WorldWideScience

Sample records for positive samples received

  1. Sensitivity Range Analysis of Infrared (IR) Transmitter and Receiver Sensor to Detect Sample Position in Automatic Sample Changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Nolida Yussup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Maslina Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity range of IR Transmitter and Receiver Sensor influences the effectiveness of the sensor to detect position of a sample. Then the purpose of this analysis is to determine the suitable design and specification the electronic driver of the sensor to gain appropriate sensitivity range for required operation. The related activities to this analysis cover electronic design concept and specification, calibration of design specification and evaluation on design specification for required application. (author)

  2. Predictors of psychological well-being in a diverse sample of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A; Radomsky, Adam S; Otto, Michael W; Salomon, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify variables relevant to psychological well-being in HIV patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Multiple stressors accompany living with HIV while managing a HAART regimen. However, a variety of cognitive and behavioral variables can protect against or augment the deleterious effects of stress in this population. The authors hypothesized that satisfaction with social support, coping styles, and maladaptive attributions about HIV would explain more variance in psychological well-being than stressful life events per se. Participants were individuals with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy-either starting a new HAART regimen or having difficulties adhering to their current regimen. Satisfaction with social support, coping styles, and punishment beliefs about HIV were uniquely associated with depression, quality of life, and self-esteem over and above the effects of stressful life events. These results provide support for continued psychosocial interventions that target these variables among patients with HIV.

  3. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  4. Low-sampling-rate ultra-wideband digital receiver using equivalent-time sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ballal, Tarig

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose an all-digital scheme for ultra-wideband symbol detection. In the proposed scheme, the received symbols are sampled many times below the Nyquist rate. It is shown that when the number of symbol repetitions, P, is co-prime with the symbol duration given in Nyquist samples, the receiver can sample the received data P times below the Nyquist rate, without loss of fidelity. The proposed scheme is applied to perform channel estimation and binary pulse position modulation (BPPM) detection. Results are presented for two receivers operating at two different sampling rates that are 10 and 20 times below the Nyquist rate. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in different scenarios, with reasonable bit error rates obtained in most of the cases.

  5. Low-sampling-rate ultra-wideband digital receiver using equivalent-time sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ballal, Tarig; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an all-digital scheme for ultra-wideband symbol detection. In the proposed scheme, the received symbols are sampled many times below the Nyquist rate. It is shown that when the number of symbol repetitions, P, is co-prime with the symbol duration given in Nyquist samples, the receiver can sample the received data P times below the Nyquist rate, without loss of fidelity. The proposed scheme is applied to perform channel estimation and binary pulse position modulation (BPPM) detection. Results are presented for two receivers operating at two different sampling rates that are 10 and 20 times below the Nyquist rate. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in different scenarios, with reasonable bit error rates obtained in most of the cases.

  6. Design of Optical Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Translating Receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2009-06-19

    M-ary pulse position modulation (M-ary PPM) signaling is a means of transmitting multiple bits per symbol in an intensity modulated/direct detection (IM/DD) system. PPM is used in applications with average power limitations. In optical communication systems, PPM becomes challenging to implement at gigabit rates and/or large M, since pulsed signaling requires higher electronic processing bandwidths than the fundamental transmission rate. they have thus been exploring techniques for PPM communications using optical processing. Previous work described a transmitter algorithm that directly translates a bit sequence of N digital bits to the optical pulse position m for any M = 2{sup N}. It has been considerably more difficult to define a similar receiver algorithm that translates the received optical pulse position directly back to a bit sequence with minimal electronic processing. Designs for specific Ms (e.g., 4-ary) have been shown and implemented, but are difficult to scale to larger M. In this work, they present for the first time a generalized PPM translating receiver that is applicable to all M and data rates.

  7. MULTI-GNSS RECEIVER FOR AEROSPACE NAVIGATION AND POSITIONING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Peres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The upcoming Galileo system opens a wide range of new opportunities in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS market. However, the characteristics of the future GNSS signals require the development of new GNSS receivers. In the frame of the REAGE project, DEIMOS and ISEL have developed a GNSS receiver targeted for aerospace applications, supporting current and future GPS L1 and Galileo E1 signals, based on commercial (or, in the furthest extent, industrial grade components. Although the REAGE project aimed at space applications, the REAGE receiver is also applicable to many terrestrial applications (ground or airborne, such as Georeferencing and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV navigation. This paper presents the architecture and features of the REAGE receiver, as well as some results of the validation campaign with GPS L1 and Galileo E1 signals.

  8. Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver Design For Multipaths Mitigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gadallah, El-Sayed

    1998-01-01

    .... This research introduces a new estimator that can detect the presence of multipath, can determine the unknown number of multipath components and can estimate multipath parameters in the GPS receiver...

  9. Determination of global positioning system (GPS) receiver clock errors: impact on positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Ta-Kang; Hwang, Cheinway; Xu, Guochang; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Lee, Chien-Chih

    2009-01-01

    Enhancing the positioning precision is the primary pursuit of global positioning system (GPS) users. To achieve this goal, most studies have focused on the relationship between GPS receiver clock errors and GPS positioning precision. This study utilizes undifferentiated phase data to calculate GPS clock errors and to compare with the frequency of cesium clock directly, to verify estimated clock errors by the method used in this paper. The frequency stability calculated from this paper (the indirect method) and measured from the National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory (NSTFL) of Taiwan (the direct method) match to 1.5 × 10 −12 (the value from this study was smaller than that from NSTFL), suggesting that the proposed technique has reached a certain level of quality. The built-in quartz clocks in the GPS receivers yield relative frequency offsets that are 3–4 orders higher than those of rubidium clocks. The frequency stability of the quartz clocks is on average two orders worse than that of the rubidium clock. Using the rubidium clock instead of the quartz clock, the horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies were improved by 26–78% (0.6–3.6 mm) and 20–34% (1.3–3.0 mm), respectively, for a short baseline. These improvements are 7–25% (0.3–1.7 mm) and 11% (1.7 mm) for a long baseline. Our experiments show that the frequency stability of the clock, rather than relative frequency offset, is the governing factor of positioning accuracy

  10. Innovative directional and position specific sampling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzel, W.J.; Hill, J.L. III; Foster, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    UTD, Incorporated has developed a unique real-time, in-situ POsition LOcation (POLO) device which will directly enhance the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program through improvements to finding contamination, identifying extent of contamination, remediating, and finally monitoring sites. POLO is smaller than existing technology and is unaffected by the presence of steel and other magnetic materials. The size of the device offers for the first time, the possibility to accurately determine the location of a penetrometer. It will be usable, in its present form, to map the position of a sampling device as that device is inserted into the ground. A three phase program was proposed to DOE to take the POLO System through the three levels of maturity prior to commercialization. Phase 1 included the design and testing of individual components of the device and met or exceeded success criteria. Phase 2 has included laboratory-scale tracking experiments of the integrated POLO System that have met or exceeded the success criterion as well. The success criterion is to demonstrate path tracking accuracy with a total error of less than 0.50% of the distance traveled for distances less than 70 meters. In Phase 3 we will develop and test a full-scale POLO System and conclude with a field demonstration. The goal of the Phase 3 effort is to achieve the same 0.50% accuracy or better with respect to the distance traveled for distances less than 70 meters in the field as was demonstrated in laboratory tests in the earlier phases. The final report details the design of a realistic laboratory-scale penetrometer path and describes the POLO tracking experiments that were conducted. Plans for demonstrations as well as commercialization and technology transfer with DOE field sites are described, highlighting the expected smooth transition to full-scale production

  11. Characteristics of HIV-Positive Transgender Men Receiving Medical Care: United States, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Ansley; Beer, Linda; Finlayson, Teresa; McCree, Donna Hubbard; Lentine, Daniel; Shouse, R Luke

    2018-01-01

    To present the first national estimate of the sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of HIV-positive transgender men receiving medical care in the United States. This analysis included pooled interview and medical record data from the 2009 to 2014 cycles of the Medical Monitoring Project, which used a 3-stage, probability-proportional-to-size sampling methodology. Transgender men accounted for 0.16% of all adults and 11% of all transgender adults receiving HIV medical care in the United States from 2009 to 2014. Of these HIV-positive transgender men receiving medical care, approximately 47% lived in poverty, 69% had at least 1 unmet ancillary service need, 23% met criteria for depression, 69% were virally suppressed at their last test, and 60% had sustained viral suppression over the previous 12 months. Although they constitute a small proportion of all HIV-positive patients, more than 1 in 10 transgender HIV-positive patients were transgender men. Many experienced socioeconomic challenges, unmet needs for ancillary services, and suboptimal health outcomes. Attention to the challenges facing HIV-positive transgender men may be necessary to achieve the National HIV/AIDS Strategy goals of decreasing disparities and improving health outcomes among transgender persons.

  12. 30 CFR 71.208 - Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Sampling Procedures § 71.208 Bimonthly sampling; designated work positions. (a) Each... standard when quartz is present), respirable dust sampling of designated work positions shall begin on the...

  13. Visible light communication and indoor positioning using a-SiCH device as receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, M. A.; Vieira, M.; Louro, P.; Vieira, P.; Fantoni, A.

    2017-08-01

    An indoor positioning system were trichromatic white LEDs are used both for illumination proposes and as transmitters and an optical processor, based on a-SiC:H technology, as mobile receiver is presented. OOK modulation scheme is used, and it provides a good trade-off between system performance and implementation complexity. The relationship between the transmitted data and the received digital output levels is decoded. The system topology for positioning is a self-positioning system in which the measuring unit is mobile. This unit receives the signals of several transmitters in known locations, and has the capability to compute its location based on the measured signals. LED bulbs work as transmitters, sending information together with different IDs related to their physical locations. A triangular topology for the unit cell is analysed. A 2D localization design, demonstrated by a prototype implementation is presented. Fine-grained indoor localization is tested. The received signal is used in coded multiplexing techniques for supporting communications and navigation concomitantly on the same channel. The position is estimated through the visible multilateration metodh using several non-collinear transmitters. The location and motion information is found by mapping position and estimates the location areas. Data analysis showed that by using a pinpin double photodiode based on a a-SiC:H heterostucture as receiver, and RBGLEDs as transmitters it is possible not only to determine the mobile target's position but also to infer the motion direction over time, along with the received information in each position.

  14. Sample positioning effects in x-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.

    Instrument error due to variation in sample position in a crystal x-ray spectrometer can easily exceed the total instrumental error. Lack of reproducibility in sample position in the x-ray optics is the single largest source of system error. The factors that account for sample positioning error are described, and many of the details of flat crystal x-ray optics are discussed

  15. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hwa Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multiple receivers are integrated based on a tightly coupled approach, and erroneous measurements are detected by testing the closeness of the pseudoranges. In order to fairly compare the pseudoranges, GPS errors and terms arising due to the differences between the positions of the receivers need to be compensated. The double-difference technique is used to eliminate GPS errors in the pseudoranges, and the geometrical distance is corrected by projecting the baseline vector between pairs of receivers. In order to test and analyze the proposed algorithm, an experiment involving live data was performed. The positioning performance of the algorithm was compared with that of the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM-based integration algorithm for multiple receivers. The test results showed that the proposed algorithm yields more accurate position information in urban areas.

  16. Evaluation of RTKLIB's Positioning Accuracy Using low-cost GNSS Receiver and ASG-EUPOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Wisniewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on a comparison of different positioning methods provided by free and open source software (FOSS package called RTKLIB. The RTKLIB supports real-time and post-processed positioning. The most important modes of operation tested by the authors are Kinematic, Static, Fixed and Precise Point Positioning (PPP. The data for evaluation were obtained from low-cost Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver. The tested receiver was based on the u-blox's LEA-6T GNSS module. This receiver provides different types of information including raw carrier phase measurements. It gives the possibility for centimeter-level precision of positioning. As the supporting source of data ASG-EUPOS system was used. ASG-EUPOS is a Polish network of GNSS reference stations providing the real-time corrections and post processing services for the entire territory of Poland.

  17. Performance Enhancement of Land Vehicle Positioning Using Multiple GPS Receivers in an Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jong-Hwa; Jee, Gyu-In

    2016-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most widely used navigation system in land vehicle applications. In urban areas, the GPS suffers from insufficient signal strength, multipath propagation and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) errors, so it thus becomes difficult to obtain accurate and reliable position information. In this paper, an integration algorithm for multiple receivers is proposed to enhance the positioning performance of GPS for land vehicles in urban areas. The pseudoranges of multi...

  18. Sample intake position and loading rates from nonpoint source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, P. E.; Daniel, T. C.; Stoffel, D.; Andraski, B.

    1980-01-01

    Paired water samples were simultaneously activated from two different vertical positions within the approach section of a flow-control structure to determine the effect of sample intake position on nonpoint runoff parameter concentrations and subsequent event loads. Suspended solids (SS), total phosphorus (TP) and organic plus exchangeable nitrogen [(Or+Ex)-N] were consistently higher throughout each runoff event when sampled from the floor of the approach section as opposed to those samples taken at midstage. Dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus (DMRP) and ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations did not appear to be significantly affected by the vertical difference in intake position. However, the nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen [(NO3+NO2)-N] concentrations were much higher when sampled from the midstage position. Although the concentration differences between the two methods were not appreciable, when evaluated in terms of event loads, discrepancies were evident for all parameters. Midstage sampling produced event loads for SS, TP, (Or + Ex)-N, DMRP, NH4-N, and (NO3+NO2)-N that were 44,39,35,80,71, and 181%, respectively, of floor sampling loads. Differences in loads between the two methods are attributed to the midstage position, sampling less of the bed load. The correct position will depend on the objective; however, such differences should be recognized during the design phase of the monitoring program.

  19. Relative position control design of receiver UAV in flying-boom aerial refueling phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shuai; Yuan, Suozhong

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes the design of the relative position-keeping control of the receiver unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with the time-varying mass in the refueling phase utilizing an inner-outer loop structure. Firstly, the model of the receiver in the refueling phase is established. And then tank model is set up to analyze the influence of fuel transfer on the receiver. Subsequently, double power reaching law based sliding mode controller is designed to control receiver translational motion relative to tanker aircraft in the outer loop while active disturbance rejection control technique is applied to the inner loop to stabilize the receiver. In addition, the closed-loop stabilities of the subsystems are established, respectively. Finally, an aerial refueling model under various refueling strategies is utilized. Simulations and comparative analysis demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controllers. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Pseudorange Measurement Scheme Based on Snapshot for Base Station Positioning Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jun; Deng, Zhongliang; Jia, Buyun; Bian, Xinmei

    2017-12-01

    Digital multimedia broadcasting signal is promised to be a wireless positioning signal. This paper mainly studies a multimedia broadcasting technology, named China mobile multimedia broadcasting (CMMB), in the context of positioning. Theoretical and practical analysis on the CMMB signal suggests that the existing CMMB signal does not have the meter positioning capability. So, the CMMB system has been modified to achieve meter positioning capability by multiplexing the CMMB signal and pseudo codes in the same frequency band. The time difference of arrival (TDOA) estimation method is used in base station positioning receivers. Due to the influence of a complex fading channel and the limited bandwidth of receivers, the regular tracking method based on pseudo code ranging is difficult to provide continuous and accurate TDOA estimations. A pseudorange measurement scheme based on snapshot is proposed to solve the problem. This algorithm extracts the TDOA estimation from the stored signal fragments, and utilizes the Taylor expansion of the autocorrelation function to improve the TDOA estimation accuracy. Monte Carlo simulations and real data tests show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the TDOA estimation error for base station positioning receivers, and then the modified CMMB system achieves meter positioning accuracy.

  1. Description of European Space Agency (ESA) Concept Development for a Mars Sample Receiving Facility (MSRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskis, J.; Berthoud, L.; Guest, M.; Smith, C.; Bennett, A.; Gaubert, F.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.; Duvet, L.; van Winnendael, M.

    2018-04-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the several studies conducted for the European Space Agency (ESA) since 2007, which progressively developed layouts for a potential implementation of a Mars Sample Receiving Facility (MSRF).

  2. Analysis of parallel optical sampling rate and ADC requirements in digital coherent receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorences Riesgo, Abel; Galili, Michael; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We comprehensively assess analog-to-digital converter requirements in coherent digital receiver schemes with parallel optical sampling. We determine the electronic requirements in accordance with the properties of the free running local oscillator.......We comprehensively assess analog-to-digital converter requirements in coherent digital receiver schemes with parallel optical sampling. We determine the electronic requirements in accordance with the properties of the free running local oscillator....

  3. time of arrival 3-d position estimation using minimum ads-b receiver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    The location from which a signal is transmitted can be estimated using the time it takes to be detected at a receiver. The difference between transmission time and the detection time is known as time of arrival (TOA). In this work, an algorithm for 3-dimensional (3-D) position estimation (PE) of an emitter using the minimum ...

  4. Meteorological applications of a surface network of Global Positioning System receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de S.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents meteorological applications of water vapour observations from a surface network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. GPS signals are delayed by the atmo¬sphere due to atmospheric refraction and bending. Mapped to the zenith, this delay is called Zenith Total Delay

  5. RF Sub-sampling Receiver Architecture based on Milieu Adapting Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behjou, Nastaran; Larsen, Torben; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2012-01-01

    A novel sub-sampling based architecture is proposed which has the ability of reducing the problem of image distortion and improving the signal to noise ratio significantly. The technique is based on sensing the environment and adapting the sampling rate of the receiver to the best possible...

  6. Discrete-Time Mixing Receiver Architecture for RF-Sampling Software-Defined Radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ru, Z.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—A discrete-time (DT) mixing architecture for RF-sampling receivers is presented. This architecture makes RF sampling more suitable for software-defined radio (SDR) as it achieves wideband quadrature demodulation and wideband harmonic rejection. The paper consists of two parts. In the first

  7. Determining of the phase centre of the real position of GPS receiver antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pisoňová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available By continued improvement of measurement methods producers of GPS (Global Positioning System apparatus will be maybe once upon a time effective to minimize a difference of the phase centre from the geometrical one, because it is probably impossible to make the GPS receiver antenna with zero eccentricity of the phase centre. In the last analysis, we do not prevent from a manufacturing error by any way in eliminate of the possible measurement errors.In the paper there is presented the measurement testing practice with aim of the phase centre real position determining of several in a market available GPS receivers in the paper. Investigation up to what standard the GPS receiver antenna phase centre variation achieves to float in an inaccuracy into GPS measurements. Testing was realized on the temporary testing baseline closely village Badín at Banská Bystrica in the Central Slovak Region. GPS receivers Locus Survey System (Ashtech, ProMark2 (Ashtech were tested.

  8. Determining of the phase centre of the real position of GPS receiver antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Pisoňová; Jozef Ornth; Vladimír Sedlák

    2007-01-01

    By continued improvement of measurement methods producers of GPS (Global Positioning System) apparatus will be maybe once upon a time effective to minimize a difference of the phase centre from the geometrical one, because it is probably impossible to make the GPS receiver antenna with zero eccentricity of the phase centre. In the last analysis, we do not prevent from a manufacturing error by any way in eliminate of the possible measurement errors.In the paper there is presented the measureme...

  9. Receiver operating characteristics of perceptrons : Influence of sample size and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freking, Ansgar; Biehl, Michael; Braun, Christian; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Meesmann, Malte

    1999-01-01

    In many practical classification problems it is important to distinguish false positive from false negative results when evaluating the performance of the classifier. This is of particular importance for medical diagnostic tests. In this context, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have

  10. Received Signal Strength Database Interpolation by Kriging for a Wi-Fi Indoor Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Yeh, Shuo-Ju; Liu, Ya-Wen

    2015-08-28

    The main approach for a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system is based on the received signal strength (RSS) measurements, and the fingerprinting method is utilized to determine the user position by matching the RSS values with the pre-surveyed RSS database. To build a RSS fingerprint database is essential for an RSS based indoor positioning system, and building such a RSS fingerprint database requires lots of time and effort. As the range of the indoor environment becomes larger, labor is increased. To provide better indoor positioning services and to reduce the labor required for the establishment of the positioning system at the same time, an indoor positioning system with an appropriate spatial interpolation method is needed. In addition, the advantage of the RSS approach is that the signal strength decays as the transmission distance increases, and this signal propagation characteristic is applied to an interpolated database with the Kriging algorithm in this paper. Using the distribution of reference points (RPs) at measured points, the signal propagation model of the Wi-Fi access point (AP) in the building can be built and expressed as a function. The function, as the spatial structure of the environment, can create the RSS database quickly in different indoor environments. Thus, in this paper, a Wi-Fi indoor positioning system based on the Kriging fingerprinting method is developed. As shown in the experiment results, with a 72.2% probability, the error of the extended RSS database with Kriging is less than 3 dBm compared to the surveyed RSS database. Importantly, the positioning error of the developed Wi-Fi indoor positioning system with Kriging is reduced by 17.9% in average than that without Kriging.

  11. Technicians work with Apollo 14 lunar sample material in Lunar Receiving Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Glove handlers work with freshly opened Apollo 14 lunar sample material in modularized cabinets in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The glove operator on the right starts to pour fine lunar material which he has just taken from a tote bag. This powdery sample was among the last to be revealed of the 90-odd pounds of material brought back to Earth by the Apollo 14 crewmen.

  12. Expert Knowledge Influences Decision-Making for Couples Receiving Positive Prenatal Chromosomal Microarray Testing Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, M A; Werner-Lin, A; Barg, F K; Bernhardt, B A

    2017-09-01

    To assess how participants receiving abnormal prenatal genetic testing results seek information and understand the implications of results, 27 US female patients and 12 of their male partners receiving positive prenatal microarray testing results completed semi-structured phone interviews. These interviews documented participant experiences with chromosomal microarray testing, understanding of and emotional response to receiving results, factors affecting decision-making about testing and pregnancy termination, and psychosocial needs throughout the testing process. Interview data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. In the absence of certainty about the implications of results, understanding of results is shaped by biomedical expert knowledge (BEK) and cultural expert knowledge (CEK). When there is a dearth of BEK, as in the case of receiving results of uncertain significance, participants rely on CEK, including religious/spiritual beliefs, "gut instinct," embodied knowledge, and social network informants. CEK is a powerful platform to guide understanding of prenatal genetic testing results. The utility of culturally situated expert knowledge during testing uncertainty emphasizes that decision-making occurs within discourses beyond the biomedical domain. These forms of "knowing" may be integrated into clinical consideration of efficacious patient assessment and counseling.

  13. Solar receiver heliostat reflector having a linear drive and position information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Richard H.

    1980-01-01

    A heliostat for a solar receiver system comprises an improved drive and control system for the heliostat reflector assembly. The heliostat reflector assembly is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e., heat receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The improved drive system includes linear stepping motors which comprise low weight, low cost, electronic pulse driven components. One embodiment comprises linear stepping motors controlled by a programmed, electronic microprocessor. Another embodiment comprises a tape driven system controlled by a position control magnetic tape.

  14. Method of steering the gain of a multiple antenna global positioning system receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alan G.; Hermann, Bruce R.

    1992-06-01

    A method for steering the gain of a multiple antenna Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver toward a plurality of a GPS satellites simultaneously is provided. The GPS signals of a known wavelength are processed digitally for a particular instant in time. A range difference or propagation delay between each antenna for GPS signals received from each satellite is first resolved. The range difference consists of a fractional wavelength difference and an integer wavelength difference. The fractional wavelength difference is determined by each antenna's tracking loop. The integer wavelength difference is based upon the known wavelength and separation between each antenna with respect to each satellite position. The range difference is then used to digitally delay the GPS signals at each antenna with respect to a reference antenna. The signal at the reference antenna is then summed with the digitally delayed signals to generate a composite antenna gain. The method searches for the correct number of integer wavelengths to maximize the composite gain. The range differences are also used to determine the attitude of the array.

  15. Distributed Extended Kalman Filter for Position, Velocity, Time, Estimation in Satellite Navigation Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jakubov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Common techniques for position-velocity-time estimation in satellite navigation, iterative least squares and the extended Kalman filter, involve matrix operations. The matrix inversion and inclusion of a matrix library pose requirements on a computational power and operating platform of the navigation processor. In this paper, we introduce a novel distributed algorithm suitable for implementation in simple parallel processing units each for a tracked satellite. Such a unit performs only scalar sum, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The algorithm can be efficiently implemented in hardware logic. Given the fast position-velocity-time estimator, frequent estimates can foster dynamic performance of a vector tracking receiver. The algorithm has been designed from a factor graph representing the extended Kalman filter by splitting vector nodes into scalar ones resulting in a cyclic graph with few iterations needed. Monte Carlo simulations have been conducted to investigate convergence and accuracy. Simulation case studies for a vector tracking architecture and experimental measurements with a real-time software receiver developed at CTU in Prague were conducted. The algorithm offers compromises in stability, accuracy, and complexity depending on the number of iterations. In scenarios with a large number of tracked satellites, it can outperform the traditional methods at low complexity.

  16. Inverse spiking filter based acquisition enhancement in software based global positioning system receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arul Elango

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower visibility of the satellite in the acquisition stage of a GPS receiver under worst noisy situation leads to reacquisition of the data and thereby takes a longer time to obtain the first position fix. If the impulse noise affects the GPS signal, the conventional ways of acquiring the satellites do not guarantee to meet the minimum requirement of four satellites to find the user position. The performance of GPS receiver acquisition can be improved in the low SNR level using inverse spiking filtering technique. In the proposed method, the estimate of the desired GPS L1 signal corrupted by impulse noise (gn is obtained by the prediction error filter (hopt, which is the optimum inverse filter that reshapes the noisy signal (yn into a desired GPS signal (xn. In the proposed method, to detect the visible satellites under weak signal conditions the traditional differential coherent approach is combined with the inverse spiking filter method to increase the number of visible satellites and to avoid the reacquisition process. Montecarlo simulation is carried out to assess the performance of the proposed method for C/N0 of 20 dB-Hz and results indicate that the modified differential coherent method effectively excises the noise with 90% probability of detection. Subsequently tracking operation is also tested to confirm the acquisition performance by demodulating the navigation data successfully.

  17. Perception of a sample of mathematics teachers on training received in the university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Chaves Esquivel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine the perception of a sample of 249 mathematics teachers regarding the training received in their university. We identified strengths and weaknesses of the academic programs that train teachers of mathematics in the country, according to the teachers. The sample included educators trained in public and private universities, working at different educational regions of the country. The information was gathered through a questionnaire. Overall, educators perceive training in theoretical mathematics as the main strength. However, according to the scale used, all other aspects related to the formation process of a math teacher had a low perception. Within the mentioned weaknesses are: training in educational elements, evaluative, methodological, philosophical, psychological and historical, as well as the lack of adequate preparation in the use of technological resources in teaching. These opinions are a valuable input to the universities, because they show the opinions held by graduates of the training received.

  18. HIV positive asylum seekers receiving the order to leave the Belgian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, Remy; Legrand, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    In a human rights based approach, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has recently released a resolution about migrants and refugees and the fight against HIV (1). It states that "an HIV positive migrant should never be expelled when it is clear that he will not receive adequate health care and assistance in the country to which he is being sent back. To do otherwise would amount to a death sentence for that person." Nevertheless, in Belgium, for the last 2 years, none of the HIV-infected migrants in care in the AIDS Reference Centers (ARC) received the right to stay in Belgium for medical reasons. We identified all HIV-infected asylum seekers in care between 1 July 2012 and 1 July 2014 in the ARC of Charleroi, Belgium, and we analyzed their medical and social files. Among the 302 patients in active follow up in our ARC, 45 HIV positive asylum seekers were in care during the last 2 years. Male/female ratio was 0/96. Mean age was 35 years. Countries of origin and reasons for migration are detailed in the Table 1. 18% (8/45) knew their seropositivity before arriving in Europe. All the patients introduced an asylum request, 29 (64%) have received a negative answer and an order to leave the territory, 4 (9%) were regularized for non-medical reasons (see Table 1), 4 (9%) are waiting for an answer and for 8 (18%) outcome is unknown due to lost follow up (LFU). 31 (69%) patients have also introduced a request to stay for medical reasons: 18 (58%) have received a refusal, 7 (23%) are still waiting for an answer, and 6 (19%) are LFU. Only 23 (51%) patients are still in care in our ARC on 1 July 2014 (see Table 1). The immigration office bases its decisions on availability of the treatment in the country even if accessible only to a limited number of patients. Decisions taken by the Belgian authorities for the last two years concerning HIV-infected asylum seekers do not guarantee the continuity of care of those patients and push them towards illegality. Such

  19. Assessment of quality of life of HIV-positive people receiving art: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Anand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: HIV/AIDS is known to affect an individual not only physically but also mentally, socially, and financially. It is a syndrome that builds a vacuum in a person affecting his/her life as a whole. Aims: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the quality of life (QOL of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV receiving ART and its association with Body mass index (BMI and CD4 count. Study Design: An observational study was performed on PLHIV receiving ART in Orissa, India. Materials and Methods: Data on sociodemographic profile, BMI, and CD4 were gathered from 153 HIV-positive subjects. QOL was assessed using WHOQOL-HIV BREF scale. Results: The overall QOL score of the subjects was moderate; PLHIV with lower BMI also had poorer QOL (P<0.05. Employment affected only the social health domain of the subjects. Men reported poorer level of independence and physical health while women reported poorer social relationships and environment. All the six domains correlated significantly with the overall QOL indicated by the G-facet. Conclusion: Attention toward improving the nutritional status of PLHIV should be accorded high priority to ensure improvement in the overall QOL of PLHIV.

  20. Assessment of Quality of Life of HIV-Positive People Receiving ART: An Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema; Mathew, Minnie

    2012-07-01

    HIV/AIDS is known to affect an individual not only physically but also mentally, socially, and financially. It is a syndrome that builds a vacuum in a person affecting his/her life as a whole. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) receiving ART and its association with Body mass index (BMI) and CD4 count. An observational study was performed on PLHIV receiving ART in Orissa, India. Data on sociodemographic profile, BMI, and CD4 were gathered from 153 HIV-positive subjects. QOL was assessed using WHOQOL-HIV BREF scale. The overall QOL score of the subjects was moderate; PLHIV with lower BMI also had poorer QOL (P<0.05). Employment affected only the social health domain of the subjects. Men reported poorer level of independence and physical health while women reported poorer social relationships and environment. All the six domains correlated significantly with the overall QOL indicated by the G-facet. Attention toward improving the nutritional status of PLHIV should be accorded high priority to ensure improvement in the overall QOL of PLHIV.

  1. Receiver calibration and the nonlinearity parameter measurement of thick solid samples with diffraction and attenuation corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Barnard, Daniel; Cho, Sungjong; Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents analytical and experimental techniques for accurate determination of the nonlinearity parameter (β) in thick solid samples. When piezoelectric transducers are used for β measurements, the receiver calibration is required to determine the transfer function from which the absolute displacement can be calculated. The measured fundamental and second harmonic displacement amplitudes should be modified to account for beam diffraction and material absorption. All these issues are addressed in this study and the proposed technique is validated through the β measurements of thick solid samples. A simplified self-reciprocity calibration procedure for a broadband receiver is described. The diffraction and attenuation corrections for the fundamental and second harmonics are explicitly derived. Aluminum alloy samples in five different thicknesses (4, 6, 8, 10, 12cm) are prepared and β measurements are made using the finite amplitude, through-transmission method. The effects of diffraction and attenuation corrections on β measurements are systematically investigated. When diffraction and attenuation corrections are all properly made, the variation of β between different thickness samples is found to be less than 3.2%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Planning Considerations for a Mars Sample Receiving Facility: Summary and Interpretation of Three Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, David W.; Allen, Carlton C.; Bass, Deborah S.; Buxbaum, Karen L.; Campbell, James K.; Lindstrom, David J.; Miller, Sylvia L.; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.

    2009-10-01

    It has been widely understood for many years that an essential component of a Mars Sample Return mission is a Sample Receiving Facility (SRF). The purpose of such a facility would be to take delivery of the flight hardware that lands on Earth, open the spacecraft and extract the sample container and samples, and conduct an agreed-upon test protocol, while ensuring strict containment and contamination control of the samples while in the SRF. Any samples that are found to be non-hazardous (or are rendered non-hazardous by sterilization) would then be transferred to long-term curation. Although the general concept of an SRF is relatively straightforward, there has been considerable discussion about implementation planning. The Mars Exploration Program carried out an analysis of the attributes of an SRF to establish its scope, including minimum size and functionality, budgetary requirements (capital cost, operating costs, cost profile), and development schedule. The approach was to arrange for three independent design studies, each led by an architectural design firm, and compare the results. While there were many design elements in common identified by each study team, there were significant differences in the way human operators were to interact with the systems. In aggregate, the design studies provided insight into the attributes of a future SRF and the complex factors to consider for future programmatic planning.

  3. HIV-positive patients’ perceptions of care received at a selected antiretroviral therapy clinic in Vhembe district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshifhiwa V. Ndou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients’ experiences are a reflection of what has happened during the care process and, therefore, provide information about the performance of health care professional workers. They refer to the process of care provision at the antiretroviral therapy (ART sites. Aim and setting: This article explored the perceptions of HIV-positive patients of care received at the Gateway Clinic of the regional hospital that provides antiretroviral treatment in the Vhembe district. Methods: A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was used. A non-probability, convenient sampling method was used to select 20 HIV-positive patients who were above 18 years of age. In-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data were analysed through Tech’s open coding method. Results: One theme and two sub-themes emerged, namely positive experiences related to the environment and attitudes of health professionals, and negative experiences concerning the practices by health care providers. Conclusion: Patients’ perceptions of quality of, and satisfaction with, health care may affect health outcomes. Recommendations are made to consider, practice and strengthen the protocols, the standard operating procedures and the principles of infection control in the health facilities. Keywords: Human Immunodeficiecy Virus, Antiretroviral Treatment, HIV positive, Limpopo

  4. Characterization Of The As-Received Sludge Batch 9 Qualification Sample (Htf-51-15-81)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has sent SRNL a 3-L slurried sample of Tank 51H (HTF-51-15-81) to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (potentially after combining with Tank 40H sludge). This report documents the first steps of the qualification process – characterization of the as-received Tank 51H qualification sample. These results will be used to support a reprojection of SB9 by SRR from which final Tank 51H washing, frit development, and Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) activities will be based.

  5. Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) web service to support Area Navigation (RNAV) flight planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-28

    The Volpe Center designed, implemented, and deployed a Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) prediction system in the mid 1990s to support both Air Force and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) use of TSO C...

  6. The implication of follicular lymphoma patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation from donors carrying t(14;18)-positive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, D K; Keever-Taylor, C A; Bredeson, C; Schur, B; Vesole, D H; Logan, B; Chang, C-C

    2005-06-01

    We performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) in peripheral blood (PB) and/or bone marrow (BM) samples collected pre- and post transplant from 23 recipient-donor pairs receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for follicular lymphoma (FL). Of 23 donors, 11 had a PB and/or BM sample positive for t(14;18) (BCL2/IGH fusion) at low levels (donors with (n=11) and those without (n=12) detectable t(14:18) cells were similar in age, sex, and disease status pretransplant. No differences in the incidence of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), delayed engraftment, relapse rate, disease-free survival and overall survival were identified between the groups. Two recipients without detectable t(14;18) cells pre-transplant showed detectable t(14;18) cells at 2 and 11 years after receiving grafts from donors with t(14:18) cells. Neither patient developed FL 1.5 and 2 years after the emergence of t(14;18) cells. Although the sample size is relatively small, our findings suggest that individuals carrying t(14;18) cells may not be excluded as donors given the lack of an association of t(14;18) detected in donors with adverse clinical outcome. It may be necessary to screen for the donor's t(14;18) status before using t(14;18) for monitoring minimal residual disease by RQ-PCR to exclude the possibility of confounding donor's t(14;18) clone.

  7. Autonomous site selection and instrument positioning for sample acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A.; Barnes, D.; Pugh, S.

    The European Space Agency Aurora Exploration Program aims to establish a European long-term programme for the exploration of Space, culminating in a human mission to space in the 2030 timeframe. Two flagship missions, namely Mars Sample Return and ExoMars, have been proposed as recognised steps along the way. The Exomars Rover is the first of these flagship missions and includes a rover carrying the Pasteur Payload, a mobile exobiology instrumentation package, and the Beagle 2 arm. The primary objective is the search for evidence of past or present life on mars, but the payload will also study the evolution of the planet and the atmosphere, look for evidence of seismological activity and survey the environment in preparation for future missions. The operation of rovers in unknown environments is complicated, and requires large resources not only on the planet but also in ground based operations. Currently, this can be very labour intensive, and costly, if large teams of scientists and engineers are required to assess mission progress, plan mission scenarios, and construct a sequence of events or goals for uplink. Furthermore, the constraints in communication imposed by the time delay involved over such large distances, and line-of-sight required, make autonomy paramount to mission success, affording the ability to operate in the event of communications outages and be opportunistic with respect to scientific discovery. As part of this drive to reduce mission costs and increase autonomy the Space Robotics group at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth is researching methods of autonomous site selection and instrument positioning, directly applicable to the ExoMars mission. The site selection technique used builds on the geometric reasoning algorithms used previously for localisation and navigation [Shaw 03]. It is proposed that a digital elevation model (DEM) of the local surface, generated during traverse and without interaction from ground based operators, can be

  8. Transmitter and Translating Receiver Design For 64-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2010-01-20

    This paper explores the architecture and design of an optically-implemented 64-ary PPM transmitter and direct-translating receiver that effectively translates incoming electrically-generated bit streams into optical PPM symbols (and vice-versa) at > 1 Gb/s data rates. The PPM transmitter is a cascade of optical switches operating at the frame rate. A corresponding receiver design is more difficult to architect and implement, since increasing data rates lead to correspondingly shorter decision times (slot times and frame times). We describe a solution in the form of a time-to-space mapping arrayed receiver that performs a translating algorithm represented as a code map. The technique for generating the code map is described, and the implementation of the receiver as a planar lightwave circuit is given. The techniques for implementing the transmitter and receiver can be generalized for any case of M-ary PPM.

  9. Military/Civilian Mixed-Mode Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver (MMGR)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peczalski, Andy; Kriz, Jeff; Carlson, Stephen G; Sampson, Steven J

    2004-01-01

    ... AND T) MMGR objective of meeting pervasive defense system requirements and civilian needs for ultra-small GPS receiver technology is dependent in part upon the creation of multi- L-band reconfigurable...

  10. Virtual Array Receiver Options for 64-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2009-01-12

    NASA is developing technology for 64 64-ary PPM using relatively large PPM time slots (10 ns) an and relatively simple d electronic electronic-based receiver logic. In this paper we describe photonic photonics-based receiver options for the case of much higher data rates and inherently shorter decision times. The receivers take the form of virtual ( array or quadrant) arrays with associated comparison tests. Previously we explored this concept for 4-ary and 16-ary PPM at data rates of up to 10 Gb/s. The lessons learned are applied to the case of 64 64-ary PPM at 1.25 Gb/s s. Various receiver designs are compare, and t the optimum design, based on virtual array he arrays, is s, evaluated using numerical simulations.

  11. Predicting Drug-Target Interactions Based on Small Positive Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengwei; Chan, Keith C C; Hu, Yanxing

    2018-01-01

    A basic task in drug discovery is to find new medication in the form of candidate compounds that act on a target protein. In other words, a drug has to interact with a target and such drug-target interaction (DTI) is not expected to be random. Significant and interesting patterns are expected to be hidden in them. If these patterns can be discovered, new drugs are expected to be more easily discoverable. Currently, a number of computational methods have been proposed to predict DTIs based on their similarity. However, such as approach does not allow biochemical features to be directly considered. As a result, some methods have been proposed to try to discover patterns in physicochemical interactions. Since the number of potential negative DTIs are very high both in absolute terms and in comparison to that of the known ones, these methods are rather computationally expensive and they can only rely on subsets, rather than the full set, of negative DTIs for training and validation. As there is always a relatively high chance for negative DTIs to be falsely identified and as only partial subset of such DTIs is considered, existing approaches can be further improved to better predict DTIs. In this paper, we present a novel approach, called ODT (one class drug target interaction prediction), for such purpose. One main task of ODT is to discover association patterns between interacting drugs and proteins from the chemical structure of the former and the protein sequence network of the latter. ODT does so in two phases. First, the DTI-network is transformed to a representation by structural properties. Second, it applies a oneclass classification algorithm to build a prediction model based only on known positive interactions. We compared the best AUROC scores of the ODT with several state-of-art approaches on Gold standard data. The prediction accuracy of the ODT is superior in comparison with all the other methods at GPCRs dataset and Ion channels dataset. Performance

  12. Eyewitness identification in simultaneous and sequential lineups: an investigation of position effects using receiver operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisters, Julia; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2018-04-20

    For decades, sequential lineups have been considered superior to simultaneous lineups in the context of eyewitness identification. However, most of the research leading to this conclusion was based on the analysis of diagnosticity ratios that do not control for the respondent's response criterion. Recent research based on the analysis of ROC curves has found either equal discriminability for sequential and simultaneous lineups, or higher discriminability for simultaneous lineups. Some evidence for potential position effects and for criterion shifts in sequential lineups has also been reported. Using ROC curve analysis, we investigated the effects of the suspect's position on discriminability and response criteria in both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We found that sequential lineups suffered from an unwanted position effect. Respondents employed a strict criterion for the earliest lineup positions, and shifted to a more liberal criterion for later positions. No position effects and no criterion shifts were observed in simultaneous lineups. This result suggests that sequential lineups are not superior to simultaneous lineups, and may give rise to unwanted position effects that have to be considered when conducting police lineups.

  13. Receiver Architecture for 12.5 Gb/s 16-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Gagliardi, R M; Hernandez, V J; Bennett, C V

    2008-07-11

    PPM is a signaling scheme that enables the transmission of multiple bits per symbol [1]. It has found favor in the regime of free space optical communications ('FSO' or 'Lasercom'); however, PPM has yet to be widely applied to fiber optic-based communications. Its limitation in fiber results from the exceedingly high bandwidth requirements needed to electronically process a directly detected pulse, especially as the symbol rate increases and the pulse width correspondingly decreases. As a solution, we introduced the concept of a virtual quadrant receiver for receiving 1.25 Gb/s 4-ary PPM, where photonic processing reduced the number of required electronic components [2]. In this paper, we extend these photonic process techniques to a 16-ary, 12.5 Gb/s (10 Gb/s plus 8B/10B line coding) PPM communications system for fiber optic avionics, wherein much of the receiver processing is enabled by techniques based on planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). The architecture is applicable to higher input data rates and M-ary PPM. In the following, we present the PPM encoding and decoding architectures and numerically simulated results.

  14. Outcomes of Post Mastectomy Radiation Therapy in Patients Receiving Axillary Lymph Node Dissection After Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauder, Michael C., E-mail: mstauder@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Caudle, Abigail S. [Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chavez-Macgregor, Mariana [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hunt, Kelly K.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda [Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Woodward, Wendy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the rate of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) among women treated with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) after positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy results and to establish the effect of negative ALND results and PMRT on locoregional recurrence (LRR) and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: All patients were treated with mastectomy and ALND after positive SLN biopsy results. All patients had clinical N0 or NX disease at the time of mastectomy and received no neoadjuvant therapy. The presence of lymphovascular space invasion, presence of multifocality, number of positive SLNs and non-SLNs, clinical and pathologic stage, extranodal extension, age, and use of PMRT were evaluated for significance regarding the rates of OS and LRR. Results: A total of 345 patients were analyzed. ALND after positive SLN biopsy results was negative in 235 patients (68.1%), and a total of 112 patients (32.5%) received radiation therapy. On multivariate analysis, only pathologic stage III predicted for lower OS (hazard ratio, 3.32; P<.001). The rate of 10-year freedom from LRR was 87.9% and 95.3% in patients with positive ALND results and patients with negative ALND results, respectively. In patients with negative ALND results with ≥3 positive SLNs, the rate of freedom from LRR was 74.7% compared with 96.7% in those with <3 positive SLNs (P=.009). In patients with negative ALND results, ≥3 positive SLNs predicted for an increase in LRR on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 10.10; P=.034). Conclusions: A low proportion of cT1-2, N0 patients with positive SLNs who undergo mastectomy receive PMRT after ALND. Even in this low-risk cohort, patients with ≥3 positive SLNs and negative ALND results are at increased risk of LRR and may benefit from PMRT.

  15. Outcomes of Post Mastectomy Radiation Therapy in Patients Receiving Axillary Lymph Node Dissection After Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauder, Michael C.; Caudle, Abigail S.; Allen, Pamela K.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Chavez-Macgregor, Mariana; Hunt, Kelly K.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the rate of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) among women treated with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) after positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy results and to establish the effect of negative ALND results and PMRT on locoregional recurrence (LRR) and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: All patients were treated with mastectomy and ALND after positive SLN biopsy results. All patients had clinical N0 or NX disease at the time of mastectomy and received no neoadjuvant therapy. The presence of lymphovascular space invasion, presence of multifocality, number of positive SLNs and non-SLNs, clinical and pathologic stage, extranodal extension, age, and use of PMRT were evaluated for significance regarding the rates of OS and LRR. Results: A total of 345 patients were analyzed. ALND after positive SLN biopsy results was negative in 235 patients (68.1%), and a total of 112 patients (32.5%) received radiation therapy. On multivariate analysis, only pathologic stage III predicted for lower OS (hazard ratio, 3.32; P<.001). The rate of 10-year freedom from LRR was 87.9% and 95.3% in patients with positive ALND results and patients with negative ALND results, respectively. In patients with negative ALND results with ≥3 positive SLNs, the rate of freedom from LRR was 74.7% compared with 96.7% in those with <3 positive SLNs (P=.009). In patients with negative ALND results, ≥3 positive SLNs predicted for an increase in LRR on multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 10.10; P=.034). Conclusions: A low proportion of cT1-2, N0 patients with positive SLNs who undergo mastectomy receive PMRT after ALND. Even in this low-risk cohort, patients with ≥3 positive SLNs and negative ALND results are at increased risk of LRR and may benefit from PMRT.

  16. An approach for sampling solid heterogeneous waste at the Hanford Site waste receiving and processing and solid waste projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of obtaining meaningful data from samples of solid heterogeneous waste while maintaining sample rates as low as practical. The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State will process mostly heterogeneous solid wastes. The presence of hazardous materials is documented for some packages and unknown for others. Waste characterization is needed to segregate the waste, meet waste acceptance and shipping requirements, and meet facility permitting requirements. Sampling and analysis are expensive, and no amount of sampling will produce absolute certainty of waste contents. A sampling strategy is proposed that provides acceptable confidence with achievable sampling rates

  17. [Management of patients receiving home respiratory care with tracheostomy and positive-pressure ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred and a massive tsunami hit the northeastern coast of Japan. In Miyagi prefecture in Tokoku district, 49 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were supported by home respiratory care with tracheostomy and positive-pressure ventilation at that time. Among them, two patients were died in the tsunami and 25 patients were forced to evacuate to hospitals. We should hurry to submit a guideline for medical transportation for patients with neuromuscular diseases requiring artificial ventilation. We also should research the disaster medicine in the field of neurology.

  18. Ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning with hourly data for global single receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan; Guo, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) can improve precise point positioning (PPP) performance significantly. IAR for PPP became a highlight topic in global positioning system (GPS) community in recent years. More and more researchers focus on this issue. Progress has been made in the latest years. In this paper, we aim at investigating and demonstrating the performance of a global zero-differenced (ZD) PPP IAR service for GPS users by providing routine ZD uncalibrated fractional offsets (UFOs) for wide-lane and narrow-lane. Data sets from all IGS stations collected on DOY 1, 100, 200 and 300 of 2010 are used to validate and demonstrate this global service. Static experiment results show that an accuracy better than 1 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical could be achieved in ambiguity-fixed PPP solution with only hourly data. Compared with PPP float solution, an average improvement reaches 58.2% in east, 28.3% in north and 23.8% in vertical for all tested stations. Results of kinematic experiments show that the RMS of kinematic PPP solutions can be improved from 21.6, 16.6 and 37.7 mm to 12.2, 13.3 and 34.3 mm for the fixed solutions in the east, north and vertical components, respectively. Both static and kinematic experiments show that wide-lane and narrow-lane UFO products of all satellites can be generated and provided in a routine way accompanying satellite orbit and clock products for the PPP user anywhere around the world, to obtain accurate and reliable ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions.

  19. An artificial vision-based control system for automatic heliostat positioning offset correction in a central receiver solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Dept. de Lenguajes y Computacion, La Canada Almeria (Spain); Rubio, F.R.; Lara, P.J.; Arahal, M.R.; Camacho, E.F.; Lopez, M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Sevilla (Spain); Valverde, A. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA-CIEMAT), Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a simplified and automatic heliostat positioning offset correction control system using artificial vision techniques and common CCD devices. The heliostats of a solar power plant reflect solar radiation onto a receiver (in this case, a volumetric receiver) placed at the top of a tower in order to provide a desired energy flux distribution correlated with the coolant flow (in this case air mass flow) through the receiver, usually in an open loop control configuration. There exist error sources that increase the complexity of the control system, some of which are systematic ones, mainly due to tolerances, wrong mirror facets alignment (optical errors), errors due to the approximations made when calculating the solar position, etc., that produce errors (offsets) in the heliostat orientation (aiming point). The approximation adopted in this paper is based on the use of a B/W CCD camera to correct these deviations in an automatic way imitating the same procedure followed by the operators. The obtained images are used to estimate the distance between the sunbeam centroid projected by the heliostats and a target placed on the tower, this distance thus is used for low accuracy offset correction purposes. Basic threshold-based image processing techniques are used for automatic correction. (Author)

  20. Centimeter-Level Positioning Using an Efficient New Baseband Mixing and Despreading Method for Software GNSS Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lachapelle

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient new method for performing the baseband mixing and despreading operations in a software-based GNSS receiver, and demonstrates that the method is capable of providing measurements for centimeter-level positioning accuracy. The method uses a single frequency carrier replica for the baseband mixing process, enabling all satellites to perform mixing simultaneously and yielding considerable computational savings. To compensate for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR losses caused by using a single frequency carrier replica, the integration interval after despreading is divided into subintervals, and the output from each subinterval then compensated for the known frequency error. Using this approach, receiver processing times are shown to be reduced by approximately 21% relative to the next fastest method when tracking seven satellites. The paper shows the mathematical derivation of the new algorithm, discusses practical considerations, and demonstrates its performance using simulations and real data. Results show that the new method is able to generate pseudorange and carrier phase measurements with the same accuracy as traditional methods. Stand-alone positioning accuracy is at the meter level, while differential processing can produce fixed ambiguity carrier phase positions accurate to the centimeter level.

