Sample records for positive reinforcement procedures

  1. Caregiver preference for reinforcement-based interventions for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. (United States)

    Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A


    Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Investigation of a Reinforcement-Based Toilet Training Procedure for Children with Autism. (United States)

    Cicero, Frank R.; Pfadt, Al


    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a reinforcement-based toilet training intervention with three children with autism. Procedures included positive reinforcement, graduated guidance, scheduled practice trials, and forward prompting. All three children reduced urination accidents to zero and learned to request bathroom use spontaneously…

  3. Aerobic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine. (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Schmidt, Karl T; Iordanou, Jordan C; Mustroph, Martina L


    Aerobic exercise can serve as an alternative, non-drug reinforcer in laboratory animals and has been recommended as a potential intervention for substance abusing populations. Unfortunately, relatively little empirical data have been collected that specifically address the possible protective effects of voluntary, long-term exercise on measures of drug self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine in the drug self-administration procedure. Female rats were obtained at weaning and immediately divided into two groups. Sedentary rats were housed individually in standard laboratory cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed individually in modified cages equipped with a running wheel. After 6 weeks under these conditions, rats were surgically implanted with venous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once self-administration was acquired, cocaine was made available on a progressive ratio schedule and breakpoints were obtained for various doses of cocaine. Sedentary and exercising rats did not differ in the time to acquire cocaine self-administration or responding on the fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. However, on the progressive ratio schedule, breakpoints were significantly lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats when responding was maintained by both low (0.3mg/kg/infusion) and high (1.0mg/kg/infusion) doses of cocaine. In exercising rats, greater exercise output prior to catheter implantation was associated with lower breakpoints at the high dose of cocaine. These data indicate that chronic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the possibility that exercise may be an effective intervention in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  4. Positive Reinforcement and Logical Consequences in the Treatment of Classroom Encopresis. (United States)

    Lyon, Mark A.


    A child with a diagnosis of mild mental retardation was treated for encopresis. Positive reinforcement procedures for continence and logical consequences for soiling were effective in accomplishing complete continence during the final phase of treatment. An ABCDA design with a decelerating rate of reinforcement was utilized to assess treatment…

  5. Extruded bar reinforced structure and manufacturing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, J.M.; Bozetto, P.


    A cooling tower has horizontal hoops connected by two inclined sets of bars to form a trellis of equilateral triangle anchored in the ground. The bars and hoops are connected at the corners of the triangle. A skin stretched over the trellis defines the tower. The bars are made with thermosetting resin reinforced by fibres. The fabrication of such tower is cheep and simple it can be used for every type of electrical power station, nuclear or not [fr

  6. From Positive Reinforcement to Positive Behaviors: An Everyday Guide for the Practitioner (United States)

    Sigler, Ellen A.; Aamidor, Shirley


    There are various opinions concerning the value of positive reinforcement when discussing modifying behaviors of young children. In some cases, individuals considered positive reinforcement difficult to implement and, in extreme cases, even felt it to be detrimental. Educators often use praise interchangeably with positive reinforcement when…

  7. An evaluation of two differential reinforcement procedures with escape extinction to treat food refusal. (United States)

    Patel, Meeta R; Piazza, Cathleen C; Martinez, Cheryl J; Volkert, Valerie M; Christine, M Santana


    Consumption of solids and liquids occurs as a chain of behaviors that may include accepting, swallowing, and retaining the food or drink. In the current investigation, we evaluated the relative effectiveness of differential reinforcement of the first behavior in the chain (acceptance) versus differential reinforcement for the terminal behavior in the chain (mouth clean). Three children who had been diagnosed with a feeding disorder participated. Acceptance remained at zero when differential reinforcement contingencies were implemented for acceptance or mouth clean. Acceptance and mouth clean increased for all 3 participants once escape extinction was added to the differential reinforcement procedures, independent of whether reinforcement was provided for acceptance or for mouth clean. Maintenance was observed in 2 children when escape extinction was removed from the treatment package. The mechanism by which consumption increased is discussed in relation to positive and negative reinforcement contingencies.

  8. Wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin. (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Pitts, Elizabeth G


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary wheel running on the positive reinforcing effects of heroin in rats with an established history of drug self-administration. Rats were assigned to sedentary (no wheel) and exercise (wheel) conditions and trained to self-administer cocaine under positive reinforcement contingencies. Rats acquiring cocaine self-administration were then tested with various doses of heroin during daily test sessions. Sedentary rats self-administered more heroin than exercising rats, and this effect was greatest at low and moderate doses of heroin. These data suggest that voluntary wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

  9. Investigation of a reinforcement-based toilet training procedure for children with autism. (United States)

    Cicero, Frank R; Pfadt, Al


    Independent toileting is an important developmental skill which individuals with developmental disabilities often find a challenge to master. Effective toilet training interventions have been designed which rely on a combination of basic operant principles of positive reinforcement and punishment. In the present study, the effectiveness of a reinforcement-based toilet training intervention was investigated with three children with a diagnosis of autism. Procedures included a combination of positive reinforcement, graduated guidance, scheduled practice trials and forward prompting. Results indicated that all procedures were implemented in response to urination accidents. A three participants reduced urination accidents to zero and learned to spontaneously request use of the bathroom within 7-11 days of training. Gains were maintained over 6-month and 1-year follow-ups. Findings suggest that the proposed procedure is an effective and rapid method of toilet training, which can be implemented within a structured school setting with generalization to the home environment.

  10. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement (United States)

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott


    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  11. Effects of Signaled Positive Reinforcement on Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Romani, Patrick W.


    We evaluated the effects of providing positive reinforcement for task completion, signaled via the presence of a tangible item, on escape-maintained problem behavior displayed by three typically developing children during one-time 90-min outpatient evaluations. Brief functional analyses of problem behavior, conducted within a multielement design,…

  12. Multiple position borehole extensometer procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The purpose of the Multiple Position Borehole Extensometer Procedure is to provide detailed information for MPBXs installed at the salt Deaf Smith County ESF. This procedure includes design of equipment, installation, instructions, instrument locations, measurement requirements, support requirements, quality assurance procedures, and data acquisition requirements. Data reduction procedures are also discussed; however, the relevance of the data is discussed elsewhere in the appropriate test plans. Sufficient detail is provided in this procedure to allow for integrating the requirements of this procedure into both the facility construction and overall underground testing programs; identifying necessary equipment for procurement; determining data acquisition requirements as input to Automatic Data Acquisition System (ADAS) design; providing step-by-step procedures for training personnel as well as for directing field operations; establishing quality assurance (QA) checkpoints and implementation methods; and defining data reduction methods and providing the anticipated accuracy of the system. 11 refs., 14 figs

  13. Corrosion performance tests for reinforcing steel in concrete : test procedures. (United States)


    The existing test method to assess the corrosion performance of reinforcing steel embedded in concrete, mainly : ASTM G109, is labor intensive, time consuming, slow to provide comparative results, and often expensive. : However, corrosion of reinforc...

  14. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.


    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A


    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. Howe...

  15. Parental Positive Reinforcement with Deviant Children: Does It Make a Difference? (United States)

    Forehand, Rex


    Considers effectiveness of parental positive reinforcement with deviant children by reviewing the following: (1) non-intervention studies, (2) intervention studies, and (3) consumer (parental) satisfaction studies. Results indicate that parents view positive reinforcement as effective and useful although positive reinforcement is not sufficient to…

  16. Positive behavioral contrast across food and alcohol reinforcers.


    McSweeney, F K; Melville, C L; Higa, J


    The present study examined behavioral contrast during concurrent and multiple schedules that provided food and alcohol reinforcers. Concurrent-schedule contrast occurred in the responding reinforced by food when alcohol reinforcers were removed. It also occurred in the responding reinforced by alcohol when food was removed. Multiple-schedule contrast appeared for food when alcohol reinforcers were removed, but not for alcohol when food was removed. These results show that behavioral contrast ...

  17. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal. (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A


    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states.

  18. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal. (United States)

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A


    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. However, the addition of positive reinforcement to escape extinction was associated with beneficial effects (e.g., greater decreases in negative vocalizations and inappropriate behavior) for some participants.

  19. Aggression as Positive Reinforcement in People with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    May, Michael E.


    From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in…

  20. The use of positive reinforcement in training zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum). (United States)

    Marranzino, Ashley


    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) was used on 4 adult zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, housed at the Downtown Aquarium, Denver, to determine the ability of zebra sharks to become desensitized to various stimuli associated with veterinary procedures. One male and 3 female sharks were trained for 12 weeks. As a result of PRT, all 4 zebra sharks were desensitized to staying within a closed holding tank off of the main exhibit, the presence of multiple trainers in the closed holding tank, and tactile stimulation. One of the 4 zebra sharks was also successfully desensitized to the presence of a stretcher being brought into the holding tank. All of these procedures are common in veterinary examinations, and it is hoped that desensitization to these stimuli will reduce the stress associated with examinations. The training accomplished has allowed for easier maintenance of the zebra sharks by the aquarium staff and an improvement in the care of the sharks.

  1. Positive reinforcement to promote safer sex among clients. (United States)

    Raman, S


    The AIDS Research Foundation of India (ARFI) began an intervention program with sex workers in Madras where the women reported that they were willing to use condoms, whereas the customers were not. Accordingly, ARFI is focusing on clients using a positive reinforcement approach: repetition of the desirability of condom use by communication. First, truck drivers and dock workers have been targeted. Drivers interviewed by ARFI were familiar with the condom as a contraceptive method rather than a disease-preventing method, and used it with their wives. The ARFI program has convinced tobacco shopkeepers to stock condoms for drivers. Truckers receive key chains with a holder for a condom. At transit site tea shops songs are aired about road and roadside safety sponsored by a tire manufacturer with a message about rubber (tires and condoms). Women selling sex at transit sites are also educated about the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) while attempting to increase their level of hygiene. The typical Friday night sex-seeking behavior among dock workers consists of drinking in a wine shop and soliciting sex workers. Port management and unions have also been recruited for promoting AIDS-related education after participating in health education sessions with flip charts and flash cards. Rest rooms display posters on condom use, some men have been recruited as condom holders for distribution on Friday nights, and barber shops also feature posters with messages about safer sex. AIDS/STD prevention programs have to deal with prevailing practices, values, and beliefs. Results indicate increased condom use among clients as shown by increased sales at transit site tobacco shops and shops around the port. In the future the program will pay more attention to improving the negotiation skills of sex workers.

  2. Rewarded by Punishment: Reflections on the Disuse of Positive Reinforcement in Education. (United States)

    Maag, John W.


    This article delineates the reasons why educators find punishment a more acceptable approach for managing students' challenging behaviors than positive reinforcement. The article argues that educators should plan the occurrence of positive reinforcement to increase appropriate behaviors rather than running the risk of it haphazardly promoting…

  3. A Comparison of Positive Reinforcement and Punishment in Two Special Education Classes. (United States)

    Otto, Richard G.

    Compared was the effectiveness of punishment and positive reinforcement on the nonattending behaviors and academic achievement of 18 elementary grade children in two special classes for children with social or adjustment problems. During the positive reinforcement condition each student earned a slash mark whenever he was observed attending to…

  4. Treatment of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior with Procedural Variations of Differential Reinforcement (United States)

    Neidert, Pamela L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Dozier, Claudia L.


    We describe the assessment and treatment of 2 children with autism spectrum disorder whose problem behaviors (self-injury, aggression, and disruption) were multiply controlled. Results of functional analyses indicated that the children's problem behaviors were maintained by both positive reinforcement (attention) and negative reinforcement (escape…

  5. Treatment of Escape-Maintained Behavior with Positive Reinforcement: The Role of Reinforcement Contingency and Density (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Welter, Katherine M.


    Functional analyses suggested that the disruptive behavior of three preschool children was maintained by escape from demands. While keeping the escape contingency intact, we conducted (a) a density analysis in which the children earned preferred items for task completion according to two schedules that varied in reinforcement density, and (b) a…

  6. Group Systematic Desensitization Versus Covert Positive Reinforcement in the Reduction of Test Anxiety (United States)

    Kostka, Marion P.; Galassi, John P.


    The study compared modified versions of systematic desensitization and covert positive reinforcement to a no-treatment control condition in the reduction of test anxiety. On an anagrams performance test, the covert reinforcement and control groups were superior to the desensitization group. (Author)

  7. Longitudinal investigation on learned helplessness tested under negative and positive reinforcement involving stimulus control. (United States)

    Oliveira, Emileane C; Hunziker, Maria Helena


    In this study, we investigated whether (a) animals demonstrating the learned helplessness effect during an escape contingency also show learning deficits under positive reinforcement contingencies involving stimulus control and (b) the exposure to positive reinforcement contingencies eliminates the learned helplessness effect under an escape contingency. Rats were initially exposed to controllable (C), uncontrollable (U) or no (N) shocks. After 24h, they were exposed to 60 escapable shocks delivered in a shuttlebox. In the following phase, we selected from each group the four subjects that presented the most typical group pattern: no escape learning (learned helplessness effect) in Group U and escape learning in Groups C and N. All subjects were then exposed to two phases, the (1) positive reinforcement for lever pressing under a multiple FR/Extinction schedule and (2) a re-test under negative reinforcement (escape). A fourth group (n=4) was exposed only to the positive reinforcement sessions. All subjects showed discrimination learning under multiple schedule. In the escape re-test, the learned helplessness effect was maintained for three of the animals in Group U. These results suggest that the learned helplessness effect did not extend to discriminative behavior that is positively reinforced and that the learned helplessness effect did not revert for most subjects after exposure to positive reinforcement. We discuss some theoretical implications as related to learned helplessness as an effect restricted to aversive contingencies and to the absence of reversion after positive reinforcement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. How should periods without social interaction be scheduled? Children's preference for practical schedules of positive reinforcement. (United States)

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P


    Several studies have shown that children prefer contingent reinforcement (CR) rather than yoked noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) when continuous reinforcement is programmed in the CR schedule. Preference has not, however, been evaluated for practical schedules that involve CR. In Study 1, we assessed 5 children's preference for obtaining social interaction via a multiple schedule (periods of fixed-ratio 1 reinforcement alternating with periods of extinction), a briefly signaled delayed reinforcement schedule, and an NCR schedule. The multiple schedule promoted the most efficient level of responding. In general, children chose to experience the multiple schedule and avoided the delay and NCR schedules, indicating that they preferred multiple schedules as the means to arrange practical schedules of social interaction. In Study 2, we evaluated potential controlling variables that influenced 1 child's preference for the multiple schedule and found that the strong positive contingency was the primary variable. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Beyond Positive Reinforcement: OBM as a Humanizing Approach to Management Practices (United States)

    Crowell, Charles R.


    This article comments on the need to recognize that OBM already is a "positive psychology" for many more reasons than just that it embraces positive reinforcement as a cornerstone of workplace improvement. This paper suggests there are at least 10 ways in which OBM constitutes a distinctly "positive" and humanizing approach to management…

  10. Developing and implementing a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in prison-based drug treatment: Project BRITE. (United States)

    Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Prendergast, Michael L


    Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or noncompliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.

  11. Investigating the procedural variables that determine whether rats will display negative anticipatory contrast or positive induction. (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Nurnberger, Jeri T; Hanson, Brent C


    Previous studies have demonstrated that consumption of a low-valued food substance may decrease if access to a high-valued substance will soon be available (negative anticipatory contrast). Research has also demonstrated that responding for a low-valued reinforcer may increase if responding for a high-valued reinforcer will soon be possible (positive induction). The present experiment employed rats to respond in a procedure similar to that typically used to produce negative anticipatory contrast. The goal was to determine what factors contribute to when a contrast or an induction effect will occur. Based on previous research, the influence of auditory cues, temporal delays, food deprivation, and location of substance delivery were investigated. Auditory cues and temporal delays did little to influence whether subjects increased or decreased their consumption of 1% sucrose when access to 32% sucrose was upcoming. The appearance of contrast or induction was related to level of deprivation, with deprivation promoting induction. Which effect occurred also depended on whether subjects consumed the two substances from one spout in one location (induction) or from two different spouts in two different locations (contrast). The present results help identify the procedural link(s) between these two effects. They also provide insight to why positive induction may occur (i.e., higher-order place conditioning).

  12. Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Frame Buildings with Hysteretic Bracing Systems: Design Procedure and Behaviour Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Cesare


    Full Text Available This paper presents a design procedure to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of hysteretic Energy Dissipation Bracing (EDB systems for seismic retrofitting of existing reinforced concrete framed buildings. The proposed procedure, aiming at controlling the maximum interstorey drifts, imposes a maximum top displacement as function of the seismic demand and, if needed, regularizes the stiffness and strength of the building along its elevation. In order to explain the application of the proposed procedure and its capacity to involve most of the devices in the energy dissipation with similar level of ductility demand, a simple benchmark structure has been studied and nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed. A further goal of this work is to propose a simplified approach for designing dissipating systems based on linear analysis with the application of a suitable behaviour factor, in order to achieve a widespread adoption of the passive control techniques. At this goal, the increasing of the structural performances due to the addition of an EDB system designed with the above-mentioned procedure has been estimated considering one thousand case studies designed with different combinations of the main design parameters. An analytical formulation of the behaviour factor for braced buildings has been proposed.

