, T; Bick, U; Poellinger, A; Fallenberg, E M

    2012-07-01

    Specimen mammography of nonpalpable wire-localized breast lesions is the standard in breast-conserving surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative 2-view specimen mammography in different cancer types. After ethics approval, 3 readers retrospectively evaluated margins on 266 2-view specimen radiographs. They determined the closest margin and the orientation. The results were correlated with the histopathology (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] and contingency coefficient [CC]) and compared (Wilcoxon test). Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 115 (43 %), IDC in 75 (28 %), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 57 (22 %) and rare cancers (CA) in 19 specimens (7 %). The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive value (P/NPV) of specimen mammography were 0.50/0.86 and 0.86/0.50 for CA, 0.42/0.68 and 0.48/0.63 for IDC, 0.36/0.81 and 0.69/0.51 for ILC, and 0.22/0.78 and 0.68/0.32 for IDC+DCIS. Readers correctly identified the orientation of the closest margin in at least one view in an average of 149 specimens (56 %). CCs were between 0.680 (IDC) and 0.912 (CA), suggesting a moderate correlation between radiographic and histological orientation. The correlations were worse for the radiographic and histological distances, with ICC ranging from 0.238 (ILC) to 0.475 (CA). The Wilcoxon test revealed overestimation of the radiographic margins compared to the histological ones for DCIS. Our results suggest that specimen radiography has relatively good overall specificity and good PPV, while the sensitivity and NPV are low for DCIS. A negative result on specimen radiography does not rule out histologically involved margins. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Intraoperative specimen radiography in patients with nonpalpable malignant breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmachtenberg, C.; Engelken, F.; Fischer, T.; Bick, U.; Poellinger, A.; Fallenberg, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Specimen mammography of nonpalpable wire-localized breast lesions is the standard in breast-conserving surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative 2-view specimen mammography in different cancer types. Materials and Methods: After ethics approval, 3 readers retrospectively evaluated margins on 266 2-view specimen radiographs. They determined the closest margin and the orientation. The results were correlated with the histopathology (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] and contingency coefficient [CC]) and compared (Wilcoxon test). Results: Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present in 115 (43 %), IDC in 75 (28 %), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) in 57 (22 %) and rare cancers (CA) in 19 specimens (7 %). The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive value (P/NPV) of specimen mammography were 0.50/0.86 and 0.86/0.50 for CA, 0.42/0.68 and 0.48/0.63 for IDC, 0.36/0.81 and 0.69/0.51 for ILC, and 0.22/0.78 and 0.68/0.32 for IDC+DCIS. Readers correctly identified the orientation of the closest margin in at least one view in an average of 149 specimens (56 %). CCs were between 0.680 (IDC) and 0.912 (CA), suggesting a moderate correlation between radiographic and histological orientation. The correlations were worse for the radiographic and histological distances, with ICC ranging from 0.238 (ILC) to 0.475 (CA). The Wilcoxon test revealed overestimation of the radiographic margins compared to the histological ones for DCIS. Conclusion: Our results suggest that specimen radiography has relatively good overall specificity and good PPV, while the sensitivity and NPV are low for DCIS. A negative result on specimen radiography does not rule out histologically involved margins. (orig.)

  3. Effectiveness of a Novel Specimen Collection System in Reducing Blood Culture Contamination Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary; Bogar, Catherine; Plante, Jessica; Rasmussen, Kristen; Winters, Sharon

    2018-04-20

    False-positive blood-culture results due to skin contamination of samples remain a persistent problem for health care providers. Our health system recognized that our rates of contamination across the 4 emergency department campuses were above the national average. A unique specimen collection system was implemented throughout the 4 emergency departments and became the mandatory way to collect adult blood cultures. The microbiology laboratory reported contamination rates weekly to manage potential problems; 7 months of data are presented here. There was an 82.8% reduction in false positives with the unique specimen collection system compared with the standard method (chi-squared test with Yates correction, 2-tailed, P = 0.0001). Based on the historical 3.52% rate of blood-culture contamination for our health facilities, 2.92 false positives were prevented for every 100 blood cultures drawn, resulting from adoption of the unique specimen collection system as the standard of care. This unique collection system can reduce the risk of blood culture contamination significantly and is designed to augment, rather than replace, the standard phlebotomy protocol already in use in most health care settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  5. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  6. Significance of microscopic extention from 1162 esophageal carcinoma specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Zhu Shuchai; Han Chun; Zhang Xin; Xiao Aiqin; Ma Guoxin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the subclinical microscopic tumor extention along the long axis in 1162 specimens of esophageal carcinoma so as to help define the clinical target volume(CTV) according to the degree of microscopic extention(ME) for radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. Methods: 1162 resected esophageal carcinoma specimens originally located in the neck and thorax were studied with special reference to the correlation between upper and lower resection length from the tumor and positive microscopic margin. Another 52 resected esophageal carcinoma specimens were made into pathological giant sections: the actual resection length of upper and para-esophageal normal tissues was compared with that of the lower nor- mal tissues from the tumor, there by, the ratio of shrinkage was obtained and compared. Results: After fixation, microscopic positive margin ratio of the upper resection border in length ≤0.5 cm group was higher than that in length > 0.5 cm group (16.4% vs 4.1%, P=0.000). Microscopic positive margin ratio of the lower resection border in length ≤1.5 cm group was higher than that in length > 1.5 cm group( 8.1% vs 0.4%, P = 0.000). This showed that the positive margin ratio of the upper border was higher than that of the lower border in resection length > 1.5 cm group(3.5% vs 0.4%, P=0. 000). The actual length of upper and lower normal esophageal tissue after having been made into pathological giant sections in 52 patients, was 30% ± 14% and 44% ± 19% of that measured in the operation. Conclusions: Considering the shrinkage of the normal esophagus during fixation, a CTV margin of 2.0 cm along the upper long axis and 3.5 cm along the lower long axis should be chosen for radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma, according to the ratio of shrinkage. Ascending invasion proportion is higher than the descending invasion in that tumor. (authors)

  7. Acceptability of study procedures (self-collected introital swabs, blood draws and stool sample collection) by students 10-16 years for an HPV vaccine effectiveness study: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, Miriam; Mutyaba, Twaha; Mirembe, Florence

    2016-03-16

    A cohort study was planned to evaluate vaccine immunogenicity and effect of malaria and helminth co-infections on the bivalent Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. The study would involve self collected introital swabs, blood draws and stool sample collection. We therefore conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these procedures among the students and their parents. A cross-sectional study among forty four students from two purposively selected primary schools of Western Uganda. Exit interviews and two focus group discussions (FGD) (for parents) were conducted. Acceptability was measured by willingness to undergo the procedures again, recommending the procedures to others as well as proportion of introital swabs positive for β globulin. FGD determined acceptability of the parents and explored opinions and perceptions that would influence their decisions. HPV-16/18 and β globulin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were analysed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit. All the students (100%) in the study were willing to provide a self- collected introital swab and a stool sample as well as recommending their friends while (86.3%) were willing for blood draws. There were 40/44 (90.1%) self collected introital swabs that had positive result for human β globulin though none of them was positive for HPV-16/18. In the FGD, it emerged that parents concerns were on the blood draws and introital swab collection which were addressed. The study procedures were highly acceptable among this study population of students and their parents. Follow-up to assess HPV vaccine effectiveness and factors that may influence the vaccine in this age group is feasible.

  8. Comparison between the 13C-urea breath test and stool antigen test for the diagnosis of childhood Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Seiichi; Minoura, Takanori; Iinuma, Kazuie; Konno, Mutsuko; Tajiri, Hitoshi; Matsuhisa, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    As noninvasive tests for Helicobacter pylori infection, the 13 C-urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen test have been widely used. In children, however, there are few studies reporting which test shows superior performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the 13 C-UBT and stool antigen test for their accuracy in diagnosing. H. pylori infection in children. A total of 123 Japanese children, ages 2 to 17 years (mean, 12 years) who underwent gastric biopsies for H. pylori infection were studied. The diagnoses included gastritis (n=55), gastric ulcer (n=5), duodenal ulcer (n=20), iron-deficiency anemia (n=7), and other conditions (n=36). The cutoff value of the 13 C-UBT was defined to be 3.5 per mille. The stool antigen test was performed using the H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Premier Platinum HpSA). In 16 patients who received eradication therapy, the 13 C-UBT and HpSA were repeated 2 months after treatment. Based on biopsy tests, 60 children were infected with H. pylori and 63 children were not. For the 13 C-UBT, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.1%-99.0%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.5%-100%), and 96.4% (95% CI, 93.6%-99.9%), respectively. For the HpSA, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 983.% (95% CI, 90.8%-100%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.2%-100%), and 98.3% (95% CI, 96.0%-100%), respectively. There were no significant differences between the performance of these two tests. In the assessment of H. pylori eradication, the results of 13 C-UBT and HpSA agreed with those of biopsy tests. The 13 C-UBT and the HpSA are equally accurate for the diagnosis of active H. pylori infection in Japanese children. (author)

  9. Influenza virus infection among pediatric patients reporting diarrhea and influenza-like illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyeki Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization among children. While less often reported in adults, gastrointestinal symptoms have been associated with influenza in children, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Methods From September 2005 and April 2008, pediatric patients in Indonesia presenting with concurrent diarrhea and influenza-like illness were enrolled in a study to determine the frequency of influenza virus infection in young patients presenting with symptoms less commonly associated with an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Stool specimens and upper respiratory swabs were assayed for the presence of influenza virus. Results Seasonal influenza A or influenza B viral RNA was detected in 85 (11.6% upper respiratory specimens and 21 (2.9% of stool specimens. Viable influenza B virus was isolated from the stool specimen of one case. During the time of this study, human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus were common in the survey area. However, among 733 enrolled subjects, none had evidence of H5N1 virus infection. Conclusions The detection of influenza viral RNA and viable influenza virus from stool suggests that influenza virus may be localized in the gastrointestinal tract of children, may be associated with pediatric diarrhea and may serve as a potential mode of transmission during seasonal and epidemic influenza outbreaks.

  10. Comparison of HPV detection technologies: Hybrid capture 2, PreTect HPV-Proofer and analysis of HPV DNA viral load in HPV16, HPV18 and HPV33 E6/E7 mRNA positive specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing using molecular methods in liquid based cytology (LBC) specimens may be useful as an adjunct to cervical screening by cytology. We compared the positivity rate of the commercially available HPV DNA method hybrid capture 2 (hc2) and the commercially available E6\\/E7 mRNA method PreTect HPV-Proofer in cytological specimens (n=299). LBC specimens collected (n=299) represented the following cervical cytological disease categories: Normal (n=60), borderline nuclear abnormalities (BNA) (n=34), CIN1 (n=121), CIN2 (n=60), CIN3 (n=24). Overall, 69% (205\\/299) of the cases were positive by hc2 and 38% (112\\/299) of the cases were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. Concordance rates between the two tests were highest in the high-grade cytology cases (CIN2: 67% and CIN3: 83%) and the normal cytology cases (88%) and lowest in the BNA and CIN1 categories (56% and 52%). HPV DNA viral load analyses were carried out on HPV16 (n=55), HPV18 (n=9) and HPV33 (n=13) samples that were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. The sensitivity and specificity of PreTect HPV-Proofer and the hc2 DNA test for the detection of high-grade cytology (i.e. CIN2+) were 71.4% and 75.8% vs 100% and 43.7%, respectively. The relatively low detection rate observed by PreTect HPV-Proofer in the whole range of cytological positive cases, combined with a relatively higher specificity and PPV, suggests that PreTect HPV-Proofer may be more useful than hc2 for triage and in predicting high-grade disease.

  11. Digital quantification of gene methylation in stool DNA by emulsion-PCR coupled with hydrogel immobilized bead-array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunlong; Wu, Haiping; Zhou, Qiang; Song, Qinxin; Rui, Jianzhong; Zou, Bingjie; Zhou, Guohua

    2017-06-15

    Aberrations of gene methylation in stool DNA (sDNA) is an effective biomarker for non-invasive colorectal cancer diagnosis. However, it is challenging to accurately quantitate the gene methylation levels in sDNA due to the low abundance and degradation of sDNA. In this study, a digital quantification strategy was proposed by combining emulsion PCR (emPCR) with hydrogel immobilized bead-array. The assay includes following steps: bisulfite conversion of sDNA, pre-amplification by PCR with specific primers containing 5' universal sequences, emPCR of pre-amplicons with beaded primers to achieve single-molecular amplification and identification of hydrogel embedding beads coated with amplicons. The sensitivity and the specificity of the method are high enough to pick up 0.05% methylated targets from unmethylated DNA background. The successful detection of hypermethylated vimentin gene in clinical stool samples suggests that the proposed method should be a potential tool for non-invasive colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Method for quantifying percentage wood failure in block-shear specimens by a laser scanning profilometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. T. Scott; R. Hernandez; C. Frihart; R. Gleisner; T. Tice

    2005-01-01

    A new method for quantifying percentage wood failure of an adhesively bonded block-shear specimen has been developed. This method incorporates a laser displacement gage with an automated two-axis positioning system that functions as a highly sensitive profilometer. The failed specimen is continuously scanned across its width to obtain a surface failure profile. The...

  13. Automated detection of breast cancer in resected specimens with fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Jennifer E.; Gorpas, Dimitris; Unger, Jakob; Darrow, Morgan; Bold, Richard J.; Marcu, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Re-excision rates for breast cancer lumpectomy procedures are currently nearly 25% due to surgeons relying on inaccurate or incomplete methods of evaluating specimen margins. The objective of this study was to determine if cancer could be automatically detected in breast specimens from mastectomy and lumpectomy procedures by a classification algorithm that incorporated parameters derived from fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm). This study generated a database of co-registered histologic sections and FLIm data from breast cancer specimens (N  =  20) and a support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm able to automatically detect cancerous, fibrous, and adipose breast tissue. Classification accuracies were greater than 97% for automated detection of cancerous, fibrous, and adipose tissue from breast cancer specimens. The classification worked equally well for specimens scanned by hand or with a mechanical stage, demonstrating that the system could be used during surgery or on excised specimens. The ability of this technique to simply discriminate between cancerous and normal breast tissue, in particular to distinguish fibrous breast tissue from tumor, which is notoriously challenging for optical techniques, leads to the conclusion that FLIm has great potential to assess breast cancer margins. Identification of positive margins before waiting for complete histologic analysis could significantly reduce breast cancer re-excision rates.

  14. How to: Establish and run a stool bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terveer, E M; van Beurden, Y H; Goorhuis, A; Seegers, J F M L; Bauer, M P; van Nood, E; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Mulder, C J J; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; Verspaget, H W; Keller, J J; Kuijper, E J

    2017-12-01

    Since 2013, several stool banks have been developed following publications reporting on clinical success of 'faecal microbiota transplantation' (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). However, protocols for donor screening, faecal suspension preparation, and transfer of the faecal suspension differ between countries and institutions. Moreover, no European consensus exists regarding the legislative aspects of the faecal suspension product. Internationally standardized recommendations about the above mentioned aspects have not yet been established. In 2015, the Netherlands Donor Feces Bank (NDFB) was founded with the primary aim of providing a standardized product for the treatment of patients with recurrent CDI in the Netherlands. Standard operation procedures for donor recruitment, donor selection, donor screening, and production, storage, and distribution of frozen faecal suspensions for FMT were formulated. Our experience summarized in this review addresses current donor recruitment and screening, preparation of the faecal suspension, transfer of the faecal microbiota suspension, and the experiences and follow-up of the patients treated with donor faeces from the NDFB. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Screen-film specimen radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, S.J.; Hogan, J.; Schreck, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the reproducibility and quality of biopsy specimen radiographs, a unique phototimed cabinet x-ray system is being developed. The system utilizes specially modified Kodal Min-R cassettes and will be compatible with current mammographic films. Tube voltages are in the 14-20-kVp range with 0.1-1.0-second exposure times. A top-hat type compression device is used (1) to compress the specimen to uniform thickness, (2) to measure the specimen thickness and determine optimum kVp, and (3) to superimpose a grid over the specimen for identification of objects of radiographic interest. The phototiming circuit developed specifically for this purpose will be described along with the modified Min-R cassette. Characteristics of the generator and cabinet will also be described. Tests will be performed on phantoms to evaluate the system limitations

  16. [Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection and effect of albendazole treatment among residents in two communities of Zhongshan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying-Yan, Zheng; Ting-Jun, Xie; Man, Wang; Yue-Yi, Fang; Le, Luo

    2018-02-22

    To understand the prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection among residents in two communities of Zhongshan City, and evaluate the effect of albendazole treatment, so as to offer the evidence for formulating the strategy of clonorchiasis prevention and control. The stool specimens were collected from the residents of two comprehensive demonstration areas, and the eggs of C. sinensis were detected by Kato-Katz technique. Those who were tested positive were treated with albendazole (0.4, twice a day for 4 days in adults, and half dosage for children aged 16 years or below). Three weeks after the treatment, the stool specimens were recollected and retested to evaluate the effect. A total of 532 people were investigated and 96 were tested positive, with an infection rate of 18.05%. The infection rate was 28.63% (69/241) in the males and 9.28% (27/291) in the females, and there was a significant difference between them ( χ 2 = 334.99, P sinensis among residents in the two communities of Zhongshan City is high, especially among the males and aged people. The effect of albendazole is good in the treatment of C. sinensis infection. In the future, the general survey and treatment should be strengthened in order to lower the infection rate.

  17. Outcome evaluation of clarithromycin, metronidazole and lansoprazole regimens in Helicobacter pylori positive or negative children with resistant otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel-Hennawi, D; Ahmed, M R

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of two treatment regimens among Helicobacter pylori stool antigen positive children suffering from resistant otitis media with effusion. The study comprised 258 children with bilateral otitis media with effusion; 134 were positive for H pylori stool antigen, and were equally and randomly allocated to the control group or study group. The control group received standard otitis media with effusion therapy (amoxicillin and clavulanate), while the study group received standard H pylori triple therapy (clarithromycin, metronidazole and lansoprazole). In the control group, there was a marked clinical response to treatment in 33 of the 67 children (49.3 per cent). In the study group, there was a marked response in a significantly higher number of children (46 out of 67, 68.7 per cent). The 124 H pylori stool antigen negative children not included in the 2 aforementioned groups received amoxicillin and clavulanate, and a marked response in symptoms was evident in 98 of these children (79 per cent). H pylori infection may lead to resistance to traditional otitis media with effusion treatment in some cases. H pylori eradication is associated with a high cure rate.

  18. Human parechovirus as a minor cause of acute otitis media in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Saara; Oikarinen, Sami; Sipilä, Markku; Seppälä, Elina; Nurminen, Noora; Rautiainen, Markus; Laranne, Jussi; Hyöty, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) cause mild upper respiratory infections, gastrointestinal symptoms, central nervous system infections and some studies have linked them with acute otitis media (AOM). The aim of the present study was to study further the role of HPeV infections in AOM by detecting these viruses directly from middle ear fluid (MEF), respiratory and stool samples collected from children during AOM episodes. A total of 91 MEF samples, 98 nasal swab (NS) samples and 92 stool samples were collected during 100 AOM episodes in a total of 87 children aged between five to 42 months. All specimens were analyzed by real time RT-PCR for the presence of HPeV RNA. HPeV infection was diagnosed in 12 (14%) patients. HPeV RNA was detected in altogether 13 samples, including four MEF samples, three NS samples and six stool samples. One patient was positive in both stool and MEF samples. The results suggest that HPeV may play a role in some AOM cases, but it is not a major cause of AOM in children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Alkaline Peptone Water-Based Enrichment Method for mcr-3 From Acute Diarrheic Outpatient Gut Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A third plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-3, is increasingly being reported in Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp. from animals and humans. To investigate the molecular epidemiology of mcr in the gut flora of Chinese outpatients, 152 stool specimens were randomly collected from outpatients in our hospital from May to June, 2017. Stool specimens enriched in alkaline peptone water or Luria-Bertani (LB broth were screened for mcr-1, mcr-2, and mcr-3 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assays. Overall, 19.1% (29/152 and 5.3% (8/152 of the stool samples enriched in alkaline peptone water were PCR-positive for mcr-1 and mcr-3, respectively, while 2.7% (4/152 of samples were positive for both mcr-1 and mcr-3. Strains isolated from the samples that were both mcr-1- and mcr-3-positive were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution. They were also screened for the presence of other resistance genes by PCR, while multilocus sequence typing and whole-genome sequencing were used to investigate the molecular epidemiology and genetic environment, respectively, of the resistance genes. mcr-3-positive Aeromonas veronii strain 126-14, containing a mcr-3.8-mcr-3-like2 segment, and mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli strain 126-1, belonging to sequence type 1485, were isolated from the sample from a diarrheic butcher with no history of colistin treatment. A. veronii 126-14 had a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 2 µg/mL and was susceptible to antibiotics in common use, while E. coli 126-1 produced TEM-1, CTX-M-55, and CTX-M-14 β-lactamases and was resistant to colistin, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime. Overall, there was a higher detection rate of mcr-3-carrying strains with low colistin MICs from the samples enriched in alkaline peptone water than from samples grown in LB broth.

  20. Discordance between location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin following radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Ham, Dong Yeub; Paick, Sung Hyun; Lho, Yong Soo; Choi, Woo Suk

    2015-10-01

    We compared location of positive cores in biopsy and location of positive surgical margin (PSM) following radical prostatectomy. This retrospective analysis included patients who were diagnosed as prostate cancer by standard 12-core transrectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy, and who have PSM after radical prostatectomy. After exclusion of number of biopsy cores location data, 46 patients with PSM were identified. Locations of PSM in pathologic specimen were reported as 6 difference sites (apex, base and lateral in both sides). Discordance of biopsy result and PSM was defined when no positive cores in biopsy was identified at the location of PSM. Most common location of PSM were right apex (n=21) and left apex (n=15). Multiple PSM was reported in 21 specimens (45.7%). In 32 specimens (69.6%) with PSM, one or more concordant positive biopsy cores were identified, but 14 specimens (28%) had no concordant biopsy cores at PSM location. When discordant rate was separated by locations of PSM, right apex PSM had highest rate of discordant (38%). The discordant group had significantly lower prostate volume and lower number of positive cores in biopsy than concordant group. This study showed that one fourth of PSM occurred at location where tumor was not detected at biopsy and that apex PSM had highest rate of discordant. Careful dissection to avoid PSM should be performed in every location, including where tumor was not identified in biopsy.

  1. Determination of 14CO2 in breath and 14C in stool after oral administration of cholyl-1-[14C]glycine: clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roda, A.; Roda, E.; Aldini, R.; Mazzella, G.; Festi, D.; Sama, C.; Barbara, L.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty patients with intestinal bacterial overgrowth and 20 control subjects were investigated for bile acid deconjugation, by measuring 14 CO 2 in the breath after cholyl-1-[ 14 C]glycine administration. 14 CO 2 output/24 h was 11.0 +- 5.2% (mean +- SD) in controls and 54.2 +- 14.0% (mean +- SD) in bacterial-overgrowth patients (P 14 CO 2 excretion rate in 12 h, when normalized to 100% of the dose at the 12th hour, gave an even finer discrimination between the two groups (no false responses). 14 C in stool, analyzed in 20 malabsorption patients and 20 controls by two different techniques, was 6.6 +- 4% and 31.38 +- 20.7% (mean +- SD), respectively. Results by the two different techniques described here correlated well (r = 0.99). Bile acid malabsorption was in reasonable agreement (r = 0.67) with percentage of ''chenoid'' (chenodeoxycholic acid plus ursodeoxycholic acid) in the stool by gas-liquid chromatography; a poorer correlation was observed when ''choloid'' (cholic acid plus its epimers) were plotted vs. 14 C in stool

  2. Comparison of a Stool Antigen Detection Kit and PCR for Diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar Infections in Asymptomatic Cyst Passers in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Rezaian, Mostafa; Babaei, Zahra; Rajabpour, Azam; Meamar, Ahmad R.; Pourbabai, Ahmad A.; Petri, William A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare stool antigen detection with PCR for the diagnosis of Entamoeba sp. infection in asymptomatic cyst passers from Iran. Entamoeba dispar and, in one case, E. moshkovskii were the Entamoeba spp. found in the amebic cyst passers. There was a 100% correlation between the results from the TechLab E. histolytica II stool antigen kit and those from nested PCR. We concluded that E. dispar is much more common in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran and that antig...

  3. In vitro ciprofloxacin resistance patterns of gram positive bacteria isolated from clinical specimens in a teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Alzahrani, A.; Obeid, O.El-Treify; Dassal, D.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few decades the ever-increasing level of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials has been a cause of worldwide concern. Fluoroquinolones, particularly ciprofloxacin has been used indiscriminately for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections. The increased use of ciprofloxacin has led to a progressive loss of bacterial susceptibility to this antibiotic. Therefore it is necessary to have update knowledge of resistance pattern of bacteria to this antibiotic so that alternate appropriate antibiotics can be used for ciprofloxacin-resistant bacterial infections. Objective: To evaluate the trends of ciprofloxacin resistance pattern in commonly isolated gram positive bacteria over time in a Saudi Arabian teaching hospital. Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out for ciprofloxacin susceptibility patterns of 5534 isolates of gram-positive bacteria isolated from clinical specimens submitted to microbiology laboratories at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia during the period from January 2002 to August 2005. Results: Increase in ciprofloxacin resistance rates with some fluctuations, among these isolates, were observed. For Staphylococcus aureus, it varied from 4.62, 1.83, 7.01 and 3.98%, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 97.92, 97.75, 87.01 and 88.26%, Streptococcus pyogenes 5.35, 4.47, 14.44 and 3.53% during the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 respectively. Cirprofloxacin resistance during the years 2002, 2004 and 2005 for other isolates was as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 30.23, 23.02 and 26.47%; enterococcus group D, 43.05, 20.68 and 57.03% and non-enterococcus group D, 62.96, 76.92 and 87.50% respectively. Conclusion: Ciprofloxacin resistance in gram positive bacterial clinical isolates particularly Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) enterococcus group D, and non-enterococcus group D, has greatly increased and ciprofloxacin no more remains

  4. Comparison of real-time and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays in detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in clinical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokahmetoglu, S.; Deniz, E.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the real-time (RT) and qualitative (Q) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA. The study took place in the Department of Microbiology, Erciyes University, Kayseri and in Iontek Laboratory, Istanbul, Turkey, from August to December 2006. One hundred and seven clinical specimens from 67 patients were included in the study. Cytomegalovirus DNA was investigated using RT-PCR kit (Fluorion Iontek, Turkey) and Q-PCR kit (Fluorion Iontek, Turkey). Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing was applied to the samples that yielded discrepant results in both assays. Mac Nema's Chi Square test was used for statistical analysis. Of the specimens, 27 were found positive with both assays: 9 with only RT-PCR, and 11 with only Q-PCR assay. Both assays were found negative in 60 of the specimens. There was a good agreement between the 2 assays in 87(81.3%) of the specimens. There was no statistical significant difference between the assays (p>0.05). Two of the 11 samples that RT-PCR negative Q-PCR positive, and 3 of 9 samples that RT-PCR positive Q-PCR negative were found to be CMV DNA positive by DNA sequencing. A good level of concordance between RT-PCR and Q-PCR assays for CMV DNA detection has been found. (author)

  5. A Controlled Study of Tuberculosis Diagnosis in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Children in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhelman, Richard A.; Soto-Castellares, Giselle; Gilman, Robert H.; Castillo, Maria E.; Kolevic, Lenka; Delpino, Trinidad; Saito, Mayuko; Salazar-Lindo, Eduardo; Negron, Eduardo; Montenegro, Sonia; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Maurtua-Neumann, Paola; Datta, Sumona; Evans, Carlton A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosing tuberculosis in children is challenging because specimens are difficult to obtain and contain low tuberculosis concentrations, especially with HIV-coinfection. Few studies included well-controls so test specificities are poorly defined. We studied tuberculosis diagnosis in 525 children with and without HIV-infection. Methods and Findings ‘Cases’ were children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 209 HIV-negative; n = 81 HIV-positive) and asymptomatic ‘well-control’ children (n = 200 HIV-negative; n = 35 HIV-positive). Specimens (n = 2422) were gastric aspirates, nasopharyngeal aspirates and stools analyzed by a total of 9688 tests. All specimens were tested with an in-house hemi-nested IS6110 PCR that took 0.2) for HIV-positive versus HIV-negative cases. All specimens were also tested with auramine acid-fast microscopy, microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility (MODS) liquid culture, and Lowenstein-Jensen solid culture that took ≤6 weeks and had 100% specificity (all 2112 tests on 704 specimens from 235 well-controls were negative). Microscopy-positivity was rare (0.21%, 5/2422 specimens) and all microscopy-positive specimens were culture-positive. Culture-positivity was less frequent (P≤0.01) in HIV-infection: 1.2% (1/81) HIV-positive cases versus 11% (22/209) HIV-negative cases; caused by 0.42% (2/481) versus 4.7% (58/1235) of their specimens, respectively. Conclusions In HIV-positive children with suspected tuberculosis, diagnostic yield was so low that 1458 microscopy and culture tests were done per case confirmed and even in children with culture-proven tuberculosis most tests and specimens were false-negative; whereas PCR was so prone to false-positives that PCR-positivity was as likely in specimens from well-controls as suspected-tuberculosis cases. This demonstrates the importance of control participants in diagnostic test evaluation and that even extensive laboratory testing only rarely contributed to the care of

  6. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification as a Fast Noninvasive Method of Helicobacter pylori Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Farideh; Abiri, Ramin; Aryan, Ehsan; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Navabi, Jafar; Alvandi, Amirhooshang

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is etiologically associated with some important health problems such as gastric cancer. Because of the high clinical importance of H. pylori infection, development of a noninvasive test for the detection of H. pylori is desirable. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeted ureC of H. pylori was evaluated on 100 stool specimens and compared with a stool antigen test. Culture and rapid urease test were considered as gold standards. The overall detection rate of the fecal antigen test and LAMP was 58% and 82%, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of the fecal antigen test and LAMP was 500 and 10 H. pylori cells/g and 10 fg DNA/reaction, which is equal to six H. pylori genome. LAMP technique has been characterized by high sensitivity and low detection limit for the detection of H. pylori in stool specimen. Clinical diagnostic performance of LAMP was better than the stool antigen test. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Urine specimen validity test for drug abuse testing in workplace and court settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yu; Lee, Hei-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Feng; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, urine drug testing in the workplace has become common in many countries in the world. There have been several studies concerning the use of the urine specimen validity test (SVT) for drug abuse testing administered in the workplace. However, very little data exists concerning the urine SVT on drug abuse tests from court specimens, including dilute, substituted, adulterated, and invalid tests. We investigated 21,696 submitted urine drug test samples for SVT from workplace and court settings in southern Taiwan over 5 years. All immunoassay screen-positive urine specimen drug tests were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We found that the mean 5-year prevalence of tampering (dilute, substituted, or invalid tests) in urine specimens from the workplace and court settings were 1.09% and 3.81%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the workplace were 89.2%, 6.8%, and 4.1%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the court were 94.8%, 1.4%, and 3.8%, respectively. No adulterated cases were found among the workplace or court samples. The most common drug identified from the workplace specimens was amphetamine, followed by opiates. The most common drug identified from the court specimens was ketamine, followed by amphetamine. We suggest that all urine specimens taken for drug testing from both the workplace and court settings need to be tested for validity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Patients with gastrointestinal complains due to enteric parasites, with reference to Entamoeba histolytica/dispar as dected by ELISA E. histolytica adhesion in stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kadi, Mohammad A; Dorrah, Ahmad O; Shoukry, Nahla M

    2006-04-01

    A total of 210 patients with gastrointestinal troubles, of both sex and a mean age of 32 +/- 6.1 years, selected from the outpatient's clinics of Al-Azhar University Hospitals. 115 (54.76%) had dysentery, 95 (45.23%) did not have dysentery, 15 (14%) suffered flatulence, 20 (9.52%) had epi-gastric pain, 19 (9.05%) had vague abdominal pain, 5 vomiting (5.2%) and 10 (4.9%) had fever. Two symptoms were in 29 (13.81%) patients and three symptoms in 12 (5.71%). Of the 210 patients, 20 (9.9%) had helminthes infection, 121 (57.6%) had intestinal protozoa and 69 (32.9%) had no parasitic infection. Of these parasite-free patients, 16 had Shigella sp. and nine had Campylobacter sp. Of the patients with intestinal protozoa, 34 (16.2%) had E. histolytica/dispar by stool examination of stained smears. By using ELISA for detection of E. histolytica adhesion in stool samples of 115 with diarrhea only 18 had true E. histolytica infection and of 3 without diarrhea only one had E. histolytica infection. Mean-while, ELISA did not cross-reacted E. coli, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana or Blastocystis hominis. So, ELISA for detection of E. histolytica adhesion in stool samples was more specific than microscopy and safe direction to the E. histolytica treatment. Apart from intestinal protozoan and bacteria, helminthes were seen in stool analysis. These were Schistosoma mansoni (0.95%), Capillaria sp. (0.95%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.90%) macroscopically, Hymenolepis nana (4.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.43%).