  1. Intentions to receive a potentially available Lyme disease vaccine in an urban sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Kusz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The only human Lyme disease vaccine of LYMErix was voluntarily removed from the market in the United States in 2002 for a number of reasons. A new human Lyme disease vaccine is currently being developed. We would like any future approved human Lyme disease vaccine to be of interest and marketable to consumers. We surveyed 714 participants to determine variables associated with intentions to receive a Lyme disease vaccine. Predictor variables included demographics, protection motivational theory, Lyme disease knowledge, Lyme disease preventive behaviors, beliefs and perceived health. We found in multivariate linear regression analyses that Asian/Asian American race/ethnicity (p Lyme disease vaccine. Although pharmaceutical companies may benefit by advertising a Lyme disease vaccine to Asian/Asian Americans and South Asians, marketers need to address and use approaches to interest those from other race/ethnicities. Also, marketers need to address the erroneous belief that vaccines are typically not safe in order to interest those with such beliefs to use a Lyme disease vaccine.

  2. Identifying indicators of harmful and problem gambling in a Canadian sample through receiver operating characteristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Avila Murati, Daniela; Bagby, R Michael

    2014-03-01

    Many gamblers would prefer to reduce gambling on their own rather than to adopt an abstinence approach within the context of a gambling treatment program. Yet responsible gambling guidelines lack quantifiable markers to guide gamblers in wagering safely. To address these issues, the current investigation implemented receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify behavioral indicators of harmful and problem gambling. Gambling involvement was assessed in 503 participants (275 psychiatric outpatients and 228 community gamblers) with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Overall gambling frequency, duration, and expenditure were able to distinguish harmful and problematic gambling at a moderate level. Indicators of harmful gambling were generated for engagement in specific gambling activities: frequency of tickets and casino; duration of bingo, casino, and investments; and expenditures on bingo, casino, sports betting, games of skill, and investments. Indicators of problem gambling were similarly produced for frequency of tickets and casino, and expenditures on bingo, casino, games of skill, and investments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that overall gambling frequency uniquely predicted the presence of harmful and problem gambling. Furthermore, frequency indicators for tickets and casino uniquely predicted the presence of both harmful and problem gambling. Together, these findings contribute to the development of an empirically based method enabling the minimization of harmful or problem gambling through self-control rather than abstinence.

  3. Decreased Heart Rate Variability in HIV Positive Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: Importance of Blood Glucose and Cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    whether autonomic dysfunction is present in an ART treated HIV population and if so to identify factors of importance. METHODS: HIV patients receiving ART for at least 12 months (n¿=¿97) and an age-matched control group of healthy volunteers (n¿=¿52) were included. All were non-diabetic and had never......-intervals (RMSSD) or the percent of differences between adjacent NN intervals greater than 50 ms (pNN50). In the HIV positives, haemoglobin A1c correlated inversely with SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50 (pcorrelated inversely with RMSSD and pNN50 (p...4 cell count nor CD4 nadir correlated with time or phase domain HRV variables. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate autonomic dysfunction is present in HIV positives patients even with suppressed viral load due to ART. The dysfunction is correlated with HbA1c and hypercholesterolemia but not to duration of HIV...

  4. Results of the Ongoing Monitoring of the Position of a Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite by the Method of Spatially Separated Basis Receiving of Digital Satellite Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, F.; Kaliuzhnyi, M.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Shulga, O.; Moskalenko, S.; Balagura, O.; Kulishenko, V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellite Eutelsat-13B (13° East) are presented in the article. The results were obtained using a radio engineering complex (RC) of four stations receiving digital satellite television and a data processing centre. The stations are located in Kyiv, Mukachevo, Kharkiv and Mykolaiv. The equipment of each station allows synchronous recording (by the GPS) of fragments of DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of the satellite television receiver. Samples of the complex signal are archived and sent to the data processing center through the Internet. Here three linearly independent slant range differences (Δr) for three pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. Every second measured values of Δr are used to calculate Cartesian coordinates (XYZ) of the satellite in the coordinate system WGS84 by multilateration method. The time series of Δr, X, Y and Z obtained during continuous observations from March to May 2015 are presented in the article. Single-measurement errors of Δr, X, Y and Z are equal to 2.6 m, 3540 m, 705 m and 455 m, respectively. The complex is compared with known analogues. Ways of reduction of measurement errors of satellite coordinates are considered. The radio engineering complex could be considered a prototype of a system of independent ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellites.

  5. 45 CFR 2522.240 - What financial benefits do AmeriCorps participants serving in approved AmeriCorps positions receive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financial benefits do AmeriCorps participants serving in approved AmeriCorps positions receive? (a) Ameri... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What financial benefits do AmeriCorps participants serving in approved AmeriCorps positions receive? 2522.240 Section 2522.240 Public Welfare Regulations...

  6. Single-frequency receivers as master permanent stations in GNSS networks: precision and accuracy of the positioning in mixed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabove, Paolo; Manzino, Ambrogio Maria

    2015-04-01

    The use of GPS/GNSS instruments is a common practice in the world at both a commercial and academic research level. Since last ten years, Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORSs) networks were born in order to achieve the possibility to extend a precise positioning more than 15 km far from the master station. In this context, the Geomatics Research Group of DIATI at the Politecnico di Torino has carried out several experiments in order to evaluate the achievable precision obtainable with different GNSS receivers (geodetic and mass-market) and antennas if a CORSs network is considered. This work starts from the research above described, in particular focusing the attention on the usefulness of single frequency permanent stations in order to thicken the existing CORSs, especially for monitoring purposes. Two different types of CORSs network are available today in Italy: the first one is the so called "regional network" and the second one is the "national network", where the mean inter-station distances are about 25/30 and 50/70 km respectively. These distances are useful for many applications (e.g. mobile mapping) if geodetic instruments are considered but become less useful if mass-market instruments are used or if the inter-station distance between master and rover increases. In this context, some innovative GNSS networks were developed and tested, analyzing the performance of rover's positioning in terms of quality, accuracy and reliability both in real-time and post-processing approach. The use of single frequency GNSS receivers leads to have some limits, especially due to a limited baseline length, the possibility to obtain a correct fixing of the phase ambiguity for the network and to fix the phase ambiguity correctly also for the rover. These factors play a crucial role in order to reach a positioning with a good level of accuracy (as centimetric o better) in a short time and with an high reliability. The goal of this work is to investigate about the

  7. Microbiological evaluation of milk samples positive to California Mastitis Test in dairy buffalo cows (Buballus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Sturion

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the microbiological status of CMT positive samples, 734 apparently health mammary quarters from buffalo cows were submitted to physical evaluation, strip cup test and CMT. After milk samples inoculation in 10% ovine blood agar base media and in MacConkey agar and incubation under aerobic condition for 72 hours at 37oC, identification was proceeded. According to CMT, 227 quarters (30,93% were positive, among them 73 (32,16% presented 1+ reaction, 53 (23,35% were 2+ and 101 (44,49% were 3+. Microbiological exams of such samples were positive in 147 (64,76% out of 227 CMT positive samples and among the remaining 72 (31,72% were negative and 8 (3,52 were contaminated. In the 147 microbiological positive samples 204 bacteria were found in pure or associated growth and the most frequent agents were: Corynebacterium sp (59,25%; Staphylococcus sp (17,65% among which 86,11% were coagulase negative and 13,89% were coagulase positive; and Micrococcus sp (6,37%. The results revealed that, excluding the eight contaminated samples, 147 (67,12% quarters out of 219 CMT positive could be considered as bacteria-carrier and that even in a smaller percentage false-positive results can cause problems in a sanitary program for mastitis control in dairy buffalo cows.

  8. On Fast Post-Processing of Global Positioning System Simulator Truth Data and Receiver Measurements and Solutions Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Post-Processing of data related to a Global Positioning System (GPS) simulation is an important activity in qualification of a GPS receiver for space flight. Because a GPS simulator is a critical resource it is desirable to move off the pertinent simulation data from the simulator as soon as a test is completed. The simulator data files are usually moved to a Personal Computer (PC), where the post-processing of the receiver logged measurements and solutions data and simulated data is performed. Typically post-processing is accomplished using PC-based commercial software languages and tools. Because of commercial software systems generality their general-purpose functions are notoriously slow and more than often are the bottleneck problem even for short duration experiments. For example, it may take 8 hours to post-process data from a 6-hour simulation. There is a need to do post-processing faster, especially in order to use the previous test results as feedback for a next simulation setup. This paper demonstrates that a fast software linear interpolation algorithm is applicable to a large class of engineering problems, like GPS simulation data post-processing, where computational time is a critical resource and is one of the most important considerations. An approach is developed that allows to speed-up post-processing by an order of magnitude. It is based on improving the post-processing bottleneck interpolation algorithm using apriori information that is specific to the GPS simulation application. The presented post-processing scheme was used in support of a few successful space flight missions carrying GPS receivers. A future approach to solving the post-processing performance problem using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology is described.

  9. Gram-negative and -positive bacteria differentiation in blood culture samples by headspace volatile compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E; Janitza, Silke; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Graßmann-Lichtenauer, Carola; Praun, Siegfried; Denzer, Wolfgang; Schelling, Gustav; Schubert, Sören

    2016-12-01

    Identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures still relies on standard techniques such as Gram staining followed by culturing with definite microorganism identification. Alternatively, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or the analysis of headspace volatile compound (VC) composition produced by cultures can help to differentiate between microorganisms under experimental conditions. This study assessed the efficacy of volatile compound based microorganism differentiation into Gram-negatives and -positives in unselected positive blood culture samples from patients. Headspace gas samples of positive blood culture samples were transferred to sterilized, sealed, and evacuated 20 ml glass vials and stored at -30 °C until batch analysis. Headspace gas VC content analysis was carried out via an auto sampler connected to an ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometer (IMR-MS). Measurements covered a mass range from 16 to 135 u including CO2, H2, N2, and O2. Prediction rules for microorganism identification based on VC composition were derived using a training data set and evaluated using a validation data set within a random split validation procedure. One-hundred-fifty-two aerobic samples growing 27 Gram-negatives, 106 Gram-positives, and 19 fungi and 130 anaerobic samples growing 37 Gram-negatives, 91 Gram-positives, and two fungi were analysed. In anaerobic samples, ten discriminators were identified by the random forest method allowing for bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive (error rate: 16.7 % in validation data set). For aerobic samples the error rate was not better than random. In anaerobic blood culture samples of patients IMR-MS based headspace VC composition analysis facilitates bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive.

  10. Development and evaluation of a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese sleep apnea patients receiving continuous positive airway pressure treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayako Saito,1 Shigeko Kojima,2 Fumihiko Sasaki,3 Masamichi Hayashi,4 Yuki Mieno,4 Hiroki Sakakibara,5 Shuji Hashimoto1 1Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 2Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nihon Fukushi University, Handa, Japan; 3SDB Research Laboratory, Takaoka Clinic, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Clinical Allergy, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 5Tokushige Kokyuki Clinic, Nagoya, Japan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a self-efficacy instrument for Japanese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. Analyzed subjects were 653 Japanese OSA patients (619 males and 34 females treated with CPAP at a sleep laboratory in a respiratory clinic in a Japanese city. Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, the CPAP Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Sleep Apnea in Japanese (CSESA-J was developed by a focus group of experts, using a group interview of OSA patients for the items of two previous self-efficacy scales for Western sleep apnea patients receiving CPAP treatment. CSESA-J has two subscales, one for self-efficacy and the other for outcome expectancy, and consists of a total of 15 items. Content validity was confirmed by the focus group. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor loadings of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy were 0.47–0.76 and 0.41–0.92, respectively, for the corresponding items. CSESA-J had a significant but weak positive association with the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a strong positive association with “Self-efficacy scale on health behavior in patients with chronic disease.” Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.85 for the self-efficacy subscale and 0.89 for the outcome expectancy subscale. The intraclass correlation coefficient using data from the first and second measurements with

  11. Detection of drugs in 275 alcohol-positive blood samples of Korean drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunmi; Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Juseon; Jang, Moonhee; Choi, Hyeyoung; Chung, Heesun

    2016-08-01

    Since driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is as dangerous as drink-driving, many countries regulate DUID by law. However, laws against the use of drugs while driving are not yet established in Korea. In order to investigate the type and frequency of drugs used by drivers in Korea, we analyzed controlled and non-controlled drugs in alcohol-positive blood samples. Total 275 blood samples were taken from Korean drivers, which were positive in roadside alcohol testing. The following analyses were performed: blood alcohol concentrations by GC; screening for controlled drugs by immunoassay and confirmation for positive samples by GC-MS. For the detection of DUID related drugs in blood samples, a total of 49 drugs were selected and were examined by GC-MS. For a rapid detection of these drugs, an automated identification software called "DrugMan" was used. Concentrations of alcohol in 275 blood samples ranged from 0.011 to 0.249% (average 0.119%). Six specimens showed positive results by immunoassay: one methamphetamine and five benzodiazepines I. By GC-MS confirmation, only benzodiazepines in four cases were identified, while methamphetamine and benzodiazepine in two cases were not detected from the presumptive positive blood samples. Using DrugMan, four drugs were detected; chlorpheniramine (5)*, diazepam (4), dextromethorphan (1) and doxylamine (1). In addition, ibuprofen (1), lidocaine (1) and topiramate (1) were also detected as general drugs in blood samples ('*' indicates frequency). The frequency of drug abuse by Korean drivers was relatively low and a total 14 cases were positive in 275 blood samples with a ratio of 5%. However it is necessary to analyze more samples including alcohol negative blood, and to expand the range of drug lists to get the detailed information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational position and its relation to mental distress in a random sample of Danish residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner Ernst; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Maj Britt D

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the distribution of depressive, anxiety, and somatization symptoms across different occupational positions in a random sample of Danish residents. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 591 Danish residents (50% women), aged 20-65, drawn from an age- and gender-stratified random...... sample of the Danish population. Participants filled out a survey that included the 92 item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-92). We categorized occupational position into seven groups: high- and low-grade non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, high- and low-grade self...

  13. Daily variations in the position of the prostate bed in patients with prostate cancer receiving postoperative external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Langen, Katja M.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Wagner, Thomas H.; Zeidan, Omar A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of the variation in the position of the prostate bed with respect to the bony anatomy. Methods and Materials: Four patients were treated to 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Before each fraction, a megavoltage computed tomography (CT) of the prostate bed was obtained, resulting in a total of 140 CT studies. Retrospectively, each CT scan was aligned to the simulation kilovoltage scan based on bony anatomy and the prostate bed. The difference between the 2 alignments was calculated for each scan. Results: The average differences (±1 SD) between the two alignments were 0.06 ± 0.37, 0.10 ± 0.86, and 0.39 ± 1.27 mm in the lateral, longitudinal (SI), and vertical (AP) directions, respectively. Laterally, there was no difference ≥3 mm. The cumulative frequency of SI differences were as follows; ≥3 mm: 3%, ≥4 mm: 1%, and ≥5 mm: 1% (maximum: 5 mm). The cumulative frequency of AP differences were as follows; ≥3 mm: 7%, and ≥4 mm: 3% (maximum: 4 mm). Conclusion: In patients with prostate cancer receiving postoperative radiotherapy, the prostate bed motion relative to the pelvic bony anatomy is of a relatively small magnitude. Significant motion (≥3 mm) is infrequent. However, small differences between the prostate bed and the bony anatomy still exist. This might have implications on treatment margins when daily alignment on bony anatomy is performed

  14. Genetic polymorphisms associated with fatty liver disease and fibrosis in HIV positive patients receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luda, Carolin; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Boesecke, Christoph; Hansel, Cordula; Nischalke, Hans-Dieter; Lutz, Philipp; Mohr, Raphael; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Strassburg, Christian P.; Trebicka, Jonel; Rockstroh, Jürgen Kurt; Spengler, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis can occur with any antiretroviral therapy (cART). Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified to predispose to alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, their role for treatment-associated steatosis in HIV-positive patients remains unclear. We determined the frequency of PNPLA3 (rs738409), CSPG3/NCAN (rs2228603), GCKR (rs780094), PPP1R3B (rs4240624), TM6SF (rs8542926), LYPLAL1 (rs12137855) and MBOAT7 (rs626283) by RT-PCR in 117 HIV-positive patients on cART and stratified participants based on their “controlled attenuation parameter” (CAP) into probable (CAP: 215–300 dB/m) and definite (CAP >300 dB/m) hepatic steatosis. We analyzed CAP values and routine metabolic parameters according to the allele frequencies. Sixty-five (55.6%) and 13 (11.1%) patients were allocated to probable and definite steatosis. CAP values (p = 0.012) and serum triglycerides (p = 0.043) were increased in carriers of the GCKR (rs780094) A allele. Cox logistic regression identified triglycerides (p = 0.006), bilirubin (p = 0.021) and BMI (p = 0.068), but not the genetic parameters as risk factors for the occurrence of hepatic steatosis. Taken together, according to the limited sample size, this exploratory study generates the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms seem to exert minor effects on the risk for fatty liver disease in HIV-positive patients on cART. Nevertheless, SNPs may modify metabolic complications once metabolic abnormalities have developed. Hence, subsequent analysis of a larger cohort is needed. PMID:28594920

  15. Phase II Study of HER-2/neu Intracellular Domain Peptide-Based Vaccine Administered to Stage IV HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Trastuzumab

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Disis, Mary L

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this grant is to determine the overall survival benefit in Stage IV HER2 positive breast cancer patients vaccinated with a HER2 ICD peptide-based vaccine while receiving maintenance trastuzumab...

  16. Phase II Study of HER-2/neu Intracellular Domain Peptide-Based Vaccine Administered to Stage IV HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Trastuzumab

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Disis, Mary L

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this grant is to determine the overall survival benefit in Stage IV HER2 positive breast cancer patients vaccinated with a HER2 ICD peptide-based vaccine while receiving maintenance trastuzumab...

  17. Socioeconomic position and ten-year survival and virologic outcomes in a Ugandan HIV cohort receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Flynn

    Full Text Available Lifelong ART is essential to reducing HIV mortality and ending the epidemic, however the interplay between socioeconomic position and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Furthering the understanding of factors related to long-term ART outcomes in this important region will aid the successful scale-up of ART programs. We enrolled 559 HIV-infected Ugandan adults starting ART in 2004-2005 at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda and followed them for 10 years. We documented baseline employment status, regular household income, education level, housing description, physical ability, and CD4 count. Viral load was measured every six months. Proportional hazard regression tested for associations between baseline characteristics and 1 mortality, 2 virologic failure, and 3 mortality or virologic failure as a composite outcome. Over ten years 23% (n = 127 of participants died, 6% (n = 31 were lost-to-follow-up and 23% (107/472 experienced virologic treatment failure. In Kaplan-Meier analysis we observed an association between employment and mortality, with the highest cumulative probability of death occurring in unemployed individuals. In univariate analysis unemployment and disease severity were associated with mortality, but in multivariable analysis the only association with mortality was disease severity. We observed an association between higher household income and an increased incidence of both virologic failure and the combined outcome, and an association between self-employment and lower incidence of virologic failure and the combined outcome when compared to unemployment. Formal education level and housing status were unrelated to outcomes. It is feasible to achieve good ten-year survival, retention-in-care, and viral suppression in a socioeconomically diverse population in a resource-limited setting. Unemployment appears to be related to adverse 10

  18. Sampling theorem for geometric moment determination and its application to a laser beam position detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loce, R P; Jodoin, R E

    1990-09-10

    Using the tools of Fourier analysis, a sampling requirement is derived that assures that sufficient information is contained within the samples of a distribution to calculate accurately geometric moments of that distribution. The derivation follows the standard textbook derivation of the Whittaker-Shannon sampling theorem, which is used for reconstruction, but further insight leads to a coarser minimum sampling interval for moment determination. The need for fewer samples to determine moments agrees with intuition since less information should be required to determine a characteristic of a distribution compared with that required to construct the distribution. A formula for calculation of the moments from these samples is also derived. A numerical analysis is performed to quantify the accuracy of the calculated first moment for practical nonideal sampling conditions. The theory is applied to a high speed laser beam position detector, which uses the normalized first moment to measure raster line positional accuracy in a laser printer. The effects of the laser irradiance profile, sampling aperture, number of samples acquired, quantization, and noise are taken into account.

  19. Sample positioning in neutron diffraction experiments using a multi-material fiducial marker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marais, D., E-mail: Deon.Marais@necsa.co.za [Research and Development Division, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) SOC Limited, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Venter, A.M., E-mail: Andrew.Venter@necsa.co.za [Research and Development Division, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) SOC Limited, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Faculty of Agriculture Science and Technology, North-West University, Mahikeng 2790 (South Africa); Markgraaff, J., E-mail: Johan.Markgraaff@nwu.ac.za [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); James, J., E-mail: Jon.James@open.ac.uk [Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK76AA England (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-01

    An alternative sample positioning method is reported for use in conjunction with sample positioning and experiment planning software systems deployed on some neutron diffraction strain scanners. In this approach, the spherical fiducial markers and location trackers used with optical metrology hardware are replaced with a specifically designed multi-material fiducial marker that requires one diffraction measurement. In a blind setting, the marker position can be determined within an accuracy of ±164 µm with respect to the instrument gauge volume. The scheme is based on a pre-determined relationship that links the diffracted peak intensity to the absolute positioning of the fiducial marker with respect to the instrument gauge volume. Two methods for establishing the linking relationship are presented, respectively based on fitting multi-dimensional quadratic functions and a cross-correlation artificial neural network.

  20. Direct detection of Trichomonas vaginalis virus in Trichomonas vaginalis positive clinical samples from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehee, Ivo; van der Veer, Charlotte; Himschoot, Michelle; Hermans, Mirjam; Bruisten, Sylvia

    2017-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted parasitical infection worldwide. T. vaginalis can carry a virus: Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV). To date, four TVV species have been described. Few studies have investigated TVV prevalence and its clinical importance. We have developed a nested reverse-transcriptase PCR, with novel, type specific primers to directly detect TVV RNA in T. vaginalis positive clinical samples. A total of 119T. vaginalis positive clinical samples were collected in Amsterdam and "s-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands, from 2012 to 2016. For all samples T. vaginalis was genotyped using multi-locus sequence typing. The T. vaginalis positive samples segregated into a two-genotype population: type I (n=64) and type II (n=55). All were tested for TVV with the new TVV PCR. We detected 3 of the 4 TVV species. Sequencing of the amplified products showed high homology with published TVV genomes (82-100%). Half of the T. vaginalis clinical samples (n=60, 50.4%) were infected with one or more TVV species, with a preponderance for TVV infections in T. vaginalis type I (n=44, 73.3%). Clinical data was available for a subset of samples (n=34) and we observed an association between testing positive for (any) TVV and reporting urogenital symptoms (p=0.023). The nested RT-PCR allowed for direct detection of TVV in T. vaginalis positive clinical samples. This may be helpful in studies and clinical settings, since T. vaginalis disease and/or treatment outcome may be influenced by the protozoa"s virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolution of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory to the Astromaterial Sample Curation Facility: Technical Tensions Between Containment and Cleanliness, Between Particulate and Organic Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; Calaway, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) was planned and constructed in the 1960s to support the Apollo program in the context of landing on the Moon and safely returning humans. The enduring science return from that effort is a result of careful curation of planetary materials. Technical decisions for the first facility included sample handling environment (vacuum vs inert gas), and instruments for making basic sample assessment, but the most difficult decision, and most visible, was stringent biosafety vs ultra-clean sample handling. Biosafety required handling of samples in negative pressure gloveboxes and rooms for containment and use of sterilizing protocols and animal/plant models for hazard assessment. Ultra-clean sample handling worked best in positive pressure nitrogen environment gloveboxes in positive pressure rooms, using cleanable tools of tightly controlled composition. The requirements for these two objectives were so different, that the solution was to design and build a new facility for specific purpose of preserving the scientific integrity of the samples. The resulting Lunar Curatorial Facility was designed and constructed, from 1972-1979, with advice and oversight by a very active committee comprised of lunar sample scientists. The high precision analyses required for planetary science are enabled by stringent contamination control of trace elements in the materials and protocols of construction (e.g., trace element screening for paint and flooring materials) and the equipment used in sample handling and storage. As other astromaterials, especially small particles and atoms, were added to the collections curated, the technical tension between particulate cleanliness and organic cleanliness was addressed in more detail. Techniques for minimizing particulate contamination in sample handling environments use high efficiency air filtering techniques typically requiring organic sealants which offgas. Protocols for reducing adventitious carbon on sample

  2. Non-destructive trace element microanalysis of as-received cometary nucleus samples using synchrotron x ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Synchrotron X ray Fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, will be an excellent instrument for non-destructive trace element analyses of cometary nucleus samples. Trace element analyses of as-received cometary nucleus material will also be possible with this technique. Bulk analysis of relatively volatile elements will be important in establishing comet formation conditions. However, as demonstrated for meteorites, microanalyses of individual phases in their petrographic context are crucial in defining the histories of particular components in unequilibrated specimens. Perhaps most informative in comparing cometary material with meteorites will be the halogens and trace metals. In-situ, high spatial resolution microanalyses will be essential in establishing host phases for these elements and identifying terrestrial (collection/processing) overprints. The present SXRF microprobe is a simple, yet powerful, instrument in which specimens are excited with filtered, continuum synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet on a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring. A refrigerated cell will be constructed to permit analyses at low temperatures. The cell will consist essentially of an air tight housing with a cold stage. Kapton windows will be used to allow the incident synchrotron beam to enter the cell and fluorescent x rays to exit it. The cell will be either under vacuum or continuous purge by ultrapure helium during analyses. Several other improvements of the NSLS microprobe will be made prior to the cometary nucleus sample return mission that will greatly enhance the sensitivity of the technique

  3. Communication dated 18 May 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of Kazakhstan to the Agency enclosing a position paper regarding the establishment of IAEA nuclear fuel banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 18 May 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Kazakhstan, transmitting a position paper of Kazakhstan regarding the establishment of IAEA nuclear fuel banks. As requested in that communication, the attached position paper is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  4. goGPS: open source software for enhancing the accuracy of low-cost receivers by single-frequency relative kinematic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realini, Eugenio; Reguzzoni, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    goGPS is a free and open source satellite positioning software package aiming to provide a collaborative platform for research and teaching purposes. It was first published in 2009 and since then several related projects are on-going. Its objective is the investigation of strategies for enhancing the accuracy of low-cost single-frequency GPS receivers, mainly by relative positioning with respect to a base station and by a tailored extended Kalman filter working directly on code and phase observations. In this paper, the positioning algorithms implemented in goGPS are presented, emphasizing the modularity of the software design; two specific strategies to support the navigation with low-cost receivers are also proposed and discussed, namely an empirical observation weighting function calibrated on the receiver signal-to-noise ratio and the inclusion of height information from a digital terrain model as an additional observation in the Kalman filter. The former is crucial when working with high-sensitivity receivers, while the latter can significantly improve the positioning in the vertical direction. The overall goGPS positioning accuracy is assessed by comparison with a dual-frequency receiver and with the positioning computed by a standard low-cost receiver. The benefits of the calibrated weighting function and the digital terrain model are investigated by an experiment in a dense urban environment. It comes out that the use of goGPS and low-cost receivers leads to results comparable with those obtained by higher level receivers; goGPS has good performances also in a dense urban environment, where its additional features play an important role. (paper)

  5. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 420 - Sample Large Position Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and as collateral for financial derivatives and other securities transactions $ Total Memorandum 1... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sample Large Position Report B Appendix B to Part 420 Commodity and Securities Exchanges DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS UNDER...

  6. HIV-positive MSM's knowledge of HPV and anal cancer self-sampling: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, M K L; Wong, J P H; Li, A T W; Manuba, M; Bisignano, A; Owino, M; Vahabi, M

    2018-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (hpv) infection is the cause of anal squamous cell cancer (ascc) in 80% of cases. Available research has also shown high prevalence of anal hpv infection among men who have sex with men (msm). However, hpv vaccination is low among msm in Canada. In light of this information, we conducted a scoping review with the aim of exploring (1) the knowledge of hpv and anal cancer among hiv-positive msm and (2) the acceptability of hpv and anal cancer self-sampling in this population. In conducting the review, we searched five electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles and abstracts published in English, between 2007 and 2017. A total of 803 articles were retrieved; after accounting for duplicates ( n= 40) and unmet criteria ( n= 754), a total of 794 articles were excluded. A final total of nine articles were used in this review. Results of this review show that hiv-positive msm have limited knowledge regarding the risks of anal cancer associated with hiv and hpv coinfection. Furthermore, there is limited research on hpv and anal cancer self-sampling in this population. However, the review of available studies suggested that hiv-positive msm were open to anal cancer self-sampling. It also identified potential barriers to self-sampling. In conclusion, we provide suggestions and future directions for policy-makers and educators to develop inclusive and accessible strategies to reach hiv-positive msm regarding anal cancer education and self-screening.

  7. Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars Ligong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars. Ligong Mi1,3,∗ & Xiang Liu1,2. 1Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, CAS, 150 Science 1-Street, Urumqi 830011,. People's Republic of China. 2Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, CAS, Nanjing 210008, People's Republic of China. 3University of Chinese ...

  8. Analysis of HIV subtypes and the phylogenetic tree in HIV-positive samples from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zahrani, Alhusain J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic subtypes in Saudi Arabia in samples that are serologically positive for HIV-1 and compare the HIV-1 genetic subtypes prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the subtypes prevalent in other countries. Thirty-nine HIV-1 positive samples were analyzed for HIV-1 subtypes using molecular techniques. The study is retrospective study that was conducted in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in Abbott laboratories (United States of America) from2004 to 2007. All samples were seropositive for HIV-1 group M. Of the 39 seropositive samples, only 12 were polymerase chain reaction positive. Subtype C is the most common virus strain as it occurred in 58% of these samples; subtype B occurred in 17%; subtypes A, D and G were found in 8% each. The phylogenetic tree was also identified for the isolates. Detection of HIV subtypes is important for epidemiological purposes and may help in tracing the source of HIV infections in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  9. Associations between positive and negative affect and 12-month physical disorders in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    Associations between positive and negative affect and a range of 12-month physical disorders were investigated in the Midlife Development in the United States Survey, a nationally representative sample of 3,032 adults ages 25-74. These associations were examined, controlling for relevant sociodemographic and psychiatric covariates. High positive affect was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders, whereas high negative affect was associated with increased risk. However, associations between positive affect and physical disorders were partially attenuated following adjustment for concurrent negative affect. Additionally, high affect balance was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders before and after adjustments. These findings underscore the relevance of affective disposition in health status, suggesting that both positive and negative affect may serve as viable health risk parameters.

  10. Double-contained receiver tank 244-TX, grab samples, 244TX-97-1 through 244TX-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report for the double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) 244-TX grab samples. Three grabs samples were collected from riser 8 on May 29, 1997. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in a table

  11. Influence of Sample Size on Automatic Positional Accuracy Assessment Methods for Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ariza-López

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new approaches aimed to increase the automation level of positional accuracy assessment processes for spatial data have been developed. However, in such cases, an aspect as significant as sample size has not yet been addressed. In this paper, we study the influence of sample size when estimating the planimetric positional accuracy of urban databases by means of an automatic assessment using polygon-based methodology. Our study is based on a simulation process, which extracts pairs of homologous polygons from the assessed and reference data sources and applies two buffer-based methods. The parameter used for determining the different sizes (which range from 5 km up to 100 km has been the length of the polygons’ perimeter, and for each sample size 1000 simulations were run. After completing the simulation process, the comparisons between the estimated distribution functions for each sample and population distribution function were carried out by means of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Results show a significant reduction in the variability of estimations when sample size increased from 5 km to 100 km.

  12. Gender differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and social support in a sample of HIV-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the authors of the present study was to investigate gender differences in the levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and social support in a Polish sample of HIV+ men (n = 613) and women (n = 230). This was an anonymous cross-sectional study, and participation was voluntary. The research questionnaires were distributed in paper form among patients of Warsaw's Hospital for Infectious Diseases from January to October 2015. The level of PTSS was assessed using the PTSD Factorial Version Inventory. Social support was assessed using the Berlin Social Support Scales. HIV+ women scored higher on all PTSS dimensions compared to HIV+ men. HIV+ women were characterized by a higher need for support and more support actually received compared to HIV+ men. We observed a positive association between HIV infection duration and AIDS phase and the global trauma score only among HIV+ men. The moderation analysis also revealed a positive relationship between actual received support and the global trauma score among HIV+ women only. Increased clinician awareness is needed about the role of PTSS and social support among people living with HIV, especially taking gender differences into account.

  13. Hydrodynamics during melting of an electroconductive sample in microgravity conditions under contactless positioning by electromagnetic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, V. M.

    MHD-flow during melting of a spherical metal sample under contactless positioning by alternating magnetic field produced by two circular turns with currents, is investigated. It is shown that when the currents supplying the turns are opposite in direction, electromagnetic forces, originating from the interaction of the Foucault currents with alternating magnetic field, induce two torus-like eddies in the interior of the molten metal drop.

  14. Exploring the Legionella pneumophila positivity rate in hotel water samples from Antalya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepin Özen, Nevgün; Tuğlu Ataman, Şenay; Emek, Mestan

    2017-05-01

    The genus Legionella is a fastidious Gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in natural waters and man made water supply systems. Legionella pneumophila is the aetiological agent of approximately 90% of reported Legionellosis cases, and serogroup 1 is the most frequent cause of infections. Legionnaires' disease is often associated with travel and continues to be a public health concern at present. The correct water management quality practices and rapid methods for analyzing Legionella species in environmental water is a key point for the prevention of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. This study aimed to evaluate the positivity rates and serotyping of Legionella species from water samples in the region of Antalya, Turkey, which is an important tourism center. During January-December 2010, a total of 1403 samples of water that were collected from various hotels (n = 56) located in Antalya were investigated for Legionella pneumophila. All samples were screened for L. pneumophila by culture method according to "ISO 11731-2" criteria. The culture positive Legionella strains were serologically identified by latex agglutination test. A total of 142 Legionella pneumophila isolates were recovered from 21 (37.5%) of 56 hotels. The total frequency of L. pneumophila isolation from water samples was found as 10.1%. Serological typing of 142 Legionella isolates by latex agglutination test revealed that strains belonging to L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 predominated in the examined samples (85%), while strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were less numerous (15%). According to our knowledge, our study with the greatest number of water samples from Turkey demonstrates that L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 is the most common isolate. Rapid isolation of L. pneumophila from environmental water samples is essential for the investigation of travel related outbreaks and the possible resources. Further studies are needed to have epidemiological data and to determine the types of L

  15. Reliability and validity of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire in a sample of Spanish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Merino, J; Lluch-Canut, M T; Casas, I; Sanromà-Ortíz, M; Ferré-Grau, C; Sequeira, C; Falcó-Pegueroles, A; Soares, D; Puig-Llobet, M

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: In general, the current studies of positive mental health use questionnaires or parts thereof. However, while these questionnaires evaluate aspects of positive mental health, they fail to measure the construct itself. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The widespread use and the lack of specific questionnaires for evaluating the positive mental health construct justify the need to measure the robustness of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire. Also six factors are proposed to measure positive mental health. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The availability of a good questionnaire to measure positive mental health in university students is useful not only to promote mental health but also to strengthen the curricula of future professionals. Introduction Nursing has a relevant role in managing mental health. It is important to identify and thereafter to enhance positive aspects of mental health among university nursing students. Aim The aim of the present study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Positive Mental Health Questionnaire (PMHQ) in terms of reliability and validity using confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of university students. Method A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1091 students at 4 nursing schools in Catalonia, Spain. The reliability of the PMHQ was measured by means of Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the test-retest stability was measured with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the validity of the factorial structure. Results Cronbach's alpha coefficient was satisfactory (>0.70) for four of the six subscales or dimensions and ranged from 0.54 to 0.79. ICC analysis was satisfactory for the six subscales or dimensions. The hypothesis was confirmed in the analysis of the correlations between subclasses and the overall scale, with the strongest correlations being found between the majority of

  16. The relationship between personalities and self-report positive driving behavior in a Chinese sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan

    2018-01-01

    Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female) from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS), the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38) and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55). In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38) in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources. PMID:29324823

  17. The relationship between personalities and self-report positive driving behavior in a Chinese sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biying Shen

    Full Text Available Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS, the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI and the Big Five Inventory (BFI on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38 and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55. In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38 in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources.

  18. The relationship between personalities and self-report positive driving behavior in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Biying; Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan

    2018-01-01

    Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female) from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS), the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38) and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55). In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38) in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources.

  19. Non-parametric adaptive importance sampling for the probability estimation of a launcher impact position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morio, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Importance sampling (IS) is a useful simulation technique to estimate critical probability with a better accuracy than Monte Carlo methods. It consists in generating random weighted samples from an auxiliary distribution rather than the distribution of interest. The crucial part of this algorithm is the choice of an efficient auxiliary PDF that has to be able to simulate more rare random events. The optimisation of this auxiliary distribution is often in practice very difficult. In this article, we propose to approach the IS optimal auxiliary density with non-parametric adaptive importance sampling (NAIS). We apply this technique for the probability estimation of spatial launcher impact position since it has currently become a more and more important issue in the field of aeronautics.

  20. Non-destructive identification of micrometer-scale minerals and their position within a bulk sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henning O.; Hakim, Sepide S.; Pedersen, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    . Crushing or disintegrating a sample annihilates any possibility for gathering information from the texture of the porous media or the mineral assemblage close to the grains in question. A new method using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy can be successfully applied to natural...... materials. We combined X-ray microtomography (XMT) and 3DXRD to investigate a sample of very fine-grained chalk containing fracture minerals. The XMT technique provides three-dimensional images of the particles and pore structure at very high resolution (350 nm voxel dimension) on samples less than 500 μm......Using the conventional techniques of mineralogy, it has been a challenge to determine mineral identity, crystal orientation and spatial position of micrometer-sized crystals that are embedded in a rock, sediment or soil. Traditionally, the individual grains must be extracted and analyzed separately...

  1. Identification and characterization of microsporidia from fecal samples of HIV-positive patients from Lagos, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladele Teslim Ojuromi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates. They have been increasingly recognized as human pathogens in AIDS patients, mainly associated with a life-threatening chronic diarrhea and systemic disease. However, to date the global epidemiology of human microsporidiosis is poorly understood, and recent data suggest that the incidence of these pathogens is much higher than previously reported and may represent a neglected etiological agent of more common diseases indeed in immunocompetent individuals. To contribute to the knowledge of microsporidia molecular epidemiology in HIV-positive patients in Nigeria, the authors tested stool samples proceeding from patients with and without diarrhea. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples from 193 HIV-positive patients with and without diarrhea (67 and 126 respectively from Lagos (Nigeria were investigated for the presence of microsporidia and Cryptosporidium using Weber's Chromotrope-based stain, Kinyoun stain, IFAT and PCR. The Weber stain showed 45 fecal samples (23.3% with characteristic microsporidia spores, and a significant association of microsporidia with diarrhea was observed (O.R. = 18.2; CI: 95%. A similar result was obtained using Kinyoun stain, showing 44 (31,8% positive samples with structures morphologically compatible with Cryptosporidium sp, 14 (31.8% of them with infection mixed with microsporidia. The characterization of microsporidia species by IFAT and PCR allowed identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis and E. cuniculi in 5, 2 and 1 samples respectively. The partial sequencing of the ITS region of the rRNA genes showed that the three isolates of E.bieneusi studied are included in Group I, one of which bears the genotype B. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first report of microsporidia characterization in fecal samples from HIV-positive patients from

  2. Dermabacter hominis: a usually daptomycin-resistant gram-positive organism infrequently isolated from human clinical samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Natal, I; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Medina-Pascual, M J; Albersmeier, A; Valdezate, S; Guerra-Laso, J M; Rodríguez, H; Marrodán, T; Parras, T; Tauch, A; Soriano, F

    2013-01-01

    During a 12-year period, Dermabacter hominis was isolated from 21 clinical samples belonging to 14 patients attending a tertiary hospital in León, Spain. Samples included blood cultures (14), peritoneal dialysis catheter exit sites (three), cutaneous abscesses (two), an infected vascular catheter (one) and a wound swab (one). Identification was made by API Coryne™ V2.0, Biolog™ GP2 and 16S rRNA gene amplification. Six febrile patients had positive blood cultures (one, two or three sets) and all of them were treated with teicoplanin (two patients), vancomycin, ampicillin plus gentamicin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin (one each). An additional patient with a single positive blood culture was not treated, the finding being considered non-significant. In the remaining seven patients the organism was isolated from a single specimen and three of them received antimicrobial treatment (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone plus vancomycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid). At least ten patients had several underlying diseases and conditions, and no direct mortality was observed in relation to the isolated organism. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, rifampin and linezolid. Resistance to other antibiotics varied: erythromycin (100%), clindamycin (78.5%), ciprofloxacin (21.4%) and gentamicin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, benzylpenicillin and imipenem 7.1% each. Thirteen isolates were highly resistant to daptomycin with MICs ranging from 8 to 48 (MIC90 = 32 mg/L); only one was daptomycin-sensitive (MIC = 0.19 mg/L). PMID:25356327

  3. Results of the Ongoing Monitoring of the Position of a Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite by the Method of Spatially Separated Basis Receiving of Digital Satellite Television Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushuev F.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellite Eutelsat-13B (13° East are presented in the article. The results were obtained using a radio engineering complex (RC of four stations receiving digital satellite television and a data processing centre. The stations are located in Kyiv, Mukachevo, Kharkiv and Mykolaiv.

  4. Evaluation of Therapy Management and Patient Compliance in Postmenopausal Patients with Hormone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer Receiving Letrozole Treatment: The EvaluateTM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, P. A.; Fehm, T.; Kellner, S.; de Waal, J.; Rezai, M.; Baier, B.; Baake, G.; Kolberg, H.-C.; Guggenberger, M.; Warm, M.; Harbeck, N.; Würstlein, R.; Deuker, J.-U.; Dall, P.; Richter, B.; Wachsmann, G.; Brucker, C.; Siebers, J. W.; Fersis, N.; Kuhn, T.; Wolf, C.; Vollert, H.-W.; Breitbach, G.-P.; Janni, W.; Landthaler, R.; Kohls, A.; Rezek, D.; Noesslet, T.; Fischer, G.; Henschen, S.; Praetz, T.; Heyl, V.; Kühn, T.; Krauß, T.; Thomssen, C.; Kümmel, S.; Hohn, A.; Tesch, H.; Mundhenke, C.; Hein, A.; Rauh, C.; Bayer, C. M.; Jacob, A.; Schmidt, K.; Belleville, E.; Hadji, P.; Wallwiener, D.; Grischke, E.-M.; Beckmann, M. W.; Brucker, S. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The EvaluateTM study (Evaluation of therapy management and patient compliance in postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients receiving letrozole treatment) is a prospective, non-interventional study for the assessment of therapy management and compliance in the routine care of postmenopausal women with invasive hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving letrozole. The parameters for inclusion in the study are presented and discussed here. Material and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2009 a total of 5045 patients in 310 study centers were recruited to the EvaluateTM study. Inclusion criteria were hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and adjuvant treatment or metastasis. 373 patients were excluded from the analysis for various reasons. Results: A total of 4420 patients receiving adjuvant treatment and 252 patients with metastasis receiving palliative treatment were included in the study. For 4181 patients receiving adjuvant treatment, treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole commenced immediately after surgery (upfront). Two hundred patients had initially received tamoxifen and started aromatase inhibitor treatment with letrozole at 1–5 years after diagnosis (switch), und 39 patients only commenced letrozole treatment 5–10 years after diagnosis (extended endocrine therapy). Patient and tumor characteristics were within expected ranges, as were comorbidities and concurrent medication. Conclusion: The data from the EvaluateTM study will offer a good overview of therapy management in the routine care of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Planned analyses will look at therapy compliance and patient satisfaction with how information is conveyed and the contents of the conveyed information. PMID:25568468

  5. Charge-Domain Signal Processing of Direct RF Sampling Mixer with Discrete-Time Filters in Bluetooth and GSM Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available RF circuits for multi-GHz frequencies have recently migrated to low-cost digital deep-submicron CMOS processes. Unfortunately, this process environment, which is optimized only for digital logic and SRAM memory, is extremely unfriendly for conventional analog and RF designs. We present fundamental techniques recently developed that transform the RF and analog circuit design complexity to digitally intensive domain for a wireless RF transceiver, so that it enjoys benefits of digital and switched-capacitor approaches. Direct RF sampling techniques allow great flexibility in reconfigurable radio design. Digital signal processing concepts are used to help relieve analog design complexity, allowing one to reduce cost and power consumption in a reconfigurable design environment. The ideas presented have been used in Texas Instruments to develop two generations of commercial digital RF processors: a single-chip Bluetooth radio and a single-chip GSM radio. We further present details of the RF receiver front end for a GSM radio realized in a 90-nm digital CMOS technology. The circuit consisting of low-noise amplifier, transconductance amplifier, and switching mixer offers 32.5 dB dynamic range with digitally configurable voltage gain of 40 dB down to 7.5 dB. A series of decimation and discrete-time filtering follows the mixer and performs a highly linear second-order lowpass filtering to reject close-in interferers. The front-end gains can be configured with an automatic gain control to select an optimal setting to form a trade-off between noise figure and linearity and to compensate the process and temperature variations. Even under the digital switching activity, noise figure at the 40 dB maximum gain is 1.8 dB and +50 dBm IIP2 at the 34 dB gain. The variation of the input matching versus multiple gains is less than 1 dB. The circuit in total occupies 3.1 mm 2 . The LNA, TA, and mixer consume less than 15.3 mA at a supply voltage of 1.4 V.

  6. Charge-Domain Signal Processing of Direct RF Sampling Mixer with Discrete-Time Filters in Bluetooth and GSM Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yo-Chuol

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available RF circuits for multi-GHz frequencies have recently migrated to low-cost digital deep-submicron CMOS processes. Unfortunately, this process environment, which is optimized only for digital logic and SRAM memory, is extremely unfriendly for conventional analog and RF designs. We present fundamental techniques recently developed that transform the RF and analog circuit design complexity to digitally intensive domain for a wireless RF transceiver, so that it enjoys benefits of digital and switched-capacitor approaches. Direct RF sampling techniques allow great flexibility in reconfigurable radio design. Digital signal processing concepts are used to help relieve analog design complexity, allowing one to reduce cost and power consumption in a reconfigurable design environment. The ideas presented have been used in Texas Instruments to develop two generations of commercial digital RF processors: a single-chip Bluetooth radio and a single-chip GSM radio. We further present details of the RF receiver front end for a GSM radio realized in a 90-nm digital CMOS technology. The circuit consisting of low-noise amplifier, transconductance amplifier, and switching mixer offers dB dynamic range with digitally configurable voltage gain of 40 dB down to dB. A series of decimation and discrete-time filtering follows the mixer and performs a highly linear second-order lowpass filtering to reject close-in interferers. The front-end gains can be configured with an automatic gain control to select an optimal setting to form a trade-off between noise figure and linearity and to compensate the process and temperature variations. Even under the digital switching activity, noise figure at the 40 dB maximum gain is 1.8 dB and dBm IIP2 at the 34 dB gain. The variation of the input matching versus multiple gains is less than 1 dB. The circuit in total occupies 3.1 . The LNA, TA, and mixer consume less than mA at a supply voltage of 1.4 V.

  7. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Guo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, En-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  8. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  9. Ground Receiving Station Reference Pair Selection Technique for a Minimum Configuration 3D Emitter Position Estimation Multilateration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik Shehu Yaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilateration estimates aircraft position using the Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA with a lateration algorithm. The Position Estimation (PE accuracy of the lateration algorithm depends on several factors which are the TDOA estimation error, the lateration algorithm approach, the number of deployed GRSs and the selection of the GRS reference used for the PE process. Using the minimum number of GRSs for 3D emitter PE, a technique based on the condition number calculation is proposed to select the suitable GRS reference pair for improving the accuracy of the PE using the lateration algorithm. Validation of the proposed technique was performed with the GRSs in the square and triangular GRS configuration. For the selected emitter positions, the result shows that the proposed technique can be used to select the suitable GRS reference pair for the PE process. A unity condition number is achieved for GRS pair most suitable for the PE process. Monte Carlo simulation result, in comparison with the fixed GRS reference pair lateration algorithm, shows a reduction in PE error of at least 70% for both GRS in the square and triangular configuration.