  13. Reinforced long saphenous vein bypass graft for infrainguinal reconstruction procedures: case series and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hynes, Niamh


    Poor rehabilitation rates and the high-cost of managing postamputation patients justify an aggressive revascularization policy in critical lower limb ischemia. Endovascular therapy is our first choice for limb salvage in these patients. However there are patients for whom endovascular therapy is not feasible. When bypass is necessary, autologous vein is a superior conduit to synthetic material. However, varicosities usually contraindicate autologous vein bypass because of the risk of aneurysm formation, rupture and increased intimal hyperplasia compared with nonvaricose venous grafts. We report the use of varicosed long saphenous vein (LSV) with external Dacron support in infrainguinal bypass procedures for limb salvage, where endovascular therapy was not feasible. The external Dacron tube was not brought close to the distal anastomotic area itself. With a mean follow-up of 18 months, duplex ultrasonography and computed tomography angiography showed no evidence of stenosis of the reinforced vein segments or aneurysmal degeneration of the residual vein. External reinforcement with Dacron prosthesis allows the use of autogenous greater saphenous veins with varicose dilatation without compromising graft patency and limb salvage.

  14. The Ross II procedure: pulmonary autograft in the mitral position. (United States)

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Cherian, Ashok; Ross, Donald


    The surgical management of mitral valve disease in women of childbearing age, young patients, and children with congenital mitral valve defects is made difficult by the prospect of lifelong anticoagulation. We suggest the use of a pulmonary autograft in the mitral position (Ross II procedure) as an alternative surgical technique. We present a review of the literature, historical perspectives, indications, selection criteria, and surgical technique for the Ross II procedure. Our literature search identified 14 studies that reported results from the Ross II operation. Performed in 103 patients, the overall in-hospital mortality was 7 (6.7%), with a late mortality of 10 (9%). Although further research is needed, current evidence suggests the Ross II operation is a valuable alternative in low-risk young patients where valve durability and the complication rate from other procedures is unsatisfactory and anticoagulation not ideal.

  15. Rats bred for helplessness exhibit positive reinforcement learning deficits which are not alleviated by an antidepressant dose of the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl. (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela; Henn, Fritz A; Petri, David; Huston, Joseph P


    Principles of negative reinforcement learning may play a critical role in the etiology and treatment of depression. We examined the integrity of positive reinforcement learning in congenitally helpless (cH) rats, an animal model of depression, using a random ratio schedule and a devaluation-extinction procedure. Furthermore, we tested whether an antidepressant dose of the monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor deprenyl would reverse any deficits in positive reinforcement learning. We found that cH rats (n=9) were impaired in the acquisition of even simple operant contingencies, such as a fixed interval (FI) 20 schedule. cH rats exhibited no apparent deficits in appetite or reward sensitivity. They reacted to the devaluation of food in a manner consistent with a dose-response relationship. Reinforcer motivation as assessed by lever pressing across sessions with progressively decreasing reward probabilities was highest in congenitally non-helpless (cNH, n=10) rats as long as the reward probabilities remained relatively high. cNH compared to wild-type (n=10) rats were also more resistant to extinction across sessions. Compared to saline (n=5), deprenyl (n=5) reduced the duration of immobility of cH rats in the forced swimming test, indicative of antidepressant effects, but did not restore any deficits in the acquisition of a FI 20 schedule. We conclude that positive reinforcement learning was impaired in rats bred for helplessness, possibly due to motivational impairments but not deficits in reward sensitivity, and that deprenyl exerted antidepressant effects but did not reverse the deficits in positive reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using modeling and vicarious reinforcement to produce more positive attitudes toward mental health treatment. (United States)

    Buckley, Gary I; Malouff, John M


    In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a video, developed for this study and using principles of cognitive learning theory, to produce positive attitudinal change toward mental health treatment. The participants were 35 men and 45 women who were randomly assigned to watch either an experimental video, which included 3 positive 1st-person accounts of psychotherapy or a control video that focused on the psychological construct of self. Pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2-week follow-up levels of attitude toward mental health treatment were measured using the Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Help Scale (E. H. Fischer & J. L. Turner, 1970). The experimental video group showed a significantly greater increase in positive attitude than did the control group. These results support the effectiveness of using the vicarious reinforcement elements of cognitive learning theory as a basis for changing attitudes toward mental health treatment.

  17. Stimulus- and response-reinforcer contingencies in autoshaping, operant, classical, and omission training procedures in rats. (United States)

    Atnip, G W


    Separate groups of rats received 500 trials of lever-press training under autoshaping (food delivery followed 10-second lever presentations, or occurred immediately following a response); operant conditioning (responding was necessary for food delivery); and classical conditioning (food followed lever presentations regardless of responding). Each group then received 500 trials on an omission procedure in which food was omitted on trials with a response. Another group received 1000 trials on the omission procedure, and a fifth group, random control, received 1000 uncorrelated presentations of lever and food. The autoshaping, operant, and classical groups reached high response levels by the end of initial training. Acquisition was fastest in the autoshaping group. Responding remained consistently low in the control group. The omission group responded at a level between the control group and the other three groups. During omission training, responding in these three groups declined to the omission-group level. During omission training, the rats continued contacting the lever frequently after lever pressing had declined. Response maintenance under omission training seems not to require topographic similarity between the response and reinforcer-elicited consummatory behaviors.

  18. Reducing Covert Self-Injurious Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement through a Variable Momentary DRO Procedure (United States)

    Toussaint, Karen A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.


    Covert self-injurious behavior (i.e., behavior that occurs in the absence of other people) can be difficult to treat. Traditional treatments typically have involved sophisticated methods of observation and often have employed positive punishment procedures. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a variable momentary differential…

  19. Noninvasive Hemodynamic Measurements During Neurosurgical Procedures in Sitting Position. (United States)

    Schramm, Patrick; Tzanova, Irene; Gööck, Tilman; Hagen, Frank; Schmidtmann, Irene; Engelhard, Kristin; Pestel, Gunther


    Neurosurgical procedures in sitting position need advanced cardiovascular monitoring. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to measure cardiac output (CO)/cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV), and invasive arterial blood pressure measurements for systolic (ABPsys), diastolic (ABPdiast) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are established monitoring technologies for these kind of procedures. A noninvasive device for continuous monitoring of blood pressure and CO based on a modified Penaz technique (volume-clamp method) was introduced recently. In the present study the noninvasive blood pressure measurements were compared with invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring, and the noninvasive CO monitoring to TEE measurements. Measurements of blood pressure and CO were performed in 35 patients before/after giving a fluid bolus and a change from supine to sitting position, start of surgery, and repositioning from sitting to supine at the end of surgery. Data pairs from the noninvasive device (Nexfin HD) versus arterial line measurements (ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) and versus TEE (CO, CI, SV) were compared using Bland-Altman analysis and percentage error. All parameters compared (CO, CI, SV, ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) showed a large bias and wide limits of agreement. Percentage error was above 30% for all parameters except ABPsys. The noninvasive device based on a modified Penaz technique cannot replace arterial blood pressure monitoring or TEE in anesthetized patients undergoing neurosurgery in sitting position.

  20. Emphasizing the 'positive' in positive reinforcement: Using non-binary rewarding for training monkeys on cognitive tasks. (United States)

    Fischer, Benjamin; Wegener, Detlef


    Non-human primates constitute an indispensable model system for studying higher brain func-tions at the neurophysiological level. Studies involving these animals elucidated the neuronal mechanisms of various cognitive and executive functions, such as visual attention, working memory, and decision-making. Positive Reinforcement Training (PRT) constitutes the gold standard for training animals on the cognitive tasks employed in these studies. In the laboratory, PRT is usually based on applying a liquid reward as the reinforcer to strengthen the desired be-havior, and absence of the reward if the animal's response was wrong. By trial-and-error, the monkey may adopt its behavior and successfully reduces the number of error trials, and eventu-ally learns even very sophisticated tasks. However, progress and success of the training strongly depend on reasonable error rates. If errors get too frequent, they may cause a drop in the ani-mal's motivation to cooperate, or its adaptation to high error rates and poor overall perfor-mance. We here introduce an alternative training regime to minimize errors and base the critical information for learning on graded rewarding. For every new task rule, the feedback to the ani-mal is provided by different amounts of reward to distinguish the desired, optimal behavior from less optimally behavior. We applied this regime in different situations during training of visual attention tasks, and analyzed behavioral performance and reaction times to evaluate its effec-tiveness. For both simple and complex behaviors, graded rewarding was found to constitute a powerful technique allowing for effective training without trade-off in accessible task difficulty or task performance.

  1. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients


    Dunn, Kelly; Fingerhood, Michael; Wong, Conrad J.; Svikis, Dace S.; Nuzzo, Paul; Silverman, Kenneth


    Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study utilized an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opiate and cocaine abstinence among opioid-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n=46) were randomly assigned to an Abstinence & Work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in...

  2. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies. (United States)

    van Riemsdijk, Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T M; van Trijp, Hans C M; van der Veen, Gerrita


    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers' social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to their competitors. It also explains why some consumer segments, such as those with a specific thinking style, may experience a stronger effect of some strategies, giving directions on how to approach different types of consumers. Finally, building on research asserting that animal welfare is a credence product attribute, the article proposes moderating effects of two factors that help consumers to evaluate the credibility of animal welfare claims, namely corporate social responsibility strategy and the role of stakeholders. Here it concludes that companies selling animal-friendly products need to be aware of the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of positioning strategies for individual products and that, to gain consumer trust, they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations.

  3. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka van Riemsdijk


    Full Text Available This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational to create an attractive position relative to their competitors. It also explains why some consumer segments, such as those with a specific thinking style, may experience a stronger effect of some strategies, giving directions on how to approach different types of consumers. Finally, building on research asserting that animal welfare is a credence product attribute, the article proposes moderating effects of two factors that help consumers to evaluate the credibility of animal welfare claims, namely corporate social responsibility strategy and the role of stakeholders. Here it concludes that companies selling animal-friendly products need to be aware of the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of positioning strategies for individual products and that, to gain consumer trust, they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations.

  4. An evaluation of two differential reinforcement procedures with escape extinction to treat food refusal.


    Patel, Meeta R; Piazza, Cathleen C; Martinez, Cheryl J; Volkert, Valerie M; Christine, M Santana


    Consumption of solids and liquids occurs as a chain of behaviors that may include accepting, swallowing, and retaining the food or drink. In the current investigation, we evaluated the relative effectiveness of differential reinforcement of the first behavior in the chain (acceptance) versus differential reinforcement for the terminal behavior in the chain (mouth clean). Three children who had been diagnosed with a feeding disorder participated. Acceptance remained at zero when differential r...

  5. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation. (United States)

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne


    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Polozova


    Full Text Available Summary. Methodical procedures economic monitoring market position of industrial organization, particularly those relating to food production, including the 5 elements: matrix «component of business processes», matrix «materiality – efficiency», matrix «materiality – relevant», matrix emption and hindering factors matrix operation scenarios. Substantiated components assess the strengths and weaknesses of the business activities of organizations that characterize the state of internal business environment on the elements: production, organization, personnel, finance, marketing. The advantages of the matrix «materiality – relevance» consisting of 2 materiality level - high and low, and 3 directions relevance – «no change», «gain importance in the future», «lose importance in the future». Presented the contents of the matrix «scenarios functioning of the organization», involving 6 attribute levels, 10 classes of scenarios, 19 activities, including an optimistic and pessimistic. The evaluation of primary classes of scenarios, characterized by the properties of «development», «dynamic equilibrium», «quality improvement», «competitiveness», «favorable realization of opportunities», «competition resistance».

  7. Evidence for an involvement of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic neurones in the maintenance of operant behaviour by positive reinforcement. (United States)

    Wogar, M A; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E


    The possible involvement of the ascending 5-hydroxytryptaminergic (5HTergic) pathways in the maintenance of operant behaviour by positive reinforcement was examined using a quantitative paradigm based on Herrnstein's (1970) equation which defines a hyperbolic relationship between steady-state response rate and reinforcement frequency in variable-interval schedules. Nine rats received injections of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the dorsal and median raphe nuclei; 12 rats received sham injections. The rats were trained to steady-state in a series of variable-interval schedules of sucrose reinforcement affording a range of reinforcement frequencies. Herrnstein's equation was fitted to the data obtained from each rat and to the averaged data obtained from the two groups. The value of KH (the parameter expressing the reinforcement frequency needed to obtain the half-maximum response rate) was significantly lower in the lesioned group than in the control group; the values of Rmax (the parameter expressing the maximum response rate) did not differ significantly between the two groups. The levels of 5HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the parietal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus were markedly reduced in all four regions in the lesioned group, but the levels of noradrenaline and dopamine were not significantly affected. The results indicate that damage to the central 5HTergic pathways resulted in an increase in the "value" of the sucrose reinforcer, without affecting the animals' response capacity. The results are consistent with the suggestion that the 5HTergic pathways may exert some limiting control on the "values" of certain reinforcers.

  8. Evidence for positive, but not negative, behavioral contrast with wheel-running reinforcement on multiple variable-ratio schedules. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David


    Rats responded on a multiple variable-ratio (VR) 10 VR 10 schedule of reinforcement in which lever pressing was reinforced by the opportunity to run in a wheel for 30s in both the changed (manipulated) and unchanged components. To generate positive contrast, the schedule of reinforcement in the changed component was shifted to extinction; to generate negative contrast, the schedule was shifted to VR 3. With the shift to extinction in the changed component, wheel-running and local lever-pressing rates increased in the unchanged component, a result supporting positive contrast; however, the shift to a VR 3 schedule in the changed component showed no evidence of negative contrast in the unaltered setting, only wheel running decreased in the unchanged component. Changes in wheel-running rates across components were consistent in showing a compensation effect, depending on whether the schedule manipulation increased or decreased opportunities for wheel running in the changed component. These findings are the first to demonstrate positive behavioral contrast on a multiple schedule with wheel running as reinforcement in both components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Tow Shearing on Reinforcement Positional Fidelity in the Manufacture of a Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Matrix Composite via Pultrusion-Like Processing of Commingled Feedstock (United States)

    Warlick, Kent M.

    While the addition of short fiber to 3D printed articles has increased structural performance, ultimate gains will only be realized through the introduction of continuous reinforcement placed along pre-planned load paths. Most additive manufacturing research focusing on the addition of continuous reinforcement has revolved around utilization of a prefrabricated composite filament or a fiber and matrix mixed within a hot end prior to deposition on a printing surface such that conventional extrusion based FDM can be applied. Although stronger 3D printed parts can be made in this manner, high quality homogenous composites are not possible due to fiber dominated regions, matrix dominated regions, and voids present between adjacent filaments. Conventional composite manufacturing processes are much better at creating homogeneous composites; however, the layer by layer approach in which they are made is inhibiting the alignment of reinforcement with loads. Automated Fiber Placement techniques utilize in plane bending deformation of the tow to facilitate tow steering. Due to buckling fibers on the inner radius of curves, manufacturers recommend a minimum curvature for path placement with this technique. A method called continuous tow shearing has shown promise to enable the placement of tows in complex patterns without tow buckling, spreading, and separation inherent in conventional forms of automated reinforcement positioning. The current work employs fused deposition modeling hardware and the continuous tow shearing technique to manufacture high quality fiber reinforced composites with high positional fidelity, varying continuous reinforcement orientations within a layer, and plastic elements incorporated enabling the ultimate gains in structural performance possible. A mechanical system combining concepts of additive manufacturing with fiber placement via filament winding was developed. Paths with and without tension inherent in filament winding were analyzed through

  10. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies (United States)

    Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; van Trijp, Hans C.M.; van der Veen, Gerrita


    Simple Summary Modern production systems aimed at improving animal welfare are more costly than traditional systems. Animal-friendly products are therefore typically more expensive than mainstream products, which presents one of the main barriers to consumer animal-friendly product choice. To overcome this barrier, marketing strategies that associate animal welfare with different types of value, such as taste, healthiness or good feeling, may be useful. This article presents a theoretical framework with marketing strategies using various types of value, suitable for animal-friendly products to encourage consumers to buy animal-friendly instead of mainstream products. We also explain why some consumers, such as those with a rational or an intuitive thinking style, may be more sensitive to some strategies over others, giving directions to marketing managers on how to approach different types of consumers. Because the credibility of animal welfare claims is a critical issue in marketing animal-friendly products, we address this issue as well. Specifically, we propose that, to gain consumer trust, companies selling animal-friendly products need to take into account the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of marketing strategies for individual products and that they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations. Abstract This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to

  11. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Differently Positioned Replacement Zones of Block Infill under Low Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhatar Shahrul Niza


    Full Text Available This paper reveals a study performed on reinforced concrete with artificial aggregate concrete block infill composite beams to innovate a lightweight reinforced concrete utilizing polyethylene (PE waste materials, such as waste plastic bags. Six beam specimens of normal reinforced concrete (NRC and different block infill replacement zone positions RCAI (RZ1 beams containing 100% MAPEA with 50, 95, and 1,000 mm width, height, and length, respectively, were provided for the block infill, whereas RCAI (RZ2 with different block infill positions containing a 100% MAPEA with 50, 115, and 1000 mm width, height, and length were provided and tested under low impact load. The steel impactor with blunt nose dropped at 0.6 m height which equivalent to 3.5 m/s. The behaviors of the beams were studied relative to the impact force-time and displacement-time histories, the flexural/ bending cracks, and the impact failure. Results show that the overall failure modes of all the beam specimens were successfully recorded. In addition, the residual displacements of the RZ2 was almost same than those of the RZ1 and the significantly lower than those of the NRC. In the reinforced concrete beams, less stressed concrete near the neutral axis can be replaced by certain light weight material like waste plastic bags as modified artificial polyethylene aggregates to serve as an artificial aggregate.