  9. Improved amplification efficiency on stool samples by addition of spermidine and its use for non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Roperch, Jean-Pierre; Benzekri, Karim; Mansour, Hicham; Incitti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QM-MSP) is a promising method for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis from stool samples. Difficulty in eliminating PCR inhibitors of this body fluid has been extensively reported. Here

  10. Janka hardness using nonstandard specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Marshall Begel; William Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Janka hardness determined on 1.5- by 3.5-in. specimens (2×4s) was found to be equivalent to that determined using the 2- by 2-in. specimen specified in ASTM D 143. Data are presented on the relationship between Janka hardness and the strength of clear wood. Analysis of historical data determined using standard specimens indicated no difference between side hardness...

  11. Comparison of a stool antigen detection kit and PCR for diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infections in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Rezaian, Mostafa; Babaei, Zahra; Rajabpour, Azam; Meamar, Ahmad R; Pourbabai, Ahmad A; Petri, William A

    2006-06-01

    The present study was conducted to compare stool antigen detection with PCR for the diagnosis of Entamoeba sp. infection in asymptomatic cyst passers from Iran. Entamoeba dispar and, in one case, E. moshkovskii were the Entamoeba spp. found in the amebic cyst passers. There was a 100% correlation between the results from the TechLab E. histolytica II stool antigen kit and those from nested PCR. We concluded that E. dispar is much more common in asymptomatic cyst passers in Iran and that antigen detection and PCR are comparable diagnostic modalities.

  12. LPTR irradiation of LLL vanadium tensile specimens and LLL Nb--1Zr tensile specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLean, S.C.; Rowe, C.L.

    1977-01-01

    The LPTR irradiation of 14 LLL vanadium tensile specimens and 14 LLL Nb-1Zr tensile specimens is described. Sample packaging, the irradiation schedule and neutron fluences for three energy ranges are given

  13. Diagnosis of human fascioliasis by stool and blood techniques: update for the present global scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, S; Bargues, M D; Valero, M A

    2014-12-01

    Before the 1990s, human fascioliasis diagnosis focused on individual patients in hospitals or health centres. Case reports were mainly from developed countries and usually concerned isolated human infection in animal endemic areas. From the mid-1990s onwards, due to the progressive description of human endemic areas and human infection reports in developing countries, but also new knowledge on clinical manifestations and pathology, new situations, hitherto neglected, entered in the global scenario. Human fascioliasis has proved to be pronouncedly more heterogeneous than previously thought, including different transmission patterns and epidemiological situations. Stool and blood techniques, the main tools for diagnosis in humans, have been improved for both patient and survey diagnosis. Present availabilities for human diagnosis are reviewed focusing on advantages and weaknesses, sample management, egg differentiation, qualitative and quantitative diagnosis, antibody and antigen detection, post-treatment monitoring and post-control surveillance. Main conclusions refer to the pronounced difficulties of diagnosing fascioliasis in humans given the different infection phases and parasite migration capacities, clinical heterogeneity, immunological complexity, different epidemiological situations and transmission patterns, the lack of a diagnostic technique covering all needs and situations, and the advisability for a combined use of different techniques, at least including a stool technique and a blood technique.

  14. Georeferencing Animal Specimen Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, M.G.J.; Hensel, R.; Ceolin, D.; van der Meij, M.

    2014-01-01

    For biodiversity research, the field of study that is concerned with the richness of species of our planet, it is of the utmost importance that the location of an animal specimen find is known with high precision. Due to specimens often having been collected over the course of many years, their

  15. Real-Time Detection and Identification of Chlamydophila Species in Veterinary Specimens by Using SYBR Green-Based PCR Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Kabell, Susanne; Pedersen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    of Chlamydiaceae and differentiate the most prevalent veterinary Chlamydophila species: Cp. psittaci, Cp. abortus, Cp. felis, and Cp. caviae. By adding bovine serum albumin to the master mixes, target DNA could be detected directly in crude lysates of enzymatically digested conjunctival or pharyngeal swabs...... or tissue specimens from heart, liver, and spleen without further purification. The assays were evaluated on veterinary specimens where all samples were screened using a family-specific PCR, and positive samples were further tested using species-specific PCRs. Cp. psittaci was detected in 47 birds, Cp...... with a highly sensitive family-specific PCR, we were able to screen for Chlamydiaceae in veterinary specimens and confirm the species in positive samples with additional PCR assays....

  16. Increasing Recovery of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Respiratory Specimens over a 10-Year Period in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Won-Jung; Chang, Boksoon; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Su-Young; Lee, Nam Yong; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kwon, O Jung

    2013-11-01

    The number of patients with pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term trends in the NTM recovery rate from respiratory specimens over a 10-year period in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. We retrospectively reviewed the records of mycobacterial cultures of respiratory specimens at Samsung Medical Center from January 2001 to December 2011. During the study period, 32,841 respiratory specimens from 10,563 patients were found to be culture-positive for mycobacteria. These included 12,619 (38%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 20,222 (62%) NTM isolates. The proportion of NTM among all positive mycobacterial cultures increased from 43% (548/1,283) in 2001 to 70% (3,341/4,800) in 2011 (ptrend). The recovery rate of NTM isolates from acid-fast bacilli smear-positive specimens increased from 9% (38/417) in 2001 to 64% (1,284/1,997) in 2011 (ptrend). The proportion of positive liquid cultures was higher for NTM than for M. tuberculosis (p<0.001). The most frequently isolated NTM were Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (53%) and Mycobacterium abscessus-massiliense complex (25%). The recovery rate of NTM from respiratory specimens in South Korea has increased steadily.

  17. DNA extraction from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábková, Lenka Záveská

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of molecular techniques, the historical collections have become widely used. Studying plant DNA using modern molecular techniques such as DNA sequencing plays an important role in understanding evolutionary relationships, identification through DNA barcoding, conservation status, and many other aspects of plant biology. Enormous herbarium collections are an important source of material especially for specimens from areas difficult to access or from taxa that are now extinct. The ability to utilize these specimens greatly enhances the research. However, the process of extracting DNA from herbarium specimens is often fraught with difficulty related to such variables as plant chemistry, drying method of the specimen, and chemical treatment of the specimen. Although many methods have been developed for extraction of DNA from herbarium specimens, the most frequently used are modified CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit protocols. Nine selected protocols in this chapter have been successfully used for high-quality DNA extraction from different kinds of plant herbarium tissues. These methods differ primarily with respect to their requirements for input material (from algae to vascular plants), type of the plant tissue (leaves with incrustations, sclerenchyma strands, mucilaginous tissues, needles, seeds), and further possible applications (PCR-based methods or microsatellites, AFLP).

  18. Dietary shift and dysbiosis may trigger mucous stools in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace L Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary shifts can result in dysbiosis between the host and its gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiota, leading to negative outcomes including inflammation. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca are physiologically classified as carnivores; however, they consume a herbivorous diet with dramatic seasonal feeding shifts and episodes of chronic GIT distress with symptoms including abdominal pain, loss of appetite and the excretion of mucous stools (mucoids. These episodes adversely affect the overall nutritional and health status of giant pandas. Here, we examined the fecal microbiota of two giant pandas’ normal and mucoid stools and compared these microbiota to baseline samples from a season with historically few episodes. To identify the microbiota present, we isolated and sequenced 16S rRNA using next-generation sequencing. Mucoids occurred following a seasonal feeding switch from predominately bamboo culm (stalk to leaves. All fecal samples displayed low diversity and were dominated by bacterial in the phyla Firmicutes and to a lesser extent, the Proteobacteria. Fecal samples immediately prior to mucoid episodes had lower microbial diversity compared to baseline samples, followed by increased diversity in mucoids. Mucoids were mostly comprised of common mucosal-associated taxa including Streptococcus and Leuconostoc species, and exhibited increased abundance for bacteria in the family Pasteurellaceae. Taken together, these findings indicate that diet-induced intestinal dysbiosis in giant pandas likely results in an expulsion of the mucosal lining in the form of mucoids. We suggest that these occurrences serve to reset their GIT microbiota, as giant pandas have retained a carnivorous GIT anatomy while shifting to an herbivorous diet.

  19. Morphologic changes of the anal sphincter musculature during and after temporary stool deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, M; Fein, M; Fuchs, K H; Bussen, D; Grun, C; Thiede, A

    2001-04-01

    Temporary stool deviation, using a stoma, is a well-known surgical principle to protect low colorectal or coloanal anastomoses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate any morphologic changes with regard to the anal sphincter muscles during and after temporary ileostomy. Forty-four patients with rectal carcinomas were studied prospectively. All patients underwent low anterior resection. Reconstruction was performed using either a coloanal pouch or a straight end-to-end anastomosis. A protective stoma was fashioned in all 44 patients (ileostomy n=41; colostomy n=3). Stoma closure was carried out after a median of 85 days (41-330 days). Using a standard protocol, anal-sphincter thickness [m. puborectalis, external anal sphincter (EAS) and internal anal (IAS) sphincter] was assessed by means of endoanal ultrasonography preoperatively, at the time of stoma closure, and every 3 months thereafter for 1 year. The diameter of the puborectal muscle decreased from a median preoperative value of 6.3 mm to 5.7 mm at the time of stoma closure (P=0.03). After 3 months, 6.2 mm was measured. This value remained stable for the complete follow-up period. Similar results were recorded for the EAS. The IAS thickness remained stable throughout the study period, measuring between 2.1 mm and 2.4 mm. Temporary stool deviation does lead to morphologic changes of the anal sphincter. While the smooth muscle remains unchanged, the striated counterpart undergoes atrophic transformation. However, after passage reconstruction, i.e., stoma closure, a rapid regeneration of the voluntary muscles is observed.

  20. Comparison of culture based methods for the isolation of Clostridium difficile from stool samples in a research setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Michelle; Stevenson, Emma; Heeg, Daniela; Minton, Nigel P; Kuehne, Sarah A

    2014-08-01

    Effective isolation of Clostridium difficile from stool samples is important in the research setting, especially where low numbers of spores/vegetative cells may be present within a sample. In this study, three protocols for stool culture were investigated to find a sensitive, cost effective and timely method of C. difficile isolation. For the initial enrichment step, the effectiveness of two different rich media, cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth (CCFB) and cycloserine-cefoxitin mannitol broth with taurocholate and lysozyme (CCMB-TAL) were compared. For the comparison of four different, selective solid media; Cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA), Cycloserine-cefoxitin egg yolk agar (CCEY), ChromID C. difficile and tryptone soy agar (TSA) with 5% sheep's blood with and without preceding broth enrichment were used. As a means to enable differentiation between C. difficile and other fecal flora, the effectiveness of the inclusion of a pH indictor (1% Neutral Red), was also evaluated. The data derived indicated that CCFB is more sensitive than CCMB-TAL, however, the latter had an improved recovery rate. A broth enrichment step had a reduced sensitivity over direct plating. ChromID C. difficile showed the best recovery rate whereas CCEY egg yolk agar was the most sensitive of the four. The addition of 1% Neutral Red did not show sufficient colour change when added to CCEY egg yolk agar to be used as a differential medium. For a low cost, timely and sensitive method of isolating C. difficile from stool samples we recommend direct plating onto CCEY egg yolk agar after heat shock. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Escherichia coli pathotypes in Pakistan from consecutive floods in 2010 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Habib; Shah, Muhammad Ali; Asad, Saba; Akhtar, Sania; Akram, Muhammad; Wren, Brendan W

    2013-03-01

    This study compares Escherichia coli pathotypes circulating among children in Pakistan during the floods of 2010 and 2011 and from sporadic cases outside flood affected areas. Using multiplex polymerase chain reaction 115 of 205 stool samples (56.29%) were positive for diarrheagenic E. coli from specimens taken during the floods compared with 50 of 400 (12.5%) stool samples being positive for sporadic cases. The E. coli pathotypes were categorized as Enteropathogenic E. coli 33 (28.69%) and 13 (26%), Enterotoxigenic E. coli 29 (25.21%) and 15 (30%), Enteroaggregative E. coli 21 (18.2%) and 18 (36%), Enterohemorrhagic E. coli 5 (4.34%) and 1 (2%) from flood and sporadic cases, respectively. Furthermore, patients co-infected with more than one pathotype were 26 (22.60%) and 3 (6%) from flood and sporadic cases, respectively. The study shows an unexpectedly high rate of isolation of E. coli pathotypes suggesting Pakistan as an endemic region that requires active surveillance particularly during flood periods.

  2. Specimen size effects in Charpy impact testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Full-size , half-size, and third-size specimens from several different steels have been tested as part of an ongoing alloy development program. The smaller specimens permit more specimens to be made from small trail heats and are much more efficient for irradiation experiments. The results of several comparisons between the different specimen sizes have shown that the smaller specimens show qualitatively similar behavior to large specimens, although the upper-shelf energy level and ductile-to-ductile transition temperature are reduced. The upper-shelf energy levels from different specimen sizes can be compared by using a simple volume normalization method. The effect of specimen size and geometry on the ductile-to-ductile transition temperature is more difficult to predict, although the available data suggest a simple shift in the transition temperature due to specimen size changes.The relatively shallower notch used in smaller specimens alters the deformation pattern, and permits yielding to spread back to the notched surface as well as through to the back. This reduces the constraint and the peak stresses, and thus the initiation of cleavage is more difficult. A better understanding of the stress and strain distributions is needed. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Multiple antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 545 clinical specimens (pus, blood, urine, and stool) and environmental specimens (air sample, saline solution, nasal swabs etc) were cultured for isolation and identification of aerobic bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Out of these, 356(65%) specimens yielded one or more bacterial strains. Frequent ...

  4. The accuracy of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test in diagnosing H-pylori in treated and untreated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arents, NL; van Zwet, AA; Thijs, JC; de Jong, A; Pool, MO; Kleibeuker, JH

    Objective and design To evaluate the performance of the Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA test) in detecting H. pylori infection and monitoring the effect of treatment. This was done in two separate studies using either a biopsy or the C-13-urea breath test based 'gold standard' (in

  5. Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen test: a reliable non-invasive test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, O. J.; Bosman, D. K.; van't Hoff, B. W.; Taminiau, J. A.; ten Kate, F. J.; van der Ende, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen (HpSA) test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study in an academic medical centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 106 consecutive children who underwent gastroscopy were

  6. Development of Reconstitution Technology for Surveillance Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasushi Atago; Shunichi Hatano; Eiichiro Otsuka

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carrying out the project titled 'Nuclear Power Plant Integrated Management Technology (PLIM)' consigned by Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) since 1996FY as a 10-years project. As one of the project themes, development of reconstitution technology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV/RV) surveillance specimens, which are installed in RPVs to monitor the neutron irradiation embrittlement on RPV/RV materials, is now on being carried out to deal with the long-term operation of nuclear power plants. The target of this theme is to establish the technical standard for applicability of reconstituted surveillance specimens including the reconstitution of the Charpy specimens and Compact Tension (CT) specimens. With the Charpy specimen reconstitution, application of 10 mm length inserts is used, which enables the conversion of tests from the LT-direction to the TL-direction. This paper presents the basic data from Charpy and CT specimens of RPV materials using the surveillance specimens obtained for un-irradiated materials including the following. 1) Reconstitution Technology of Charpy Specimens. a) The interaction between plastic zone and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). b) The effects of the possible deviations from the standard specimens for the reconstituted specimens. 2) Reconstitution Technology of CT specimens. a) The correlation between fracture toughness and plastic zone width. Because the project is now in progress, this paper describes the outline of the results obtained as of the end of 2000 FY. (authors)

  7. Comparison of individual and pooled stool samples for the assessment of intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth infections using the Kato-Katz technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kure, Ashenafi; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Dana, Daniel; Bajiro, Mitiku; Ayana, Mio; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-09-24

    Our group has recently provided a proof-of-principle for the examination of pooled stool samples using McMaster technique as a strategy for the rapid assessment of intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). In the present study we evaluated this pooling strategy for the assessment of intensity of both STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections using the Kato-Katz technique. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 360 children aged 5-18 years from six schools in Jimma Zone (southwest Ethiopia). We performed faecal egg counts (FECs) in both individual and pooled samples (pools sizes of 5, 10 and 20) to estimate the number of eggs per gram of stool (EPG) using the Kato-Katz technique. We also assessed the time to screen both individual and pooled samples. Except for hookworms, there was a significant correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.53-0.95) between the mean of individual FECs and the FECs of pooled samples for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and S. mansoni, regardless of the pool size. Mean FEC were 2,596 EPG, 125 EPG, 47 EPG, and 41 EPG for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, S. mansoni and hookworm, respectively. There was no significant difference in FECs between the examination of individual and pooled stool samples, except for hookworms. For this STH, pools of 10 resulted in a significant underestimation of infection intensity. The total time to obtain individual FECs was 65 h 5 min. For pooled FECs, this was 19 h 12 min for pools of 5, 14 h 39 min for pools of 10 and 12 h 42 min for pools of 20. The results indicate that pooling of stool sample holds also promise as a rapid assessment of infections intensity for STH and S. mansoni using the Kato-Katz technique. In this setting, the time in the laboratory was reduced by 70 % when pools of 5 instead of individual stool samples were screened.

  8. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roomans, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Qualitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens requires an approach that is somewhat different from that used in the materials sciences. The first step is deconvolution and background subtraction on the obtained spectrum. The further treatment depends on the type of specimen: thin, thick, or semithick. For thin sections, the continuum method of quantitation is most often used, but it should be combined with an accurate correction for extraneous background. However, alternative methods to determine local mass should also be considered. In the analysis of biological bulk specimens, the ZAF-correction method appears to be less useful, primarily because of the uneven surface of biological specimens. The peak-to-local background model may be a more adequate method for thick specimens that are not mounted on a thick substrate. Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens generally requires the use of standards that preferably should resemble the specimen in chemical and physical properties. Special problems in biological microanalysis include low count rates, specimen instability and mass loss, extraneous contributions to the spectrum, and preparative artifacts affecting quantitation. A relatively recent development in X-ray microanalysis of biological specimens is the quantitative determination of local water content

  9. A norovirus GII.P21 outbreak in a boarding school, Austria 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Ching; Hipfl, Elisabeth; Lederer, Ingeborg; Allerberger, Franz; Schmid, Daniela

    2015-08-01

    An Austrian boarding school reported a cluster of gastroenteritis on January 10, 2014. Environmental swabs from the school cafeteria and a nearby kebab restaurant tested positive for norovirus. The outbreak was investigated to identify its source(s). An outbreak case was defined as a student or staff member with diarrhoea or vomiting that developed between January 7 and 13. Details on food exposure were collected via a self-administered questionnaire; risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Norovirus from the stool specimens of cases and asymptomatic kebab restaurant workers were genotyped. Twenty-eight cases were identified among 144 persons (attack rate 19%). The outbreak emerged and peaked on January 9, and ended on January 12. Compared to those who did not eat kebab, those who ate kebab on 7, 8, and 9 January were respectively 11 (95% CI 4.2-28), 6.7 (95% CI 3.4-13), and 9.3 (95% CI 4.0-22) times more likely to develop disease within the following 2 days. Stool specimens from three cases and three restaurant workers were positive for norovirus GII.P21. The kebab prepared by norovirus-positive restaurant workers was the most likely source of the outbreak. It is recommended that food handlers comply strictly with hand hygiene and avoid bare-handed contact with ready-to-eat food to minimize the risk of food-borne infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. SAMJ Monitoring of rotavirus infection in a paediatric hospital by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the spring of 1987 and the autumn of 1988, stool specimens were collected from infants and young children in the paediatric unit at H. F. Verwoerd Hospital, Pretoria, and examined for the presence of rotaviruses to assess the potential for hospital-acquired infection in the paediatric wards. Stool samples were also ...

  11. Monitoring of rotavirus infection in a paediatric hospital by RNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the spring of 1987 and the autumn of 1988, stool specimens were collected from infants and young children in the paediatric unit at H. F. Verwoerd Hospital, Pretoria, and examined for the presence of rotaviruses to assess the potential for hospital-acquired infection in the paediatric wards. Stool samples were also ...

  12. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    an environmental transmission electron microscope to an in situ X-ray diffractometer through a dedicated transmission electron microscope specimen transfer holder, capable of sealing the specimen in a gaseous environment at elevated temperatures. Two catalyst material systems have been investigated; Cu/ZnO/Al2O3...... transferred in a reactive environment to the environmental transmission electron microscope where further analysis on the local scale were conducted. The Co/Al2O3 catalyst was reduced in the environmental microscope and successfully kept reduced outside the microscope in a reactive environment. The in situ......Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking...

  13. Premarket evaluations of the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay and the BD Max Cdiff Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellrecht, K A; Espino, A A; Maceira, V P; Nattanmai, S M; Butt, S A; Wroblewski, D; Hannett, G E; Musser, K A

    2014-05-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a well-recognized complication of antibiotic use. Historically, diagnosing C. difficile has been difficult, as antigen assays are insensitive and culture-based methods require several days to yield results. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are quickly becoming the standard of care. We compared the performance of two automated investigational/research use only (IUO/RUO) NAATs for the detection of C. difficile toxin genes, the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay (IMDx) and the BD Max Cdiff Assay (Max). A prospective analysis of 111 stool specimens received in the laboratory for C. difficile testing by the laboratory's test of record (TOR), the BD GeneOhm Cdiff Assay, and a retrospective analysis of 88 specimens previously determined to be positive for C. difficile were included in the study. One prospective specimen was excluded due to loss to follow-up discrepancy analysis. Of the remaining 198 specimens, 90 were positive by all three methods, 9 were positive by TOR and Max, and 3 were positive by TOR only. One negative specimen was initially inhibitory by Max. The remaining 95 specimens were negative by all methods. Toxigenic C. difficile culture was performed on the 12 discrepant samples. True C. difficile-positive status was defined as either positive by all three amplification assays or positive by toxigenic culture. Based on this definition, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.9% and 95% for Max and 92.8% and 100% for IMDx. In summary, both highly automated systems demonstrated excellent performance, and each has individual benefits, which will ensure that they will both have a niche in clinical laboratories.

  14. Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from stools samples and food products in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Rúgeles, Laura Cristina; Bai, Jing; Martínez, Aída Juliana; Vanegas, María Consuelo; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in childhood diarrhea and the role of contaminated food products in disease transmission in Colombia are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify E. coli pathotypes, including E. coli O157:H7, from 108 stool samples from children with acute diarrhea, 38 meat samples and 38 vegetable samples. Multiplex PCR and Bax Dupont systems were used for E. coli pathotype detection. Eighteen (9.8%) E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes were detected among al...

  15. Evaluation of a Single Procedure Allowing the Isolation of Enteropathogenic Yersinia along with Other Bacterial Enteropathogens from Human Stools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Cyril; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia are among the most frequent agents of human diarrhea in temperate and cold countries. However, the incidence of yersiniosis is largely underestimated because of the peculiar growth characteristics of pathogenic Yersinia, which make their isolation from poly-contaminated samples difficult. The use of specific procedures for Yersinia isolation is required, but is expensive and time consuming, and therefore is not systematically performed in clinical pathology laboratories. A means to circumvent this problem would be to use a single procedure for the isolation of all bacterial enteropathogens. Since the Statens Serum Institut enteric medium (SSI) has been reported to allow the growth at 37°C of most Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia, our study aimed at evaluating its performances for Yersinia isolation, as compared to the commonly used Yersinia-specific semi-selective Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin medium (CIN) incubated at 28°C. Our results show that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis growth was strongly inhibited on SSI at 37°C, and therefore that this medium is not suitable for the isolation of this species. All Yersinia enterocolitica strains tested grew on SSI, while some non-pathogenic Yersinia species were inhibited. The morphology of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI allowed their differentiation from various other Gram-negative bacteria commonly isolated from stool samples. However, in artificially contaminated human stools, the recovery of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI at 37°C was difficult and was 3 logs less sensitive than on CIN at 28°C. Therefore, despite its limitations, the use of a specific procedure (CIN incubated at 28°C) is still required for an efficient isolation of enteropathogenic Yersinia from stools. PMID:22911756

  16. Does the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affect the radiation exposure in low-dose CT colonography performed with an automatic exposure control?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Kyong; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Young Hoon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Bundang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Joong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Hyunna [Seoul National University, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yanof, Jeffrey H. [Philips Healthcare, CT Clinical Science, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hwang, Seung-sik [Inha University School of Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To determine whether the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affects the radiation exposure in low-dose screening CT colonography performed with an automatic tube-current modulation technique. The study included 311 patients. The tagging agent was barium (n = 271) or iodine (n = 40). Correlation was measured between mean volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and the estimated x-ray attenuation of the tagged stool and fluid (ATT). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of ATT on CTDI{sub vol} and the effect of ATT on image noise while adjusting for other variables including abdominal circumference. CTDI{sub vol} varied from 0.88 to 2.54 mGy. There was no significant correlation between CTDI{sub vol} and ATT (p = 0.61). ATT did not significantly affect CTDI{sub vol} (p = 0.93), while abdominal circumference was the only factor significantly affecting CTDI{sub vol} (p < 0.001). Image noise ranged from 59.5 to 64.1 HU. The p value for the regression model explaining the noise was 0.38. The amount of stool and fluid tagging does not significantly affect radiation exposure. (orig.)

  17. Does the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affect the radiation exposure in low-dose CT colonography performed with an automatic exposure control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun Kyong; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Kil Joong; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Hyunna; Park, Seong Ho; Yanof, Jeffrey H.; Hwang, Seung-sik

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affects the radiation exposure in low-dose screening CT colonography performed with an automatic tube-current modulation technique. The study included 311 patients. The tagging agent was barium (n = 271) or iodine (n = 40). Correlation was measured between mean volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and the estimated x-ray attenuation of the tagged stool and fluid (ATT). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of ATT on CTDI vol and the effect of ATT on image noise while adjusting for other variables including abdominal circumference. CTDI vol varied from 0.88 to 2.54 mGy. There was no significant correlation between CTDI vol and ATT (p = 0.61). ATT did not significantly affect CTDI vol (p = 0.93), while abdominal circumference was the only factor significantly affecting CTDI vol (p < 0.001). Image noise ranged from 59.5 to 64.1 HU. The p value for the regression model explaining the noise was 0.38. The amount of stool and fluid tagging does not significantly affect radiation exposure. (orig.)