  10. Computational methods and modeling. 1. Sampling a Position Uniformly in a Trilinear Hexahedral Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbatsch, Todd J.; Evans, Thomas M.; Hughes, H. Grady

    2001-01-01

    Monte Carlo particle transport plays an important role in some multi-physics simulations. These simulations, which may additionally involve deterministic calculations, typically use a hexahedral or tetrahedral mesh. Trilinear hexahedrons are attractive for physics calculations because faces between cells are uniquely defined, distance-to-boundary calculations are deterministic, and hexahedral meshes tend to require fewer cells than tetrahedral meshes. We discuss one aspect of Monte Carlo transport: sampling a position in a tri-linear hexahedron, which is made up of eight control points, or nodes, and six bilinear faces, where each face is defined by four non-coplanar nodes in three-dimensional Cartesian space. We derive, code, and verify the exact sampling method and propose an approximation to it. Our proposed approximate method uses about one-third the memory and can be twice as fast as the exact sampling method, but we find that its inaccuracy limits its use to well-behaved hexahedrons. Daunted by the expense of the exact method, we propose an alternate approximate sampling method. First, calculate beforehand an approximate volume for each corner of the hexahedron by taking one-eighth of the volume of an imaginary parallelepiped defined by the corner node and the three nodes to which it is directly connected. For the sampling, assume separability in the parameters, and sample each parameter, in turn, from a linear pdf defined by the sum of the four corner volumes at each limit (-1 and 1) of the parameter. This method ignores the quadratic portion of the pdf, but it requires less storage, has simpler sampling, and needs no extra, on-the-fly calculations. We simplify verification by designing tests that consist of one or more cells that entirely fill a unit cube. Uniformly sampling complicated cells that fill a unit cube will result in uniformly sampling the unit cube. Unit cubes are easily analyzed. The first problem has four wedges (or tents, or A frames) whose

  11. Positron annihilation lifetime study of positive temperature coefficient BaTiO3 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Chen; Mingkang Teng; Guanghou Wang; Xiaoyun Li; Tianchang Lu

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate the doped vacancies in BaTiO 3 samples as well as their influence on the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied. Two groups of BaTiO 3 samples with BaO excess were prepared by doping different concentrations of La 2 O 3 and Nb 2 O 5 , respectively in the range from 0.1 to 3 at%. A third group of samples of two Sb-doped PTC BaTiO 3 semiconductors with excess BaO or TiO 2 were studied by the aid of positron technique before and after being reduced. It is shown that the positron lifetime parameters are sensitive to changes in the vacancy concentration in BaTiO 3 ceramics near the 0.1 mol% region. But they are almost unchanged during reduction processing; the resistivity of samples changed by one to two orders of magnitude through the reduction. It can be concluded that the PTC effect is due to oxygen on the grain boundary rather than vacancies, and that the Heywang-Jonker model is more reasonable

  12. Impact of the spinal cord position uncertainty on the dose received during head and neck helical tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, Tomasz; Kazmierska, Joanna; Sokolowski, Adam; Skorska, Malgorzata; Jodda, Agata; Ryczkowski, Adam; Cholewinski, Witold; Bak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to establish the optimal planning risk volume (PRV) to the spinal cord (SC) for oropharyngeal cancer patients during adaptive radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy. Geometrical uncertainties of the SC were evaluated. Differences between planned and delivered maximum doses to each part of the SC were established for every fraction dose and for cumulative dose. Maximum doses were evaluated as a dose received in 0.5 and 1cm3 of the analysed part of the SC defined as C1–C2, C3–C4, C5–C6 and C7–Th1 where Cn was a n-th cervical vertebra (n=1, … , 7) and Th1 was the first thoracic vertebra. Finally, relations between dose differences and geometrical uncertainties were analysed using a relative risk (RR) and the importance of the PRV dose gradient to establish an optimal PRV for the SC. Prospective study based on the 875 observations from 25 oropharyngeal cancer patients was performed. The C1-C2 part of the SC is most exposed to risk of overdosage during chemoradiation for patients with oropharyngeal cancer due to its proximity to the clinical target volume (CTV). Doses received by other parts of the SC are smaller, with the lowest dose delivered to C7–Th1. For the C1–C2, delivered dose was higher than planned dose by 11%, while for the C7–Th1, this difference was smaller than 7%. The lowest movement of individual parts of the SC were detected for the C1–C2 and the highest for the C7–Th1. The standard deviations of the mean shift ranged respectively from 0.9 to 1.4mm and from 1.3 to 2.9mm. For each part of the SC delivered dose was smaller than planned dose to the PRV (RR<1). Our study showed that for chemoradiation of oropharyngeal cancer, using daily image guidance and proper plan adaptation scheme, the current PRV margin for the SC could be reduced to 4mm.

  13. Awareness, Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Cervical Cancer Amongst HIV-Positive Women Receiving Care in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibe, Maxwell O; Aluh, Deborah O

    2017-05-05

    The incidence of cervical cancer (CC) in the sub-Saharan Africa region, where Nigeria is located, is amongst the highest in the world; it is estimated that 70,722 new cases of invasive cervical cancer occur annually in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunosuppression, especially due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is a predisposing factor for persistent infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) and the development of squamous intraepithelial lesions. Four hundred and fifty women who attended the HIV clinic at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly selected. They were given self-administered questionnaires which sought to determine their awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and prevention. The media 23% (n = 103) was the most common source of information amongst respondents who had heard about cervical cancer. For all the women surveyed, the average percentage knowledge was 9.95%. Having attitude scores greater than or equal to the mean attitude score of 55.16% was regarded as having a positive attitude while a score lower than that was regarded as negative attitude. About 43.5% (n = 195) respondents had a positive attitude towards cervical cancer screening and prevention. Cervical cancer awareness and knowledge amongst women attending the HIV clinic in the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, were very poor. Their attitude towards cervical cancer screening practices and prevention was also very poor.

  14. Characteristics and mutation analysis of Ph-positive leukemia patients with T315I mutation receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors

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    Xu PP

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Peipei Xu,1 Dan Guo,2 Xiaoyan Shao,1 Miaoxin Peng,1 Bing Chen2 1Department of Hematology, Drum Tower Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 2Department of Hematology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Background: TKIs are the first-line treatment for patients with Ph-positive (Ph+ leukemia. However, drug resistance is frequently observed, mainly due to mutations within the breakpoint cluster region-Abelson leukemia virus (BCR-ABL kinase domain. The T315I substitution confers complete resistance to TKIs. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of 17 patients with T315I mutation after TKI treatment and provide a basis for prognosis.Patients and methods: The clinical data of 17 TKI-resistant Ph+ leukemia patients who were found to have a ABL kinase domain mutation from September 2008 to January 2017 were collected. Karyotypes and BCR-ABL fusion gene were analyzed by R-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization, respectively. Total RNA was extracted by TRIzol reagent, and the ABL kinase domain mutation was detected by direct sequencing.Results: A total of 17 patients reached effective remission including major molecular response and complete cytogenetic response. However, all the patients subsequently developed a T315I mutation after treatment with TKIs. The rate of the BCR-ABL fusion gene in most of the patients who developed the T315I mutation was significantly higher than that before the mutation. At initial diagnosis, patients average platelet count was 149.7×109/L, whereas the average platelet count was only 53.88×109/L after the T315I mutation (P<0.01. The results also showed that the survival time of patients with a high proportion of blast cells or a high number of white blood cells was obviously shortened.Conclusion: Patients platelet count decreased when detected with the T315I mutation compared with the initial

  15. Biological samples positioning device for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Gual, Maritza; Mas Milian, Felix; Deppman, Airton; Pinto Coelho, Paulo Rogerio

    2010-01-01

    For the demand of an experimental device for biological samples positioning system for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor in operation was constructed and started up a device for the place and remove of the biological samples from the irradiation channels without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The economical valuations are effected comparing with another type of device with the same functions. This work formed part of an international project between Cuba and Brazil that undertook the study of the induced damages by various types of ionizing radiation in DNA molecules. Was experimentally tested the proposed solution, which demonstrates the practical validity of the device. As a result of the work, the experimental device for biological samples irradiations are installed and operating in the radial beam hole No3(BH3) for more than five years at the IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor according to the solicited requirements the device. The designed device increases considerably the type of studies can be conducted in this reactor. Its practical application in research taking place in that facility, in the field of radiobiology and dosimetry, and so on is immediate

  16. Unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples receiving integrated HIV counseling, testing, and family planning services in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Haddad, Lisa; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users were determined via multivariate Cox modeling. The highest rates of unintended pregnancy were observed among couples requesting condoms only (26.4/100CY) or OCPs (20.7/100CY); these rates were not significantly different. OCP users accounted for 37% of the couple-years (CY) observed and 87% of unintended pregnancies. Rates of unintended pregnancy for injectable (0.7/100CY) and intrauterine device (1.6/100CY) users were significantly lower relative to condom only users. No pregnancies occurred among contraceptive implant users or after tubal ligation. Factors associated (psex without a condom. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods were effective in the context of integrated couples HIV prevention and contraceptive services. Injectable methods were also effective in this context. Given the high user failure rate of OCPs, family planning efforts should promote longer-acting methods among OCP users wishing to avoid pregnancy. Where other methods are not available or acceptable, OCP adherence counseling is needed, especially among younger and new OCP users. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00067522.

  17. Psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms among HIV-positive persons receiving care and treatment in Kenya, Namibia, and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Kidder, Daniel; Pals, Sherri; Parent, Julie; Mbatia, Redempta; Chesang, Kipruto; Mbilinyi, Deogratius; Koech, Emily; Nkingwa, Mathias; Katuta, Frieda; Ng'ang'a, Anne; Bachanas, Pamela

    2014-06-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is considerably greater than that among members of the general population. It is particularly important to treat depressive symptoms among PLHIV because they have been associated with poorer HIV care-related outcomes. This study describes overall psychosocial functioning and factors associated with depressive symptoms among PLHIV attending HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya, Namibia, and Tanzania. Eighteen HIV care and treatment clinics (six per country) enrolled approximately 200 HIV-positive patients (for a total of 3,538 participants) and collected data on patients' physical and mental well-being, medical/health status, and psychosocial functioning. Although the majority of participants did not report clinically significant depressive symptoms (72 %), 28 % reported mild to severe depressive symptoms, with 12 % reporting severe depressive symptoms. Regression models indicated that greater levels of depressive symptoms were associated with: (1) being female, (2) younger age, (3) not being completely adherent to HIV medications, (4) likely dependence on alcohol, (5) disclosure to three or more people (versus one person), (6) experiences of recent violence, (7) less social support, and (8) poorer physical functioning. Participants from Kenya and Namibia reported greater depressive symptoms than those from Tanzania. Approximately 28 % of PLHIV reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. The scale-up of care and treatment services in sub-Saharan Africa provides an opportunity to address psychosocial and mental health needs for PLHIV as part of comprehensive care.

  18. Experiences with an identification and quantification program for inhibitor-positive milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Claudia; Seidler, Caroline; Kerp, Bianca; Schneider, Elisabeth; Usleber, Ewald

    2007-03-14

    Beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins) are still the most commonly used antibiotics for dairy cows in Germany. In routine milk testing, according to the German milk quality regulation, a positive result obtained for bulk tank milk by microbiological inhibitor tests needs no further confirmation, but results in reduced milk payment of 0.05 euros kg(-1) for one month. In some cases, however, further identification of the causative agent can be of interest, either if antimicrobial drugs have not knowingly been used recently, or if improper use of such drugs is denied. As a service for milk producers, our laboratory offers further analyses of violative milk samples, aiming at the identification and quantification of the inhibitor(s). In this program, a panel of microbiological inhibitor tests, receptor tests, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) is used in a step-by-step analysis, which primarily focusses on beta-lactams, but also includes other compounds such as sulfonamides or tetracyclines, respectively. Here we report results for violative milk samples (n=63) analysed between 2003 and 2005. In most cases (95%), beta-lactam antibiotics could be identified, although not always at levels exceeding the respective MRL values. Penicillin G (mostly together with benzylpenicilloyl metabolites) could be identified in 74.6% of all samples. Other compounds identified were, in decreasing order, ceftiofur (11%), ampicillin/amoxicillin (6.3%), isoxazolyl penicillins (3.2%), and sulfonamides (1.6%). The results indicate that penicillin G is still the predominant antibiotic responsible for violative bulk tank milk samples as detected during regulatory control.

  19. Relationships Between Positive and Negative Affect and the Five Factors of Personality in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Zanon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong associations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with positive affects (PA and negative affects (NA have been reported in the international literature. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of such relationships in a Brazilian sample, and also to investigate the role of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness in the prediction of PA and NA through the use of a hybrid structural model. Participants were 319 university students, between 17 and 37 years of age (mean = 21.5, SD = 4.9. Approximately 64% of the students were female and 36% male. Results showed that Neuroticism was the most important predictor of PA and NA, followed by Conscientiousness, but not Extraversion. Surprisingly, Agreeableness was shown to be a weak prediction for NA, but had no relationship with PA. As expected, Openness showed no relationship with PA or NA. These results are partially in agreement with the international literature but some important differences were detected.

  20. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Report for SUMMA trademark canister samples received 11/29/93 (sample jobs 4 and 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.R.; Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.; Allwine, K.J.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of Sample Jobs 4 and 5 was to determine whether the organic nitrites observed on the outside of tank 241-C-103 originated in the tank or from degradation products of the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The plan was to take samples from either side of the HE-PA filter. The relative level of organic nitrites would help determine whether they were produced in the filter or the tank. Pacific Northwest Laboratory was responsible for analyzing the SUMMA trademark canisters collected in support of this study. The laboratory was to analyze the SUMMA trademark Canister samples according to letters of instruction and report all semivolatile and volatile organic constituents detected in the tank headspace. Pacific Northwest Laboratory was also to submit a letter report to the Program Manager of all qualitative and quantitative analytical data, and estimate concentrations of any aliphatic nitrites identified. This was one of the first sampling activities for this program, and a number of errors were made both in the field and in the laboratory. Because of these errors, the samples and results were of questionable value. Therefore, Westinghouse program management asked that the analysis of the samples for this report not be completed. This report describes the few results that were generated before we were asked to stop work on this activity. In addition to analyzing SUMMA trademark canisters, PNL operates a site portable weather station near tank 241-C-103. Pacific Northwest Laboratory was required to collect atmospheric data starting 11/15/93, but the weather station was already collecting data during the time of both these two sample jobs (11/12/93 and 11/16/93). Therefore, a summary of the atmospheric data is also presented in this report

  1. Source apportionment and location by selective wind sampling and Positive Matrix Factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Elisa; Vassura, Ivano; Raffo, Simona; Ferroni, Laura; Bernardi, Elena; Passarini, Fabrizio

    2014-10-01

    In order to determine the pollution sources in a suburban area and identify the main direction of their origin, PM2.5 was collected with samplers coupled with a wind select sensor and then subjected to Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. In each sample, soluble ions, organic carbon, elemental carbon, levoglucosan, metals, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. PMF results identified six main sources affecting the area: natural gas home appliances, motor vehicles, regional transport, biomass combustion, manufacturing activities, and secondary aerosol. The connection of factor temporal trends with other parameters (i.e., temperature, PM2.5 concentration, and photochemical processes) confirms factor attributions. PMF analysis indicated that the main source of PM2.5 in the area is secondary aerosol. This should be mainly due to regional contributions, owing to both the secondary nature of the source itself and the higher concentration registered in inland air masses. The motor vehicle emission source contribution is also important. This source likely has a prevalent local origin. The most toxic determined components, i.e., PAHs, Cd, Pb, and Ni, are mainly due to vehicular traffic. Even if this is not the main source in the study area, it is the one of greatest concern. The application of PMF analysis to PM2.5 collected with this new sampling technique made it possible to obtain more detailed results on the sources affecting the area compared to a classical PMF analysis.

  2. Position-specific 13C distributions within propane from experiments and natural gas samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Alison; Sessions, Alex; Lawson, Michael; Ferreira, A. A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    Site-specific carbon isotope measurements of organic compounds potentially recover information that is lost in a conventional, 'bulk' isotopic analysis. Such measurements are useful because isotopically fractionating processes may have distinct effects at different molecular sites, and thermodynamically equilibrated populations of molecules tend to concentrate heavy isotopes in one molecular site versus another. Most recent studies of site-specific 13C in organics use specialized Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques or complex chemical degradations prior to mass spectrometric measurements. Herein we present the first application of a new mass spectrometric technique that reconstructs the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane based on measurements of the 13C/12C ratios of two or more fragment ions that sample different proportions of the terminal and central carbon sites. We apply this method to propane from laboratory experiments and natural gas samples to explore the relationships between site-specific carbon isotope composition, full-molecular δ13C, thermal maturity, and variation in organic matter precursors. Our goal is to advance the understanding of the sources and histories of short-chain alkanes within geologic systems. Our findings suggest that propane varies in its site-specific carbon isotope structure, which is correlated with increasing thermal maturity, first increasing in terminal position δ13C and then increasing in both center and terminal position δ13C. This pattern is observed in both experimental and natural samples, and is plausibly explained by a combination of site-specific, temperature-dependent isotope effects associated with conversion of different precursor molecules (kerogen, bitumen, and/or oil) to propane, differences in site-specific isotopic contents of those precursors, and possibly distillation of reactive components of those precursors with increasing maturity. We hypothesize that the largest changes in

  3. Position-specific 13C distributions within propane from experiments and natural gas samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Alison; Sessions, Alex L.; Lawson, Michael; Ferreira, A.A.; Santos Neto, E. V.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael; Eilers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Site-specific carbon isotope measurements of organic compounds potentially recover information that is lost in a conventional, ‘bulk’ isotopic analysis. Such measurements are useful because isotopically fractionating processes may have distinct effects at different molecular sites, and thermodynamically equilibrated populations of molecules tend to concentrate heavy isotopes in one molecular site versus another. Most recent studies of site-specific 13C in organics use specialized Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques or complex chemical degradations prior to mass spectrometric measurements. Herein we present the first application of a new mass spectrometric technique that reconstructs the site-specific carbon isotope composition of propane based on measurements of the 13C/12C ratios of two or more fragment ions that sample different proportions of the terminal and central carbon sites. We apply this method to propane from laboratory experiments and natural gas samples to explore the relationships between site-specific carbon isotope composition, full-molecular δ13C, thermal maturity, and variation in organic matter precursors. Our goal is to advance the understanding of the sources and histories of short-chain alkanes within geologic systems. Our findings suggest that propane varies in its site-specific carbon isotope structure, which is correlated with increasing thermal maturity, first increasing in terminal position δ13C and then increasing in both center and terminal position δ13C. This pattern is observed in both experimental and natural samples, and is plausibly explained by a combination of site-specific, temperature-dependent isotope effects associated with conversion of different precursor molecules (kerogen, bitumen, and/or oil) to propane, differences in site-specific isotopic contents of those precursors, and possibly distillation of reactive components of those precursors with increasing maturity. We hypothesize that the largest changes in

  4. Factors among patients receiving prone positioning for the acute respiratory distress syndrome found useful for predicting mortality in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrykamien, Ariel M; Daoud, Yahya

    2018-01-01

    Optimal mechanical ventilation management in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) involves the use of low tidal volumes and limited plateau pressure. Refractory hypoxemia may not respond to this strategy, requiring other interventions. The use of prone positioning in severe ARDS resulted in improvement in 28-day survival. To determine whether mechanical ventilation strategies or other parameters affected survival in patients undergoing prone positioning, a retrospective analysis was conducted of a consecutive series of patients with severe ARDS treated with prone positioning. Demographic and clinical information involving mechanical ventilation strategies, as well as other variables associated with prone positioning, was collected. The rate of in-hospital mortality was obtained, and previously described parameters were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. Forty-three patients with severe ARDS were treated with prone positioning, and 27 (63%) died in the intensive care unit. Only three parameters were significant predictors of survival: APACHE II score ( P = 0.03), plateau pressure ( P = 0.02), and driving pressure ( P = 0.04). The ability of each of these parameters to predict mortality was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curves. The area under the curve values for APACHE II, plateau pressure, and driving pressure were 0.74, 0.69, and 0.67, respectively. In conclusion, in a group of patients with severe ARDS treated with prone positioning, only APACHE II, plateau pressure, and driving pressure were associated with mortality in the intensive care unit.

  5. Electro chemical studies on stress corrosion cracking of Incoloy-800 in caustic solution, part I: As received samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Alice

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many non-volatile impurities accidentally introduced into the steam generator tend to Concentrate on its surface in restricted flow areas. In this way these impurities can lead to stress corrosion cracking (SCC on stressed tubes of the steam generator. Such impurities can be strong alkaline or acid solutions. To evaluate the effect of alkaline concentrated environments on SCC of steam generator tubes, the tests were con ducted on stressed samples of Incoloy-800 in 10% NaOH solution. To accelerate the SCC process, stressed specimens were anodically polarised in a caustic solution in an electro chemical cell. The method of stressing of Incoloy-800 tubes used in our experiments was the C-ring. Using the cathodic zone of the potentiodynamic curves it was possible to calculate the most important electrochemical parameters: the corrosion current, the corrosion rate, and the polarization resistance. We found that the value of the corrosion potential to initiate the SCC microcracks was -100 mV. The tested samples were examined using the metallographic method. The main experimental results showed that the in crease of the stress state promoted the in crease of the SCC susceptibility of Incoloy-800 samples tested under the same conditions, and that the length of the SCC-type microcracks in creased with the growth of the stress value.

  6. [Retrospective study of the implementation of the qualitative PCR technique in biological samples for monitoring toxoplasmosis in pediatric patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Mónica G; Figueroa, Carlos; Ledesma, Bibiana A

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is severe and difficult to diagnose in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twelve patients receiving HSCT were monitored post-transplant, by qualitative PCR at the Children's Hospital S.A.M.I.C. "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan". The monitoring of these patients was defined by a history of positive serology for toxoplasmosis in the donor or recipient and because their hematologic condition did not allow the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis. During the patients' monitoring, two of them with positive PCR results showed signs of illness by T. gondii and were treated with pyrimethamine-clindamycin. In two other patients, toxoplasmosis was the cause of death and an autopsy finding, showing negative PCR results. Four patients without clinical manifestations received treatment for toxoplasmosis because of positive PCR detection. In four patients there were no signs of toxoplasmosis disease and negative PCR results during follow-up. The qualitative PCR technique proved useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis reactivation in HSCT recipients, but has limitations in monitoring and making clinical decisions due to the persistence of positive PCR over time and manifestations of toxicity caused by the treatment. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Opinions about the new law on end-of-life issues in a sample of french patients receiving palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Augustin; Chabal, Théo; Fichaux, Marie; Destandau, Mireille; La Piana, Jean Marc; Auquier, Pascal; Baumstarck, Karine; Salas, Sébastien

    2017-01-21

    In February 2nd 2016, the French government enacted the Claeys-Leonetti law that forbade euthanasia and established the right to deep and continuous sedation for end-of-life patients. Moreover, the law also obliges clinicians to abide by any advance directives regarding treatment and investigation, except in cases where they are "obviously inappropriate" in a given medical situation, or in cases of emergency, in order to allow medical staff to take time to assess the patient's situation. Artificial feeding and hydration are considered as treatment. The aim of this report is to investigate individuals receiving palliative care about their opinion about euthanasia, about advance directives, about the right to deep and continuous sedation, and the right to stopping artificial feeding and hydration. The study was an opinion survey conducted among patients treated in two different palliative care institutions: a palliative care unit at the University Hospital (Timone, Marseille, France) and a non-profit association palliative care home ("La Maison", Gardanne, France). Face-to-face interviews were performed by two investigators. The survey included sociodemographics, clinical data, and opinions about euthanasia, deep and continuous sedation, stopping artificial feeding and hydration, and advance directives. Forty patients were interviewed. The mean age was 59.8 years (standard deviation 12). Fifty three percent reported opposition to legalized euthanasia. Eighty three percent were in favour of the right to deep and continuous sedation in patients with refractory pain, 75% when it concerns a patient unable to express their wishes, and 68% when the patient decides to stop vital treatment. Fifty eight percent reported that artificial nutrition and hydration should be considered as care. Fifty eight percent of the patients interviewed would like to see doctors follow the express wishes contained in advance care directives and 53% that advance directives should be subject to

  8. Is the Positive Bias an ADHD Phenomenon? Reexamining the Positive Bias and its Correlates in a Heterogeneous Sample of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Owens, Julie S; Dawson, Anne E; Evans, Steven W; Langberg, Joshua M; Flory, Kate; Lorch, Elizabeth P

    2017-11-25

    The goals of this study were to (a) evaluate the presence of the positive bias (PB) in elementary-school-aged children with and without ADHD when PB is defined at the individual level through latent profile analysis and (b) examine the extent to which several correlates (i.e., social functioning, aggression, depression, and anxiety) are associated with the PB. Participants were 233 youth (30% female; 8 to 10 years of age), 51% of whom met criteria for ADHD. During an individual evaluation, children and parents completed a battery of questionnaires to assess child competence, depression, anxiety, and aggression. Children also participated in a novel group session with same-sex unfamiliar peers (half of the group was comprised of children with ADHD) to engage in group problem-solving tasks and free play activities. After the group session, peers and staff completed ratings of each child's behavior (e.g., likeability, rule following). The best fitting LPA model for parent and self-ratings of competence revealed four profiles: High Competence/Self-Aware; Variable Competence/Self-Aware; Low Competence/Self-Aware; and Low Competence/PB, in which the PB was present across domains. Only 10% of youth showed a PB and youth with ADHD were no more likely to display the PB than their non-ADHD peers with similar levels of low competence. Lastly, the Low Competence/Self-Aware profile demonstrated higher levels of anxiety and depression than the Low Competence/PB profile; the profiles did not differ on aggression or peer or staff ratings of social/behavioral functioning. Implications for understanding the PB in children with and without ADHD are discussed.

  9. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Gregory N., E-mail: gregory.gan@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Weickhardt, Andrew J.; Scheier, Benjamin; Doebele, Robert C. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Gaspar, Laurie E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Camidge, D. Ross [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival.

  10. PhyTB: Phylogenetic tree visualisation and sample positioning for M. tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Benavente, Ernest D

    2015-05-13

    Background Phylogenetic-based classification of M. tuberculosis and other bacterial genomes is a core analysis for studying evolutionary hypotheses, disease outbreaks and transmission events. Whole genome sequencing is providing new insights into the genomic variation underlying intra- and inter-strain diversity, thereby assisting with the classification and molecular barcoding of the bacteria. One roadblock to strain investigation is the lack of user-interactive solutions to interrogate and visualise variation within a phylogenetic tree setting. Results We have developed a web-based tool called PhyTB (http://pathogenseq.lshtm.ac.uk/phytblive/index.php webcite) to assist phylogenetic tree visualisation and identification of M. tuberculosis clade-informative polymorphism. Variant Call Format files can be uploaded to determine a sample position within the tree. A map view summarises the geographical distribution of alleles and strain-types. The utility of the PhyTB is demonstrated on sequence data from 1,601 M. tuberculosis isolates. Conclusion PhyTB contextualises M. tuberculosis genomic variation within epidemiological, geographical and phylogenic settings. Further tool utility is possible by incorporating large variants and phenotypic data (e.g. drug-resistance profiles), and an assessment of genotype-phenotype associations. Source code is available to develop similar websites for other organisms (http://sourceforge.net/projects/phylotrack webcite).

  11. Gender differences in substance use patterns and disorders among an Iranian patient sample receiving methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Amir; Motmaen, Maryam; Abdi, Iraj; Rasouli-Azad, Morad

    2017-09-01

    The current prevalence rate of substance abuse and dependence, represents an increasing trend of substance abuse and dependence among women, and the results of epidemiology studies indicate that substance use patterns are different between men and women. This study aimed to determine gender differences in substance use patterns and disorders among the patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment. This cross-sectional study was conducted throughout a specified time bracket ranging from September 2012 through March 2013 in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clinics of Mashhad, Iran. In this study, 140 men and 120 women were selected from among the patients referring to MMT clinics in Mashhad through purposeful sampling method. The sample units were assessed using a demographic information questionnaire and Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID). The data were then analyzed by Chi Square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Independent-samples t-test. SPSS software 16 was used to conduct statistical analyses with P values less than 0.05 regarded as significant. The results showed that men and women are significantly different from each other in terms of marital status (p=0.001), education (p=0.001), income (p=0.001), history of injection (p=0.002), imprisonment (p=0.001), and substance use abstention (p=0.023). It was also revealed that methamphetamine dependence (p=0.017) and simultaneous use of multiple substances (p=0.001) in the past 12 months were diagnosed, to a larger extent, in male participants than those in female participants. In addition, the diagnoses of nicotine dependence (p=0.001), cannabis abuse (p=0.001), heroin dependence (p=0.001), and substance abuse and alcohol dependence (p=0.001) during a lifetime were more frequently existing in males than those in females. There are gender differences in substance use patterns and disorders that appear to be caused by the degree of access to

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal samples from patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Hansen, Kia Cirkeline; Ferløv-Schwensen, Simon Andreas; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are opportunistic pathogens and cause severe infections including bacteraemia. As increased levels of antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis group bacteria can be detected years after administration of specific antibiotics, monitoring antimicrobial...... susceptibility in the gut microbiota could be important. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the distribution of species and the occurrence of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in the B. fragilis group from patients treated at departments with a high level of antibiotic use, 2) to determine...... the prevalence of the carbapenem resistance gene cfiA in B. fragilis in this patient group, and 3) to determine the association between previous antibiotic treatment and reduced susceptibility to clindamycin, meropenem, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam. Consecutive faecal samples (n = 197) were...

  13. Utility of the Community Integration Questionnaire in a sample of adults with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders receiving prevocational training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Robert; Mitrushina, Maura

    2015-08-03

    To investigate utility of the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) in a mixed sample of adults with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Cross-sectional, interview-based study. Participants were community-dwelling adults with disabilities resulting from neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders (N = 54), who participated in a pre-vocational readiness and social skills training program. Psychometric properties of the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) were assessed and validated against Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI) and The Problem Checklist from the New York University Head Injury Family Interview (PCL). Based on the revised scoring procedures, psychometric properties of the CIQ Home Competency scale were excellent, followed by the Total score and Social Integration scale. Productive Activity scale had low content validity and a weak association with the total score. Convergent and discriminant validity of the CIQ were demonstrated by correlation patterns with MPAI scales in the expected direction. Significant relationship was found with PCL Physical/Dependency scale. Significant associations were found with sex, living status, and record of subsequent employment. The results provide support for the use of the CIQ as a measure of participation in individuals with neurological and neuropsychiatric diagnoses and resulting disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation An important goal of rehabilitation and training programs for individuals with dysfunction of the central nervous system is to promote their participation in social, vocational, and domestic activities. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) is a brief and efficient instrument for measuring these participation domains. This study demonstrated good psychometric properties and high utility of the CIQ in a sample of 54 individuals participating in a prevocational training program.

  14. Cardiac output response to changes of the atrioventricular delay in different body positions and during exercise in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Marcus; Damgaard, Morten; Norsk, Peter

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to study the haemodynamic effect of atrioventricular delay (AVD) modifications within a narrow range in different body positions and during exercise in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). METHODS: The previously optimized AVD was shortened...... and prolonged by 40 ms in 27 CRT patients and 9 controls without heart failure. Cardiac output (CO) was measured by inert gas rebreathing (Innocor) as the average over different body positions (left-lateral, supine, sitting, standing, and exercise). In eight CRT patients with an implantable haemodynamic monitor......, the estimated pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (ePAD) was analysed. RESULTS: The magnitude of CO response to AVD changes was greater in CRT patients than in controls (0.25 vs. 0.20 L/min, Psize (r=0...

  15. Factors associated with conception among a sample of HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    positive status, the variables were compared for women in two groups: those who conceived while knowing their HIV-positive status and those who discovered their HIV status during pregnancy. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were ...

  16. Evaluation of three sample preparation methods for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Hannah; Evans, Jason T.; Gossain, Savita; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient mortality is significantly reduced by rapid identification of bacteria from sterile sites. MALDI-TOF can identify bacteria directly from positive blood cultures and multiple sample preparation methods are available. We evaluated three sample preparation methods and two MALDI-TOF score cut-off values. Positive blood culture bottles with organisms present in Gram stains were prospectively analysed by MALDI-TOF. Three lysis reagents (Saponin, SDS, and SepsiTyper lysis bufer) w...

  17. A Psychometric Analysis of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version in a School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Okamura, Kelsie; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was the 1st to examine the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version (PANAS-C-P) using a large school-based sample of children and adolescents ages 8 to 18 (N = 606). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor (correlated) model of positive affect (PA) and negative…

  18. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale as a long-term outcome measurement tool in patients receiving clozapine ODT- A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar G

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This pilot, twelve-week, open-label study examined the effect of clozapine orally disintegrating tablet or ODT in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder utilizing Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS as a long-term outcome measurement tool.Methods: The final study sample consisted of nineteen subjects who were residents a long-term care psychiatric facility in Pomona, California. Subjects were using clozapine ODT (FazaClo® at the most clinically effective dosage depending on their symptoms and at the discretion of the psychiatrist and psychopharm consultant. PANSS were administered at baseline, week-4, week-8 and week-12. Paired sample t-tests were used to calculate the statistical significance of the mean differences for scores at baseline and week-12. Results: Mean differences from baseline indicated significant improvement on total score, as well as positive, negative, cognitive and general psychopathology subscales after twelve weeks of treatment. The greater average reduction in the negative syndrome subscale across the twelve weeks possibly illustrates the ability of clozapine ODT in improving negative symptoms, including cognitive function which is their ability to participate in their personal care and creative expressions in dance, arts, games, poetry to a greater extent their overall, quality of life and living along with the effect on positive symptoms.Conclusion: Overall, clozapine proved to affect a broad range of psychopathology including cognitive functions in this schizophrenic sample.

  19. Quantification of the reproducibility of the positioning in patients that receive radiotherapy with immobilization devices for treatments with VMAT using DRR and CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, D.; Quispe, I.

    2014-08-01

    The technological advances and the introduction of digital and computer systems to the treatment equipment s have contributed significantly in the precision when is necessary to deliver and distributing radiation dose in the planning volume where is located the tumor, besides also considering the healthy organs and tissues or in risk. For this treatment modality is necessary take into account the great importance that has the positioning, and immobilization and its reproducibility, making use of appropriate and personalized accessories that guarantee the bigger possible precision when the images are compared of before and after the treatment. For this study positioning data of 34 patients were quantified, which were treated with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) for the period between May to November of 2013. Of the patients 16 were treated in head and neck and 18 of prostate and abdomen. In all cases of head and neck treatment with VMAT immobilizer meshes were used that hold until the patient's neck, and in the cases of prostate and abdomen was used an immobilizer device under the knees and the ankles. All the cases were re-positioning using positioning techniques with Digitally Reconstructed Radiograph images (DRR) with acquisition modality Kv/Kv and Cone Beam the corrections and monitoring were carried out daily. Variations existed during the treatments that oscillate of 1-2 mm in the head and neck cases; and 2-4 mm in prostate and abdomen, these variations are necessary to quantify them in pro of the reproducibility in the patients positioning that receive radiotherapy and use immobilization device. (Author)

  20. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  1. Classification of bacterial samples as negative or positive for a UTI and antibiogram using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanos, Evdokia; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Kyriakides, Alexandros; Pitris, Costas

    2011-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis requires an overnight culture to identify a sample as positive or negative for a UTI. Additional cultures are required to identify the pathogen responsible for the infection and to test its sensitivity to antibiotics. A rise in ineffective treatments, chronic infections, rising health care costs and antibiotic resistance are some of the consequences of this prolonged waiting period of UTI diagnosis. In this work, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is used for classifying bacterial samples as positive or negative for UTI. SERS spectra of serial dilutions of E.coli bacteria, isolated from a urine culture, were classified as positive (105-108 cells/ml) or negative (103-104 cells/ml) for UTI after mixing samples with gold nanoparticles. A leave-one-out cross validation was performed using the first two principal components resulting in the correct classification of 82% of all samples. Sensitivity of classification was 88% and specificity was 67%. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was also done using SERS spectra of various species of gram negative bacteria collected 4 hours after exposure to antibiotics. Spectral analysis revealed clear separation between the spectra of samples exposed to ciprofloxacin (sensitive) and amoxicillin (resistant). This study can become the basis for identifying urine samples as positive or negative for a UTI and determining their antibiogram without requiring an overnight culture.

  2. ASPIRE: An automated sample positioning and irradiation system for radiation biology experiments at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Ashok; Barua, P.; Archunan, M.; Rani, Kusum; Subramanian, E.T.; Pujari, Geetanjali; Kaur, Harminder; Satyanarayanan, V.V.V.; Sarma, Asitikantha; Avasthi, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    An automated irradiation setup for biology samples has been built at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. It can automatically load and unload 20 biology samples in a run of experiment. It takes about 20 min [2% of the cell doubling time] to irradiate all the 20 samples. Cell doubling time is the time taken by the cells (kept in the medium) to grow double in numbers. The cells in the samples keep growing during entire of the experiment. The fluence irradiated to the samples is measured with two silicon surface barrier detectors. Tests show that the uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions reaches to 2% at the sample area in diameter of 40 mm. The accuracy of mean fluence at the center of the target area is within 1%. The irradiation setup can be used to the studies of radiation therapy, radiation dosimetry and molecular biology at the heavy ion accelerator. - Highlights: • Automated positioning and irradiation setup for biology samples at IUAC is built. • Loading and unloading of 20 biology samples can be automatically carried out. • Biologicals cells keep growing during entire experiment. • Fluence and dose of heavy ions are measured by two silicon barrier detectors. • Uniformity of fluence and dose of heavy ions at sample position reaches to 2%

  3. HCV knowledge among a sample of HCV positive Aboriginal Australians residing in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hannah; Brener, Loren; Jackson, L Clair; Saunders, Veronica; Johnson, Priscilla; Treloar, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders are overrepresented in both the prevalence and incidence of the hepatitis C (HCV). HCV knowledge has been associated with a range of positive health behaviours. HCV knowledge has previously been investigated as a single construct; however examining different knowledge domains (i.e. transmission, risk of complications, testing and treatment) separately may be beneficial. This study investigated whether having greater HCV knowledge in different domains is associated with self-reported positive health behaviours. 203 Aboriginal people living with HCV completed a survey assessing HCV knowledge, testing and care, lifestyle changes since diagnosis and treatment intent. Respondents' knowledge was relatively high. Greater knowledge of risk of health complications was associated with undertaking more positive lifestyle changes since diagnosis. Respondents testing and treatment knowledge was significantly associated with incarceration, lifestyle changes since diagnosis and future treatment intentions. This study illustrates the importance of ensuring that knowledge is high across different HCV domains to optimise a range of positive health behaviours of Aboriginal people living with HCV. Future health promotion campaigns targeted at Aboriginal people living with HCV could benefit from broadening their focus from prevention to other domains such as testing and treatment.

  4. Systematic and non-systematic effects of the uncertainty of the sample position in gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, T.; Korun, M.

    2004-01-01

    When cylindrical samples placed coaxially with the detector are measured on a gamma-ray spectrometer, the position of the sample very often deviates from an ideal one with the axes of the sample and the detector less than perfectly aligned. If a calibrated source is used prior to the measurement and is presumed to have been positioned correctly, one might conclude that the misalignment of the measured sample should result in an uncertainty of the reported nuclide activity, since the efficiencies of the sample and the calibrated source are effectively different due to the difference in placement. The efficiency of a displaced cylindrical sample, however, is always lower than the one of a sample that is perfectly aligned. The net effect of misalignment can therefore be not only an increase in the uncertainty of the activity, but also a systematic error in its evaluation. Since the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement requires that all such systematic effects be corrected for, we have developed a method to assess the change in the efficiency resulting from misalignment and to introduce the required correction. The calculation of this correction only requires knowledge of basic sample and detector data. The uncertainty of the reported activity can then also be assessed and is influenced by the uncertainty of the efficiency evaluated around its new, corrected value. An appropriate expression for this uncertainty has been derived

  5. Prospective assessment of the false positive rate of the Australian snake venom detection kit in healthy human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimorakiotakis, Vasilios Bill; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-03-01

    The Snake Venom Detection Kit (SVDK; bioCSL Pty Ltd, Australia) distinguishes venom from the five most medically significant snake immunotypes found in Australia. This study assesses the rate of false positives that, by definition, refers to a positive assay finding in a sample from someone who has not been bitten by a venomous snake. Control unbroken skin swabs, simulated bite swabs and urine specimens were collected from 61 healthy adult volunteers [33 males and 28 females] for assessment. In all controls, simulated bite site and urine samples [a total of 183 tests], the positive control well reacted strongly within one minute and no test wells reacted during the ten minute incubation period. However, in two urine tests, the negative control well gave a positive reaction (indicating an uninterpretable test). A 95% confidence interval for the false positive rate, on a per-patient rate, derived from the findings of this study, would extend from 0% to 6% and, on a per-test basis, it would be 0-2%. It appears to be a very low incidence (0-6%) of intrinsic true false positives for the SVDK. The clinical impresssion of a high SVDK false positive rate may be mostly related to operator error. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Examining the Factor Structure of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a Multiethnic Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Feion; Villodas, Miguel T.; Roesch, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule were examined in a multiethnic sample of adolescents. Results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the original two-factor model did not adequately fit the data. Exploratory factor analyses revealed that four items were not pure markers of the factors. (Contains 1…

  7. Evaluation of three sample preparation methods for the direct identification of bacteria in positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Hannah; Evans, Jason T; Gossain, Savita; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-18

    Patient mortality is significantly reduced by rapid identification of bacteria from sterile sites. MALDI-TOF can identify bacteria directly from positive blood cultures and multiple sample preparation methods are available. We evaluated three sample preparation methods and two MALDI-TOF score cut-off values. Positive blood culture bottles with organisms present in Gram stains were prospectively analysed by MALDI-TOF. Three lysis reagents (Saponin, SDS, and SepsiTyper lysis bufer) were applied to each positive culture followed by centrifugation, washing and protein extraction steps. Methods were compared using the McNemar test and 16S rDNA sequencing was used to assess discordant results. In 144 monomicrobial cultures, using ≥2.000 as the cut-off value, species level identifications were obtained from 69/144 (48%) samples using Saponin, 86/144 (60%) using SDS, and 91/144 (63%) using SepsiTyper. The difference between SDS and SepsiTyper was not statistically significant (P = 0.228). Differences between Saponin and the other two reagents were significant (P direct MALDI-TOF identification were observed in monomicrobial cultures. In 32 polymicrobial cultures, MALDI-TOF identified one organism in 34-75% of samples depending on the method. This study demonstrates two inexpensive in-house detergent lysis methods are non-inferior to a commercial kit for analysis of positive blood cultures by direct MALDI-TOF in a clinical diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

  8. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  9. Investigation of basic notions of positive psychology with an aid of Experience Sampling Method (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levit L.Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two investigations of the main concepts of the contemporary positive psychology (eudaimonia, hedonism, the flow, happiness and unhappiness with the help of ESM. The studies were built upon Person-Oriented Conception of Happiness (POCH elaborated by the author. The results indicate that the flow can be accompanied by the rise of the other «components of happiness» belonging to other theories. The study of the situations, that were associated with «unhappiness», showed that most of them belong to maintenance activities of the individual.

  10. AN APPLICATION ON BRAND POSITIONING ACTIVITIES OF POLITICAL PARTIES: GAZIANTEP SAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent DEMİRAĞ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim in political marketing is to be able to determine the needs and desires of the voters correctly, to form and implement the policies towards the electorate and finally to be able to sustain the electorate in the political process and to form the electoral loyalty accordingly. Particularly, regardless of the voting rate, in the elections, the second party is considered to have lost the election, and for this reason, it is very important for the political parties that are political practitioners to come to the forefront in the politically high society where competition is experienced in the ruthless dimensions. In order to create this differentiation, it is crucial that the competitors, the market and other variables are analyzed well, the segmentation of the market, the formation and application of positioning-related policies and recertification-related strategies. The aim of the work is to measure perceptions of the characteristics of voters who are thought to be influential in political party preferences. In this context, it has been investigated whether 11 different characteristics determined by voters make a meaningful difference with their demographic characteristics. The identification of these characteristics and their importance will provide significant advantages for political parties in their positioning strategies. Within this scope, face to face surveys and data were collected from the voters voting in the province of Gaziantep. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. In this context, it was concluded that the factors affecting political party election differed significantly with demographic criteria.

  11. High resolution multiple sampling ionization chamber (MUSIC) sensitive to position coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrascu, H.; Kumagai, H.; Tanihata, I.; Petrascu, M.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of MUSIC sensitive to position coordinates is reported. The development of the first version of this type of chamber is based on the principles presented by Badhwar in 1973. The present detector will be used in experiments on fusion by using radioactive beams. This chamber due to the high resolution is suitable to identification and tracking of low Z particles. One of our goals, when we started this work, was to reduce as much as possible the Z value of particles that can be 'seen' by an ionization chamber. The resolution of the chamber was significantly improved by connecting the preamplifiers directly to the MUSIC's pads. These preamplifiers are able to work in vacuum and very low gas pressure. In this way the value of signal to noise ratio was increased by a factor of ∼10. The detector is of Frisch grid type, with the anode split into 10 active pads. It is the first model of a MUSIC with the field shared between the position grid and the anode pads. The Frisch grid was necessary because the detector is originally designed for very accurate energy measurements and particle identification. A drawing of this detector is shown. The detector itself consists of four main parts. The first one is the constant field-gradient cage, sandwiched in between the cathode and the Frisch grid. The second is the Frisch grid. The third is the position grid located under the Frisch grid. The last one is the plate with the anode pads. The cage is made of 100 μm Cu-Be wires. Every wire was tensioned with a weight representing half of its breaking limit. The Frisch grid was done on an aluminium frame, on which 20 μm W wires spaced 0.3 mm, were wound. For the position grid, 10 groups of 20 μm gold plated W wires have been used. Each group consisted of 5 wires spaced 0.9 mm and connected in parallel. The anode pads 7.8 x 60 mm 2 were perpendicular to the beam direction. Each pad and each of the position wire groups were connected to a preamplifier. The energy resolution

  12. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  13. Comparison of oxygen saturation levels in patients receiving Technegas by the conventional unassisted method vs. the positive ventilation delivery system (PVDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, M.P.; Leiper, C.A.; Lee, K.; Dixson, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study is to compare oxygen saturation levels (SaO 2 ) in 289 patients undergoing conventional lung ventilation scintigraphy (control group) and 27 patients undergoing Positive Ventilation Delivery System (PVDS). The 27 patients where selected as their conventional method of inhalation proved to be inadequate or non-diagnostic. The patients underwent a second ventilation using PVDS, which improved the diagnostic quality of the ventilation image and assisted in clinical management decisions. Some patients in both the PVDS and the control group experienced a transient lowering in their SaO 2 . The mean initial SaO 2 in the control group did not fall below 94.9% and in the PVDS group measured 90.6%. 93% (25/27) of patients in the PVDS group were assessed as non CO 2 retaining, and received oxygen at 10L/min during Technegas inhalation. The mean trough saturation in the PVDS group was 91.7% which was significantly higher than that of the control group (86.9%). No patient in either group experienced any significant complication attributed to the transient tall in SaO 2 during technegas administration. We conclude that oxygen supplied as part of the PVDS system ameliorates the transient reduction in SaO 2 seen during standard Technegas administration. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  14. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin C for Invasive Anal Carcinoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunholz, Ingeborg; Weiss, Christian; Eberlein, Klaus; Haberl, Annette; Roedel, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcomes of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Patients and Methods: Between 1997 and 2008, 21 HIV-positive patients who were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy were treated with CRT (50.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction plus a 5.4-10.8-Gy external boost; 5-fluorouracil, 1,000 mg/m 2 , Days 1-4 and 29-32; and mitomycin C, 10 mg/m 2 , Days 1 and 29). A retrospective analysis was performed with respect to the tumor response, local control, cancer-specific and overall survival, and toxicity. The immunologic parameters, including pre- and post-treatment CD4 count, viral load, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-specific morbidity was recorded during follow-up (median, 53 months; range, 10-99). Results: CRT could be completed in all 21 patients with a reduction in the chemotherapy dose and/or interruption of radiotherapy in 5 and 5 cases, respectively. Acute Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 8 (38%) of the 21 patients. A complete response was achieved in 17 patients (81%), and tumor persistence or early progression was noted in 4 (19%). Six patients (29%) died, 5 of cancer progression and 1 of treatment-related toxicity. The 5-year local control, cancer-specific, and overall survival rate was 59%, 75%, and 67%, respectively. The median CD4 count significantly decreased from 347.5 cells/μL before CRT to 125 cells/μL 3-7 weeks after CRT completion (p <.001). In 6 (32%) of 19 patients, an increase of the HIV viral load was noted. Both parameters returned to the pretreatment values with additional follow-up. Conclusion: Our data have confirmed that in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-related anal cancer can be treated with standard CRT without dose reductions. Close surveillance of the immunologic parameters is necessary.

  15. GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

  16. Innovative directional and position specific sampling technique. Phase 3: Final report, July 1992--September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzel, W.J.; Hill, J.L. III; Foster, E.L.

    1994-09-01

    The POLO System is a major enhancement to the state of the art for subsurface environmental restoration equipment. The system locate s the tip position of penetrometer probes as they are placed underground while meeting the rigid constraints of environmental restoration applications. POLO is applicable to small diameter probes, does not obstruct the center of the probe, is rugged, is unaffected by the presence of steel or other magnetic material, and is capable of remote operation beneath underground tanks or foundations. The development and adaptation of the POLO System for use with penetrometers has progressed through three development phases prior to commercialization. Phases I and II of the contract included the design, testing, and integration of all components of the POLO device. Efforts were made to simulate field conditions in terms of the scale of the components as well as the operating environment. The preestablished success criterion, which has been maintained throughout the research, was to demonstrate path tracking with a total error of less than 0.50% of the distance traveled for distances less than 70 meters. The results tests on individual POLO components showed that the equipment met or exceeded the success criterion. Phase II laboratory scale path tracking experiments also met the success criterion. Phase III moved the POLO System into the field. The full-scale field demonstration tested the ability of the new POLO Module to track the path of a small diameter probe as it moved underground

  17. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  18. IgG4-positive cell infiltration in various cardiovascular disorders - results from histopathological analysis of surgical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourai, Ryoto; Kasashima, Satomi; Sohmiya, Koichi; Yamauchi, Yohei; Ozawa, Hideki; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Ogino, Yasuhiro; Katsumata, Takahiro; Daimon, Masahiro; Fujita, Shu-Ichi; Hoshiga, Masaaki; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2017-02-03

    The diagnosis of Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD), in general, depends on serum IgG4 concentrations and histopathological findings; therefore, diagnosis of IgG4-RD in cardiovascular organs/tissues is often difficult owing to the risk of tissue sampling. Prevalence of IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in 103 consecutive cardiovascular surgical samples from 98 patients with various cardiovascular diseases was analyzed immunohistochemically. The diagnoses of the enrolled patients included aortic aneurysm (abdominal, n = 8; thoracic, n = 9); aortic dissection (n = 20); aortic stenosis (n = 24), aortic regurgitation (n = 10), and mitral stenosis/regurgitation (n = 17). In total, 10 (9.7%) of the 103 specimens showed IgG4-positive cell infiltration with various intensities; five of these were aortic valve specimens from aortic stenosis, and IgG4-positive cell infiltration was present at >10 /HPF in three of them. In one aortic wall sample from an abdominal aortic aneurysm, various histopathological features of IgG4-RD, such as IgG4-positive cell infiltration, obliterating phlebitis, and storiform fibrosis, were observed. IgG4-positive cell infiltration was observed in 9.7% of the surgical cardiovascular specimens, mainly in the aortic valve from aortic stenosis and in the aortic wall from aortic aneurysm. Whether IgG4-positive cell infiltration has pathophysiological importance in the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases should be investigated in future studies.