  12. Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training. (United States)

    Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A


    Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.

  13. The Negative Effects of Positive Reinforcement in Teaching Children with Developmental Delay. (United States)

    Biederman, Gerald B.; And Others


    This study compared the performance of 12 children (ages 4 to 10) with developmental delay, each trained in 2 tasks, one through interactive modeling (with or without verbal reinforcement) and the other through passive modeling. Results showed that passive modeling produced better rated performance than interactive modeling and that verbal…

  14. Further Examination of Factors that Influence Preference for Positive versus Negative Reinforcement (United States)

    Kodak, Tiffany; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Trosclair, Nicole


    Factors that influence choice between qualitatively different reinforcers (e.g., a food item or a break from work) are important to consider when arranging treatments for problem behavior. Previous findings indicate that children who engage in problem behavior maintained by escape from demands may choose a food item over the functional reinforcer…

  15. Pharmacological stimuli decreasing nucleus accumbens dopamine can act as positive reinforcers but have a low addictive potential. (United States)

    Marinelli, M; Barrot, M; Simon, H; Oberlander, C; Dekeyne, A; Le Moal, M; Piazza, P V


    Opioid peptides, through mu and delta receptors, play an important part in reward. In contrast, the role of kappa receptors is more controversial. We examined the possible positive reinforcing effects of a selective kappa agonist, RU 51599, by studying intravenous self-administration in the rat. The effect of RU 51599 on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens was also studied, as opioids and dopamine seem to interact in the mediation of reward. The behavioural and dopaminergic effects of RU 51599 were compared with those of the mu agonist heroin. Rats self-administered both RU 51599 (6.5, 20 and 60 microg/inj) and heroin (30 microg/inj) at low ratio requirement. When the ratio requirement, i.e. the number of responses necessary to receive one drug infusion, was increased, self-administration of RU 51599 rapidly extinguished, whereas self-administration of heroin was maintained. Intravenous infusion of RU 51599 (100, 200 and 400 microg) dose-dependently decreased (25, 30 and 40%, respectively) extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as measured by means of microdialysis in freely moving rats. In contrast, heroin increased accumbens dopamine (130% over baseline). These results indicate that kappa receptors, similarly to mu ones, can mediate positive reinforcing effects of opioid peptides. However, the strength of the reinforcement is very low for kappa receptors. This suggests that changes in accumbens dopamine do not correlate with the capacity of a stimulus to induce reward or aversion. In contrast, a parallel seems to exist between an increase in accumbens dopamine and the drive to reach or obtain a positive reinforcer.

  16. Increasing spelling achievement: an analysis of treatment procedures utilizing an alternating treatments design.


    Ollendick, T H; Matson, J L; Esveldt-Dawson, K; Shapiro, E S


    Two studies which examine the effectiveness of spelling remediation procedures are reported. In both studies, an alternating treatment design was employed. In the first study, positive practice overcorrection plus positive reinforcement was compared to positive practice alone and a no-remediation control condition. In the second study, positive practice plus positive reinforcement was compared to a traditional corrective procedure plus positive reinforcement and a traditional procedure when u...

  17. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives. (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao


    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula.

  18. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients. (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly E; Fingerhood, Michael; Wong, Conrad J; Svikis, Dace S; Nuzzo, Paul; Silverman, Kenneth


    Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study used an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opioid and cocaine abstinence among opioid and/or cocaine-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to an abstinence and work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in order to enter the workplace and to earn incentives for work (n = 16), a work-only group that was permitted to enter the workplace and to earn incentives independent of drug use (n = 15), and a no-voucher control group that did not receive any incentives for working (n = 15) over a 26-week period. The primary outcome was urinalysis-confirmed opioid, cocaine, and combined opioid/cocaine abstinence. Participants were 78% male and 89% African American. Results showed no significant between-groups differences in urinalysis-verified drug abstinence or HIV risk behaviors during the 6-month intervention. The work-only group had significantly greater workplace attendance, and worked more minutes per day when compared to the no-voucher group. Several features of the study design, including the lack of an induction period, setting the threshold for entering the workplace too high by requiring immediate abstinence from several drugs, and increasing the risk of relapse by providing a brief detoxification that was not supported by any continued pharmacological intervention, likely prevented the workplace from becoming established as a reinforcer that could be used to promote drug abstinence. However, increases in workplace attendance have important implications for adult training programs.

  19. Genotypic Influence on Aversive Conditioning in Honeybees, Using a Novel Thermal Reinforcement Procedure (United States)

    Junca, Pierre; Carcaud, Julie; Moulin, Sibyle; Garnery, Lionel; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe


    In Pavlovian conditioning, animals learn to associate initially neutral stimuli with positive or negative outcomes, leading to appetitive and aversive learning respectively. The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a prominent invertebrate model for studying both versions of olfactory learning and for unraveling the influence of genotype. As a queen bee mates with about 15 males, her worker offspring belong to as many, genetically-different patrilines. While the genetic dependency of appetitive learning is well established in bees, it is not the case for aversive learning, as a robust protocol was only developed recently. In the original conditioning of the sting extension response (SER), bees learn to associate an odor (conditioned stimulus - CS) with an electric shock (unconditioned stimulus - US). This US is however not a natural stimulus for bees, which may represent a potential caveat for dissecting the genetics underlying aversive learning. We thus first tested heat as a potential new US for SER conditioning. We show that thermal stimulation of several sensory structures on the bee’s body triggers the SER, in a temperature-dependent manner. Moreover, heat applied to the antennae, mouthparts or legs is an efficient US for SER conditioning. Then, using microsatellite analysis, we analyzed heat sensitivity and aversive learning performances in ten worker patrilines issued from a naturally inseminated queen. We demonstrate a strong influence of genotype on aversive learning, possibly indicating the existence of a genetic determinism of this capacity. Such determinism could be instrumental for efficient task partitioning within the hive. PMID:24828422

  20. An elastoplastic homogenization procedure for predicting the settlement of a foundation on a soil reinforced by columns


    ABDELKRIM, Malek; DE BUHAN, Patrick


    This paper presents an elastoplastic homogenization method applied to a soil reinforced by regularly distributed columns. According to this method, the composite reinforced soil is regarded, from a macroscopic point of view, as a homogeneous anisotropic continuous medium, the elastic as well as plastic properties of which can be obtained from the solution to an auxiliary problem attached to the reinforced soil representative cell. Based upon an approximate solution to this problem, in which p...

  1. An automated system for positive reinforcement training of group-housed macaque monkeys at breeding and research facilities. (United States)

    Tulip, Jennifer; Zimmermann, Jonas B; Farningham, David; Jackson, Andrew


    Behavioural training through positive reinforcement techniques is a well-recognised refinement to laboratory animal welfare. Behavioural neuroscience research requires subjects to be trained to perform repetitions of specific behaviours for food/fluid reward. Some animals fail to perform at a sufficient level, limiting the amount of data that can be collected and increasing the number of animals required for each study. We have implemented automated positive reinforcement training systems (comprising a button press task with variable levels of difficulty using LED cues and a fluid reward) at the breeding facility and research facility, to compare performance across these different settings, to pre-screen animals for selection and refine training protocols. Animals learned 1- and 4-choice button tasks within weeks of home enclosure training, with some inter-individual differences. High performance levels (∼200-300 trials per 60min session at ∼80% correct) were obtained without food or fluid restriction. Moreover, training quickly transferred to a laboratory version of the task. Animals that acquired the task at the breeding facility subsequently performed better both in early home enclosure sessions upon arrival at the research facility, and also in laboratory sessions. Automated systems at the breeding facility may be used to pre-screen animals for suitability for behavioural neuroscience research. In combination with conventional training, both the breeding and research facility systems facilitate acquisition and transference of learning. Automated systems have the potential to refine training protocols and minimise requirements for food/fluid control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Contemporary analysis of the intraoperative and perioperative complications of neurosurgical procedures performed in the sitting position. (United States)

    Himes, Benjamin T; Mallory, Grant W; Abcejo, Arnoley S; Pasternak, Jeffrey; Atkinson, John L D; Meyer, Fredric B; Marsh, W Richard; Link, Michael J; Clarke, Michelle J; Perkins, William; Van Gompel, Jamie J


    OBJECTIVE Historically, performing neurosurgery with the patient in the sitting position offered advantages such as improved visualization and gravity-assisted retraction. However, this position fell out of favor at many centers due to the perceived risk of venous air embolism (VAE) and other position-related complications. Some neurosurgical centers continue to perform sitting-position cases in select patients, often using modern monitoring techniques that may improve procedural safety. Therefore, this paper reports the risks associated with neurosurgical procedures performed in the sitting position in a modern series. METHODS The authors reviewed the anesthesia records for instances of clinically significant VAE and other complications for all neurosurgical procedures performed in the sitting position between January 1, 2000, and October 8, 2013. In addition, a prospectively maintained morbidity and mortality log of these procedures was reviewed for instances of subdural or intracerebral hemorrhage, tension pneumocephalus, and quadriplegia. Both overall and specific complication rates were calculated in relation to the specific type of procedure. RESULTS In a series of 1792 procedures, the overall complication rate related to the sitting position was 1.45%, which included clinically significant VAE, tension pneumocephalus, and subdural hemorrhage. The rate of any detected VAE was 4.7%, but the rate of VAE requiring clinical intervention was 1.06%. The risk of clinically significant VAE was highest in patients undergoing suboccipital craniotomy/craniectomy with a rate of 2.7% and an odds ratio (OR) of 2.8 relative to deep brain stimulator cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-70, p = 0.04). Sitting cervical spine cases had a comparatively lower complication rate of 0.7% and an OR of 0.28 as compared with all cranial procedures (95% CI 0.12-0.67, p < 0.01). Sitting cervical cases were further subdivided into extradural and intradural procedures. The rate of

  3. Investigation of laboratory test procedures for assessing the structural capacity of geogrid-reinforced aggregate base materials. (United States)


    The objective of this research was to identify a laboratory test method that can be used to quantify improvements in structural capacity of aggregate base materials reinforced with geogrid. For this research, National Cooperative Highway Research Pro...

  4. 241-AN-A valve pit manifold valves and position indication acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document describes the method used to test design criteria for gear actuated ball valves installed in 241-AN-A Valve Pit located at 200E Tank Farms. The purpose of this procedure is to demonstrate the following: Equipment is properly installed, labeled, and documented on As-Built drawings; New Manifold Valves in the 241-AN-A Valve Pit are fully operable using the handwheel of the valve operators; New valve position indicators on the valve operators will show correct valve positions; New valve position switches will function properly; and New valve locking devices function properly.

  5. Lack of effect of Pitressin on the learning ability of Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus using positively reinforced operant conditioning. (United States)

    Laycock, J F; Gartside, I B


    Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (BDI) received daily subcutaneous injections of vasopressin in the form of Pitressin tannate (0.5 IU/24 hr). They were initially deprived of food and then trained to work for food reward in a Skinner box to a fixed ratio of ten presses for each pellet received. Once this schedule had been learned the rats were given a discrimination task daily for seven days. The performances of these BDI rats were compared with those of rats of the parent Long Evans (LE) strain receiving daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle (arachis oil). Comparisons were also made between these two groups of treated animals and untreated BDI and LE rats studied under similar conditions. In the initial learning trial, both control and Pitressin-treated BDI rats performed significantly better, and manifested less fear initially, than the control or vehicle-injected LE rats when first placed in the Skinner box. Once the initial task had been learned there was no marked difference in the discrimination learning between control or treated BDI and LE animals. These results support the view that vasopressin is not directly involved in all types of learning behaviour, particularly those involving positively reinforced operant conditioning.

  6. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study


    Chang, Tzu-Pu; Lin, Yueh-Wen; Sung, Pi-Yu; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Chung, Hsien-Yang; Liao, Wen-Ling


    Background Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based cas...

  7. Measuring implicit attitudes: A positive framing bias flaw in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). (United States)

    O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A


    How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Mate call as reward: Acoustic communication signals can acquire positive reinforcing values during adulthood in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). (United States)

    Hernandez, Alexandra M; Perez, Emilie C; Mulard, Hervé; Mathevon, Nicolas; Vignal, Clémentine


    Social stimuli can have rewarding properties and promote learning. In birds, conspecific vocalizations like song can act as a reinforcer, and specific song variants can acquire particular rewarding values during early life exposure. Here we ask if, during adulthood, an acoustic signal simpler and shorter than song can become a reward for a female songbird because of its particular social value. Using an operant choice apparatus, we showed that female zebra finches display a preferential response toward their mate's calls. This reinforcing value of mate's calls could be involved in the maintenance of the monogamous pair-bond of the zebra finch. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Beyond the Positive Reinforcement of Aggression: Peers' Acceptance of Aggression Promotes Aggression via External Control Beliefs (United States)

    Jung, Janis; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert


    Being surrounded by peers who are accepting of aggression is a significant predictor of the development and persistence of aggression in childhood and adolescence. Whereas past research has focused on social reinforcement mechanisms as the underlying processes, the present longitudinal study analysed the role of external control beliefs as an…

  10. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Pu Chang

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based case-control study conducted to investigate the correlation between BPPV and dental manipulation.Patients diagnosed with BPPV between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We further identified those who had undergone dental procedures within 1 month and within 3 months before the first diagnosis date of BPPV. We also identified the comorbidities of the patients with BPPV, including head trauma, osteoporosis, migraine, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and stroke. These variables were then compared to those in age- and gender-matched controls.In total, 768 patients with BPPV and 1536 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. In the BPPV group, 9.2% of the patients had undergone dental procedures within 1 month before the diagnosis of BPPV. In contrast, only 5.5% of the controls had undergone dental treatment within 1 month before the date at which they were identified (P = 0.001. After adjustments for demographic factors and comorbidities, recent exposure to dental procedures was positively associated with BPPV (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.47. This association was still significant if we expanded the time period from 1 month to 3 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.26.Our results demonstrated a correlation between dental procedures and BPPV. The specialists who treat patients with BPPV should consider dental procedures to be a

  11. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study. (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Pu; Lin, Yueh-Wen; Sung, Pi-Yu; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Chung, Hsien-Yang; Liao, Wen-Ling


    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based case-control study conducted to investigate the correlation between BPPV and dental manipulation. Patients diagnosed with BPPV between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We further identified those who had undergone dental procedures within 1 month and within 3 months before the first diagnosis date of BPPV. We also identified the comorbidities of the patients with BPPV, including head trauma, osteoporosis, migraine, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and stroke. These variables were then compared to those in age- and gender-matched controls. In total, 768 patients with BPPV and 1536 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. In the BPPV group, 9.2% of the patients had undergone dental procedures within 1 month before the diagnosis of BPPV. In contrast, only 5.5% of the controls had undergone dental treatment within 1 month before the date at which they were identified (P = 0.001). After adjustments for demographic factors and comorbidities, recent exposure to dental procedures was positively associated with BPPV (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.47). This association was still significant if we expanded the time period from 1 month to 3 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.26). Our results demonstrated a correlation between dental procedures and BPPV. The specialists who treat patients with BPPV should consider dental procedures to be a risk factor

  12. Canal switch after canalith repositioning procedure for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. (United States)

    Lin, Giant C; Basura, Gregory J; Wong, Hiu Tung; Heidenreich, Katherine D


    Canal switch is a complication following canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Instead of being returned to the utricle, the loose otoconia migrate into the superior or horizontal semicircular canal. Patients remain symptomatic, and treatment can be ineffective unless the switch is recognized and additional repositioning maneuvers directed toward the appropriate semicircular canal are performed. This report provides the first videographic documentation of canal switch involving conversion of unilateral posterior semicircular canal BPPV to geotropic horizontal canalithiasis. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Apparatus and method for supporting and positioning the body to facilitate radiographic mammography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasky, H.J.


    A stretcher-like table or cradle for use as a body support during radiological examination is described. The table includes means whereby it may be arcuately pivotally manipulated about each of two mutually perpendicular horizontal axes. For specific uses in mammographic procedures, the support surface or web of the table is provided with a cut-away areal zone through which the gravitationally suspended breast of the female subject depends. Selective and controlled pivotal tilting of the table makes precise orientational positioning of the suspended tissue feasible, so as to provide improved fidelity and enhanced diagnostic value for the radiographic film images produced

  14. Positive predictive value of abnormal mammographic findings and role of assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menna, S.; Marra, V.; Di Virgilio, M.R.; Macchia, G.; Frigerio, A.