  18. Quality control of parasitology stool examination in Tabriz clinical laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahram Khademvatan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of quality control program was to make doctors and laboratory personnel trust in laboratory results and consequently increasing confidence in laboratory achievements. The quality assurance means raising the level of quality in all tests that lead to raising the level of work efficiency and laboratories including minimum expense for society and minimum time for lab personnel. This study aimed to assess and determine the accuracy and precision of results in Tabriz medical diagnostic laboratories. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 790 stool samples were selected randomly and tested by standard methods.Student t- test, SPSS software and sensitivity and accuracy formulas were used for data analysis. Results: The sensitivity was 62%, 22% and 8% with 95% confidence intervals for worm's eggs, protozoan cysts and trophozoite detection respectively. Conclusion: To elevate quality assurance in clinical diagnostic laboratory, monitoring and check of the laboratories by standard methods continually should be done.

  19. Pediatric Rotavirus Gastroenteritis: A 2 year Analysis to Understand Current Prevalence in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Nerurkar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have established the high prevalence of paediatric Rotavirus gastroenteritis in India. The importance of rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection has also been stressed upon, to initiate prompt rehydration therapy and prevent unnecessary use of antibiotics .We undertook a retrospective analysis of 327 paediatric stool specimens to understand the current prevalence and seasonal distribution of cases in Mumbai and its surrounding areas. Overall Rotavirus positivity rate was 37.9 %, with peak positivity in winter seasons. Infections were more common upto 2 years of age. Incidence of bacterial and parasitic coinfections was low.

  20. Development of fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Nishimura, Arata; Wakai, Eichi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Itoh, Takamoto; Hasegawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    For developing the fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen, the effect of specimen size and shape on the fatigue life of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (F82H-IEA, F82H-BA07 and JLF-1) was investigated by the fatigue test at room temperature in air using round-bar and hourglass specimens with various specimen sizes (test section diameter: 0.85–10 mm). The round-bar specimen showed no specimen size and no specimen shape effects on the fatigue life, whereas the hourglass specimen showed no specimen size effect and obvious specimen shape effect on it. The shorter fatigue life of the hourglass specimen observed under low strain ranges could be attributed to the shorter micro-crack initiation life induced by the stress concentration dependent on the specimen shape. On the basis of this study, the small round-bar specimen was an acceptable candidate for evaluating the fatigue life using small specimen

  1. Does Polymerase Chain Reaction of Tissue Specimens Aid in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Jin Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Mycobacterial culture is the gold standard test for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB, but it is time-consuming. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a highly sensitive and specific method that can reduce the time required for diagnosis. The diagnostic efficacy of PCR differs, so this study determined the actual sensitivity of TB-PCR in tissue specimens. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 574 cases. The results of the nested PCR of the IS6110 gene, mycobacterial culture, TB-specific antigen-induced interferon-γ release assay (IGRA, acid-fast bacilli (AFB staining, and histological findings were evaluated. Results The positivity rates were 17.6% for PCR, 3.3% for the AFB stain, 22.2% for mycobacterial culture, and 55.4% for IGRA. PCR had a low sensitivity (51.1% and a high specificity (86.3% based on the culture results of other studies. The sensitivity was higher (65.5% in cases with necrotizing granuloma but showed the highest sensitivity (66.7% in those with necrosis only. The concordance rate between the methods indicated that PCR was the best method compared to mycobacterial culture, and the concordance rate increased for the methods using positive result for PCR or histologic features. Conclusions PCR of tissue specimens is a good alternative to detect tuberculosis, but it may not be as sensitive as previously suggested. Its reliability may also be influenced by some histological features. Our data showed a higher sensitivity when specimens contained necrosis, which indicated that only specimens with necrosis should be used for PCR to detect tuberculosis.

  2. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Clinical Specimens of Patients Suspected of Having Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis by Application of Nested PCR on Five Different Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Azar D; Alami, Ameneh; Meghdadi, Hossein; Hosseini, Atta A

    2017-01-01

    Definitive and rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is challenging since conventional techniques have limitations due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. To increase the sensitivity of detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in EPTB specimens, we performed a nested PCR assay targeting several genes of MTB on EPTB specimens. A total of 100 clinical specimens from suspected cases of EPTB were processed. Standard staining for acid fast bacilli (AFB) was performed as the preliminary screening test. Extracted DNAs from specimens were subjected to Nested PCR technique for the detection of five different MTB target genes of IS6110, IS1081, hsp65kd, mbp64 , and mtp40 . On performing AFB staining, only 13% of specimens were positive, of which ascites fluid (33.3%), followed by pleural effusion (30.8%) showed the greatest AFB positivity rate. We demonstrated slight improvement in yields in lymph node which comprised the majority of specimens in this study, by employing PCR targeted to IS6110 - and hsp65-genes in comparison to AFB staining. However, the yields in ascites fluid and pleural effusion were not substantially improved by PCR, but those from bone and wound were, as in nested PCR employing either gene, the same positivity rate were obtained for ascites fluid (33.3%), while for pleural effusion specimens only IS1081 based PCR showed identical positivity rate with AFB stain (30.8%). The results for bone and wound specimens, however, demonstrated an improved yield mainly by employing IS1081 gene. Here, we report higher detection rate of EPTB in clinical specimens using five different targeted MTB genes. This nested PCR approach facilitates the comparison and the selection of the most frequently detected genes. Of course this study demonstrated the priority of IS1081 followed by mtp40 and IS6110 , among the five tested genes and indicates the effectiveness of any of the three genes in the design of an efficient nested-PCR test that

  3. [Survey on a public health emergency event caused by norovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Y; Jiang, C; Hua, W Y; Liu, F; Zhao, Z; Ding, Y J; Wang, L; Li, J

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak caused by norovirus infection in a school in Haidian district, Beijing. Methods: Basic information of the school and data related to patients in the fields survey were collected and analyzed descriptively. Laboratory tests were performed to test the stool and anal swab specimens of both patients and cooks as well as the environmental specimens. Risk factors related to the incidence were analyzed through a case-control study. Results: A total number of 119 patients were identified in the school. Clinical symptoms were mild, mainly involving vomiting (94.1 % , 112/119), abdominal pain (46.2 % , 55/119), but no need of hospitalization. The average age of the student patients was 6.38, with minimum and maximum between 5 and 11. Patients were found in 22 classes, but mainly in grade 1 and class 7 where 35 patients were found (30.17 % ). A total of 134 specimens of rectal swabs and stool were collected, with 7 positive for norovirus and 6 for sappovirus. Salmonella, Shigella, lapactic Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were not found in on dinner sets, residual foods, bottled water or in drinking fountains. Index on water hygiene was unsatisfactory in classrooms or dormitories where more cases were found. Accommodation, north-facing-classrooms, abnormal water hygiene indexes were found related to the occurance of the disease ( P <0.05). Conclusions: The outbreak was identified a gastroenteritis infection, caused by norovirus with symptoms as vomiting and abdominal pain. This event reached the reporting standards of public health emergencies-level Ⅳ. Discovery and isolation of the first case was not timely while transmission of the disease might be water-borne. Surveillance programs on symptoms, disinfection of vomit and stool in places like nurseries and schools should be strengthened to prevent the norovirus outbreak.

  4. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B.F.; Joergensen, K.; Oestergaard, R.C. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, T.K. [LM Glasfiber A/S, Lunderskov (Denmark)

    2004-03-01

    A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratio between the two applied moments, the full mode mixity range from pure mode I to pure mode II can be generated for the same specimen geometry. The specimen allows stable crack growth. In case of large scale crack bridging, mixed mode cohesive laws can be obtained by a J integral based approach. As a preliminary example, fracture of adhesive joints between two glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre cross over bridging, eventually reaching a steady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement. Cohesive stresses were determined by a J integral approach. The deducted shear stress was found to be relative high ({approx} = 20 MPa) in comparison with the normal stress ({approx} = 1 MPa). (au)

  5. Neutron embrittlement of the reactor vessel in Borssele as determined from Charpy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.; Dufour, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Two sets of Charpy specimens have been retrieved from the reactor in the nuclear power plant at Borssele after two and four cycles of operation, respectively. The neutron fluxes at the sample positions and at the vessel wall have been calculated with a point-kernel method and S 2 calculations. The calculated fluxes at the two specimen positions are in fair agreement with fluences measured by threshold detectors. The Reference Temperature of Nil Ductility has been determined from the Charpy tests by a tan-h fit procedure. An extrapolation to a 40-year vessel life has been made on the basis of a square-root dependence of the change in the reference temperature with effective full-power years. Under these assumptions the heat-affected zone material will reach 296 K. The other materials will remain below 280 K. The vessel life therefore is not limited by embrittlement. (orig.)

  6. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...... glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre bridging, eventually reaching asteady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement....

  7. Teaching retirement financial literacy in an undergraduate gerontology classroom: broadening the concept of the tripod or three-legged stool of retirement income utilizing active learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hallie E; Brown, Pamela Pitman

    2015-01-01

    The three-legged stool concept is widely used in gerontological and geriatric education as an explanation on how one should fiscally approach his or her retirement. Financial managers, planners, retirees, business owners, even the Social Security Administration uses this metaphor of fiscal soundness in retirement planning. Gerontologists are moving away from the "tripod of retirement income" and "three-legged stool" term, as more often market work is needed for financial security. This activity focuses on the tripod or three-legged stool concepts of retirement planning using active learning, allowing the students to work collaboratively in a group, reflect upon the activity, and most importantly have fun. The game also allows for an expansion of the tripod concepts into the four pillars of economic security, broaching the use of personal assets and the possible need for longer employment. Game scenarios also emphasize macro- and microlevel forces, such as race, gender, health status, education, or marital status, which can influence timing of retirement or the level of retirement income available. The authors include instructions on how to set up the learning experience including worksheets, as well as reflection questions posed throughout the process.

  8. Identification of and Screening for Human Helicobacter cinaedi Infections and Carriers via Nested PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Kohta; Khan, Shahzada; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Fujii, Shigemoto; Ono, Katsuhiko; Matsunaga, Tetsuro; Yoshitake, Jun; Sawa, Tomohiro; Tomida, Junko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi is the most frequently reported enterohepatic Helicobacter species isolated from humans. Earlier research suggested that certain patients with H. cinaedi infection may remain undiagnosed or incorrectly diagnosed because of difficulties in detecting the bacteria by conventional culture methods. Here, we report a nested PCR assay that rapidly detects the cytolethal distending toxin gene (cdt) of H. cinaedi with high specificity and sensitivity. Specificity of the assay was validated by using different species of Helicobacter and Campylobacter, as well as known H. cinaedi-positive and -negative samples. The sensitivity of detection for the cdt gene in the assay was 102 CFU/ml urine or 102 CFU/105 infected RAW 264.7 cells. In an H. cinaedi-infected mouse model, the cdt gene of H. cinaedi was effectively detected via the assay with urine (6/7), stool (2/3), and blood (2/6) samples. Importantly, it detected H. cinaedi in blood, urine, and stool samples from one patient with a suspected H. cinaedi infection and three patients with known infections. The assay was further used clinically to follow up two H. cinaedi-infected patients after antibiotic treatment. Stool samples from these two patients evaluated by nested PCR after antibiotic therapy showed clearance of bacterial DNA. Finally, analysis of stool specimens from healthy volunteers showed occasional positive reactions (4/30) to H. cinaedi DNA, which suggests intestinal colonization by H. cinaedi in healthy subjects. In conclusion, this nested PCR assay may be useful for the rapid diagnosis, antimicrobial treatment evaluation, and epidemiological study of H. cinaedi infection. PMID:23015666

  9. Recent advances in FIB-TEM specimen preparation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Malis, T.; Dionne, S.

    2006-01-01

    Preparing high-quality transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens is of paramount importance in TEM studies. The development of the focused ion beam (FIB) microscope has greatly enhanced TEM specimen preparation capabilities. In recent years, various FIB-TEM foil preparation techniques have been developed. However, the currently available techniques fail to produce TEM specimens from fragile and ultra-fine specimens such as fine fibers. In this paper, the conventional FIB-TEM specimen preparation techniques are reviewed, and their advantages and shortcomings are compared. In addition, a new technique suitable to prepare TEM samples from ultra-fine specimens is demonstrated

  10. Reliability of 46,XX results on miscarriage specimens: a review of 1,222 first-trimester miscarriage specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathi, Ruth B; Gustin, Stephanie L F; Keller, Jennifer; Maisenbacher, Melissa K; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Tao, Rosina; Demko, Zach

    2014-01-01

    To examine the rate of maternal contamination in miscarriage specimens. Retrospective review of 1,222 miscarriage specimens submitted for chromosome testing with detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC). Referral centers requesting genetic testing of miscarriage specimens at a single reference laboratory. Women with pregnancy loss who desire complete chromosome analysis of the pregnancy tissue. Analysis of miscarriage specimens using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray technology with bioinformatics program to detect maternal cell contamination. Chromosome content of miscarriages and incidence of 46,XX results due to MCC. Of the 1,222 samples analyzed, 592 had numeric chromosomal abnormalities, and 630 were normal 46,XX or 46,XY (456 and 187, respectively). In 269 of the 46,XX specimens, MCC with no embryonic component was found. With the exclusion of maternal 46,XX results, the chromosomal abnormality rate increased from 48% to 62%, and the ratio for XX to XY results dropped from 2.6 to 1.0. Over half of the normal 46,XX results in miscarriage specimens were due to MCC. The use of SNPs in MCC testing allows for precise identification of chromosomal abnormalities in miscarriage as well as MCC, improving the accuracy of products of conception testing. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Nishimura, Arata; Fujiwara, Masaharu; Hisaka, Tomoaki

    2012-01-01

    To develop the fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen, the investigation of the effect of specimen size and specimen shape on the fatigue life and the development of the fatigue testing machine, especially the extensometer, were carried out. The effect of specimen size on the fatigue life was almost negligible for the round-bar specimens. The shorter fatigue life at relatively low strain range conditions for the hourglass specimen that the standard specimen were observed. Therefore the miniature round-bar specimen was considered to be adequate for the fatigue life evaluation using small specimen. Several types of the extensometer system using a strain gauge and a laser has been developed for realizing the fatigue test of the miniature round-bar specimen at high temperature in vacuum. (author)

  12. Diagnosing periprosthetic infection: false-positive intraoperative Gram stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oethinger, Margret; Warner, Debra K; Schindler, Susan A; Kobayashi, Hideo; Bauer, Thomas W

    2011-04-01

    Intraoperative Gram stains have a reported low sensitivity but high specificity when used to help diagnose periprosthetic infections. In early 2008, we recognized an unexpectedly high frequency of apparent false-positive Gram stains from revision arthroplasties. The purpose of this report is to describe the cause of these false-positive test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of all intraoperative Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasty cases during a 3-month interval using microbiologic cultures of the same samples as the gold standard. Methods of specimen harvesting, handling, transport, distribution, specimen processing including tissue grinding/macerating, Gram staining, and interpretation were studied. After a test modification, results of specimens were prospectively collected for a second 3-month interval, and the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative Gram stains were calculated. The retrospective review of 269 Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasties indicated historic sensitivity and specificity values of 23% and 92%, respectively. Systematic analysis of all steps of the procedure identified Gram-stained but nonviable bacteria in commercial broth reagents used as diluents for maceration of periprosthetic membranes before Gram staining and culture. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing showed mixed bacterial DNA. Evaluation of 390 specimens after initiating standardized Millipore filtering of diluent fluid revealed a reduced number of positive Gram stains, yielding 9% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Clusters of false-positive Gram stains have been reported in other clinical conditions. They are apparently rare related to diagnosing periprosthetic infections but have severe consequences if used to guide treatment. Even occasional false-positive Gram stains should prompt review of laboratory methods. Our observations implicate dead bacteria in microbiologic reagents as potential sources of false-positive Gram

  13. An Upgrade Pinning Block: A Mechanical Practical Aid for Fast Labelling of the Insect Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Ghafouri Moghaddam, Mostafa; Rakhshani, Ehsan; Mokhtari, Azizollah

    2017-01-01

    A new mechanical innovation is described to deal with standard labelling of dried specimens on triangular cards and/or pinned specimens in personal and public collections. It works quickly, precisely, and easily and is very useful for maintaining label uniformity in collections. The tools accurately sets the position of labels in the shortest possible time. This tools has advantages including rapid processing, cost effectiveness, light weight, and high accuracy, compared to conventional methods. It is fully customisable, compact, and does not require specialist equipment to assemble. Conventional methods generally require locating holes on the pinning block surface when labelling with a resulting risk to damage of the specimens. Insects of different orders can be labelled by this simple and effective tool.

  14. Design of specimen for weld residual stress simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Park, Jong Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design a laboratory specimen for simulating residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe. Specimen type and method for residual stress generation were proposed based on the review of prior studies and parametric finite element simulation. To prove the proposed specimen type and loading method, the residual stress was generated using the designed specimen by applying proposed method and was measured. The measured residual stress using X-ray diffraction reasonably agreed with the results of finite element simulation considered in the specimen design. Comparison of residual strains measured at several locations of specimen and given by finite element simulation also showed good agreement. Therefore, it is indicated that the designed specimen can reasonably simulate the residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe

  15. Heparin as a pharmacologic intervention to induce positive scintiscan in occult gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Brantly, M.

    1984-01-01

    The value of using heparin as a pharmacologic intervention to induce a positive scintiscan was studied in a patient with chronic occult gastrointestinal bleeding. When all standard diagnostic tests (upper and lower gastrointestinal series, upper and lower endoscopy, and conventional noninterventional Tc-99m RBC imaging) fail to detect and localize gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient who has definite clinical evidence (guaiac positive stool and dropping hemoglobin, hematocrit) of chronic occult gastrointestinal oozing, heparin may be used (with proper precaution) as a last resort to aid in the scintigraphic detection and localization of chronic occult gastrointestinal bleeding

  16. TEM specimen preparation of semiconductor-PMMA-metal interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangadurai, P.; Lumelsky, Yulia; Silverstein, Michael S.; Kaplan, Wayne D.

    2008-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) cross-section specimens of PMMA in contact with gold and Si were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) and compared with plan-view PMMA specimens prepared by a dip-coating technique. The specimens were characterized by TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). In the cross-section specimens, the thin films of PMMA were located in a Si-PMMA-Au multilayer. Different thicknesses of PMMA films were spin-coated on the Si substrates. The thickness of the TEM specimens prepared by FIB was estimated using EELS to be 0.65 of the plasmon mean-free-path. Along the PMMA-Au interface, Au particle diffusion into the PMMA was observed, and the size of the Au particles was in the range of 2-4 nm. Dip-coating of PMMA directly on Cu TEM grids resulted in thin specimens with a granular morphology, with a thickness of 0.58 of the plasmon mean-free-path. The dip-coated specimens were free from ion milling induced artifacts, and thus serve as control specimens for comparison with the cross-sectioned specimens prepared by FIB

  17. Evaluation of the Roche LightMix Gastro parasites multiplex PCR assay detecting Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, cryptosporidia, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Blastocystis hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, J; Fuhrmann, J; Kietzmann, H; Tannich, E; Müller, M; Ignatius, R

    2018-03-23

    Multiplex PCR assays offer highly sensitive and specific tools for the detection of enteric pathogens. This prospective study aimed at comparing the novel Roche LightMix Modular Assay Gastro Parasites (LMAGP) detecting Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Blastocystishominis, and Dientamoebafragilis with routine laboratory procedures. Stool specimens (n = 1062 from 1009 patients) were consecutively examined by LMAGP, R-Biopharm Ridascreen enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) detecting G. duodenalis or E. histolytica/dispar, and microscopy of wet mounts. Discrepant results were analysed by in-house PCR. D. fragilis or B. hominis were detected by LMAGP in 131 (14.4%) and 179 (19.9%; 16 samples positive by microscopy; p PCR). G. duodenalis was detected by LMAGP, EIA, or microscopy in 20, 16, or 9 of 1039 stool samples, respectively; all four samples missed by EIA were confirmed by in-house PCR. In total, 938 stool samples were analysed for E. histolytica/dispar. Nine of ten EIA-positive samples were negative by LMAGP but positive by in-house PCR for E. dispar. One E. histolytica infection (positive by both LMAGP and in-house PCR) was missed by EIA and microscopy. Parasites only detected by microscopy included Enterobius vermicularis eggs (n = 3) and apathogenic amoebae (n = 27). The data call for routine use of multiplex PCR assays for the detection of enteric protozoan parasites in laboratory diagnostics. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of bovine TB in Iranian cattle herds of Khuzestan, a laboratory study on postmortem specimens from tuberculin-positive cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Loni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Khuzestan is a southwestern province of Iran with proximity to the Persian Gulf and the international border with Iraq where harsh climate seriously affects this oil-rich region. In a search for causative agents of bovine tuberculosis (bTB, slaughterhouse specimens (lymph nodes from 32 tuberculin-positive cows originating from 17 farms were cultured on Lowenstein–Jensen slopes. This was further extended with bacterial culture of postmortem material from 6 trapped feral mice straying on the same farm premises. Twenty-five bovine and 2 murine acid-fast isolates were consequently obtained with all of them confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB complex bacteria by IS6110-PCR experiment. Spoligotyping and RD4 typing of the 2 murine and some of the collected bovine isolates left no doubt that Mycobacterium bovis is the principle and possibly the single culprit in bTB in this region. It does not come as a surprise as previous exhaustive works have shown in the Iranian environment other members of MTB complex than M. bovis are very unlikely to have any role in the epidemiology of bTB.

  19. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR

  20. Evaluation of irradiated coating material specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Jin; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Lee Moon

    2007-12-01

    Evaluation result of irradiated coating material specimens - Coating material specimens radiated Gamma Energy(Co 60) in air condition. - Evaluation conditions was above 1 X 10 4 Gy/hr, and radiated TID 2.0 X 10 6 Gy. - The radiated coating material specimens, No Checking, Cracking, Flaking, Delamination, Peeling and Blistering. - Coating system at the Kori no. 1 and APR 1400 Nuclear power plant, evaluation of irradiated coating materials is in accordance with owner's requirement(2.0 X 10 6 Gy)

  1. High inter-specimen variability of baseline data for the tibio-talar contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricali, Giovanni A; Bartels, Ward; Labey, Luc; Dereymaeker, Greta Ph E; Luyten, Frank P; Vander Sloten, Jos

    2009-01-01

    The tibio-talar contact area has been widely investigated to monitor biomechanical changes due to articular incongruities or an altered loading. This study aims to investigate for the first time in a systematic way the extent of the inter-specimen variability of the tibio-talar contact area, and its repercussions when analyzing data concerning this parameter. Ten specimens were loaded to record the tibio-talar contact characteristics by use of pressure sensitive film. The size of the talar dome area, the size of the (normalized) tibio-talar contact area, the position of the tibio-talar contact area, and the shape of the latter were determined and analyzed. Inter-specimen variability was expressed as the coefficient of variation and was calculated for the datasets of previous studies as well. The size of the tibio-talar contact area showed a very high inter-specimen variability, as is the case in previous studies. This high variability persisted when a normalized tibio-talar contact area was calculated. The shape of the tibio-talar contact area showed some basic characteristics, but a high variation in details could be observed. Every specimen can be considered to have its own "ankle print". By this variability, articular incongruities are expected to have a different effect on local biomechanical characteristics in every single individual. Therefore, every single case has to be evaluated and reported for significant changes. In case of modeling, this also underscores the need to use subject specific models fed by sets of parameters derived from a series of single specimens.

  2. Effects of antibiotics on protected specimen brush sampling in ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, E; Dorca, J; Pujol, M; Garcia, L; Barreiro, B; Verdaguer, R; Gudiol, F; Manresa, F

    2002-05-01

    The effects of antibiotic treatment on the results of protected specimen brushing (PSB) in ventilator-associated pneumonia were prospectively assessed by performing this procedure before antibiotic treatment, and 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after initiation of antibiotic treatment, in 35 ventilated patients who developed pneumonia during mechanical ventilation. The number of micro-organisms isolated, their concentration (colony-forming units (cfu) mL(-1)), and the number of cases with a positive PSB (> or =10(3) cfu x mL(-1)) were evaluated. Within 12 h of the initiation of effective antibiotic treatment a rapid, significant decrease in the numbers of organisms isolated, their individual concentrations and the percentage of positive PSB results were observed. Certain bacterial species (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzee) appeared to be more vulnerable to antibiotics than others (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanni). This data confirms that prior antibiotic treatment, even after only a few hours of activity, significantly decreases the sensitivity of protected brush specimen; this effect appears to be particularly marked among the species involved in early ventilator associated pneumonia.

  3. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for early detection of Schistosoma mansoni in stool samples: a diagnostic approach in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernández-Soto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis, mainly due to Schistosoma mansoni species, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. To overcome the drawbacks of classical parasitological and serological methods in detecting S. mansoni infections, especially in acute stage of the disease, development of cost-effective, simple and rapid molecular methods is still needed for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. A promising approach is the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP technology. Compared to PCR-based assays, LAMP has the advantages of reaction simplicity, rapidity, specificity, cost-effectiveness and higher amplification efficiency. Additionally, as results can be inspected by the naked eye, the technique has great potential for use in low-income countries.A sequence corresponding to a mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region was selected as a target for designing a LAMP-based method to detect S. mansoni DNA in stool samples. We used a S. mansoni murine model to obtain well defined stool and sera samples from infected mice with S. mansoni cercariae. Samples were taken weekly from week 0 to 8 post-infection and the Kato-Katz and ELISA techniques were used for monitoring the infection. Primer set designed were tested using a commercial reaction mixture for LAMP assay and an in house mixture to compare results. Specificity of LAMP was tested using 16 DNA samples from different parasites, including several Schistosoma species, and no cross-reactions were found. The detection limit of our LAMP assay (SmMIT-LAMP was 1 fg of S. mansoni DNA. When testing stool samples from infected mice the SmMIT-LAMP detected S. mansoni DNA as soon as 1 week post-infection.We have developed, for the first time, a cost-effective, easy to perform, specific and sensitive LAMP assay for early detection of S. mansoni in stool samples. The method is potentially and readily adaptable for field diagnosis and disease surveillance in schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  4. Technical Note: Method to correlate whole-specimen histopathology of radical prostatectomy with diagnostic MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Deirdre M., E-mail: d.mcgrath@sheffield.ac.uk; Lee, Jenny; Foltz, Warren D. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Samavati, Navid [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada); Jewett, Michael A. S. [Departments of Surgery (Urology) and Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Kwast, Theo van der [Pathology Department, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Chung, Peter [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Ménard, Cynthia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, 1058 Rue Saint-Denis, Montréal, Québec H2X 3J4 (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: Validation of MRI-guided tumor boundary delineation for targeted prostate cancer therapy is achieved via correlation with gold-standard histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Challenges to accurate correlation include matching the pathology sectioning plane with the in vivo imaging slice plane and correction for the deformation that occurs between in vivo imaging and histology. A methodology is presented for matching of the histological sectioning angle and position to the in vivo imaging slices. Methods: Patients (n = 4) with biochemical failure following external beam radiotherapy underwent diagnostic MRI to confirm localized recurrence of prostate cancer, followed by salvage radical prostatectomy. High-resolution 3-D MRI of the ex vivo specimens was acquired to determine the pathology sectioning angle that best matched the in vivo imaging slice plane, using matching anatomical features and implanted fiducials. A novel sectioning device was developed to guide sectioning at the correct angle, and to assist the insertion of reference dye marks to aid in histopathology reconstruction. Results: The percentage difference in the positioning of the urethra in the ex vivo pathology sections compared to the positioning in in vivo images was reduced from 34% to 7% through slicing at the best match angle. Reference dye marks were generated, which were visible in ex vivo imaging, in the tissue sections before and after processing, and in histology sections. Conclusions: The method achieved an almost fivefold reduction in the slice-matching error and is readily implementable in combination with standard MRI technology. The technique will be employed to generate datasets for correlation of whole-specimen prostate histopathology with in vivo diagnostic MRI using 3-D deformable registration, allowing assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters for prostate cancer. Although developed specifically for prostate, the method is readily

  5. Technical Note: Method to correlate whole-specimen histopathology of radical prostatectomy with diagnostic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, Deirdre M.; Lee, Jenny; Foltz, Warren D.; Samavati, Navid; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Kwast, Theo van der; Chung, Peter; Ménard, Cynthia; Brock, Kristy K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Validation of MRI-guided tumor boundary delineation for targeted prostate cancer therapy is achieved via correlation with gold-standard histopathology of radical prostatectomy specimens. Challenges to accurate correlation include matching the pathology sectioning plane with the in vivo imaging slice plane and correction for the deformation that occurs between in vivo imaging and histology. A methodology is presented for matching of the histological sectioning angle and position to the in vivo imaging slices. Methods: Patients (n = 4) with biochemical failure following external beam radiotherapy underwent diagnostic MRI to confirm localized recurrence of prostate cancer, followed by salvage radical prostatectomy. High-resolution 3-D MRI of the ex vivo specimens was acquired to determine the pathology sectioning angle that best matched the in vivo imaging slice plane, using matching anatomical features and implanted fiducials. A novel sectioning device was developed to guide sectioning at the correct angle, and to assist the insertion of reference dye marks to aid in histopathology reconstruction. Results: The percentage difference in the positioning of the urethra in the ex vivo pathology sections compared to the positioning in in vivo images was reduced from 34% to 7% through slicing at the best match angle. Reference dye marks were generated, which were visible in ex vivo imaging, in the tissue sections before and after processing, and in histology sections. Conclusions: The method achieved an almost fivefold reduction in the slice-matching error and is readily implementable in combination with standard MRI technology. The technique will be employed to generate datasets for correlation of whole-specimen prostate histopathology with in vivo diagnostic MRI using 3-D deformable registration, allowing assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters for prostate cancer. Although developed specifically for prostate, the method is readily

  6. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  7. Cytometric Approach for Detection of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, an Emergent Agent▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joana; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

    2009-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is responsible for intestinal disease in patients with AIDS and immunocompetent patients. The infectious form is a small spore that is resistant to water treatment procedures. Its detection is very important, but detection is very cumbersome and time-consuming. Our main objective was to develop and optimize a specific flow cytometric (FC) protocol for the detection of E. intestinalis in hospital tap water and human feces. To determine the optimal specific antibody (Microspor-FA) concentration, a known concentration of E. intestinalis spores (Waterborne, Inc.) was suspended in hospital tap water and stool specimens with different concentrations of Microspor-FA, and the tap water and stool specimens were incubated under different conditions. The sensitivity limit and specificity were also evaluated. To study spore infectivity, double staining with propidium iodide (PI) and Microspor-FA was undertaken. Distinct approaches for filtration and centrifugation of the stool specimens were used. E. intestinalis spores stained with 10 μg/ml of Microspor-FA at 25°C overnight provided the best results. The detection limit was 5 × 104 spores/ml, and good specificity was demonstrated. Simultaneous staining with Microspor-FA and PI ensured that the E. intestinalis spores were dead and therefore noninfectious. With the stool specimens, better spore recovery was observed with a saturated solution of NaCl and centrifugation at 1,500 × g for 15 min. A new approach for the detection of E. intestinalis from tap water or human feces that ensures that the spores are not viable is now available and represents an important step for the prevention of this threat to public health. PMID:19439525

  8. Notch effects in uniaxial tension specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delph, T.J.

    1979-03-01

    Results of a literature survey on the effect of notches on the time-dependent failure of uniaxial tension specimens at elevated temperatures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the failure of notched specimens containing weldments

  9. How useful are delta checks in the 21st century? A stochastic-dynamic model of specimen mix-up and detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Ovens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Delta checks use two specimen test results taken in succession in order to detect test result changes greater than expected physiological variation. One of the most common and serious errors detected by delta checks is specimen mix-up errors. The positive and negative predictive values of delta checks for detecting specimen mix-up errors, however, are largely unknown. Materials and Methods: We addressed this question by first constructing a stochastic dynamic model using repeat test values for five analytes from approximately 8000 inpatients in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The analytes examined were sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, and creatinine. The model simulated specimen mix-up errors by randomly switching a set number of pairs of second test results. Sensitivities and specificities were then calculated for each analyte for six combinations of delta check equations and cut-off values from the published literature. Results: Delta check specificities obtained from this model ranged from 50% to 99%; however the sensitivities were generally below 20% with the exception of creatinine for which the best performing delta check had a sensitivity of 82.8%. Within a plausible incidence range of specimen mix-ups the positive predictive values of even the best performing delta check equation and analyte became negligible. Conclusion: This finding casts doubt on the ongoing clinical utility of delta checks in the setting of low rates of specimen mix-ups.