  19. Identification of (2-aminopropyl)indole positional isomers in forensic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kenneth R; Power, John D; McDermott, Seán D; O'Brien, John E; Talbot, Brian N; Barry, Michael G; Kavanagh, Pierce V

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API, 5-IT) was reported by Norwegian authorities to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) via the Early Warning System (EWS). The 3- isomer, 3-(2-aminopropyl)indole (3-API, AMT, alpha-methyltryptamine), has been available on the recreational drugs market for a somewhat longer time, having first been reported to the EMCDDA by Finnish authorities in 2001. Both isomers are available from online vendors of 'legal highs'. Recently, three forensic drug cases (two tablets and one powder) were presented for routine analysis and the active constituent was tentatively identified as an API isomer. The six positional isomers (2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-(2-aminopropyl)indoles) were synthesized and analyses by a combination gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) showed that these could be readily discriminated thus facilitating the identification of 3-API in the tablets and 5-API in the powder. With exception of 5- and 6-APIs, which co-eluted, it was found possible to separate the isomers by GC without derivatization. LC separation also proved to be a feasible method for the discrimination of the isomers. Although the 2- and 7- isomers were not fully resolved by LC, it was found possible to distinguish them using their product ion spectra as the 2- isomer produced the m/z 132 fragment ion formed by loss of vinylamine, whereas the 7- isomer formed m/z 158 through loss of methylamine. In the synthesis 2-API, a novel tricyclic by-product was formed in an annulation reaction where the reaction solvent, tetrahydrofuran, was incorporated into the molecule. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Anodic electrode position of cyanometallates as sample preparation for the determination of transition metals from water samples using X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wundt, K.; Duschner, H.; Starke, K.

    1978-01-01

    The anodic separation of cyanometallates of propanol -2/Water mixtures at high electrical field strengths was developed as new technique for sample preparation. The optimization of the parameters of the system (high voltage applied, current density, separation time and composition of the solution) resulted in quantitative precipitation of the metallates of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Ag in homogeneous, thin and strong-adhering layer with mass densities of between 1 nmol cm -2 and 1 μmol cm -2 on high-purity aluminium foils. Metals not forming anionic complexes remain in solution with simualtaneous quantitative multielement separation. The described technique is part of a method to determine heavy metal traces in water samples. It comprises the nonspecific sorption on cation exchangers, the elution of the transition metals as cyanometallates, their electrode position on aluminium foil and the determination by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Model experiments illustrate the possible applications of the method. (orig.) [de

  1. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  2. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spjut Jansson B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta Spjut Jansson,1–3 Carmela Miniscalco,1,4 Joakim Westerlund,1,5 Anne-Katrin Kantzer,1,6 Elisabeth Fernell,1 Christopher Gillberg1 1Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Habilitation, 3Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, 4Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 5Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NU Hospital Organization, Trollhättan, Sweden Background: Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods: Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular and only home-based (IL Modified and eclectic interventions.Results: There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion: The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, preschool children, early intervention, ABA, cognitive function, follow-up

  3. The effect of blood sample positions in a water phantom at the time of irradiation on the dicentric yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshinori

    1995-01-01

    Blood samples of man and rabbit, placed at various distances from the surface of a water phantom with a dosimeter were exposed to 250mGy of 60 Co γ-rays. Increases in the dicentric yields in the lymphocytes were observed with increased distances from the surface of the water phantom. As a variation of the dicentric yield with increasing distance in water was found, in the experiment to obtain calibration curves for biological dosimetry, it is recommended that blood samples should be positioned at a constant distance from the surface of a water phantom at the time of irradiation. ICRU REPORT 23 recommends that the calibration measurement be carried out with an ionization chamber positioned at 5cm depth below the surface of a water phantom for 150 kV-10 MV X rays, and 137 Cs and 60 Co γ-rays. As the same reasons which determine a 5cm depth in the recommendation, should be applied to this case, it is desirable that the experiment be carried out with blood samples positioned at 5cm distance from the surface of a water phantom. (author)

  4. Substance use among women receiving post-rape medical care, associated post-assault concerns and current substance abuse: results from a national telephone household probability sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Walsh, Kate; Resnick, Heidi S

    2013-04-01

    To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or only rape incident (n=104) drawn from a national household probability sample of U.S. women, the current study described the extent of peritraumatic substance use, past year substance misuse behaviors, post-rape HIV and pregnancy concerns, and lifetime mental health service utilization as a function of substance use at time of incident. One-third (33%) of women seeking post-rape medical attention reported consuming alcohol or drugs at the time of their rape incident. Nearly one in four (24.7%) and one in seven (15%) women seeking medical attention following their most recent rape incident endorsed drug (marijuana, illicit, non-medical use of prescription drugs, or club drug) use or met substance abuse criteria, respectively, in the past year. One in twelve (8.4%) women reported at least monthly binge drinking in the past year. Approximately two-thirds of women reported seeking services for mental health needs in their lifetime. Post-rape concerns among women reporting peritraumatic substance use were not significantly different from those of women not reporting such use. Substance use was reported by approximately one-third of women and past year substance abuse was common among those seeking post-rape medical care. Implications for service delivery, intervention implementation, and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of therapist change after initial contact and traumatic burden on dropout in a naturalistic sample of inpatients with borderline pathology receiving dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuwe, Carolin; Berg, Michaela; Driessen, Martin; Beblo, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the predictors of therapy dropout in a naturalistic sample of patients with borderline pathology receiving dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in an inpatient setting. We assumed that the change of the therapist between DBT-briefing and start of DBT-treatment as well as comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and childhood trauma history were associated with elevated dropout. Eighty-nine participants with borderline pathology (≥ 3 borderline personality disorder criteria) receiving an inpatient DBT program completed a quality assurance questionnaire set assessing demographic information and pretreatment psychopathology during the days of their inpatient stay. Beyond that, changes of therapists were documented. The predictor analyses were investigated with generalized estimating equations. The dropout rate was 24.7%. A change of therapist between DBT-briefing and treatment as well as high childhood emotional abuse was associated with premature termination of treatment. Higher values of physical neglect during childhood were associated with a protective effect on treatment dropout. Surprisingly, this was also true for comorbid PTSD. This study supports the importance of therapy process variables as predictors of therapy dropout in borderline pathology. A change of therapist between DBT-briefing and treatment was associated with an increased vulnerability for dropping out of treatment and should therefore be avoided if possible. Against our hypotheses, a comorbid PTSD was even protective with regard to DBT dropout. Therefore, this severely suffering patient group should not be rejected from treatment assuming them to be too unstable for psychotherapy. However, results need to be replicated. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03018639, retrospectively registered on January 9, 2017.

  6. Psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a heterogeneous sample of substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Kelly; Malin-Mayor, Bo; Nich, Charla; Hunkele, Karen; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a widely used measure of affect. A comprehensive psychometric evaluation among substance users, however, has not been published. To examine the psychometric properties of the PANAS in a sample of outpatient treatment substance users. We used pooled data from four randomized clinical trials (N = 416; 34% female, 48% African American). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated adequate support for a two-factor correlated model comprised of Positive Affect and Negative Affect with correlated item errors (Comparative Fit Index = 0.93, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.07, χ(2) = 478.93, df = 156). Cronbach's α indicated excellent internal consistency for both factors (0.90 and 0.91, respectively). The PANAS factors had good convergence and discriminability (Composite Reliability > 0.7; Maximum Shared Variance Positive Affect = 0.80, Negative Affect = 0.76). Concurrent and discriminant validity were demonstrated with correlations with the Brief Symptom Inventory and Addiction Severity Index. The PANAS scores were also significantly correlated with treatment outcomes (e.g. Positive Affect was associated with the maximum days of consecutive abstinence from primary substance of abuse, r = 0.16, p = 0.001). Our data suggest that the psychometric properties of the PANAS are retained in substance using populations. Although several studies have focused on the role of Negative Affect, our findings suggest that Positive Affect may also be an important factor in substance use treatment outcomes.

  7. Structural validity and reliability of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): evidence from a large Brazilian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Hudson W de; Andreoli, Sérgio B; Lara, Diogo R; Patrick, Christopher J; Quintana, Maria Inês; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Melo, Marcelo F de; Mari, Jair de J; Jorge, Miguel R

    2013-01-01

    Positive and negative affect are the two psychobiological-dispositional dimensions reflecting proneness to positive and negative activation that influence the extent to which individuals experience life events as joyful or as distressful. The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a structured questionnaire that provides independent indexes of positive and negative affect. This study aimed to validate a Brazilian interview-version of the PANAS by means of factor and internal consistency analysis. A representative community sample of 3,728 individuals residing in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, voluntarily completed the PANAS. Exploratory structural equation model analysis was based on maximum likelihood estimation and reliability was calculated via Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that the PANAS reliably measures two distinct dimensions of positive and negative affect. The structure and reliability of the Brazilian version of the PANAS are consistent with those of its original version. Taken together, these results attest the validity of the Brazilian adaptation of the instrument.

  8. Factors involved in treatment durability and immunological recovery in a cohort of HIV-positive patients receiving atazanavir-based regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Andrea; Oreni, Letizia; Franzetti, Marco; Di Cristo, Valentina; Vergani, Barbara; Morosi, Manuela; Colella, Elisa; Galli, Massimo; Rusconi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Since antiretroviral therapy must be taken lifelong, persistence and safety have become the goals to achieve. Protease inhibitors, in particular atazanavir (ATV) with or without ritonavir (r), represent a highly prescribed class in real life long-term treatment. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study in HIV-1-positive patients who were followed at the Infectious Diseases Unit, DIBIC Luigi Sacco, University of Milan. Data regarding viral load, CD4 lymphocytes and the mean blood chemistry parameters were collected at baseline, first, third, sixth months from the beginning of therapy and then every six months. Factors related to persistence of therapy with ATV and time-dependent probability to reach a CD4 cells count >500 cells/µL were evaluated with Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox model. Results A total of 1030 patients were evaluated: 183 received therapy with ATV/r as naïve, 653 switched to ATV/r as a second or following line and 194 switched to unboosted ATV from previous ATV-free regimens. A total of 138 patients shifted to unboosted ATV from a previous ATV/r regimen (17 from naïve ATV/r and 121 from experienced ATV/r). The median duration of therapy was 38 months (95% CI 29–73) in ATV/r naïve patients, 36 months (95% CI 23–53) in unboosted ATV group and 35 months (95% CI 31–43) in patients switched to ATV/r. We observed no significant difference in the persistence of the three regimens (p=0.149). Female (HR=1.317; 95% CI 1.073–1.616 p=0.008) and patients with CD4500 cells/µL. Factors associated to a poor CD4 gain were each extra Log of viral load at baseline (HR=0.915; 95% CI 0.852–0.982 p=0.014) and CD4<200 cells/µL at ATV start (HR=0.197; 95%CI 0.138–0.281 p<0.0001); conversely, females (HR=1.262; 95%CI 1.032–1.543 p=0.023) had a higher probability of CD4 recovery. Conclusions Antiretroviral regimens containing atazanavir with or without ritonavir were durable and well tolerated, an elevated viral load and CD4 <200 cells

  9. A comparison of temporal and location-based sampling strategies for global positioning system-triggered electronic diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnros, Tobias; Dorn, Helen; Reichert, Markus; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Zipf, Alexander

    2016-11-21

    Self-reporting is a well-established approach within the medical and psychological sciences. In order to avoid recall bias, i.e. past events being remembered inaccurately, the reports can be filled out on a smartphone in real-time and in the natural environment. This is often referred to as ambulatory assessment and the reports are usually triggered at regular time intervals. With this sampling scheme, however, rare events (e.g. a visit to a park or recreation area) are likely to be missed. When addressing the correlation between mood and the environment, it may therefore be beneficial to include participant locations within the ambulatory assessment sampling scheme. Based on the geographical coordinates, the database query system then decides if a self-report should be triggered or not. We simulated four different ambulatory assessment sampling schemes based on movement data (coordinates by minute) from 143 voluntary participants tracked for seven consecutive days. Two location-based sampling schemes incorporating the environmental characteristics (land use and population density) at each participant's location were introduced and compared to a time-based sampling scheme triggering a report on the hour as well as to a sampling scheme incorporating physical activity. We show that location-based sampling schemes trigger a report less often, but we obtain more unique trigger positions and a greater spatial spread in comparison to sampling strategies based on time and distance. Additionally, the location-based methods trigger significantly more often at rarely visited types of land use and less often outside the study region where no underlying environmental data are available.

  10. Pregnancy intent among a sample of recently diagnosed HIV-positive women and men practicing unprotected sex in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E; Exner, Theresa M; Cooper, Diane; Bai, Dan; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Hoffman, Susie; Myer, Landon; Moodley, Jennifer; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Constant, Debbie; Jennings, Karen; Zweigenthal, Virginia; Stein, Zena A

    2014-12-01

    Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for HIV-positive women and men often neglect their fertility desires. We examined factors associated with pregnancy intent among recently diagnosed HIV-positive women (N = 106) and men (N = 91) who reported inconsistent condom use and were enrolled in an SRH intervention conducted in public sector HIV care clinics in Cape Town. Participants were recruited when receiving their first CD4 results at the clinic. All reported unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Logistic regression identified predictors of pregnancy intent for the total sample and by gender. About three fifths of men and one fifth of women reported intent to conceive in the next 6 months. In the full-sample multiple regression analysis, men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 6.62)] and those whose main partner shared intent to conceive (AOR = 3.80) had significantly higher odds of pregnancy intent; those with more years of education (AOR = 0.81) and more biological children (AOR = 0.62) had lower odds of intending pregnancy. In gender-specific analyses, partner sharing pregnancy intent was positively associated with intent among both men (AOR = 3.53) and women (AOR = 13.24). Among men, odds were lower among those having more biological children (AOR = 0.71) and those unemployed (AOR = 0.30). Among women, relying on hormonal contraception was negatively associated with intent (AOR = 0.08), and main partner knowing her HIV status (AOR = 5.80) was positively associated with intent to conceive. Findings underscore the importance of providing integrated SRH services, and we discuss implications for clinical practice and care.

  11. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ben Ch; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors' knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as predictors with any sample populations. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to test the predictive power of perceived stress, social support, bidirectional acculturation (i.e., Canadian acculturation and heritage acculturation), religious coping and cultural coping (i.e., collective, avoidance, and engagement coping) in explaining positive and negative affect in a multiethnic sample of 301 undergraduate students in Canada. Two hierarchal multiple regressions were conducted, one for each affect as the dependent variable, with the above described predictors. The results supported the hypotheses and showed the two overall models to be significant in predicting affect of both kinds. Specifically, a higher level of positive affect was predicted by a lower level of perceived stress, less use of religious coping, and more use of engagement coping in dealing with stress by the participants. Higher level of negative affect, however, was predicted by a higher level of perceived stress and more use of avoidance coping in responding to stress. The current findings highlight the value and relevance of empirically examining the stress-coping-adaptation experiences of diverse populations from an affective conceptual framework, particularly with the inclusion of positive affect. Implications and recommendations for advancing future research and theoretical works in this area are considered and presented.

  12. Miniaturized bead-beating device to automate full DNA sample preparation processes for gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu-Youn; Kwon, Sung Hong; Jung, Sun-Ok; Lim, Hee-Kyun; Jung, Won-Jong; Park, Chin-Sung; Kim, Joon-Ho; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Huh, Nam

    2011-11-07

    We have developed a miniaturized bead-beating device to automate nucleic acids extraction from Gram-positive bacteria for molecular diagnostics. The microfluidic device was fabricated by sandwiching a monolithic flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane between two glass wafers (i.e., glass-PDMS-glass), which acted as an actuator for bead collision via its pneumatic vibration without additional lysis equipment. The Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, were captured on surface-modified glass beads from 1 mL of initial sample solution and in situ lyzed by bead-beating operation. Then, 10 μL or 20 μL of bacterial DNA solution was eluted and amplified successfully by real-time PCR. It was found that liquid volume fraction played a crucial role in determining the cell lysis efficiency in a confined chamber by facilitating membrane deflection and bead motion. The miniaturized bead-beating operation disrupted most of S. aureus within 3 min, which turned out to be as efficient as the conventional benchtop vortexing machine or the enzyme-based lysis technique. The effective cell concentration was significantly enhanced with the reduction of initial sample volume by 50 or 100 times. Combination of such analyte enrichment and in situ bead-beating lysis provided an excellent PCR detection sensitivity amounting to ca. 46 CFU even for the Gram-positive bacteria. The proposed bead-beating microdevice is potentially useful as a nucleic acid extraction method toward a PCR-based sample-to-answer system. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  13. Sample size calculations based on a difference in medians for positively skewed outcomes in health care studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan G. O’Keeffe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In healthcare research, outcomes with skewed probability distributions are common. Sample size calculations for such outcomes are typically based on estimates on a transformed scale (e.g. log which may sometimes be difficult to obtain. In contrast, estimates of median and variance on the untransformed scale are generally easier to pre-specify. The aim of this paper is to describe how to calculate a sample size for a two group comparison of interest based on median and untransformed variance estimates for log-normal outcome data. Methods A log-normal distribution for outcome data is assumed and a sample size calculation approach for a two-sample t-test that compares log-transformed outcome data is demonstrated where the change of interest is specified as difference in median values on the untransformed scale. A simulation study is used to compare the method with a non-parametric alternative (Mann-Whitney U test in a variety of scenarios and the method is applied to a real example in neurosurgery. Results The method attained a nominal power value in simulation studies and was favourable in comparison to a Mann-Whitney U test and a two-sample t-test of untransformed outcomes. In addition, the method can be adjusted and used in some situations where the outcome distribution is not strictly log-normal. Conclusions We recommend the use of this sample size calculation approach for outcome data that are expected to be positively skewed and where a two group comparison on a log-transformed scale is planned. An advantage of this method over usual calculations based on estimates on the log-transformed scale is that it allows clinical efficacy to be specified as a difference in medians and requires a variance estimate on the untransformed scale. Such estimates are often easier to obtain and more interpretable than those for log-transformed outcomes.

  14. Phase II Study of a HER-2/neu Intracellular Domain Peptide-Based Vaccine Administered to Stage IV HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Trastuzumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    presyncopal and she had to sit down. The medics were called and she had a BP of 90/50. She received IVF in transit, in ER and also when discharged...epitope spreading in the majority of patients. In order to successfully accomplish the scope of work for this project, we have requested a no cost

  15. Predictors of homeless services re-entry within a sample of adults receiving Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program (HPRP) assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly; Vaclavik, Danielle; Watson, Dennis P; Wilka, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Local and national evaluations of the federal Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program (HPRP) have demonstrated a high rate of placement of program participants in permanent housing. However, there is a paucity of research on the long-term outcomes of HPRP, and research on rehousing and prevention interventions for single adults experiencing homelessness is particularly limited. Using Homeless Management Information System data from 2009 to 2015, this study examined risk of return to homeless services among 370 permanently housed and 71 nonpermanently housed single adult HPRP participants in Indianapolis, Indiana. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were conducted to analyze time-to-service re-entry for the full sample, and the homelessness prevention and rapid rehousing participants separately. With an average follow-up of 4.5 years after HPRP exit, 9.5% of the permanently housed HPRP participants and 16.9% of those nonpermanently housed returned to homeless services. By assistance type, 5.4% of permanently housed and 15.8% of nonpermanently housed homelessness prevention recipients re-entered services, and 12.8% of permanently housed and 18.2% of nonpermanently housed rapid rehousing recipients re-entered during the follow-up period. Overall, veterans, individuals receiving rapid rehousing services, and those whose income did not increase during HPRP had significantly greater risk of returning to homeless services. Veterans were at significantly greater risk of re-entry when prevention and rehousing were examined separately. Findings suggest a need for future controlled studies of prevention and rehousing interventions for single adults, aiming to identify unique service needs among veterans and those currently experiencing homelessness in need of rehousing to inform program refinement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Perceived Stigma, Discrimination, and Disclosure of Sexual Orientation Among a Sample of Lesbian Veterans Receiving Care in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Sullivan, J Cherry; Bertrand, Christina; Kinney, Rebecca L; Sherman, Michelle D; Gustason, Carolyn

    2015-06-01

    Many lesbian women experience stigma and discrimination from their healthcare providers as a result of their sexual orientation. Additionally, others avoid disclosure of their sexual orientation to their providers for fear of mistreatment. With the increasing number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans seeking care from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), it is important to understand lesbian veterans' experiences with stigma, discrimination, and disclosure of sexual orientation. This article examines lesbian veterans' experiences with perceived stigma and discrimination in VHA healthcare, their perspectives on disclosure of sexual orientation to VHA providers, and their recommendations for improvements in VHA healthcare to create a welcoming environment for lesbian veterans. This is a mixed methods study of twenty lesbian veterans at four VHA facilities. The women veterans participated in a one-hour interview and then completed an anonymous survey. Ten percent of lesbian veterans had experienced mistreatment from VHA staff or providers, but nearly 50% feared that their Veterans Affairs (VA) providers would mistreat them if they knew about their sexual orientation. A majority of lesbian veterans (70%) believed that VHA providers should never ask about sexual orientation or should only ask if the veteran wanted to discuss it. A majority (80%) believed the VHA had taken steps to create a welcoming environment for LBGT veterans. Though many lesbian veterans have fears of stigma and discrimination in the context of VHA care, few have experienced this. Most lesbian veterans believed the VHA was trying to create a welcoming environment for its LGBT veterans. Future research should focus on expanding this study to include a larger and more diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender veterans receiving care at VA facilities across the country.

  17. Positive body image: inter-ethnic and rural-urban differences among an indigenous sample from Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Kannan, Kumaraswami; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies examining body image from a cross-cultural perspective have tended to neglect samples from different ethnic groups or along a rural-urban continuum. To overcome this limitation, the present study examined positive body image among rural and urban women from three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 202 women completed the Body Appreciation Scale, as well as measures of media exposure and financial security, and provided their demographic details. s showed that there were significant rural-urban differences in body appreciation, with rural participants having significantly higher body appreciation than urban participants. A comparison with a previous data set of West Malaysian women (Swami & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2008) showed that the current urban sample had significantly lower body appreciation and that the rural group had significantly higher body appreciation. Further results showed that research site (urban vs rural) explained 11.0% of the variance in body appreciation. Participant body mass index and exposure to western forms of media explained an additional 2.0% of the variance. These results suggest that there are differences in body image between rural and urban women. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of positive body image, particularly in developing societies where health care resources may be limited.

  18. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  19. [Tropheryma whipplei and Whipple disease: false positive PCR detections of Tropheryma whipplei in diagnostic samples are rare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Scanff, J; Gaultier, J B; Durand, D Vital; Durieu, I; Celard, M; Benito, Y; Vandenesch, F; Rousset, H

    2008-11-01

    PCR can be used to detect T. whipplei (Tw) in samples from variable tissue types and body fluids. We report clinical, evolutive characteristics and final diagnosis in patients with positive Tw PCR assay. Retrospective study of Tw PCR realized since 10years in a microbiology laboratory. Twenty-five Tw PCR assays were positive among 200 realized. Diagnosis was not confirmed in six cases. One patient was missing for follow up. Eighteen patients presented with Whipple's disease. Among these 18 patients, 14 had a classic Whipple's disease, three patients presented an endocarditis and one patient isolated neurological manifestations. Ten patients presented fever, seven a weight loss and 12 joint involvement. Four patients presented cutaneous manifestations, only six had gastrointestinal symptoms. Neurological involvement was reported in five cases, pulmonary symptoms in four cases, cardiac involvement in six cases and ocular signs in two cases. Anemia was reported in four patients and elevated levels of acute-phase reactants in 14 cases. Positive predictive value of Tw PCR for Whipple's disease diagnosis was 75%. Thirteen patients had a good evolution with antibiotics. Three patients presented recurrence and two cases with cardiovascular involvement died. Whipple's disease is rare but often mentioned in internist experience. The diagnosis should be every time confirmed. Tw PCR assay is an important diagnostic tool but is not sufficient to establish the diagnosis and must be interpreted with histopathology and immunohistochemical testing results.

  20. The Effects of Organizational Justice on Positive Organizational Behavior: Evidence from a Large-Sample Survey and a Situational Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaofu; Chen, Mengyan; Hao, Zhichao; Bi, Wenfen

    2018-01-01

    Employees' positive organizational behavior (POB) is not only to promote organizational function but also improve individual and organizational performance. As an important concept in organizational research, organizational justice is thought to be a universal predictor of employee and organizational outcomes. The current set of two studies examined the effects of organizational justice (OJ) on POB of employees with two different studies, a large-sample survey and a situational experiment. In study 1, a total of 2,566 employees from 45 manufacturing enterprises completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires assessing organizational justice (OJ) and positive organizational behavior (POB) of employees. In study 2, 747 employees were randomly sampled to participate in the situational experiment with 2 × 2 between-subjects design. They were asked to read one of the four situational stories and to image that this situation happen to the person in the story or them, and then they were asked to imagine how the person in the story or they would have felt and what the person or they subsequently would have done. The results of study 1 suggested that OJ was correlated with POB of employees and OJ is a positive predictor of POB. The results of study 2 suggested that OJ had significant effects on POB and negative organizational behavior (NOB). Procedural justice accounted for significantly more variance than distributive justice in POB of employees. Distributive justice and procedural justice have different influences on POB and NOB in terms of effectiveness and direction. The effect of OJ on POB was greater than that of NOB. In addition, path analysis indicated that the direct effect of OJ on POB was smaller than its indirect effect. Thus, many intermediary effects could possibly be between them. PMID:29375434

  1. The Effects of Organizational Justice on Positive Organizational Behavior: Evidence from a Large-Sample Survey and a Situational Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaofu; Chen, Mengyan; Hao, Zhichao; Bi, Wenfen

    2017-01-01

    Employees' positive organizational behavior (POB) is not only to promote organizational function but also improve individual and organizational performance. As an important concept in organizational research, organizational justice is thought to be a universal predictor of employee and organizational outcomes. The current set of two studies examined the effects of organizational justice (OJ) on POB of employees with two different studies, a large-sample survey and a situational experiment. In study 1, a total of 2,566 employees from 45 manufacturing enterprises completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires assessing organizational justice (OJ) and positive organizational behavior (POB) of employees. In study 2, 747 employees were randomly sampled to participate in the situational experiment with 2 × 2 between-subjects design. They were asked to read one of the four situational stories and to image that this situation happen to the person in the story or them, and then they were asked to imagine how the person in the story or they would have felt and what the person or they subsequently would have done. The results of study 1 suggested that OJ was correlated with POB of employees and OJ is a positive predictor of POB. The results of study 2 suggested that OJ had significant effects on POB and negative organizational behavior (NOB). Procedural justice accounted for significantly more variance than distributive justice in POB of employees. Distributive justice and procedural justice have different influences on POB and NOB in terms of effectiveness and direction. The effect of OJ on POB was greater than that of NOB. In addition, path analysis indicated that the direct effect of OJ on POB was smaller than its indirect effect. Thus, many intermediary effects could possibly be between them.

  2. Retrospective Analysis of Bacterial and Viral Co-Infections in Pneumocystis spp. Positive Lung Samples of Austrian Pigs with Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was the retrospective investigation of viral (porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV, torque teno sus virus type 1 and 2 (TTSuV1, TTSuV2 and bacterial (Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. b., Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. h., and Pasteurella multocida (P. m. co-infections in 110 Pneumocystis spp. positive lung samples of Austrian pigs with pneumonia. Fifty-one % were positive for PCV2, 7% for PRRSV, 22% for TTSuV1, 48% for TTSuV2, 6% for B. b., 29% for M. h., and 21% for P. m. In 38.2% only viral, in 3.6% only bacterial and in 40.0% both, viral and bacterial pathogens were detected. In 29.1% of the cases a co-infection with 1 pathogen, in 28.2% with 2, in 17.3% with 3, and in 7.3% with 4 different infectious agents were observed. The exposure to Pneumocystis significantly decreased the risk of a co-infection with PRRSV in weaning piglets; all other odds ratios were not significant. Four categories of results were compared: I = P. spp. + only viral co-infectants, II = P. spp. + both viral and bacterial co-infectants, III = P. spp. + only bacterial co-infectants, and IV = P. spp. single infection. The evaluation of all samples and the age class of the weaning piglets resulted in a predomination of the categories I and II. In contrast, the suckling piglets showed more samples of category I and IV. In the group of fattening pigs, category II predominated. Suckling piglets can be infected with P. spp. early in life. With increasing age this single infections can be complicated by co-infections with other respiratory diseases.

  3. Hepatitis C virus genotyping of organ donor samples to aid in transplantation of HCV-positive organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Caren; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Goldberg, David S; Reese, Peter P; Hasz, Richard D; Abt, Peter; Blumberg, Emily; Farooqi, Midhat S

    2018-02-01

    Given the availability of new highly efficacious anti-HCV therapies, some clinicians have advocated for wider use of kidneys from hepatitis C virus-positive (HCV+) donors, including transplanting them into HCV-negative recipients. As treatment regimens for HCV are commonly guided by genotype, pretransplant HCV genotyping of tissue donors would be beneficial. To our knowledge, donor HCV genotyping has never been reported. We retrieved archived frozen plasma samples for 17 previous organ donors through a local organ procurement organization. We performed HCV genotyping using the eSensor HCVg Direct Test (GenMark Diagnostics) and also by Sanger sequencing, for confirmation (Retrogen). In addition, viral loads were measured using the COBAS AmpliPrep/TaqMan system (Roche Diagnostics). We found that most of the samples (n = 14) were HCV Genotype 1a with the remainder being Genotype 2b (n = 1) or Genotype 3 (n = 2). All genotyping results were concordant with Sanger sequencing. The average HCV viral load in the sample group was ~ 1.6 million IU/mL (range: ~16 000 IU/mL to 7 million IU/mL). We demonstrate that viral RNA from organ donor plasma can be successfully genotyped for HCV. This ability suggests that transplantation of HCV+ kidneys into HCV-negative recipients, followed by genotype-guided antiviral therapy, could be feasible. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Subtypes of depressive symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers: An exploratory study on a sample of HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini Pala, A; Steca, P; Bagrodia, R; Helpman, L; Colangeli, V; Viale, P; Wainberg, M L

    2016-08-01

    Depressive symptoms cause major impairment and may accelerate HIV progression despite the use of antiretroviral medication. The somatic symptoms criteria for HIV infection and depression partially overlap, which can make differential diagnosis challenging. Because of chronic inflammation caused by HIV infection, HIV-positive patients may develop somatic and affective-cognitive symptoms of depression. Inflammation-related depression is primarily characterized with severe somatic symptoms such as fatigue and sleep disturbance. This study sought to explore the patterns of somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms that characterize HIV-positive patients. Our specific aims were (1) to identify subtypes of depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive patients; and (2) to test the subtypes' difference on inflammatory and HIV disease progression biomarkers. HIV-positive men and women (N=102) with and without depressive symptoms were randomly selected from an Italian HIV clinic. Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), viral load (VL), CD4+, Il-6, TNF-α, and monocytes were assessed. The three subtypes formed using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) identified patients with (1) severe cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms; (2) severe/moderate somatic symptoms; and (3) absent or low depressive symptoms. The subtype with severe/moderate somatic symptoms was characterized with elevated levels of Il-6 and monocytes. No difference on HIV progression biomarkers was found. The subtypes of depressive symptoms might help differentiating depressive symptoms from HIV- and inflammatory-related somatic symptoms. When present, cognitive-affective and/or somatic symptoms cause significant impairment to patients' lives and thus warrant further assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intrinsic subtypes and benefit from postmastectomy radiotherapy in node-positive premenopausal breast cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy - results from two independent randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Tinne; Tramm, Trine; Nielsen, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study of the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer has revealed differences among them in terms of prognosis and response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. However, the ability of intrinsic subtypes to predict benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy has only been examined...... randomized to adjuvant radiotherapy or not. All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and a subgroup of patients underwent ovarian ablation. Tumors were classified into intrinsic subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-enriched, Basal-like and Normal-like using the research-based PAM50 classifier. RESULTS...

  6. The effect of lung deflation on the position of the pleura during subclavian vein cannulation in infants receiving mechanical ventilation: an ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y-E; Lee, J-H; Park, Y-H; Byon, H-J; Kim, H-S; Kim, C-S; Kim, J-T

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of lung deflation on the relative position of the pleura compared with a reference line during supra- and infraclavicular approaches to the right subclavian vein. The reference line was drawn relative to the predicted pathway of the needle. The distances between the pleura and the reference line for supra- and infraclavicular approaches were measured during inspiration and expiration in 41 infants. Measurements were repeated with the application of 5 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and in the Trendelenburg position. Lung deflation during the supraclavicular approach significantly decreased the volume of lung crossing the reference line by a median (IQR [range]) of 1.0 (0.6 to 1.3 [0.0 to 4.8]) mm, p deflation showed no change in the distance of the pleura from the reference line regardless of PEEP or patient position. We conclude that lung deflation moves the lung apex caudally and can reduce the potential risk of pneumothorax during a supraclavicular approach to the right subclavian vein in infants. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Psychometric properties of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) original and short forms in an African American community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Erin L; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Roesch, Scott C; Ko, Celine M; Emerson, Marc; Roma, Vincenzo G; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-12-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) has been widely used as a self-report measure of affect in community and clinical contexts. However, evaluations of the psychometric properties of PANAS scores have been limited in diverse ethnic groups. Several short forms of the PANAS have also been proposed, but very little is known about the psychometric properties of these versions. The present study investigated the psychometric properties, including the factor structure of the original PANAS and two short forms in an African American community sample (N=239). Descriptive, internal consistency reliability, factorial validity, and measurement invariance analyses were conducted. All PANAS subscales from the original and short forms had adequate internal consistency. For the original PANAS, the model specifying three correlated factors (Positive Affect, Afraid, Upset) with correlated uniquenesses from redundant items provided the best fit to the data. However, the two-factor model (Positive Affect, Negative Affect) with correlated uniquenesses was also supported. For both short forms, the two-factor model with correlated uniquenesses fit the data best. Factors from all forms were generally invariant across age and gender, although there was some minor invariance at the item level. Participants were from a limited geographic area and one ethnic group. Indicators of anxiety, depression, and cultural characteristics were not measured. The factor structure was replicated, suggesting no immediate concerns regarding the valid interpretation of PANAS scores. The results support the reliability and validity of the PANAS and its short forms for use among African Americans. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors involved in treatment durability and immunological recovery in a cohort of HIV-positive patients receiving atazanavir-based regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Giacomelli; Letizia Oreni; Marco Franzetti; Valentina Di Cristo; Barbara Vergani; Manuela Morosi; Elisa Colella; Massimo Galli; Stefano Rusconi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Since antiretroviral therapy must be taken lifelong, persistence and safety have become the goals to achieve. Protease inhibitors, in particular atazanavir (ATV) with or without ritonavir (r), represent a highly prescribed class in real life long-term treatment. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in HIV-1-positive patients who were followed at the Infectious Diseases Unit, DIBIC Luigi Sacco, University of Milan. Data regarding viral load, CD4 lymphocytes and the ...

  9. Phase 2 Study of a HER-2/neu Intracellular Domain Peptide-Based Vaccine Administered to Stage IV HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Trastuzumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Leukocytes 14 4 11 4 Headache 10 3 7 3 Hypocalcemia 9 2 7 3 General rash 9 2 5 2 Renal – positive leukocytes 8 2 8 3...in the prevention of tumor relapse. Th17 is a subset of CD4 Th cytokine recently reported and has been found to have anti-tumor effects in tumor...decrease serum TGF-ß indicate that traf- ficking T cells may also be effectively modulating the tumor micro- environment. Theoretically, a decrease in

  10. Correlates of HIV-1 viral suppression in a cohort of HIV-positive drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michael R; La, Hanh; Nguyen, Hien Duc; Sheehan, Heidi; Lien, Trinh Thi Minh; Van Dang, Duong; Hellinger, James; Wanke, Christine; Tang, Alice M

    2009-01-01

    Summary Injection drug users bear the burden of HIV in Vietnam and are a focus of national treatment programs. To date, determinants of successful therapy in this population are unknown. Substance use and clinical correlates of viral suppression were studied in 100 HIV-1 infected drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 6 months in Hanoi, Vietnam. Mean age of the cohort was 29.9 + 4.9 years; all were men. A majority of patients (73%) achieved viral suppression (HIV-RNA 95% adherence (p<0.01) and current use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p<0.01); current or ever diagnosed with tuberculosis was associated with viral non-suppression (p=0.006). Tobacco use was prevalent (84%), and surprisingly 48% of patients reported active drug use; neither was associated with viral non-suppression. This is the first study to document successful ART treatment in a population of Vietnamese drug users; rates of viral suppression are comparable to other international populations. The 28% of patients without HIV-1 suppression highlights the need for adherence promotion, risk reduction programs, and population based surveillance strategies for assessing the emergence of HIV drug resistance in settings where access to viral load and drug resistance testing is limited. PMID:19451329

  11. Apparatus for sampling hazardous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.F.; Showalter, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus for sampling a hazardous medium, such as radioactive or chemical waste, selectively collects a predetermined quantity of the medium in a recess of an end-over-end rotatable valving member. This collected quantity is deposited in a receiving receptacle located in a cavity while the receiving receptacle is in a sealed relationship with a recess to prevent dusting of the sampled media outside the receiving receptacle. The receiving receptacle is removably fitted within a vehicle body which is, in turn, slidably movable upon a track within a transport tube. The receiving receptacle is transported in the vehicle body from its sample receiving position within a container for the hazardous medium to a sample retrieval position outside the medium container. The receiving receptacle may then be removed from the vehicle body, capped and taken to a laboratory for chemical analysis. (author)

  12. Proton Spectroscopy in a Cross-Section of HIV-Positive Asymptomatic Patients Receiving Immediate Compared with Deferred Zidovudine (Concorde Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Craggs, M A; Williams, I G; Wilkinson, I D; Paley, M; Chinn, R J; Chong, W K; Kendall, B E; Harrison, M J; Baldeweg, T; Pugh, K; Riccio, M; Catalan, J; Weller, I V

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine by proton spectroscopy for any difference in cerebral metabolites in patients taking part in the Concorde study (comparing the efficacy of immediate versus deferred treatment with zidovudine on asymptomatic HIV infected individuals). Forty seven HIV positive male patients [29 immediate, 18 deferred zidovudine] were examined in the last 9 months of the therapeutic trial. Magnetic resonance imaging and proton spectroscopy were performed at 1.5 Tesla using a single voxel placed in the parieto-occipital white matter. No significant difference was found in metabolite ratios comparing immediate versus deferred zidovudine (NA/NA+Cho+Cr 0.52 vs. 0.52). High quality spectra were acquired in relatively large numbers of patients and logistically spectroscopy may be applied to clinical therapeutic studies.

  13. Short communication prevalence of susceptibility to etravirine by genotype and phenotype in samples received for routine HIV type 1 resistance testing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchio, Gaston; Vingerhoets, Johan; Tambuyzer, Lotke; Coakley, Eoin; Haddad, Mojgan; Witek, James

    2011-12-01

    Abstract The prevalence of susceptibility to etravirine was investigated among clinical samples submitted for routine clinical testing in the United States using two separate weighted genotypic scoring systems. The presence of etravirine mutations and susceptibility to etravirine by phenotype of clinical samples from HIV-1-infected patients, submitted to Monogram Biosciences for routine resistance testing between June 2008 and June 2009, were analyzed. Susceptibility by genotype was determined using the Monogram and Tibotec etravirine-weighted genotypic scoring systems, with scores of ≤3 and ≤2, respectively, indicating full susceptibility. Susceptibility by phenotype was determined using the PhenoSense HIV assay, with lower and higher clinical cut-offs of 2.9 and 10, respectively. The frequency of individual etravirine mutations and the impact of the K103N mutation on susceptibility to etravirine by genotype were also determined. Among the 5482 samples with ≥1 defined nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations associated with resistance, 67% were classed as susceptible to etravirine by genotype by both scoring systems. Susceptibility to etravirine by phenotype was higher (76%). The proportion of first-generation NNRTI-resistant samples with (n=3598) and without (n=1884) K103N with susceptibility to etravirine by genotype was 77% and 49%, respectively. Among samples susceptible to first-generation NNRTIs (n=9458), >99% of samples were susceptible to etravirine by phenotype (FC <2.9); the remaining samples had FC ≥2.9-10. In summary, among samples submitted for routine clinical testing in the United States, a high proportion of samples with first-generation NNRTI resistance was susceptible to etravirine by genotype and phenotype. A higher proportion of NNRTI-resistant samples with K103N than without was susceptible to etravirine.

  14. HIV infection duration, social support and the level of trauma symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive Polish individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Żebrowska, Magdalena; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of quantitatively rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and social support dimensions in a sample of 562 Polish HIV+ adults. Possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of PTSD symptoms were also analysed. The results of this study suggest that the average HIV infection duration may intensify PTSD symptoms and deteriorate the perceived availability of social support in HIV+ individuals. However, a positive relationship between HIV infection duration and the level of trauma symptoms was observed only in the group of HIV+ individuals with low perceived available social support, but not in the group of HIV-infected individuals with high perceived available social support. This research provided some new insight into the psychological and social aspects of living with HIV. In particular, our results suggest that although HIV infection duration may intensify trauma symptoms and deteriorate social support, perceived available social support may act as a buffer against HIV-related trauma symptoms.

  15. Temporomandibular joint arthroplasty for osteoarthrosis: A series of 24 patients that received a uni- or bilateral inter-positional silicone sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutault, F; Cavallier, Z; Lauwers, F; Prevost, A

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate mid-term results from using a silicone sheet for inter-positional arthroplasty in moderate or severe cases of osteoarthrosis of the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ). To also determine any remaining indications from this method. This retrospective study included patients that underwent surgery between 2008 and 2016. Pre- and post-operative mouth opening (MO), according to inter-incisal distance (mm) and pain score (PS: 0=no pain to 4=very severe pain) were recorded for 24 patients. Patients were divided according to thickness of the silicone sheet (group A: 1.0 mm, group B: 1.5 mm). The cohort included 22 females (92%). Mean age at surgery was 55 years±13 (26-80). Mean length of follow-up was 26 months±24 (6-80). Mean improvement in MO was 8.2 mm (+33%) and of PS was 1.7 (-68%). MO was not improved for two patients and worsened for one. PS score improved for all patients. No statistical difference was found between groups A and B. There was also a tendency for degradation of outcomes over time. The poor reputation of prosthetic discoplasty was not as evident in our series, even though anatomical and functional status seemed to deteriorate over time. This is because total-joint prosthetic replacement is often proposed instead. However, for elderly or fragile patients that have severe pain, and regarding cost-benefit aspects, conventional arthroplasty can still be discussed, especially since French national health-care insurance does not yet support TMJ prosthetic replacement for osteoarthrosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shyh Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

  17. A population of Langerin-positive dendritic cells in murine Peyer's patches involved in sampling β-glucan microparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdia De Jesus

    Full Text Available Glucan particles (GPs are 2-4 μm hollow, porous shells composed of 1,3-β-D-glucan that have been effectively used for oral targeted-delivery of a wide range of payloads, including small molecules, siRNA, DNA, and protein antigens. While it has been demonstrated that the transepithelial transport of GPs is mediated by Peyer's patch M cells, the fate of the GPs once within gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT is not known. Here we report that fluorescently labeled GPs administered to mice by gavage accumulate in CD11c+ DCs situated in Peyer's patch sub-epithelial dome (SED regions. GPs appeared in DCs within minutes after gavage and remained within the SED for days afterwards. The co-administration or sequential administration of GPs with differentially labeled GPs or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles demonstrated that the SED DC subpopulation in question was capable of internalizing particles of different sizes and material compositions. Phenotypic analysis identified the GP-containing DCs as being CD8α- and CD11blo/-, suggesting they are the so-called myeloid and/or double negative (DN subset(s of PP DCs. A survey of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs known to be expressed by leukocytes within the intestinal mucosa revealed that GP-containing SED DCs were positive for Langerin (CD207, a CLR with specificity for β-D-glucan and that has been shown to mediate the internalization of a wide range of microbial pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. The presence of Langerin+ DCs in the SED as determined by immunofluorescence was confirmed using Langerin E-GFP transgenic mice. In summary, our results demonstrate that following M cell-mediated transepithelial transport, GPs (and other micro/nanoparticles are sampled by a population of SED DCs distinguished from other Peyer's patch DC subsets by their expression of Langerin. Future studies will be aimed at defining the role of Langerin in antigen sampling and antigen presentation within

  18. Position-dependent correlation function from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 10 CMASS sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Wagner, Christian; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Schmidt, Fabian; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of the three-point function with the position-dependent correlation function from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 10 CMASS sample. This new observable measures the correlation between two-point functions of galaxy pairs within different subvolumes, ξ-circumflex (ř,ř L ), where ř L is the location of a subvolume, and the corresponding mean overdensities, δ-bar (ř L ). This correlation, which we call the 'integrated three-point function', iζ(r)≡(ξ-circumflex (ř,ř L )δ-bar (ř L )), measures a three-point function of two short- and one long-wavelength modes, and is generated by nonlinear gravitational evolution and possibly also by the physics of inflation. The iζ(r) measured from the BOSS data lies within the scatter of those from the mock galaxy catalogs in redshift space, yielding a ten-percent-level determination of the amplitude of iζ(r). The tree-level perturbation theory in redshift space predicts how this amplitude depends on the linear and quadratic nonlinear galaxy bias parameters (b 1 and b 2 ), as well as on the amplitude and linear growth rate of matter fluctuations (σ 8 and f). Combining iζ(r) with the constraints on b 1σ 8 and fσ 8 from the global two-point correlation function and that on σ 8 from the weak lensing signal of BOSS galaxies, we measure b 2 =0.41±0.41 (68% C.L.) assuming standard perturbation theory at the tree level and the local bias model

  19. Genomic Characterization of Nonclonal mcr-1-Positive Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from Clinical Samples in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srijan, Apichai; Margulieux, Katie R; Ruekit, Sirigade; Snesrud, Erik; Maybank, Rosslyn; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Kormanee, Rosarin; Sukhchat, Prawet; Sriyabhaya, Jossin; Hinkle, Mary; Crawford, John M; McGann, Patrick; Swierczewski, Brett E

    2018-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains are one of the most prevalent causes of nosocomial infections and pose an increasingly dangerous public health threat. The lack of remaining treatment options has resulted in the utilization of older drug classes, including colistin. As a drug of last resort, the discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance by mcr-1 denotes the potential development of pandrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. To address the emergence of the mcr-1 gene, 118 gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical samples collected at Queen Sirikit Naval Hospital in Chonburi, Thailand were screened for colistin resistance using automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing and conventional PCR screening. Two K. pneumoniae strains, QS17-0029 and QS17-0161, were positive for mcr-1, and both isolates were sequenced to closure using short- and long-read whole-genome sequencing. QS17-0029 carried 16 antibiotic resistance genes in addition to mcr-1, including 2 carbapenemases, bla NDM-1 and bla OXA-232 . QS17-0161 carried 13 antibiotic resistance genes in addition to mcr-1, including the extended-spectrum β-lactamase bla CTX-M-55 . Both isolates carried multiple plasmids, but mcr-1 was located alone on highly similar 33.9 Kb IncX4 plasmids in both isolates. The IncX4 plasmid shared considerable homology to other mcr-1-containing IncX4 plasmids. This is the first report of a clinical K. pneumoniae strain from Thailand carrying mcr-1 as well as the first strain to simultaneously carry mcr-1 and multiple carbapenemase genes (QS17-0029). The identification and characterization of these isolates serves to highlight the urgent need for continued surveillance and intervention in Southeast Asia, where extensively drug-resistant pathogens are being increasingly identified in hospital-associated infections.