    To investigate the positive predictive value for cancer of abnormal mammographic findings and the role of assessment, the authors reviewed a series of 962 patients recalled and examined in the first breast screening center of Turin (Italy), out of 18996 women aged 50-59 from 1991 to 1995, within a population-based mammography program. The results of this study confirm the accuracy of mammography in the early detection of breast cancer and the different role of assessment procedures in the various abnormal mammographic findings. The improvement in positive predictive value for screening demonstrates the importance of the learning curve within the screening team. Most of this improvement could be referred to refined diagnostic criteria for calcifications [it

  15. Mirror neurons, procedural learning, and the positive new experience: a developmental systems self psychology approach. (United States)

    Wolf, N S; Gales, M; Shane, E; Shane, M


    In summary, we are impressed with the existence of a mirror neuron system in the prefrontal cortex that serves as part of a complex neural network, including afferent and efferent connections to the limbic system, in particular the amygdala, in addition to the premotor and motor cortex. We think it is possible to arrive at an integration that postulates the mirror neuron system and its many types of associated multimodal neurons as contributing significantly to implicit procedural learning, a process that underlies a range of complex nonconscious, unconscious, preconscious and conscious cognitive activities, from playing musical instruments to character formation and traumatic configurations. This type of brain circuitry may establish an external coherence with developmental systems self psychology which implies that positive new experience is meliorative and that the intentional revival of old-old traumatic relational configurations might enhance maladaptive procedural patterns that would lead to the opposite of the intended beneficial change. When analysts revive traumatic transference patterns for the purpose of clarification and interpretation, they may fail to appreciate that such traumatic transference patterns make interpretation ineffective because, as we have stated above, the patient lacks self-reflection under such traumatic conditions. The continued plasticity and immediacy of the mirror neuron system can contribute to positive new experiences that promote the formation of new, adaptive, implicit-procedural patterns. Perhaps this broadened repertoire in the patient of ways of understanding interrelational events through the psychoanalytic process allows the less adaptive patterns ultimately to become vestigial and the newer, more adaptive patterns to emerge as dominant. Finally, as we have stated, we believe that the intentional transferential revival of trauma (i.e., the old-old relational configuration) may not contribute to therapeutic benefit. In

  16. Supine or prone position for mini-PNL procedure: does it matter. (United States)

    Tokatlı, Zafer; Gokce, Mehmet Ilker; Süer, Evren; Sağlam, Remzi


    In this study it is aimed to compare the success and complication rates of mini-PNL procedure in supine and prone positions. In this retrospective study data of 180 patients treated with MPNL either in supine (n = 54) or prone (n = 126) positions between May 2009 and August 2014 was investigated. Success was defined as no visible stones >2 mm. Perioperative complications were classified using the modified Clavien system. Groups were compared with Chi square test or Student t test and for statistical significance p value of 0.05 was accepted. Mean age of the population was 42.5 ± 8.2 years and mean stone size was 23.9 ± 4.1 mm. The two groups were similar with regard to demographic characteristics and stone related characteristics except the ASA status. Success rates of the supine and prone groups were 85.1 and 87.3%, respectively (p = 0.701). No statistically significant differences in terms of complications were observed. Mean operative time was the only parameter different between the two groups (55 vs 82 min, p = 0.001). Supine position for PNL seems to be promising and the complication and success rates are shown to be similar to the prone position with MPNL technique. The only significant benefit of this technique is shorter operative time.

  17. 75 FR 10460 - Improving Tracing Procedures for E. coli O157:H7 Positive Raw Beef Product (United States)


    ... Tracing Procedures for E. coli O157:H7 Positive Raw Beef Product AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... has found positive for Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. FSIS will also discuss additional verification activities the Agency will conduct at suppliers in response to positive E. coli O157:H7 results...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Dan


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This research presents a methodology for determining the optimal location of a new facility, having physical flow interaction of various degrees with other existing facilities in the presence of barriers impeding the shortest flow-path as well as the sub-optimal iso-cost positions. It also determines sub-optimal iso-cost positions with additional cost or penalty for not being able to site it at the computed optimal point. The proposed methodology considers all types of quadrilateral barrier or forbidden region configurations to generalize and by-pass such impenetrable obstacles, and adopts a scheme of searching through the vertices of the quadrilaterals to determine the alternative shortest flow-path. This procedure of obstacle avoidance is novel. Software has been developed to facilitate computations for the search algorithm to determine the optimal and iso-cost co-ordinates. The test results are presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die navorsing behandel ‘n procedure vir die bepaling van optimum stigtingsposisie vir ‘n onderneming met vloei vanaf ander bestaande fasiliteite in die teenwoordigheid van ‘n verskeidenheid van randvoorwaardes. Die prodedure lewer as resultaat suboptimale isokoste-stigtingsplekke met bekendmaking van die koste wat onstaan a.g.v. afwyking van die randvoorwaardlose optimum oplossingskoste, die prosedure maak gebruik van ‘n vindingryke soekmetode wat toegepas word op niersydige meerkundige voorstellings vir die bepaling van korste roetes wat versperring omseil. Die prosedure word onderskei deur programmatuur. Toetsresultate word voorgehou.

  19. Ultra High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC: a review of material properties and design procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. T. Buttignol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper does a review of the recent achievements on the knowledge of UHPFRC properties and in the development of design procedures. UHPFRC is defined as a new material, with unique properties (high ductility, low permeability, very high strength capacity in compression, higher toughness in comparison to conventional concrete. It is important to know both material and mechanical properties to fully take advantage of its outstanding properties for structural applications. However, since this is a new material, the current design codes are not well suited and should be reviewed before being applied to UHPFRC. In the first part, the following material properties are addressed: hydration process; permeability; fibers role; mix design; fiber-matrix bond properties workability; mixing procedure; and curing. In the second part, the mechanical properties of the material are discussed, together with some design recommendations. The aspects herein examined are: size effect; compressive and flexural strength; tensile stress-strain relation; shear and punching shear capacity; creep and shrinkage; fracture energy; steel bars anchorage and adherence. Besides, the tensile mechanical characterization is described using inverse analysis based on bending tests data. In the last part, material behavior at high temperature is discussed, including physical-chemical transformations of the concrete, spalling effect, and transient creep. In the latter case, a new Load Induced Thermal Strain (LITS semi-empirical model is described and compared with UHPC experimental results.

  20. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy


    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany


    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimenta...

  1. Mathematical Model and Calibration Procedure of a PSD Sensor Used in Local Positioning Systems. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Navarro, David; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Bravo-Muñoz, Ignacio; Gardel-Vicente, Alfredo; Domingo-Perez, Francisco; Tsirigotis, Georgios


    Here, we propose a mathematical model and a calibration procedure for a PSD (position sensitive device) sensor equipped with an optical system, to enable accurate measurement of the angle of arrival of one or more beams of light emitted by infrared (IR) transmitters located at distances of between 4 and 6 m. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to characterize the intrinsic parameters that model the system and obtain their values. This first approach was based on a pin-hole model, to which system nonlinearities were added, and this was used to model the points obtained with the nA currents provided by the PSD. In addition, we analyzed the main sources of error, including PSD sensor signal noise, gain factor imbalances and PSD sensor distortion. The results indicated that the proposed model and method provided satisfactory calibration and yielded precise parameter values, enabling accurate measurement of the angle of arrival with a low degree of error, as evidenced by the experimental results.

  2. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd


    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  3. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  4. Merrill's Atlas of radiographic positions and radiologic procedures. Volumes 1-3. Sixth edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, P.W.


    Merrill's Atlas describes and explains the routine and specialized radiologic procedures for all body systems. This edition thoroughly reorganized, updated and expanded. Volumes one and two describe all routine and flouroscopic procedures; and volume three describes more specialized areas in the profession

  5. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness. (United States)

    Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B


    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  6. Social Interaction and Conditional Self-Discrimination under a Paradigm of Avoidance and Positive Reinforcement in Wistar Rats (United States)

    Penagos-Corzo, Julio C.; Pérez-Acosta, Andrés M.; Hernández, Ingrid


    The experiment reported here uses a conditional self-discrimination task to examine the influence of social interaction on the facilitation of self-discrimination in rats. The study is based on a previous report (Penagos- Corzo et al., 2011) showing positive evidence of such facilitation, but extending the exposition to social interaction…

  7. Role of maturity timing in selection procedures and in the specialisation of playing positions in youth basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne Cornelia Maria; Elferink-Gemser, Marije Titia; Tromp, Eveline Jenny Yvonne; Vaeyens, Roel; Visscher, Chris


    This study investigated the role of maturity timing in selection procedures and in the specialisation of playing positions in youth male basketball. Forty-three talented Dutch players (14.66 +/- 1.09years) participated in this study. Maturity timing (age at peak height velocity), anthropometric,

  8. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin


    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  9. A new approach to assess gambling-like behavior in laboratory rats: using intracranial self-stimulation as a positive reinforcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Tedford


    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is one manifestation of impulse control disorders. The biological underpinnings of these disorders remain elusive and treatment is far from ideal. Animal models of impulse control disorders are a critical research tool for understanding this condition and for medication development. Modeling such complex behaviors is daunting, but by its deconstruction, scientists have recapitulated in animals critical aspects of gambling. One aspect of gambling is cost/benefit decision-making wherein one weighs the anticipated costs and expected benefits of a course of action. Risk/reward, delay-based and effort-based decision-making all represent cost/benefit choices. These features are studied in humans and have been translated to animal protocols to measure decision-making processes. Traditionally, the positive reinforcer used in animal studies is food. Here, we describe how intracranial self-stimulation can be used for cost/benefit decision-making tasks and overview our recent studies showing how pharmacological therapies alter these behaviors in laboratory rats. We propose that these models may have value in screening new compounds for the ability to promote and prevent aspects of gambling behavior.

  10. The Use of Player-centered Positive Reinforcement to Schedule In-game Rewards Increases Enjoyment and Performance in a Serious Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniket Nagle


    Full Text Available Among the methods used to increase enjoyment and performance in serious games, reward schedules, i.e., determining when in-game rewards should be given, have not been sufficiently explored. In the present study, we designed a simple memory training serious game and compared two methods of scheduling rewards, both based on the paradigm of positive reinforcement: fixed ratio schedule, in which rewards were given after a fixed number of correct responses, and variable ratio schedule, in which rewards were given after an unpredictable number of correct responses. To account for the variability in player preference for rewards, a player-centered sub-mode was included in both schedules by adjusting the schedule ratio according to player preference for rewards. The effectiveness of this approach was tested by comparing it against two more sub-modes: one which used a predetermined ratio, and another which set the ratio to the opposite of player preference. The game was put online and tested with 210 participants. Enjoyment, performance, duration of gameplay, and likelihood to play again were significantly higher in the player-centered sub-mode than the other sub-modes. On average, the variable-ratio schedule was better in the outcome measures than the fixed-ratio schedule. The results highlight the importance of in-game rewards, and indicate that giving rewards according to a player-centered variable-ratio schedule has the potential to make serious games more effective.

  11. Tape functionality: position, change in shape, and outcome after TVT procedure--mid-term results. (United States)

    Kociszewski, Jacek; Rautenberg, Oliver; Kolben, Sebastian; Eberhard, Jakob; Hilgers, Reinhard; Viereck, Volker


    This study evaluates the relevance of the tape position and change in shape (tape functionality) under in vivo conditions for mid-term outcome. Changes in the sonographic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) position relative to the percentage urethral length and the tape-urethra distance were determined after 6 and 48 months in 41 women with stress urinary incontinence. At 48 months, 76% (31/41) of women were cured, 17% (7/41) were improved, and 7% (3/41) were failures. Disturbed bladder voiding was present in 12% (5/41), de novo urge incontinence in 7% (3/41). The median TVT position was at 63% of urethral length. Median tape-urethra distance was 2.7 mm, ranging from 2.9 mm in continent patients without complications to 1.1 mm in those with obstructive complications. Patients with postoperative urine loss had a median distance of 3.9 mm. The tape was stretched at rest and C-shaped during straining in 15 of 41 women (37%) at 48 months (all continent). Patients with this tape functionality at 6 months were also cured at 48 months in 86% of cases (19/22), and only 14% (3/22) showed recurrent incontinence. Mid-term data suggest an optimal outcome if the tape is positioned at least 2 mm from the urethra at the junction of the middle and distal thirds. Patients with optimal tape functionality at 6 months are likely to show mid-term therapeutic success.

  12. Effect of Pneumoperitoneum and Lateral Position on Oropharyngeal Seal Pressures of Proseal LMA in Laparoscopic Urological Procedures. (United States)

    Rustagi, Preeti; Patkar, Geeta A; Ourasang, Anil Kumar; Tendolkar, Bharati A


    A sustained and effective oropharyngeal sealing with supraglottic airway is required to maintain the ventilation during laparoscopic surgery. Previous studies have observed the Oropharyngeal Seal Pressure (OSP) for Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) after pneumoperitoneum in supine and trendelenburg position, where PLMA was found to be an effective airway device. This study was conducted with ProSeal LMA, for laparoscopic Urologic procedures done in lateral position. To measure OSP in supine and lateral position and to observe the effect of pneumoperitoneum in lateral position on OSP. Secondary objectives were to assess adequacy of ventilation and incidence of adverse events. A total number of 25 patients of American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status II and I were enrolled. After induction of anaesthesia using a standardized protocol, PLMA was inserted. Ryle's tube was inserted through drain tube. The position of PLMA was confirmed with ease of insertion of Ryle's tube and fibreoptic grading of vocal cords. Patients were then put in lateral position. The OSP was measured in supine position. This value was baseline comparison for OSP in lateral position and that after pneumoperitoneum. We assessed the efficacy of PLMA for ventilation, after carboperitoneum in lateral position (peak airway pressure, End Tidal Carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 ), SPO 2 ). Incidence of adverse effects (displacement of device, gastric insufflation, regurgitation, coughing, sore throat, blood on device, trauma) was also noted. The OSP was above Peak Airway Pressure (PAP) in supine (22.1±5.4 and 15.4±4.49cm of H 2 O) and lateral position (22.6±5.3 and 16.1±4.6). After pneumoperitoneum, which was in lateral position, there was statistically significant (p-value <0.05) increase in both PAP (19.96±4.015) and OSP (24.32±4.98, p-value 0.03). There was no intraoperative displacement of PLMA. There was no event of suboptimal oxygenation. EtCO 2 was always within normal limits

  13. Muscarinic M4 Receptors on Cholinergic and Dopamine D1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons Have Opposing Functionality for Positive Reinforcement and Influence Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Klawonn


    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the roles of the various cholinergic receptor subtypes on different neuron populations remain elusive. Here we study the function of muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R expressing neurons and cholinergic neurons (expressing choline acetyltransferase; ChAT, during various reward-enforced behaviors and in a “waiting”-impulsivity test. We applied cell-type-specific gene deletions targeting M4Rs in D1RCre or ChATCre mice. Mice lacking M4Rs in D1R-neurons displayed greater cocaine seeking and drug-primed reinstatement than their littermate controls in a Pavlovian conditioned place preference (CPP paradigm. Furthermore, the M4R-D1RCre mice initiated significantly more premature responses (PRs in the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task (5CSRTT than their littermate controls, indicating impaired waiting impulse control. In contrast, mice lacking M4Rs in cholinergic neurons did not acquire cocaine Pavlovian conditioning. The M4R-ChATCre mice were also unable to learn positive reinforcement to either natural reward or cocaine in an operant runway paradigm. Immediate early gene (IEG expression (cFos and FosB induced by repeated cocaine injections was significantly increased in the forebrain of M4R-D1RCre mice, whereas it remained normal in the M4R-ChATCre mice. Our study illustrates that muscarinic M4Rs on specific neural populations, either cholinergic or D1R-expressing, are pivotal for learning processes related to both natural reward and drugs of abuse, with opposing functionality. Furthermore, we found that neurons expressing both M4Rs and D1Rs are important for signaling impulse control.

  14. Muscarinic M4 Receptors on Cholinergic and Dopamine D1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons Have Opposing Functionality for Positive Reinforcement and Influence Impulsivity. (United States)

    Klawonn, Anna M; Wilhelms, Daniel B; Lindström, Sarah H; Singh, Anand Kumar; Jaarola, Maarit; Wess, Jürgen; Fritz, Michael; Engblom, David


    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the roles of the various cholinergic receptor subtypes on different neuron populations remain elusive. Here we study the function of muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs) in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) expressing neurons and cholinergic neurons (expressing choline acetyltransferase; ChAT), during various reward-enforced behaviors and in a "waiting"-impulsivity test. We applied cell-type-specific gene deletions targeting M4Rs in D1RCre or ChATCre mice. Mice lacking M4Rs in D1R-neurons displayed greater cocaine seeking and drug-primed reinstatement than their littermate controls in a Pavlovian conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Furthermore, the M4R-D1RCre mice initiated significantly more premature responses (PRs) in the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task (5CSRTT) than their littermate controls, indicating impaired waiting impulse control. In contrast, mice lacking M4Rs in cholinergic neurons did not acquire cocaine Pavlovian conditioning. The M4R-ChATCre mice were also unable to learn positive reinforcement to either natural reward or cocaine in an operant runway paradigm. Immediate early gene (IEG) expression ( cFos and FosB ) induced by repeated cocaine injections was significantly increased in the forebrain of M4R-D1RCre mice, whereas it remained normal in the M4R-ChATCre mice. Our study illustrates that muscarinic M4Rs on specific neural populations, either cholinergic or D1R-expressing, are pivotal for learning processes related to both natural reward and drugs of abuse, with opposing functionality. Furthermore, we found that neurons expressing both M4Rs and D1Rs are important for signaling impulse control.

  15. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.