  10. Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Duck Seok; Seo, Hang Seok; Min, Duck Kee; Koo, Dae Seo; Lee, Eun Pyo; Yang, Song Yeol

    1999-04-01

    Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods to perform efficient PIE is developed by analyzing the relation between requiring time of manufacturing specimen and manufacturing method in irradiated fuel rods. It takes within an hour to grind 1 mm of specimen thickness under 150 rpm in speed of grinding, 600 g gravity in force using no.120, no.240, no.320 of grinding paper. In case of no.400 of grinding paper, it takes more an hour to grind the same thickness as above. It takes up to a quarter to grind 80-130 μm in specimen thickness using no.400 of grinding paper. When grinding time goes beyond 15 minutes, the grinding thickness of specimen does not exist. The polishing of specimen with 150 Rpms in speed of grinding machine, 600 g gravity in force, 10 minutes in polishing time using diamond paste 15 μm on polishing cloths amounts to 50 μm in specimen thickness. In case of diamond paste 9 μm on polishing cloth, the polishing of specimen amounts to 20 μm. The polishing thickness of specimen with 15 minutes in polishing time using 6 μm, 3 μm, 1 μm, 1/4 μm does not exist. Technique of manufacturing specimen of irradiated fuel rods will have application to the destructive examination of PIE. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  11. Text Fixture for Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) Specimens Subjected to Uneven Bending Moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenninggaard, Jon; Andreasen, Jens; Bak, Brian

    Bending Moments as a function of the phase angle ranging from mode I to mode II loading including mixed modes in-between. The test fixture utilizes an existing tensile testing machine and can subject specimens to loads up to 350 Nm. The test fixture is compact in size and designed using standard aluminium...... profiles for the main structure. The load is transferred from the test machine to the specimen through a 2 mm Dyneema rope. The rope is routed over a set of rollers that are positioned according to the specified mode mixity and phase angle. The kinematics of the test fixture has been analysed extensively...... strength in layered materials the cohesive law and fracture strength must be known. Ideally the entire cohesive law is known in order to aid in the design of components and structures. In this work we present a novel test fixture which can be used to test DCB specimens that are subjected to pure Uneven...

  12. Scanning Electron Microscope Mapping System Developed for Detecting Surface Defects in Fatigue Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacuse, Peter J.; Kantzos, Peter T.

    2002-01-01

    An automated two-degree-of-freedom specimen positioning stage has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to map and monitor defects in fatigue specimens. This system expedites the examination of the entire gauge section of fatigue specimens so that defects can be found using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Translation and rotation stages are driven by microprocessor-based controllers that are, in turn, interfaced to a computer running custom-designed software. This system is currently being used to find and record the location of ceramic inclusions in powder metallurgy materials. The mapped inclusions are periodically examined during interrupted fatigue experiments. The number of cycles to initiate cracks from these inclusions and the rate of growth of initiated cracks can then be quantified. This information is necessary to quantify the effect of this type of defect on the durability of powder metallurgy materials. This system was developed with support of the Ultra Safe program.

  13. Evaluation of screening tests for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, R J

    1980-12-01

    The following guidelines are proposed for the asymptomatic patient representing for routine examination. Instruct the patient to eat All Bran cereal or a similar product for breakfast for three consecutive days prior to the day of appointment. At the time of appointment the stool obtained from rectal examination or from a spontaneous bowel movement is checked for occult blood using the guaiac method. If the findings are negative, no further tests are recommended. If positive, the patient is given complete dietary instructions in a non-meat, high-residue diet with avoidance of beets, horseradish, vitamins, or aspirin-containing compounds. The patient is then given six Hemoccult or Quikcult slides and is instructed to prepare two fecal slides from each stool specimen daily for three days. If these are all negative when tested, no further studies are necessary. If one or more are positive, however, sigmoidoscopic examination and colon and upper gastrointestinal radiography should be carried out in that order. Evidence that early lesions (Duke A or B) are detected and the cure rate improved with this procedure is quite convincing.

  14. Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J., E-mail: aandrade@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)

  15. Recent advances on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Arnaldo H.P.; Lobo, Raquel M.; Miranda, Carlos Alexandre J.

    2017-01-01

    Charpy specimen reconstitution is widely used around the world as a tool to enhance or supplement surveillance programs of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. The reconstitution technique consists in the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allowing to increase the number of tests. This is especially important if the available materials is restricted and fracture mechanics parameter have to be determined. The reconstitution technique must fulfill some demands, among them tests results like the original standard specimens and the loaded material of the insert must not be influenced by the welding and machining procedure. It is known that reconstitution of Charpy specimens may affect the impact energy in a consequence of the constraint of plastic deformation by the hardened weldment and HAZ. This paper reviews some recent advances of the reconstitution technique and its applications. (author)

  16. A study of bacterial isolates from corneal specimens and their antibiotic resistance profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, N. N.; Al-Khattaf, Abdulaziz S.; Yeboah, E. A.; Kambal, Abdel-Majed M.; Al-Mansouri, Samir M.

    2006-01-01

    We aim to examine the spectrum of bacteria causing corneal infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. This will serve as a guideline for empiric therapy of corneal infections. We conducted the study over a period of 18 months from March 2001 through December 2002 in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Corneal specimens taken from 200 patients were inoculated directly onto different types of media. The isolates were identified and then tested against the appropriate topical or systemic antibiotics. Sixty-seven (33.5%) of the total specimens were culture positive and 133 (66.5%) were culture negative. Fourteen (7%) of these showed organisms in the Gram stained smears and correlated well with the culture reports. Of the 67 positive cultures, 53 (79.1%) were Gram-positive bacteria mostly coagulase-negative Staphylococci 29 (43.3%) followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) 13 (19.4%). Among Gram-negative bacteria 14 (20.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) 10 (14.9%) was the predominant isolate. All the isolates were sensitive to ofloxacin and the commonly used ocular antibiotics. All the isolated bacteria were sensitive to ofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone. Having marked potency for broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, make the fluoroquinolones especially the newer generations, a potential single drug therapy for corneal infections. (author)

  17. Association Between Stool Enteropathogen Quantity and Disease in Tanzanian Children Using TaqMan Array Cards: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts-Mills, James A.; Gratz, Jean; Mduma, Esto; Svensen, Erling; Amour, Caroline; Liu, Jie; Maro, Athanasia; Saidi, Queen; Swai, Ndealilia; Kumburu, Happiness; McCormick, Benjamin J. J.; Kibiki, Gibson; Houpt, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Etiologic studies of diarrhea are limited by uneven diagnostic methods and frequent asymptomatic detection of enteropathogens. Polymerase chain reaction-based stool pathogen quantification may help distinguish clinically significant infections. We performed a nested case-control study of diarrhea in infants from a community-based birth cohort in Tanzania. We tested 71 diarrheal samples and pre-diarrheal matched controls with a laboratory-developed TaqMan Array Card for 19 enteropathogens. With qualitative detection, no pathogens were significantly associated with diarrhea. When pathogen quantity was considered, rotavirus (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70 per log10 increase, P < 0.001), astrovirus (OR = 1.49, P = 0.01), and Shigella/enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (OR = 1.47, P = 0.04) were associated with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (0.15 SD decline in length-for-age z score after 3 months per log10 increase, P < 0.001) and Campylobacter jejuni/C. coli (0.11 SD decline, P = 0.003) in pre-diarrheal stools were associated with poor linear growth. Quantitative analysis can help refine the association between enteropathogens and disease in endemic settings. PMID:24189366

  18. Fecal blood loss in patients with colonic polyps: a comparison of measurements with 51chromium-labeled erythrocytes and with the Haemoccult test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, P.; Holtermueller, K.H.; Preiss, J.; Fischer, J.; Ewe, K.; Schreiber, H.J.; Berres, M.

    1982-01-01

    The quantitative determinations of fecal daily blood loss after intravenous administration of 51 Cr-labeled erythrocytes in 44 patients with colonic polyps and in 11 controls were compared with the results of the daily performed Haemoccult test without dietary restrictions. A total of 642 stool specimens was analyzed for 51 Cr loss and the Haemoccult test. The mean fecal daily blood loss in the 34 patients with adenomatous polyps of the descending colon and rectosigmoid was 1.36 +/- 0.14 ml/day (mean +/- SEM), in the 10 patients with polyps of the ascending and transverse colon it was 1.28 +/- 0.31 ml/day, and in the 11 controls 0.62 +/- 0.07 ml/day. There was no positive Haemoccult test in the controls. In fecal specimens from patients with polyps in the descending colon and rectosigmoid containing 2.0-3.99 ml blood/day, the Haemoccult-test was positive in 86%. Fecal specimens from patients with polyps in the ascending colon and transverse colon containing equal blood loss yielded a positive Haemoccult test result in 26%. Thus, the positivity of the Haemoccult test is determined by the fecal daily blood loss and the anatomic location of colonic bleeding sites

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of real-time polymerase chain reaction for the routine early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis sputum and throat swab specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Logan, Catriona

    2012-02-01

    A longitudinal study of 2099 sputa and throat swabs received from 183 pediatric cystic fibrosis patients over a 29-month period was used to evaluate the efficacy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as compared to microbiologic culture. Real-time PCR resulted in an increased number of specimens identified as P. aeruginosa positive. The sensitivity of culture was 82% (373\\/453) and of PCR was 93% (420\\/453) when considering both positive culture and PCR results as true positives. Of the 80 specimens identified as PCR positive\\/culture negative for P. aeruginosa, the subsequent patient sample in 32.5% (26\\/80) of specimens concerned was identified as P. aeruginosa culture positive, suggesting that PCR has the potential to detect P. aeruginosa earlier than the microbiologic culture. Real-time PCR analysis found no evidence of the Liverpool and Manchester epidemic P. aeruginosa strains in the cohort examined. The findings of this study highlight the importance of specimen collection protocols to ensure that adequate samples are received at the laboratory for testing, thereby minimizing the potential for reporting of false-negative P. aeruginosa culture results.

  20. Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Special fixtures and test methods are necessary to facilitate the fracture toughness testing of small disk compact specimens of irradiated candidate materials for first-wall fusion applications. New methods have been developed for both the unloading compliance and potential drop techniques of monitoring crack growth. Provisions have been made to allow the necessary probes and instrumentation to be installed remotely using manipulators for testing of irradiated specimens in a hot cell. Laboratory trials showed that both unloading compliance and potential drop gave useful results. Both techniques gave similar data, and predicted the final crack extension within allowable limits. The results from the small disk compact specimens were similar to results from conventional compact specimen 12.7 mm thick. However, the slopes of the J-R curves from the larger specimens were lower, suggesting that the smaller disk compact specimens may have lost some constraint due to their size. The testing shows that it should be possible to generate useful J-R curve fracture toughness data from the small disk compact specimens

  1. Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Special fixtures and test methods have been developed for testing small disk compact specimens (12.5 mm diam by 4.6 mm thick). Both unloading compliance and potential drop methods have been used to monitor crack extension during the J-integral resistance (J-R) curve testing. Provisions have been made to allow the necessary probes and instrumentation to be installed remotely using manipulators for testing of irradiated specimens in a hat cell. Laboratory trials showed that both unloading compliance and potential drop gave useful results. Both techniques gave similar data, and predicted the final crack extension within allowable limits. The results from the small disk compact specimens were similar to results from conventional compact specimens 12.7-mm thick. However, the slopes of the J-R curves from the larger specimens were lower, suggesting that the smaller disk compact specimens may have lost some constraint due to their size. The testing shows that it should be possible to generate useful J-R curve fracture toughness data from the small disk compact specimens

  2. Correlation of clinical data with fallopian tube specimen immune cells and tissue culture capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramraj, Satish Kumar; Smith, Katie M; Janakiram, Naveena B; Toal, Coralee; Raman, Ankita; Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina

    2018-06-01

    Human fallopian tube fimbria secretory epithelial cells (hFTSECs) are considered an origin of ovarian cancer and methods for their culture from fallopian tube specimens have been reported. Our objective was to determine whether characteristics of the donors or surgeries were associated with the capacities of fimbria specimens to generate hFTSEC cultures or their immune profiles. There were no surgical complications attributable to fallopian tube removal. Attempts to establish primary hFTSEC cultures were successful in 37 of 55 specimens (67%). Success rates did not differ significantly between specimens grouped by patient or surgery characteristics. Established cultures could be revived after cryopreservation and none became contaminated with microorganisms. Two cultures evaluated for long term growth senesced between passages 10 and 15. M1 macrophages were the predominant cell type, while all other immune cells were present at much lower percentages. IL-10 and TGF-β exhibited opposing trends with M1 and M2 macrophages. Plasma IL-10 levels exhibited significant positive correlation with patient age. In conclusion, fallopian tube fimbria specimens exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype and can be used to provide a source of hFTSECs that can be cultured for a limited time regardless of the donor patient age or race, or the type of surgery performed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 7 CFR 97.8 - Specimen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen requirements. 97.8 Section 97.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... required by the examiner to furnish representative specimens of the variety, or its flower, fruit, or seeds...

  4. Molecular Auditing: An Evaluation of Unsuspected Tissue Specimen Misidentification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrick, Douglas J

    2018-06-18

    Context Specimen misidentification is the most significant error in laboratory medicine, potentially accounting for hundreds of millions of dollars in extra health care expenses and significant morbidity in patient populations in the United States alone. New technology allows the unequivocal documentation of specimen misidentification or contamination; however, the value of this technology currently depends on suspicion of the specimen integrity by a pathologist or other health care worker. Objective To test the hypothesis that there is a detectable incidence of unsuspected tissue specimen misidentification among cases submitted for routine surgical pathology examination. Design To test this hypothesis, we selected specimen pairs that were obtained at different times and/or different hospitals from the same patient, and compared their genotypes using standardized microsatellite markers used commonly for forensic human DNA comparison in order to identify unsuspected mismatches between the specimen pairs as a trial of "molecular auditing." We preferentially selected gastrointestinal, prostate, and skin biopsies because we estimated that these types of specimens had the greatest potential for misidentification. Results Of 972 specimen pairs, 1 showed an unexpected discordant genotype profile, indicating that 1 of the 2 specimens was misidentified. To date, we are unable to identify the etiology of the discordance. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, indeed, there is a low level of unsuspected tissue specimen misidentification, even in an environment with careful adherence to stringent quality assurance practices. This study demonstrates that molecular auditing of random, routine biopsy specimens can identify occult misidentified specimens, and may function as a useful quality indicator.

  5. Thermal property testing technique on micro specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Isao; Taketoshi, Naoyuki

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at establishment of further development on some testing techniques on the nuclear advanced basic research accumulated by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology for ten years. For this purpose, a technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of less than 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness of micro specimen and technology to test heat diffusion ratio at micro area of less than 1 mm in area along cross section of less than 10 mm in diameter of column specimen were developed to contribute to common basic technology supporting the nuclear power field. As a result, as an element technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of the micro specimen, a specimen holding technique stably to hold a micro specimen with 3 mm in diameter could be developed. And, for testing the specific heat capacity by using the laser flush differential calorimetry, a technique to hold two specimen of 5 mm in diameter at their proximities was also developed. In addition, by promoting development of thermal property data base capable of storing thermal property data obtained in this study and with excellent workability in this 1998 fiscal year a data in/out-put program with graphical user interface could be prepared. (G.K.)

  6. Comparative study on Charpy specimen reconstitution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdiliau, B.; Decroix, G.-M.; Averty, X.; Wident, P.; Bienvenu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Welding processes are used to reconstitute previously tested Charpy specimens. → Stud welding is preferred for a quick installation, almost immediately operational. → Friction welding produces better quality welds, but requires a development effort. - Abstract: Reconstitution techniques are often used to allow material from previously fractured Charpy-V specimens to be reused for additional experiments. This paper presents a comparative experimental study of various reconstitution techniques and evaluates the feasibility of these methods for future use in shielded cells. The following techniques were investigated: arc stud welding, 6.0 kW CO 2 continuous wave laser welding, 4.5 kW YAG continuous wave laser welding and friction welding. Subsize Charpy specimens were reconstituted using a 400 W YAG pulsed wave laser. The best result was obtained with arc stud welding; the resilience of the reconstituted specimens and the load-displacement curves agreed well with the reference specimens, and the temperature elevation caused by the welding process was limited to the vicinity of the weld. Good results were also obtained with friction welding; this process led to the best quality welds. Laser welding seems to have affected the central part of the specimens, thus leading to different resilience values and load-displacement curves.

  7. Enzymatic detection of formalin-fixed museum specimens for DNA analysis and enzymatic maceration of formalin-fixed specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Margrethe; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2016-01-01

    % ethanol. The method was subsequently tested on wild-living preserved specimens and an archived specimen. The protease enzyme used was SavinaseH 16 L, Type EX from Novozymes A/S. The enzymatic screening test demands only simple laboratory equipment. The method is useful for natural history collections...

  8. Native alunogen: A Raman spectroscopic study of a well-described specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košek, Filip; Culka, Adam; Žáček, Vladimír; Laufek, František; Škoda, Radek; Jehlička, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Alunogen (Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O) is a common secondary mineral in the terrestrial environment (acid mine drainage, volcanic or coal-fire fumaroles), and is also formed through the acidic weathering of aluminosilicates. Moreover, alunogen has been suggested as a part of the Al-bearing deposits on Mars. The identification of alunogen in secondary sulfate mixtures by Raman spectroscopy strictly depends on good knowledge of alunogen spectral features and band positions. However, comprehensive Raman data of alunogen of natural origin are lacking. This study reports on Raman spectra obtained from two natural specimens originating from a burning coal dump at the Schoeller mine, Kladno, Czech Republic, along with the additional characterizations by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe. For comparison purposes, a Raman spectrum of a synthetic analogue was also obtained. The studied specimens have (Al1.99Fe3+0.01)2 (SO4)3·17H2O as their calculated empirical formula, and the structural parameters correspond to the previously reported data for alunogen. Both natural specimens and the synthetic analogue showed uniform Raman spectra with no extensive band splitting in the sulfate vibrational regions. The most intensive Raman band associated with the symmetric stretching vibration of the SO4 tetrahedra (ν1) is located at 992 cm-1. A multicomponent band was observable in the characteristic region for OH-related vibrations. A small variation in the spectral intensity of the hydroxyl bands suggests that the studied specimens could possibly be slightly dehydrated.

  9. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-01-01

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2

  10. gbpA as a Novel qPCR Target for the Species-Specific Detection of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, Non-O1/Non-O139 in Environmental, Stool, and Historical Continuous Plankton Recorder Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Vezzulli

    Full Text Available The Vibrio cholerae N-acetyl glucosamine-binding protein A (GbpA is a chitin-binding protein involved in V. cholerae attachment to environmental chitin surfaces and human intestinal cells. We previously investigated the distribution and genetic variations of gbpA in a large collection of V. cholerae strains and found that the gene is consistently present and highly conserved in this species. Primers and probe were designed from the gbpA sequence of V. cholerae and a new Taq-based qPCR protocol was developed for diagnostic detection and quantification of the bacterium in environmental and stool samples. In addition, the positions of primers targeting the gbpA gene region were selected to obtain a short amplified fragment of 206 bp and the protocol was optimized for the analysis of formalin-fixed samples, such as historical Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR samples. Overall, the method is sensitive (50 gene copies, highly specific for V. cholerae and failed to amplify strains of the closely-related species Vibrio mimicus. The sensitivity of the assay applied to environmental and stool samples spiked with V. cholerae ATCC 39315 was comparable to that of pure cultures and was of 102 genomic units/l for drinking and seawater samples, 101 genomic units/g for sediment and 102 genomic units/g for bivalve and stool samples. The method also performs well when tested on artificially formalin-fixed and degraded genomic samples and was able to amplify V. cholerae DNA in historical CPR samples, the earliest of which date back to August 1966. The detection of V. cholerae in CPR samples collected in cholera endemic areas such as the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME is of particular significance and represents a proof of concept for the possible use of the CPR technology and the developed qPCR assay in cholera studies.

  11. Instant Transport Media for Biopsied Soft Tissue Specimens: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankargouda Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Formalin, a traditionally preferred fixative in the field of pathology, has restricted usage in private settings. Since its toxicity violates the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations, an eco-friendly alternative would be the need of the hour. Hence an instant media which is economical and nontoxic and enables easy transport of biopsied soft tissue specimens in its original state is of vital importance. Materials and Methods. Commercially available fresh goat buccal mucosa specimens were sliced into smaller bits of equal dimensions and placed in six different containers containing 20% honey, 30% jaggery, milk, and ice for 1 hr, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours each with formalin as a positive control. After the set time interval, the specimens were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 hours followed by routine processing and staining. The histologic interpretations were a blinded procedure and evaluated by two experts. Results were statistically analysed. Results. 30% jaggery proved to be an ideal transport media showing high quality preservation after 24 hours. 20% honey and ice showed optimal tissue preservation up to 6 hours following which quality deteriorated. Tissues transported in milk showed poor preservation. Conclusion. 30% jaggery can be endorsed in routine histopathological analysis as a transport media.

  12. Repeat Rifaximin for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: No Clinically Significant Changes in Stool Microbial Antibiotic Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, M; Cash, B D; Lembo, A; Wolf, R A; Israel, R J; Schoenfeld, P

    2017-09-01

    Rifaximin has demonstrated efficacy and safety for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). To determine the rifaximin repeat treatment effect on fecal bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. Patients with IBS in Trial 3 (TARGET 3) study who responded to open-label rifaximin 550 mg three times daily for 2 weeks, with symptom recurrence within 18 weeks, were randomized to double-blind treatment: two 2-week repeat courses of rifaximin or placebo, separated by 10 weeks. Prospective stool sample collection occurred before and after open-label rifaximin, before and after the first repeat course, and at the end of the study. Susceptibility testing was performed with 11 antibiotics, including rifaximin and rifampin, using broth microdilution or agar dilution methods. Of 103 patients receiving open-label rifaximin, 73 received double-blind rifaximin (n = 37) or placebo (n = 36). A total of 1429 bacterial and yeast isolates were identified, of which Bacteroidaceae (36.7%) and Enterobacteriaceae (33.9%) were the most common. In the double-blind phase, Clostridium difficile was highly susceptible to rifaximin [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range 0.008-1 µg/mL] and rifampin (MIC range 0.004-0.25 µg/mL). Following double-blind rifaximin treatment, Staphylococcus isolates remained susceptible to rifaximin at all visits (MIC 50 range ≤0.06-32 µg/mL). Rifaximin exposure was not associated with long-term cross-resistance of Bacteroidaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Enterococcaceae to rifampin or nonrifamycin antibiotics tested. In this study, short-term repeat treatment with rifaximin has no apparent long-term effect on stool microbial susceptibility to rifaximin, rifampin, and nonrifamycin antibiotics. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01543178.

  13. Geographical Variation in Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Stool, Cow-Dung and Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Sahoo, Soumyakanta; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Klintz, Senia Rosales; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2012-01-01

    Little information is available on relationships between the biophysical environment and antibiotic resistance. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from child stool samples, cow-dung and drinking water from the non-coastal (230 households) and coastal (187 households) regions of Odisha, India. Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates (n = 696) to the following antibiotics: tetracycline, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefixime, cotrimoxazole, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the disk diffusion method. Ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates (n = 83). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was detected in 90% or more of the E. coli isolates. Ciprofloxacin MIC values ranged from 8 to 32 µg/mL. The odds ratio (OR) of resistance in E. coli isolates from children’s stool (OR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.18–8.01), cow-dung (OR = 3.6, 95% CI 1.59–8.03, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.00–14.44, P = 0.049) were higher in non-coastal compared to coastal region. Similarly, the co-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.39–4.37, P = 0.002) and drinking water (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.36–7.41, P = 0.008) as well as the multi-resistance in cow-dung (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.12–4.34, P = 0.022) and drinking water (OR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.06–7.07, P = 0.036) were also higher in the non-coastal compared to the coastal region. PMID:22690160

  14. Clinical and virological factors associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with acute respiratory infection: a two-year prospective study in general practice medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, Laetitia; Masse, Shirley; Capai, Lisandru; Blanchon, Thierry; Ceccaldi, Pierre-Emmanuel; van der Werf, Sylvie; Hanslik, Thomas; Charrel, Remi; Falchi, Alessandra

    2017-11-22

    Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain and nausea are not an uncommon manifestation of an acute respiratory infection (ARI). We therefore evaluated clinical and microbiological factors associated with the presence of GI symptoms in patients consulting a general practitioner (GP) for ARI. Nasopharyngeal swabs, stool specimens and clinical data from patients presenting to GPs with an ARI were prospectively collected during two winter seasons (2014-2016). Samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR for 12 respiratory pathogen groups and for 12 enteric pathogens. Two hundred and four of 331 included patients (61.6%) were positive for at least one respiratory pathogen. Sixty-nine stools (20.8%) were positive for at least one pathogen (respiratory and/or enteric). GI symptoms were more likely declared in case of laboratory confirmed-enteric infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.2-9.9]; p = 0.02) or human coronavirus (HCoV) infection (aOR = 2.7; [1.2-6.8]; p = 0.02). Consumption of antipyretic medication before the consultation seemed to reduce the risk of developing GI symptoms for patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza (aOR = 0.3; [0.1-0.6]; p = 0.002). The presence of GI symptoms in ARI patients could not be explained by the detection of respiratory pathogens in stools. However, the detection of enteric pathogens in stool samples could explained by the presence of GI symptoms in some of ARI cases. The biological mechanisms explaining the association between the presence of HCoVs in nasopharynx and GI symptoms need to be explored.

  15. A system for mapping radioactive specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britten, R.J.; Davidson, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    A system for mapping radioactive specimens comprises an avalanche counter, an encoder, pre-amplifier circuits, sample and hold circuits and a programmed computer. The parallel plate counter utilizes avalanche event counting over a large area with the ability to locate radioactive sources in two dimensions. When a beta ray, for example, enters a chamber, an ionization event occurs and the avalanche effect multiplies the event and results in charge collection on the anode surface for a limited period of time before the charge leaks away. The encoder comprises a symmetrical array of planar conductive surfaces separated from the anode by a dielectric material. The encoder couples charge currents, the amlitudes of which define the relative position of the ionization event. The amplitude of coupled current, delivered to pre-amplifiers, defines the location of the event. (author) 12 figs

  16. Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1996-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.