  20. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  1. Waste tank vapor project: Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Data report for OVS samples collected from Sample Job 7b, Parts I and II, received 5/18/94 and 5/24/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.R.; Edwards, J.A.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    On 5/18/94, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) delivered samples to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/16/94. These samples were from Sample Job (SJ) 7b, Part 1. On 5/24/94, WHC delivered samples to PNL that were collected from waste Tank 241-C-103 on 5/18/94. These samples were from SJ7b, Part 2. A summary of data derived from the sampling of waste Tank 241-C-103 for gravimetric (H 2 O) and normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) concentrations are shown for SJ7b. Gravimetric analysis was performed on the samples within 24 hours of receipt by PNL. The NPH concentration of 10 samples collected for Part 1 was slightly higher than the average concentration for 15 samples collected in Part 2, 812 (± 133) mg/m 3 and 659 (± 88) mg/m 3 , respectively. The higher concentrations measured in Part 1 samples may be because the samples in Part 1 were collected at a single level, 0.79 meters above the air-liquid interface. Part 2 samples were collected at three different tank levels, 0.79, 2.92, and 5.05 m above the air-liquid interface. In Part 2, the average NPH concentrations for 5 samples collected at each of three levels was similar: 697 (60) mg/m 3 at the low level, 631 (51) mg/m 3 at the mid level, and 651 (134) mg/m 3 at the high level. It is important to note that the measured tridecane to dodecane concentration remained constant in all samples collected in Parts 1 and 2. That ratio is 1.2 ± 0.05. This consistent ratio indicates that there were no random analytical biases towards either compound

  2. Suicide risk in a representative sample of people receiving HIV care: Time to target most-at-risk populations (ANRS VESPA2 French national survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Marcellin, Fabienne; Fressard, Lisa; Préau, Marie; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Guagliardo, Valérie; Mora, Marion; Roux, Perrine; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Suicide risk is high among people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study aimed to identify major correlates of suicide risk in a representative sample of PLHIV in France, in order to help target individuals who would benefit from suicide risk screening and psychiatric care. The ANRS VESPA2 cross-sectional survey (April 2011-January 2012) collected socio-demographic, medical and behavioral data from 3,022 PLHIV recruited in 73 French HIV hospital departments. The study sample comprised the 2,973 participants with available self-reported data on suicide risk (defined as having either thought about and planned to commit suicide during the previous 12 months or attempted suicide during the same period of time) and medical data on comorbidities. Weighted Poisson models adjusted for HCV co-infection and significant clinical variables were used to estimate the relationship between suicide risk and HIV transmission groups, experience with HIV disease and other psychosocial factors. Suicide risk was reported by 6.3% of PLHIV in the study sample. After adjustment for HIV immunological status and HCV co-infection, women (IRR [95%CI]:1.93 [1.17; 3.19]) and men who have sex with men (MSM) (1.97 [1.22; 3.19]) had a higher suicide risk than the rest of the sample. Moreover, the number of discrimination-related social contexts reported (1.39 [1.19; 1.61]), homelessness (4.87 [1.82; 13.02]), and reporting a feeling of loneliness (4.62 [3.06; 6.97]) were major predictors of suicide risk. Reducing the burden of precarious social conditions and discrimination is an important lever for preventing suicide risk among PLHIV in France. Comprehensive care models involving peer/community social interventions targeted at women and MSM need to be implemented to lower the risk of suicide in these specific subgroups of PLHIV.

  3. Suicide risk in a representative sample of people receiving HIV care: Time to target most-at-risk populations (ANRS VESPA2 French national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patrizia Carrieri

    Full Text Available Suicide risk is high among people living with HIV (PLHIV. This study aimed to identify major correlates of suicide risk in a representative sample of PLHIV in France, in order to help target individuals who would benefit from suicide risk screening and psychiatric care.The ANRS VESPA2 cross-sectional survey (April 2011-January 2012 collected socio-demographic, medical and behavioral data from 3,022 PLHIV recruited in 73 French HIV hospital departments. The study sample comprised the 2,973 participants with available self-reported data on suicide risk (defined as having either thought about and planned to commit suicide during the previous 12 months or attempted suicide during the same period of time and medical data on comorbidities. Weighted Poisson models adjusted for HCV co-infection and significant clinical variables were used to estimate the relationship between suicide risk and HIV transmission groups, experience with HIV disease and other psychosocial factors.Suicide risk was reported by 6.3% of PLHIV in the study sample. After adjustment for HIV immunological status and HCV co-infection, women (IRR [95%CI]:1.93 [1.17; 3.19] and men who have sex with men (MSM (1.97 [1.22; 3.19] had a higher suicide risk than the rest of the sample. Moreover, the number of discrimination-related social contexts reported (1.39 [1.19; 1.61], homelessness (4.87 [1.82; 13.02], and reporting a feeling of loneliness (4.62 [3.06; 6.97] were major predictors of suicide risk.Reducing the burden of precarious social conditions and discrimination is an important lever for preventing suicide risk among PLHIV in France. Comprehensive care models involving peer/community social interventions targeted at women and MSM need to be implemented to lower the risk of suicide in these specific subgroups of PLHIV.

  4. Gender differences in the effects of community violence on mental health outcomes in a sample of low-income youth receiving psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdani, Shabnam; Abdul-Adil, Jaleel; Suarez, Liza; Nichols, Sara R; Farmer, A David

    2014-06-01

    Previous research suggests that community violence impacts mental health outcomes, but much of this research has not (a) distinguished between different types of community violence, (b) examined gender differences, and (c) focused on youth living in urban poverty. The current study addresses these questions. Participants were 306 youth (23 % girls) and one parent/guardian receiving outpatient psychiatric services for disruptive behavior disorders in a large urban city. Youth and parents reported on youth's experience of different types of community violence (being a direct victim, hearing reports, and witnessing violence), and whether violence was directed toward a stranger or familiar. Outcomes included youth externalizing, internalizing, and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed via parent and youth reports. Being a direct victim of violence accords risk for all mental health outcomes similarly for both boys and girls. However, gender differences emerged with respect to indirect violence, such that girls who hear reports of violence against people they know are at increased risk for all assessed mental health outcomes, and girls who witness violence against familiars are at increased risk for externalizing mental health symptoms in particular. There are gender differences in violence-related mental health etiology, with implications for intervention assessment and design.

  5. Exatidão de posicionamento de um receptor GPS, operando sob diferentes coberturas vegetais Evaluation of the accuracy of positioning a GPS receiver operating under different vegetation covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Angulo Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a exatidão de posicionamento planimétrico do receptor GPS Trimble/Pro-XL, operando sob diferentes condições de cobertura vegetal (pastagem, seringueira, eucalipto e pinus, o equipamento foi posicionado alternadamente sobre 6 pontos, locados ao acaso nas áreas de estudo, variando o tempo de permanência (1 , 5 e 10 min mas com a mesma taxa de aquisição de dados (1 s fazendo-se, posteriormente, a correção diferencial (DGPS pós-processada dos dados. Os pontos também tiveram suas coordenadas levantadas pelo método topográfico, segundo a NBR 13133 - Execução de Levantamento Topográfico, para fins de comparação. De acordo com o método empregado e os resultados obtidos, foi possível separar as exatidões de posicionamento planimétrico, conforme o tipo de cobertura vegetal, em dois grupos: sem e com cobertura arbórea confirmando, assim, a interferência do dossel na recepção dos sinais emitidos pelos satélites GPS. O aumento do tempo de permanência melhorou a exatidão de posicionamento planimétrico, o que ratifica a escolha da metodologia de levantamento como sendo fundamental para a obtenção de bons resultados de posicionamento.To evaluate planimetric positioning accuracy of a GPS receiver (Trimble/Pro-XL, operating under different conditions of vegetation cover (pasture, rubber trees, eucalyptus and pine trees, 6 control points were located randomly in the study area. For comparison, their coordinates were first obtained by a conventional surveying method, according to NBR 13133 of Brazilian Surveying Standards. Afterwards, the GPS receiver was positioned on those control points, maintaining the acquisition rate of 1 s while changing the time for 1, 5 and 10 min, the DGPS method was used to correct the positioning coordinate data. According to the methodology applied and the results obtained, it was possible to distinguish planimetric positioning accuracy, according to the vegetation cover, in two groups

  6. Validity and clinical utility of the DSM-5 severity specifier for bulimia nervosa: results from a multisite sample of patients who received evidence-based treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Bartoli, Francesco; Caslini, Manuela; Crocamo, Cristina; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    A new "severity specifier" for bulimia nervosa (BN), based on the frequency of inappropriate weight compensatory behaviours (IWCBs), was added to the DSM-5 as a means of documenting heterogeneity and variability in the severity of the disorder. Yet, evidence for its validity in clinical populations, including prognostic significance for treatment outcome, is currently lacking. Existing data from 281 treatment-seeking patients with DSM-5 BN, who received the best available treatment for their disorder (manual-based cognitive behavioural therapy; CBT) in an outpatient setting, were re-analysed to examine whether these patients subgrouped based on the DSM-5 severity levels would show meaningful and consistent differences on (a) a range of clinical variables assessed at pre-treatment and (b) post-treatment abstinence from IWCBs. Results highlight that the mild, moderate, severe, and extreme severity groups were statistically distinguishable on 22 variables assessed at pre-treatment regarding eating disorder pathological features, maintenance factors of BN, associated (current) and lifetime psychopathology, social maladjustment and illness-specific functional impairment, and abstinence outcome. Mood intolerance, a maintenance factor of BN but external to eating disorder pathological features (typically addressed within CBT), emerged as the primary clinical variable distinguishing the severity groups showing a differential treatment response. Overall, the findings speak to the concurrent and predictive validity of the new DSM-5 severity criterion for BN and are important because a common benchmark informing patients, clinicians, and researchers about severity of the disorder and allowing severity fluctuation and patient's progress to be tracked does not exist so far. Implications for future research are outlined.

  7. Testing predictive models of positive and negative affect with psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables in a multiethnic undergraduate sample

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Ben CH; Kwantes, Catherine T

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and popularity of research on positive and negative affect within the field of psychology, there is currently little research on affect involving the examination of cultural variables and with participants of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. To the authors’ knowledge, currently no empirical studies have comprehensively examined predictive models of positive and negative affect based specifically on multiple psychosocial, acculturation, and coping variables as pr...

  8. Assessment of the plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique for pesticide adsorption and degradation on 'as-received' treated soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J P; Nsouli, B; Darwish, T; Fallavier, M; Khoury, R; Wehbé, N

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of the plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PD-TOFMS) technique as a tool for direct characterization of pesticides adsorbed on agricultural soil is made for the first time in this study. Pellets of soils impregnated by solutions of three pesticides, namely norflurazon, malathion and oxyfluorfen, as well as deposits of these solutions onto aluminum surfaces, were investigated to this end. The yield values of the most characteristic peaks of the negative ion mass spectra were used to determine both the lowest concentrations detected on soils and limits of detection from thin films. The lowest values on soils are for malathion (1000 ppm range), and the largest for norflurazon (20,000 ppm), which is close to the limit of detection (LOD) found for the pesticide on the aluminum substrate (approximately 0.2 microg . cm(-2)). Different behaviors were observed as a function of time of storage in the ambient atmosphere or under vacuum; norflurazon adsorbed on soil exhibited high stability for a long period of time, and a rapid degradation of malathion with the elapsed time was clearly observed. The behavior of oxyfluorfen was also investigated but segregation processes seem to occur after several days. Although by far less sensitive than conventional methods based on extraction processes and used for real-world analytical applications, this technique is well suited to the study of the transformations occurring at the sample surface. A discussion is presented of the future prospects of such experiments in degradation studies. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Roellig

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL, and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent "head to head" re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA. Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US.

  10. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  11. A novel tripod-driven platform for in-situ positioning of samples and electrical probes in a TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medford, B D; Rogers, B L; Laird, D; Berdunov, N; Beton, P H; Lockwood, A J; Gnanavel, T; Guan, W; Wang, J; Moebus, G; Inkson, B J

    2010-01-01

    We present a design for a novel coarse positioning system based on a tilting platform which is positioned using linear slip/stick motors. The design differs from common arrangements of stacked x, y, and z motors, and also ball mounted slip/stick motors, by allowing easy access along the central axis of the microscope holder. The drive motors are highly compact and co-linear and may be easily incorporated in an off-axis configuration, leaving a central cylindrical region with an approximate diameter of 3mm which is available to accommodate screened electrical wiring and optical fibres. We show that the tripod can be used to manoeuvre two metallic tips towards each other in-situ in a TEM in nanometre-scale lateral steps.

  12. Subtypes of depressive symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers: An exploratory study on a sample of HIV-positive patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pala, A. Norcini; Steca, P.; Bagrodia, R.; Helpman, L.; Colangeli, V.; Viale, P.; Wainberg, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms cause major impairment and may accelerate HIV progression despite the use of antiretroviral medication. The somatic symptoms criteria for HIV infection and depression partially overlap, which can make differential diagnosis challenging. Because of chronic inflammation caused by HIV infection, HIV-positive patients may develop somatic and affective-cognitive symptoms of depression. Inflammation-related depression is primarily characterized with severe somatic symptoms such ...

  13. Evaluation of human papillomavirus detection by Abbott m2000 system on samples collected by FTA Elute™ Card in a Chinese HIV-1 positive population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Zhang, Hongyun; Marlowe, Natalia; Fei, Mandong; Yu, Judy; Lei, Xiaoqin; Yu, Lulu; Zhang, Jia; Cao, Di; Ma, Li; Chen, Wen

    2016-12-01

    HIV+/AIDS women have an increased risk of developing into CIN and cervical cancer compared to the general population. Limited medical resource and the lack of AIDS relevant knowledge impair the coverage and efficiency of cervical cancer screening. To compare the clinical performance of self-collected dry storage medium (FTA Elute card) and physician-collected PreservCyt medium in detection of high risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) among HIV-1 positive population. Three hundred HIV-1 positive women (aged 25-65) were recruited from Yunnan infectious hospital. Two cervicovaginal samples were collected from each participant: one was collected by the women themselves and applied on a FTA Elute card; the other one was collected by a physician and stored in PreservCyt solution. All the samples were tested for 14 HR HPV using Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay. Biopsies were taken for histological diagnosis if any abnormal impression was noticed under colposcopy. 291 (97.0%) of participants were eligible for this study. 101 (34.70%) participants were found HR HPV positive in both FTA card and PreservCyt samples, and 19 (6.53%) women were diagnosed as CIN2+. The HR HPV positive rate on samples collected by FTA Elute card and PreservCyt solution was 42.61% and 39.86%, respectively. The overall agreement was 87% (kappa=0.731) between FTA card and PreservCyt. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of FTA card and PreservCyt were 100%, 61.39% and 100%, 64.33%, respectively. In this study, FTA Elute card demonstrated a good performance on self-collected sample for HR HPV detection in HIV-1 positive population. For the women from low-resource area with HIV-1 infection, FTA Elute card could be an attractive sample collection method for cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of Antigen Detection and Nested PCR in CSF Samples of HIV Positive and Negative Patients with Suspected Cryptococcal Meningitis in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sunita; Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Dharmendra Prasad; Yadav, Ramakant

    2016-04-01

    The cases of cryptococcal meningitis and other forms of cryptococcosis have increased in recent time and the present scenario of the condition with significant morbidity and mortality is actually posing a serious threat to the community, so an early and prompt diagnosis is necessary to prevent serious complications and thus improving the overall disease outcome. Comparison of diagnostic efficacy of nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) in the Cerebro Spinal Fluid (CSF) samples of the cases of meningitis in HIV positive and negative cases. We have compared the diagnostic efficacy of Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) with nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in 200 Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) samples, including 14 HIV positive also, in the cases of suspected cryptococcal meningitis. Nested PCR was done in all cases reporting positive by LAT and results were then compared with that of India ink and culture on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA), and the isolates were further identified by urease, nitrate and sugar assimilation tests. Of the 200 cases, including 14 HIV positive, LAT was positive in 46 cases while 154 were negative. Out of these 46 LAT positive cases, nested PCR was positive in 40 cases only, while culture and India ink was positive in 38 and 33 cases respectively. Majority of the cases, 30 (65.2%) were between age group 21-50 years, while 2 (4.3%) in 0-20, and 14 (30.4%) in 51-80 years age group. Although negative staining like India ink and nigrosin are most widely used techniques, but these suffer with subjective error. Rapid method like LAT is available but it always has the scope of false positive and negative results. In such cases nested PCR can help in establishing final diagnosis.

  15. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.

  16. Corps Helicopter Attack Planning System (CHAPS). Positional Handbook. Appendix A. Messages. Appendix B. Statespace Construction Sample Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Analysis 11.7.1 The Text Summary A sample of the textual summary is shown in Figure 11.7-I. Mission number, helicopter type, route section, and mode...heading for the previous leg. The third line of the text summary provides total route figures for approximate I fuel consumed, distance and danger...Routing. ...... ............. 11-12 11.6.3 Route Output .. ....... ......... 11-12 11.7 MANUALLY MODIFYING ROUTES .. .......... 11-12 11.7.1 The Text

  17. Factors in selecting serum samples for use in determining the positive/negative threshold (cut-off) in ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The threshold (cut-off) that defines whether a test result is seropositive or seronegative is calculated by testing serum samples from a subpopulation of animals that is assumed to represent the target population in all aspects. For this proposition to be true, it is essential to consider the variables in the target population that must be represented in the subpopulation. Without representation of the variables in the subpopulation, it is likely that the cut-off selected for the test will be errant and will misclassify animals as to their infection status. The purpose of this paper is to identify a few of the principal variables that need to be taken into account when selecting a subpopulation of animals for test validation. (author)

  18. Positive and negative psychological correlates, gender specific and traditional factors for first onset angina in a sample of pakistani women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, R.; Anjum, A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Methods: Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85 % of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49 % of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional

  19. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES, GENDER SPECIFIC AND TRADITIONAL FACTORS FOR FIRST ONSET ANGINA IN A SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Rafia; Anjum, Afifa

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85% of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49% of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional studies, to be tailored

  20. Evaluation of positive Rift Valley fever virus formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples as a source of sequence data for retrospective phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubemba, B; Thompson, P N; Odendaal, L; Coetzee, P; Venter, E H

    2017-05-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), caused by an arthropod borne Phlebovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, is a haemorrhagic disease that affects ruminants and humans. Due to the zoonotic nature of the virus, a biosafety level 3 laboratory is required for isolation of the virus. Fresh and frozen samples are the preferred sample type for isolation and acquisition of sequence data. However, these samples are scarce in addition to posing a health risk to laboratory personnel. Archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are safe and readily available, however FFPE derived RNA is in most cases degraded and cross-linked in peptide bonds and it is unknown whether the sample type would be suitable as reference material for retrospective phylogenetic studies. A RT-PCR assay targeting a 490 nt portion of the structural G N glycoprotein encoding gene of the RVFV M-segment was applied to total RNA extracted from archived RVFV positive FFPE samples. Several attempts to obtain target amplicons were unsuccessful. FFPE samples were then analysed using next generation sequencing (NGS), i.e. Truseq ® (Illumina) and sequenced on the Miseq ® genome analyser (Illumina). Using reference mapping, gapped virus sequence data of varying degrees of shallow depth was aligned to a reference sequence. However, the NGS did not yield long enough contigs that consistently covered the same genome regions in all samples to allow phylogenetic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  2. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and suicidal behavior: evidence for a positive association in a sample of depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Gabriel; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    To explore the association between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) and suicidal behavior. Subjects referred for a psychiatric consultation were evaluated with structured interviews for mood and personality disorders (the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders), a history of suicidal behavior, and levels of coping. A total of 311 subjects were investigated using a 3-group design to test the association between OCPD and suicidal behavior, controlling for the presence of depression. Subjects with OCPD and a history of depression were compared to depressed subjects without any Axis II diagnosis and to subjects without depression or personality disorders. The study was conducted at Verdun Community Psychiatric Clinic, Douglas Hospital, McGill University, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and subjects were recruited from 2003 until 2005. Subjects in the comorbid OCPD-depression group presented increased current and lifetime suicide ideation compared to the groups with depression alone or without depression or personality disorders (P = .004); they also had increased history of suicide attempts (P = .04), which were often multiple attempts (P = .01). They also scored lower on the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) and the Death Anxiety Questionnaire. Interestingly, comorbid OCPD-depression patients differed from patients with depression alone on the Moral Objections items of the RFL, on which individuals with OCPD-depression scored lowest. Limitations of this study were its cross-sectional design, retrospective sample, and limited generalizability to the population at large. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is a factor increasing risk for nonfatal suicidal behavior independently of risk conferred by depressive disorders. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Choosing a design to fit the situation: how to improve specificity and positive predictive values using Bayesian lot quality assurance sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Background Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a provably useful tool for monitoring health programmes. Although LQAS ensures acceptable Producer and Consumer risks, the literature alleges that the method suffers from poor specificity and positive predictive values (PPVs). We suggest that poor LQAS performance is due, in part, to variation in the true underlying distribution. However, until now the role of the underlying distribution in expected performance has not been adequately examined.

  4. High positive predictive value of Gram stain on catheter-drawn blood samples for the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection in intensive care neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleers, M; Dodémont, M; Van Overmeire, B; Hennequin, Y; Vermeylen, D; Roisin, S; Denis, O

    2016-04-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) remain a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections in preterm infants. Rapid and accurate methods for the diagnosis of CRBSIs are needed in order to implement timely and appropriate treatment. A retrospective study was conducted during a 7-year period (2005-2012) in the neonatal intensive care unit of the University Hospital Erasme to assess the value of Gram stain on catheter-drawn blood samples (CDBS) to predict CRBSIs. Both peripheral samples and CDBS were obtained from neonates with clinically suspected CRBSI. Gram stain, automated culture and quantitative cultures on blood agar plates were performed for each sample. The paired quantitative blood culture was used as the standard to define CRBSI. Out of 397 episodes of suspected CRBSIs, 35 were confirmed by a positive ratio of quantitative culture (>5) or a colony count of CDBS culture >100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. All but two of the 30 patients who had a CDBS with a positive Gram stain were confirmed as having a CRBSI. Seven patients who had a CDBS with a negative Gram stain were diagnosed as CRBSI. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Gram stain on CDBS were 80, 99.4, 93.3 and 98.1 %, respectively. Gram staining on CDBS is a viable method for rapidly (<1 h) detecting CRBSI without catheter withdrawal.

  5. A Geometry-Based Cycle Slip Detection and Repair Method with Time-Differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP for a Single Frequency Global Position System (GPS + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Qian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As the field of high-precision applications based on carriers continues to expand, the development of low-cost, small, modular receivers and their application in diverse scenarios and situations with complex data quality has increased the requirements of carrier-phase data preprocessing. A new geometry-based cycle slip detection and repair method based on Global Position System (GPS + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS is proposed. The method uses a Time-differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP model, which eliminates the Inner-System Bias (ISB between GPS and BDS, and it is conducive to the effective combination of GPS and BDS. It avoids the interference of the noise of the pseudo-range with cycle slip detection, while the cycle slips are preserved as integers. This method does not limit the receiver frequency number, and it is applicable to single-frequency data. The process is divided into two steps to detect and repair cycle slip. The first step is cycle slip detection, using the Improved Local Analysis Method (ILAM to find satellites that have cycle slips; The second step is to repair the cycle slips, including estimating the float solution of changes in ambiguities at the satellites that have cycle slips with the least squares method and the integer solution of the cycle slips by rounding. In the process of rounding, in addition to the success probability, a decimal test is carried out to validate the result. Finally, experiments with filed test data are carried out to prove the effectiveness of this method. The results show that the detectable cycle slips number with GPS + BDS is much greater than that with GPS. The method can also detect the non-integer outliers while fixing the cycle slip. The maximum decimal bias in repair is less than that with GPS. It implies that this method takes full advantages of multi-system.

  6. Dealing with Daily Challenges in Dementia (Deal-id Study): An Experience Sampling Study to Assess Caregivers' Sense of Competence and Experienced Positive Affect in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Rosalia J M; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Ponds, Rudolf W; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Verhey, Frans R J

    2017-08-01

    Positive emotions and feelings of competence seem to play an important role in the well-being of caregivers of people with dementia. Both are likely to fluctuate constantly throughout the caretaking process. Unlike standard retrospective methods, momentary assessments in daily life can provide insight into these moment-to-moment fluctuations. Therefore, in this study both retrospective and momentary assessments were used to examine the relationship between caregivers' sense of competence and their experienced positive affect (PA) in daily life. Thirty Dutch caregivers provided momentary data on PA and daily sense of competence ratings for 6 consecutive days using the experience sampling methodology. Additionally, they reported retrospectively on their sense of competence with a traditional questionnaire. A positive association was found between retrospective and daily measured sense of competence. Caregivers reported corresponding levels of sense of competence on both measures. Both daily and retrospective sense of competence were positively associated with the experienced levels of PA. However, daily sense of competence appeared to be the strongest predictor. Regarding the variability in PA, only daily sense of competence showed a significant association, with a higher daily sense of competence predicting a more stable PA pattern. This study provides support for redirecting caregiver support interventions toward enhancement of positive rather than negative experiences and focusing more on caregivers' momentary emotional experiences. Momentary assessments are a valuable addition to standard retrospective measures and provide a more comprehensive and dynamic view of caregiver functioning. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Positive random variables with a discrete probability mass at the origin: Parameter estimation for left-censored samples with application to air quality monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogolak, C.V.

    1986-11-01

    The concentration of a contaminant measured in a particular medium might be distributed as a positive random variable when it is present, but it may not always be present. If there is a level below which the concentration cannot be distinguished from zero by the analytical apparatus, a sample from such a population will be censored on the left. The presence of both zeros and positive values in the censored portion of such samples complicates the problem of estimating the parameters of the underlying positive random variable and the probability of a zero observation. Using the method of maximum likelihood, it is shown that the solution to this estimation problem reduces largely to that of estimating the parameters of the distribution truncated at the point of censorship. The maximum likelihood estimate of the proportion of zero values follows directly. The derivation of the maximum likelihood estimates for a lognormal population with zeros is given in detail, and the asymptotic properties of the estimates are examined. The estimation method was used to fit several different distributions to a set of severely censored 85 Kr monitoring data from six locations at the Savannah River Plant chemical separations facilities

  8. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  9. An experience sampling study of physical activity and positive affect: investigating the role of situational motivation and perceived intensity across time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE] and positive affect at the stated time points. This study employed an experience sampling design using electronic questionnaires. Sixty-six healthy and active, multiple-role women provided recurrent assessments of their physical activity, situational motivation, and positive affect in their everyday lives over a 14-day period. Specifically, measures were obtained at the three time points of interest (i.e., pre-, post-, 3-hours post-physical activity. The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that intrinsic motivation was related to post-physical activity positive affect while the influence of identified regulation appeared 3-hours post-physical activity. In addition, RPE, which was significantly predicted by levels of introjection, was more strongly associated with an increase in positive affect post-physical activity than three hours later. The theoretical implications of these findings vis-à vis SDT, namely in regards to a viable motivational sequence predicting the influence of physical activity on affective states, are discussed. The findings regarding the differential influences of RPE and motivational regulations carries applications for facilitating women’s well-being.

  10. An Experience Sampling Study of Physical Activity and Positive Affect: Investigating the Role of Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity Across Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S; Sweet, Shane N

    2013-04-18

    The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT) on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE)] and positive affect at the stated time points. This study employed an experience sampling design using electronic questionnaires. Sixty-six healthy and active, multiple-role women provided recurrent assessments of their physical activity, situational motivation, and positive affect in their everyday lives over a 14-day period. Specifically, measures were obtained at the three time points of interest (i.e., pre-, post-, 3-hours post-physical activity). The data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that intrinsic motivation was related to post-physical activity positive affect while the influence of identified regulation appeared 3-hours post-physical activity. In addition, RPE, which was significantly predicted by levels of introjection, was more strongly associated with an increase in positive affect post-physical activity than three hours later. The theoretical implications of these findings vis-à vis SDT, namely in regards to a viable motivational sequence predicting the influence of physical activity on affective states, are discussed. The findings regarding the differential influences of RPE and motivational regulations carries applications for facilitating women's well-being.

  11. Stroke survivors and their families receive information and support on an individual basis from an online forum: descriptive analysis of a population of 2348 patients and qualitative study of a sample of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simoni, Anna; Shanks, Andrew; Balasooriya-Smeekens, Chantal; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-04-06

    To describe the characteristics of participants of an online stroke forum, their reasons for posting in the forum and whether responses addressed users' needs. Descriptive analysis of the population of 2004-2011 archives of Talkstroke, the online forum of the Stroke Association, and comparison with patients admitted to hospital with stroke (Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme, SSNAP). Thematic analysis of posts from a sample of 59 participants representative of age at stroke and sex. UK. Characteristics of participants: age, sex, survivor versus patient by third party, side of stroke (R, L), social class; (from the sample of 59 participants): level of disability, stroke type, classification of users' intents for writing a post in the forum, quantification of needs addressed by the forum, topics of discussion. 2348 participants (957 stroke survivors, 1391 patients with stroke talked about by third party). Patients of both sexes and from a wide range of ages at stroke (0 to 95 years) and degrees of disability were represented in the forum, although younger than the UK stroke population (mean age 52 years vs 77 years in SSNAP). Analysis of 841 posts showed that the main users' intents for writing in the forum were requests/offers of information and support (58%) and sharing own experiences of stroke (35%). Most information needs were around stroke-related physical impairments, understanding the cause of stroke and the potential for recovery. Up to 95% of the users' intents were met by the replies received. Patients' needs expressed in the online forum confirm and widen the evidence from traditional research studies, showing that such forums are a potential resource for studying needs in this population. The forum provided an opportunity for patients and families to give and receive advice and social support. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Human papillomavirus in anal biopsy tissues and liquid-based cytology samples of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Thai men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tippawan Pankam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV-related anal cancer. We compared HPV genotypes in anal tissues (Bx and anal liquid-based cytology fluid (LBC from HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. Methods: Bx (32 normal, 41 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and 22 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, along with LBC from the same visit, were selected from 61 HIV-positive and 34 HIV-negative MSM who enrolled into a prospective cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. HPV genotyping was performed on Bx and LBC. Results: Any HPV and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence were 63.2% and 60.0% in Bx and 71.6% and 62.1% in LBC, respectively. HIV-positive MSM had higher rates of HR-HPV genotypes detection (70.5% vs. 47.1%, p=0.03 in LBC than HIV-negative MSM. HPV16 (27% was the most common HR-HPV found in HSIL tissue. In HIV-positive MSM, the frequency of HR-HPV detection increased with histopathologic grading in both Bx and LBC samples. HSIL was associated with the presence of any HR-HPV(OR 7.6 (95%CI 1.8–31.9; P=0.006 in LBC and in Bx((OR 5.6 (95%CI 1.4–22.7; P=0.02. Conclusions: Our data strongly support the integration of HR-HPV screening on LBC samples, along with HPV vaccination, into an anal cancer prevention program. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Anal tissues, Men who have sex with men, HIV, Thailand

  13. Comparison of substance use and risky sexual behavior among a diverse sample of urban, HIV-positive men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Laura A.; Horvath, Keith J.; Jacoby, Scott M.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    Aims To measure substance use across racial and ethnic subgroups of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), model associations between drug use and unsafe sex, and characterize users of the substances most strongly associated with risky sexual behavior. Design Cross-sectional survey at the pre-intervention time point of the Positive Connections behavioral intervention trial. Setting HIV-positive men of color who have sex with men living in six US cities. Participants 675 trial participants. Measurements Self-reported drug and alcohol use and sexual behaviors. Findings We found high prevalence of substance use in this sample, with differences across racial and ethnic groups. Compared to Hispanic, African America, and men of other or mixed races/ethnicities, Caucasian men were most likely to report use of stimulants (30%), methamphetamines (27%), and amyl nitrite inhalants (“poppers”, 46%) with anal sex. African American men reported crack/cocaine use in the highest proportion (38%) among the four groups. While many drugs were individually associated with serodiscordant unprotected anal intercourse (SDUAI), only alcohol quantity and poppers with sex were retained in a multivariate model. More frequent poppers use was associated with more reported instances of SDUAI, adjusted for increased anal sex. Men who used poppers were more likely to be white, have completed more education, and have slightly higher income than non-users. Poppers users also reported lower peer norms and self-efficacy for condom use. In a multiple logistic regression model including these psychosocial factors, only poppers use (vs non-use OR = 2.46, CI: 1.55, 3.94) and condom self-efficacy (1 sd increase on scale OR = .58, CI: .46, .73) were significantly associated with SDUAI. Conclusion These results, from a large sample of HIV-positive MSM of color, highlight the HIV transmission importance of drugs used specifically in conjunction with sex. PMID:20155589

  14. Solvent Front Position Extraction procedure with thin-layer chromatography as a mode of multicomponent sample preparation for quantitative analysis by instrumental technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek-Turek, A; Sikora, E; Dzido, T H

    2017-12-29

    A concept of using thin-layer chromatography to multicomponent sample preparation for quantitative determination of solutes followed by instrumental technique is presented. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is used to separate chosen substances and their internal standard from other components (matrix) and to form a single spot/zone containing them at the solvent front position. The location of the analytes and internal standard in the solvent front zone allows their easy extraction followed by quantitation by HPLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  16. A Nested PCR Assay to Avoid False Positive Detection of the Microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in Environmental Samples in Shrimp Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroenlak, Pattana; Sanguanrut, Piyachat; Williams, Bryony A. P.; Stentiford, Grant D.; Flegel, Timothy W.; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2016-01-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an important disease of cultivated shrimp. Heavy infections may lead to retarded growth and unprofitable harvests. Existing PCR detection methods target the EHP small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene (SSU-PCR). However, we discovered that they can give false positive test results due to cross reactivity of the SSU-PCR primers with DNA from closely related microsporidia that infect other aquatic organisms. This is problematic for investigating and monitoring EHP infection pathways. To overcome this problem, a sensitive and specific nested PCR method was developed for detection of the spore wall protein (SWP) gene of EHP (SWP-PCR). The new SWP-PCR method did not produce false positive results from closely related microsporidia. The first PCR step of the SWP-PCR method was 100 times (104 plasmid copies per reaction vial) more sensitive than that of the existing SSU-PCR method (106 copies) but sensitivity was equal for both in the nested step (10 copies). Since the hepatopancreas of cultivated shrimp is not currently known to be infected with microsporidia other than EHP, the SSU-PCR methods are still valid for analyzing hepatopancreatic samples despite the lower sensitivity than the SWP-PCR method. However, due to its greater specificity and sensitivity, we recommend that the SWP-PCR method be used to screen for EHP in feces, feed and environmental samples for potential EHP carriers. PMID:27832178

  17. Primary Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis and Utility of Line Probe Assay for Its Detection in Smear-Positive Sputum Samples in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmiya Leena Yacoob

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a high tuberculosis burdened country like India, rapid, cost-effective, and reliable diagnostic tools for tuberculosis are an urgent need of the hour to prevent inappropriate treatment strategies and further spread of resistance. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of new smear-positive tuberculosis cases with primary resistance to rifampicin and/or isoniazid as well as identify the common mutations associated with it. Sputum of 200 newly diagnosed smear-positive cases of 1+ score and above was directly subjected to Line Probe Assay using the GenoType MTBDRplus assay kit. All samples were inoculated onto solid media and 61 samples were inoculated in automated liquid culture also. The Line Probe Assay gave hundred percent interpretable results with 2.5% of the study population showing resistant pattern. Only 1% of the cases were primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis and 1.5% showed isoniazid monoresistance. S531L and C15T were the most common genetic mutations seen for rifampicin and isoniazid resistance, respectively. 40% had absent rpoB wild type 8 band indicating probable silent mutation after clinical correlation. The average turnaround time for Line Probe Assay was far less (3.8 days as compared to solid and liquid cultures (35.6 days and 13.5 days, resp..

  18. Primary Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis and Utility of Line Probe Assay for Its Detection in Smear-Positive Sputum Samples in a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoob, Fahmiya Leena; Philomina Jose, Beena; Karunakaran Lelitha, Sarada Devi; Sreenivasan, Sreelatha

    2016-01-01

    In a high tuberculosis burdened country like India, rapid, cost-effective, and reliable diagnostic tools for tuberculosis are an urgent need of the hour to prevent inappropriate treatment strategies and further spread of resistance. This study aimed to estimate the proportion of new smear-positive tuberculosis cases with primary resistance to rifampicin and/or isoniazid as well as identify the common mutations associated with it. Sputum of 200 newly diagnosed smear-positive cases of 1+ score and above was directly subjected to Line Probe Assay using the GenoType MTBDRplus assay kit. All samples were inoculated onto solid media and 61 samples were inoculated in automated liquid culture also. The Line Probe Assay gave hundred percent interpretable results with 2.5% of the study population showing resistant pattern. Only 1% of the cases were primary multidrug resistant tuberculosis and 1.5% showed isoniazid monoresistance. S531L and C15T were the most common genetic mutations seen for rifampicin and isoniazid resistance, respectively. 40% had absent rpoB wild type 8 band indicating probable silent mutation after clinical correlation. The average turnaround time for Line Probe Assay was far less (3.8 days) as compared to solid and liquid cultures (35.6 days and 13.5 days, resp.).

  19. A Nested PCR Assay to Avoid False Positive Detection of the Microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) in Environmental Samples in Shrimp Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroenlak, Pattana; Sanguanrut, Piyachat; Williams, Bryony A P; Stentiford, Grant D; Flegel, Timothy W; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Itsathitphaisarn, Ornchuma

    2016-01-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an important disease of cultivated shrimp. Heavy infections may lead to retarded growth and unprofitable harvests. Existing PCR detection methods target the EHP small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene (SSU-PCR). However, we discovered that they can give false positive test results due to cross reactivity of the SSU-PCR primers with DNA from closely related microsporidia that infect other aquatic organisms. This is problematic for investigating and monitoring EHP infection pathways. To overcome this problem, a sensitive and specific nested PCR method was developed for detection of the spore wall protein (SWP) gene of EHP (SWP-PCR). The new SWP-PCR method did not produce false positive results from closely related microsporidia. The first PCR step of the SWP-PCR method was 100 times (104 plasmid copies per reaction vial) more sensitive than that of the existing SSU-PCR method (106 copies) but sensitivity was equal for both in the nested step (10 copies). Since the hepatopancreas of cultivated shrimp is not currently known to be infected with microsporidia other than EHP, the SSU-PCR methods are still valid for analyzing hepatopancreatic samples despite the lower sensitivity than the SWP-PCR method. However, due to its greater specificity and sensitivity, we recommend that the SWP-PCR method be used to screen for EHP in feces, feed and environmental samples for potential EHP carriers.

  20. Advantages of analyzing postmortem brain samples in routine forensic drug screening-Case series of three non-natural deaths tested positive for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardal, Marie; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Thomsen, Ragnar; Linnet, Kristian

    2017-09-01

    Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). LSD was measured in the brain tissue of all presented cases at a concentration level from 0.34-10.8μg/kg. The concentration level in the target organ was higher than in peripheral blood. Additional psychoactive compounds were quantified in blood and brain tissue, though all below toxic concentration levels. The cause of death in case 1 was collision-induced brain injury, while it was drowning in case 2 and 3 and thus not drug intoxication. However, the toxicological findings could help explain the decedent's inability to cope with brain injury or drowning incidents. The presented findings could help establish reference concentrations in brain samples and assist in interpretation of results from forensic drug screening in brain tissue. This is to the author's knowledge the first report of LSD, iso-LSD, and oxo-HO-LSD measured in brain tissue samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Choosing a design to fit the situation: how to improve specificity and positive predictive values using Bayesian lot quality assurance sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello

    2013-02-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a provably useful tool for monitoring health programmes. Although LQAS ensures acceptable Producer and Consumer risks, the literature alleges that the method suffers from poor specificity and positive predictive values (PPVs). We suggest that poor LQAS performance is due, in part, to variation in the true underlying distribution. However, until now the role of the underlying distribution in expected performance has not been adequately examined. We present Bayesian-LQAS (B-LQAS), an approach to incorporating prior information into the choice of the LQAS sample size and decision rule, and explore its properties through a numerical study. Additionally, we analyse vaccination coverage data from UNICEF's State of the World's Children in 1968-1989 and 2008 to exemplify the performance of LQAS and B-LQAS. Results of our numerical study show that the choice of LQAS sample size and decision rule is sensitive to the distribution of prior information, as well as to individual beliefs about the importance of correct classification. Application of the B-LQAS approach to the UNICEF data improves specificity and PPV in both time periods (1968-1989 and 2008) with minimal reductions in sensitivity and negative predictive value. LQAS is shown to be a robust tool that is not necessarily prone to poor specificity and PPV as previously alleged. In situations where prior or historical data are available, B-LQAS can lead to improvements in expected performance.

  2. Assessment and management of bone health in women with oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer receiving endocrine therapy: Position statement of the Endocrine Society of Australia, the Australian and New Zealand Bone & Mineral Society, the Australasian Menopause Society and the Clinical Oncology Society of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Mathis; Ramchand, Sabashini; Milat, Frances; Vincent, Amanda; Lim, Elgene; Kotowicz, Mark A; Hicks, Jill; Teede, Helena

    2018-05-09

    To formulate clinical consensus recommendations on bone health assessment and management of women with oestrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer receiving endocrine therapy. Representatives appointed by relevant Australian Medical Societies used a systematic approach for adaptation of guidelines (ADAPTE) to derive an evidence-informed position statement addressing five key questions. Women receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors and the subset of premenopausal woman on tamoxifen have accelerated bone loss and increased fracture risk. Both bisphosphonates and denosumab prevent bone loss, additionally denosumab has proven anti-fracture benefit. Women considering endocrine therapy need fracture risk assessment, including clinical risk factors, biochemistry and bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, with monitoring based on risk factors. Weight-bearing exercise, vitamin D and calcium sufficiency is recommended routinely. Antiresorptive treatment should be considered in women with prevalent or incident clinical or morphometric fractures, a T-score (or Z-scores in women <50 years) of <-2.0 at any site, or if annual bone loss is ≥5%, considering baseline BMD and other fracture risk factors. Duration of antiresorptive treatment can be individualised based on absolute fracture risk. Relative to their skeletal benefits, risks of adverse events with antiresorptive treatments are low. Skeletal health should be considered in the decision-making process regarding choice and duration of endocrine therapy. Before and during endocrine therapy, skeletal health should be assessed regularly, optimised by nonpharmacological intervention and where indicated antiresorptive treatment, in an individualised, multidisciplinary approach. Clinical trials are needed to better delineate long-term fracture risks of adjuvant endocrine therapy, and to determine the efficacy of interventions designed to minimise these risks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This

  3. Self- versus physician-collected samples for the follow-up of human papillomavirus-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviano M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Manuela Viviano,1,* Phuong Lien Tran,1,* Bruno Kenfack,2 Rosa Catarino,1 Mohamed Akaaboune,1,† Liliane Temogne,2 Eveline Tincho Foguem,2 Pierre Vassilakos,3 Patrick Petignat1 1Gynecology Division, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon; 3Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Geneva, Switzerland *These authors contributed equally to the work †MA passed away on July 31, 2017 Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV testing is a suitable tool for primary cervical cancer (CC screening and follow-up in low-resource settings. Vaginal samples taken by women themselves (Self-HPV are an interesting alternative to physician-performed sampling (Dr-HPV. Our aim was to assess the performance of Self-HPV and Dr-HPV at 6 and 12 months following a CC screening campaign. Methods: This study was carried out at the Dschang District Hospital, Cameroon. Women aged 30–49 years were recruited in a CC screening campaign. HPV-positive women, of whom 2/3 were treated with thermoablation because of abnormal results at baseline screening, were invited to participate in a follow-up study. Self- and Dr-HPV, as well as cytology, were performed at 6 and 12 months. HPV samples were analyzed using the Xpert HPV assay. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse and of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse were calculated for Self-HPV and Dr-HPV, using cytology as the reference diagnosis. Results: Overall, 188 HPV-positive women were invited to attend follow-up. The obtained follow-up visits’ attendance was 154 (81.9% and 131 (69.7% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. While the overall performance of Dr-HPV at 6 months was slightly superior, Self-HPV showed an improved sensitivity for HSIL+ detection at 12 months when compared with Dr-HPV (83.3% [95% CI 41.8–98.9] versus 71.4% [95% CI 21.5–95

  4. Drug assertiveness and sexual risk-taking behavior in a sample of HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; McQuaid, John R; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-10-01

    Drug assertiveness skills have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing substance use behaviors among patients with alcohol or heroin use disorders. This study examined the association between drug assertiveness and methamphetamine use, psychological factors, and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 250 HIV-positive men who have sex with men enrolled in a safer sex intervention in San Diego, CA. Less assertiveness in turning down drugs was associated with greater frequency and larger amounts of methamphetamine use, lower self-esteem, higher scores on a measure of sexual sensation seeking, and greater attendance at risky sexual venues. These data suggest that drug assertiveness training should be incorporated into drug abuse treatment programs and other risk reduction interventions for methamphetamine users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Advantages of analyzing postmortem brain samples in routine forensic drug screening—case series of three non-natural deaths tested positive for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Thomsen, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma...... and urine when available. LSD, its main metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (oxo-HO-LSD), and iso-LSD were quantified in biological samples according to a previously published procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography − tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC......-MS/MS). LSD was measured in the brain tissue of all presented cases at a concentration level from 0.34 −10.8 μg/kg. The concentration level in the target organ was higher than in peripheral blood. Additional psychoactive compounds were quantified in blood and brain tissue, though all below toxic concentration...

  6. Mucoadhesive Oral Wound Rinse in Preventing and Treating Stomatitis in Patients With ER- or PR-Positive Metastatic or Locally Recurrent Breast Cancer That Cannot be Removed by Surgery Receiving Everolimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Oral Complications; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  7. The Agreement between the MMSE and IQCODE Tests in a Community-Based Sample of Subjects Aged 70 Years or Older Receiving In-Home Nursing: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kirkevold

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It was the aim of this study to compare the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE with the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE and to explore the characteristics of subjects with possible dementia with only one of the two tools. Methods: We used a random sample of patients aged 70+ receiving social service or in-home nursing. The patients were tested with the MMSE, and the next of kin was interviewed using the following: the IQCODE, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, personal ADL (PADL and the General Medical Health Rating (GMHR. Results: Subjects with dementia defined only according to the MMSE showed a pattern of scores on IADL, PADL, CSDD, NPI-10 and GMHR similar to the no-dementia group according to both the MMSE and the IQCODE. Those with dementia defined only according to the IQCODE showed a pattern of scores similar to the possible dementia group according to both the MMSE and the IQCODE.

  8. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  9. Usefulness of pulse-wave doppler tissue sampling and dobutamine stress echocardiography for identification of false positive inferior wall defects in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinmakas, S.; Dagdeviren, B.; Turkmen, M.; Gursurer, M.; Say, B.; Tezel, T.; Ersek, B.

    2000-01-01

    False positive inferior wall perfusion defects restrict the accuracy of SPECT in diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Pulse-Wave Tissue Doppler (PWTD) has been recently proposed to assess regional wall motion velocities. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of CAD by using PWTD during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients with an inferior perfusion defect detected by SPECT and compare PWTD parameters of normal cases with patients who had inferior perfusion defect and CAD. Sixty-five patients (mean age 58±8 years, 30 men) with a normal LV systolic function at rest according to echocardiographic evaluation with an inferior ischemia determined by SPECT and a control group (CG) of 34 normal cases (mean age 56±7 years, 16 men) were included in this study. All patients underwent a standard DSE (up to 40 μg/kg/min with additional atropine during sub-maximum heart rate responses). Pulse-wave Doppler tissue sampling of inferior wall was performed in the apical 2-chamber view at rest and stress. The coronary angiography was performed within 24 hours. The results were evaluated for the prediction of significant right coronary artery (RCA) and/or left circumflex coronary artery (CX) with narrowing (≥50% diameter stenosis, assessed by quantitative coronary angiography). It was observed that the peak stress mean E/A ratio was lower in patients with CAD when compared to patients without CAD (0.78±0.2 versus 1.29±0.11 p<0.0001). Also the peak stress E/A ratio of normal cases was significantly higher than patients who had CAD (1.19±0.3 versus 0.78±0.2 p<0.0001). When the cut off point for the E/A ratio was determined as 1, the sensitivity and specificity of dobutamine stress PWTD E/A were 89% and 86%, respectively. The peak stress E/A ratio was higher than 1 in all patients with a false positive perfusion defect. Systolic S velocity increase during DSE was significantly lower in patients with CAD (54%±17 versus 99%±24 p=0

  10. Diversity and antibiograms of bacterial organisms isolated from samples of household drinking-water consumed by HIV-positive individuals in rural settings, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samie, A; Mashao, M B; Bessong, P O; NKgau, T F; Momba, M N B; Obi, C L

    2012-09-01

    Diarrhoea is a hallmark of HIV infections in developing countries, and many diarrhoea-causing agents are often transmitted through water. The objective of the study was to determine the diversity and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacterial organisms isolated from samples of household drinking-water consumed by HIV-infected and AIDS patients. In the present study, household water stored for use by HIV-positive patients was tested for microbial quality, and isolated bacterial organisms were analyzed for their susceptibility profiles against 25 different antibiotics. The microbial quality of water was generally poor, and about 58% of water samples (n=270) were contaminated with faecal coliforms, with counts varying from 2 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL to 2.4x10⁴ CFU/100 mL. Values of total coliform counts ranged from 17 CFU/100 mL to 7.9x10⁵/100 mL. In total, 37 different bacterial species were isolated, and the major isolates included Acinetobacter lwoffii (7.5%), Enterobacter cloacae (7.5%), Shigella spp. (14.2%), Yersinia enterocolitica (6.7%), and Pseudomonas spp. (16.3%). No Vibrio cholerae could be isolated; however, V. fluvialis was isolated from three water samples. The isolated organisms were highly resistant to cefazolin (83.5%), cefoxitin (69.2%), ampicillin (66.4%), and cefuroxime (66.2%). Intermediate resistance was observed against gentamicin (10.6%), cefepime (13.4%), ceftriaxone (27.6%), and cefotaxime (29.9%). Levofloxacin (0.7%), ceftazidime (2.2%), meropenem (3%), and ciprofloxacin (3.7%) were the most active antibiotics against all the microorganisms, with all recording less than 5% resistance. Multiple drug resistance was very common, and 78% of the organisms were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Education on treatment of household water is advised for HIV-positive patients, and measures should be taken to improve point-of-use water treatment as immunosuppressed individuals would be more susceptible to opportunistic

  11. Evaluation of false positive responses by mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry for the detection of trace explosives in complex samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.L., E-mail: clcrawf@sandia.gov; Hill, H.H.