    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  16. Neurofeedback in Learning Disabled Children: Visual versus Auditory Reinforcement. (United States)

    Fernández, Thalía; Bosch-Bayard, Jorge; Harmony, Thalía; Caballero, María I; Díaz-Comas, Lourdes; Galán, Lídice; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Aubert, Eduardo; Otero-Ojeda, Gloria


    Children with learning disabilities (LD) frequently have an EEG characterized by an excess of theta and a deficit of alpha activities. NFB using an auditory stimulus as reinforcer has proven to be a useful tool to treat LD children by positively reinforcing decreases of the theta/alpha ratio. The aim of the present study was to optimize the NFB procedure by comparing the efficacy of visual (with eyes open) versus auditory (with eyes closed) reinforcers. Twenty LD children with an abnormally high theta/alpha ratio were randomly assigned to the Auditory or the Visual group, where a 500 Hz tone or a visual stimulus (a white square), respectively, was used as a positive reinforcer when the value of the theta/alpha ratio was reduced. Both groups had signs consistent with EEG maturation, but only the Auditory Group showed behavioral/cognitive improvements. In conclusion, the auditory reinforcer was more efficacious in reducing the theta/alpha ratio, and it improved the cognitive abilities more than the visual reinforcer.

  17. Ranking low, feeling high: How hierarchical position and experienced power promote prosocial behavior in response to procedural justice. (United States)

    van Dijke, Marius; De Cremer, David; Langendijk, Gerben; Anderson, Cameron


    Research shows that power can lead to prosocial behavior by facilitating the behavioral expression of dispositional prosocial motivation. However, it is not clear how power may facilitate responses to contextual factors that promote prosocial motivation. Integrating fairness heuristic theory and the situated focus theory of power, we argue that in particular, organization members in lower (vs. higher) hierarchical positions who simultaneously experience a high (vs. low) sense of power respond with prosocial behavior to 1 important antecedent of prosocial motivation, that is, the enactment of procedural justice. The results from a multisource survey among employees and their leaders from various organizations (Study 1) and an experiment using a public goods dilemma (Study 2) support this prediction. Three subsequent experiments (Studies 3-5) show that this effect is mediated by perceptions of authority trustworthiness. Taken together, this research (a) helps resolve the debate regarding whether power promotes or undermines prosocial behavior, (b) demonstrates that hierarchical position and the sense of power can have very different effects on processes that are vital to the functioning of an organization, and (c) helps solve ambiguity regarding the roles of hierarchical position and power in fairness heuristic theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Computer-assisted preoperative simulation for positioning and fixation of plate in 2-stage procedure combining maxillary advancement by distraction technique and mandibular setback surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Suenaga


    Conclusion: The implementation of the computer-assisted preoperative simulation for the positioning and fixation of plate in 2-stage orthognathic procedure using distraction technique and mandibular setback surgery yielded good results.

  19. [Clinical research of the otolith abnormal migration during canalith repositioning procedures for posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo]. (United States)

    Ou, Yongkang; Zheng, Yiging; Zhu, Honglei; Chen, Ling; Zhong, Junwei; Tang, Xiaowu; Huang, Qiuhong; Xu, Yaodong


    To investigate the risk factor,type and characteristic nystagmus of the otolith abnormal migration during diagnosis and treatment for posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (PSC-BPPV). The therapy and prevention is also discussed. Four hundred and seventy-nine patients with PSC-BPPV were treated by Epley's canalith repositioning procedures(CRP) from March 2009 to March 2012. We observed otolith abnormal migration complicating during diagnosis and treatment. According the type of otolith abnormal migration, the additional repositioning maneuver was performed. The rate of complication was 8. 1%(39/479), with canal conversion in 5.4%(26/479) and primarily canal reentry in 2.7%(13/479). The rate of incidence of conversion to horizontal canal conversion and anterior canal were 4. 8%(23/479)and 0. 6%(3/479) respectively. All the patient was cured in follow up. The risk factors were unappropriated head movement during or after CRP, including another Dix-Hallpike were performed immediately. To prevent the complications,the pathognostic positioning sequence and angle of head rotation are commenced during CRP. Appropriate short time postural restrictions post-treatment is necessary. Careful observation of nystagrnus variation is crucial to determine the otolith abnormal migration.

  20. Reinforced concrete tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariscotti, M.A.J.; Morixe, M.; Tarela, P.A.; Thieberger, P.


    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of ± 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) [es

  1. Procrastination in the pigeon: Can conditioned reinforcement increase the likelihood of human procrastination? (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R; Case, Jacob P; Andrews, Danielle M


    Procrastination is the tendency to put off initiation or completion of a task. Although people are typically known to procrastinate, recent research suggests that they sometimes "pre-crastinate" by initiating a task sooner than they need to (Rosenbaum et al. in Psychological Science, 25(7), 1487-1496, 2014). A similar finding of precrastination was reported by Wasserman and Brzykcy (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 1130-1134, 2015) with pigeons using a somewhat different procedure. In the present experiment, we used a procedure with pigeons that was more similar to the procedure used by Rosenbaum et al. Pigeons were given a choice between two sequences of events (concurrent chains). Choice of the procrastination chain resulted in color A, which 15-s later would change to color B and 5-s later resulted in reinforcement. Choice of the precrastination chain resulted in color C, which 5-s later would change to color D and 15-s later resulted in reinforcement. Thus, both chains led to reinforcement after 20 s. Results indicated that the pigeons procrastinated. That is, they preferred the 15-5 chain over the 5-15 chain. The results are consistent with Fantino's (Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12, 723-730, 1969) delay reduction theory, which posits that stimuli that signal a reduction in the delay to reinforcement, such as the 5-s stimulus that occurred immediately prior to reinforcement, serve as strong conditioned reinforcers and should be preferred. In support of this theory, the pigeons pecked most at the 5-s stimulus that led immediately to reinforcement, indicating that it had become a strong conditioned reinforcer. The results suggest that delay reduction theory, a theory that emphasizes the attraction to stimuli that predict reinforcement with a short delay, also may contribute to human procrastination behavior because when task completion comes just before the deadline, it may become a stronger conditioned reinforcer than if task completion

  2. An MLC-based linac QA procedure for the characterization of radiation isocenter and room lasers' position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, Florin; Lorenz, Friedlieb; Hacker, Fred L.; Chin, Lee M.; Ramakrishna, Naren; Zygmanski, Piotr


    We have designed and implemented a new stereotactic linac QA test with stereotactic precision. The test is used to characterize gantry sag, couch wobble, cone placement, MLC offsets, and room lasers' positions relative to the radiation isocenter. Two MLC star patterns, a cone pattern, and the laser line patterns are recorded on the same imaging medium. Phosphor plates are used as imaging medium due to their sensitivity to red light. The red light of room lasers erases some of the irradiation information stored on the phosphor plates enabling accurate and direct measurements for the position of room lasers and radiation isocenter. Using film instead of the phosphor plate as imaging medium is possible, however, it is less practical. The QA method consists of irradiating four phosphor plates that record the gantry sag between the 0 deg.and 180 deg.gantry angles, the position and stability of couch rotational axis, the sag between the 90 deg.and 270 deg.gantry angles, the accuracy of cone placement on the collimator, the MLC offsets from the collimator rotational axis, and the position of laser lines relative to the radiation isocenter. The estimated accuracy of the method is ±0.2 mm. The observed reproducibility of the method is about ±0.1 mm. The total irradiation/illumination time is about 10 min per image. Data analysis, including the phosphor plate scanning, takes less than 5 min for each image. The method characterizes the radiation isocenter geometry with the high accuracy required for the stereotactic radiosurgery. In this respect, it is similar to the standard ball test for stereotactic machines. However, due to the usage of the MLC instead of the cross-hair/ball, it does not depend on the cross-hair/ball placement errors with respect to the lasers and it provides more information on the mechanical integrity of the linac/couch/laser system. Alternatively, it can be used as a highly accurate QA procedure for the nonstereotactic machines. Noteworthy is its

  3. Effects of partial reinforcement and time between reinforced trials on terminal response rate in pigeon autoshaping. (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel A


    Partial reinforcement often leads to asymptotically higher rates of responding and number of trials with a response than does continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. However, comparisons typically involve a partial reinforcement schedule that differs from the continuous reinforcement schedule in both time between reinforced trials and probability of reinforcement. Two experiments examined the relative contributions of these two manipulations to asymptotic response rate. Results suggest that the greater responding previously seen with partial reinforcement is primarily due to differential probability of reinforcement and not differential time between reinforced trials. Further, once established, differences in responding are resistant to a change in stimulus and contingency. Secondary response theories of autoshaped responding (theories that posit additional response-augmenting or response-attenuating mechanisms specific to partial or continuous reinforcement) cannot fully accommodate the current body of data. It is suggested that researchers who study pigeon autoshaping train animals on a common task prior to training them under different conditions.

  4. Reduction by the Positive Allosteric Modulator of the GABAB Receptor, GS39783, of Alcohol Self-Administration in Sardinian Alcohol-Preferring Rats Exposed to the “Sipper” Procedure (United States)

    Maccioni, Paola; Flore, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A. M.; Mugnaini, Claudia; Pasquini, Serena; Corelli, Federico; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo


    The present study was designed to evaluate (a) alcohol self-administration behavior of selectively bred, Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats exposed to the so-called “sipper” procedure (characterized by the temporal separation between alcohol-seeking and -taking phases), and (b) the effect of the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783, on alcohol self-administration in sP rats exposed to this procedure. To this end, sP rats were initially trained to lever-respond under a reinforcement requirement (RR) 55 (RR55) for alcohol. Achievement of RR55 resulted in the 20-min presentation of the alcohol (15%, v/v)-containing sipper bottle. Once stable levels of lever-responding and alcohol consumption were reached, rats were treated with 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg GS39783 (i.g.) 60 min before the self-administration session. Rats displayed robust alcohol-seeking (as suggested by relatively short latencies to the first lever-response and high frequencies of lever-responding) and -taking (as suggested by alcohol intakes averaging approximately 1.5 g/kg) behaviors. Pretreatment with GS39783 inhibited both alcohol-seeking (the number of rats achieving RR55 and the mean RR value were virtually halved) and -taking (the amount of self-administered alcohol was reduced by approximately 60%). The results of the present study suggest the power of the “sipper” procedure in triggering high levels of alcohol-seeking and -taking behavior in sP rats. Further, these results extend to this additional procedure of alcohol self-administration the capacity of GS39783 to reduce the motivational properties of alcohol and alcohol consumption in sP rats. PMID:21423431

  5. Reduction by the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783, of alcohol self-administration in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats exposed to the “sipper” procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Maccioni


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate (a alcohol self-administration behavior of selectively bred, Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP rats exposed to the so-called “sipper” procedure (characterized by the temporal separation between alcohol-seeking and -taking phases, and (b the effect of the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783, on alcohol self-administration in sP rats exposed to this procedure. To this end, sP rats were initially trained to lever-respond under a reinforcement requirement (RR 55 (RR55 for alcohol. Achievement of RR55 resulted in the 20-min presentation of the alcohol (15%, v/v-containing sipper bottle. Once stable levels of lever-responding and alcohol consumption were reached, rats were treated with 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg GS39783 (i.g. 60 min before the self-administration session. Rats displayed robust alcohol-seeking (as suggested by relatively short latencies to the first lever-response and high frequencies of lever-responding and -taking (as suggested by alcohol intakes averaging approximately 1.5 g/kg behaviors. Pretreatment with GS39783 inhibited both alcohol-seeking (the number of rats achieving RR55 and the mean RR value were virtually halved and -taking (the amount of self-administered alcohol was reduced by approximately 60%. The results of the present study suggest the power of the “sipper” procedure in triggering high levels of alcohol-seeking and -taking behavior in sP rats. Further, these results extend to this additional procedure of alcohol self-administration the capacity of GS39783 to reduce the motivational properties of alcohol and alcohol consumption in sP rats.

  6. Implementation of a finite element analysis procedure for structural analysis of shape memory behaviour of fibre reinforced shape memory polymer composites (United States)

    Azzawi, Wessam Al; Epaarachchi, J. A.; Islam, Mainul; Leng, Jinsong


    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) offer a unique ability to undergo a substantial shape deformation and subsequently recover the original shape when exposed to a particular external stimulus. Comparatively low mechanical properties being the major drawback for extended use of SMPs in engineering applications. However the inclusion of reinforcing fibres in to SMPs improves mechanical properties significantly while retaining intrinsic shape memory effects. The implementation of shape memory polymer composites (SMPCs) in any engineering application is a unique task which requires profound materials and design optimization. However currently available analytical tools have critical limitations to undertake accurate analysis/simulations of SMPC structures and slower derestrict transformation of breakthrough research outcomes to real-life applications. Many finite element (FE) models have been presented. But majority of them require a complicated user-subroutines to integrate with standard FE software packages. Furthermore, those subroutines are problem specific and difficult to use for a wider range of SMPC materials and related structures. This paper presents a FE simulation technique to model the thermomechanical behaviour of the SMPCs using commercial FE software ABAQUS. Proposed technique incorporates material time-dependent viscoelastic behaviour. The ability of the proposed technique to predict the shape fixity and shape recovery was evaluated by experimental data acquired by a bending of a SMPC cantilever beam. The excellent correlation between the experimental and FE simulation results has confirmed the robustness of the proposed technique.

  7. Computer-assisted preoperative simulation for positioning and fixation of plate in 2-stage procedure combining maxillary advancement by distraction technique and mandibular setback surgery. (United States)

    Suenaga, Hideyuki; Taniguchi, Asako; Yonenaga, Kazumichi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Takato, Tsuyoshi


    Computer-assisted preoperative simulation surgery is employed to plan and interact with the 3D images during the orthognathic procedure. It is useful for positioning and fixation of maxilla by a plate. We report a case of maxillary retrusion by a bilateral cleft lip and palate, in which a 2-stage orthognathic procedure (maxillary advancement by distraction technique and mandibular setback surgery) was performed following a computer-assisted preoperative simulation planning to achieve the positioning and fixation of the plate. A high accuracy was achieved in the present case. A 21-year-old male patient presented to our department with a complaint of maxillary retrusion following bilateral cleft lip and palate. Computer-assisted preoperative simulation with 2-stage orthognathic procedure using distraction technique and mandibular setback surgery was planned. The preoperative planning of the procedure resulted in good aesthetic outcomes. The error of the maxillary position was less than 1mm. The implementation of the computer-assisted preoperative simulation for the positioning and fixation of plate in 2-stage orthognathic procedure using distraction technique and mandibular setback surgery yielded good results. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  9. Design procedures for the use of composites in strengthening of reinforced concrete structures state-of-the-art report of the RILEM Technical Committee 234-DUC

    CERN Document Server

    Sena-Cruz, José


    This book analyses the current knowledge on structural behaviour of RC elements and structures strengthened with composite materials (experimental, analytical and numerical approaches for EBR and NSM), particularly in relation to the above topics, and the comparison of the predictions of the current available codes/recommendations/guidelines with selected experimental results. The book shows possible critical issues (discrepancies, lacunae, relevant parameters, test procedures, etc.) related to current code predictions or to evaluate their reliability, in order to develop more uniform methods and basic rules for design and control of FRP strengthened RC structures. General problems/critical issues are clarified on the basis of the actual experiences, detect discrepancies in existing codes, lacunae in knowledge and, concerning these identified subjects, provide proposals for improvements. The book will help to contribute to promote and consolidate a more qualified and conscious approach towards rehabilitation...

  10. Systematic Review of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Without Extinction for Individuals With Autism. (United States)

    MacNaul, Hannah L; Neely, Leslie C


    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior procedures without extinction for individuals with autism. Using predetermined inclusion criteria, a total of 10 studies were included and summarized in terms of the following: (a) participant characteristics (e.g., sex, age, and diagnosis), (b) treatment setting, (c) problem behavior, (d) function, (e) alternative behavior, (f) intervention, (g) outcomes, and (h) conclusiveness of evidence. Of the 10 studies, nine demonstrated positive effects and one mixed effects. Five studies successfully reduced problem behavior by manipulating different reinforcement parameters (magnitude, immediacy, and quality) and four manipulated the schedule of reinforcement. One study had mixed results with two of the three participants requiring extinction. The findings of this review suggest that variations of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior interventions without an extinction component may be considered promising practices for the treatment of challenging behavior in individuals with autism.

  11. Design of reinforced concrete plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M.


    Nowadays, the internal forces of reinforced concrete laminar structures can be easily evaluated by the finite element procedures. The longitudinal design in each direction is not adequate, since the whole set of internal forces in each point must be concomitantly considered. The classic formulation for the design and new design charts which bring reduction of the amount of necessary reinforcement are presented. A rational reinforced concrete mathematical theory which makes possible the limit state design of plates and shells is discussed. This model can also be applied to define the constitutive relationships of laminar finite elements of reinforced concrete. (Author) [pt

  12. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness


    David R Lloyd; David R Lloyd; Douglas J Medina; Larry W Hawk; Whitney D Fosco; Jerry B Richards


    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...

  13. Flexural reinforced concrete member with FRP reinforcement


    Putzolu, Mariana


    One of the most problematic point in construction is the durability of the concrete especially related to corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Due to this problem the construction sector, introduced the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer, the main fibers used in construction are Glass, Carbon and Aramid. In this study, the author aim to analyse the flexural behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP. This aim is achieved by the analysis of specimens reinforced with GFRP bars, with theoreti...