  17. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and contribution to softening of stools pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked...... to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and contribution to softening of stools. The food constituent, beta-palmitate, that is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to softening of stools is a beneficial...... physiological effect for infants. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that, out of two human intervention studies with important methodological limitations, one suggested a stool-softening effect of beta-palmitate whereas the second did not, that one animal study did not support a stool...

  18. Stool screening of Syrian refugees and asylum seekers in Germany, 2013/2014: Identification of Sabin like polioviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Sindy; Neubauer, Katrin; Baillot, Armin; Rieder, Gabriele; Adam, Maja; Diedrich, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    Germany is a partner of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Assurance of polio free status is based on enterovirus surveillance, which focuses on patients with signs of acute flaccid paralysis or aseptic meningitis/encephalitis, representing the key symptoms of poliovirus infection. In response to the wild poliovirus outbreak in Syria 2013 and high number of refugees coming from Syria to Germany, stool samples from 629 Syrian refugees/asylum seekers aged Syrian refugees and asylum seekers at that time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. A cylindrical specimen holder for electron cryo-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Colin M.; Löwe, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The use of slab-like flat specimens for electron cryo-tomography restricts the range of viewing angles that can be used. This leads to the “missing wedge” problem, which causes artefacts and anisotropic resolution in reconstructed tomograms. Cylindrical specimens provide a way to eliminate the problem, since they allow imaging from a full range of viewing angles around the tilt axis. Such specimens have been used before for tomography of radiation-insensitive samples at room temperature, but never for frozen-hydrated specimens. Here, we demonstrate the use of thin-walled carbon tubes as specimen holders, allowing the preparation of cylindrical frozen-hydrated samples of ribosomes, liposomes and whole bacterial cells. Images acquired from these cylinders have equal quality at all viewing angles, and the accessible tilt range is restricted only by the physical limits of the microscope. Tomographic reconstructions of these specimens demonstrate that the effects of the missing wedge are substantially reduced, and could be completely eliminated if a full tilt range was used. The overall quality of these tomograms is still lower than that obtained by existing methods, but improvements are likely in future. - Highlights: • The missing wedge is a serious problem for electron cryo-tomography. • Cylindrical specimens allow the missing wedge to be eliminated. • Carbon nanopipettes can be used as cylindrical holders for tomography of frozen-hydrated specimens. • Cryo-tomography of cylindrical biological samples demonstrates a reduction of deleterious effects associated with the missing wedge

  20. Elastic scattering spectroscopy findings in formalin-fixed oral squamous cell carcinoma specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, B.; Elmaaytah, M.; Jerjes, W.; Hopper, C.

    2005-11-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been shown to spread locally and infiltrate adjacent bone or via the lymphatic system to the cervical lymph nodes. This usually necessitates a surgical neck dissection and either a local or segmental resection for bone clearance. While histopathology remains the gold standard for tissue diagnosis, several new diagnostic techniques are being developed that rely on physical and biochemical changes that mirror or precede malignant changes within tissue. The aim of this study was to compare findings of Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy (ESS) with histopathology on formalin-fixed specimens of both neck lymph node dissections and de-calcified archival bone from patients with OSCC. We wished to see if this technique could be used as an adjunct or alternative to histopathology in defining cervical nodal involvement and if it could be used to identify bone resection margins positive for tumour. 130 lymph nodes were examined from 13 patients. The nodes were formalin-fixed, bivalved and examined by ESS. The intensity of the spectrum at 4 points was considered for comparison; at 360nm, 450nm, 630nm and 690nm. 341 spectra were taken from the mandibular specimens of 21 patients, of which 231 spectra were taken from histologically positive sites and the rest were normal. The nodes and bone specimens were then routinely processed with haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, examined histopathologically, and the results compared. Using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) as a statistical method, a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 68% was obtained for the neck nodes and a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 80% for the bone margins.

  1. Replacement/Refurbishment of JSC/NASA POD Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Willard L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Special NDE certification process requires demonstration of NDE capability by test per NASA-STD-5009. This test is performed with fatigue cracked specimens containing very small cracks. The certification test results are usually based on binomial statistics and must meet a 90/95 Probability of Detection (POD). The assumption is that fatigue cracks are tightly closed, difficult to detect, and inspectors and processes passing such a test are well qualified for inspecting NASA fracture critical hardware. The JSC NDE laboratory has what may be the largest inventory that exists of such fatigue cracked NDE demonstration specimens. These specimens were produced by the hundreds in the late 1980s and early 1990s. None have been produced since that time and the condition and usability of the specimens are questionable.

  2. Method for determining thermo-physical properties of specimens. [photographic recording of changes in thin film phase-change temperature indicating material in wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The square root of the product of thermophysical properties q, c and k, where p is density, c is specific heat and k is thermal conductivity, is determined directly on a test specimen such as a wind tunnel model. The test specimen and a reference specimen of known specific heat are positioned at a given distance from a heat source. The specimens are provided with a coating, such as a phase change coating, to visually indicate that a given temperature was reached. A shutter interposed between the heat source and the specimens is opened and a motion picture camera is actuated to provide a time record of the heating step. The temperature of the reference specimen is recorded as a function of time. The heat rate to which both the test and reference specimens were subjected is determined from the temperature time response of the reference specimen by the conventional thin-skin calorimeter equation.

  3. The influence of specimen size on creep crack growth rate in cross-weld CT specimens cut out from a welded component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Peder; Segle, Peter; Samuelson, Lars Aa.

    1999-04-01

    A 3D finite element study of creep crack growth in cross-weld CT specimens with material properties of 2.25Cr1Mo at 550 deg C is carried out, where large strain and displacement theory is used. The creep crack growth rate is calculated using a creep ductility based damage model, in which the creep strain rate perpendicular to the crack plane ahead of the crack tip is integrated, considering the multiaxial stress state. The influence of specimen size on creep crack growth rate under constant load is given special attention, but the possibility to transfer results from cross-weld CT specimens to welded high temperature components is also investigated. The creep crack growth rate of a crack in a circumferentially welded pipe is compared with the creep crack growth rate of cross-weld CT specimens of three different sizes, cut out from the pipe. Although the constraint ahead of the crack tip is higher for a larger CT specimen, the creep crack growth rate is higher for a smaller specimen than for a larger one if they are loaded to attain the same stress intensity factor. If the specimens are loaded to the same C* value, however, a more complicated pattern occurs; depending on the material properties of the weldment constituents, the CT specimen with the intermediate size will either yield the highest or the lowest creep crack growth rate

  4. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Compared to Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Test for the Detection of Fasciola hepatica in Human Stool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Malaga, Jose L.; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Bagwell, Kelli A.; Naeger, Patrick A.; Rogers, Hayley K.; Maharsi, Safa; Mbaka, Maryann; White, A. Clinton

    2017-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is the most widely distributed trematode infection in the world. Control efforts may be hindered by the lack of diagnostic capacity especially in remote endemic areas. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based methods offer high sensitivity and specificity but require expensive technology. However, the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an efficient isothermal method that eliminates the need for a thermal cycler and has a high deployment potential to resource-limited settings. We report on the characterization of RPA and PCR tests to detect Fasciola infection in clinical stool samples with low egg burdens. The sensitivity of the RPA and PCR were 87% and 66%, respectively. Both tests were 100% specific showing no cross-reactivity with trematode, cestode, or nematode parasites. In addition, RPA and PCR were able to detect 47% and 26% of infections not detected by microscopy, respectively. The RPA adapted to a lateral flow platform was more sensitive than gel-based detection of the reaction products. In conclusion, the Fasciola RPA is a highly sensitive and specific test to diagnose chronic infection using stool samples. The Fasciola RPA lateral flow has the potential for deployment to endemic areas after further characterization. PMID:27821691

  5. Cryptosporidiosis Outbreak Associated With a Single Hotel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Mary-Margaret A; Lloyd, Jennifer; Chakraverty, Tamal; Sweat, David; Manners, Judy; Garman, Katie; Hlavsa, Michele C; Roellig, Dawn M; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F

    2017-05-01

    We investigated a gastrointestinal illness cluster among persons who attended a baseball tournament (>200 teams) during July 2015. We interviewed representatives of 19 teams; illness was reported among only the 9 (47%) teams that stayed at Hotel A (p Hotel A was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio: 7.3; 95% confidence interval: 3.6, 15.2). Eight out of nine (89%) stool specimens tested were positive for Cryptosporidium, with C. hominis IfA12G1 subtype identified in two specimens. The environmental health assessment detected a low free available chlorine level, and pool water tested positive for E. coli and total coliforms. A possible diarrheal contamination event, substantial hotel pool use, and use of cyanuric acid might have contributed to this outbreak and magnitude. Aquatic facilities practicing proper operation and maintenance (e.g., following the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Model Aquatic Health Code) can protect the public’s health.

  6. Detection and Differentiation of Leishmania spp. in Clinical Specimens by Use of a SYBR Green-Based Real-Time PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Marcos E; Koru, Ozgur; Steurer, Francis; Herwaldt, Barbara L; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis in humans is caused by Leishmania spp. in the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia Species identification often has clinical relevance. Until recently, our laboratory relied on conventional PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region (ITS2-PCR) followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product to differentiate Leishmania spp. Here we describe a novel real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) approach based on the SYBR green technology (LSG-qPCR), which uses genus-specific primers that target the ITS1 region and amplify DNA from at least 10 Leishmania spp., followed by analysis of the melting temperature (T m ) of the amplicons on qPCR platforms (the Mx3000P qPCR system [Stratagene-Agilent] and the 7500 real-time PCR system [ABI Life Technologies]). We initially evaluated the assay by testing reference Leishmania isolates and comparing the results with those from the conventional ITS2-PCR approach. Then we compared the results from the real-time and conventional molecular approaches for clinical specimens from 1,051 patients submitted to the reference laboratory of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for Leishmania diagnostic testing. Specimens from 477 patients tested positive for Leishmania spp. with the LSG-qPCR assay, specimens from 465 of these 477 patients also tested positive with the conventional ITS2-PCR approach, and specimens from 10 of these 465 patients had positive results because of retesting prompted by LSG-qPCR positivity. On the basis of the T m values of the LSG-qPCR amplicons from reference and clinical specimens, we were able to differentiate four groups of Leishmania parasites: the Viannia subgenus in aggregate; the Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani complex in aggregate; the species L (L) tropica; and the species L (L) mexicana, L (L) amazonensis, L (L) major, and L (L) aethiopica in aggregate. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. 49 CFR 40.103 - What are the requirements for submitting blind specimens to a laboratory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... throughout the year. The following examples illustrate how this requirement works: Example 1 to paragraph (b...., having specific gravity and creatinine meeting the criteria of § 40.93(b)). (1) All negative, positive... and specific gravity to satisfy the criteria for a substituted specimen using confirmatory creatinine...

  8. On impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch type specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, A.S.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for using subsize specimens to determine the actual properties of reactor pressure vessel steels is receiving increasing attention for improved vessel condition monitoring that could be beneficial for light-water reactor plant-life extension. This potential is made conditional upon, on the one hand, by the possibility of cutting samples of small volume from the internal surface of the pressure vessel for determination of actual properties of the operating pressure vessel. The plant-life extension will require supplemental surveillance data that cannot be provided by the existing surveillance programs. Testing of subsize specimens manufactured from broken halves of previously tested surveillance Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens offers an attractive means of extending existing surveillance programs. Using subsize CVN type specimens requires the establishment of a specimen geometry that is adequate to obtain a ductile-to-brittle transition curve similar to that obtained from full-size specimens. This requires the development of a correlation of transition temperature and upper-shelf toughness between subsize and full-size specimens. The present study was conducted under the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program. Different published approaches to the use of subsize specimens were analyzed and five different geometries of subsize specimens were selected for testing and evaluation. The specimens were made from several types of pressure vessel steels with a wide range of yield strengths, transition temperatures, and upper-shelf energies (USEs). Effects of specimen dimensions, including depth, angle, and radius of notch have been studied. The correlation of transition temperature determined from different types of subsize specimens and the full-size specimen is presented. A new procedure for transforming data from subsize specimens was developed and is presented

  9. Application of subsize specimens in nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Kumar, A.S.; Cannon, N.S.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring a research effort through Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Missouri-Rolla to test a correlation for the upper shelf energy (USE) values obtained from the impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch specimens to those obtained from the testing of full-size samples. The program involves the impact testing of unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens. To verify the applicability of the correlation on LWR materials, unirradiated and irradiated full-, half-, and third-size Charpy V-notch specimens of a commercial pressure vessel steel (ASTM A533 Grade B) will be tested. The correlation methodology is based on the partitioning of the USE into crack initiation and crack propagation energies. To accomplish this partition, both precracked and notched-only specimens will be used. Whereas the USE of notched-only specimens is the sum of both crack initiation and crack propagation energies, the USE of precracked specimens reflects only the crack propagation component. The difference in the USE of the two types of specimens represents a measure of the crack initiation energy. Normalizing the values of the crack initiation energy to the fracture volume of the sample produces similar values for the full-, half-, and third-size specimens. In addition, the ratios of the USE and the crack propagation energy are also in agreement for full-, half-, and third-size specimens. These two observations will be used to predict the USE of full-size specimens based on subsize USE data. This paper provides details of the program and presents results obtained from the application of the developed correlation methodology to the impact testing of the unirradiated full-, half-, and third-size A533 Grade B Charpy V-notch specimens

  10. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  11. Study on the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanping; Liu Hui; Sun Xuerong; Wei Tao; Wang Bin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding, with emphasis on early immuno-protection provided by breast feeding as well as later possible hazards with rotavirus carrier mothers. Methods: Stool specimens from 520 infants with diarrhea were screened for rotavirus with colloid gold method. Positive specimens were confirmed with RT-PCR. Results: In local (Qingdao) infants with enteritis, the over-all incidence of rotavirus infection was 31.2%. Positive rate in breast-feeding infants was only 26.8%, being significantly lower than that in bottle-feeding ones (45.2%). The virus infectivity rate in both groups of breast- feeding infants (below 6 months and 7-12 months) was lower than the corresponding rate in the bottle feeding group. However, infant fed from rotavirus carriers had significantly higher fecal positive rate of rotavirus than that in infants fed from non-carriers. Conclusion: (1) At beginning, especially below 6 months, breast-feeding provided important protection again rotavirus enteritis in the infants. (2) certain infections could be transmitted through breast feedings, which deserved closer observation. (authors)

  12. Anticorrosion ion implantation of fragments of zirconium fuel can specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.; Osipov, V.V.; Volkov, N.V.; Khernov, V.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Aimed at the study of specific features of oxide film formation in the initial stage of Eh110 and Eh635 alloy fuel can oxidation the modification of tubular specimen surfaces is performed using an ion mixing technique, and the structure of oxide films produced in a steam-water environment is investigated. Using the method of vacuum vapor deposition the outer surface of specimens is coated with alloying element films irradiated by a polyenergetic Ar + ion beam with a 10 keV mean energy up to radiation doses of (7-10) x 10 17 ion/cm 2 . Monatomic (Al, Fe, Cu, Cr, Mo, Sn) or diatomic (Al-Fe, Al-Mo, Al-Sn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Mo, Fe-Sn, Cr-Mo, Cr-Sn) implantation into a zirconium cladding occurs under irradiation effect. The positive influence of combined intrusion of Al and other elements is revealed. The presence of Al atoms enhances the oxide film structure. The least ZeO 2 film thickness is observed when alloying with molybdenum, Al-Fe, Al-Mo and Al-Sn [ru

  13. Effect of an ?-Lactalbumin-Enriched Infant Formula Supplemented With Oligofructose on Fecal Microbiota, Stool Characteristics, and Hydration Status

    OpenAIRE

    Wernimont, Susan; Northington, Robert; Kullen, Martin J.; Yao, Manjiang; Bettler, Jodi

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the impact of oligofructose (OF)-supplemented infant formula on fecal microbiota, stool characteristics, and hydration. Methods. Ninety-five formula-fed infants were randomized to ?-lactalbumin-enriched control formula (CF) or identical formula with 3.0 g/L OF (EF) for 8 weeks; 50 infants fed human milk (HM) were included. Results. Eighty-four infants completed the study, 70 met per-protocol criteria. Over 8 weeks, bifidobacteria increased more in EF than CF group (0.70 vs 0...

  14. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Acinetobacter Species Isolated from Pus and Pus Swab Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, M.; Akbar, N.; Khan, I. U.; Hussain, A.; Ali, S.; Mirza, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from pus and pus swab specimens at a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July 2008 to July 2012. Methodology: Data regarding positive culture and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was retrieved from the pus and pus swab culture records of the Microbiology Department, AFIP, Rawalpindi. Only those pus and pus swab specimens which yielded the growth of Acinetobacter species were included in the study. Results:Out of 2781, 1848 were of pure pus while 933 were pus swab specimens. Out of 2538 culture positive isolates, 276 (10.9 percentage) were identified as Acinetobacterspecies. Among 276 Acinetobacter species, 245 (88.8 percentage) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 31 (11.2 percentage) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Male/female ratio of the affected patients was 5.6:1. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic to which 45 percentage of the tested isolates were sensitive. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. Conclusion: About 11 percentage of soft tissue and wound infections are caused by Acinetobacter species in our set up particularly in male. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. In vitro sensitivity to carbapenems is very low. (author)

  15. Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the anterior mediastinum: A case report with cytological features of imprint and liquid-based cytology specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Yoshimi; Hirato, Junko; Fukuda, Toshio

    2017-04-01

    We herein report the cytological features of a very rare case of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the anterior mediastinum on imprint and liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens. A 58-year-old man had an approximately 10-cm tumor in the anterior mediastinum as shown on computed tomography. Thymectomy with complete resection of the left lung was performed. The fresh cut surface of the tumor was used to prepare imprint and LBC specimens. The imprint specimens showed four types of tumor cells dispersed on a background of hemorrhage, necrosis, and mucus. On the other hand, only two types of tumor cells (spindle-shaped and spiderweb cells) were scattered or present in clusters in the LBC specimens. Immunocytologically, both of these cell types were positive for desmin and myoglobin, negative for pan-keratin and epithelial membrane antigen. Cytological and immunocytological features are useful for the correct diagnosis of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma, and LBC specimens show clearer results than do imprint specimens. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:333-338. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lara D

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.

  17. Miniature tensile test specimens for fusion reactor irradiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Three miniature sheet-type tensile specimens and a miniature rod-type specimen are being used to determine irradiated tensile properties for alloy development for fusion reactors. The tensile properties of type 316 stainless steel were determined with these different specimens, and the results were compared. Reasonably good agreement was observed. However, there were differences that led to recommendations on which specimens are preferred. 4 references, 9 figures, 6 tables

  18. 10 CFR 26.165 - Testing split specimens and retesting single specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (c), as applicable. If the specimen in Bottle A is free of any evidence of drugs or drug metabolites... suitable inquiry conducted under the provisions of § 26.63 or to any other inquiry or investigation... records must be provided to personnel conducting reviews, inquiries into allegations, or audits under the...

  19. Molecular typing and virulence analysis of serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from liver abscess patients and stool samples from noninfectious subjects in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, L Kristopher; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chang, Feng-Yee; Lee, Nelson; Yeh, Kuo-Ming; Koh, Tse Hsien; Ip, Margaret

    2011-11-01

    Serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae with multilocus sequence type 23 (ST23) has been strongly associated with liver abscess in Taiwan. Few data regarding the strain types and virulence of this serotype from other Asian countries are available. Serotype K1 K. pneumoniae strains isolated from liver abscess and stool samples from subjects hospitalized in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan hospitals were examined. Forty-seven serotype K1 isolates were identified: 26 from liver abscess samples and 21 from stool samples. MLST revealed 7 sequence types: 85.1% (40 of 47 isolates) belonged to ST23, 1 isolate belonged to ST163 (a single-locus variant of ST23), and 2 isolates were ST249 (a 3-locus variant of ST23). New STs, namely, ST367, ST425, and ST426, were allocated to 3 of 4 isolates from stool samples. The virulence of these strains was determined by neutrophil phagocytosis and mouse infection models. Except for two ST23 isolates, all Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were resistant to phagocytosis. Resistance to serum killing varied in isolates of ST23, while all non-ST23 strains were susceptible to serum killing except one with ST249 from a liver abscess. All hypervirulent isolates with a 50% lethal dose of serum killing, and also carried both virulence-associated genes, rmpA and aerobactin. Multilocus sequence typing genotype 23 was the most prevalent sequence type among serotype K1 K. pneumoniae isolates from both liver abscess and stool samples in the Asia Pacific region. Serotype K1 K. pneumoniae isolates with capsule expression leading to phagocytic resistance and with the aerobactin gene were associated with hypervirulence.

  20. Isolation of an unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium in a clinical specimen.

    OpenAIRE

    Odugbemi, T; Nwofor, C; Joiner, K T

    1988-01-01

    An unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from a clinical specimen is reported. The organism was oxidase, urease, and catalase positive; it grew on Thayer-Martin and MacConkey media. The isolate is possibly similar to an unnamed taxon (G.L. Gilardi and Y.C. Faur, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:626-629, 1984); however, it had unique characteristics of nonmotility with no flagellum detectable and was a gram-negative coccoid with a few rods in pairs and negative for starch hydrolysis.

  1. Isolation of an unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium in a clinical specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odugbemi, T; Nwofor, C; Joiner, K T

    1988-05-01

    An unidentified pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from a clinical specimen is reported. The organism was oxidase, urease, and catalase positive; it grew on Thayer-Martin and MacConkey media. The isolate is possibly similar to an unnamed taxon (G.L. Gilardi and Y.C. Faur, J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:626-629, 1984); however, it had unique characteristics of nonmotility with no flagellum detectable and was a gram-negative coccoid with a few rods in pairs and negative for starch hydrolysis.

  2. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  3. Handling of biological specimens for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, G.

    1987-01-01

    There are many different aspects of specimen preparation procedure which need to be considered in order to achieve good results. Whether using the scanning or transmission microscope, the initial handling procedures are very similar and are selected for the information required. Handling procedures and techniques described are: structural preservation; immuno-and histo-chemistry; x-ray microanalysis and autoradiography; dehydration and embedding; mounting and coating specimens for scanning electron microscopy; and sectioning of resin embedded material. With attention to detail and careful choice of the best available technique, excellent results should be obtainable whatever the specimen. 6 refs

  4. Application of robot kinematics methods to the simulation and control of neutron beam line positioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Jonathan A. [Open University, Materials Engineering, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.a.j.james@open.ac.uk; Edwards, Lyndon [Open University, Materials Engineering, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-11

    Neutron stress measurements require specimens of complex geometry to be speedily and accurately positioned and oriented with respect to the neutron beam. Recognition that a majority of the specimen positioning systems in use at strain scanning facilities are effectively serial robot manipulators, suggests that the methods of serial robot kinematic modelling may be applied to advantage. The adoption of robotics methods provides a simple and reliable framework for controlling positioning systems of arbitrary geometry and complexity. In addition the numerical solution of the inverse kinematic problem is facilitated, allowing specimens to be automatically positioned and orientated so that pre-determined strain components are measured. It is also shown that, given sufficient degrees of freedom, a secondary characteristic of the measurement position such as the measurement count time may be simultaneously optimised.

  5. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.

    1998-01-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior

  6. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Notched Specimen Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtrey, Michael David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Creep behavior of Alloy 617 has been extensively characterized to support the development of a draft Code Case to qualify Alloy 617 in Section III division 5 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will allow use of Alloy 617 in construction of nuclear reactor components at elevated temperatures and longer periods of time (up to 950°C and 100,000 hours). Prior to actual use, additional concerns not considered in the ASME code need to be addressed. Code Cases are based largely on uniaxial testing of smooth gage specimens. In service conditions, components will generally be under multi axial loading. There is also the concern of the behavior at discontinuities, such as threaded components. To address the concerns of multi axial creep behavior and at geometric discontinuities, notched specimens have been designed to create conditions representative of the states that service components experience. Two general notch geometries have been used for these series of tests: U notch and V notch specimens. The notches produce a tri axial stress state, though not uniform across the specimen. Characterization of the creep behavior of the U notch specimens and the creep rupture behavior of the V notch specimens provides a good approximation of the behavior expected of actual components. Preliminary testing and analysis have been completed and are reported in this document. This includes results from V notch specimens tested at 900°C and 800°C. Failure occurred in the smooth gage section of the specimen rather than at the root of the notch, though some damage was present at the root of the notch, where initial stress was highest. This indicates notch strengthening behavior in this material at these temperatures.

  7. Final Report: Posttest Analysis of Omega II Optical Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newlander, C D; Fisher, J H

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary posttest analyses have been completed on optical specimens exposed during the Omega II test series conducted on 14 July 2006. The Omega Facility, located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester was used to produce X-ray environments through the interaction of intense pulsed laser radiation upon germanium-loaded silica aerogels. The optical specimen testing was supported by GH Systems through experiment design, pre- and post-test analyses, specimen acquisition, and overall technical experience. The test specimens were fabricated and characterized by Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), San Diego, CA and were simple protected gold coatings on silica substrates. Six test specimens were exposed, five filtered with thin beryllium foil filters, and one unfiltered which was exposed directly to the raw environment. The experimental objectives were: (1) demonstrate that tests of optical specimens could be performed at the Omega facility; (2) evaluate the use and survivability of beryllium foil filters as a function of thickness; (3) obtain damage data on optical specimens which ranged from no damage to damage; (4) correlate existing thermal response models with the damage data; (5) evaluate the use of the direct raw environment upon the specimen response and the ability/desirability to conduct sensitive optical specimen tests using the raw environment; and (6) initiate the development of a protocol for performing optical coatings/mirror tests. This report documents the activities performed by GH Systems in evaluating and using the environments provided by LLNL, the PUFFTFT analyses performed using those environments, and the calculated results compared to the observed and measured posttest data

  8. Some recent innovations in small specimen testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; He, M.; Gragg, D.; Klingensmith, D.; Lucas, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    New innovative small specimen test techniques are described. Finite element simulations show that combinations of cone indentation pile-up geometry and load-penetration depth relations can be used to determine both the yield stress and strain-hardening behavior of a material. Techniques for pre-cracking and testing sub-miniaturized fracture toughness bend bars, with dimensions of 1.65x1.65x9 mm 3 , or less, are described. The corresponding toughness-temperature curves have a very steep transition slope, primarily due to rapid loss of constraint, which has advantages in some experiments to characterize the effects of specified irradiation variables. As one example of using composite specimens, an approach to evaluating helium effects is proposed, involving diffusion bonding small wires of a 54 Fe-based ferritic-martensitic alloy to a surrounding fracture specimen composed of an elemental Fe-based alloy. Finally, we briefly outline some potential approaches to multipurpose specimens and test automation

  9. Detection of a Giardia lamblia coproantigen by using a commercially available immunoenzymatic assay, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil Avaliação do ProSpeT Giardia ensaio em microplaca na detecção de coproantígenos de Giardia lamblia, em fezes de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Oliveira e ROCHA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that fecal examination to detect Giardia lamblia cysts or trophozoites produces a high percentage of false-negative results. A commercially available immunoenzymatic assay (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay, Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS to detect G. lamblia specific coproantigen was evaluated for the first time in Brazil. A total of 90 specimens were tested. Each specimen was first tested as unpreserved stool, and then it was preserved in 10% Formalin to be tested 2 months later. The assay was able to identify all the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 100.0% by visual or spectrophotometric examination in the unpreserved specimens and was negative in 57 of the 60 patients without G. lamblia (specificity = 95.0%. The assay identified 27 of the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 90.0% and was negative in 59 of the 60 negatives (specificity = 98.3% in the preserved stools according to both readings. A marked difference was observed in the optical densities in both groups, preserved and unpreserved stools, when the G. lamblia-positive specimens were compared to the negative or positive for other intestinal parasites than G. lamblia. The assay seems a good alternative for giardiasis diagnosis, especially when the fecal examination was repeatedly negative and the patient presents giardiasislike symptoms.O diagnóstico da giardíase através da pesquisa de trofozoítos ou cistos do parasita nas fezes apresenta uma elevada percentagem de resultados falso-negativos. No presente trabalho foi feita, pela primeira vez no Brasil, uma avaliação do ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca (Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS, utilizando amostras fecais de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Um total de 90 amostras fecais foram testadas, primeiramente como fezes frescas e, então, preservadas em formalina 10%, para um novo teste 2 meses após. Com as amostras frescas, o ensaio imunoenzimático, através de leitura visual ou no espectrofotômetro, foi capaz de

  10. A comparative analysis of preservation techniques for the optimal molecular detection of hookworm DNA in a human fecal specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Nils; Baumer, Ben; Grant, Jessica; Asbjornsdottir, Kristjana; Schaer, Fabian; Hu, Yan; Aroian, Raffi; Walson, Judd; Williams, Steven A.