    2013-09-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •First study to use (−)SESI-IM-TOFMS to analyze complex mixtures of personal care products. •The study demonstrated, by identifying mobility and mass interferents with explosive signatures, which, if used separately, neither IMS nor MS alone would prevent every false positive for explosives when detected in the presence of a complex sample matrix. •Ingredients in common household cleaning products were shown to either enhance or suppress the ionization of explosives in a SESI-IM-TOFMS analysis. •Mobility separation provided real-time separation of ion species that indicated overlapping isotope peak patterns -- Abstract: Secondary electrospray ionization-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometry (SESI-IM-TOFMS) was used to evaluate common household products and food ingredients for any mass or mobility responses that produced false positives for explosives. These products contained ingredients which shared the same mass and mobility drift time ranges as the analyte ions for common explosives. The results of this study showed that the vast array of compounds in these products can cause either mass or mobility false positive responses. This work also found that two ingredients caused either enhanced or reduced ionization of the target analytes. Another result showed that an IMS can provide real-time separation of ion species that impede accurate mass identifications due to overlapping isotope peak patterns. The final result of this study showed that, when mass and mobility values were used to identify an ion, no false responses were found for the target explosives. The wider implication of these results is that the possibility exists for even greater occurrences of false responses from complex mixtures found in common products. Neither IMS nor MS alone can provide 100% assurance from false responses. IMS, due to its low cost, ease of operation, rugged reliability, high sensitivity and tunable selectivity, will remain

  12. Customizable Digital Receivers for Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Delwyn; Heavey, Brandon; Sadowy, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Compact, highly customizable digital receivers are being developed for the system described in 'Radar Interferometer for Topographic Mapping of Glaciers and Ice Sheets' (NPO-43962), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (August 2007), page 72. The receivers are required to operate in unison, sampling radar returns received by the antenna elements in a digital beam-forming (DBF) mode. The design of these receivers could also be adapted to commercial radar systems. At the time of reporting the information for this article, there were no commercially available digital receivers capable of satisfying all of the operational requirements and compact enough to be mounted directly on the antenna elements. A provided figure depicts the overall system of which the digital receivers are parts. Each digital receiver includes an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a demultiplexer (DMUX), and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The ADC effects 10-bit band-pass sampling of input signals having frequencies up to 3.5 GHz. The input samples are demultiplexed at a user-selectable rate of 1:2 or 1:4, then buffered in part of the FPGA that functions as a first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory. Another part of the FPGA serves as a controller for the ADC, DMUX, and FIFO memory and as an interface between (1) the rest of the receiver and (2) a front-panel data port (FPDP) bus, which is an industry-standard parallel data bus that has a high data-rate capability and multichannel configuration suitable for DBF. Still other parts of the FPGA in each receiver perform signal-processing functions. The digital receivers can be configured to operate in a stand-alone mode, or in a multichannel mode as needed for DBF. The customizability of the receiver makes it applicable to a broad range of system architectures. The capability for operation of receivers in either a stand-alone or a DBF mode enables the use of the receivers in an unprecedentedly wide variety of radar systems.

  13. Correction of estimates of retention in care among a cohort of HIV-positive patients in Uganda in the period before starting ART: a sampling-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakato, Patience; Kiragga, Agnes N; Kambugu, Andrew; Bradley, John; Baisley, Kathy

    2018-04-20

    The aim of this study was to use a sampling-based approach to obtain estimates of retention in HIV care before initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART), corrected for outcomes in patients who were lost according to clinic registers. Retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive individuals not yet eligible for ART (CD4 >500). Three urban and three rural HIV care clinics in Uganda; information was extracted from the clinic registers for all patients who had registered for pre-ART care between January and August 2015. A random sample of patients who were lost according to the clinic registers (>3 months late to scheduled visit) was traced to ascertain their outcomes. The proportion of patients lost from care was estimated using a competing risks approach, first based on the information in the clinic records alone and then using inverse probability weights to incorporate the results from tracing. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with loss from care. Of 1153 patients registered for pre-ART care (68% women, median age 29 years, median CD4 count 645 cells/µL), 307 (27%) were lost according to clinic records. Among these, 195 (63%) were selected for tracing; outcomes were ascertained in 118 (61%). Seven patients (6%) had died, 40 (34%) were in care elsewhere and 71 (60%) were out of care. Loss from care at 9 months was 30.2% (95% CI 27.3% to 33.5%). After incorporating outcomes from tracing, loss from care decreased to 18.5% (95% CI 13.8% to 23.6%). Estimates of loss from HIV care may be too high if based on routine clinic data alone. A sampling-based approach is a feasible way of obtaining more accurate estimates of retention, accounting for transfers to other clinics. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Sediminibacillus massiliensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic, Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a stool sample of a young Senegalese man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghor, Bruno; Bassène, Hubert; Khelaifia, Saber; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Ruimy, Raymond; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier; Lagier, Jean-Christophe

    2018-07-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, referred to as strain Marseille-P3518 T , was isolated from a stool sample with 2% NaCl concentration from a healthy 15-year-old male living in Dielmo, a village in Senegal. Cells are aerobic, rod-shaped and motile and display endospore formation. Strain Marseille-P3518 T can grow in a medium with 0-20% (w/v) sodium chloride (optimally at 5-7.5% w/v). The major fatty acids were 12-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (45.8%), 13-methyl-tetradecanoic acid (26.9%) and 12-methyl-tridecanoic acid (12.8%). The genome is 4,347,479 bp long with 42.1% G+C content. It contains 4282 protein-coding and 107 RNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain Marseille-P3518 T is a member of the Bacillaceae family and is closely related to Sediminibacillus albus (97.4% gene sequence similarity). Strain Marseille-P3518 T was clearly differentiated from its phylogenetic neighbors on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic features. Strain Marseille-P3518 T is, therefore, considered to be a novel representative of the genus Sediminibacillus, for which the name Sediminibacillus massiliensis sp. nov. is proposed, and the type strain is Marseille-P3518 T (CSUR P3518T, DSM69894).

  15. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrender, Curt

    2005-12-13

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  16. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrender, Curt [Morgan Hill, CA

    2007-01-23

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  17. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  18. Description of European Space Agency (ESA) Double Walled Isolator (DWI) Breadboard Currently Under Development for Demonstration of Critical Technology Foreseen to be Used in the Mars Sample Receiving Facility (MSRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskis, J.; Berthoud, L.; McCulloch, Y.; Bowman, P.; Holt, J.; Bridges, J.; Bennett, A.; Gaubert, F.; Duvet, L.

    2018-04-01

    The need for biocontainment from Planetary Protection Policy and the need for cleanliness for scientific investigation requires that the samples returned from Mars by the Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission must be handled in a Double Walled Isolator (DWI).

  19. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  20. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  1. An experience sampling study of physical activity and positive affect: investigating the role of situational motivation and perceived intensity across time

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Guérin; Michelle S. Fortier; Shane N. Sweet

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the association between physical activity and positive affect is complex, prompting experts to recommend continued examination of moderating variables. The main purpose of this 2-week field study was to examine the influence of situational motivational regulations from self-determination theory (SDT) on changes in positive affect from pre- to post- to 3-hours post-physical activity. Another purpose was to clarify the relationship between physical activity intensity [i.e., Rating...

  2. Impact of somatic PI3K pathway and ERBB family mutations on pathological complete response (pCR) in HER2-positive breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant HER2-targeted therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, Sinead

    2017-07-27

    The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis revealed that somatic EGFR, receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (ERBB2), Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (ERBB3) and Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ERBB4) gene mutations (ERBB family mutations) occur alone or co-occur with somatic mutations in the gene encoding the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) in 19% of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers. Because ERBB family mutations can activate the PI3K\\/AKT pathway and likely have similar canonical signalling effects to PI3K pathway mutations, we investigated their combined impact on response to neoadjuvant HER2-targeted therapies.

  3. Description of European Space Agency (ESA) Remote Manipulator (RM) System Breadboard Currently Under Development for Demonstration of Critical Technology Foreseen to be Used in the Mars Sample Receiving Facility (MSRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskis, J.; Duncan, S.; Berthoud, L.; Bowman, P.; Hills, R.; McCulloch, Y.; Pisla, D.; Vaida, C.; Gherman, B.; Hofbaur, M.; Dieber, B.; Neythalath, N.; Smith, C.; van Winnendael, M.; Duvet, L.

    2018-04-01

    In order to avoid the use of 'double walled' gloves, a haptic feedback Remote Manipulation (RM) system rather than a gloved isolator is needed inside a Double Walled Isolator (DWI) to handle a sample returned from Mars.

  4. STP Position Paper: Recommended Practices for Sampling and Processing the Nervous System (Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerve, and Eye) during Nonclinical General Toxicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology charged a Nervous System Sampling Working Group with devising recommended practices to routinely screen the central and peripheral nervous systems in Good Laboratory Practice-type nonclinical general toxicity studies. Brains should be trimmed ...

  5. Screening of Oryza sativa L. for HptGene and Evaluation of Hpt Positive Samples Using Houba Retransposon-Based IRAP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde YÜZBAŞIOĞLU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing world population needs to enhance agricultural production because of food starvation. Genetically modified organism(GMOis a way to solve this problem. During gene transfers, DNA is inserted into a plant’s genome in a random way. Thisproducesspontaneous genetic changeswith movement of transposable elements, and even increasesvariations. Houbawas described as one of the active retrotransposonsin rice. The aim of this study was to screen rice samples collected from Turkey, and analyse Houba retrotransposon movements with IRAP technique intransgenic ones and their controls. For this purpose, 71 different rice seeds obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for GMO analysis.All samples were screened by real time PCR to test cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter (P-35S regions, T-NOS (nopaline synthase terminator regions, figwort mosaic virus (FMV regions, bar, patand Cry1ab/ac,and hpt(hygromycin resistance genes. Hptgene was identified in 6samples as a result of real time PCR analysis. These 6transgenic samples with their controls were used for IRAP-PCRanalysisand 0-56% polymorphism ratios were observed in analysed samples. This study is one of the first detailed experimental data of transgenic Oryza sativaL. samples in terms of retrotransposon-based variation.

  6. Utility of {sup 18}F-fluoroestradiol ({sup 18}F-FES) PET/CT imaging as a pharmacodynamic marker in patients with refractory estrogen receptor-positive solid tumors receiving Z-endoxifen therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Frank I. [National Cancer Institute, NIH, Cancer Imaging Program, Bethesda, MD (United States); National Cancer Institute, Molecular Imaging Program, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gonzalez, E.M.; Kurdziel, K.A.; Ton, A.; Turkbey, B.; Choyke, P.L.; Lindenberg, M.L. [National Cancer Institute, Molecular Imaging Program, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kummar, S.; Do, K.; Collins, J.M.; Doroshow, J.H. [National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis and Center for Cancer Research, Bethesda, MD (United States); Shih, J. [National Cancer Institute, NIH, Biometric Research Program, Bethesda, MD (United States); Adler, S. [Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Clinical Research Directorate/Clinical Monitoring Research Program, Frederick, MD (United States); Jacobs, P.M. [National Cancer Institute, NIH, Cancer Imaging Program, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bhattacharyya, S. [Leidos Biomedical Research, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD (United States); Chen, A.P. [National Cancer Institute, Early Clinical Trials Development Program, DCTD, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Z-endoxifen is the most potent of the metabolites of tamoxifen, and has the potential to be more effective than tamoxifen because it bypasses potential drug resistance mechanisms attributable to patient variability in the expression of the hepatic microsomal enzyme CYP2D6. {sup 18}F-FES is a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent which selectively binds to estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) and has been used for non-invasive in vivo assessment of ER activity in tumors. This study utilizes {sup 18}F-FES PET imaging as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in patients with ER+ tumors treated with Z-endoxifen. Fifteen patients were recruited from a parent therapeutic trial of Z-endoxifen and underwent imaging with {sup 18}F-FES PET at baseline. Eight had positive lesions on the baseline scan and underwent follow-up imaging with {sup 18}F-FES 1-5 days post administration of Z-endoxifen. Statistically significant changes (p = 0.0078) in standard uptake value (SUV)-Max were observed between the baseline and follow-up scans as early as 1 day post drug administration. F-FES PET imaging could serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for patients treated with ER-directed therapy. (orig.)

  7. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  8. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  9. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  10. Compressive Sensing for Spread Spectrum Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of ubiquitous computing there are two design parameters of wireless communication devices that become very important: power efficiency and production cost. Compressive sensing enables the receiver in such devices to sample below the Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, which may lead...... the bit error rate performance is degraded by the subsampling in the CS-enabled receivers, this may be remedied by including quantization in the receiver model.We also study the computational complexity of the proposed receiver design under different sparsity and measurement ratios. Our work shows...

  11. Comparison of false-negative/positive results of intraoperative evoked potential monitoring between no and partial neuromuscular blockade in patients receiving propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery: A retrospective analysis of 685 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jin, Seok-Joon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Jin; Jeong, Hye-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; Ha, Seung-Il; Kim, Joung-Uk

    2016-08-01

    Although the elicited responses of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring are very sensitive to suppression by anesthetic agents and muscle relaxants, the use of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during MEP monitoring is still controversial because of serious safety concerns and diagnostic accuracy. Here, we evaluated the incidence of unacceptable movement and compared false-negative MEP results between no and partial NMB during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. We reviewed patient medical records for demographic data, anesthesia regimen, neurophysiology event logs, MEP results, and clinical outcomes. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the intraoperative use of NMB: no NMB group (n = 276) and partial NMB group (n = 409). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of MEP results to predict postoperative outcomes between both groups. Additionally, we evaluated unwanted patient movement during MEP monitoring in both groups. Of the 685 patients, 622 (90.8%) manifested no intraoperative changes in MEP and no postoperative motor deficits. Twenty patients showed postoperative neurologic deficits despite preserved intraoperative MEP. False-positive MEP results were 3.6% in the no NMB group and 3.9% in the partial NMB group (P = 1.00). False-negative MEP results were 1.1% in the no NMB group and 4.2% in the partial NMB group (P = 0.02). No spontaneous movement or spontaneous respiration was observed in either group. Propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia without NMB decreases the stimulation intensity of MEPs, which may reduce the false-negative ratio of MEP monitoring during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Our anesthetic protocol enabled reliable intraoperative MEP recording and patient immobilization during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery.

  12. Advantages of analyzing postmortem brain samples in routine forensic drug screening—case series of three non-natural deaths tested positive for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Thomsen, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    Three case reports are presented, including autopsy findings and toxicological screening results, which were tested positive for the potent hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD and its main metabolites were quantified in brain tissue and femoral blood, and furthermore hematoma...

  13. An Automated Sample Preparation Instrument to Accelerate Positive Blood Cultures Microbial Identification by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry (Vitek®MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Broyer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is the leading cause of death among patients in intensive care units (ICUs requiring an early diagnosis to introduce efficient therapeutic intervention. Rapid identification (ID of a causative pathogen is key to guide directed antimicrobial selection and was recently shown to reduce hospitalization length in ICUs. Direct processing of positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF MS technology is one of the several currently available tools used to generate rapid microbial ID. However, all recently published protocols are still manual and time consuming, requiring dedicated technician availability and specific strategies for batch processing. We present here a new prototype instrument for automated preparation of Vitek®MS slides directly from positive blood culture broth based on an “all-in-one” extraction strip. This bench top instrument was evaluated on 111 and 22 organisms processed using artificially inoculated blood culture bottles in the BacT/ALERT® 3D (SA/SN blood culture bottles or the BacT/ALERT VirtuoTM system (FA/FN Plus bottles, respectively. Overall, this new preparation station provided reliable and accurate Vitek MS species-level identification of 87% (Gram-negative bacteria = 85%, Gram-positive bacteria = 88%, and yeast = 100% when used with BacT/ALERT® 3D and of 84% (Gram-negative bacteria = 86%, Gram-positive bacteria = 86%, and yeast = 75% with Virtuo® instruments, respectively. The prototype was then evaluated in a clinical microbiology laboratory on 102 clinical blood culture bottles and compared to routine laboratory ID procedures. Overall, the correlation of ID on monomicrobial bottles was 83% (Gram-negative bacteria = 89%, Gram-positive bacteria = 79%, and yeast = 78%, demonstrating roughly equivalent performance between manual and automatized extraction methods. This prototype instrument exhibited a high level of performance regardless of bottle type or BacT/ALERT system. Furthermore, blood culture workflow could

  14. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  15. Timing of positive blood samples does not differentiate pathogens causing healthcare-associated from community-acquired bloodstream infections in children in England: a linked retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    HENDERSON, K. L.; M?LLER-PEBODY, B.; WADE, A.; SHARLAND, M.; MINAJI, M.; JOHNSON, A. P.; GILBERT, R

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Paediatricians recognize that using the time-dependent community-acquired vs. hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (BSI) dichotomy to guide empirical treatment no longer distinguishes between causative pathogens due to the emergence of healthcare-associated BSIs. However, paediatric epidemiological evidence of the aetiology of BSIs in relation to hospital admission in England is lacking. For 12 common BSI-causing pathogens in England, timing of laboratory reports of positive paedia...

  16. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  17. Can cadaverous pollution from environmental lead misguide to false positive results in the histochemical determination of gunshot residues? Study on cadaveric skin samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boracchi, Michele; Andreola, Salvatore; Collini, Federica; Gentile, Guendalina; Maciocco, Francesca; Maghin, Francesca; Zoja, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    Histochemical determination of lead in gunshot residues (GSR) raises the question of possible environmental contamination by heavy metals. Authors assess the specificity of the Sodium Rhodizonate Test in the search of lead derived from environmental pollution. Sodium Rhodizonate Test and 5% HCl Sodium Rhodizonate test were applied to skin samples taken from two groups of victims, whose cause of death was not related to gunshot wounds: group A included 25 corpses found in open spaces after a long time; group B included 16 corpses exhumed after a period of 11 years. The use of these histochemical tests to skin samples from these two groups did not show metal debris histochemically similar to the lead present in GSR. These tests were confirmed to be specific in highlighting the GSR coming from gunshot, without being affected by the potential environmental contamination of the heavy metal pollutants, coming from air or soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  19. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  20. Assessing Whether Religious Behaviors and Positive and Negative Affect are Associated with Alcohol Use and Abuse Among a Sample of College Students Living in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Chakema C; Lewis, Rhonda K

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are a problem on college campuses. Religious behaviors (religious attendance, prayer, and importance) have been shown to be a protective factor against alcohol use among college students. This study examined the role religious behaviors and positive and negative affect had on drinking (alcohol use and alcohol to intoxication). College students (765) completed an online survey. The results showed that college students who attended religious services were less likely to use alcohol than those who did not attend religious services. The results have important implications for college administrators and policy makers. Limitations and future research will be discussed.

  1. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  2. Campus Projects Receiving "Earmarks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Specific campus projects that Congress has directed federal agencies to support this year at over 120 colleges and universities are listed. The agencies neither requested support nor sponsored merit-based competitions for the awards. In some cases, the institutions have a history of receiving special federal treatment. (MSE)

  3. The Impact of Social Support and Attachment Style on Quality of Life and Readiness to Change in a Sample of Individuals Receiving Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Fulmer, Barbara A; Stout, David

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle within the addictions treatment field is that social support is a vital ingredient in the recovery process. This study examines the nature of social support in a sample of opioid-dependent men and women who are currently being treated in a medication-assisted treatment program (methadone). This research examines the types of social support behaviors that the opioid-dependent individuals consider helpful and explores whether attachment style (i.e., secure, ambivalent, or anxious attachment) was a determining factor in whether social support was perceived as helpful. The dependent variables included readiness to change addictive behaviors and abstinence from other mood-altering drugs. Participants (N = 159) completed a demographic questionnaire, the Significant Others Scale, the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Assessment, the Readiness to Change Scale, and an Attachment Style Questionnaire. The demographic questionnaire included subjective ratings of self-improvement. Social support predicted perceived improvement in all of the areas examined (e.g., health, family/social relationships) and abstinence; however, attachment style did not predict improvement or with readiness to change. Social support is an important factor in one's recovery from substance use disorders. Yet attachment style (i.e., anxious, avoidant, or secure) did not predict abstinence or overall improvement in functioning.

  4. Novel, improved sample preparation for rapid, direct identification from positive blood cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sören; Weinert, Kirsten; Wagner, Chris; Gunzl, Beatrix; Wieser, Andreas; Maier, Thomas; Kostrzewa, Markus

    2011-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used for rapid and reliable identification of bacteria and yeast grown on agar plates. Moreover, MALDI-TOF MS also holds promise for bacterial identification from blood culture (BC) broths in hospital laboratories. The most important technical step for the identification of bacteria from positive BCs by MALDI-TOF MS is sample preparation to remove blood cells and host proteins. We present a method for novel, rapid sample preparation using differential lysis of blood cells. We demonstrate the efficacy and ease of use of this sample preparation and subsequent MALDI-TOF MS identification, applying it to a total of 500 aerobic and anaerobic BCs reported to be positive by a Bactec 9240 system. In 86.5% of all BCs, the microorganism species were correctly identified. Moreover, in 18/27 mixed cultures at least one isolate was correctly identified. A novel method that adjusts the score value for MALDI-TOF MS results is proposed, further improving the proportion of correctly identified samples. The results of the present study show that the MALDI-TOF MS-based method allows rapid (directly from positive BCs and with high accuracy. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Healthy lifestyle behaviours are positively and independently associated with academic achievement: An analysis of self-reported data from a nationally representative sample of Canadian early adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Faught

    Full Text Available The lifestyle behaviours of early adolescents, including diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen usage, are well established contributors to health. These behaviours have also been shown to be associated with academic achievement. Poor academic achievement can additionally contribute to poorer health over the lifespan. This study aims to characterize the associations between health behaviours and self-reported academic achievement.Data from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (n = 28,608, ages 11-15 were analyzed. Students provided self-report of academic achievement, diet, physical activity, sleep duration, recreational screen time usage, height, weight, and socioeconomic status. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of lifestyle behaviours and body weight status with academic achievement while considering sex, age, and socioeconomic status as potential confounders.All health behaviours exhibited independent associations with academic achievement. Frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, breakfast and dinner with family and regular physical activity were positively associated with higher levels of academic achievement, while frequent consumption of junk food, not meeting sleep recommendations, and overweight and obesity were negatively associated with high academic achievement.The present findings demonstrate that lifestyle behaviours are associated with academic achievement, potentially identifying these lifestyle behaviours as effective targets to improve academic achievement in early adolescents. These findings also justify investments in school-based health promotion initiatives.

  6. Hippocampal volume is positively associated with behavioural inhibition (BIS) in a large community-based sample of mid-life adults: the PATH through life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherbuin, Nicolas; Windsor, Tim D; Anstey, Kaarin J; Maller, Jerome J; Meslin, Chantal; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2008-09-01

    The fields of personality research and neuropsychology have developed with very little overlap. Gray and McNaughton were among the first to recognize that personality traits must have neurobiological correlates and developed models relating personality factors to brain structures. Of particular note was their description of associations between conditioning, inhibition and activation of behaviours, and specific neural structures such as the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. The aim of this study was to determine whether personality constructs representing the behavioural inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS) were associated with volumetric measures of the hippocampus and amygdala in humans. Amygdalar and hippocampal volumes were measured in 430 brain scans of cognitively intact community-based volunteers. Linear associations between brain volumes and the BIS/BAS measures were assessed using multiple regression, controlling for age, sex, education, intra-cranial and total brain volume. Results showed that hippocampal volumes were positively associated with BIS sensitivity and to a lesser extent with BAS sensitivity. No association was found between amygdalar volume and either the BIS or BAS. These findings add support to the model of Gray and McNaughton, which proposes a role of the hippocampus in the regulation of defensive/approach behaviours and trait anxiety but suggest an absence of associations between amygdala volume and BIS/BAS measures.

  7. Healthy lifestyle behaviours are positively and independently associated with academic achievement: An analysis of self-reported data from a nationally representative sample of Canadian early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate E; Davison, Colleen M; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    The lifestyle behaviours of early adolescents, including diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen usage, are well established contributors to health. These behaviours have also been shown to be associated with academic achievement. Poor academic achievement can additionally contribute to poorer health over the lifespan. This study aims to characterize the associations between health behaviours and self-reported academic achievement. Data from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (n = 28,608, ages 11-15) were analyzed. Students provided self-report of academic achievement, diet, physical activity, sleep duration, recreational screen time usage, height, weight, and socioeconomic status. Multi-level logistic regression was used to assess the relationship of lifestyle behaviours and body weight status with academic achievement while considering sex, age, and socioeconomic status as potential confounders. All health behaviours exhibited independent associations with academic achievement. Frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, breakfast and dinner with family and regular physical activity were positively associated with higher levels of academic achievement, while frequent consumption of junk food, not meeting sleep recommendations, and overweight and obesity were negatively associated with high academic achievement. The present findings demonstrate that lifestyle behaviours are associated with academic achievement, potentially identifying these lifestyle behaviours as effective targets to improve academic achievement in early adolescents. These findings also justify investments in school-based health promotion initiatives.

  8. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  9. Second Version of Google Glass as a Wearable Socio-Affective Aid: Positive School Desirability, High Usability, and Theoretical Framework in a Sample of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ned T; Keshav, Neha U; Salisbury, Joseph P; Vahabzadeh, Arshya

    2018-01-04

    home and school settings. Encouragingly, most caregivers noted a very positive response. There were no behavioral, developmental, or social- or stigma-related concerns during or after the session. Smartglasses may be a useful future technology for children with ASD and are readily accepted for use by children with ASD and their caregivers. ©Ned T Sahin, Neha U Keshav, Joseph P Salisbury, Arshya Vahabzadeh. Originally published in JMIR Human Factors (http://humanfactors.jmir.org), 04.01.2018.

  10. Novel, Improved Sample Preparation for Rapid, Direct Identification from Positive Blood Cultures Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Sören; Weinert, Kirsten; Wagner, Chris; Gunzl, Beatrix; Wieser, Andreas; Maier, Thomas; Kostrzewa, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used for rapid and reliable identification of bacteria and yeast grown on agar plates. Moreover, MALDI-TOF MS also holds promise for bacterial identification from blood culture (BC) broths in hospital laboratories. The most important technical step for the identification of bacteria from positive BCs by MALDI-TOF MS is sample preparation to remove blood cells and host proteins. We present a m...

  11. Effect of Positive Training on Positive Psychological States (Character Strengths of Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farnam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available psychological states of female students in second and third grades of high school. The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and follow-up. The sample consisted of forty students selected randomly in two groups (twenty students in each group. To collect data, Positive Psychological State Inventory (Rajaei, Khuy Nzhad and Nesaei was used. The experimental group received ninety minute positive training sessions (for two months and the control group did not receive treatment. The results of analysis  of covariance showed that positive training had positive effects on positive psychological states (trust in God, optimism, self-efficacy, duty, sense of control, targeted, hope, satisfaction with life, meaningful life, pleasant, sociability, self-esteem and self-worth, sense of peace, gratitude, and forgiveness among adolescents  both in the post  and follow-up tests

  12. Analog fourier transform channelizer and OFDM receiver

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An OFDM receiver having an analog multiplier based I-Q channelizing filter, samples and holds consecutive analog I-Q samples of an I-Q baseband, the I-Q basebands having OFDM sub-channels. A lattice of analog I-Q multipliers and analog I-Q summers concurrently receives the held analog I-Q samples, performs analog I-Q multiplications and analog I-Q additions to concurrently generate a plurality of analog I-Q output signals, representing an N-point discrete Fourier transform of the held analog ...

  13. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  14. A THz Tomography System for Arbitrarily Shaped Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübling, E.; Bauckhage, Y.; Jelli, E.; Fischer, B.; Globisch, B.; Schell, M.; Heinrich, A.; Balzer, J. C.; Koch, M.

    2017-10-01

    We combine a THz time-domain spectroscopy system with a robotic arm. With this scheme, the THz emitter and receiver can be positioned perpendicular and at defined distance to the sample surface. Our system allows the acquisition of reflection THz tomographic images of samples with an arbitrarily shaped surface.

  15. Effects of Oxytocin Administration on Receiving Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Woolley, Joshua D; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2017-11-27

    Receiving help can be a "mixed blessing." Despite the many psychosocial benefits it can carry, it sometimes has negative psychological consequences, such as loss in self-esteem or enhanced guilt. It is, therefore, important to understand the factors that modify responses to receiving help from others. We explored the role of the hormone oxytocin (OT) on affective and social responses to receiving help, given the putative role of OT in social bonding and attunement. To this end, we manipulated whether help was received from a same-sex interaction partner (confederate) versus a control condition, crossed with a double-blind administration of intranasal OT (vs. placebo), and examined subjective and observer-rated participant responses to help. We observed significant interactions between OT and the help manipulation. In the placebo condition, receiving help from the interaction partner compared with the control condition had negative consequences, such that participants reported greater negative affect and came to view themselves and their interaction partners more negatively after interacting together on several tasks. What is important, however, is that OT administration buffered against these negative subjective responses to receiving help. Further, outside observers rated participants who received OT administration as expressing greater happiness and gratitude in response to help, relative to those who received placebo. In sum, in the context of receiving help from a stranger, oxytocin administration fostered more positive affective and social responses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Analysis of signal acquisition in GPS receiver software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical analysis of the flow signal processing carried out in GPS receiver software, which served as a basis for a critical comparison of different signal processing architectures within the GPS receiver. It is possible to achieve Increased flexibility and reduction of GPS device commercial costs, including those of mobile devices, by using radio technology software (SDR, Software Defined Radio. The SDR application can be realized when certain hardware components in a GPS receiver are replaced. Signal processing in the SDR is implemented using a programmable DSP (Digital Signal Processing or FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array circuit, which allows a simple change of digital signal processing algorithms and a simple change of the receiver parameters. The starting point of the research is the signal generated on the satellite the structure of which is shown in the paper. Based on the GPS signal structure, a receiver is realized with a task to extract an appropriate signal from the spectrum and detect it. Based on collected navigation data, the receiver calculates the position of the end user. The signal coming from the satellite may be at the carrier frequencies of L1 and L2. Since the SPS is used in the civil service, all the tests shown in the work were performed on the L1 signal. The signal coming to the receiver is generated in the spread spectrum technology and is situated below the level of noise. Such signals often interfere with signals from the environment which presents a difficulty for a receiver to perform proper detection and signal processing. Therefore, signal processing technology is continually being improved, aiming at more accurate and faster signal processing. All tests were carried out on a signal acquired from the satellite using the SE4110 input circuit used for filtering, amplification and signal selection. The samples of the received signal were forwarded to a computer for data post processing, i. e

  17. Sample-taking apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanov, Y I; Ismailov, R A; Orazov, A

    1980-10-07

    The invention refers to the equipment for testing water-bearing levels in loose rocks. Its purpose is to simultaneously remove with the rock sample a separate fluid sample from the assigned interval. The sample-taking apparatus contains a core lifter which can be submerged into the casting string with housing and front endpiece in the form of a rod with a piston which covers the cavity of the core lifter, as well as mechanism for fixing and moving the endpiece within the core lifter cavity. The device differs from the known similar devices because the upper part of the housing of the core lifter is equipped with a filter and mobile casting which covers the filter. In this case the casing is connected to the endpiece rod and the endpiece is installed with the possibility of movement which is limited with fixing in the upper position and in the extreme upper position it divides the core lifter cavity into two parts, filter settling tank and core-receiving cavity.

  18. Quantification of the reproducibility of the positioning in patients that receive radiotherapy with immobilization devices for treatments with VMAT using DRR and CBCT; Cuantificacion de la reproducibilidad del posicionamiento en pacientes que reciben radioterapia con dispositivos de inmovilizacion para tratamientos con VMAT utilizando DRR y CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, D.; Quispe, I. [ALIADA, Oncologia Integral, Av. Jose Galvez Barrenechea 1044, San Isidro, Lima 27 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    The technological advances and the introduction of digital and computer systems to the treatment equipment s have contributed significantly in the precision when is necessary to deliver and distributing radiation dose in the planning volume where is located the tumor, besides also considering the healthy organs and tissues or in risk. For this treatment modality is necessary take into account the great importance that has the positioning, and immobilization and its reproducibility, making use of appropriate and personalized accessories that guarantee the bigger possible precision when the images are compared of before and after the treatment. For this study positioning data of 34 patients were quantified, which were treated with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) for the period between May to November of 2013. Of the patients 16 were treated in head and neck and 18 of prostate and abdomen. In all cases of head and neck treatment with VMAT immobilizer meshes were used that hold until the patient's neck, and in the cases of prostate and abdomen was used an immobilizer device under the knees and the ankles. All the cases were re-positioning using positioning techniques with Digitally Reconstructed Radiograph images (DRR) with acquisition modality Kv/Kv and Cone Beam the corrections and monitoring were carried out daily. Variations existed during the treatments that oscillate of 1-2 mm in the head and neck cases; and 2-4 mm in prostate and abdomen, these variations are necessary to quantify them in pro of the reproducibility in the patients positioning that receive radiotherapy and use immobilization device. (Author)

  19. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  20. Accounting for Defense Logistics Agency Supply Management Receivables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1998-01-01

    .... For this part of the audit, we determined whether Defense Logistics Agency supply management receivables were accurately accounted for, classified, and reported in the Statement of Financial Position...

  1. Galileo positioning technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena; Sand, Stephan; Hurskainen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This book covers multi-band Galileo receivers (especially E1-E5 bands of Galileo) and addresses all receiver building blocks, from the antenna and front end, through details of the baseband receiver processing blocks, up to the navigation processing, including the Galileo message structure and Position, Velocity, Time (PVT) computation. Moreover, hybridization solutions with communications systems for improved localization are discussed and an open-source GNSS receiver platform (available for download) developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT) is addressed in detail. • Takes a holistic approach to GALILEO and related systems, such as EGNOS and hybrid solutions on mobile phones; • Provides an invaluable reference to Binary Offset Carrier modulations and related families, which are some of the trademarks of GALILEO; • Includes a detailed survey of GALILEO receiver research in Europe and existing software-defined radio (SDR) GALILEO receiver implementations; • Addresses the multiple challen...

  2. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  3. Multistandard Receiver Design for Telemedicine Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In short-distance wireless communications for telemedicine monitoring, different medical data measurement equipment has different wireless transmission modes. A multistandard receiver is designed that can adapt to different medical data measuring equipment. Using a second-order bandpass sampling for the design of antialiasing filters, two aliasing signals can be separated. Simultaneously, constraint conditions for sampling frequency are not as critical. The design is useful for a multistandard receiver in a telemedicine monitoring system and has the advantages such as saving spectrum resources and facilitating spectrum planning.

  4. Investigation of an Escherichia coli O145 outbreak in a child day-care centre - extensive sampling and characterization of eae- and stx1-positive E. coli yields epidemiological and socioeconomic insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruheim Torkjel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On October 29th 2009 the health authorities in the city of Trondheim, Norway were alerted about a case of Shiga toxin-positive E. coli (STEC O145 in a child with bloody diarrhoea attending a day-care centre. Symptomatic children in this day-care centre were sampled, thereby identifying three more cases. This initiated an outbreak investigation. Methods A case was defined as a child attending the day-care centre, in whom eae- and stx1- but not stx2-positive E. coli O145:H28 was diagnosed from a faecal sample, with multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA profile identical to the index isolate. All 61 children, a staff of 14 in the day-care centre, and 74 close contacts submitted faecal samples. Staff and parents were interviewed about cases' exposure to foods and animals. Faecal samples from 31 ewes from a sheep herd to which the children were exposed were analyzed for E. coli O145. Results Sixteen cases were identified, from which nine presented diarrhoea but not haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS. The attack rate was 0.26, and varied between age groups (0.13-0.40 and between the three day-care centre departments (0.20-0.50, and was significantly higher amongst the youngest children. Median duration of shedding was 20 days (0-71 days. Children were excluded from the day-care centre during shedding, requiring parents to take compassionate leave, estimated to be a minimum total of 406 days for all cases. Atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC were detected among 14 children other than cases. These isolates were genotypically different from the outbreak strain. Children in the day-care centre were exposed to faecal pollution from a sheep herd, but E. coli O145 was not detected in the sheep. Conclusions We report an outbreak of stx1- and eae-positive STEC O145:H28 infection with mild symptoms among children in a day-care centre. Extensive sampling showed occurrence of the outbreak strain as well as other STEC and

  5. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Doberstein, Dan

    2012-01-01

    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  6. Development of a robust method for isolation of shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli (STEC from fecal, plant, soil and water samples from a leafy greens production region in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Cooley

    Full Text Available During a 2.5-year survey of 33 farms and ranches in a major leafy greens production region in California, 13,650 produce, soil, livestock, wildlife, and water samples were tested for Shiga toxin (stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC. Overall, 357 and 1,912 samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7 (2.6% or non-O157 STEC (14.0%, respectively. Isolates differentiated by O-typing ELISA and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA resulted in 697 O157:H7 and 3,256 non-O157 STEC isolates saved for further analysis. Cattle (7.1%, feral swine (4.7%, sediment (4.4%, and water (3.3% samples were positive for E. coli O157:H7; 7/32 birds, 2/145 coyotes, 3/88 samples from elk also were positive. Non-O157 STEC were at approximately 5-fold higher incidence compared to O157 STEC: cattle (37.9%, feral swine (21.4%, birds (2.4%, small mammals (3.5%, deer or elk (8.3%, water (14.0%, sediment (12.3%, produce (0.3% and soil adjacent to produce (0.6%. stx1, stx2 and stx1/stx2 genes were detected in 63%, 74% and 35% of STEC isolates, respectively. Subtilase, intimin and hemolysin genes were present in 28%, 25% and 79% of non-O157 STEC, respectively; 23% were of the "Top 6″ O-types. The initial method was modified twice during the study revealing evidence of culture bias based on differences in virulence and O-antigen profiles. MLVA typing revealed a diverse collection of O157 and non-O157 STEC strains isolated from multiple locations and sources and O157 STEC strains matching outbreak strains. These results emphasize the importance of multiple approaches for isolation of non-O157 STEC, that livestock and wildlife are common sources of potentially virulent STEC, and evidence of STEC persistence and movement in a leafy greens production environment.

  7. Precise Receiver Clock Offset Estimations According to Each Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongtan, Thayathip; Tirawanichakul, Pawit; Satirapod, Chalermchon

    2017-12-01

    Each GNSS constellation operates its own system times; namely, GPS system time (GPST), GLONASS system time (GLONASST), BeiDou system time (BDT) and Galileo system time (GST). They could be traced back to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) scale and are aligned to GPST. This paper estimates the receiver clock offsets to three timescales: GPST, GLONASST and BDT. The two measurement scenarios use two identical multi-GNSS geodetic receivers connected to the same geodetic antenna through a splitter. One receiver is driven by its internal oscillators and another receiver is connected to the external frequency oscillators, caesium frequency standard, kept as the Thailand standard time scale at the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand) called UTC(NIMT). The three weeks data are observed at 30 seconds sample rate. The receiver clock offsets with respected to the three system time are estimated and analysed through the geodetic technique of static Precise Point Positioning (PPP) using a data processing software developed by Wuhan University - Positioning And Navigation Data Analyst (PANDA) software. The estimated receiver clock offsets are around 32, 33 and 18 nanoseconds from GPST, GLONASST and BDT respectively. This experiment is initially stated that each timescale is inter-operated with GPST and further measurements on receiver internal delay has to be determined for clock comparisons especially the high accuracy clock at timing laboratories.

  8. Mars Sample Handling Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Mattingly, R. L.

    2018-04-01

    The final leg of a Mars Sample Return campaign would be an entity that we have referred to as Mars Returned Sample Handling (MRSH.) This talk will address our current view of the functional requirements on MRSH, focused on the Sample Receiving Facility (SRF).

  9. ER, PgR, Ki67, p27Kip1, and histological grade as predictors of pathological complete response in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy using taxanes followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide concomitant with trastuzumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurozumi, Sasagu; Inoue, Kenichi; Takei, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Horiguchi, Jun; Takeyoshi, Izumi; Oyama, Tetsunari

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with taxanes followed by fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC), and concurrent trastuzumab is a potent regimen for HER2 over-expressing breast cancer. A high pathological complete response (pCR) rate has been achieved using this regimen; however, the predictive factors and prognostic effects of pCR currently remain unclear. In the present study, we determined whether pCR was related to histological grade (HG) and several biological factors including p27 Kip1 . We also assessed the prognosis of the pCR and non-pCR groups, and expected differences between those positive and negative for lymph node metastasis after chemotherapy. A total of 129 Japanese women with HER2-positive invasive breast cancer received either paclitaxel or docetaxel followed by FEC, with the concomitant administration of trastuzumab. The statuses of HG, ER, PgR, Ki67, and p27 Kip1 were evaluated to determine their relationship with pCR. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were also analyzed for their relationship with pCR and pathological nodal involvement. pCR was obtained in 84 out of 129 patients and the pCR rate was 65.1 %. The pCR rates related to 5 factors were as follows: HG (grade 3, 70.0 % vs. grades 1–2, 36.8 %), ER (negative, 78.6 % vs. positive, 40.0 %), PgR (negative, 75.3 % vs. positive, 38.9 %), Ki67 (high, 72.0 % vs. low, 47.2 %), and p27 Kip1 (low, 71.0 % vs. high, 50.0 %). RFS was significantly better in the pCR group than in the non-pCR group (p = 0.018). Patients with remaining nodal disease in the pCR group had worse OS (p = 0.0002). High-HG, low-ER, low-PgR, high-Ki67, and low-p27 Kip1 were identified as predictive factors of pCR in NAC with trastuzumab, while pCR and negative nodes were predictive of better survivals. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1641-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  10. Fast-Acquisition/Weak-Signal-Tracking GPS Receiver for HEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemitz, Luke; Boegner, Greg; Sirotzky, Steve

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the technical background and design of the Navigator Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver -- . a radiation-hardened receiver intended for use aboard spacecraft. Navigator is capable of weak signal acquisition and tracking as well as much faster acquisition of strong or weak signals with no a priori knowledge or external aiding. Weak-signal acquisition and tracking enables GPS use in high Earth orbits (HEO), and fast acquisition allows for the receiver to remain without power until needed in any orbit. Signal acquisition and signal tracking are, respectively, the processes of finding and demodulating a signal. Acquisition is the more computationally difficult process. Previous GPS receivers employ the method of sequentially searching the two-dimensional signal parameter space (code phase and Doppler). Navigator exploits properties of the Fourier transform in a massively parallel search for the GPS signal. This method results in far faster acquisition times [in the lab, 12 GPS satellites have been acquired with no a priori knowledge in a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) scenario in less than one second]. Modeling has shown that Navigator will be capable of acquiring signals down to 25 dB-Hz, appropriate for HEO missions. Navigator is built using the radiation-hardened ColdFire microprocessor and housing the most computationally intense functions in dedicated field-programmable gate arrays. The high performance of the algorithm and of the receiver as a whole are made possible by optimizing computational efficiency and carefully weighing tradeoffs among the sampling rate, data format, and data-path bit width.

  11. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  12. Solar advanced internal film receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la

    1990-01-01

    In a Solar Central Internal Film Receiver, the heat absorbing fluid (a molten nitrate salt) flows in a thin film down over the non illuminated side of an absorber panel. Since the molten salt working fluid is not contained in complicated tube manifolds, the receiver design is simples than a conventional tube type-receiver resulting in a lower cost and a more reliable receiver. The Internal Film Receiver can be considered as an alternative to the Direct Absorption Receiver, in the event that the current problems of the last one can not be solved. It also describes here the test facility which will be used for its solar test, and the test plans foreseen. (Author) 17 refs

  13. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  14. Analysis of positive control STR experiments reveals that results obtained for FGA, D3S1358, and D13S317 condition the success rate of the analysis of routine reference samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murigneux, Valentine; Dufour, Anne-Béatrice; Lobry, Jean R; Pène, Laurent

    2014-07-01

    About 120,000 reference samples are analyzed each year in the Forensic Laboratory of Lyon. A total of 1640 positive control experiments used to validate and optimize the analytical method in the routine process were submitted to a multivariate exploratory data analysis approach with the aim of better understanding the underlying sources of variability. The peak heights of the 16 genetic markers targeted by the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) STR kit were used as variables of interest. Six different 3130xl genetic analyzers located in the same controlled environment were involved. Two major sources of variability were found: (i) the DNA load of the sample modulates all peak heights in a similar way so that the 16 markers are highly correlated, (ii) the genetic analyzer used with a locus-specific response for peak height and a better sensitivity for the most recently acquired. Three markers (FGA, D3S1358, and D13S317) were found to be of special interest to predict the success rate observed in the routine process. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  16. Initial results for compressive sensing in electronic support receiver systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available determined by the antenna and microwave system comprising the transmitter and receiver, while the instantaneous bandwidth is mainly determined by the Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) in the receiver. A radar can thus operate at any frequency within its... Electronic/Electromagnetic Support Measures (ESM) was used historically [1], [2]. Modern ES receiver systems are based on digital receivers allowing powerful signal processing techniques to be used [3], [4]. Recent developments in sampling technology...

  17. The ARSQ: the athletes' received support questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Paul; Coffee, Pete; Moll, Tjerk; Rees, Tim; Sammy, Nadine

    2014-04-01

    To address calls for context-specific measurement of social support, this article reports the development of the Athletes' Received Support Questionnaire (ARSQ) and demonstrates initial evidence for its validity. Across four studies there was support for a four-dimensional structure reflecting emotional, esteem, informational, and tangible received support. There was also support for unidimensional and higher-order models. Further, Study 3 provided some support for convergent validity, with significant correlations between the corresponding dimensions of the ARSQ and the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors. Study 4 provided evidence for the nomological validity of the ARSQ. Emotional and esteem support significantly predicted self-confidence and positive affect, and tangible support significantly moderated the relationship between stress and negative affect. Collectively, these results provide initial evidence for the validity of the ARSQ, and offer researchers flexibility to adopt either a multidimensional or aggregated approach to measuring received support.

  18. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  19. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  20. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, J.W.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO)

  1. High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Alison; Zhang, Gengsheng

    2006-01-01

    NAVSYS High Gain Advanced GPS Receiver (HAGR) uses a digital beam-steering antenna array to enable up to eight GPS satellites to be tracked, each with up to 10 dBi of additional antenna gain over a conventional receiver solution...

  2. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  3. Dispositivo de posicionamiento de muestras biológicas para su irradiación en un canal radial de un reactor nuclear // Biological samples positioning device for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Rodríguez - Gual

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenPor la demanda de un dispositivo experimental para el posicionamiento de las muestras biológicaspara su irradiación en un canal radial de un reactor nuclear de investigaciones en funcionamiento, seconstruyó y se puso en marcha un dispositivo para la colocación y retirada de las muestras en laposición de irradiación de dicho canal. Se efectuaron las valoraciones económicas comparando conotro tipo de dispositivo con las mismas funciones. Este trabajo formó parte de un proyectointernacional entre Cuba y Brasil que abarcó el estudio de los daños inducidos por diferentes tipos deradiación ionizante en moléculas de ADN. La solución propuesta es comprobada experimentalmente,lo que demuestra la validez práctica del dispositivo. Como resultado del trabajo, el dispositivoexperimental para la irradiación de las muestras biológicas se encuentra instalado y funcionando yapor 5 años en el canal radial # 3(BH#3 Palabras claves: reactor nuclear de investigaciones, dispositivo para posicionamiento de muestras,___________________________________________________________________________AbstractFor the demand of an experimental device for biological samples positioning system for irradiationson a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor in operation was constructed and started up adevice for the place and remove of the biological samples from the irradiation channels withoutinterrupting the operation of the reactor. The economical valuations are effected comparing withanother type of device with the same functions. This work formed part of an international projectbetween Cuba and Brazil that undertook the study of the induced damages by various types ofionizing radiation in DNA molecules. Was experimentally tested the proposed solution, whichdemonstrates the practical validity of the device. As a result of the work, the experimental device forbiological samples irradiations are installed and operating in the radial beam hole #3(BH#3

  4. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  5. HIGH-EFFICIENCY INFRARED RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Esman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  6. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  7. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  8. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  9. Systematic sampling with errors in sample locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Baddeley, Adrian; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton

    2010-01-01

    analysis using point process methods. We then analyze three different models for the error process, calculate exact expressions for the variances, and derive asymptotic variances. Errors in the placement of sample points can lead to substantial inflation of the variance, dampening of zitterbewegung......Systematic sampling of points in continuous space is widely used in microscopy and spatial surveys. Classical theory provides asymptotic expressions for the variance of estimators based on systematic sampling as the grid spacing decreases. However, the classical theory assumes that the sample grid...... is exactly periodic; real physical sampling procedures may introduce errors in the placement of the sample points. This paper studies the effect of errors in sample positioning on the variance of estimators in the case of one-dimensional systematic sampling. First we sketch a general approach to variance...

  10. GIVING AND RECEIVING CONSTRUCTIVE FEEDBACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Олійник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the notion of feedback applicable in classrooms where team teaching is provided. The experience of giving and receiving feedback has been a good practice in cooperation between a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer and a Ukrainian counterpart. Giving and receiving feedback is an effective means of classroom observation that provides better insight into the process of teaching a foreign language. The article discusses the stages of feedback and explicates the notion of sharing experience between two teachers working simultaneously in the same classroom. The guidelines for giving and receiving feedback have been provided as well as the most commonly used vocabulary items have been listed. It has been proved that mutual feedback leads to improving teaching methods and using various teaching styles and techniques.