  14. Investigations of timing during the schedule and reinforcement intervals with wheel-running reinforcement. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W; Christie-Fougere, Melissa M


    Across two experiments, a peak procedure was used to assess the timing of the onset and offset of an opportunity to run as a reinforcer. The first experiment investigated the effect of reinforcer duration on temporal discrimination of the onset of the reinforcement interval. Three male Wistar rats were exposed to fixed-interval (FI) 30-s schedules of wheel-running reinforcement and the duration of the opportunity to run was varied across values of 15, 30, and 60s. Each session consisted of 50 reinforcers and 10 probe trials. Results showed that as reinforcer duration increased, the percentage of postreinforcement pauses longer than the 30-s schedule interval increased. On probe trials, peak response rates occurred near the time of reinforcer delivery and peak times varied with reinforcer duration. In a second experiment, seven female Long-Evans rats were exposed to FI 30-s schedules leading to 30-s opportunities to run. Timing of the onset and offset of the reinforcement period was assessed by probe trials during the schedule interval and during the reinforcement interval in separate conditions. The results provided evidence of timing of the onset, but not the offset of the wheel-running reinforcement period. Further research is required to assess if timing occurs during a wheel-running reinforcement period.

  15. Combining noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement schedules as treatment for aberrant behavior.


    Marcus, B A; Vollmer, T R


    Research has shown that noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) can be an effective behavior-reduction procedure when based on a functional analysis. The effects of NCR may be a result of elimination of the contingency between aberrant behavior and reinforcing consequences (extinction) or frequent and free access to reinforcers that may reduce the participant's motivation to engage in aberrant behaviors or mands. If motivation is momentarily reduced, behavior such as mands may not be sensitive to p...

  16. Cerebral oxygen saturation and cardiac output during anaesthesia in sitting position for neurosurgical procedures: a prospective observational study. (United States)

    Schramm, P; Tzanova, I; Hagen, F; Berres, M; Closhen, D; Pestel, G; Engelhard, K


    Neurosurgical operations in the dorsal cranium often require the patient to be positioned in a sitting position. This can be associated with decreased cardiac output and cerebral hypoperfusion, and possibly, inadequate cerebral oxygenation. In the present study, cerebral oxygen saturation was measured during neurosurgery in the sitting position and correlated with cardiac output. Perioperative cerebral oxygen saturation was measured continuously with two different monitors, INVOS ® and FORE-SIGHT ® . Cardiac output was measured at eight predefined time points using transoesophageal echocardiography. Forty patients were enrolled, but only 35 (20 female) were eventually operated on in the sitting position. At the first time point, the regional cerebral oxygen saturation measured with INVOS ® was 70 (sd 9)%; thereafter, it increased by 0.0187% min -1 (P<0.01). The cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measured with FORE-SIGHT ® started at 68 (sd 13)% and increased by 0.0142% min -1 (P<0.01). The mean arterial blood pressure did not change. Cardiac output was between 6.3 (sd 1.3) and 7.2 (1.8) litre min -1 at the predefined time points. Cardiac output, but not mean arterial blood pressure, showed a positive and significant correlation with cerebral oxygen saturation. During neurosurgery in the sitting position, the cerebral oxygen saturation slowly increases and, therefore, this position seems to be safe with regard to cerebral oxygen saturation. Cerebral oxygen saturation is stable because of constant CO and MAP, while the influence of CO on cerebral oxygen saturation seems to be more relevant. NCT01275898. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  17. Reinforced sulphur concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.

  18. Standard operation procedures for conducting the on-the-road driving test, and measurement of the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas


    This review discusses the methodology of the standardized on-the-road driving test and standard operation procedures to conduct the test and analyze the data. The on-the-road driving test has proven to be a sensitive and reliable method to examine driving ability after administration of central nervous system (CNS) drugs. The test is performed on a public highway in normal traffic. Subjects are instructed to drive with a steady lateral position and constant speed. Its primary parameter, the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), ie, an index of 'weaving', is a stable measure of driving performance with high test-retest reliability. SDLP differences from placebo are dose-dependent, and do not depend on the subject's baseline driving skills (placebo SDLP). It is important that standard operation procedures are applied to conduct the test and analyze the data in order to allow comparisons between studies from different sites.

  19. Multi-Objective Patch Optimization with Integrated Kinematic Draping Simulation for Continuous–Discontinuous Fiber-Reinforced Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Fengler


    Full Text Available Discontinuous fiber-reinforced polymers (DiCoFRP in combination with local continuous fiber reinforced polymers (CoFRP provide both a high design freedom and high weight-specific mechanical properties. For the optimization of CoFRP patches on complexly shaped DiCoFRP structures, an optimization strategy is needed which considers manufacturing constraints during the optimization procedure. Therefore, a genetic algorithm is combined with a kinematic draping simulation. To determine the optimal patch position with regard to structural performance and overall material consumption, a multi-objective optimization strategy is used. The resulting Pareto front and a corresponding heat-map of the patch position are useful tools for the design engineer to choose the right amount of reinforcement. The proposed patch optimization procedure is applied to two example structures and the effect of different optimization setups is demonstrated.

  20. A procedure for the preparation of deoxynucleoside-5'-triphosphates labelled with phosphorus isotopes in the alpha position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havranek, M.; Vlna, J.


    The procedure concerns preparation of the title compounds labelled in the side chain -CH 2 -O-P * (O)(OH)-O-P(O)(OH)-O-P(O)(OH) 2 . In the first stage, deoxynucleoside with the side chain -CH 2 OH is condensed at 70 to 120 degC with [ 32 P] or [ 33 P]phosphoric acid in a molar ratio of 100:1 to 400:1 using cyanamide or cyanoguanidine as the condensing agent in the presence of optimal humidity, attained by azeotropic distillation. In the second stage, the deoxynucleoside monophosphate is enzymatically converted to the final product, which is purified by column chromatography on PEI cellulose using NH 4 HCO 3 as the eluting agent. (P.A.)

  1. Eye lens dosimetry for interventional procedures – Relation between the absorbed dose to the lens and dose at measurement positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geber, Therese; Gunnarsson, Mikael; Mattsson, Sören


    This study investigated the relationship between the absorbed dose to the lens of the eye and the absorbed dose at different measurement positions near the eye of interventional radiologists. It also visualised the dose distribution inside the head, both when protective eyewear were used and without such protection. The best position for an eye lens dosimeter was found to be at the side of the head nearest to the radiation source, close to the eye. Positioning the dosimeter at the eyebrow could lead to an underestimation of the lens dose of as much as 45%. The measured dose distribution showed that the absorbed dose to the eye lenses was high compared to the other parts of the head, which stresses the importance of wearing protective eyewear. However, many models of eyewear were found to be deficient as the radiation could slip through at several places, e.g. at the cheek. The relationship between the absorbed dose to the lens and the kerma-area-product (P KA ) delivered to the patient was also studied.

  2. Hospital-based, Multidisciplinary, youth mentoring and medical exposure program positively influences and reinforces health care career choice: "The Reach One Each One Program early Experience". (United States)

    Danner, Omar K; Lokko, Carl; Mobley, Felicia; Dansby, Montreka; Maze, Michael; Bradley, Brene'; Williams, Elizabeth; Matthews, Leslie Ray; Harrington, Emma; Mack, Lisa; Clark, Clarence; Wilson, Ken; Beech, Derrick; Heron, Sheryl; Childs, Ed


    According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, underrepresented minorities (URMs) are more likely to leave science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields at higher rates than their peers during undergraduate studies. Many institutions of higher learning have implemented pipeline programs aimed at preparing and inspiring high school and college aged students in select careers in health sciences with varying levels of success. Research has shown that a health care workforce that mirrors the community they serve is more effective in reducing health disparities and increasing positive health outcomes. We hypothesize that a hospital-based, multidisciplinary youth mentoring and medical exposure program will enhance the decision of URM high school students to choose healthcare careers. A retrospective analysis of the Reach One Each One Program (ROEO) was performed. ROEO is a hospital based, 11-week multidisciplinary youth mentoring and medical exposure program for inner-city high school students. The analysis was based on a phone survey of the twenty-six (26) seniors who completed the program and subsequently graduated from high school between May 2013 and May 2015 to assess the following: 1) College enrollment/attendance, 2) Health profession majors, and 3) Pre-med status. The study was approved by the Morehouse School of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Of the twenty-six students, 23 were female and 3 were male; 25 (96%) of the students were African American and one student was a Caucasian female. Twenty-four (92.3%) of the students were enrolled in college and 2 (7.7%) were scheduled to begin in the spring semester of 2016. Twenty-one of the 24 attending college at the time of the survey (87.5%) were enrolled in a health science degree program and 16 (66.7%) confirmed that they were enrolled in pre-medical (Pre-med) curriculum. Hospital-based, multidisciplinary medical mentoring programs can have a positive impact on the lives and

  3. Impact of Cell-Free Fetal DNA Screening on Patients’ Choice of Invasive Procedures after a Positive California Prenatal Screen Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forum T. Shah


    Full Text Available Until recently, maternal serum analyte levels paired with sonographic fetal nuchal translucency measurement was the most accurate prenatal screen available for Trisomies 18 and 21, (91% and 94% detection and false positive rates of 0.31% and 4.5% respectively. Women with positive California Prenatal Screening Program (CPSP results have the option of diagnostic testing to determine definitively if the fetus has a chromosomal abnormality. Cell-free fetal (cff- DNA screening for Trisomies 13, 18, and 21 was first offered in 2012, allowing women with positive screens to choose additional screening before diagnostic testing. Cff-DNA sensitivity rates are as high as 99.9% and 99.1%, with false positive rates of 0.4% and 0.1%, for Trisomies 18 and 21, respectively. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2012 on 500 CPSP referrals at the University of California, San Diego Thornton Hospital. Data were collected prior to and after the introduction of cff-DNA. There was a significant increase in the number of participants who chose to pursue additional testing and a decrease in the number of invasive procedures performed after cff-DNA screening was available. We conclude that as fetal aneuploidy screening improves, the number of invasive procedures will continue to decrease.

  4. Origins of food reinforcement in infants12345 (United States)

    Kong, Kai Ling; Feda, Denise M; Eiden, Rina D; Epstein, Leonard H


    Background: Rapid weight gain in infancy is associated with a higher risk of obesity in children and adults. A high relative reinforcing value of food is cross-sectionally related to obesity; lean children find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese children. However, to our knowledge, there is no research on how and when food reinforcement develops. Objective: This study was designed to assess whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives could be tested in 9- to 18-mo-old infants and whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives is differentially related to infant weight status. Design: Reinforcing values were assessed by using absolute progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, with presentation of food and nonfood alternatives counterbalanced in 2 separate studies. Two nonfood reinforcers [Baby Einstein–Baby MacDonald shows (study 1, n = 27) or bubbles (study 2, n = 30)] were tested against the baby’s favorite food. Food reinforcing ratio (FRR) was quantified by measuring the reinforcing value of food (Food Pmax) in proportion to the total reinforcing value of food and a nonfood alternative (DVD Pmax or BUB Pmax). Results: Greater weight-for-length z score was associated with a greater FRR of a favorite food in study 1 (FRR-DVD) (r = 0.60, P positively associated with FRR-DVD (r = 0.57, P = 0.009) and FRR-BUB (r = 0.37, P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our newly developed paradigm, which tested 2 different nonfood alternatives, demonstrated that lean infants find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese infants. This observation suggests that strengthening the alternative reinforcers may have a protective effect against childhood obesity. This research was registered at as NCT02229552. PMID:25733636

  5. Microbiological method for radiation sterilization (II). Identification procedure of gram positive bacteria by using BBL CRYSTAL GP identification kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko


    The part II in this title series describes details of the commercially available BBL CRYSTAL GP Identification Kit with the software (Becton, Dickinson and Co., Ltd.), by which identification of Gram positive bacteria as well as their number becoming easier in the radiation sterilization of medical devices. Isolation of a bacterium has to be confirmed by microscopy and its Gram positive property, by the Gram staining. The exponentially growing bacteria are to be inoculated in the Kit and cultured for 18-24 hr at 37 deg C with the lid attached by substrates for identification. Reactions to substrates are to be judged by CRYSTAL auto-reader, which is further to be searched by the computer software (code-book) for final identification. For possible misidentification, re-isolation of the bacterium, prolonged culture, concentrated inoculation and re-consideration for ranking of identification the software provides are necessary as well as other identification approaches. Representative bacteria as the bioburden are spp. of Bacilli, Corynebacteria, Staphylococci and Micrococci. (N.I.)

  6. Immediate placement and provisionalization of maxillary anterior single implant with guided bone regeneration, connective tissue graft, and coronally positioned flap procedures. (United States)

    Waki, Tomonori; Kan, Joseph Y K


    Immediate implant placement and provisionalization in the esthetic zone have been documented with success. The benefit of immediate implant placement and provisionalization is the preservation of papillary mucosa. However, in cases with osseous defects presenting on the facial bony plate, immediate implant placement procedures have resulted in facial gingival recession. Subepithelial connective tissue grafts for immediate implant placement and provisionalization procedures have been reported with a good esthetic outcome. Biotype conversion around implants with subepithelial connective tissue grafts have been advocated, and the resulting tissues appear to be more resistant to recession. The dimensions of peri-implant mucosa in a thick biotype were significantly greater than in a thin biotype. Connective tissue graft with coronally positioned flap procedures on natural teeth has also been documented with success. This article describes a technique combining immediate implant placement, provisionalization, guided bone regeneration (GBR), connective tissue graft, and a coronally positioned flap in order to achieve more stable peri-implant tissue in facial osseous defect situations.




    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.


    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits

  9. The impact of initialization procedures on unsupervised unmixing of hyperspectral imagery using the constrained positive matrix factorization (United States)

    Masalmah, Yahya M.; Vélez-Reyes, Miguel


    The authors proposed in previous papers the use of the constrained Positive Matrix Factorization (cPMF) to perform unsupervised unmixing of hyperspectral imagery. Two iterative algorithms were proposed to compute the cPMF based on the Gauss-Seidel and penalty approaches to solve optimization problems. Results presented in previous papers have shown the potential of the proposed method to perform unsupervised unmixing in HYPERION and AVIRIS imagery. The performance of iterative methods is highly dependent on the initialization scheme. Good initialization schemes can improve convergence speed, whether or not a global minimum is found, and whether or not spectra with physical relevance are retrieved as endmembers. In this paper, different initializations using random selection, longest norm pixels, and standard endmembers selection routines are studied and compared using simulated and real data.

  10. A simple procedure to analyze positions of interest in infectious cell cultures by correlative light and electron microscopy. (United States)

    Madela, Kazimierz; Banhart, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Anja; Piesker, Janett; Bannert, Norbert; Laue, Michael


    Plastic cell culture dishes that contain a thin bottom of highest optical quality including an imprinted finder grid (μ-Dish Grid-500) are optimally suited for routine correlative light and electron microscopy using chemical fixation. Such dishes allow high-resolution fluorescence and bright-field imaging using fixed and living cells and are compatible with standard protocols for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Ease of use during cell culture and imaging, as well as a tight cover render the dishes particularly suitable for working with infectious organisms up to the highest biosafety level. Detailed protocols are provided and demonstrated by showing two examples: monitoring the production of virus-like particles of the Human Endogenous Retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) by HeLa cells and investigation of Rab11-positive membrane-compartments of HeLa cells after infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal expansion of fibre-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.


    The integral thermal expansion and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon and Kevlar fibre-reinforced composites were measured with high accuracy from 5 K to room temperature. For this, a laser dilatometer and a sophisticated measuring procedure were used. CTE dependence on the orientation angle ω of angle-ply laminates was determined for samples with 5 different fibre alignments (UD 0deg, +/-30deg, +/-45deg, +/-60deg and UD 90deg). A high variability of the CTE with the orientation angle was shown. At angles of approximately +/-30deg even negative CTEs were found. With suitable reinforcing fibres being selected, their absolute values rose up to 30-100% of the positive CTEs of metals. Hence, composites of this type would be suitable as compensating materials in metal constructions where little thermal expansion is desired. To check the lamination theory, theoretical computations of the CTE- ω -dependence were compared with the measured values. An excellent agreement was found. Using the lamination theory, predictions about the expansion behaviour of angle-ply laminates can be made now, if the thermal and mechanical properties of the unidirectional (UD) laminate are known. Furthermore, it is possible to carry out simulation computations aimed at investigating the influence of a single parameter of the UD-laminate (e.g. shear modulus) on the expansion of the angle-ply laminate. (orig.) [de

  12. Axial Compression Tests on Corroded Reinforced Concrete Columns Consolidated with Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ding


    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structure featured by strong bearing capacity, high rigidity, good integrity, good fire resistance, and extensive applicability occupies a mainstream position in contemporary architecture. However, with the development of social economy, people need higher requirements on architectural structure; durability, especially, has been extensively researched. Because of the higher requirement on building material, ordinary reinforced concrete structure has not been able to satisfy the demand. As a result, some new materials and structures have emerged, for example, fibre reinforced polymers. Compared to steel reinforcement, fibre reinforced polymers have many advantages, such as high tensile strength, good durability, good shock absorption, low weight, and simple construction. The application of fibre reinforced polymers in architectural structure can effectively improve the durability of the concrete structure and lower the maintenance, reinforcement, and construction costs in severe environments. Based on the concepts of steel tube concrete, fibre reinforced composite material confined concrete, and fibre reinforced composite material tubed concrete, this study proposes a novel composite structure, i.e., fibre reinforced composite material and steel tube concrete composite structure. The structure was developed by pasting fibre around steel tube concrete and restraining core concrete using fibre reinforced composite material and steel tubes. The bearing capacity and ultimate deformation capacity of the structure was tested using column axial compression test.