    2018-01-01

    , inhibitor resistance, preservative cost, shipping requirements, sample infectivity, and labor costs should be considered when deciding upon an appropriate method for the storage of fecal specimens for subsequent PCR analysis. Balancing logistical factors and the need to preserve the target DNA, we believe that under most circumstances 95% ethanol provides the most pragmatic choice for preserving stool samples in the field. PMID:29346412

  11. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    claim related to “native chicory inulin” and maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency. The food constituent that is a subject of a claim is “native chicory inulin”. The Panel considers that “native chicory inulin”, a non-fractionated mixture of monosaccharides (...%), disaccharides, inulin-type fructans and inulin extracted from chicory, with a mean DP ≥ 9, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal defecation by increasing stool frequency (provided that it does not result in diarrhoea) is a beneficial...... physiological effect. Six studies involving 86 subjects consistently showed that consumption of “native chicory inulin” at an amount of at least 12 g/day increases stool frequency. The Panel also notes the plausible mechanisms by which inulin and inulin-type fructans in “native chicory inulin” could exert...

  12. The impact of irradiation induced specimen charging on microanalysis in a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens-Kalceff, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    subsurface specimen charging may still be significant. Charged beam irradiation of poorly conducting materials results in the trapping of charge at pre-existing or irradiation induced defects thereby inducing a localized electric field within the irradiated micro-volume of specimen. The residual surface potentials associated with the localized trapped charge induced electric field have been mapped using KPM. Evidence of electro-diffusion and defect micro-segregation in charged beam irradiated silicon dioxide is observed. The associated mobile defect species are identified using CL microanalysis techniques. The high correlation between KPM and CL images confirms the significant influence of localized potentials on the microstructure of technologically important silicon dioxide. In order to relate the observed potentials to the electron beam induced specimen charging, the calculated potential profiles are evaluated using three dimensional conformal Finite Element Analysis. It is demonstrated that relatively simple models of specimen charging are able to account for the observed potentials resulting from focussed electron irradiation of poorly conducting materials. The complex processes involved in the production and spatial segregation of defects (e.g. interstitial molecular and atomic species) in poorly conducting materials are dependent on highly localized irradiation induced electric fields. When poorly conducting materials are irradiated with electrons, a sub-surface electric field may be induced due to the localization of charges at defects. Negatively charged species will migrate towards the surface, while positively charged species will migrate towards the region of maximum negative trapped charge, towards the base of the interaction volume. Electron beam irradiation of silicon dioxide produces characteristic highly correlated changes in the spatial distribution of CL emission, in the topography of the irradiated surface, and the localised residual surface potential

  13. Tension test system for irradiated small specimens operated by remote control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira

    1993-01-01

    A robot-based tension test system has been developed to aid in the mechanical testing of highly radioactive specimens. This system reduces radiation hazards from specimens and allows for the uniform precision of testing results independent of experimenters' skills. The robot system is designed to accommodate a miniaturized tension specimen with a gage section 5.5 by 1.2 mm, with a total length and width of 12.5 and 2.3 mm, respectively, and thickness of about 0.2 mm. The system is composed of a manipulating robot, a vibrational-type specimen feeder, a rotating-type specimen tray, a specimen observation system, a simulated tension text fixture, and a microcomputer for controlling the system. This system accomplishes specimen arrangement in the specimen tray, specimen transportation and loading to the test fixture and testing, and removal of the broken specimen from the fixture. These procedures are performed quickly, safely, and with uniform testing precision by computer control remotely by an unskilled experimenter

  14. Quantitative Assessment of Orbital Implant Position--A Proof of Concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Schreurs

    Full Text Available In orbital reconstruction, the optimal location of a predefined implant can be planned preoperatively. Surgical results can be assessed intraoperatively or postoperatively. A novel method for quantifying orbital implant position is introduced. The method measures predictability of implant placement: transformation parameters between planned and resulting implant position are quantified.The method was tested on 3 human specimen heads. Computed Tomography scans were acquired at baseline with intact orbits (t0, after creation of the defect (t1 and postoperatively after reconstruction of the defect using a preformed implant (t2. Prior to reconstruction, the optimal implant position was planned on the t0 and t1 scans. Postoperatively, the planned and realized implant position were compared. The t0 and t2 scans were fused using iPlan software and the resulting implant was segmented in the fused t2 scan. An implant reference frame was created (Orbital Implant Positioning Frame; the planned implant was transformed to the reference position using an Iterative Closest Point approach. The segmentation of the resulting implant was also registered on the reference position, yielding rotational (pitch, yaw, roll as well as translational parameters of implant position.Measurement with the Orbital Implant Positioning Frame proved feasible on all three specimen. The positional outcome provided more thorough and accurate insight in resulting implant position than could be gathered from distance measurements alone. Observer-related errors were abolished from the process, since the method is largely automatic.A novel method of quantifying surgical outcome in orbital reconstructive surgery was presented. The presented Orbital Implant Positioning Frame assessed all parameters involved in implant displacement. The method proved to be viable on three human specimen heads. Clinically, the method could provide direct feedback intraoperatively and could improve

  15. The measuring technique developed to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of the multi-layered thin film specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tse-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the thermal diffusivities of the Al, Si and ITO films deposited on the SUS304 steel substrate are evaluated via the present technique. Before applying this technique, the temperature for the thin film of the multi-layered specimen is developed theoretically for the one- dimensional steady heat conduction in response to amplitude and frequency of the periodically oscillating temperature imposed by a peltier placed beneath the specimen's substrate. By the thermal-electrical data processing system excluding the lock-in amplifier, the temperature frequency a3 has been proved first to be independent of the electrical voltage applied to the peltier and the contact position of the thermocouples. The experimental data of phase difference for three kinds of specimen are regressed well by a straight line with a slope. Then, the thermal diffusivity of the thin film is thus determined if the slope value and the film- thickness are available. In the present arrangements for the thermocouples, two thermal diffusivity values are quite close each other and valid for every kind of specimen. This technique can provide an efficient, low-cost method for the thermal diffusivity measurements of thin films.

  16. Tensile-Creep Test Specimen Preparation Practices of Surface Support Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Dogukan; Ozturk, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Ground support has always been considered as a challenging issue in all underground operations. Many forms of support systems and supporting techniques are available in the mining/tunnelling industry. In the last two decades, a new polymer based material, Thin Spray-on Liner (TSL), has attained a place in the market as an alternative to the current areal ground support systems. Although TSL provides numerous merits and has different application purposes, the knowledge on mechanical properties and performance of this material is still limited. In laboratory studies, since tensile rupture is the most commonly observed failure mechanism in field applications, researchers have generally studied the tensile testing of TSLs with modification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-638 standards. For tensile creep testing, specimen preparation process also follows the ASTM standards. Two different specimen dimension types (Type I, Type IV) are widely preferred in TSL tensile testing that conform to the related standards. Moreover, molding and die cutting are commonly used specimen preparation techniques. In literature, there is a great variability of test results due to the difference in specimen preparation techniques and practices. In this study, a ductile TSL product was tested in order to investigate the effect of both specimen preparation techniques and specimen dimensions under 7-day curing time. As a result, ultimate tensile strength, tensile yield strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break values were obtained for 4 different test series. It is concluded that Type IV specimens have higher strength values compared to Type I specimens and moulded specimens have lower results than that of prepared by using die cutter. Moreover, specimens prepared by molding techniques have scattered test results. Type IV specimens prepared by die cutter technique are suggested for preparation of tensile test and Type I specimens prepared by die cutter technique

  17. sTools - a data reduction pipeline for the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer and the High-resolution Fast Imager at the GREGOR solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckein, C.; Denker, C.; Verma, M.; Balthasar, H.; González Manrique, S. J.; Louis, R. E.; Diercke, A.

    2017-10-01

    A huge amount of data has been acquired with the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI), large-format facility cameras, and since 2016 with the High-resolution Fast Imager (HiFI). These data are processed in standardized procedures with the aim of providing science-ready data for the solar physics community. For this purpose, we have developed a user-friendly data reduction pipeline called ``sTools'' based on the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and licensed under creative commons license. The pipeline delivers reduced and image-reconstructed data with a minimum of user interaction. Furthermore, quick-look data are generated as well as a webpage with an overview of the observations and their statistics. All the processed data are stored online at the GREGOR GFPI and HiFI data archive of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP). The principles of the pipeline are presented together with selected high-resolution spectral scans and images processed with sTools.

  18. AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windes, William Enoch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cottle, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between

  19. Negative predictive value of ultrasound in predicting tumor-free margins in specimen sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Hafeez, S.; Hussain, Z.; Hilal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the success of ultrasound in post-excision specimen visualization, and negative predictive value of ultrasound for estimation of tumor-free margins using histopathology as the gold standard. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from May 2010 till January 2013. Methodology: Sonography of all breast nodules was done before and after exicision by two female radiologists with at least five years clinical experience. All surgeries were performed by the same referring breast surgeons. All nodules were non-palpable and had histopathology as well as specimen sonography performed at AKUH. Subjects were excluded, if histopathology was not available, post-procedure sonogram not done or done in another hospital and nodules that were not seen on ultrasound. After needle localization in 47 patients using ultrasound and in 7 patients using mammogram was done, sonogram was conducted in all 54 lesions. These were then assessed by ultrasound for detection of lesion and tumor-free margins in malignant lesion. Post-excision ultrasound was performed for the evaluation of lesion whether visualized or absent with localizing needle in situ, lesion dimensions, depth measurement between the superior margin of the lesion and its edge. Results: All 54 lesions were present on post-exicison scan, out of which 28 were documented as malignant and 26 as benign. Ultrasound declared all specimens as tumor-free. On histopathology, two lesions were documented as having tumor-positive margins and were proven to be invasive lobular carcinoma. Therefore, the negative predictive value of the specimen sonography for margin detection was 26/28 (92.8%). Conclusion: Ultrasound of the excised breast tumor specimen is a simple and reliable technique for confirmation of the tumor-free margins in non-palpable breast lesions. (author)

  20. The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The ligase chain reaction Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay uses ligase chain reaction technology to detect tuberculous DNA sequences in clinical specimens. A study was undertaken to determine its sensitivity and specificity as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2420 clinical specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, urine) submitted for primary screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a regional medical microbiology laboratory. Specimens were tested in parallel with smear, ligase chain reaction, and culture. RESULTS: Thirty nine patients had specimens testing positive by the ligase chain reaction assay. Thirty two patients had newly diagnosed tuberculosis, one had a tuberculosis relapse, three had tuberculosis (on antituberculous therapy when tested), and three had healed tuberculosis. In the newly diagnosed group specimens were smear positive in 21 cases (66%), ligase chain reaction positive in 30 cases (94%), and culture positive in 32 cases (100%). Using a positive culture to diagnose active tuberculosis, the ligase chain reaction assay had a sensitivity of 93.9%, a specificity of 99.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.8%, and a negative predictive value of 99.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest clinical trial to date to report the efficacy of the ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The authors conclude that ligase chain reaction is a useful primary screening test for tuberculosis, offering speed and discrimination in the early stages of diagnosis and complementing traditional smear and culture techniques.

  1. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  2. Viral etiology and incidence of acute gastroenteritis in young children attending day-care centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Vesikari, Timo; Pang, Xiao-Li

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to investigate the frequency, morbidity and cause of acute gastroenteritis in children attending day-care centers in Denmark. METHODS: Children with acute diarrhea (> or =2 consecutive loose stools in 24 hours, with duration of ... 19 day-care centers, were included. Gastroenteritis viruses, group A rotavirus, sapoviruses, noroviruses and astroviruses were detected with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. In addition, stool specimens were cultured for bacterial pathogens. Children who were brought...

  3. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Balassiano, Ilana; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Sahoo, Malaya K; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2015-01-01

    Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens. 478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay). The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic), and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6%) were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3%) in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9%) by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02). Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818), the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5%) to 133 (16.3%). This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize case detection.

  4. Significant Association of Streptococcus bovis with Malignant Gastrointestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Shanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. The aims of the current study were to compare prevalence of the bacterium associated with malignant and nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases and to determine the susceptibility of the isolated strains to different antimicrobial agents. The result showed that the prevalence of S. bovis in stool specimens from patients with malignant or with nonmalignant gastrointestinal diseases was statistically significant. This result may support the idea that there is correlation between S. bovis and the malignant gastrointestinal diseases.

  5. SHOULD EVERY APPENDECECTOMY SPECIMEN BE SUBJECTED TO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION? A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN APPENDICECTOMY SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahanuma Shaik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies with a lifetime risk of 7-8%. The appendicectomy specimens operated upon clinically-suspected appendicitis often appear normal on gross examination, but histopathological evaluation may reveal a diverse underlying pathology. Therefore, for accurate diagnosis, histopathological examination of all appendicectomy specimens is mandatory. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of 175 appendicectomy cases operated over a period of two years. The clinical data and histopathological reports were reviewed and various histopathological findings are categorised. RESULTS Out of the total 175 appendicectomies, 155 emergency appendicectomy cases were included in the study, while 20 cases of incidental appendicectomy were excluded. The peak incidence was found in the 2nd and 3rd decades with male predominance. Among the 155 specimens, 96.8% had histological features of appendicitis and 1.9% were normal appendix. The unusual histopathological findings were Carcinoid tumour and Enterobius vermicularis. CONCLUSION The definitive diagnoses of appendicitis as well as the unusual incidental findings that were missed intraoperatively are established by histopathological examination. The study supports the histological examination of all resected appendicectomy specimens.

  6. Minimal resin embedding of multicellular specimens for targeted FIB-SEM imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Nicole L; Machado, Pedro; Markert, Sebastian M; Stigloher, Christian; Schwab, Yannick; Steyer, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is a powerful tool to perform ultrastructural analysis of targeted tissues or cells. The large field of view of the light microscope (LM) enables quick and efficient surveys of the whole specimen. It is also compatible with live imaging, giving access to functional assays. CLEM protocols take advantage of the features to efficiently retrace the position of targeted sites when switching from one modality to the other. They more often rely on anatomical cues that are visible both by light and electron microscopy. We present here a simple workflow where multicellular specimens are embedded in minimal amounts of resin, exposing their surface topology that can be imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). LM and SEM both benefit from a large field of view that can cover whole model organisms. As a result, targeting specific anatomic locations by focused ion beam-SEM (FIB-SEM) tomography becomes straightforward. We illustrate this application on three different model organisms, used in our laboratory: the zebrafish embryo Danio rerio, the marine worm Platynereis dumerilii, and the dauer larva of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we focus on the experimental steps to reduce the amount of resin covering the samples and to image the specimens inside an FIB-SEM. We expect this approach to have widespread applications for volume electron microscopy on multiple model organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource: Role in HIV/AIDS scientific discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrath Michael S

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The AIDS Cancer and Specimen Resource (ACSR supports scientific discovery in the area of HIV/AIDS-associated malignancies. The ACSR was established as a cooperative agreement between the NCI (Office of the Director, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis and regional consortia, University of California, San Francisco (West Coast, George Washington University (East Coast and Ohio State University (Mid-Region to collect, preserve and disperse HIV-related tissues and biologic fluids and controls along with clinical data to qualified investigators. The available biological samples with clinical data and the application process are described on the ACSR web site. The ACSR tissue bank has more than 100,000 human HIV positive specimens that represent different processing (43, specimen (15, and anatomical site (50 types. The ACSR provides special biospecimen collections and prepares speciality items, e.g., tissue microarrays (TMA, DNA libraries. Requests have been greatest for Kaposi's sarcoma (32% and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (26%. Dispersed requests include 83% tissue (frozen and paraffin embedded, 18% plasma/serum and 9% other. ACSR also provides tissue microarrays of, e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, for biomarker assays and has developed collaborations with other groups that provide access to additional AIDS-related malignancy specimens. ACSR members and associates have completed 63 podium and poster presentations. Investigators have submitted 125 letters of intent requests. Discoveries using ACSR have been reported in 61 scientific publications in notable journals with an average impact factor of 7. The ACSR promotes the scientific exploration of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and malignancy by participation at national and international scientific meetings, contact with investigators who have productive research in this area and identifying, collecting, preserving, enhancing, and dispersing HIV

  8. Design and use of nonstandard tensile specimens for irradiated materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotou, N.F.

    1984-10-01

    Miniature, nonstandard, tensile-type specimens have been developed for use in radiation effects experiments at high energy neutron sources where the useful radiation volume is as small as a few cubic centimeters. The end result of our development is a sheet-type specimen, 12.7 mm long with a 5.1 mm long, 1.0 mm wide gage section, which is typically fabricated from 0.25 mm thick sheet stock by a punching technique. Despite this miniature geometry, it has been determined that the data obtained using these miniature specimens are in good agreement with data obtained using much larger specimens. This finding indicates that miniature tensile specimen data may by used for engineering design purposes. Furthermore, it is clear that miniature tensile specimen technology is applicable to fields other than the study of radiation effects. This paper describes the miniature specimen technology which was developed and compares the data obtained from these miniature specimens to data obtained from much larger specimens. 9 figures

  9. Evaluation of the Behavior of Technova Corporation Rod-Stiffened Stitched Compression Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2013-01-01

    Under Space Act Agreement 1347 between NASA and Technova Corporation, Technova designed and fabricated two carbon-epoxy crippling specimens and NASA loaded them to failure in axial compression. Each specimen contained a pultruded rod stiffener which was held to the specimen skin with through-the-thickness stitches. One of these specimens was designed to be nominally the same as pultruded rod stitched specimens fabricated by Boeing under previous programs. In the other specimen, the rod was prestressed in a Technova manufacturing process to increase its ability to carrying compressive loading. Experimental results demonstrated that the specimen without prestressing carried approximately the same load as the similar Boeing specimens and that the specimen with prestressing carried significantly more load than the specimen without prestressing.

  10. Preserve specimens for reproducibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krell, F.-T.; Klimeš, Petr; Rocha, L. A.; Fikáček, M.; Miller, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 539, č. 7628 (2016), s. 168 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : reproducibility * specimen * biodiversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v539/n7628/full/539168b.html

  11. Detection of enteropathogens associated with travelers’ diarrhea using a multiplex Luminex-based assay performed on stool samples smeared on Whatman FTA Elute cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Tahaniyat; Tisdale, Michele D; Maguire, Jason D; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Riddle, Mark S; Tribble, David R

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the limits of detection (LoD) for an 11-plex PCR-Luminex assay performed on Whatman FTA Elute cards smeared with stool containing pathogens associated with travelers’ diarrhea. LoDs ranged between 102-105 CFU, PFU or cysts/g for most pathogens except Cryptosporidium. Campylobacter and norovirus LoD increased with prolonged storage of cards. PMID:26072151

  12. Thermal expansion of epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Bridgman, C.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal expansion behavior of three epoxy-fiberglass composite specimens was measured from 20 to 120 0 C (70 to 250 0 F) using a fused quartz push-rod dilatometer. Billets produced by vacuum impregnating layers of two types of fiberglass cloth with an epoxy resin were core-drilled to produce cylindrical specimens. These were used to study expansion perpendicular and parallel to the fiberglass layers. The dilatometer is held at a preselected temperature until steady-state is indicated by stable length and temperature data. Before testing the composite specimens, a reliability check of the dilatometer was performed using a copper secondary standard. This indicated thermal expansion coefficient (α) values within +-2% of expected values from 20 to 200 0 C

  13. Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens in the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoz, O; Karim, A; Mazoit, J X; Edouard, A; Leprince, S; Nordmann, P

    2000-11-01

    We evaluated prospectively the use of Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens to allow the early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), compared with the use of 60 bronchoscopic protected specimen brushes (PSB) and 126 blinded plugged telescopic catheters (PTC) obtained from 134 patients. Gram stains were from Cytospin slides; they were studied for the presence of microorganisms in 10 and 50 fields by two independent observers and classified according to their Gram stain morphology. Quantitative cultures were performed after serial dilution and plating on appropriate culture medium. A final diagnosis of VAP, based on a culture of > or = 10(3) c.f.u. ml-1, was established after 81 (44%) samplings. When 10 fields were analysed, a strong relationship was found between the presence of bacteria on Gram staining and the final diagnosis of VAP (for PSB and PTC respectively: sensitivity 74 and 81%, specificity 94 and 100%, positive predictive value 91 and 100%, negative predictive value 82 and 88%). The correlation was less when we compared the morphology of microorganisms observed on Gram staining with those of bacteria obtained from quantitative cultures (for PSB and PTC respectively: sensitivity 54 and 69%, specificity 86 and 89%, positive predictive value 72 and 78%, negative predictive value 74 and 84%). Increasing the number of fields read to 50 was associated with a slight decrease in specificity and positive predictive value of Gram staining, but with a small increase in its sensitivity and negative predictive value. The results obtained by the two observers were similar to each other for both numbers of fields analysed. Gram staining of protected pulmonary specimens performed on 10 fields predicted the presence of VAP and partially identified (using Gram stain morphology) the microorganisms growing at significant concentrations, and could help in the early choice of the treatment of VAP. Increasing the number of fields read or having the Gram

  14. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  15. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments

  16. Incidence of centrally positioned nuclei in mouse masticatory muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, A; Vilmann, H; Kirkeby, S

    1989-01-01

    Cross-sections of normal digastric, temporalis and masseter muscles from 7- and 30-week-old mice were studied for centrally positioned nuclei. Such nuclei were inhomogeneously distributed throughout each muscle and varied markedly between specimens. The incidence of centrally positioned nuclei in...

  17. Burden of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Guatemala 2008–2012: Results from a facility-based surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen R.; Lopez, Beatriz; Arvelo, Wences; Henao, Olga; Parsons, Michele B.; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Lindblade, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter diarrheal infections in two facility-based surveillance sites in Guatemala. Methods Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data were collected on patients presenting with acute diarrhea from select healthcare facilities in the departments of Santa Rosa and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, from January 2008 through August 2012. Stool specimens were cultured for Campylobacter and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a subset of isolates. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Results Campylobacter was isolated from 306 (6.0%) of 5137 stool specimens collected. For children Guatemala; antimicrobial resistance was high, and treatment regimens in the ambulatory setting which included metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and lacked oral rehydration were sub-optimal. PMID:24534336

  18. Burden of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Guatemala 2008-2012: results from a facility-based surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Stephen R; Lopez, Beatriz; Arvelo, Wences; Henao, Olga; Parsons, Michele B; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Lindblade, Kim

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter diarrheal infections in two facility-based surveillance sites in Guatemala. Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data were collected on patients presenting with acute diarrhea from select healthcare facilities in the departments of Santa Rosa and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, from January 2008 through August 2012. Stool specimens were cultured for Campylobacter and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a subset of isolates. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Campylobacter was isolated from 306 (6.0%) of 5137 stool specimens collected. For children Guatemala; antimicrobial resistance was high, and treatment regimens in the ambulatory setting which included metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and lacked oral rehydration were sub-optimal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Low sensitivity of fecal toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, S; Frei, R; Strandén, A M; Dangel, M; Tschudin-Sutter, S; Widmer, A F

    2015-11-01

    The optimal approach in laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is still not well defined. Toxigenic culture (TC) or alternatively fecal toxin assay by cell cytotoxicity neutralization assay are considered to be the reference standard, but these methods are time-consuming and labor intensive. In many medical centers, diagnosis of CDI is therefore still based on fecal toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay (EIA) directly from stool alone, balancing cost and speed against limited diagnostic sensitivity. The aim of the study was to assess in which patient population the additional workload of TC is justified. All consecutive stool specimens submitted for diagnosis of suspected CDI between 2004 and 2011 at a tertiary-care center were examined by toxin EIA and TC. Clinical data of patients with established diagnosis of CDI were collected in a standardized case-report form. From 12,481 stool specimens submitted to the microbiologic laboratory, 480 (3.8%) fulfilled CDI criteria; 274 (57.1%) were diagnosed by toxin EIA; and an additional 206 (42.9%) were diagnosed by TC when toxin EIA was negative. Independent predictors for negative toxin EIA but positive TC were high-dose corticosteroids (odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-5.90, p 0.002), leukocytopenia <1000/μL (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.22-5.23, p 0.013) and nonsevere CDI (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.39-3.50, p 0.001). There was no difference in outcomes such as in-hospital mortality and recurrence between both groups. In conclusion, negative toxin EIA does not rule out CDI in immunocompromised patients in the setting of relevant clinical symptoms. Methods with improved sensitivity such as TC or PCR should be used, particularly in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  1. Moellerella wisconsensis, a new genus and species of Enterobacteriaceae found in human stool specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Hickman-Brenner, F W; Huntley-Carter, G P; Saitoh, Y; Steigerwalt, A G; Farmer, J J; Brenner, D J

    1984-01-01

    The name Moellerella wisconsensis is proposed for a group of the family Enterobacteriaceae previously called enteric group 46. The species name, wisconsensis, was coined because six of the nine strains were isolated in Wisconsin. M. wisconsensis strains were negative for indole production, Voges-Proskauer, H2S production, urea, phenylalanine deaminase, lysine and ornithine decarboxylases, arginine dihydrolase, gas production from D-glucose, acid production from trehalose, and motility; the st...

  2. Prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andargie, Gashaw; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Tiruneh, Moges; Huruy, Kahsay

    2008-12-01

    Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training College, Gondar, Ethiopia. Fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. The samples were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria species (41.7%) isolated from fingernail contents, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), Klebsiella species (5.5%), Escherichia coli (3.1%), Serratia species (1.58%), Citrobacter species (0.8%), and Enterobacter species (0.8%). Shigella species were isolated from stool samples of four food-handlers (3.1%). None of the food-handlers was positive for Salmonella species and Shigella species in respect of their fingernail contents. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Intestinal parasites detected in the stools of the food-handlers included Ascaris lumbricoides (18.11%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.6%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%), hookworm species (0.8%), Gardia lamblia (0.8%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.8%); 1.6% of the study subjects were positive for each of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, hookworm, and G. lamblia. The findings emphasize the importance of food-handlers as potential sources of infections and suggest health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures.

  3. Demonstration of Laser Cutting System for Tube Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, H. M.; Ahn, S. B. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated fuel cladding and components interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, it was found that the mechanical testing data of the irradiated specimens with removal of oxide layer was less reliable than the specimens with oxide layer . The laser cutting system using Nd:YAG with fiber optic beam delivery has great potential in material processing applications of the irradiated fuel cladding and components due to non-contact process. Thus, the oxide layer doesn't interrupt the fabrication process during the laser cutting system. In the present study, the laser cutting system was designed to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding with and without oxide. The feasibility of the laser cutting system was demonstrated for the fabrication of various types of unirradiated specimens. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zirlo fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer. Based on the feasibility studies and demonstration, the design of the laser cutting machine for fully or partially automatic and remotely operable system will be proposed and made.

  4. Evaluation and comparison of multiple test methods, including real-time PCR, for Legionella detection in clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Legionella is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture and PCR test methods and to determine if sputum is an alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at PHOL from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of UAT compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV 63.8% and negative predictive value (NPV 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7% and NPV 98.1%. Of 146 patients who had a Legionella positive result by PCR, only 66(45.2% also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%; sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results despite testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values=1.0, for each test. In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; thereforemore than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection, and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical, from patients being tested for Legionella.

  5. Molecular markers: Implications for cytopathology and specimen collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Paul A

    2015-08-01

    Cytologic specimens obtained through minimally invasive biopsy techniques are increasingly being used as principle diagnostic specimens for tumors arising in multiple sites. The number and scope of ancillary tests performed on these specimens have grown substantially over the past decade, including many molecular markers that not only can aid in formulating accurate and specific diagnoses but also can provide prognostic or therapeutic information to help direct clinical decisions. Thus, the cytopathologist needs to ensure that adequate material is collected and appropriately processed for the study of relevant molecular markers, many of which are specific to tumor site. This brief review covers considerations for effective cytologic specimen collection and processing to ensure diagnostic and testing success. In addition, a general overview is provided of molecular markers pertinent to tumors from a variety of sites. The recognition of these established and emerging molecular markers by cytopathologists is an important step toward realizing the promise of personalized medicine. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  6. Laboratory specimens and genetic privacy: evolution of legal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle Huckaby

    2013-03-01

    Although laboratory specimens are an important resource for biomedical research, controversy has arisen when research has been conducted without the knowledge or consent of the individuals who were the source of the specimens. This paper summarizes the most important litigation regarding the research use of laboratory specimens and traces the evolution of legal theory from property claims to claims related to genetic privacy interests. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. 50 CFR 31.11 - Donation and loan of wildlife specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Donation and loan of wildlife specimens... of Wildlife Reduction and Disposal § 31.11 Donation and loan of wildlife specimens. Wildlife specimens may be donated or loaned to public institutions for specific purposes. Donation or loans of...

  8. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Rahka, K.; Wallin, K.

    1984-07-01

    Owing to small and inexpensive specimens the Charpy impact test is widely used in quality control and alloy development. Limitations in power reactor survellance capsules it is also widely used for safety analysis purposes. Instrumenting the tup and computerizing data acquisition, makes dynamic fracture mechanics data measurement possible and convenient. However, the dynamic effects (inertia forces, specimen oscillations) in the impact test cause inaccuracies in the recorded load-time diagram and hence diminish the reliability of the calculated dynamic fracture mechanics parameters. To decrease inaccuracies a new pendulum type of instrumented impact test apparatus has been developed and constructed in the Metals Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. This tester is based on a new principle involving inverted test geometry. The purpose of the geometry inversion is to reduce inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Further, the new impact tester has some other novel features: e.g. the available initia impact energy is about double compared to the conventional standard (300 J) impact tester allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. Also, the rotation asix in the three point bending is nearly stationary making COD-measurements possible. An experimental test series is described in which the inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared in the conventional and new impact tester utilizing Charpy V-notch specimens. Comparison of the two test geometries is also made with the aid of an analytical model using finite element method (FEM) analysis. (author)

  9. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. A Prevalence Study of Intestinal Parasites in Southern Belize

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aimpun, Pote

    2000-01-01

    A biomedical survey of stool specimens from 82% of the population (n=672) of S villages in Toledo District, Belize were examined by the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections...