  11. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  12. mGluR5 positive allosteric modulation and its effects on MK-801 induced set-shifting impairments in a rat operant delayed matching/non-matching-to-sample task

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCrosse, Amber L.; Burrows, Brian T.; Angulo, Rachel M.; Conrad, Phoebe R.; Himes, Sarah M.; Mathews, Nordia; Wegner, Scott A.; Taylor, Sara B.; Olive, M. Foster

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5) exert pro-cognitive effects in animal models of various neuropsychiatric diseases. However, few studies to date have examined ability of mGluR5 PAMs to reverse cognitive deficits in operant delayed matching/non-matching-to-sample (DMS/DNMS) tasks. Objectives To determine the ability of the mGluR5 PAM 3-cyano-N-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) to reverse set-shifting deficits induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were initially trained to lever press for sucrose reinforcement under either DMS or DNMS conditions. Following successful acquisition of the task, reinforcement conditions were reversed (DNMS→DMS or DMS→DNMS). In Experiment 1, rats were treated daily prior to each session with either vehicle/vehicle, vehicle/MK-801 (0.06 mg/kg) simultaneously, CDPPB (20 mg/kg)/MK-801 simultaneously, or CDPPB 30 min prior to MK-801. In Experiment 2, rats were treated with either vehicle/vehicle, vehicle/MK-801, or CDPPB 30 min prior to MK-801 only prior to sessions that followed task reversal. Results In Experiment 1, no group differences in initial task acquisition were observed. Rats treated with vehicle+MK−801 showed significant set-shifting impairments following task reversal, which were partially attenuated by simultaneous administration of CDPPB/MK-801, and completely precluded by administration of CDPPB 30 min prior to MK-801. In Experiment 2, MK-801 did not impair reversal learning and no other group differences were observed. Conclusions MK-801 induced deficits in operant set-shifting ability were prevented by pretreatment with CDPPB. MK-801 did not produce deficits in initial task learning or when treatment was initiated following task reversal. PMID:24973895

  13. Stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kooi, J. W.; Baselmans, J. J. A.; Baryshev, A.; Schieder, R.; Hajenius, M.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stability of heterodyne terahertz receivers based on small volume NbN phonon cooled hot electron bolometers (HEBs). The stability of these receivers can be broken down in two parts: the intrinsic stability of the HEB mixer and the stability of the local oscillator (LO) signal injection scheme. Measurements show that the HEB mixer stability is limited by gain fluctuations with a 1/f spectral distribution. In a 60 MHz noise bandwidth this results in an Allan varian...

  14. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  15. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  16. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Reconfigurable digital receiver design and application for instantaneous polarimetric measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Krasnov, O.A.; Babur, G.P.; Ligthart, L.P.; Van der Zwan, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a reconfigurable receiver to undertake challenging signal processing tasks for a novel polarimetric radar system. The field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)-based digital receiver samples incoming signals at intermediate frequency (IF) and processes signals

  18. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citanovic, M.; Bezlaj, H.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  19. Graph sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

  20. Compressed Sensing-Based Direct Conversion Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Due to the continuously increasing computational power of modern data receivers it is possible to move more and more processing from the analog to the digital domain. This paper presents a compressed sensing approach to relaxing the analog filtering requirements prior to the ADCs in a direct......-converted radio signals. As shown in an experiment presented in the article, when the proposed method is used, it is possible to relax the requirements for the quadrature down-converter filters. A random sampling device and an additional digital signal processing module is the price to pay for these relaxed...

  1. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  2. Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time/pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.

  3. Multifunction waveform generator for EM receiver testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Jin, Sheng; Deng, Ming

    2018-01-01

    In many electromagnetic (EM) methods - such as magnetotelluric, spectral-induced polarization (SIP), time-domain-induced polarization (TDIP), and controlled-source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) methods - it is important to evaluate and test the EM receivers during their development stage. To assess the performance of the developed EM receivers, controlled synthetic data that simulate the observed signals in different modes are required. In CSAMT and SIP mode testing, the waveform generator should use the GPS time as the reference for repeating schedule. Based on our testing, the frequency range, frequency precision, and time synchronization of the currently available function waveform generators on the market are deficient. This paper presents a multifunction waveform generator with three waveforms: (1) a wideband, low-noise electromagnetic field signal to be used for magnetotelluric, audio-magnetotelluric, and long-period magnetotelluric studies; (2) a repeating frequency sweep square waveform for CSAMT and SIP studies; and (3) a positive-zero-negative-zero signal that contains primary and secondary fields for TDIP studies. In this paper, we provide the principles of the above three waveforms along with a hardware design for the generator. Furthermore, testing of the EM receiver was conducted with the waveform generator, and the results of the experiment were compared with those calculated from the simulation and theory in the frequency band of interest.

  4. Beam position monitor system for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Hinkson, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Beam position monitors (BPM) for synchrotron light storage rings usually consist of beam pickup electrodes, coaxial relays and a narrowband receiver. While accurate, these systems are slow and of limited use in the commissioning of an accelerator. A beam position monitor is described which is intended to be a principal diagnostic during debug and routine running of a storage ring. It is capable of measuring the position of a single bunch on the first or nth orbit to an accuracy of a few percent. Stored beam position is more accurately measured with averaging techniques. Beam position changes can be studied in a bandwidth from DC to a few MHz. The beam monitor electronics consist of a separate amplification, detection, and sampling channel for each beam pickup electrode. Fast switches in each channel permit selection of the nth turn for measurement (single bunch mode). A calibration pulse is injected into each channel after beam measurement to permit gain offsets to be measured and removed from the final data. While initially more costly than the usual beam position monitor system, this sytem will pay for itself in reduced storage ring debug and trouble shooting time. 5 refs., 5 figs

  5. Does positive framing matter? An investigation of how framing affects consumers’ willingness to buy green electricity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Ren, Jingzheng

    2018-01-01

    We investigate how framing affect consumers’ willingness to buy green electricity using a contingent valuation method. A sample of 1022 respondents was divided into two nearly equal sized sub-samples chosen from an Internet panel. One subsample received a positively framed version of the question...

  6. Ecotoxicology statistical sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saona, G.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation introduces to general concepts in toxicology sample designs such as the distribution of organic or inorganic contaminants, a microbiological contamination, and the determination of the position in an eco toxicological bioassays ecosystem.

  7. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  8. The relationship between Mycobacterium tuberculosis MGIT time to positivity and cfu in sputum samples demonstrates changing bacterial phenotypes potentially reflecting the impact of chemotherapy on critical sub-populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowness, R.; Boeree, M.J.; Aarnoutse, R.; Dawson, R.; Diacon, A.; Mangu, C.; Heinrich, N.; Ntinginya, N.E.; Kohlenberg, A.; Mtafya, B.; Phillips, P.P.; Rachow, A.; Plemper van Balen, G.; Gillespie, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The relationship between cfu and Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) time to positivity (TTP) is uncertain. We attempted to understand this relationship and create a mathematical model to relate these two methods of determining mycobacterial load. METHODS: Sequential

  9. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  10. Sampling of ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.C.; Nicholas, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of an apparatus for ore sampling. The method includes the steps of periodically removing a sample of the output material of a sorting machine, weighing each sample so that each is of the same weight, measuring a characteristic such as the radioactivity, magnetivity or the like of each sample, subjecting at least an equal portion of each sample to chemical analysis to determine the mineral content of the sample and comparing the characteristic measurement with desired mineral content of the chemically analysed portion of the sample to determine the characteristic/mineral ratio of the sample. The apparatus includes an ore sample collector, a deflector for deflecting a sample of ore particles from the output of an ore sorter into the collector and means for moving the deflector from a first position in which it is clear of the particle path from the sorter to a second position in which it is in the particle path at predetermined time intervals and for predetermined time periods to deflect the sample particles into the collector. The apparatus conveniently includes an ore crusher for comminuting the sample particle, a sample hopper means for weighing the hopper, a detector in the hopper for measuring a characteristic such as radioactivity, magnetivity or the like of particles in the hopper, a discharge outlet from the hopper and means for feeding the particles from the collector to the crusher and then to the hopper

  11. Communication received from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  12. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  13. Solar receiver with integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The current challenge for PV/Thermal (PV/T) systems is the reduction of radiation heat loss. Compared to solar thermal selective coating, the solar cells cannot be used as an efficient thermal absorber due to their large emissivity of the encapsulation material. Many commercial PV/T products therefore require a high concentration (more than 10x) to reach an acceptable thermal efficiency for their receivers. Such a concentration system inevitably has to track or semi-track, which induces additional cost and collects only the direct radiation from the sun. We propose a new PV/T design using a vacuum encapsulated thin film cell to solve this problem. The proposed design also collects the diffuse sun light efficiently by using an external compound parabolic concentrator (XCPC). Since the transparent electrode (TCO) of thin film cell is inherently transparent in visible light and reflective beyond infrared, this design uses this layer instead of the conventional solar cell encapsulation as the outmost heat loss surface. By integrating such a vacuum design with a tube shaped absorber, we reduce the complexity of conducting the heat energy and electricity out of the device. A low concentration standalone non-tracking solar collector is proposed in this paper. We also analyzed the thermosyphon system configuration using heat transfer and ray tracing models. The economics of such a receiver are presented.

  14. Prediction of size and position of fracture relevant defects of samples fatigued in the VHCF area on the basis of metallographic examinations; Vorhersage der Groesse und der Lage bruchrelevanter Defekte von im VHCF-Bereich ermuedeter Proben auf Basis metallographischer Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Hans-Juergen; Grigorescu, Andrei; Kolyshkin, Anton [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik; Kaufmann, Edgar [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. Mathematik; Zimmermann, Martina [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft

    2016-07-15

    This paper aims to examine the connection between the material quality with regard to the size and spatial distribution of the defects and the size or position of the defects causing the fracture which determine the durability of components in the range of Very High Cycle Fatigue (VHCF). For this purpose, the quality of the metastable austenitic steel 1.4301 was characterized via metallographic examinations. Longitudinal and cross sections were taken from a sheet steel. Afterwards size and position of all defects were measured. The metallographic information acquired was used to create a statistical defect distribution model. On the basis of this model and the stress distribution in the most stressed area of the used fatigue samples, the distribution of size and position of the inclusions relevant for the fatigue failure could be predicted. The results of the modelling are in good agreement with the experimental observations regarding the positions of crack initiation on samples failing under VHCF circumstances.

  15. WLAN Fingerprint Indoor Positioning Strategy Based on Implicit Crowdsourcing and Semi-Supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjing Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless local area network (WLAN fingerprint positioning is an indoor localization technique with high accuracy and low hardware requirements. However, collecting received signal strength (RSS samples for the fingerprint database is time-consuming and labor-intensive, hindering the use of this technique. The popular crowdsourcing sampling technique has been introduced to reduce the workload of sample collection, but has two challenges: one is the heterogeneity of devices, which can significantly affect the positioning accuracy; the other is the requirement of users’ intervention in traditional crowdsourcing, which reduces the practicality of the system. In response to these challenges, we have proposed a new WLAN indoor positioning strategy, which incorporates a new preprocessing method for RSS samples, the implicit crowdsourcing sampling technique, and a semi-supervised learning algorithm. First, implicit crowdsourcing does not require users’ intervention. The acquisition program silently collects unlabeled samples, the RSS samples, without information about the position. Secondly, to cope with the heterogeneity of devices, the preprocessing method maps all the RSS values of samples to a uniform range and discretizes them. Finally, by using a large number of unlabeled samples with some labeled samples, Co-Forest, the introduced semi-supervised learning algorithm, creates and repeatedly refines a random forest ensemble classifier that performs well for location estimation. The results of experiments conducted in a real indoor environment show that the proposed strategy reduces the demand for large quantities of labeled samples and achieves good positioning accuracy.

  16. Downsizing of health-system pharmacist positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaleh, A A; Siganga, W; Holiday-Goodman, M; Lively, B T

    1998-11-15

    The effects of downsizing on institutional pharmacists were studied. A national mail survey was sent to a random sample of 533 members of ASHP in January 1997. The questionnaire was designed to determine (1) the influence of selected factors on the downsizing of pharmacist positions and (2) pharmacists' attitudes about downsizing. A total of 256 usable questionnaires were received, for a net response rate of 48%. Forty-four pharmacists, or 17%, had personally been affected by downsizing. Sixty-one percent of the pharmacists affected by downsizing had had administrative positions. After downsizing, only 32% of the pharmacists had an administrative position. Most of the pharmacists were currently employed. Thirty-five (79%) described their current job responsibilities as substantially changed. Two thirds made the same salaries or higher salaries. Pharmacists who had been downsized rated mergers, the impact of managed care, and the profit motive as the most influential causes of downsizing of pharmacist positions. The three most common negative comments about the impact of downsizing cited reduction in the quality of patient care, increased stress, and lowered morale. Most of the pharmacists believed that communication skills, education, cross-training, and clinical skills are keys to surviving downsizing. Most pharmacists whose positions were downsized said they went on to jobs with similar or higher salaries and substantially different responsibilities.

  17. Standard methods for sampling and sample preparation for gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaeva, M.; Taskaev, E.; Nikolov, P.

    1993-01-01

    The strategy for sampling and sample preparation is outlined: necessary number of samples; analysis and treatment of the results received; quantity of the analysed material according to the radionuclide concentrations and analytical methods; the minimal quantity and kind of the data needed for making final conclusions and decisions on the base of the results received. This strategy was tested in gamma spectroscopic analysis of radionuclide contamination of the region of Eleshnitsa Uranium Mines. The water samples was taken and stored according to the ASTM D 3370-82. The general sampling procedures were in conformity with the recommendations of ISO 5667. The radionuclides was concentrated by coprecipitation with iron hydroxide and ion exchange. The sampling of soil samples complied with the rules of ASTM C 998, and their sample preparation - with ASTM C 999. After preparation the samples were sealed hermetically and measured. (author)

  18. CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.

  19. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  20. Morel Receives 2005 Maurice Ewing Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Daniel P.; Morel, François M. M.

    2006-02-01

    François M. M. Morel received the Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December 2005, in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is given for significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and for outstanding service to marine sciences. François Morel has led the search to understand the role of metals in the ocean, starting with a focus on inorganic processes and aquatic chemistry, and leading to a blend of geochemistry, microbiology, biochemistry, and genetics. His influence comes from his research and from the way he has educated an entire community of scientists with his textbooks, with his teaching, and through his former students and postdocs who hold faculty positions at universities throughout the world.

  1. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis without truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkelman, R.M.; Kay, I.; Bronskill, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, the preferred method of evaluating diagnostic imaging tests, requires an independent assessment of the true state of disease, which can be difficult to obtain and is often of questionable accuracy. A new method of analysis is described which does not require independent truth data and which can be used when several accurate tests are being compared. This method uses correlative information to estimate the underlying model of multivariate normal distributions of disease-positive and disease-negative patients. The method is shown to give results equivalent to conventional ROC analysis in a comparison of computed tomography, radionuclide scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging for liver metastasis. When independent truth is available, the method can be extended to incorporate truth data or to evaluate the consistency of the truth data with the imaging data

  2. Received View of Addiction, Relapse and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndasauka, Yamikani; Wei, Zhengde; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    It is important to highlight that attempts at understanding and explaining addiction have been made for centuries. It is, however, just five decades ago, with the growth of science and technology that more interest has been observed in this field. This chapter examines different views and theories that have been posited to understand and explain addiction. More attention will be given to prominent views that seem to draw consensus among researchers and medical practitioners. The first section of the chapter introduces the addiction debate, the different theories that have been provided to explain it from different perspectives and disciplines such as neurosciences, philosophy and psychology. Then, the chapter discusses different views on the role of relapse and what it entails in understanding addiction. The second section discusses different proposed and used forms of treating addiction. Thus, the chapter discusses the received view of addiction, the understanding of relapse as a critical element in addiction and treatments.

  3. Design of DGPS Receiver Based on the Net of VRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun XU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the positioning accuracy of the GPS system, the differential technology based on real time kinematic is utilized. Comparing with the conventional differential technology, the differential technology based on the virtual reference station can minimize the size of the rover station which is of great significance for the small system such as the mini-type unmanned vehicle, smart ammunitions and so on. Due to the high cost of the GPS receivers in the market which can’t be redeveloped and the limitation of their interface, it is not suitable for the application of the embedded system. In this paper, the receiver based on the aforementioned method is proposed to realize the real time differential positioning. Firstly, the concept of differential positioning based on real time kinematic is explained. Next, the composition of the virtual reference system and its working principle are introduced. And then, the design of differential GPS receiver based on the virtual reference system for rover station is illustrated. Finally, from the repeatability test, the result shows that by means of getting the differential corrections from the virtual reference station, the designed differential GPS receiver can correct the errors caused by ionosphere, troposphere and atmospheric refraction. Moreover, it can improve the positioning accuracy to centimeter-level. With low cost, small size and convertibility of the interface of the designed differential GPS receiver according to the embedded system, it will be popular in the future market.

  4. Comparison of Attitudes Toward Death Between University Students Who Receive Nursing Education and Who Receive Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Ayse Berivan; Arli, Senay Karadag

    2018-03-22

    This study aims to compare attitudes toward death between university students who receive nursing education and who receive religious education. This study is cross-sectional in nature. It was conducted with the participation of 197 university students in a university located in the Eastern part of Turkey between June and August, 2017. Data were collected using the socio-demographic form and Turkish form of Death Attitudes Profile-Revised. Of all the students participating in the study, 52.8% received nursing education and 47.2% received religious education. It was found that majority of both groups had no education about death, or found the education they received insufficient. Besides, no significant differences were found between the students who received nursing education and who received religious education in terms of their attitudes toward death (p > 0.05). Results showed that students who received nursing education and who received religious education had similar attitudes toward death. In conclusion, the education given to students about the religious or health aspects of death in accordance with the curriculum seemed to have no effects on students' developing positive attitudes toward death.

  5. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  6. Synchronizing data from irregularly sampled sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluyol, Onder

    2017-07-11

    A system and method include receiving a set of sampled measurements for each of multiple sensors, wherein the sampled measurements are at irregular intervals or different rates, re-sampling the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors at a higher rate than one of the sensor's set of sampled measurements, and synchronizing the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors.

  7. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  8. Digital processing optical transmission and coherent receiving techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    With coherent mixing in the optical domain and processing in the digital domain, advanced receiving techniques employing ultra-high speed sampling rates have progressed tremendously over the last few years. These advances have brought coherent reception systems for lightwave-carried information to the next stage, resulting in ultra-high capacity global internetworking. Digital Processing: Optical Transmission and Coherent Receiving Techniques describes modern coherent receiving techniques for optical transmission and aspects of modern digital optical communications in the most basic lines. The

  9. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  10. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  11. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  12. Venous Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positioned on the examining table. You may be connected to monitors that track your heart rate, blood ... You should avoid strenuous exercise and lifting heavy objects for at least 24 hours. It is strongly ...

  13. Assessment of satisfaction with pharmaceutical services in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in outpatient HIV treatment setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Kenneth Anene; Oqua, Dorothy; Agada, Peter; Ohiaeri, Samuel I; Adesina, Afusat; Abdulkareem, Mohammed Habeeb; King, Rosalyn C; Wutoh, Anthony K

    2014-06-01

    The patient's perception and satisfaction are increasingly considered as a useful factor in the assessment of competency of health care providers and quality of care. However, these patient focused assessments are largely ignored when assessing health care outcomes. The study assessed the perception and satisfaction of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with pharmaceutical services received in outpatient HIV treatment settings. Seventeen HIV treatment centres in Nigeria. This cross-sectional survey included 2,700 patients randomly selected from 26,319 HIV patients on ART, who received pharmaceutical services in the study setting. A study-specific Likert-type instrument was administered to the participants at point of exit from the pharmacy. Midpoint of the 5-point scale was computed and scores above it were regarded as positive while below as negative. Chi-square was used for inferential statistics. All reported p values were 2-sided at 95 % confidence interval (CI). Patient satisfaction with pharmaceutical services. Of 2,700 patients sampled, data from 1,617 (59.9 %) were valid for analysis; 62.3 % were aged 26-40 years and 65.4 % were females. The participants had received pharmaceutical services for a mean duration of 25.2 (95 % CI 24.3-26.1) months. Perception of participants regarding the appearance of pharmacy was positive while that regarding the pharmacists' efforts to solve patients' medication related problems was negative. The participants' rating of satisfaction with the waiting time to access pharmaceutical services was negative; the satisfaction decreases with increasing waiting time. However, the satisfaction with the overall quality of pharmaceutical services received was rated as positive; 90.0 % reported that they got the kind of pharmaceutical services they wanted; 98.2 % would come back to the pharmacy if they were to seek help again and would recommend services to others. The level of satisfaction was found to be associated with

  14. Depressão em mulheres climatéricas: análise de mulheres atendidas ambulatorialmente em um hospital universitário no Maranhão Depression in climacteric women: analysis of a sample receiving care at a university hospital in Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Nilva Maia da Silva

    2008-08-01

    depression in climacteric women receiving care at a university hospital in a Northeastern Brazilian municipality and to identify associated factors. Method: A prospective, analytic study of 70 climacteric women was performed. Diagnosis of depression was performed according to the International Classification of Diseases diagnostic criteria through a minimal 3-month follow-up period. The following variables were investigated: educational level, marital status, personal income, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, presence and intensity of climacteric symptoms, menopause (natural or surgical, financial dependence on the partner, family history of depression, previous history of postpartum depression, depressive episodes, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, sexual function disorders, and positive or negative attitudes toward menopause. Results: A percentage of 34.3% of the patients had depression, and 70.8% were classified as mild intensity according to Hamilton scale. There was no statistically significant association between socioeconomic variables, reduced sex drive and family history of depression and presence of depression. Conversely, presence of vasomotor symptoms (p = 0.03, insomnia (p < 0.001, menopause (p = 0.05, history of postpartum depression (p = 0.04, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (p = 0.05, and negative attitude toward menopause (p = 0.001 were statistically associated with depression. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of depression in assessed women. Multiple factors (impact of menopause, psychiatric history and personal impressions of menopause are responsible for its occurrence.

  15. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  16. Moho map of South America from receiver functions and surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Simon; van der Lee, Suzan; FrançA, George Sand; AssumpçãO, Marcelo; Feng, Mei

    2010-11-01

    We estimate crustal structure and thickness of South America north of roughly 40°S. To this end, we analyzed receiver functions from 20 relatively new temporary broadband seismic stations deployed across eastern Brazil. In the analysis we include teleseismic and some regional events, particularly for stations that recorded few suitable earthquakes. We first estimate crustal thickness and average Poisson's ratio using two different stacking methods. We then combine the new crustal constraints with results from previous receiver function studies. To interpolate the crustal thickness between the station locations, we jointly invert these Moho point constraints, Rayleigh wave group velocities, and regional S and Rayleigh waveforms for a continuous map of Moho depth. The new tomographic Moho map suggests that Moho depth and Moho relief vary slightly with age within the Precambrian crust. Whether or not a positive correlation between crustal thickness and geologic age is derived from the pre-interpolation point constraints depends strongly on the selected subset of receiver functions. This implies that using only pre-interpolation point constraints (receiver functions) inadequately samples the spatial variation in geologic age. The new Moho map also reveals an anomalously deep Moho beneath the oldest core of the Amazonian Craton.

  17. Study of Bacterial Infections Among Patients Receiving Kidney Transplant in Mashhad, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansury, Davood; Khaledi, Azad; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Sabbagh, Mahin Ghorban; Zare, Hosna; Rokni-Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein; Vazini, Hossein

    2017-11-15

    Over the past 2 decades, significant advances have been made in the management of infections after transplant; however, transplant recipients are still at high risk of infectious complications. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bacterial infections and antimicrobial resistance patterns in kidney transplant recipients. This cross-sectional study included 356 patients who received kidney transplants, regardless of the underlying disease, from 2013 to 2015 at the Montaserieh Transplant Hospital (Mashhad, Iran). Clinical samples collected from patients were sent to the microbiology laboratory for culture processing. Typing of bacteria was conducted, and susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline by use the of disk diffusion agar method. Data were then analyzed by SPSS software (SPSS: An IBM Company, IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) using chi-square test. Among 356 kidney recipients (206 men and 150 women), 115 (32.3%) received transplants from living donors and 241 (67.7%) received transplants from deceased donors. Of 356 total patients, 112 patients (31.5%) had an infection at various times after transplant. The most common gram-negative and gram-positive isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, with prevalence rates of 66.1% and 48.6%. Most of the isolates were resistant against selected antibiotics. Because of the high prevalence of infection among transplant patients, infection prevention should receive more attention, and antibiotic susceptibility should be determined before treatment.

  18. Laser heating of aqueous samples on a micro-optical-electro-mechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Kennedy, Ian

    2013-02-05

    A system of heating a sample on a microchip includes the steps of providing a microchannel flow channel in the microchip; positioning the sample within the microchannel flow channel, providing a laser that directs a laser beam onto the sample for heating the sample; providing the microchannel flow channel with a wall section that receives the laser beam and enables the laser beam to pass through wall section of the microchannel flow channel without being appreciably heated by the laser beam; and providing a carrier fluid in the microchannel flow channel that moves the sample in the microchannel flow channel wherein the carrier fluid is not appreciably heated by the laser beam.

  19. Validation of the Excited Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC) in a naturalistic sample of 278 patients with acute psychosis and agitation in a psychiatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alonso; Valladares, Amparo; Lizán, Luis; San, Luis; Escobar, Rodrigo; Paz, Silvia

    2011-03-29

    Despite the wide use of the Excited Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC) in a clinical setting to assess agitated patients, a validation study to evaluate its psychometric properties was missing. Data from the observational NATURA study were used. This research describes trends in the use of treatments in patients with acute psychotic episodes and agitation seen in emergency departments. Exploratory principal component factor analysis was performed. Spearman's correlation and regression analyses (linear regression model) as well as equipercentile linking of Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S), Agitation and Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) and PANSS-EC items were conducted to examine the scale's diagnostic validity. Furthermore, reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and responsiveness were evaluated. Factor analysis resulted in one factor being retained according to eigenvalue ≥1. At admission, the PANSS-EC and CGI-S were found to be linearly related, with an average increase of 3.4 points (p agitated patients.

  20. Grounds of two positions photovoltaic panels

    OpenAIRE

    Castán Fortuño, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this Master Thesis is to find the optimum positioning for a two positions photovoltaic panel. Hence, it will be implemented a model in order to optimize the energy of the sun that the photovoltaic panel is receiving by its positioning. Likewise this project will include the comparison with other photovoltaic panel systems as the single position photovoltaics panels. Ultimately, it is also going to be designed a system array for the optimized model of two positions photovoltai...

  1. Orexin neurons receive glycinergic innervations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Hondo

    Full Text Available Glycine, a nonessential amino-acid that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is currently used as a dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. We confirmed the effects of glycine on sleep/wakefulness behavior in mice when administered peripherally. Glycine administration increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep time and decreased the amount and mean episode duration of wakefulness when administered in the dark period. Since peripheral administration of glycine induced fragmentation of sleep/wakefulness states, which is a characteristic of orexin deficiency, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons. The number of Fos-positive orexin neurons markedly decreased after intraperitoneal administration of glycine to mice. To examine whether glycine acts directly on orexin neurons, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Glycine directly induced hyperpolarization and cessation of firing of orexin neurons. These responses were inhibited by a specific glycine receptor antagonist, strychnine. Triple-labeling immunofluorescent analysis showed close apposition of glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2-immunoreactive glycinergic fibers onto orexin-immunoreactive neurons. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that GlyT2-immunoreactive terminals made symmetrical synaptic contacts with somata and dendrites of orexin neurons. Double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that glycine receptor alpha subunits were localized in the postsynaptic membrane of symmetrical inhibitory synapses on orexin neurons. Considering the importance of glycinergic regulation during REM sleep, our observations suggest that glycine injection might affect the activity of orexin neurons, and that glycinergic inhibition of orexin neurons might play a role in physiological sleep regulation.

  2. Ball assisted device for analytical surface sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNaggar, Mariam S; Van Berkel, Gary J; Covey, Thomas R

    2015-11-03

    A system for sampling a surface includes a sampling probe having a housing and a socket, and a rolling sampling sphere within the socket. The housing has a sampling fluid supply conduit and a sampling fluid exhaust conduit. The sampling fluid supply conduit supplies sampling fluid to the sampling sphere. The sampling fluid exhaust conduit has an inlet opening for receiving sampling fluid carried from the surface by the sampling sphere. A surface sampling probe and a method for sampling a surface are also disclosed.

  3. Development And Test of A Digitally Steered Antenna Array for The Navigator GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Heitor David; Valdez, Jennifer E.; Winternitz, Luke M. B.; Hassouneh, Munther A.; Price, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS)-based navigation has become common for low-Earth orbit spacecraft as the signal environment is similar to that on the Earth s surface. The situation changes abruptly, however, for spacecraft whose orbital altitudes exceed that of the GPS constellation. Visibility is dramatically reduced and signals that are present may be very weak and more susceptible to interference. GPS receivers effective at these altitudes require increased sensitivity, which often requires a high-gain antenna. Pointing such an antenna can pose a challenge. One efficient approach to mitigate these problems is the use of a digitally steered antenna array. Such an antenna can optimally allocate gain toward desired signal sources and away from interferers. This paper presents preliminary results in the development and test of a digitally steered antenna array for the Navigator GPS research program at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center. In particular, this paper highlights the development of an array and front-end electronics, the development and test of a real-time software GPS receiver, and implementation of three beamforming methods for combining the signals from the array. Additionally, this paper discusses the development of a GPS signal simulator which produces digital samples of the GPS L1C/A signals as they would be received by an arbitrary antenna array configuration. The simulator models transmitter and receiver dynamics, near-far and multipath interference, and has been a critical component in both the development and test of the GPS receiver. The GPS receiver system was tested with real and simulated GPS signals. Preliminary results show that performance improvement was achieved in both the weak signal and interference environments, matching analytical predictions. This paper summarizes our initial findings and discusses the advantages and limitations of the antenna array and the various beamforming methods.

  4. Fluidic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate

  5. Analysis on geometry-aware received signal strength based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These handle different scenarios such as environment, adaptation, hybridization and the choice of context is dependent on user requirements. This paper present geometry-aware received signal strength (RSS) based positioning techniques where the influences of the geometries of the BSs (where location estimation ...

  6. Effect of slaughterhouse and day of sample on the probability of a pig carcass being Salmonella-positive according to the Enterobacteriaceae count in the largest Brazilian pork production region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Júnior, Alfredo Bianco; de Freitas Costa, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Sources of contamination of carcasses during slaughter include infected pigs as well as environmentally related sources. There are many microbial indicators that can be used in the processing of food to assess food hygiene and the safety of food processing. The presence of some microbial indicators...... can be viewed as a result of direct or indirect contamination of a food with fecal material. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae is often used as a hygiene indicator, as they are found both in the environment and in the intestine of warm-blooded animals. An association between Salmonella isolation...... and Enterobacteriaceae count (EC) on pre-chill carcasses has been described, however the impact of slaughterhouse and the day of sampling on the occurrence of Salmonella has not been previously investigated. To this end, mixed logistic regressions (MLRs) with random effects and fixed slopes were performed to assess...

  7. The false positive exercise test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Kohshiro; Matsuda, Yasuo; Ozaki, Masaharu; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ichiyama, Masaji; Matsuda, Masako; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1986-01-01

    Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed on 7 patients with true positive and 8 patients with false positive exercise test results. Four of 7 patients with true positive changes and 8 patients with false positive changes underwent exercise cardiac scintigraphy. Scintigrams showed perfusion defects in 4 patients with true positive outcomes, and no perfusion defect in 8 patients with false positive outcomes. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed with the same load as that without nitroglycerin. In all 7 patients with true positive exercise test results, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test was not observed in the nitroglycerin exercise test. In the false positive patients, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test remained unchanged in 7 of 8 patients receiving nitroglycerin. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin as well as exercise cardiac scintigraphy are valuable tods in differentiating false positive from true positive patients. Furthermore, these data suggest that ST segment depression in the false positive patients may not be related to myocardial ischemia. (author)

  8. Watt-level wireless power transmission to multiple compact receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraud, A; Munzer, D J; Althar, M; Garraud, N; Arnold, D P

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) system using a low-frequency (300 Hz) magnetic field to transmit watt-scale power levels to multiple compact receivers. As compared to inductively or resonantly coupled coils, EWPT facilitates transmission to multiple non-interacting receivers with little restriction on their orientation. A single 3.0 cm 3 receiver achieves 1.25 W power transmission with 8% efficiency at a distance of 1 cm (350 mW/cm 3 power density) from the transmitter. The same prototype achieves 9 mW at a distance of 9 cm. Moreover, we demonstrate simultaneous recharge of two wearable devices, using two receivers located in arbitrary positions and orientations. (paper)

  9. Low-cost digital GPS receiver with software carrier detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M. H.

    1988-08-01

    The satellite navigation system global positioning system (GPS) will play a major role in the field of navigation. It will be able to compete with all previously existing radio navigation systems. Low-cost receivers will be built for a number of civilian users, such as general aviation, sea and land navigation. To permit production at low cost for the civil market, a new technique for a C/A (course and acquisition) code receiver has been developed. All the signal detecting and processing is carried out with the digital signal processing software in a Texas Instruments TMS 320C10. The advantage of this method is that complex functions can be effected in a computer program instead of in analog or digital circuits. This reduces the costs of the parts used in the receiver and also avoids calibration. Taken together, these two features greatly reduce the price of a navigation set. This paper discusses the underlying principles leading to this new receiver.

  10. SEPIA - a new single pixel receiver at the APEX telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, V.; Lapkin, I.; Fredrixon, M.; Meledin, D.; Sundin, E.; Billade, B.; Ferm, S.-E.; Pavolotsky, A.; Rashid, H.; Strandberg, M.; Desmaris, V.; Ermakov, A.; Krause, S.; Olberg, M.; Aghdam, P.; Shafiee, S.; Bergman, P.; Beck, E. De; Olofsson, H.; Conway, J.; Breuck, C. De; Immer, K.; Yagoubov, P.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Torstensson, K.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J.-P.; Klein, T.; Boland, W.; Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Barkhof, J.; Adema, J.; Bekema, M. E.; Koops, A.

    2018-04-01

    Context. We describe the new Swedish-ESO PI Instrument for APEX (SEPIA) receiver, which was designed and built by the Group for Advanced Receiver Development (GARD), at Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) in collaboration with ESO. It was installed and commissioned at the APEX telescope during 2015 with an ALMA Band 5 receiver channel and updated with a new frequency channel (ALMA Band 9) in February 2016. Aim. This manuscript aims to provide, for observers who use the SEPIA receiver, a reference in terms of the hardware description, optics and performance as well as the commissioning results. Methods: Out of three available receiver cartridge positions in SEPIA, the two current frequency channels, corresponding to ALMA Band 5, the RF band 158-211 GHz, and Band 9, the RF band 600-722 GHz, provide state-of-the-art dual polarization receivers. The Band 5 frequency channel uses 2SB SIS mixers with an average SSB noise temperature around 45 K with IF (intermediate frequency) band 4-8 GHz for each sideband providing total 4 × 4 GHz IF band. The Band 9 frequency channel uses DSB SIS mixers with a noise temperature of 75-125 K with IF band 4-12 GHz for each polarization. Results: Both current SEPIA receiver channels are available to all APEX observers.

  11. Water jacket for solid particle solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyluk, David T.

    2018-03-20

    A solar receiver includes: water jacket panels each having a light-receiving side and a back side with a watertight sealed plenum defined in-between; light apertures passing through the watertight sealed plenums to receive light from the light-receiving sides of the water jacket panels; a heat transfer medium gap defined between the back sides of the water jacket panels and a cylindrical back plate; and light channeling tubes optically coupled with the light apertures and extending into the heat transfer medium gap. In some embodiments ends of the light apertures at the light receiving side of the water jacket panel are welded together to define at least a portion of the light-receiving side. A cylindrical solar receiver may be constructed using a plurality of such water jacket panels arranged with their light-receiving sides facing outward.

  12. Reasons for receiving or not receiving HPV vaccination in primary schoolgirls in Tanzania: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Deborah; Tomlin, Keith; Remes, Pieter; Baisley, Kathy; Ponsiano, Riziki; Soteli, Selephina; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Changalucha, John; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    There are few data on factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the characteristics of receivers and non-receivers of HPV vaccination in Tanzania and identified reasons for not receiving the vaccine. We conducted a case control study of HPV vaccine receivers and non-receivers within a phase IV cluster-randomised trial of HPV vaccination in 134 primary schools in Tanzania. Girls who failed to receive vaccine (pupil cases) and their parents/guardians (adult cases) and girls who received dose 1 (pupil controls) of the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil™) and their parents/guardians (adult controls) were enrolled from 39 schools in a 1∶1 ratio and interviewed about cervical cancer, HPV vaccine knowledge and reasons why they might have received or not received the vaccine. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with not receiving HPV vaccine. We interviewed 159 pupil/adult cases and 245 pupil/adult controls. Adult-factors independently associated with a daughter being a case were older age, owning fewer household items, not attending a school meeting about HPV vaccine, and not knowing anyone with cancer. Pupil-factors for being a case included having a non-positive opinion about the school de-worming programme, poor knowledge about the location of the cervix, and not knowing that a vaccine could prevent cervical cancer. Reasons for actively refusing vaccination included concerns about side effects and infertility. Most adult and pupil cases reported that they would accept the HPV vaccine if it were offered again (97% and 93% respectively). Sensitisation messages, especially targeted at older and poorer parents, knowledge retention and parent meetings are critical for vaccine acceptance in Tanzania. Vaccine side effects and fertility concerns should be addressed prior to a national vaccination program. Parents and pupils who initially decline vaccination should be

  13. Reasons for receiving or not receiving HPV vaccination in primary schoolgirls in Tanzania: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Watson-Jones

    Full Text Available There are few data on factors influencing human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination uptake in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the characteristics of receivers and non-receivers of HPV vaccination in Tanzania and identified reasons for not receiving the vaccine.We conducted a case control study of HPV vaccine receivers and non-receivers within a phase IV cluster-randomised trial of HPV vaccination in 134 primary schools in Tanzania. Girls who failed to receive vaccine (pupil cases and their parents/guardians (adult cases and girls who received dose 1 (pupil controls of the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil™ and their parents/guardians (adult controls were enrolled from 39 schools in a 1∶1 ratio and interviewed about cervical cancer, HPV vaccine knowledge and reasons why they might have received or not received the vaccine. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with not receiving HPV vaccine.We interviewed 159 pupil/adult cases and 245 pupil/adult controls. Adult-factors independently associated with a daughter being a case were older age, owning fewer household items, not attending a school meeting about HPV vaccine, and not knowing anyone with cancer. Pupil-factors for being a case included having a non-positive opinion about the school de-worming programme, poor knowledge about the location of the cervix, and not knowing that a vaccine could prevent cervical cancer. Reasons for actively refusing vaccination included concerns about side effects and infertility. Most adult and pupil cases reported that they would accept the HPV vaccine if it were offered again (97% and 93% respectively.Sensitisation messages, especially targeted at older and poorer parents, knowledge retention and parent meetings are critical for vaccine acceptance in Tanzania. Vaccine side effects and fertility concerns should be addressed prior to a national vaccination program. Parents and pupils who initially decline vaccination

  14. An Analog Correlator for Ultra-Wideband Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Chunjiang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new analog circuit exhibiting high bandwidth and low distortion, specially designed for signal correlation in an ultra-wideband receiver front end. The ultra-wideband short impulse signals are correlated with a local pulse template by the correlator. A comparator then samples the output for signal detection. A typical Gilbert mixer core is adopted for multiplication of broadband signals up to . As a result of synchronization of the received signal and the local template, the output voltage level after integration and sampling can reach up to , which is sufficient for detection by the comparator. The circuit dissipates about from double voltage supplies of and using SiGe BiCMOS technology. Simulation results are presented to show the feasibility of this circuit design for use in ultra-wideband receivers.

  15. An empirical test of the information-motivation-behavioral skills model of ART adherence in a sample of HIV-positive persons primarily in out-of-HIV-care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Smolenski, Derek; Amico, K Rivet

    2014-02-01

    The current body of evidence supporting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence rests exclusively on data collected from people living with HIV (PLWH) at point-of-HIV-care services. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if the IMB model is a useful predictive model of ART adherence among PLWH who were primarily recruited in out-of-HIV-care settings; and (2) assess whether the theorized associations between IMB model constructs and adherence persist in the presence of depression and current drug use. PLWH (n = 312) responding to a one-time online survey completed the Life Windows IMB-ART-Adherence Questionnaire, and demographic, depression (CES-D 10), and drug use items. Path models were used to assess the fit of a saturated versus fully mediated IMB model of adherence and examined for moderating effects of depression and current drug use. Participants were on average 43 years of age, had been living with HIV for 9 or more years, and mostly male (84.0%), Caucasian (68.8%), and gay-identified (74.8%). The a priori measurement models for information and behavioral skills did not have acceptable fit to the data and were modified accordingly. Using the revised IMB scales, IMB constructs were associated with adherence as predicted by the theory in all but one model (i.e., the IMB model operated as predicted among nondrug users and those with and without depression). Among drug users, information exerted a direct effect on adherence but was not significantly associated with behavioral skills. Results of this study suggest that the fully or partially mediated IMB model is supported for use with samples of PLWH recruited primarily out-of-HIV-care service settings and is robust in the presence of depression and drug use.

  16. Maternal mental health symptoms are positively related to emotional and restrained eating attitudes in a statewide sample of mothers participating in a supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jillian A; Hurley, Kristen M; Caulfield, Laura E; Black, Maureen M

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum, low-income mothers are at risk for mental health symptoms and obesity, and disordered eating attitudes may be associated with both mental health and obesity in this vulnerable population. The study objective is to determine whether higher levels of mental health symptoms are associated with increased odds of emotional and restrained eating attitudes in this sample of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participants. Data on 711 mothers of infants Maternal mental health symptoms were measured on continuous scales for depression (PRIME-MD), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). Emotional and restrained eating attitudes were measured with questions adapted from the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] was explored as a moderating variable. Mothers reporting higher levels of depression symptoms [odds ratio (OR) = 3.93, 95%CI: 2.71-5.69], anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.47-2.65), stress symptoms (OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.67-2.61) and high overall mental health symptomatology (OR = 3.51, 95%CI: 2.43-5.3) had increased odds of emotional eating attitudes. There were significant associations between symptoms of depression (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.12-2.25) and increased odds of restrained eating attitudes. Obesity did not moderate the association. Mothers with mental health symptoms are at risk for disordered eating attitudes, which may increase risk of poor diet. These findings underscore the need for greater focus on addressing maternal mental health status and eating attitudes in the postpartum period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Position paper on mesotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Mysore, Venkataram

    2011-01-01

    Mesotherapy is a controversial cosmetic procedure which has received publicity among the lay people, in the internet and in the media. It refers to minimally invasive techniques which consist of the use of intra- or subcutaneous injections containing liquid mixture of compounds (pharmaceutical and homeopathic medications, plant extracts, vitamins and other ingredients) to treat local medical and cosmetic conditions. This position paper has examined the available evidence and finds that acceptable scientific evidence for its effectiveness and safety is lacking. IADVL taskforce, therefore would like to state that the use of this technique remains controversial at present. Further research and well-designed controlled scientific studies are required to substantiate the claims of benefit of this mode of therapy.

  18. Position paper on mesotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesotherapy is a controversial cosmetic procedure which has received publicity among the lay people, in the internet and in the media. It refers to minimally invasive techniques which consist of the use of intra- or subcutaneous injections containing liquid mixture of compounds (pharmaceutical and homeopathic medications, plant extracts, vitamins and other ingredients to treat local medical and cosmetic conditions. This position paper has examined the available evidence and finds that acceptable scientific evidence for its effectiveness and safety is lacking. IADVL taskforce, therefore would like to state that the use of this technique remains controversial at present. Further research and well-designed controlled scientific studies are required to substantiate the claims of benefit of this mode of therapy.

  19. Design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changhai; Han Kuixia; Wang Fei

    2003-01-01

    The article introduces the theory of infrasonic generation and reception of nuclear explosion. An idea of the design of double capacitances infrasonic receiver using CPLD technology is given in it. Compare with the single capacitance infrasonic receiver, sensitivity of the improved receiver can be improved scores of times, dynamic range can be improved largely, and the whole performance gets improvement a lots

  20. 29 CFR 1917.155 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... This section applies to compressed air receivers and equipment used for operations such as cleaning... transportation applications as railways, vehicles or cranes. (b) Gauges and valves. (1) Air receivers shall be... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air receivers. 1917.155 Section 1917.155 Labor Regulations...

  1. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a television...

  2. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television receivers...

  3. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  4. PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of the sampling equipment in the 225-WC building, the PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility. The Wastewater Sampling Facility houses equipment to sample and monitor the PFP's liquid effluents before discharging the stream to the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The majority of the streams are not radioactive and discharges from the PFP Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC). The streams that might be contaminated are processed through the Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) before discharging to TEDF. The sampling equipment consists of two flow-proportional composite samplers, an ultrasonic flowmeter, pH and conductivity monitors, chart recorder, and associated relays and current isolators to interconnect the equipment to allow proper operation. Data signals from the monitors are received in the 234-5Z Shift Office which contains a chart recorder and alarm annunciator panel. The data signals are also duplicated and sent to the TEDF control room through the Local Control Unit (LCU). Performing the OTP has verified the operability of the PFP wastewater sampling system. This Operability Test Report documents the acceptance of the sampling system for use

  5. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A [French Camp, CA

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  6. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  7. Fermilab Recycler Ring BPM Upgrade Based on Digital Receiver Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, R.; Crisp, J.; Prieto, P.; Voy, D.; Briegel, C.; McClure, C.; West, R.; Pordes, S.; Mengel, M.

    2004-11-01

    Electronics for the 237 BPMs in the Fermilab Recycler Ring have been upgraded from a log-amplifier based system to a commercially produced digitizer-digital down converter based system. The hardware consists of a pre-amplifier connected to a split-plate BPM, an analog differential receiver-filter module and an 8-channel 80-MHz digital down converter VME board. The system produces position and intensity with a dynamic range of 30 dB and a resolution of ±10 microns. The position measurements are made on 2.5-MHz bunched beam and barrier buckets of the un-bunched beam. The digital receiver system operates in one of six different signal processing modes that include 2.5-MHz average, 2.5-MHz bunch-by-bunch, 2.5-MHz narrow band, unbunched average, un-bunched head/tail and 89-kHz narrow band. Receiver data is acquired on any of up to sixteen clock events related to Recycler beam transfers and other machine activities. Data from the digital receiver board are transferred to the front-end CPU for position and intensity computation on an on-demand basis through the VME bus. Data buffers are maintained for each of the acquisition events and support flash, closed orbit and turn-by-turn measurements. A calibration system provides evaluation of the BPM signal path and application programs.

  8. Gram-positive rods prevailing in teeth with apical periodontitis undergoing root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez de Paz, L E; Molander, A; Dahlén, G

    2004-09-01

    To identify Gram-positive rods from root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis and to examine their associations with other species. Consecutive root canal samples (RCSs) from 139 teeth undergoing root canal treatment were analyzed prospectively for cultivable microbes. Gram-positive rods in the first RCS submitted after chemo-mechanical preparation were categorised to genus level by selective media and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), and identified to species level by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Associations between organisms were measured by odds ratios (OR). In the first samples submitted a total of 158 Gram-positive rods, 115 Gram-positive cocci, 26 Gram-negative rods and 9 Gram-negative cocci, were identified. At genus levels Gram-positive rods were classified into: Lactobacillus spp. (38%), Olsenella spp. (18%), Propionibacterium spp. (13%), Actinomyces spp. (12%), Bifidobacterium spp. (13%) and Eubacterium spp. (6%). The most frequent species were Olsenella uli, Lactobacillus paracasei and Propionibacterium propionicum. In subsequent samples taken during treatment, Gram-positive rods were also identified, although the number of strains was considerably reduced. Positive associations were observed between members of the genus lactobacilli and Gram-positive cocci (OR>2). Olsenella uli and Lactobacillus spp. predominated over other Gram-positive rods. A possible association exists between Lactobacillus spp. and Gram-positive cocci in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis receiving treatment.

  9. Indoor Positioning Using GPS Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Blunck, Henrik; Godsk, Torben

    2010-01-01

    It has been considered a fact that GPS performs too poorly inside buildings to provide usable indoor positioning. We analyze results of a measurement campaign to improve on the understanding of indoor GPS reception characteristics. The results show that using state-of-the-art receivers GPS...... low signal-to-noise ratios, multipath phenomena or bad satellite constellation geometry. We have also measured the indoor performance of embedded GPS receivers in mobile phones which provided lower availability and accuracy than state-of-the-art ones. Finally, we consider how the GPS performance...

  10. Overcoming the Challenges of BeiDou Receiver Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahidul H. Bhuiyan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS-based positioning is experiencing rapid changes. The existing GPS and the GLONASS systems are being modernized to better serve the current challenging applications under harsh signal conditions. These modernizations include increasing the number of transmission frequencies and changes to the signal components. In addition, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite system (BDS and the European Galileo are currently under development for global operation. Therefore, in view of these new upcoming systems the research and development of GNSS receivers has been experiencing a new upsurge. In this article, the authors discuss the main functionalities of a GNSS receiver in view of BDS. While describing the main functionalities of a software-defined BeiDou receiver, the authors also highlight the similarities and differences between the signal characteristics of the BeiDou B1 open service signal and the legacy GPS L1 C/A signal, as in general they both exhibit similar characteristics. In addition, the authors implement a novel acquisition technique for long coherent integration in the presence of NH code modulation in BeiDou D1 signal. Furthermore, a simple phase-preserved coherent integration based acquisition scheme is implemented for BeiDou GEO satellite acquisition. Apart from the above BeiDou-specific implementations, a novel Carrier-to-Noise-density ratio estimation technique is also implemented in the software receiver, which does not necessarily require bit synchronization prior to estimation. Finally, the authors present a BeiDou-only position fix with the implemented software-defined BeiDou receiver considering all three satellite constellations from BDS. In addition, a true multi-GNSS position fix with GPS and BDS systems is also presented while comparing their performances for a static stand-alone code phase-based positioning.

  11. Electrodynamic Wireless Power Transmission to Rotating Magnet Receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraud, A; Jimenez, J D; Garraud, N; Arnold, D P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) using a synchronously rotating magnet located in a 3.2 cm 3 receiver. We demonstrate wireless power transmission up to 99 mW (power density equal to 31 mW/cm 3 ) over a 5-cm distance and 5 mW over a 20-cm distance. The maximum operational frequency, and hence maximal output power, is constrained by the magnetic field amplitude. A quadratic relationship is found between the maximal output power and the magnetic field. We also demonstrate simultaneous, power transmission to multiple receivers positioned at different locations

  12. Beyond seismic interferometry: imaging the earth's interior with virtual sources and receivers inside the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, C. P. A.; Van der Neut, J.; Thorbecke, J.; Broggini, F.; Slob, E. C.; Snieder, R.