  13. Reinforcement Schedules in a Verbal Reinforcement Combination and Renection-Impulsivity


    TAMASE, Koji; UEDA, Masako


    It was predicted that higher proportion of the negative reinforcement "Wrong" than that of the positive reinforcement "Right" in a reinforcement combination will produce higher proportion of the correct response and this trend will be greater in reflective children than in impulsive children. From 140 kindergarten children 30 reflective and 30 impulsive children were selected and they were given a two-hole marble-dropping task. The best performance in the ratio of correct responses was obtain...

  14. Experimental Validation of an Efficient Fan-Beam Calibration Procedure for k-Nearest Neighbor Position Estimation in Monolithic Scintillator Detectors (United States)

    Borghi, Giacomo; Tabacchini, Valerio; Seifert, Stefan; Schaart, Dennis R.


    Monolithic scintillator detectors can achieve excellent spatial resolution and coincidence resolving time. However, their practical use for positron emission tomography (PET) and other applications in the medical imaging field is still limited due to drawbacks of the different methods used to estimate the position of interaction. Common statistical methods for example require the collection of an extensive dataset of reference events with a narrow pencil beam aimed at a fine grid of reference positions. Such procedures are time consuming and not straightforwardly implemented in systems composed of many detectors. Here, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a new calibration procedure for k-nearest neighbor ( k-NN) position estimation that utilizes reference data acquired with a fan beam. The procedure is tested on two detectors consisting of 16 mm ×16 mm ×10 mm and 16 mm ×16 mm ×20 mm monolithic, Ca-codoped LSO:Ce crystals and digital photon counter (DPC) arrays. For both detectors, the spatial resolution and the bias obtained with the new method are found to be practically the same as those obtained with the previously used method based on pencil-beam irradiation, while the calibration time is reduced by a factor of 20. Specifically, a FWHM of 1.1 mm and a FWTM of 2.7 mm were obtained using the fan-beam method with the 10 mm crystal, whereas a FWHM of 1.5 mm and a FWTM of 6 mm were achieved with the 20 mm crystal. Using a fan beam made with a 4.5 MBq 22Na point-source and a tungsten slit collimator with 0.5 mm aperture, the total measurement time needed to acquire the reference dataset was 3 hours for the thinner crystal and 2 hours for the thicker one.

  15. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  16. Adapting without reinforcement. (United States)

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C Randy


    Our data rule out a broad class of behavioral models in which behavioral change is guided by differential reinforcement. To demonstrate this, we showed that the number of reinforcers missed before the subject shifted its behavior was not sufficient to drive behavioral change. What's more, many subjects shifted their behavior to a more optimal strategy even when they had not yet missed a single reinforcer. Naturally, differential reinforcement cannot be said to drive a process that shifts to accommodate to new conditions so adeptly that it doesn't miss a single reinforcer: it would have no input on which to base this shift.

  17. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin G. Garner


    Full Text Available Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved.

  18. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement (United States)

    Goulet, Benjamin E.


    Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved. PMID:29614048

  19. The critical dimensions of the response-reinforcer contingency. (United States)

    Williams, B A.


    Two major dimensions of any contingency of reinforcement are the temporal relation between a response and its reinforcer, and the relative frequency of the reinforcer given the response versus when the response has not occurred. Previous data demonstrate that time, per se, is not sufficient to explain the effects of delay-of-reinforcement procedures; needed in addition is some account of the events occurring in the delay interval. Moreover, the effects of the same absolute time values vary greatly across situations, such that any notion of a standard delay-of-reinforcement gradient is simplistic. The effects of reinforcers occurring in the absence of a response depend critically upon the stimulus conditions paired with those reinforcers, in much the same manner as has been shown with Pavlovian contingency effects. However, it is unclear whether the underlying basis of such effects is response competition or changes in the calculus of causation.

  20. Reinforcement learning in supply chains. (United States)

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M


    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  1. [Renal denervation for the treatment of resistant hypertension: definition, patient selection and description of the procedure. 2012 Position paper of the Italian Society of Hypertension]. (United States)

    Volpe, Massimo; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Ambrosioni, Ettore; Cottone, Santina; Cuspidi, Cesare; Borghi, Claudio; De Luca, Nicola; Fallo, Francesco; Ferri, Claudio; Mancia, Giuseppe; Morganti, Alberto; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Sarzani, Riccardo; Sechi, Leonardo; Tocci, Giuliano; Virdis, Agostino


    Hypertension is responsible for a relevant burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although several appropriate and integrated pharmacological strategies are available, blood pressure control still remains largely unsatisfactory. Failure to achieve effective blood pressure control in treated hypertensive patients may have a substantial impact on overall cardiovascular risk, since it significantly increases the risk of both macrovascular and microvascular complications. Hypertension is arbitrarily defined as "resistant" or "refractory" when recommended blood pressure goals (clinic blood pressure hypertension has recently become available. Renal sympathetic denervation is a minimally invasive procedure performed via femoral access that uses radiofrequency catheter ablation to disable renal sympathetic afferent and efferent nerves. It results in isolation of renal parenchymal and juxtaglomerular cells from the abnormal enhancement of renal adrenergic nerve activity. The present position paper of the Italian Society of Hypertension provides a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to the early identification and effective clinical management of patients with resistant hypertension, who may be candidates for renal denervation. These indications may have important implications not only from a clinical viewpoint but also from an economic perspective. The accurate identification of patients with resistant hypertension and the appropriate selection of patients eligible for this procedure may help improve blood pressure control and reduce the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications in these patients.

  2. Mathematical modeling of deformation of reinforced femur during prolonged static loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Radchenko


    Full Text Available A two-layer mathematical model of a human femur neck reinforced implants of different design for modeling stress-strain state which occurs during a surgical procedure to prevent femur neck fractures by the forced introduction of metallic implants is proposed. Engineered implant designs are provided. Methods and software for geometric modeling of femur embedded with the implants are developed. New boundary value problems to evaluate kinetics in creep conditions of the stress-strain state of reinforced and non-reinforced femoral neck during prolonged static loads corresponding to human foot traffic are formulated. Effective elastic properties of cortical and cancellous bone, power and kinematic boundary value problems. A phenomenological creep model for compact bone tissue is constructed. The technique of identifying the parameters is developed. A check of its adequacy to experimental data is carried out. Based on the finite element method the numerical method for solving the provided boundary value problems at macro level of continuum mechanics is developed. A lot of variative calculations allowed developing recommendations for the rational positioning of the implant in order to minimize stress concentrations. The performed analysis showed that there is a significant relaxation of stresses in the most loaded areas due to creep. Relaxation is more intense in reinforced femoral neck than in the unreinforced. Thus the tension in the most loaded femoral neck area due to creep is reduced by 49 % with respect to the intensity of the initial time of loading for femur which is reinforced by the spoke-spoke-type implant when loading duration is 1 year under natural loads corresponding to human foot traffic. It was found that the time component (long-term fixed load does not impair the positive effect of reducing the stress concentration due to a femoral neck reinforcement which is a positive fact from the medical practice point of view.

  3. Comparison of measurement methods with a mixed effects procedure accounting for replicated evaluations (COM3PARE): method comparison algorithm implementation for head and neck IGRT positional verification. (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; Fuller, Clifton D; Rosenthal, David I; Thomas, Charles R


    Comparison of imaging measurement devices in the absence of a gold-standard comparator remains a vexing problem; especially in scenarios where multiple, non-paired, replicated measurements occur, as in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). As the number of commercially available IGRT presents a challenge to determine whether different IGRT methods may be used interchangeably, an unmet need conceptually parsimonious and statistically robust method to evaluate the agreement between two methods with replicated observations. Consequently, we sought to determine, using an previously reported head and neck positional verification dataset, the feasibility and utility of a Comparison of Measurement Methods with the Mixed Effects Procedure Accounting for Replicated Evaluations (COM3PARE), a unified conceptual schema and analytic algorithm based upon Roy's linear mixed effects (LME) model with Kronecker product covariance structure in a doubly multivariate set-up, for IGRT method comparison. An anonymized dataset consisting of 100 paired coordinate (X/ measurements from a sequential series of head and neck cancer patients imaged near-simultaneously with cone beam CT (CBCT) and kilovoltage X-ray (KVX) imaging was used for model implementation. Software-suggested CBCT and KVX shifts for the lateral (X), vertical (Y) and longitudinal (Z) dimensions were evaluated for bias, inter-method (between-subject variation), intra-method (within-subject variation), and overall agreement using with a script implementing COM3PARE with the MIXED procedure of the statistical software package SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). COM3PARE showed statistically significant bias agreement and difference in inter-method between CBCT and KVX was observed in the Z-axis (both p - value<0.01). Intra-method and overall agreement differences were noted as statistically significant for both the X- and Z-axes (all p - value<0.01). Using pre-specified criteria, based on intra-method agreement, CBCT was deemed

  4. Online Coaching of Emotion-Regulation Strategies for Parents: Efficacy of the Online Rational Positive Parenting Program and Attention Bias Modification Procedures. (United States)

    David, Oana A; Capris, David; Jarda, Alexandra


    Parenting programs are currently treatment of choice for behavioral disorders in children and one of their main components is reducing the negativity bias in the child-parent dyad. The Rational Positive Parenting Program (rPPP) is a program with a special focus on parent emotion-regulation functional reappraisal strategies, which has recently received consistent support for reducing child externalizing and internalizing disorders. In the last years, online interventions were proliferated and the Attention Bias Modification (ABM) becoming a promising implicit therapeutic intervention based on attention deployment emotion-regulation strategy, or adjunctive module to usual treatments, with results in multiple domains, varying from pain to self-esteem and emotional disorders (e.g., anxiety). We conducted two studies to investigate (1) the efficacy of the ABM procedures applied to parents and (2) the efficacy of the online version of the rPPP augmented with an ABM module. A total of 42 parents of children aged 2-12 years old participated in the first study, being allocated either to the ABM training or wait-list. Positive results were reported by the parents participating in the ABM group for own distress, satisfaction, positive interactions with the child, and child's strengths. In the second study, 53 parents and their children were allocated either in the rPPP group or in the rPPP + ABM group. Results show that ABM training can boost the effects of the rPPP on the strengths of children reported by the parents after the intervention. Findings are discussed in the light of limited research on using online tools for coaching effective emotion-regulation strategies for parents.

  5. Steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes: part 1: technological analysis of the mechanical behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available This paper is the first part of an extensive work focusing the technological development of steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes (FRCP. Here is presented and discussed the experimental campaign focusing the test procedure and the mechanical behavior obtained for each of the dosages of fiber used. In the second part ("Steel fiber reinforced concrete pipes. Part 2: Numerical model to simulate the crushing test", the aspects of FRCP numerical modeling are presented and analyzed using the same experimental results in order to be validated. This study was carried out trying to reduce some uncertainties related to FRCP performance and provide a better condition to the use of these components. In this respect, an experimental study was carried out using sewage concrete pipes in full scale as specimens. The diameter of the specimens was 600 mm, and they had a length of 2500 mm. The pipes were reinforced with traditional bars and different contents of steel fibers in order to compare their performance through the crushing test. Two test procedures were used in that sense. In the 1st Series, the diameter displacement was monitored by the use of two LVDTs positioned at both extremities of the pipes. In the 2nd Series, just one LVDT is positioned at the spigot. The results shown a more rigidity response of the pipe during tests when the displacements were measured at the enlarged section of the socket. The fiber reinforcement was very effective, especially when low level of displacement was imposed to the FRCP. At this condition, the steel fibers showed an equivalent performance to superior class pipes made with traditional reinforced. The fiber content of 40 kg/m3 provided a hardening behavior for the FRCP, and could be considered as equivalent to the critical volume in this condition.

  6. Topology Optimization for Conceptual Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Bogomolny, Michael


    Design of reinforced concrete structures is governed by the nonlinear behavior of concrete and by its dierent strengths in tension and compression. The purpose of this article is to present a computational procedure for optimal conceptual design of reinforced concrete structures, based on topology...... must be consid- ered. Optimized distribution of material is achieved by introducing interpolation rules for both elastic and plastic material properties. Several numerical examples illustrate the capability and potential of the proposed procedure....

  7. Influence of reinforcement on strains within maxillary implant overdentures. (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihito; Gonda, Tomoya; Maeda, Yoshinobu


    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of reinforcement of an embedded cast on the strains within maxillary implant overdentures. A maxillary edentulous model with implants placed bilaterally in the canine positions, dome-shaped copings, and experimental overdentures was fabricated. Rosette-type strain gauges were attached in the canine positions and at three points along the midline of the polished surface of the denture and connected to the sensor interface controlled by a personal computer. Experimental dentures with five different reinforcements were tested: without reinforcement; with a cast cobalt-chrome reinforcement over the residual ridge and the tops of the copings; with the same reinforcement from first molar to first molar, over the residual ridge and the tops of the copings; with the same reinforcement over the residual ridge and the sides of the copings; and with the same reinforcement from first molar to first molar, over the residual ridge and the sides of the copings. A vertical occlusal load of 49 N was applied to the first premolar and then to the first molar, and the strains were measured and compared by analysis of variance. In both loading situations, significantly less strain was recorded in dentures with reinforcement than in those without reinforcement. When the first premolar was loaded on dentures with and without palatal reinforcement at the first premolars, the strains on the denture with reinforcement over the tops of the copings were significantly lower than on the denture with reinforcement over the sides of the copings at the canine position. Cast reinforcement over the residual ridge and the top of copings embedded in an acrylic base reduced the strain from occlusal stress on maxillary implant overdentures.

  8. Caffeine Reinforces Flavor Preference and Behavior in Moderate Users but Not in Low Caffeine Users (United States)

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil


    The study examined the role of caffeine consumption in caffeine reinforcement. Previous findings have shown that caffeine reinforced flavor preference in moderate caffeine consumers who are caffeine deprived. However, most of these studies have employed rating procedures only, and have not shown the effectiveness of caffeine to reinforce behaviors…

  9. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Szepesvari, Csaba


    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  10. Modeling reinforced concrete durability. (United States)


    This project developed a next-generation modeling approach for projecting the extent of : reinforced concrete corrosion-related damage, customized for new and existing Florida Department of : Transportation bridges and suitable for adapting to broade...

  11. Identifying the Intersection of Alcohol, Adherence and Sex in HIV Positive Men on ART Treatment in India Using an Adapted Timeline Followback Procedure. (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J; Ha, Toan; Schensul, Stephen; Sarna, Avina; Bryant, Kendall


    People living with HIV (PLHIV) on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) who drink are less adherent and more likely to engage in unprotected sex but the connections among these events are correlational. Using an adapted Timeline Follow-Back (A-TLFB) procedure, this paper examines the day by day interface of alcohol, medication adherence and sex to provide a fine grained understanding of how multiple behavioral risks coincide in time and space, explores concordance/discordance of measures with survey data and identifies potential recall bias. Data are drawn from a survey of behavior, knowledge and attitudes, and a 30 day TLFB assessment of multiple risk behaviors adapted for the Indian PLHIV context, administered to 940 alcohol-consuming, HIV positive men on ART at the baseline evaluation stage of a multilevel, multi-centric intervention study. On days participants drank they were significantly more likely to be medication non-adherent and to have unprotected sex. In the first day after their alcohol consuming day, the pattern of nonadherence persisted. Binge and regular drinking days were associated with nonadherence but only binge drinking co-occurred with unprotected sex. Asking about specific "drinking days" improved recall for drinking days and number of drinks consumed. Recall declined for both drinking days and nonadherence from the first week to subsequent weeks but varied randomly for sex risk. There was high concordance and low discordance between A-TLFB drinking and nonadherence but these results were reversed for unprotected sex. Moving beyond simple drinking-adherence correlational analysis, the A-TLFB offers improved recall probes and provides researchers and interventionists with the opportunity to identify types of risky days and tailor behavioral modification to reduce alcohol consumption, nonadherence and risky sex on those days.

  12. The Effects of Variable-Time Delivery of Food Items and Praise on Problem Behavior Reinforced by Escape (United States)

    Lomas, Joanna E.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Kelley, Michael E.


    Prior research indicates that reinforcement of an appropriate response (e.g., compliance) can produce concomitant reductions in problem behavior reinforced by escape when problem behavior continues to produce negative reinforcement (e.g., Lalli et al., 1999). These effects may be due to a preference for positive over negative reinforcement or to…

  13. Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Tavares

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.