  11. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B.

    2015-01-01

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer

  12. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer.

  13. Validity of fracture toughness determined with small bend specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, K.; Rintamaa, R.; Valo, M.

    1994-02-01

    This report considers the validity of fracture toughness estimates obtained with small bend specimens in relation to fracture toughness estimates obtained with large specimens. The study is based upon the analysis and comparison of actual test results. The results prove the validity of the fracture toughness determined based upon small bend specimens, especially when the results are only used to determine the fracture toughness transition temperature T o . In this case the possible error is typically less than 5 deg C and at most 10 deg C. It can be concluded that small bend specimens are very suitable for the estimation of fracture toughness in the case of brittle fracture, provided the results are corrected for statistical size effects. (orig.). (20 refs., 17 figs.)

  14. SurePath Specimens Versus ThinPrep Specimen Types on the COBAS 4800 Platform: High-Risk HPV Status and Cytology Correlation in an Ethnically Diverse Bronx Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, R C; Goldstein, D Y; Einstein, Mark H; Ramos Rivera, G; Schlesinger, K; Khader, S N; Suhrland, M; Fox, A S

    2017-08-01

    To compare the cytologic preparations of 130 cervical specimens (from women of various ethnicities at high risk for human papillomavirus [HPV] infection) using the SurePath (SP) collection system with specimens gathered using the ThinPrep (TP) system, as processed on the Cobas 4800 analyzer, to determine which collection method more accurately identifies HPV infection. In our prospective study, specimens were collected from 130 women of various ethnicities residing in or near Bronx County, NY. The SP-collected specimen was first processed for cytologic findings; if clinical HPV testing was requested on that specimen, it was tested using Hybrid Capture II (HC2) methodology. We tested the remnant SP-collected cell concentrate using the Cobas analyzer. Then, the TP-collected and SP-collected specimens were tested in the same run on that analyzer, and the results were compared. We also compared the results with the concurrent cytologic findings. The results were concordant for overall HR-HPV status in 93.8% of cases. Also, a statistically significant lower cycle threshold value was observed with Cobas testing of specimen concentrates tested via the BD SurePath Pap Test (P = .001), suggesting higher sensitivity compared with specimens tested via the ThinPrep Pap Test. Cobas 4800 HPV testing of SP-collected specimen concentrates yields comparable results to TP-collected specimen concentrates. Based on the limited data that we derived, SP collection may be a more favorable methodology than TP collection for HPV testing of individuals at high risk in our ethnically diverse, urban patient population. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Rapid identification of 11 human intestinal Lactobacillus species by multiplex PCR assays using group- and species-specific primers derived from the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and its flanking 23S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Kato, N; Liu, C; Matsumiya, Y; Kato, H; Watanabe, K

    2000-06-15

    Rapid and reliable two-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were established to identify human intestinal lactobacilli; a multiplex PCR was used for grouping of lactobacilli with a mixture of group-specific primers followed by four multiplex PCR assays with four sorts of species-specific primer mixtures for identification at the species level. Primers used were designed from nucleotide sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and its flanking 23S rRNA gene of members of the genus Lactobacillus which are commonly isolated from human stool specimens: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii (ssp. bulgaricus and ssp. lactis), Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus paracasei (ssp. paracasei and ssp. tolerans), Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus salivarius (ssp. salicinius and ssp. salivarius). The established two-step multiplex PCR assays were applied to the identification of 84 Lactobacillus strains isolated from human stool specimens and the PCR results were consistent with the results from the DNA-DNA hybridization assay. These results suggest that the multiplex PCR system established in this study is a simple, rapid and reliable method for the identification of common Lactobacillus isolates from human stool samples.

  16. Cholera diagnosis in human stool and detection in water: protocol for a systematic review of available technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Karin; Falconer, Jennifer; O'May, Fiona; Jimenez, Miguel; Matragrano, Joe; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Betty; Ager, Alastair

    2018-02-20

    Cholera is a highly infectious diarrheal disease spread via fecal contamination of water and food sources; it is endemic in parts of Africa and Asia and recent outbreaks have been reported in Haiti, the Zambia and Democratic Republic of the Congo. If left untreated, the disease can be fatal in less than 24 h and result in case fatality ratios of 30-50%. Cholera disproportionately affects those living in areas with poor access to water and sanitation: the long-term public health response is focused on improving water and hygiene facilities and access. Short-term measures for infection prevention and control, and disease characterization and surveillance, are impaired by diagnostic delays: culture methods are slow and rely on the availability of infrastructure and specialist equipment. Rapid diagnostic tests have shown promise under field conditions and further innovations in this area have been proposed. This paper is the protocol for a systematic review focused on identifying current technologies and methods used for cholera diagnosis in stool, and detection in water. We will synthesize and appraise information on product technical specifications, accuracy and design features in order to inform infection prevention and control and innovation development. Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Proquest, IndMed and the WHO and Campbell libraries will be searched. We will include studies reporting on field evaluations, including within-study comparisons against a reference standard, and laboratory evaluations reporting on product validation against field stool or water samples. We will extract data according to protocol and attempt meta-analyses if appropriate given data availability and quality. The systematic review builds on a previous scoping review in this field and expands upon this by synthesising data on both product technical characteristics and design features. The review will be of particular value to stakeholders engaged in diagnostic procurement and manufacturers

  17. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  18. Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Steve Ogbonnia

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... specimens like blood, urine, catheter, stool and pus. Antibacterial ... In addition to this problem, antibiotics ... number of multi-drug resistant microbial strains and the appearance of ... to fine powder and stored in airtight bottles.

  19. Assessment of plastic flow and fracture properties with small specimens test techniques for IFMIF-designed specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaetig, P.; Campitelli, E.N.; Bonade, R.; Baluc, N.

    2005-01-01

    The primary mission of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to generate a material database to be used for the design of various components, for the licensing and for the assessment of the safe operation of a demonstration fusion reactor. IFMIF is an accelerator-based high-energy neutron source whose irradiation volume is quite limited (0.5 l for the high fluence volume). This requires the use of small specimens to measure the irradiation-induced changes on the physical and mechanical properties of materials. In this paper, we developed finite element models to better analyze the results obtained with two different small specimen test techniques applied to the tempered martensitic steel F82H-mod. First, one model was used to reconstruct the load-deflection curves of small ball punch tests, which are usually used to extract standard tensile parameters. It was shown that a reasonable assessment of the overall plastic flow can be done with small ball punch tests. Second, we investigated the stress field sensitivity at a crack tip to the constitutive behavior, for a crack modeled in plane strain, small-scale yielding and fracture mode I conditions. Based upon a local criterion for cleavage, that appears to be the basis to account for the size and geometry effects on fracture toughness, we showed that the details of the constitutive properties play a key role in modeling the irradiation-induced fracture toughness changes. Consequently, we suggest that much more attention and efforts have to be paid in investigating the post-yield behavior of the irradiated specimens and, in order to reach this goal, we recommend the use of not only tensile specimens but also that of compression ones in the IFMIF irradiation matrices. (author)

  20. Measurement on the density resolution of industrial computerized tomography by using disc specimen with holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Gao, D.; Zhang, W.; Xia, Z.; Yang, C.

    2004-01-01

    Several ways mainly used for measuring the density resolution of industrial computerized tomography (ICT) are briefly introduced. Based on the equivalent conversion between volume variation and density variation, a kind of disc specimen with holes is designed to measure the density resolution of ICT. In this experiment, a kind of high quality polymethyl methacylate (PMMA) is selected to make specimens with diameter of 250mm, in which six sets of holes with diameter separately 0.5mm, 1.0mm, 1.5mm, 2.0mm, 2.5mm, and 3.0mm are distributed in the radial directions with interval of 60 o between two neighboring sets, and in the same set, the distances of holes departing the center of the specimen are respectively 20mm, 40mm, 60mm, 80mm, and 100mm. The experiment shows that the method is sensitive, simple, flexible, and practical. About 0.2% density resolution of region of interest (ROI) with diameter 20mm can be verified, the relationship between CT value of ROI and its position can be obtained, and at the same time the spatial resolution of ICT can be measured in high quality. (author)

  1. Specimen's plane misaligned installation solution based on charge fluctuation inside SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haojian; Liu, Yanting; Yang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Panbing; Shen, Yajing

    2018-04-01

    Precise specimen's installation is a sticking point to ensure the characterization accuracy of the in-situ material property test. Although it is common knowledge that specimen's plane misaligned installation (PMI) would cause extra force loading during mechanical testing, there are few effective solutions available to deal with it at the current stage, especially during the in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test. Taking into consideration the charge fluctuation phenomenon under SEM, this paper proposes a highlight area variation (HAV) method for specimen deformation judgment, i.e., the specimen deformation is defined when the highlight area changes greater than 20% of the initial value of the specimen surface. Three types of specimens with different resistivities, i.e., human hair (electrical resistivity ˜3 × 1012 Ω cm), optical fiber (electrical resistivity ˜1017 Ω cm), and magnetic wire (electrical resistivity ˜2 × 10-5 Ω cm), are chosen to verify the effectiveness of the HAV method. Furthermore, combined with the developed robot-aided alignment system, the specimen's PMI problem can also be solved. In the demonstration, the human hair specimen is installed across two specimen stages and its in-situ twisting (in 360°) test is implemented. The results clearly indicate that the HAV method and the robot-aided alignment system are practical and reliable, and the specimen can be aligned on the same plane and installed precisely with accuracy up to 3 μm. This method will benefit the in-situ SEM material mechanical property test and has a significant impact in fundamental material research.

  2. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  3. A proposed standard round compact specimen for plane strain fracture toughness testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J. H.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Seeley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    A round, disk-shaped specimen is proposed as a standard test specimen for addition to ASTM Test for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials (E 399-78A). The specimen is diametrically cracked, and loaded in the same way as the existing standard compact specimen. Tests and analyses were performed to verify that the proposed round compact specimen and associated stress intensity factor K solution are appropriate for a standard plane strain fracture toughness test. The use of the round compact specimen for other fracture tests is described.

  4. Cytology specimens offer an effective alternative to formalin-fixed tissue as demonstrated by novel automated detection for ALK break-apart FISH testing and immunohistochemistry in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Frida; Hutchinson, Lloyd M; Garver, Joann; Woda, Bruce; Cosar, Ediz; Kurian, Elizabeth M

    2014-11-01

    Minimally invasive sampling by cytology or core needle biopsy often provides an initial diagnosis for treatment in patients with lung nodules. From these limited specimens, multiple molecular studies are frequently requested. Current guidelines from the US Food and Drug Administration recommend using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections for the detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The authors compared alcohol-fixed and formalin-fixed cytology specimens using a novel automated detection for ALK rearrangements by FISH and immunohistochemistry (IHC). ALK FISH testing was performed on 129 lung adenocarcinomas from 71 cytology cases and 58 biopsy/resection specimens using Papanicolaou staining with integrated cytomorphology. IHC with the ALK D5F3 antibody was performed on cases with residual material (88 of 129 cases). The mean age of the patients was 66 years; there were 62 women and 67 men. ALK gene rearrangement was present in 4% of cytology specimens (3 of 71 specimens) and 7% of surgical specimens (4 of 58 specimens). FISH in 13 cases was technically unsuccessful. Of the 7 FISH-positive cases, only 2 cytology cases (4%) and 2 surgical cases (6%) were found to be positive with the ALK antibody, demonstrating 80% concordance. The one case found to be negative for ALK by IHC demonstrated a variant rearrangement of the ALK 2p23 gene locus by FISH. The results of the current study validate the usefulness of alcohol-fixed and/or formalin-fixed cytology specimens for ALK rearrangement by a novel automated FISH method. IHC using the D5F3 antibody for ALK is specific in this limited cohort. The authors also demonstrated that alcohol-fixed cytology specimens can be used for ALK rearrangement by automated FISH, alone or in conjunction with IHC. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  5. Test methodology and technology of fracture toughness for small size specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakai, E.; Takada, F.; Ishii, T.; Ando, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Matsukawa, S. [JNE Techno-Research Co., Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Small specimen test technology (SSTT) is required to investigate mechanical properties in the limited availability of effective irradiation volumes in test reactors and accelerator-based neutron and charged particle sources. The test methodology guideline and the manufacture processes for very small size specimens have not been established, and we would have to formulate it. The technology to control exactly the load and displacement is also required in the test technology under the environment of high dose radiation produced from the specimens. The objective of this study is to examine the test technology and methodology of fracture toughness for very small size specimens. A new bend test machine installed in hot cell has been manufactured to obtain fracture toughness and DBTT (ductile - brittle transition temperature) of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for small bend specimens of t/2-1/3PCCVN (pre-cracked 1/3 size Charpy V-notch) with 20 mm length and DFMB (deformation and fracture mini bend specimen) with 9 mm length. The new machine can be performed at temperatures from -196 deg. C to 400 deg. C under unloading compliance method. Neutron irradiation was also performed at about 250 deg. C to about 2 dpa in JMTR. After the irradiation, fracture toughness and DBTT were examined by using the machine. Checking of displacement measurement between linear gauge of cross head's displacement and DVRT of the specimen displacement was performed exactly. Conditions of pre-crack due to fatigue in the specimen preparation were also examined and it depended on the shape and size of the specimens. Fracture toughness and DBTT of F82H steel for t/2-1/3PCCVN, DFMB and 0.18DCT specimens before irradiation were examined as a function of temperature. DBTT of smaller size specimens of DFMB was lower than that of larger size specimen of t/2-1/3PCCVN and 0.18DCT. The changes of fracture toughness and DBTT due to irradiation were also

  6. The role of specimen temperature difference in the elevated temperature pitting/transfer of PE16 and 20/25/Nb SS during impact wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morri, J.

    1989-01-01

    A previous study of the impact fretting wear characteristics of PE16 + impacting 20/25 Nb SS (carried out on the BNL twin vibrator rig) identified a pitting-transfer form of wear at 480 0 C. This behaviour was thought to be dependent upon the temperature difference ΔT(ΔT = T 20/25 -T PE 16 ) between the two specimens. In that series of tests, however, no localised temperature control over the specimens was possible and specimen temperature effects could only be assessed by interchanging their positions in the rig. The introduction of locally positioned auxilliary heaters permitted a degree of control over the specimen temperature difference. The effect of ΔT upon pitting and transfer of the PE16 and 20/25 was then assessed and is reported in this paper. The study confirmed that the pitting transfer process was dependent on the temperature difference between the two surfaces. The direction and size of the transfer/pitting effect was independent of the material. Under the particular set of conditions employed in the test, pitting occurred only when the magnitude of ΔT exceeded 20 0 C. At high ΔT the initial period of high friction was extended and was associated with the tendency for gross transfer and pitting. (author)

  7. Old Plants, New Tricks: Phenological Research Using Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles G; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Primack, Richard B; Davis, Charles C; Pearson, Katelin D; Gallinat, Amanda S; Yost, Jenn M; Nelson, Gil; Mazer, Susan J; Rossington, Natalie L; Sparks, Tim H; Soltis, Pamela S

    2017-07-01

    The timing of phenological events, such as leaf-out and flowering, strongly influence plant success and their study is vital to understanding how plants will respond to climate change. Phenological research, however, is often limited by the temporal, geographic, or phylogenetic scope of available data. Hundreds of millions of plant specimens in herbaria worldwide offer a potential solution to this problem, especially as digitization efforts drastically improve access to collections. Herbarium specimens represent snapshots of phenological events and have been reliably used to characterize phenological responses to climate. We review the current state of herbarium-based phenological research, identify potential biases and limitations in the collection, digitization, and interpretation of specimen data, and discuss future opportunities for phenological investigations using herbarium specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Escudero Duch

    Full Text Available Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8% than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915, pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species

  9. Alterations in the colonic microbiota in response to osmotic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Trajanoski, Slave; Lackner, Stefan; Stocker, Gernot; Hinterleitner, Thomas; Gülly, Christian; Högenauer, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract are often accompanied by diarrhea with profound alterations in the GI microbiota termed dysbiosis. Whether dysbiosis is due to the disease itself or to the accompanying diarrhea remains elusive. With this study we characterized the net effects of osmotic diarrhea on the composition of the GI microbiota in the absence of disease. We induced osmotic diarrhea in four healthy adults by oral administration of polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG). Stool as well as mucosa specimens were collected before, during and after diarrhea and 16S rDNA-based microbial community profiling was used to assess the microbial community structure. Stool and mucosal microbiotas were strikingly different, with Firmicutes dominating the mucosa and Bacteroidetes the stools. Osmotic diarrhea decreased phylotype richness and showed a strong tendency to equalize the otherwise individualized microbiotas on the mucosa. Moreover, diarrhea led to significant relative shifts in the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to a relative increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria on the mucosa, a phenomenon also noted in several inflammatory and diarrheal GI diseases. Changes in microbial community structure induced by osmotic diarrhea are profound and show similarities to changes observed in other GI diseases including IBD. These effects so must be considered when specimens from diarrheal diseases (i.e. obtained by stratification of samples according to diarrheal status) or conditions wherein bowel preparations like PEG (i.e. specimens obtained during endoscopy) are used.

  10. Alterations in the colonic microbiota in response to osmotic diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Gorkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diseases of the human gastrointestinal (GI tract are often accompanied by diarrhea with profound alterations in the GI microbiota termed dysbiosis. Whether dysbiosis is due to the disease itself or to the accompanying diarrhea remains elusive. With this study we characterized the net effects of osmotic diarrhea on the composition of the GI microbiota in the absence of disease. METHODS: We induced osmotic diarrhea in four healthy adults by oral administration of polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG. Stool as well as mucosa specimens were collected before, during and after diarrhea and 16S rDNA-based microbial community profiling was used to assess the microbial community structure. RESULTS: Stool and mucosal microbiotas were strikingly different, with Firmicutes dominating the mucosa and Bacteroidetes the stools. Osmotic diarrhea decreased phylotype richness and showed a strong tendency to equalize the otherwise individualized microbiotas on the mucosa. Moreover, diarrhea led to significant relative shifts in the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to a relative increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria on the mucosa, a phenomenon also noted in several inflammatory and diarrheal GI diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in microbial community structure induced by osmotic diarrhea are profound and show similarities to changes observed in other GI diseases including IBD. These effects so must be considered when specimens from diarrheal diseases (i.e. obtained by stratification of samples according to diarrheal status or conditions wherein bowel preparations like PEG (i.e. specimens obtained during endoscopy are used.

  11. Design of four-point SENB specimens with stable crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeppe Bjørn; Kildegaard, Casper; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2018-01-01

    A four-point single-edge-notch-beam (SENB) test specimen loaded in displacement control (fixed grip) is proposed for studying crack deflection at bi-material interfaces. In order to ensure stable crack growth, a novel analytical model of the four-point SENB specimen in fixed grip is derived...... and compared with numerical models. Model results show that the specimen should be short and thick, and the start-crack length should be deep for the crack to propagate stable towards the bi-material interface. Observations from experimental tests of four-point SENB specimens with different start-crack lengths...

  12. Ex vivo MRI evaluation of prostate cancer: Localization and margin status prediction of prostate cancer in fresh radical prostatectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Jan; Hoogenboom, Martijn; Kovacs, Iringo E; Veltien, Andor; Maat, Arie; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; Fütterer, Jurgen J

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the ability of high field ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to localize prostate cancer (PCa) and to predict the margin status in fresh radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens using histology as the reference standard. This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved study had written informed consent. Patients with biopsy-proved PCa and a diagnostic multiparametric 3T MRI examination of the prostate prior to undergoing RP were prospectively included. A custom-made container provided reference between the 7T ex vivo MRI obtained from fresh RP specimens and histological slicing. On ex vivo MRI, PCa was localized and the presence of positive surgical margins was determined in a double-reading session. These findings were compared with histological findings obtained from completely cut, whole-mount embedded, prostate specimens. In 12 RP specimens, histopathology revealed 36 PCa lesions, of which 17 (47%) and 20 (56%) were correlated with the ex vivo MRI in the first and second reading session, respectively. Nine of 12 (75%) index lesions were localized in the first session, in the second 10 of 12 (83%). Seven and 8 lesions of 11 lesions with Gleason score >6 and >0.5 cc were localized in the first and second session, respectively. In the first session none of the four histologically positive surgical margins (sensitivity 0%) and 9 of 13 negative margins (specificity 69%) were detected. In second session the sensitivity and specificity were 25% and 88%, respectively. Ex vivo MRI enabled accurate localization of PCa in fresh RP specimens, and the technique provided information on the margin status with high specificity. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:439-448. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Pain symptoms and stooling patterns do not drive diagnostic costs for children with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in primary or tertiary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Mariella M; Weidler, Erica M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Shulman, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the cost of medical evaluation for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome brought to a pediatric gastroenterologist versus children who remained in the care of their pediatrician, (2) compare symptom characteristics for the children in primary versus tertiary care, and (3) examine if symptom characteristics predicted the cost of medical evaluation. Eighty-nine children aged 7 to 10 years with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome seen by a gastroenterologist (n = 46) or seen only by a pediatrician (n = 43) completed daily pain and stool diaries for 2 weeks. Mothers provided retrospective reports of their children's symptoms in the previous year. Cost of medical evaluation was calculated via chart review of diagnostic tests and application of prices as if the patients were self-pay. Child-reported diary data reflected no significant group differences with respect to pain, interference with activities, or stool characteristics. In contrast, mothers of children evaluated by a gastroenterologist viewed their children as having higher maximum pain intensity in the previous year. Excluding endoscopy costs, cost of medical evaluation was fivefold higher for children evaluated by a gastroenterologist, with higher cost across blood work, stool studies, breath testing, and diagnostic imaging. Symptom characteristics did not predict cost of care for either group. Despite the lack of difference in symptom characteristics between children in primary and tertiary care, a notable differential in cost of evaluation exists in accordance with level of care. Symptom characteristics do not seem to drive diagnostic evaluation in either primary or tertiary care. Given the lack of differences in child-reported symptoms and the maternal perspective that children evaluated by a gastroenterologist had more severe pain, we speculate that parent perception of child symptoms may be a primary factor in

  14. High frequency of parasitic and viral stool pathogens in patients with active ulcerative colitis: report from a tropical country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debabrata; Deb, Rachana; Dar, Lalit; Mirdha, Bijay R; Pati, Sunil K; Thareja, Sandeep; Falodia, Sushil; Ahuja, Vineet

    2009-01-01

    Diarrhoeal relapses in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) may be associated with enteric infections and its diagnosis may lessen avoidable exposure to corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of stool pathogens (parasitic and viral) in patients with active UC. This prospective cross-sectional study included 49 consecutive patients (32 M, 17 F, mean age 35.8+/-12 years) with active UC. Three stool samples were collected from each patient and examined for parasitic infection. Rectal biopsies were obtained during sigmoidoscopy to demonstrate cytomegalovirus (CMV) inclusion bodies and to conduct qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CMV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA detection. Median duration of illness was 3.9+/-3.7 years and 83.7% of the patients had moderate to severe disease. The prevalence of parasitic infections in UC was 12%. The organisms isolated were Strongyloides stercoralis in 4%, Ankylostoma duodenale in 4%, Cryptosporidium in 2% and Entamoeba histolytica in 2% of the patients. The prevalence of CMV and HSV in rectal biopsies using qualitative PCR was 8% and 10%, respectively. No predictive factor was identified with CMV superinfection in patients with active UC. In India there is a high prevalence of parasitic and viral infections in patients with active UC. The results of the study suggest that, in tropical countries with a known high prevalence of parasitic diseases, aggressive evaluation for parasitic and viral infections should be carried out, as early identification and prompt treatment of such infections can improve the clinical course of patients with active UC.

  15. Intestinal Adenovirus Shedding Before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Is a Risk Factor for Invasive Infection Post-transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kosulin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses (HAdV are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric human stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients. Our previous studies identified the gastrointestinal tract as a site of HAdV persistence, but the role of intestinal virus shedding pre-transplant for the risk of ensuing invasive infection has not been entirely elucidated. Molecular HAdV monitoring of serial stool samples using RQ-PCR was performed in 304 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Analysis of stool and peripheral blood specimens was performed pre-transplant and at short intervals until day 100 post-HSCT. The virus was detected in the stool of 129 patients (42%, and 42 tested positive already before HSCT. The patients displaying HAdV shedding pre-transplant showed a significantly earlier increase of intestinal HAdV levels above the critical threshold associated with high risk of invasive infection (p < 0.01. In this subset of patients, the occurrence of invasive infection characterized by viremia was significantly higher than in patients without HAdV shedding before HSCT (33% vs 7%; p < 0.0001. The data demonstrate that intestinal HAdV shedding before HSCT confers a greatly increased risk for invasive infection and disseminated disease post-transplant, and highlights the need for timely HAdV monitoring and pre-emptive therapeutic considerations in HSCT recipients.

  16. A STUDY ON GROSS FEATURES AND DIFFERENT POSITIONS OF ADULTS VERMIFORM APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasukurthy Ashalatha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendix is derived from a Latin word (Pendere meaning at the end. It is a narrow worm-like tubular diverticulum, which arises from the posteromedial wall of caecum about 2 cms below the ileocaecal junction and is suspended by a peritoneal fold known as mesoappendix. The body of appendix is kinked on itself where the free border of mesoappendix ends. Hence, it is coiled like a worm and so is named the ‘Vermiform Appendix’. The appendix is taken up for study in view of its different positions, varying anatomical relations, and the clinical complications when pathologically affected. The relations, measurements, positions, and arterial supply were studied by gross dissection in 61 specimens (Adults – 33 and foetuses – 28 from the population of Krishna and Warangal districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was done on 31 adult specimens, out the length of the appendix, the diameter of the appendix at base, length of the caecum, length of ascending colon were measured. The position of the appendix was classified as per Datta’s classification. Mesenteric attachment to the vermiform appendix were noted. Even arterial supply of the appendix was studied. RESULTS Length of the appendix in adults varied from 2.00 to 25.00 cm as described by different authors, the average being 3.00 to 12.50 cm. The length of the caecum in adults were ranging from 5 to 8 cm. In the present study, the length of appendix was 14.4 cm The origin of the appendicular artery was from inferior division of ileocolic artery. A single appendicular artery is observed in all the specimens almost coinciding with studies of Michels et al. In the present study, in adults, the mesoappendix was extending to the tip in 19 specimens and extending to a variable extent in 14 specimens. Regarding the positions, in adults, they were retrocaecal, retrocolic, and subcaecal positions were 21.21% and splenic, promontory, and pelvic positions were 78

  17. Randomised controlled trial of a synthetic triglyceride milk formula for preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, A; Quinlan, P; Abrams, S; Ryan, S; Meah, S; Lucas, P

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To test whether use of infant formula containing synthetic structured triglycerides results in: (i) increased palmitate absorption; (ii) increased total fat absorption; (iii) reduction in calcium soap formation in the gut; and hence (iv) increased calcium absorption.
METHODS—A randomised study was made of 24 infants comparing three formulas, one containing the synthetic fat Betapol with 74% of palmitate in the 2-position, which was substantially higher than in the two comparison diets (8.4% and 28%). The hypothesised outcomes were tested using balance studies, detailed chemical analysis of stool specimens and dual calcium isotope tracers (44calcium orally and 46calcium intravenously). 
RESULTS—Three of the four hypotheses were confirmed: use of a formula rich in 2-position palmitate (i) improved palmitate (16:0) and also (18:0) absorption; (ii) reduced the formation of insoluble calcium soaps in the stool; and (iii) improved calcium absorption, determined by the dual tracer technique from 42 (SE 3)% to 57 (7)%.
CONCLUSION—Synthetic triglycerides that mimic the stereoisometric structure of those in breast milk may have a valuable role in the design of formulas used for preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units.

 PMID:9462186

  18. Stress-deformed state of cylindrical specimens during indirect tensile strength testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan Japaridze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction between cylindrical specimen made of homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic material and loading jaws of any curvature is considered in the Brazilian test. It is assumed that the specimen is diametrically compressed by elliptic normal contact stresses. The frictional contact stresses between the specimen and platens are neglected. The analytical solution starts from the contact problem of the loading jaws of any curvature and cylindrical specimen. The contact width, corresponding loading angle (2θ0, and elliptical stresses obtained through solution of the contact problems are used as boundary conditions for a cylindrical specimen. The problem of the theory of elasticity for a cylinder is solved using Muskhelishvili's method. In this method, the displacements and stresses are represented in terms of two analytical functions of a complex variable. In the main approaches, the nonlinear interaction between the loading bearing blocks and the specimen as well as the curvature of their surfaces and the elastic parameters of their materials are taken into account. Numerical examples are solved using MATLAB to demonstrate the influence of deformability, curvature of the specimen and platens on the distribution of the normal contact stresses as well as on the tensile and compressive stresses acting across the loaded diameter. Derived equations also allow calculating the modulus of elasticity, total deformation modulus and creep parameters of the specimen material based on the experimental data of radial contraction of the specimen.