    2015-12-01

    Imagine one could place seismic sources and receivers at any desired position inside the earth. Since the receivers would record the full wave field (direct waves, up- and downward reflections, multiples, etc.), this would give a wealth of information about the local structures, material properties and processes in the earth's interior. Although in reality one cannot place sources and receivers anywhere inside the earth, it appears to be possible to create virtual sources and receivers at any desired position, which accurately mimics the desired situation. The underlying method involves some major steps beyond standard seismic interferometry. With seismic interferometry, virtual sources can be created at the positions of physical receivers, assuming these receivers are illuminated isotropically. Our proposed method does not need physical receivers at the positions of the virtual sources; moreover, it does not require isotropic illumination. To create virtual sources and receivers anywhere inside the earth, it suffices to record the reflection response with physical sources and receivers at the earth's surface. We do not need detailed information about the medium parameters; it suffices to have an estimate of the direct waves between the virtual-source positions and the acquisition surface. With these prerequisites, our method can create virtual sources and receivers, anywhere inside the earth, which record the full wave field. The up- and downward reflections, multiples, etc. in the virtual responses are extracted directly from the reflection response at the surface. The retrieved virtual responses form an ideal starting point for accurate seismic imaging, characterization and monitoring.

  13. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  14. Benign positional vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; BPPV: dizziness- positional ... Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). It is caused by a problem in the inner ear. ...

  15. Experiences of Family Members of Dying Patients Receiving Palliative Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursunov, Olga; Cherny, Nathan I; Ganz, Freda DeKeyser

    2016-11-01

    To describe the experience of family members of patients receiving palliative sedation at the initiation of treatment and after the patient has died and to compare these experiences over time.
. Descriptive comparative study.
. Oncology ward at Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel.
. A convenience sample of 34 family members of dying patients receiving palliative sedation. 
. A modified version of a questionnaire describing experiences of family members with palliative sedation was administered during palliative sedation and one to four months after the patient died. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the results of the questionnaire, and appropriate statistical analyses were conducted for comparisons over time.
. Experiences of family members and time.
. Most relatives were satisfied with the sedation and staff support. Palliative sedation was experienced as an ethical way to relieve suffering. However, one-third felt that it shortened the patient's life. An explanation of the treatment was given less than half of the time and was usually given on the same day treatment was started. This explanation was given by physicians and nurses. Many felt that they were not ready for changes in the patient's condition and wanted increased opportunities to discuss the treatment with oncology care providers. No statistically significant differences in experiences were found over time. 
. Relatives' experiences of palliative sedation were generally positive and stable over time. Important experiences included timing of the initiation of sedation, timing and quality of explanations, and communication.
. Nurses should attempt to initiate discussions of the possible role of sedation in the event of refractory symptoms and follow through with continued discussions. The management of refractory symptoms at the end of life, the role of sedation, and communication skills associated with decision making related to palliative sedation should be a

  16. Early surfactant therapy and nasal continuous positive airways ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) receiving nasal continuous positive airways ... required FiO2 was allowed to rise above 0.4 before surfactant was administered. ... group received surfactant immediately and the high-threshold group ...

  17. Big Data, Small Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlovina, Inna; van der Laan, Mark J; Hubbard, Alan

    2017-05-20

    Multiple comparisons and small sample size, common characteristics of many types of "Big Data" including those that are produced by genomic studies, present specific challenges that affect reliability of inference. Use of multiple testing procedures necessitates calculation of very small tail probabilities of a test statistic distribution. Results based on large deviation theory provide a formal condition that is necessary to guarantee error rate control given practical sample sizes, linking the number of tests and the sample size; this condition, however, is rarely satisfied. Using methods that are based on Edgeworth expansions (relying especially on the work of Peter Hall), we explore the impact of departures of sampling distributions from typical assumptions on actual error rates. Our investigation illustrates how far the actual error rates can be from the declared nominal levels, suggesting potentially wide-spread problems with error rate control, specifically excessive false positives. This is an important factor that contributes to "reproducibility crisis". We also review some other commonly used methods (such as permutation and methods based on finite sampling inequalities) in their application to multiple testing/small sample data. We point out that Edgeworth expansions, providing higher order approximations to the sampling distribution, offer a promising direction for data analysis that could improve reliability of studies relying on large numbers of comparisons with modest sample sizes.

  18. Features of the compost received by use of dairy whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Smolnikova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article features cjmposting of organic materials are considered at use of a traditional way and fermenting additives. Indicators of quality of the composts received with the use of dairy whey and a bacterial preparation as the fermenting additive are investigated. Comparison of the received samples of composts on such indicators of quality as is spent: humidity, acidity, the maintenance of organic substance in recalculation on dry weight, quantity of the general and fmmonium nitrogen.

  19. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  20. RF subsystem design for microwave communication receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, W. J.; Brodsky, W. G.

    A system review of the RF subsystems of (IFF) transponders, tropscatter receivers and SATCOM receivers is presented. The quantity potential for S-band and X-band IFF transponders establishes a baseline requirement. From this, the feasibility of a common design for these and other receivers is evaluated. Goals are established for a GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) device and related local oscillator preselector and self-test components.

  1. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  2. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  3. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for ACTPOL polarization- sensitive receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, V.; Zhao, Z.; Devlin, M. J.; Klein, J.; Lungu, M.; Schmitt, B.; Thornton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new cryogenic receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), a six-meter diameter off-axis Gregorian telescope located at an altitude of 5,200 meters (17,000 ft.) on Cerro Toco, in Northern Chile. The focal plane contains 3000 polarization-sensitive transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers, and is cooled to below 100 mK with a removable pulse-tube based customised JDry-100 dilution refrigerator insert. The optical tubes and the rest of the receiver are cooled with a dedicated pulse tube to below 3 K. Details of the receiver- to-telescope integration and first season on-site operation are described, including detector base temperature stability in vertical and tilted position as well as remote operation via Ethernet link.

  4. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for ACTPOL polarization- sensitive receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvarts, V; Zhao, Z; Devlin, M J; Klein, J; Lungu, M; Schmitt, B; Thornton, R

    2014-01-01

    We present a new cryogenic receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), a six-meter diameter off-axis Gregorian telescope located at an altitude of 5,200 meters (17,000 ft.) on Cerro Toco, in Northern Chile. The focal plane contains 3000 polarization-sensitive transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers, and is cooled to below 100 mK with a removable pulse-tube based customised JDry-100 dilution refrigerator insert. The optical tubes and the rest of the receiver are cooled with a dedicated pulse tube to below 3 K. Details of the receiver- to-telescope integration and first season on-site operation are described, including detector base temperature stability in vertical and tilted position as well as remote operation via Ethernet link

  5. The effect of receiving supplementary UI benefits on unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomi, Kyyrä,; Pierpaolo, Parrotta,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    insurance benefit receipt. We find evidence of a negative in-treatment effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across different groups of individuals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative......We consider the consequences of working part-time and receiving supplementary benefits for part-time unemployment in the Danish labor market. Following the timing-of-events approach we estimate causal effects of part-time work with supplementary benefits on the hazard rate out of unemployment...

  6. Coordination of Conditional Poisson Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafström Anton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sample coordination seeks to maximize or to minimize the overlap of two or more samples. The former is known as positive coordination, and the latter as negative coordination. Positive coordination is mainly used for estimation purposes and to reduce data collection costs. Negative coordination is mainly performed to diminish the response burden of the sampled units. Poisson sampling design with permanent random numbers provides an optimum coordination degree of two or more samples. The size of a Poisson sample is, however, random. Conditional Poisson (CP sampling is a modification of the classical Poisson sampling that produces a fixed-size πps sample. We introduce two methods to coordinate Conditional Poisson samples over time or simultaneously. The first one uses permanent random numbers and the list-sequential implementation of CP sampling. The second method uses a CP sample in the first selection and provides an approximate one in the second selection because the prescribed inclusion probabilities are not respected exactly. The methods are evaluated using the size of the expected sample overlap, and are compared with their competitors using Monte Carlo simulation. The new methods provide a good coordination degree of two samples, close to the performance of Poisson sampling with permanent random numbers.

  7. Experiences of shipper-receiver differences in plutonium oxide transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinburn, K.A.; McGowan, I.R.

    1976-01-01

    Plutonium oxide has the property of absorbing moisture, carbon dioxide etc., to the extent that it is necessary to take special steps to determine the plutonium content in such a way as to avoid shipper-receiver differences. This paper describes a method used internationally for several years for correcting for any absorption. The consignee witnesses the weighing of the bulk material (D kg) at the time of blending and sampling at the consignor's Works, and also the weighing of the sample (C g). Immediately before analysis the sample is reweighed (B g) and assayed for plutonium (A%). The weight of plutonium is then (A/100)x(B/C)xD kg. The accepted weight is the average between consignor's and consignee's figures after both have used the formula indicated. It goes on to give actual assay and fissile content figures obtained by BNFL and its consignees for the international transactions already referred to, and concludes that the method of approach results cumulatively in a negligible shipper-receiver difference. Individual transactions are shown to be commercially acceptable and, it is considered, also acceptable for safeguards purposes. It is suggested that for safeguarded material the safeguards inspectors might also be able to be present at, and themselves witness, the blending, sampling and weighing operations, and at the same time take their own samples for analysis. It is further suggested that the principle could be extended to accoutancy for plutonium in plutonium nitrate solutions provided leakage does not occur from the sample vials. (author)

  8. Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus among HIV positive patients moreover and its association with CD4 positive lymphocyte count.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abdollahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections are the leading cause of hospitalization and morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients and are the most common cause of death between them. We aimed to measure IgG antibody against EBV viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA IgG to determine the seroprevalence of this infection in HIV-positive population. A case-control study between September 2011 and October 2012 was conducted in a teaching hospital enrolling 114 HIV-positive patients as case group and 114 healthy individuals as control with similar age and sex. Enzyme-linked immunosurbant assay (ELISA technique was used for determination of EBV-VAC IgG in obtained samples. Of 114 serum samples obtained from HIV-positive patients, 103 (90.4% samples were found positive for EBV-VCA IgG antibody. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence of EBV VCA IgG antibody between patients received antiretroviral therapy and naive patients (91.5% vs. 87.5%, P>0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in EBV-VCA IgG seroprevalence between three groups of CD4+ in HIV positive group. In conclusion current study showed that seroprevalence of EBV in HIV-positive patients is higher than HIV-negative healthy participants; however, administration of HAART and CD4+ lymphocyte count did not reveal a significant effect in seroprevalence of EBV. Due to the significance of this virus in mortality and morbidity and causing certain malignancies in patients with AIDS, these patients are strongly recommended to be tested for this virus.

  9. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...... detection algorithms are easily deployed, and it is easily adapted the new proposed AIS transmission channels....

  10. Heat receiving plates in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a heat receiving plate structure capable of withstanding sputtering wear and retaining the thermal deformation and residual stress low upon junction and available at a reduced cost. Constitution: Junction structures between heat sinks and armours are the same as usual, whereas high melting armour (for example, made of tungsten) are used at the portion on a heat receiving plate where the thermal load and particle load are higher while materials having a heat expansion coefficient similar to that of the heat sink (stainless steel) are used at the portion where the thermal load and particle load are lower on a heat receiving plate depending on the thermal load and particle load distribution. This can reduce the thermal deformation for the entire divertor heat receiving plate to obtain a heat receiving plate of a good surface dimensional accuracy. (Takahashi, M.)

  11. High thermal load receiving heat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibutani, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Uchida, Takaho.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a high thermal load heat receiving plate such as a divertor plate of a thermonuclear device. The high thermal load heat receiving plate of the present invention has a cooling performance capable of suppressing the temperature of an armour tile to less than a threshold value of the material against high thermal loads applied from plasmas. Spiral polygonal pipes are inserted in cooling pipes at a portion receiving high thermal loads in the high temperature load heat receiving plate of the present invention. Both ends of the polygonal pipes are sealed by lids. An area of the flow channel in the cooling pipes is thus reduced. Heat conductivity on the cooling surface of the cooling pipes is increased in the high thermal load heat receiving plate having such a structure. Accordingly, temperature elevation of the armour tile can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  12. Distributed sensing of ionospheric irregularities with a GNSS receiver array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Datta-Barua, Seebany; Bust, Gary S.; Deshpande, Kshitija B.

    2017-08-01

    We present analysis methods for studying the structuring and motion of ionospheric irregularities at the subkilometer scale sizes that produce L band scintillations. Spaced-receiver methods are used for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers' phase measurements over approximately subkilometer to kilometer length baselines for the first time. The quantities estimated by these techniques are plasma drift velocity, diffraction anisotropy magnitude and orientation, and characteristic velocity. Uncertainties are quantified by ensemble simulation of noise on the phase signals carried through to the observations of the spaced-receiver linear system. These covariances are then propagated through to uncertainties on drifts through linearization about the estimated values of the state. Five receivers of SAGA, the Scintillation Auroral Global Positioning System (GPS) Array, provide 100 Hz power and phase data for each channel at L1 frequency. The array is sited in the auroral zone at Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska. A case study of a single scintillating satellite observed by the array is used to demonstrate the spaced-receiver and uncertainty estimation process. A second case study estimates drifts as measured by multiple scintillating channels. These scintillations are correlated with auroral activity, based on all-sky camera images. Measurements and uncertainty estimates made over a 30 min period are compared to a collocated incoherent scatter radar and show good agreement in horizontal drift speed and direction during periods of scintillation for which the characteristic velocity is less than the drift velocity.

  13. Performance evaluation of GPS receiver under equatorial scintillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison de Oliveira Moraes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Equatorial scintillation is a phenomenon that occurs daily in the equatorial region after the sunset and affects radio signals that propagate through the ionosphere. Depending on the temporal and spatial situation, equatorial scintillation can represent a problem in the availability and precision of the Global Positioning System (GPS. This work is concerned with evaluating the impact of equatorial scintillation on the performance of GPS receivers. First, the morphology and statistical model of equatorial scintillation is briefly presented. A numerical model that generates synthetic scintillation data to simulate the effects of equatorial scintillation is presented. An overview of the main theoretical principles on GPS receivers is presented. The analytical models that describe the effects of scintillation at receiver level are presented and compared with numerical simulations using a radio software receiver and synthetic data. The results achieved by simulation agreed quite well with those predicted by the analytical models. The only exception is for links with extreme levels of scintillation and when weak signals are received.

  14. Integrated synchronous receiver channel for optical instrumentation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benten, Harold G. P. H.; Ruotsalainen, Tarmo; Maekynen, Anssi J.; Rahkonen, Timo E.; Kopola, Harri K.

    1997-09-01

    A two-channel synchronous receiver circuit for optical instrumentation applications has been designed and implemented. Each receiver channel comprises a.o. transimpedance preamplifier, voltage amplifiers, programmable feedback networks, and a synchronous detector. The function of the channel is to extract the slowly varying information carrying signal from a modulated carrier which is accompanied by relatively high levels of noise. As a whole, the channel can be characterized as a narrow band filter around the frequency of interest. Medical applications include arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) measurement and dental pulp vitality measurement. In both cases, two optical signals with different frequencies are received by a single photodiode. The measured performance of the optical receiver shows its suitability for the above mentioned applications. Therefore the circuit will be used in a small sized, battery-operated sensor prototype to test the sensing method in a clinical environment. Other applications include the signal processing of optical position-sensitive detectors. A summary of measured receiver channel performance: input reduced noise current spectral density between 0.20 and 0.30 pA/(root)Hz at all relevant frequencies, total programmable channel transimpedance between 7 M(Omega) and 500 M(Omega) , lower -3 dB frequency of at least 50 Hz, upper -3 dB frequency of 40 kHz, maximum voltage swing at the demodulator output of 2.4 V.

  15. Auto-positioning ultrasonic transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Randy K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer apparatus and process for determining the optimal transducer position for flow measurement along a conduit outer surface. The apparatus includes a transmitting transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal, said transducer affixed to a conduit outer surface; a guide rail attached to a receiving transducer for guiding movement of a receiving transducer along the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer receives an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer and sends a signal to a data acquisition system; and a motor for moving the receiving transducer along the guide rail, wherein the motor is controlled by a controller. The method includes affixing a transmitting transducer to an outer surface of a conduit; moving a receiving transducer on the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer is moved along a guide rail by a motor; transmitting an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer that is received by the receiving transducer; communicating the signal received by the receiving transducer to a data acquisition and control system; and repeating the moving, transmitting, and communicating along a length of the conduit.

  16. Assessment of Compatibility between Ultrawideband (UWB) Systems and Global Positioning System (GPS) Receivers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-01

    ...) of the proposed UWB transmitting devices to those spectrum-dependent systems currently in operation The NTIA, as the Executive Branch agency principally responsible for developing and articulating...

  17. Incident pregnancy and time to death or AIDS among HIV-positive women receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Westreich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of pregnancy on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the effect of incident pregnancy after HAART initiation on clinical response to HAART. METHODS: We evaluated a prospective clinical cohort of adult women initiating HAART in Johannesburg, South Africa between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2011, and followed up until an event, transfer, drop-out, or administrative end of follow-up on 30 September 2011. Women over age 45 and women who were pregnant at HAART initiation were excluded from the study. Main exposure was having experienced pregnancy after HAART initiation; main outcome was death and (separately death or new AIDS event. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence limits (CL using marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The study included 7,534 women, and 20,813 person-years of follow-up; 918 women had at least one recognized pregnancy during follow-up. For death alone, the weighted (adjusted HR was 0.84 (95% CL 0.44, 1.60. Sensitivity analyses confirmed main results, and results were similar for analysis of death or new AIDS event. Incident pregnancy was associated with a substantially reduced hazard of drop-out (HR = 0.62, 95% CL 0.51, 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: Recognized incident pregnancy after HAART initiation was not associated with increases in hazard of clinical events, but was associated with a decreased hazard of drop-out. High rates of pregnancy after initiation of HAART may point to a need to better integrate family planning services into clinical care for HIV-infected women.

  18. A fully integrated multi-standard frequency synthesizer for GNSS receivers with cellular network positioning capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Li; Xiangning, Fan; Wei, Li; Li, Zhang; Zhigong, Wang

    2013-01-01

    A fully integrated hybrid integer/fractional frequency synthesizer is presented. With a single multiband voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO), the frequency synthesizer can support GPS, Galileo, Compass and TD-SCDMA standards. Design is carefully performed to trade off power, die area and phase noise performance. By reconfiguring between the integer mode and fractional mode, different frequency resolution requirements and a constant loop bandwidth for each standard can be achieved simultaneously. Moreover, a long sequence length, reduced hardware complexity multi-stage-noise-shaping (MASH) Δ-Σ modulator is employed to reduce fractional spur in the fractional mode. Fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology, the frequency synthesizer occupies an active area of 1.48 mm2 and draws a current of 13.4-16.2 mA from a 1.8 V power supply. The measured phase noise is lower than -80 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset and -113 to -124 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset respectively, while the measured reference spur is -71 dBc in integer mode and the fractional spur is -65 dBc in fractional mode.

  19. A fully integrated multi-standard frequency synthesizer for GNSS receivers with cellular network positioning capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Fan Xiangning; Li Wei; Zhang Li; Wang Zhigong

    2013-01-01

    A fully integrated hybrid integer/fractional frequency synthesizer is presented. With a single multiband voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO), the frequency synthesizer can support GPS, Galileo, Compass and TD-SCDMA standards. Design is carefully performed to trade off power, die area and phase noise performance. By reconfiguring between the integer mode and fractional mode, different frequency resolution requirements and a constant loop bandwidth for each standard can be achieved simultaneously. Moreover, a long sequence length, reduced hardware complexity multi-stage-noise-shaping (MASH) Δ−Σ modulator is employed to reduce fractional spur in the fractional mode. Fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology, the frequency synthesizer occupies an active area of 1.48 mm 2 and draws a current of 13.4–16.2 mA from a 1.8 V power supply. The measured phase noise is lower than −80 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset and −113 to −124 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset respectively, while the measured reference spur is −71 dBc in integer mode and the fractional spur is −65 dBc in fractional mode. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Sunitinib Malate in Treating HIV-Positive Patients With Cancer Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Aggressive NK-cell Leukemia; AIDS-related Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Malignancies; AIDS-related Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extramedullary Plasmacytoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; HIV Infection; HIV-associated Hodgkin Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Isolated Plasmacytoma of Bone; Light Chain Deposition Disease; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Isolated Del(5q); Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Osteolytic Lesions of Multiple Myeloma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  1. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  2. Introduction to Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Phillips, Brian; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology has received increasing attention in rehabilitation counseling research and practice. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis of personal assets and strengths, which provides a solid foundation for the integration of positive psychology into the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling. In…

  3. The Mathematics of the Global Positioning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Gail D.; Jabon, David; Nord, John

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that illustrates the application of mathematics to modern navigation and utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that enables receivers to compute their position anywhere on the earth with great accuracy. (DDR)

  4. Note: Optical receiver system for 152-channel magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong [Center for Biosignals, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    An optical receiver system composing 13 serial data restore/synchronizer modules and a single module combiner converted optical 32-bit serial data into 32-bit synchronous parallel data for a computer to acquire 152-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. A serial data restore/synchronizer module identified 32-bit channel-voltage bits from 48-bit streaming serial data, and then consecutively reproduced 13 times of 32-bit serial data, acting in a synchronous clock. After selecting a single among 13 reproduced data in each module, a module combiner converted it into 32-bit parallel data, which were carried to 32-port digital input board in a computer. When the receiver system together with optical transmitters were applied to 152-channel superconducting quantum interference device sensors, this MEG system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz at a sample rate of 1 kSample/s per channel.

  5. The ‘vivid sociolinguistic profiling’ of Received Pronunciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The present paper contributes to an ongoing debate on the sociolinguistic situation of modern Received Pronunciation (hereafter RP) , the social elite accent of England (Milroy 2001; Mugglestone 2003). It reports on an attitudinal study which elicited openended as well as scaled responses...... to samples of RP and nonRP spontaneous dialectindiscourse. This research agenda is a natural extension of studies of synchronic variation and generational change in RP (see e.g. Fabricius 2000, 2002a, 2002b)....

  6. Metabolic Profiling of Impaired Cognitive Function in Patients Receiving Dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Chertow, Glenn M.; Depner, Thomas A.; Nissenson, Allen R.; Schiller, Brigitte; Mehta, Ravindra L.; Liu, Sai; Sirich, Tammy L.

    2016-01-01

    Retention of uremic metabolites is a proposed cause of cognitive impairment in patients with ESRD. We used metabolic profiling to identify and validate uremic metabolites associated with impairment in executive function in two cohorts of patients receiving maintenance dialysis. We performed metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry applied to predialysis plasma samples from a discovery cohort of 141 patients and an independent replication cohort of 180 patients partici...

  7. Smooth time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Pardo-Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2018-03-01

    The receiver operating characteristic curve is a popular graphical method often used to study the diagnostic capacity of continuous (bio)markers. When the considered outcome is a time-dependent variable, two main extensions have been proposed: the cumulative/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve and the incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve. In both cases, the main problem for developing appropriate estimators is the estimation of the joint distribution of the variables time-to-event and marker. As usual, different approximations lead to different estimators. In this article, the authors explore the use of a bivariate kernel density estimator which accounts for censored observations in the sample and produces smooth estimators of the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves. The performance of the resulting cumulative/dynamic and incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curves is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, the influence of the choice of the required smoothing parameters is explored. Finally, two real-applications are considered. An R package is also provided as a complement to this article.

  8. GPU Acceleration of DSP for Communication Receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Jake; Gunther, Hyrum; Moon, Todd

    2017-09-01

    Graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of signal processing algorithms can outperform CPU-based implementations. This paper describes the GPU implementation of several algorithms encountered in a wide range of high-data rate communication receivers including filters, multirate filters, numerically controlled oscillators, and multi-stage digital down converters. These structures are tested by processing the 20 MHz wide FM radio band (88-108 MHz). Two receiver structures are explored: a single channel receiver and a filter bank channelizer. Both run in real time on NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 graphics card.

  9. Decoding algorithm for vortex communications receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, Judy; Arnon, Shlomi

    2018-01-01

    Vortex light beams can provide a tremendous alphabet for encoding information. We derive a symbol decoding algorithm for a direct detection matrix detector vortex beam receiver using Laguerre Gauss (LG) modes, and develop a mathematical model of symbol error rate (SER) for this receiver. We compare SER as a function of signal to noise ratio (SNR) for our algorithm and for the Pearson correlation algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive treatment of a decoding algorithm of a matrix detector for an LG receiver.

  10. Exploiting Redundancy in an OFDM SDR Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Palenik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Common OFDM system contains redundancy necessary to mitigate interblock interference and allows computationally effective single-tap frequency domain equalization in receiver. Assuming the system implements an outer error correcting code and channel state information is available in the receiver, we show that it is possible to understand the cyclic prefix insertion as a weak inner ECC encoding and exploit the introduced redundancy to slightly improve error performance of such a system. In this paper, an easy way to implement modification to an existing SDR OFDM receiver is presented. This modification enables the utilization of prefix redundancy, while preserving full compatibility with existing OFDM-based communication standards.

  11. HIV-Related Stigma Among Spanish-speaking Latinos in an Emerging Immigrant Receiving City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolwick Grieb, Suzanne M; Shah, Harita; Flores-Miller, Alejandra; Zelaya, Carla; Page, Kathleen R

    2017-08-01

    HIV-related stigma has been associated with a reluctance to test for HIV among Latinos. This study assessed community HIV-related stigma within an emerging Latino immigrant receiving city. We conducted a brief survey among a convenience sample of 312 Spanish-speaking Latinos in Baltimore, Maryland. HIV-related stigma was assessed through six items. Associations between stigma items, socio-demographic characteristics, and HIV testing history were considered. Gender, education, and religiosity were significantly associated with stigmatizing HIV-related beliefs. For example, men were 3.4 times more likely to hold more than three stigmatizing beliefs than women, and were also twice as likely as women to report feeling hesitant to test for HIV for fear of people's reaction if the test is positive. These findings can help inform future stigma interventions in this community. In particular, we were able to distinguish between drivers of stigma such as fear and moralistic attitudes, highlighting specific actionable items.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.306 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment. (2) New and... manholes therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.169 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and... therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground or...

  14. 47 CFR 32.1170 - Receivables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1170 Receivables. (a... of interest accrued to the date of the balance sheet on bonds, notes, and other commercial paper...

  15. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  16. Storage rack for fuel cell receiving shrouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for receiving a multiplicity of vertical tubular shrouds or tubes for storing spent nuclear fuel cells. The rack comprises a plurality of horizontally reticulated frames interconnected by tension rods and spacing tubes surrounding the rods

  17. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  18. Single-Receiver GPS Phase Bias Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertiger, William I.; Haines, Bruce J.; Weiss, Jan P.; Harvey, Nathaniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Existing software has been modified to yield the benefits of integer fixed double-differenced GPS-phased ambiguities when processing data from a single GPS receiver with no access to any other GPS receiver data. When the double-differenced combination of phase biases can be fixed reliably, a significant improvement in solution accuracy is obtained. This innovation uses a large global set of GPS receivers (40 to 80 receivers) to solve for the GPS satellite orbits and clocks (along with any other parameters). In this process, integer ambiguities are fixed and information on the ambiguity constraints is saved. For each GPS transmitter/receiver pair, the process saves the arc start and stop times, the wide-lane average value for the arc, the standard deviation of the wide lane, and the dual-frequency phase bias after bias fixing for the arc. The second step of the process uses the orbit and clock information, the bias information from the global solution, and only data from the single receiver to resolve double-differenced phase combinations. It is called "resolved" instead of "fixed" because constraints are introduced into the problem with a finite data weight to better account for possible errors. A receiver in orbit has much shorter continuous passes of data than a receiver fixed to the Earth. The method has parameters to account for this. In particular, differences in drifting wide-lane values must be handled differently. The first step of the process is automated, using two JPL software sets, Longarc and Gipsy-Oasis. The resulting orbit/clock and bias information files are posted on anonymous ftp for use by any licensed Gipsy-Oasis user. The second step is implemented in the Gipsy-Oasis executable, gd2p.pl, which automates the entire process, including fetching the information from anonymous ftp

  19. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms

  20. Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    , orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition......Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first...

  1. New approaches to nanoparticle sample fabrication for atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felfer, P.; Li, T.; Eder, K.; Galinski, H.; Magyar, A.P.; Bell, D.C.; Smith, G.D.W.; Kruse, N.; Ringer, S.P.; Cairney, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their unique properties, nano-sized materials such as nanoparticles and nanowires are receiving considerable attention. However, little data is available about their chemical makeup at the atomic scale, especially in three dimensions (3D). Atom probe tomography is able to answer many important questions about these materials if the challenge of producing a suitable sample can be overcome. In order to achieve this, the nanomaterial needs to be positioned within the end of a tip and fixed there so the sample possesses sufficient structural integrity for analysis. Here we provide a detailed description of various techniques that have been used to position nanoparticles on substrates for atom probe analysis. In some of the approaches, this is combined with deposition techniques to incorporate the particles into a solid matrix, and focused ion beam processing is then used to fabricate atom probe samples from this composite. Using these approaches, data has been achieved from 10–20 nm core–shell nanoparticles that were extracted directly from suspension (i.e. with no chemical modification) with a resolution of better than ±1 nm. - Highlights: • Samples for APT of nanoparticles were fabricated from particle powders and dispersions. • Electrophoresis was suitable for producing samples from dispersions. • Powder lift-out was successfully producing samples from particle agglomerates. • Dispersion application/coating delivered the highest quality results.

  2. New approaches to nanoparticle sample fabrication for atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfer, P., E-mail: peter.felfer@sydney.edu.au [School for Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering/Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, T. [School for Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering/Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Materials Department, The University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Eder, K. [School for Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering/Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Galinski, H. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Magyar, A.P.; Bell, D.C. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Systems, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Smith, G.D.W. [Materials Department, The University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kruse, N. [Chemical Physics of Materials (Catalysis-Tribology), Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP 243, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Ringer, S.P.; Cairney, J.M. [School for Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering/Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Due to their unique properties, nano-sized materials such as nanoparticles and nanowires are receiving considerable attention. However, little data is available about their chemical makeup at the atomic scale, especially in three dimensions (3D). Atom probe tomography is able to answer many important questions about these materials if the challenge of producing a suitable sample can be overcome. In order to achieve this, the nanomaterial needs to be positioned within the end of a tip and fixed there so the sample possesses sufficient structural integrity for analysis. Here we provide a detailed description of various techniques that have been used to position nanoparticles on substrates for atom probe analysis. In some of the approaches, this is combined with deposition techniques to incorporate the particles into a solid matrix, and focused ion beam processing is then used to fabricate atom probe samples from this composite. Using these approaches, data has been achieved from 10–20 nm core–shell nanoparticles that were extracted directly from suspension (i.e. with no chemical modification) with a resolution of better than ±1 nm. - Highlights: • Samples for APT of nanoparticles were fabricated from particle powders and dispersions. • Electrophoresis was suitable for producing samples from dispersions. • Powder lift-out was successfully producing samples from particle agglomerates. • Dispersion application/coating delivered the highest quality results.

  3. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.

    2016-08-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  4. Positive Psychology: Positive Emotions and Emotional Intelegence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...

  5. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  6. Single-position Hall effect measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A method for determining a distance (Y) between a first position on and an electrical boundary (34) of a test sample by a multi-point probe comprising four contact elements, comprising: contacting the test sample with the four contact elements (20,22,24,26) at the first position, applying a magne...

  7. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue

    2015-04-29

    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations.

  8. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Enerly

    Full Text Available Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP, 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1% hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway.

  9. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina; Pedersen, Helle; Lönnberg, Stefan; Nygård, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr) HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC)2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1%) hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway.

  10. Digital beam position monitor for the HAPPEX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlon Kauffman; John Musson; Hai Dong; Lisa Kaufman; Arne Freyberger

    2005-01-01

    The proposed HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF employs a three cavity monitor system for high precision (1um), high bandwidth (100 kHz) position measurements. This is performed using a cavity triplet consisting of two TM110-mode cavities (one each for X and Y planes) combined with a conventional TM010-mode cavity for a phase and magnitude reference. Traditional systems have used the TM010 cavity output to directly down convert the BPM cavity signals to base band. The multi-channel HAPPEX digital receiver simultaneously I/Q samples each cavity and extracts position using a CORDIC algorithm. The hardware design consists of a RF receiver daughter board and a digital processor motherboard that resides in a VXI crate. The daughter board down converts 1.497 GHz signals from the TM010 cavity and X and Y signals from the TM110 cavities to 3 MHz and extracts the quadrature digital signals. The motherboard processes this data and computes beam intensity and X-Y positions with resolution of 1um, 100 kHz output bandwidth, and overall latency of 1us. The results are available in both the analog and digital format

  11. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  12. Solar central receiver reformer system for ammonia plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Details of the conceptual design, economic analysis, and development plan for a solar central receiver system for retrofitting the Valley Nitrogen Producers, Inc., El Centro, California 600 ST/SD Ammonia Plant are presented. The retrofit system consists of a solar central receiver reformer (SCRR) operating in parallel with the existing fossil fired reformer. Steam and hydrocarbon react in the catalyst filled tubes of the inner cavity receiver to form a hydrogen rich mixture which is the syngas feed for the ammonia production. The SCRR system displaces natural gas presently used in the fossil reformer combustion chamber. The solar reformer retrofit system characteristics and its interface with the existing plant are simple, incorporating state of the art components with proven technology. A northfield composed of one thousand forty second generation heliostats provides solar energy to the receiver which is positioned on top of a 90 meter high steel tower. The overall economics of this system can provide over 20% discount cash flow rate of return with proper investment and market conditions.

  13. Responses to Co-workers Receiving Recognition at Work: A Case Study in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane, Che Mezoh Akuro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to examine, the impact of co-workers receiving recognition on two types of responses namely, positive /negative and the resulting behavioral intentions (interpersonal counterproductive work behaviors and interpersonal citizenship behaviors). Employees might not only receive recognition themselves in their organizations and groups but often they witness others receiving it either directly by observation or indirectly through stories. This may lead to vari...

  14. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  15. Review and future perspective of central receiver design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-01

    overgeneration, spillage, and instability may occur. Energy storage may well become a necessity in some areas in order to maintain reliability. Next-generation central receiver technologies will have higher operating temperatures and additional features that allow higher-efficiency power generation and deliver other cost-performance advantages. The underlying innovations will come from areas such as multi-physics modeling, high-temperature materials, novel power cycles and heat exchanger designs, and collector field sensing and performance monitoring technologies. Technology innovation is expected to improve the cost and performance of central receiver designs. To deliver value as a generation and storage option, central receiver technology must also be supported by flexible and robust financial models and comprehensive energy and ancillary service markets justifying the capital-intensive investment. Progress in these areas will position CSP central receiver technology for future deployment.

  16. Review and Future Perspective of Central Receiver Design and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Guangdong; Libby, Cara

    2017-06-27

    accommodate, beyond which overgeneration, spillage, and instability may occur. Energy storage may well become a necessity in some areas in order to maintain reliability. Next-generation central receiver technologies will have higher operating temperatures and additional features that allow higher-efficiency power generation and deliver other cost-performance advantages. The underlying innovations will come from areas such as multi-physics modeling, high-temperature materials, novel power cycles and heat exchanger designs, and collector field sensing and performance monitoring technologies. Technology innovation is expected to improve the cost and performance of central receiver designs. To deliver value as a generation and storage option, central receiver technology must also be supported by flexible and robust financial models and comprehensive energy and ancillary service markets justifying the capital-intensive investment. Progress in these areas will position CSP central receiver technology for future deployment.

  17. ASTRID© - Advanced Solar Tubular ReceIver Design: A powerful tool for receiver design and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas; Uhlig, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    In solar tower power plants the receiver is one of the critical components. It converts the solar radiation into heat and must withstand high heat flux densities and high daily or even hourly gradients (due to passage of clouds). For this reason, the challenge during receiver design is to find a reasonable compromise between receiver efficiency, reliability, lifetime and cost. There is a strong interaction between the heliostat field, the receiver and the heat transfer fluid. Therefore, a proper receiver design needs to consider these components within the receiver optimization. There are several design and optimization tools for receivers, but most of them focus only on the receiver, ignoring the heliostat field and other parts of the plant. During the last years DLR developed the ASTRIDcode for tubular receiver concept simulation. The code comprises both a high and a low-detail model. The low-detail model utilizes a number of simplifications which allow the user to screen a high number of receiver concepts for optimization purposes. The high-detail model uses a FE model and is able to compute local absorber and salt temperatures with high accuracy. One key strength of the ASTRIDcode is its interface to a ray tracing software which simulates a realistic heat flux distributions on the receiver surface. The results generated by the ASTRIDcode have been validated by CFD simulations and measurement data.

  18. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude [INSA, Department d' Informatiques, Ba-hat t B. Pascal, 20 Avenue Albert Einsten, 69621 Villeurbaune (France)]. E-mail: jean-claude.commercon@insa-lyon.fr; Badard, Robert [INSA, Department d' Informatiques, Bat B. Pascal, 20 Avenue Albert Einsten, 69621 Villeurbaune (France)]. E-mail: robert.badard@insa-lyon.fr

    2005-02-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal.

  19. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  20. The Communication Between Designer and Design Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Dai, Yan

    2009-01-01

    When people think about a product,the first impression always mainly influences the result.Product is the medium of communication between designer and designer receiver.Because both of them have varied different experience and background,the information would be biased during the transferring...... process.The common symbols which can be recognized by both of designer and receiver are the key tools for communication.In some case,the same symbol in one product would be leads to different receiver impression.Generally,impression includes 3 aspects:aesthetics,function, and emotion.Designer needs...... to create an attractive and accurate impression in product from these 3 aspects.For facing the dilemma of communication,some experimental approaches can help designer deal with unique and diversity situations.Solving the detail problem in each step could keep the original meaning of designer....

  1. Precision Continuum Receivers for Astrophysical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) amplifiers find widespread use in radioastronomy receivers. In recent years, these devices have also been commonly employed in broadband receivers for precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. In this setting, the combination of ultra-low-noise and low-spectral-resolution observations reinforce the importance achieving suitable control over the device environment to achieve fundamentally limited receiver performance. The influence of the intrinsic amplifier stability at low frequencies on data quality (e.g., achievable noise and residual temporal correlations), observational and calibration strategies, as well as architectural mitigation approaches in this setting will be discussed. The implications of device level 1/f fluctuations reported in the literature on system performance will be reviewed.

  2. Building and Testing a Portable VLF Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert; Krause, L.

    2014-01-01

    Unwanted emissions or signal noise is a major problem for VLF radio receivers. These can occur from man made sources such as power line hum, which can be prevalent for many harmonics after the fundamental 50 or 60 Hz AC source or from VLF radio transmissions such as LORAN, used for navigation and communications. Natural emissions can also be detrimental to the quality of recordings as some of the more interesting natural emissions such as whistlers or auroral chorus may be drowned out by the more common sferic emissions. VLF receivers must selectively filter out unwanted emissions and amplify the filtered signal to a record-able level without degrading the quality.

  3. Billing and accounts receivable: fundamentals for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizon, M M

    1993-07-01

    If a healthcare facility's accounts receivable operation is experiencing problems, the patient accounts manager should survey all areas of his or her responsibility to determine the best method of resolving the difficulties. One effective technique to reduce billing problems is to take a proactive--not reactive--approach. If mistakes can be corrected before they get out of control, and if the patient accounts manager can ensure that claims will not be denied, a healthcare facility's accounts receivable should remain in good condition.

  4. Improved timing recovery in wireless mobile receivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available are transmitted to the receiver. In the proposed method, the receiver exploits the soft decisions computed at each turbo decoding iteration to provide reliable estimates of a soft timing signal, which in turn, improves the decoding time. The derived method... as ( ) ( )( )1 2 1 2, ,..., , ,...,Q Qk k k k k k k k ka a x x x P a x x xη∗ ∗∈Β= ∑ (29) where ( )1 2, ,..., Qk k kx x x are the Q coded bits in a multilevel symbol modulation scheme [32]. According to [29], the soft information demapper computes posteriori...

  5. Measuring Balance Across Multiple Radar Receiver Channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.; Bickel, Douglas L.

    2018-03-01

    When radar receivers employ multiple channels, the general intent is for the receive channels to be as alike as possible, if not as ideal as possible. This is usually done via prudent hardware design, supplemented by system calibration. Towards this end, we require a quality metric for ascertaining the goodness of a radar channel, and the degree of match to sibling channels. We propose a relevant and useable metric to do just that. Acknowledgements This report was the result of an unfunded research and development activity.

  6. Temporal and spatial changes of microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Lujun; Sun, Renhua; Dai, Tianjiao; Tian, Jinping; Zheng, Wei; Wen, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and AMOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations in abundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance of major archaeal species. Temperature was found to positively correlate with the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea, Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Social support, self-care, and quality of life in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanucharurnkul, S.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life in adult cancer patients receiving radiotherapy while the selected basic conditioning factors of age, marital and socio-economic status, living arrangement, stage and site of cancer were statistically controlled; and (2) to test a theoretical model which postulated that (a) quality of life was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors, social support and self-care, and (b) self-care was predicted jointly by the selected basic conditioning factors and social support. A convenience sample of 112 adult cervical and head/neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy was obtained from radiotherapy outpatient clinic in three hospitals located in Bangkok, Thailand. Results of the study indicated positive relationships among self-care, social support, and quality of life. Socio-economic status, site of cancer, and self-care were significant predictors for reported quality of life. Social support appeared to be a significant predictor of quality of life indirectly through self-care. Socio-economic status and social support were also significant predictors of self-care, whereas, stage and site of cancer seemed to predict self-care indirectly through social support

  8. The decision to receive influenza vaccination among nurses in North and South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Laurie Jo; Stenvig, Thomas; Wey, Howard

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationships between factors (intention, habit, facilitating conditions, and social, cognitive, and affective factors) and nurses' decisions about influenza vaccinations to understand why some get vaccinated while others do not. In a descriptive correlational design, the Triandis model of interpersonal behavior was used to examine the decision of nurses to receive influenza vaccinations. Participants were a random sample (N=193) of registered nurses in North and South Dakota drawn from the respective state nursing licensing board lists. Instrument construction and mail survey procedures followed Dillman's tailored design method. The response rate exceeded 80%. The findings revealed significant, positive correlations among all model variables. Item analysis showed that false beliefs about influenza disease and vaccinations were prevalent and that there was a wide variation in employer support for nurses getting vaccinated. Educational and social marketing strategies may improve nurse's knowledge about influenza disease and vaccine and increase vaccine uptake. Employers should be encouraged to promote and improve influenza vaccine accessibility in the workplace. Additional study is needed to understand how best to strengthen the influence of intention and habit on the decision of nurses to receive influenza vaccinations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bayesian receiver operating characteristic estimation of multiple tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Chadian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna Müller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (BTB today primarily affects developing countries. In Africa, the disease is present essentially on the whole continent; however, little accurate information on its distribution and prevalence is available. Also, attempts to evaluate diagnostic tests for BTB in naturally infected cattle are scarce and mostly complicated by the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the tested animals. However, diagnostic test evaluation in a given setting is a prerequisite for the implementation of local surveillance schemes and control measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected a slaughterhouse population of 954 Chadian cattle to single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT testing and two recently developed fluorescence polarization assays (FPA. Using a Bayesian modeling approach we computed the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of each diagnostic test, the true disease prevalence in the sampled population and the disease status of all sampled animals in the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the sampled animals. In our Chadian setting, SICCT performed better if the cut-off for positive test interpretation was lowered from >4 mm (OIE standard cut-off to >2 mm. Using this cut-off, SICCT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 89%, respectively. Both FPA tests showed sensitivities below 50% but specificities above 90%. The true disease prevalence was estimated at 8%. Altogether, 11% of the sampled animals showed gross visible tuberculous lesions. However, modeling of the BTB disease status of the sampled animals indicated that 72% of the suspected tuberculosis lesions detected during standard meat inspections were due to other pathogens than Mycobacterium bovis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for BTB diagnosis in a high incidence sub-Saharan African setting and demonstrate the practicability of our Bayesian approach for

  10. Evaluating the potential energy of a heliostat field and solar receiver of solar tower power plants in the southern region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Kadhim Al-Dualimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A prior study on the performance of high-efficient models for a heliostat field and solar receiver at various candidate locations (e.g., certain regions in the south of Turkey helped determine suitable locations for installing solar tower power plant units. This study considered the fact that solar tower power plants are affected by the working conditions of a particular site, which helps realize the highest performance of the solar power tower plant. An optimized heliostat field consisting of 2650 SENER heliostats and a model of a solar receiver based on the data obtained using Gemasolar in Seville, Spain, was used as a reference in this work. Each heliostat position is specified using an optimization algorithm that refines previously proposed models, and two parameters are added to this model to further optimize the heliostat layout. Then, a sample analytical thermal model is used for predicting the radiative and convective heat losses from the receiver system. Article History: Received March 13rd 2016; Received in revised form Jun 22nd 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available onlineHow to Cite This Article: Ra'ad, K, M, A. and Mehmet, S, S. (2016, Evaluating the potential energy of a heliostat field and solar receiver of solar tower power plants in the southern region of Turkey. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 151-161, http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.151-161

  11. Kinetics of Phytosterol Metabolism in Neonates Receiving Parental Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem-Rao, T. Hang; Tunc, Ilker; Mavis, Alisha M.; Cao, Yumei; Polzin, Elizabeth M.; Firary, Mary F.; Wang, Xujing; Simpson, Pippa M.; Patel, Shailendra B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Phytosterols in soybean oil (SO) lipids likely contribute to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. No characterization of phytosterol metabolism has been done in infants receiving SO lipids. Methods In a prospective cohort study, 45 neonates (36 SO lipid vs 9 control) underwent serial blood sample measurements of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. Mathematical modeling was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of phytosterol metabolism and phytosterol exposure. Results Compared to controls, SO lipid-exposed infants had significantly higher levels of sitosterol and campesterol (pPhytosterols in SO lipid accumulate rapidly in neonates. Very preterm infants receiving SO lipid have higher sitosterol exposure, and may have poorly developed mechanisms of eliminating phytosterols that may contribute to their vulnerability to PNALD. PMID:25897540

  12. Kinetics of phytosterol metabolism in neonates receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem-Rao, T Hang; Tunc, Ilker; Mavis, Alisha M; Cao, Yumei; Polzin, Elizabeth M; Firary, Mary F; Wang, Xujing; Simpson, Pippa M; Patel, Shailendra B

    2015-08-01

    Phytosterols in soybean oil (SO) lipids likely contribute to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. No characterization of phytosterol metabolism has been done in infants receiving SO lipids. In a prospective cohort study, 45 neonates (36 SO lipid vs. 9 control) underwent serial blood sample measurements of sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. Mathematical modeling was used to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of phytosterol metabolism and phytosterol exposure. Compared to controls, SO lipid-exposed infants had significantly higher levels of sitosterol and campesterol (P Phytosterols in SO lipid accumulate rapidly in neonates. Very preterm infants receiving SO lipid have higher sitosterol exposure, and may have poorly developed mechanisms of eliminating phytosterols that may contribute to their vulnerability to PNALD.

  13. Study on UF6 condensing receiving system improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenxing; Li Yingfeng; Li Zhenfeng; He Ping; Wang Yanping; Tian Yushan

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve receiving capacity of UF 6 condensing system, the pressure release mode is changed through modifying gas phase inlet of the first-grade condenser, thus pressure release time is reduced from 13.1 h to 8.1 h. Be- cause of improvement of utility condensers of the two product lines, both the flexibility of feeding nitrogen and the emergency capacity of condensers are improved greatly. And modification of fluid transferring and sampling system make the remains in system transfer flexibly. The practise shows that metal direct recovery rises to the extent, and capacity of the first-grade condensing receiving system improves 8.4%, which strongly guarantees fluorination production safely, continuously and stably run. (authors)

  14. Estimation of eye lens doses received by pediatric interventional cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, L; Koren, C; Ferrer, C; Corredoira, E; Serrada, A

    2015-09-01

    Maximum Hp(0.07) dose to the eye lens received in a year by the pediatric interventional cardiologists has been estimated. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters were placed on the eyes of an anthropomorphic phantom, whose position in the room simulates the most common irradiation conditions. Maximum workload was considered with data collected from procedures performed in the Hospital. None of the maximum values obtained exceed the dose limit of 20 mSv recommended by ICRP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mass counting of radioactivity samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterlin, D.L.; Obrycki, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for concurrently counting a plurality of radioactive samples is claimed. The position sensitive circuitry of a scintillation camera is employed to sort electrical pulses resulting from scintillations according to the geometrical locations of scintillations causing those pulses. A scintillation means, in the form of a scintillating crystal material or a liquid scintillator, is positioned proximate to an array of radioactive samples. Improvement in the accuracy of pulse classification may be obtained by employing collimating means. If a plurality of scintillation crystals are employed to measure the iodine-125 content of samples, a method and means are provided for correcting for variations in crystal light transmission properties, sample volume, and sample container radiation absorption. 2 claims, 7 drawing figures

  16. Richard W. Ziolkowski Receives Honorary Doctorate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    At the annual Commemoration of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) on April 27, 2012, Prof. Richard W. Ziolkowski, University of Arizona (UoA), received DTU's highest academic degree, the Honorary Doctor degree: Doctor Technices Honoris Causa (Figure 1). Prof. Ziolkowski has been a close...

  17. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2004-01-01

    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  18. 7 CFR 966.124 - Approved receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to, the following information: (1) Name, address, contact person, telephone number, and e-mail... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved receiver. 966.124 Section 966.124 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  19. Optimization of Passive Coherent Receiver System Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    spheroid object with a constant radar cross section (RCS). Additionally, the receiver and transmitters are assumed to be notional isotropic antennae...software- defined radio for equatorial plasma instability studies,” Radio Science, vol. 48, pp. 1–11. Aug. 2013. [2] P. C. Zhang and B. Y. Li, “Passive

  20. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or