  19. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  20. Evaluation and Comparison of Multiple Test Methods, Including Real-time PCR, for Legionella Detection in Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Legionella is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test methods and to determine if sputum is an acceptable alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at Public Health Ontario Laboratories from 1st January, 2010 to 30th April, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of urinary antigen test (UAT) compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 63.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7%, and NPV 98.1%. Out of 146 patients who had a Legionella-positive result by PCR, only 66 (45.2%) also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%); sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results regardless testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values = 1.0, for each test). In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; therefore, more than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical from patients being tested for Legionella. PMID:27630979

  1. Specimen environments in thermal neutron scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebula, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This report is an attempt to collect into one place outline information concerning the techniques used and basic design of sample environment apparatus employed in neutron scattering experiments. Preliminary recommendations for the specimen environment programme of the SNS are presented. The general conclusion reached is that effort should be devoted towards improving reliability and efficiency of operation of specimen environment apparatus and developing systems which are robust and easy to use, rather than achieving performance at the limits of technology. (author)

  2. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L.; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H.; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P.; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5–24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. PMID:26598569

  3. Burden of Norovirus and Rotavirus in Children After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, Casey L; Webman, Rachel; Gilman, Robert H; Mejia, Carolina; Bern, Caryn; Apaza, Sonia; Espetia, Susan; Pajuelo, Mónica; Saito, Mayuko; Challappa, Roxanna; Soria, Richard; Ribera, Jose P; Lozano, Daniel; Torrico, Faustino

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in the field may set the stage for a changing landscape of diarrheal illness affecting children worldwide. Norovirus and rotavirus are the two major viral enteropathogens of childhood. This study describes the prevalence of norovirus and rotavirus 2 years after widespread rotavirus vaccination in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Stool samples from hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and outpatients aged 5-24 months without AGE were recruited from an urban hospital serving Bolivia's third largest city. Both viruses were genotyped, and norovirus GII.4 was further sequenced. Norovirus was found much more frequently than rotavirus. Norovirus was detected in 69/201 (34.3%) of specimens from children with AGE and 13/71 (18.3%) of those without diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 38/201 (18.9%) of diarrheal specimens and 3/71 (4.2%) of non-diarrheal specimens. Norovirus GII was identified in 97.8% of norovirus-positive samples; GII.4 was the most common genotype (71.4% of typed specimens). Rotavirus G3P[8] was the most prevalent rotavirus genotype (44.0% of typed specimens) and G2P[4] was second most prevalent (16.0% of typed specimens). This community is likely part of a trend toward norovirus predominance over rotavirus in children after widespread vaccination against rotavirus. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Evaluation of four techniques for diagnosis of Giardia lamblia in children's stool from Belém city, Para State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Figueredo, Maria Cristina; Frade, Amanda Farage; Kudó, Mônica Eriko; Silva Filho, Manoel Gomes; Póvoa, Marinete Marins

    2001-01-01

    Relatamos a comparação de quatro metodologias para o diagnóstico da Giardia lamblia em material fecal de crianças, Belém/PA. A Hematoxilina Férrica e o método direto apresentaram menor positividade, enquanto que o Método de Faust continua uma boa escolha para o diagnóstico e o Ensaio imunoenzimático melhora a qualidade da detecção deste parasito.We report the evaluation of four techniques for Giardia lamblia diagnosis in children's stool. The Iron haematoxilin staining and direct examination ...

  5. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  6. An electronic specimen collection protocol schema (eSCPS). Document architecture for specimen management and the exchange of specimen collection protocols between biobanking information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, O; Semjonow, A; Oezguer, E; Herden, J; Akbarov, I; Tok, A; Engelmann, U; Wille, S

    2014-01-01

    The integrity of collection protocols in biobanking is essential for a high-quality sample preparation process. However, there is not currently a well-defined universal method for integrating collection protocols in the biobanking information system (BIMS). Therefore, an electronic schema of the collection protocol that is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML) is required to maintain the integrity and enable the exchange of collection protocols. The development and implementation of an electronic specimen collection protocol schema (eSCPS) was performed at two institutions (Muenster and Cologne) in three stages. First, we analyzed the infrastructure that was already established at both the biorepository and the hospital information systems of these institutions and determined the requirements for the sufficient preparation of specimens and documentation. Second, we designed an eSCPS according to these requirements. Finally, a prospective study was conducted to implement and evaluate the novel schema in the current BIMS. We designed an eSCPS that provides all of the relevant information about collection protocols. Ten electronic collection protocols were generated using the supplementary Protocol Editor tool, and these protocols were successfully implemented in the existing BIMS. Moreover, an electronic list of collection protocols for the current studies being performed at each institution was included, new collection protocols were added, and the existing protocols were redesigned to be modifiable. The documentation time was significantly reduced after implementing the eSCPS (5 ± 2 min vs. 7 ± 3 min; p = 0.0002). The eSCPS improves the integrity and facilitates the exchange of specimen collection protocols in the existing open-source BIMS.

  7. A test specimen for characterizing the fracture energy of interfaces in composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L.; Abbaschian, R.

    1993-01-01

    A sandwich-type chevron-notched specimen, which has a phase angle of loading near zero, is proposed to measure interfacial fracture energy arising mainly from chemical bonding. With the specimen configuration of this kind, the advantages from both sandwich test specimens and chevron-notched specimens can be combined to provide an easy and accurate test for the measurement of interfacial fracture energy. The validity of the specimen has been analyzed in terms of the mechanics of sandwich-type specimens and chevron-notched specimens, and demonstrated using the Al 2 O 3 /Nb bimaterial system. The results show that for a phase angle of loading around -7 degrees the Al 2 O 3 /Nb interface has a fracture energy of 9.3 ± 0.2 J/m 2 . 39 refs

  8. Catalog of insect type specimens preserved at the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science with corrections of some specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Qin; Wang, Yun-Zhen; Dong, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Kun

    2015-09-18

    This article presents a list of insect types preserved in Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology (KNHMZ). As of March, 2015, 3 412 type specimens belonging to 266 species/subspecies of 37 families in 9 orders (Odonata, Isoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera) are included. Information corrections of some specimens are provided in this article.

  9. Location specific in situ TEM straining specimens made using FIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Papin, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    A method has been devised and demonstrated for producing in situ straining specimens for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) from specific locations in a sample using a dual-beam focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. The specimen is removed from a polished surface in the FIB using normal methods and then attached to a pre-fabricated substrate in the form of a modified TEM tensile specimen. In this manner, specific features of the microstructure of a polished optical mount can be selected for in situ tensile straining. With the use of electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), this technique could be extended to select specific orientations of the specimen as well

  10. Uniaxial compression tests on diesel contaminated frozen silty soil specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenaf, D.; Stampli, N.; Bathurst, R.; Chapuis, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Results of a uniaxial, unconfined compression test on artificial diesel-contaminated and uncontaminated frozen silty soils are discussed. The testing program involved 59 specimens. The results show that for the same fluid content, diesel contamination reduced the strength of the frozen specimens by increasing the unfrozen water content. For example, in specimens containing 50 per cent diesel oil of the fluid content by weight the maximum strength was reduced by 95 per cent compared to the strength of an uncontaminated specimen. Diesel contamination was also shown to contribute to the slippage between soil particles by acting as a lubricant, thus accelerating the loss of compressive strength.13 refs., 18 figs

  11. Test and Analysis Correlation for a Y-Joint Specimen for a Composite Cryotank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian H.; Sleight, David W.; Grenoble, Ray

    2015-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technology Demonstration (CCTD) project under NASA's Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) developed space technologies using advanced composite materials. Under CCTD, NASA funded the Boeing Company to design and test a number of element-level joint specimens as a precursor to a 2.4-m diameter composite cryotank. Preliminary analyses indicated that the y-joint in the cryotank had low margins of safety; hence the y-joint was considered to be a critical design region. The y-joint design includes a softening strip wedge to reduce localized shear stresses at the skirt/dome interface. In this paper, NASA-developed analytical models will be correlated with the experimental results of a series of positive-peel y-joint specimens from Boeing tests. Initial analytical models over-predicted the experimental strain gage readings in the far-field region by approximately 10%. The over-prediction was attributed to uncertainty in the elastic properties of the laminate and a mismatch between the thermal expansion of the strain gages and the laminate. The elastic properties of the analytical model were adjusted to account for the strain gage differences. The experimental strain gages also indicated a large non-linear effect in the softening strip region that was not predicted by the analytical model. This non-linear effect was attributed to delamination initiating in the softening strip region at below 20% of the failure load for the specimen. Because the specimen was contained in a thermally insulated box during cryogenic testing to failure, delamination initiation and progression was not visualized during the test. Several possible failure initiation locations were investigated, and a most likely failure scenario was determined that correlated well with the experimental data. The most likely failure scenario corresponded to damage initiating in the softening strip and delamination extending to the grips at final failure.

  12. PCR-based verification of positive rapid diagnostic tests for intestinal protozoa infections with variable test band intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sören L; Müller, Ivan; Mertens, Pascal; Herrmann, Mathias; Zondie, Leyli; Beyleveld, Lindsey; Gerber, Markus; du Randt, Rosa; Pühse, Uwe; Walter, Cheryl; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections. In a longitudinal study conducted in poor neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, a total of 1428 stool samples from two cohorts of schoolchildren were examined on the spot for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis using an RDT (Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip; Coris BioConcept). Overall, 121 samples were positive for G. intestinalis and the RDT suggested presence of cryptosporidiosis in 22 samples. After a storage period of 9-10 months in cohort 1 and 2-3 months in cohort 2, samples were subjected to multiplex PCR (BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel, Becton Dickinson). Ninety-three percent (112/121) of RDT-positive samples for G. intestinalis were confirmed by PCR, with a correlation between RDT test band intensity and quantitative pathogen load present in the sample. For Cryptosporidium spp., all positive RDTs had faintly visible lines and these were negative on PCR. The performance of the BD Max™ PCR was nearly identical in both cohorts, despite the prolonged storage at disrupted cold chain conditions in cohort 1. The Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip warrants further validation in communities with a high incidence of diarrhoea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Specimen Diameters on the Distribution of Corrosion Fatigue Cracks

    OpenAIRE

    石原, 外美; 塩澤, 和章; 宮尾, 嘉寿

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of corrosion fatigue cracks observed on the un-notched round specimen surface differs with specimen diameter, especially in the low stress amplitude region. At a constant fatigue life ratio, many long cracks are initiated on the larger specimen, 12 mm (diameter), in comparison with the smaller specimen, 6 mm (diameter). On the other hand, in the high stress amplitude region of corrosion fatigue and fatigue in laboratory air, the distribution of cracks during the fatigue proce...

  14. Detecting Rickettsia parkeri Infection from Eschar Swab Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Detecting Rickettsia parkeri Infection from Eschar Swab Specimens Todd Myers, Tahaniyat Lalani, Mike Dent, Ju Jiang, Patrick L. Daly, Jason D...Maguire, and Allen L. Richards The typical clinical presentation of several spotted fever group Rickettsia infections includes eschars. Clinical...diagnosis by using an eschar swab specimen from patients infected with Rickettsia parkeri. Until 2004, all confirmed cases of tick-borne spotted

  15. Detection of enteropathogens associated with travelers' diarrhea using a multiplex Luminex-based assay performed on stool samples smeared on Whatman FTA Elute cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Tahaniyat; Tisdale, Michele D; Maguire, Jason D; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda; Riddle, Mark S; Tribble, David R

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the limits of detection (LoD) for an 11-plex PCR-Luminex assay performed on Whatman(™) FTA Elute cards smeared with stool containing pathogens associated with travelers' diarrhea. LoDs ranged from 10(2) to 10(5)CFU, PFU, or cysts/g for most pathogens except Cryptosporidium. Campylobacter and norovirus LoDs increased with prolonged storage of cards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mesh-morphing algorithms for specimen-specific finite element modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Ian A; Hardisty, Michael R; Whyne, Cari M

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent advances in software for meshing specimen-specific geometries, considerable effort is still often required to produce and analyze specimen-specific models suitable for biomechanical analysis through finite element modeling. We hypothesize that it is possible to obtain accurate models by adapting a pre-existing geometry to represent a target specimen using morphing techniques. Here we present two algorithms for morphing, automated wrapping (AW) and manual landmarks (ML), and demonstrate their use to prepare specimen-specific models of caudal rat vertebrae. We evaluate the algorithms by measuring the distance between target and morphed geometries and by comparing response to axial loading simulated with finite element (FE) methods. First a traditional reconstruction process based on microCT was used to obtain two natural specimen-specific FE models. Next, the two morphing algorithms were used to compute mappings from the surface of one model, the source, to the other, the target, and to use this mapping to morph the source mesh to produce a target mesh. The microCT images were then used to assign element-specific material properties. In AW the mappings were obtained by wrapping the source and target surfaces with an auxiliary triangulated surface. In ML, landmarks were manually placed on corresponding locations on the surfaces of both source and target. Both morphing algorithms were successful in reproducing the shape of the target vertebra with a median distance between natural and morphed models of 18.8 and 32.2 microm, respectively, for AW and ML. Whereas AW-morphing produced a surface more closely resembling that of the target, ML guaranteed correspondence of the landmark locations between source and target. Morphing preserved the quality of the mesh producing models suitable for FE simulation. Moreover, there were only minor differences between natural and morphed models in predictions of deformation, strain and stress. We therefore conclude that

  17. From museums to genomics: old herbarium specimens shed light on a C3 to C4 transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Guillaume; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Lhuillier, Emeline; Lauzeral, Christine; Coissac, Eric; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2014-12-01

    Collections of specimens held by natural history museums are invaluable material for biodiversity inventory and evolutionary studies, with specimens accumulated over 300 years readily available for sampling. Unfortunately, most museum specimens yield low-quality DNA. Recent advances in sequencing technologies, so called next-generation sequencing, are revolutionizing phylogenetic investigations at a deep level. Here, the Illumina technology (HiSeq) was used on herbarium specimens of Sartidia (subfamily Aristidoideae, Poaceae), a small African-Malagasy grass lineage (six species) characteristic of wooded savannas, which is the C3 sister group of Stipagrostis, an important C4 genus from Africa and SW Asia. Complete chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal sequences were assembled for two Sartidia species, one of which (S. perrieri) is only known from a single specimen collected in Madagascar 100 years ago. Partial sequences of a few single-copy genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases (ppc) and malic enzymes (nadpme) were also assembled. Based on these data, the phylogenetic position of Malagasy Sartidia in the subfamily Aristidoideae was investigated and the biogeographical history of this genus was analysed with full species sampling. The evolutionary history of two genes for C4 photosynthesis (ppc-aL1b and nadpme-IV) in the group was also investigated. The gene encoding the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate caroxylase of Stipagrostis is absent from S. dewinteri suggesting that it is not essential in C3 members of the group, which might have favoured its recruitment into a new metabolic pathway. Altogether, the inclusion of historical museum specimens in phylogenomic analyses of biodiversity opens new avenues for evolutionary studies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for medical...

  19. Standard practice for fracture testing with surface-crack tension specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the design, preparation, and testing of surface-crack tension (SCT) specimens. It relates specifically to testing under continuously increasing force and excludes cyclic and sustained loadings. The quantity determined is the residual strength of a specimen having a semielliptical or circular-segment fatigue crack in one surface. This value depends on the crack dimensions and the specimen thickness as well as the characteristics of the material. 1.2 Metallic materials that can be tested are not limited by strength, thickness, or toughness. However, tests of thick specimens of tough materials may require a tension test machine of extremely high capacity. The applicability of this practice to nonmetallic materials has not been determined. 1.3 This practice is limited to specimens having a uniform rectangular cross section in the test section. The test section width and length must be large with respect to the crack length. Crack depth and length should be chosen to suit the ultimate pu...

  20. Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range -100 to 100 degree C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs

  1. Imaging of concrete specimens using inverse synthetic aperture radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhim, Hong C.; Buyukozturk, Oral

    2000-01-01

    Radar Measurement results of laboratory size concrete specimens are presented in this paper. The purpose of this research work is to study various aspects of the radar method in an effort to develop an improved radar system for nondestructive testing of concrete structures. The radar system used for the study is an Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR), which is capable of transmitting microwaves at three different frequency ranges of 2-3.4, 3.4-5.8, and 8-12 GHz. Radar measurement setup is such that the radar is locates 14.4 m away from a concrete target to satisfy a far-field criterion. The concrete target is rotated for 20 degrees during the measurements for the generation of two-dimensional (cross-range) imagery. Concrete targets used for the measurements have the dimensions of 305 mm (width)x305 mm (height)x92 mm (thickness) with different inside configurations. Comparisons are made for dry and wet specimens, specimens with and without inclusions. Each specimen is made to model various situations that a concrete structure can have in reality. Results show that center frequency, frequency bandwidth, and polarization of the incident wave have different effects on identifying the thickness or inclusions inside concrete specimens. Results also suggest that a certain combination of measurement parameters is suitable for a specific application area. Thus, measurement parameters can be optimized for a specific problem. The findings are presented and discussed in details in the paper. Signal processing schemes implemented for imaging of the specimens are also discussed

  2. Development of piezoelectric ceramics driven fatigue testing machine for small specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Onishi, Y.; Nishino, T.

    2002-01-01

    A new fatigue testing machine with piezoelectric ceramics actuators was developed and a prototype was manufactured for high-cycle fatigue tests with small specimens. The machine has a simple mechanism and is compact. These features make it easy to set up and to maintain the machine in a hot cell. The excitation of the actuator can be transmitted to the specimen using a lever-type testing jig. More than 100 μm of displacement could be prescribed precisely to the specimen at a frequency of 50 Hz. This was sufficient performance for high-cycle bend fatigue tests on specimens irradiated at the SINQ target in Paul Scherrer Institute. The relationship of a displacement applied to the specimen and the strain of the necking part were obtained by experimental methods and by finite element method (FEM) calculations. Both results showed good agreement. This fact makes it possible to evaluate the strain of irradiated specimens by FEM simulations

  3. Examination of the fatigue life under combined loading of specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtík F.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes experimental results under combined loading of specimens manufactured from common construction steel 11523. Specimens were gradually loaded by amplitude of the torque, then by combination of torque and tension prestress. The last set of specimens was loaded in combination of torque and inner overpressure. To obtain the required input values the stress-strain analysis of specimens by finite element method in software Ansys was performed within the last experiment. For evaluation of the results the Fuxa's criterion was applied. The performed experiments and their results embody a good agreement with bellow mentioned conjugated strength criterion. The experiments were performed on reconstructed testing machine equipped by pressure chamber.

  4. Identification and characterization of microsporidia from fecal samples of HIV-positive patients from Lagos, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladele Teslim Ojuromi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates. They have been increasingly recognized as human pathogens in AIDS patients, mainly associated with a life-threatening chronic diarrhea and systemic disease. However, to date the global epidemiology of human microsporidiosis is poorly understood, and recent data suggest that the incidence of these pathogens is much higher than previously reported and may represent a neglected etiological agent of more common diseases indeed in immunocompetent individuals. To contribute to the knowledge of microsporidia molecular epidemiology in HIV-positive patients in Nigeria, the authors tested stool samples proceeding from patients with and without diarrhea. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples from 193 HIV-positive patients with and without diarrhea (67 and 126 respectively from Lagos (Nigeria were investigated for the presence of microsporidia and Cryptosporidium using Weber's Chromotrope-based stain, Kinyoun stain, IFAT and PCR. The Weber stain showed 45 fecal samples (23.3% with characteristic microsporidia spores, and a significant association of microsporidia with diarrhea was observed (O.R. = 18.2; CI: 95%. A similar result was obtained using Kinyoun stain, showing 44 (31,8% positive samples with structures morphologically compatible with Cryptosporidium sp, 14 (31.8% of them with infection mixed with microsporidia. The characterization of microsporidia species by IFAT and PCR allowed identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis and E. cuniculi in 5, 2 and 1 samples respectively. The partial sequencing of the ITS region of the rRNA genes showed that the three isolates of E.bieneusi studied are included in Group I, one of which bears the genotype B. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first report of microsporidia characterization in fecal samples from HIV-positive patients from

  5. Preoperative radiotherapy with high dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of stage IIB cervix cancer. A retrospective analysis of histological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrigno, Robson; Trippe, N; Novaes, P.E.; Brandani, I.B.; Hanriot, R.; Souza, L.M.; Pellizzon, A.C.; Salvajoli, J.V.; Baraldi, H.E.; Maia, M.A.; Fogaroli, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate the histological specimens of the stage IIB cervix cancer patients who were treated by preoperative radiotherapy with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: From August 1992 to August 1995, 32 patients with stage IIB cervix cancer were underwent to preoperative radiotherapy. All patients received EBRT at the whole pelvis with total dose of 45Gy in 25 fractions of 1,8Gy through a 4 MV linear accelerator. The HDR brachytherapy was realized through a Micro-Selectron device, working with Iridium-192 with initial activity of 10 Ci. The prescribed dose was 6,0Gy at point A, defined by the Manchester, system in 2 weekly insertions during the course of EBRT. The insertions were done by the Fletcher colpostats in association with intrauterine tandem. Four to six weeks after the end of radiotherapy, the patients were underwent to Total Hysterectomy and Salpingoforectomy through Piver second level technique. The uterine specimens were histologically analysed with attention to residual disease at the cervix and lymph nodes status. Results: The histological analysis showed that 19 (59,4%) patients had no residual tumor at the cervix while 13 (40,6%) had microscopic residual tumor. The lymph nodes were negative in 30 (93,8%) patients and positive in 2 (6,3%). All positive lymph nodes patients also had microscopic residual tumor at the cervix. With the follow up ranging from six to 42 months and medium of 21 months, 29 (90,6%) patients are alive with no evidence of disease, one (5,6%) is alive with local recurrence and two (6,2%) have died due to the progression of local disease. Of the 19 patients with negative specimens, 18 (94,7%) are alive with no evidence of disease and of the 13 patients with positive specimens, 11 (84,6%) are alive with no evidence of disease. Local recurrence occurred in two patients with positive specimens and in one with negative. These differences are not

  6. Improved PID control for triaxial testing liquefied specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Using a frictionless triaxial apparatus, sand specimens can be tested at relatively high axial strains, even while liquefying. However, liquefying specimens have extremely nonlinear stiffness, thus standard PID control does not perform well. To maintain control over applied loads, the PID...... controller was modified to adapt to disturbed soil states. The proposed methods expand the scope of testing towards options which are otherwise inaccessible by triaxial testing....

  7. Failed PCR of Ganoderma type specimens affects nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R R M; Lima, N

    2015-06-01

    The nomenclature of Ganoderma used as a Chinese medicine is debated. A group of researchers could not amplify the DNA of type specimens and concluded the DNA was degraded irreparably. New topotypes were used as the type specimens which was premature. The use of internal amplification controls is recommended to determine if other factors were involved as alternative explanations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Monolithic integration of nanoscale tensile specimens and MEMS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kysar, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale materials often have stochastic material properties due to a random distribution of material defects and an insufficient number of defects to ensure a consistent average mechanical response. Current methods to measure the mechanical properties employ MEMS-based actuators. The nanoscale specimens are typically mounted manually onto the load platform, so the boundary conditions have random variations, complicating the experimental measurement of the intrinsic stochasticity of the material properties. Here we show methods for monolithic integration of a nanoscale specimen co-fabricated with the loading platform. The nanoscale specimen is gold with dimensions of ∼40 nm thickness, 350 ± 50 nm width, and 7 μm length and the loading platform is an interdigitated electrode electrostatic actuator. The experiment is performed in a scanning electron microscope and digital image correlation is employed to measure displacements to determine stress and strain. The ultimate tensile strength of the nanocrystalline nanoscale specimen approaches 1 GPa, consistent with measurements made by other nanometer scale sample characterization methods on other material samples at the nanometer scale, as well as gold samples at the nanometer scale. The batch-compatible microfabrication method can be used to create nominally identical nanoscale specimens and boundary conditions for a broad range of materials. (paper)

  9. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulig, Melissa; Tarnowsky, Nicole; Bevans, Michael; Anthony Kirchgessner; Thiers, Barbara M

    2012-01-01

    The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours of staff time. At this rate, to complete the herbarium and digitize the remaining 6 million specimens, another 600,000 hours would be needed. Given the current biodiversity and economic crises, there is neither the time nor money to complete the collection at this rate.Through a combination of grants over the last few years, The New York Botanical Garden has been testing new protocols and tactics for increasing the rate of digitization through combinations of data collaboration, field book digitization, partial data entry and imaging, and optical character recognition (OCR) of specimen images. With the launch of the National Science Foundation's new Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections program, we hope to move forward with larger, more efficient digitization projects, capturing data from larger portions of the herbarium at a fraction of the cost and time.

  10. Centrifuge-operated specimen staining method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Feeback, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method of staining preselected, mounted specimens of either biological or nonbiological material enclosed within a staining chamber where the liquid staining reagents are applied and removed from the staining chamber using hypergravity as the propelling force. In the preferred embodiment, a spacecraft-operated centrifuge and method of diagnosing biological specimens while in orbit, characterized by hermetically sealing a shell assembly. The assembly contains slide stain apparatus with computer control therefor, the operative effect of which is to overcome microgravity, for example on board an International Space Station.

  11. Comparative Study of Wheatley’s Trichrome Stain and In-vitro Culture against PCR Assay for the Diagnosis of Blastocystis sp. in Stool Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabilah Amelia MOHAMMAD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the performance of routine permanent stain and cultivation method in comparison with polymerase chain reaction assay as the reference technique to detect Blastocystis sp.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among aboriginal populations that reside in Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia in Feb to Mar 2015. A total of 359 stool samples were examined using Wheatley’s trichrome stain, in-vitro cultivation in Jones’ medium and PCR assay. Positive amplicons were subjected to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.Results: Fifty-six (15.6% samples were detected positive with Blastocystis sp. by Wheatley’s trichrome stain and 73 (20.3% by in-vitro culture, while PCR assay detected 71 (19.8% positive samples. Detection rate of Blastocystis sp. was highest in combination of microscopic techniques (27.9%. The sensitivity and specificity of Wheatley’s trichrome staining and in-vitro culture techniques compared to PCR assay were 49.3% (95% CI: 37.2-61.4 and 92.7% (95% CI: 89.1-95.4 and 39.4% (95% CI: 28.0-51.8 and 84.4% (95% CI: 79.7-88.4, respectively. However, the sensitivity [60.6% (95% CI: 48.3-71.9] of the method increased when both microscopic techniques were performed together. False negative results produced by microscopic techniques were associated with subtype 3. The agreement between Wheatley’s trichrome stain, in-vitro culture and combination of microscopic techniques with PCR assay were statistically significant by Kappa statistics (Wheatley’s trichrome stain: K = 0.456, P<0.001; in-vitro culture: K = 0.236, P<0.001 and combination techniques: K = 0.353, P<0.001.Conclusion: The combination of microscopic technique is highly recommended to be used as a screening method for the diagnosis of Blastocystis infection either for clinical or epidemiological study to ensure better and accurate diagnosis.

  12. Fracture toughness measurements with subsize disk compact specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Special fixtures and test methods have been developed for testing small disk compact specimens (1.25 mm diam by 4.6 mm thick). Specimens of European type 316L austenitic stainless steel were irradiated to damage levels of about 3 dpa at nominal irradiation temperatures of either 90 or 250 C and tested over a temperature range from 20 to 250 C. Results show that irradiation to this dose level at these temperatures reduces the fracture toughness but the toughness remains quite high. The toughness decreases as the test temperature increases. Irradiation at 250 C is more damaging than at 90 C, causing larger decreases in the fracture toughness. The testing shows that it is possible to generate useful fracture toughness data with a small disk compact specimens

  13. Computer vision applied to herbarium specimens of German trees: testing the future utility of the millions of herbarium specimen images for automated identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jakob; Merhof, Dorit; Renner, Susanne

    2016-11-16

    Global Plants, a collaborative between JSTOR and some 300 herbaria, now contains about 2.48 million high-resolution images of plant specimens, a number that continues to grow, and collections that are digitizing their specimens at high resolution are allocating considerable recourses to the maintenance of computer hardware (e.g., servers) and to acquiring digital storage space. We here apply machine learning, specifically the training of a Support-Vector-Machine, to classify specimen images into categories, ideally at the species level, using the 26 most common tree species in Germany as a test case. We designed an analysis pipeline and classification system consisting of segmentation, normalization, feature extraction, and classification steps and evaluated the system in two test sets, one with 26 species, the other with 17, in each case using 10 images per species of plants collected between 1820 and 1995, which simulates the empirical situation that most named species are represented in herbaria and databases, such as JSTOR, by few specimens. We achieved 73.21% accuracy of species assignments in the larger test set, and 84.88% in the smaller test set. The results of this first application of a computer vision algorithm trained on images of herbarium specimens shows that despite the problem of overlapping leaves, leaf-architectural features can be used to categorize specimens to species with good accuracy. Computer vision is poised to play a significant role in future rapid identification at least for frequently collected genera or species in the European flora.

  14. A trend analysis of laboratory positive propoxyphene workplace urine drug screens before and after the product recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James

    2015-01-01

    Propoxyphene was withdrawn from the US market in November 2010. This drug is still tested for in the workplace as part of expanded panel nonregulated testing. A convenience sample of urine specimens (n = 7838) were provided by workers from various industries. The percentage of positive specimens with 95% confidence intervals was calculated for each year of the study. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of the year upon the propoxyphene result. The prevalence of positive propoxyphene tests was much higher before the product's withdrawal from the market. Logistic regression provided evidence of a decreasing linear trend (P < 0.000; β = -0.71). The odds ratio signifies that for every additional year the urine specimens were 0.49 times less likely to be positive for propoxyphene. This favors the determination that the change in propoxyphene positive drug test over the years is not by chance. The conclusion supports no longer performing nonregulated workplace propoxyphene urine drug testing for this population.

  15. Maintaining respect and fairness in the usage of stored shared specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mduluza, Takafira; Midzi, Nicholas; Duruza, Donold; Ndebele, Paul