  14. Assessing appetitive, aversive, and negative ethanol-mediated reinforcement through an immature rat model. (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E


    The motivational effects of drugs play a key role during the transition from casual use to abuse and dependence. Ethanol reinforcement has been successfully studied through Pavlovian and operant conditioning in adult rats and mice genetically selected for their ready acceptance of ethanol. Another model for studying ethanol reinforcement is the immature (preweanling) rat, which consumes ethanol and exhibits the capacity to process tactile, odor and taste cues and transfer information between different sensorial modalities. This review describes the motivational effects of ethanol in preweanling, heterogeneous non-selected rats. Preweanlings exhibit ethanol-mediated conditioned taste avoidance and conditioned place aversion. Ethanol's appetitive effects, however, are evident when using first- and second-order conditioning and operant procedures. Ethanol also devalues the motivational representation of aversive stimuli, suggesting early negative reinforcement. It seems that preweanlings are highly sensitive not only to the aversive motivational effects of ethanol but also to its positive and negative (anti-anxiety) reinforcement potential. The review underscores the advantages of using a developing rat to evaluate alcohol's motivational effects.

  15. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.


    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  16. The profound effects of patient arm positioning on organ doses from CT procedures calculated using Monte Carlo simulations and deformable phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haikuan; Gao, Yiming; Ding, Aiping; Caracappa, Peter F.; George Xu, X.


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the organ dose differences caused by the arms-raised and arms-lowered postures for multidetector computed tomography procedures. Organ doses were calculated using computational phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations. The arm position in two previously developed adult male and female human phantoms was adjusted to represent 'raised' and 'lowered' postures using advanced BREP-based mesh surface geometries. Organ doses from routine computed tomography (CT) scan protocols, including the chest, abdomen-pelvis, and chest-abdomen-pelvis scans, were simulated at various tube voltages and reported in the unit of mGy per 100 mAs. The CT scanner model was based on previously tested work. The differences in organ dose per unit tube current between raised and lowered arm postures were studied. Furthermore, the differences due to the tube current modulation (TCM) for these two different postures and their impact on organ doses were also investigated. For a given scan parameter, a patient having lowered arms received smaller doses to organs located within the chest, abdomen or pelvis when compared with the patient having raised arms. As expected, this is caused by the attenuation of the primary X rays by the arms. However, the skin doses and bone surface doses in the patient having lowered arms were found to be 3.97-32.12 % larger than those in a patient having raised arms due to the fact that more skin and spongiosa were covered in the scan range when the arms are lowered. This study also found that dose differences become smaller with the increase in tube voltage for most of organs or tissues except the skin. For example, the liver dose differences decreased from -15.01 to -11.33 % whereas the skin dose differences increased from 21.53 to 25.24 % with tube voltage increased from 80 to 140 kVp. With TCM applied, the organ doses of all the listed organs in patient having lowered arms are larger due to the additional tube

  17. Braided reinforced composite rods for the internal reinforcement of concrete (United States)

    Gonilho Pereira, C.; Fangueiro, R.; Jalali, S.; Araujo, M.; Marques, P.


    This paper reports on the development of braided reinforced composite rods as a substitute for the steel reinforcement in concrete. The research work aims at understanding the mechanical behaviour of core-reinforced braided fabrics and braided reinforced composite rods, namely concerning the influence of the braiding angle, the type of core reinforcement fibre, and preloading and postloading conditions. The core-reinforced braided fabrics were made from polyester fibres for producing braided structures, and E-glass, carbon, HT polyethylene, and sisal fibres were used for the core reinforcement. The braided reinforced composite rods were obtained by impregnating the core-reinforced braided fabric with a vinyl ester resin. The preloading of the core-reinforced braided fabrics and the postloading of the braided reinforced composite rods were performed in three and two stages, respectively. The results of tensile tests carried out on different samples of core-reinforced braided fabrics are presented and discussed. The tensile and bending properties of the braided reinforced composite rods have been evaluated, and the results obtained are presented, discussed, and compared with those of conventional materials, such as steel.

  18. Effects of reinforcer magnitude on responding under differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedules of rats and pigeons. (United States)

    Doughty, Adam H; Richards, Jerry B


    Experiment I investigated the effects of reinforcer magnitude on differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedule performance in three phases. In Phase 1, two groups of rats (n = 6 and 5) responded under a DRI. 72-s schedule with reinforcer magnitudes of either 30 or 300 microl of water. After acquisition, the water amounts were reversed for each rat. In Phase 2, the effects of the same reinforcer magnitudes on DRL 18-s schedule performance were examined across conditions. In Phase 3, each rat responded unider a DR1. 18-s schedule in which the water amotnts alternated between 30 and 300 microl daily. Throughout each phase of Experiment 1, the larger reinforcer magnitude resulted in higher response rates and lower reinforcement rates. The peak of the interresponse-time distributions was at a lower value tinder the larger reinforcer magnitude. In Experiment 2, 3 pigeons responded under a DRL 20-s schedule in which reinforcer magnitude (1-s or 6-s access to grain) varied iron session to session. Higher response rates and lower reinforcement rates occurred tinder the longer hopper duration. These results demonstrate that larger reinforcer magnitudes engender less efficient DRL schedule performance in both rats and pigeons, and when reinforcer magnitude was held constant between sessions or was varied daily. The present results are consistent with previous research demonstrating a decrease in efficiency as a function of increased reinforcer magnituide tinder procedures that require a period of time without a specified response. These findings also support the claim that DRI. schedule performance is not governed solely by a timing process.

  19. Soil reinforcement with geosynthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha


    Full Text Available The proportionality of existence of land with good bearing to erect any building or building is very small, to remedy this deficiency it is necessary to resort to techniques of reinforcement of the soils which can constitute a very important development. Among these methods of remediation, there is reinforcement by the geosynthetics which constitute an effective solution to these constraints. This process tends to stabilize the soil in question with increased load bearing capacity in civil engineering and geotechnical works such as embankments, slopes, embankments and hydraulic structures, with an inestimable gain in time, economy and durability while preserving the natural and environmental aspect.

  20. Design of reinforced concrete members based on structural mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, B.E.; Schulz, M.


    Up to now the design of reinforced concrete linear members is performed with the help of an inconsistent design theory, which nevertherless is sufficiently safe and simple to be used in the practice. The purpose of this paper is to present a rational reinforced concrete design method which is not too dissimilar to the present design rules, but is capable of defining consistently internal stresses along a reinforced concrete section. The present status of the completed computer procedures allows the analysis of linear reinforced concrete members formed by laminar reinforced concrete plates presenting variable thickness. A practical approach is presented for which the concrete and steel section is constant along the member axis. In this case, the concept of the equivalent section is introduced, which allows a simple analysis of the stress pattern along the member section. (Author) [pt

  1. Development of the experimental procedure to examine the response of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites subjected to a high-intensity pulsed electric field and low-velocity impact. (United States)

    Hart, Robert J; Zhupanska, Olesya I


    A new fully automated experimental setup has been developed to study the response of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites subjected to a high-intensity pulsed electric field and low-velocity impact. The experimental setup allows for real-time measurements of the pulsed electric current, voltage, impact load, and displacements on the CFRP composite specimens. The setup includes a new custom-built current pulse generator that utilizes a bank of capacitor modules capable of producing a 20 ms current pulse with an amplitude of up to 2500 A. The setup enabled application of the pulsed current and impact load and successfully achieved coordination between the peak of the current pulse and the peak of the impact load. A series of electrical, impact, and coordinated electrical-impact characterization tests were performed on 32-ply IM7/977-3 unidirectional CFRP composites to assess their ability to withstand application of a pulsed electric current and determine the effects of the pulsed current on the impact response. Experimental results revealed that the electrical resistance of CFRP composites decreased with an increase in the electric current magnitude. It was also found that the electrified CFRP specimens withstood higher average impact loads compared to the non-electrified specimens.

  2. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail


    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  3. Study of the stress-strain state of compressed concrete elements with composite reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Yurii


    Full Text Available The efficiency analysis of the application of glass composite reinforcement in compressed concrete elements as a load-carrying component has been performed. The results of experimental studies of the deformation-strength characteristics of this reinforcement on compression and compressed concrete cylinders reinforced by this reinforcement are presented. The results of tests and mechanisms of sample destruction have been analyzed. The numerical analysis of the stress-strain state has been performed for axial compression of concrete elements with glasscomposite reinforcement. The influence of the reinforcement percentage on the stressed state of a concrete compressed element with the noted reinforcement is estimated. On the basis of the obtained results, it is established that the glass-composite reinforcement has positive effect on the strength of the compressed concrete elements. That is, when calculating the load-bearing capacity of such structures, the function of composite reinforcement on compression should not be neglected.

  4. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency. (United States)

    Sidman, M


    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  5. Brain network response underlying decisions about abstract reinforcers. (United States)

    Mills-Finnerty, Colleen; Hanson, Catherine; Hanson, Stephen Jose


    Decision making studies typically use tasks that involve concrete action-outcome contingencies, in which subjects do something and get something. No studies have addressed decision making involving abstract reinforcers, where there are no action-outcome contingencies and choices are entirely hypothetical. The present study examines these kinds of choices, as well as whether the same biases that exist for concrete reinforcer decisions, specifically framing effects, also apply during abstract reinforcer decisions. We use both General Linear Model as well as Bayes network connectivity analysis using the Independent Multi-sample Greedy Equivalence Search (IMaGES) algorithm to examine network response underlying choices for abstract reinforcers under positive and negative framing. We find for the first time that abstract reinforcer decisions activate the same network of brain regions as concrete reinforcer decisions, including the striatum, insula, anterior cingulate, and VMPFC, results that are further supported via comparison to a meta-analysis of decision making studies. Positive and negative framing activated different parts of this network, with stronger activation in VMPFC during negative framing and in DLPFC during positive, suggesting different decision making pathways depending on frame. These results were further clarified using connectivity analysis, which revealed stronger connections between anterior cingulate, insula, and accumbens during negative framing compared to positive. Taken together, these results suggest that not only do abstract reinforcer decisions rely on the same brain substrates as concrete reinforcers, but that the response underlying framing effects on abstract reinforcers also resemble those for concrete reinforcers, specifically increased limbic system connectivity during negative frames. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing Different Classes of Reinforcement to Increase Expressive Language for Individuals with Autism (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dale, Stephanie; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen H.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John J.; Leaf, Ronald B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.


    One of the basic principles of applied behavior analysis is that behavior change is largely due to that behavior being reinforced. Therefore the use of positive reinforcement is a key component of most behavioral programs for individuals diagnosed with autism. In this study we compared four different classes of reinforcers (i.e., food, praise,…

  7. Turbomachine blade reinforcement (United States)

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose


    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system having a turbomachine blade segment including a blade and a mounting segment coupled to the blade, wherein the mounting segment has a plurality of reinforcement pins laterally extending at least partially through a neck of the mounting segment.

  8. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent


    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  9. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy (United States)

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany


    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  10. Improved monolithic reinforced concrete construction for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, P.; Fischer, K.


    Experience has shown that in applying monolithic reinforced concrete in nuclear power plant construction the following auxiliary means are useful: measuring sheets in assembling, welding gauges for reaching high tolerance accuracies of prefabricated reinforced concrete members, suitable lining materials, formwork anchorage and formwork release agents, concrete workability agents, mechanized procedures for finishing and assembling. These means were successfully tested in constructing the Greifswald nuclear power station

  11. Monitoring device for reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Tetsuo; Saito, Koichi; Furukawa, Hideyasu.


    A reactor container made of reinforced concretes is monitored for the temperature at each of portions upon placing concretes under construction of a plant, upon pressure-proof test and during plant operation. That is, optical fibers are uniformly laid spirally throughout the inside of the concretes. Pulses are injected from one end of the optical fibers, and the temperature at a reflection point can be measured by measuring specific rays (Raman scattering rays) among lights reflected after a predetermined period of time. According to the present invention, measurement for an optional position within a range where one fiber cable is laid can be conducted. Accordingly, it is possible to conduct temperature control upon concrete placing and apply temperature compensation for the measurement for stresses of the concretes and the reinforcing steels upon container pressure-proof. Further, during plant operation, if the temperature of the concretes rises due to thermal conduction of the temperature in the container, integrity of the concretes can be ensured by a countermeasures such as air conditioning. (I.S.)

  12. The Reinforcing Event (RE) Menu (United States)

    Addison, Roger M.; Homme, Lloyd E.


    A motivational system, the Contingency Management System, uses contracts in which some amount of defined task behavior is demanded for some interval of reinforcing event. The Reinforcing Event Menu, a list of high probability reinforcing behaviors, is used in the system as a prompting device for the learner and as an aid for the administrator in…

  13. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.


    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  14. Autoshaping Chicks with Heat Reinforcement: The Role of Stimulus-Reinforcer and Response-Reinforcer Relations (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; And Others


    The present series of experiments attempted to analyze more fully the contributions of stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relations to autoshaping within a single conditioning situation. (Author)

  15. Study on reinforced concrete beams with helical transverse reinforcement (United States)

    Kaarthik Krishna, N.; Sandeep, S.; Mini, K. M.


    In a Reinforced Concrete (R.C) structure, major reinforcement is used for taking up tensile stresses acting on the structure due to applied loading. The present paper reports the behavior of reinforced concrete beams with helical reinforcement (transverse reinforcement) subjected to monotonous loading by 3-point flexure test. The results were compared with identically similar reinforced concrete beams with rectangular stirrups. During the test crack evolution, load carrying capacity and deflection of the beams were monitored, analyzed and compared. Test results indicate that the use of helical reinforcement provides enhanced load carrying capacity and a lower deflection proving to be more ductile, clearly indicating the advantage in carrying horizontal loads. An analysis was also carried out using ANSYS software in order to compare the test results of both the beams.

  16. Degradation of Waterfront Reinforced Concrete Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Degradation, reinforced concrete, Dar es Salaam port. Abstract—One of the ... especially corrosion of the reinforcement. ... Corrosion of steel reinforcement contributes .... cracks along the line of reinforcement bars and most of the ...

  17. Reproducibility of the interpretation of coronal 3D ultrasound view of the uterus to evaluate the position of Essure® 3 months after hysteroscopic procedure. (United States)

    Capmas, P; Letendre, I; Levaillant, J-M; Fuchs, F; Panel, P; Chambon, G; Villefranque, V; Levy-Zauberman, Y; Fernandez, H


    Three-dimensional sonography is a good alternative method to assess the position of microinserts. Adequate position after three months allows for the interruption of other contraception. Objective is to evaluate inter-observer reproducibility of the interpretation of coronal transvaginal 3D ultrasound view of the uterus to evaluate the position of Essure ® . Inter-observer reproducibility study. Fifty women underwent successful bilateral placement of microinserts (Essure ® ) by hysteroscopy in the Department of Gynaecology of a teaching hospital and were included in the study. At three month, 3D ultrasound coronal views of the fifty uterus (accounting for one hundred microinserts) were assessed by five different observers and microinsert position was classified according to the classification described by Legendre et al. Inter-observer reproducibility in reading the 3D coronal view of the uterus was evaluated. The k-value was disparate, from 0.26 to 0.82. Inter-observer reproducibility then ranged from fair to almost perfect, depending on a prior knowledge of the position classification. Transvaginal 3D coronal view of the uterus is sufficient to assess the positioning of the microinserts when the practionner or the surgeon is familiar with the classification method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Reinforcement for overdentures on abutment teeth]. (United States)

    Osada, Tomoko


    This study investigated the effect of the position of reinforcement wires, differences in artificial teeth, and framework designs on the breaking strength of overdentures. The basal surfaces of composite resin teeth and acrylic resin teeth were removed using a carbide bur. A reinforcement wire or a wrought palatal bar was embedded near the occlusal surface or basal surface. Four types of framework structures were designed : conventional skeleton (skeleton), housing with skeleton (housing), housing plus short metal backing (metal backing), and housing plus long metal backing (double structure). After the wires, bars, and frameworks were sand-blasted with 50 microm Al(2)O(3) powder, they were primed with a metal primer and embedded in a heat-polymerized denture base resin. The breaking strengths (N) and maximum stiffness (N/mm) of two-week aged (37 degrees C) specimens were measured using a bending test (n=8). All data obtained at a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's test (alpha=0.01). There were no statistical differences between the two kinds of artificial teeth (p>0.01). The wrought palatal bar had significantly higher strength than the reinforcement wire (p0.01). The breaking strength and maximum stiffness of the double structure framework were significantly greater (poverdentures were influenced by the size and position of the reinforcement wires. Double structure frameworks are recommended for overdentures to promote a long-term prognosis without denture breakage.

  19. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  20. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  1. Nanostructured composite reinforced material (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN


    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  2. Wrinkles in reinforced membranes (United States)

    Takei, Atsushi; Brau, Fabian; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José.


    We study, through model experiments, the buckling under tension of an elastic membrane reinforced with a more rigid strip or a fiber. In these systems, the compression of the rigid layer is induced through Poisson contraction as the membrane is stretched perpendicularly to the strip. Although strips always lead to out-of-plane wrinkles, we observe a transition from out-of-plane to in plane wrinkles beyond a critical strain in the case of fibers embedded into the elastic membranes. The same transition is also found when the membrane is reinforced with a wall of the same material depending on the aspect ratio of the wall. We describe through scaling laws the evolution of the morphology of the wrinkles and the different transitions as a function of material properties and stretching strain.

  3. Deep Reinforcement Fuzzing


    Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh


    Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...

  4. [Standardizing the manipulation procedure of acupuncture-moxibustion, reinforcing the training of' clinical skill: learning experience of Acupuncture-moxibustion Clinical Skills Training: Chapter of Commonly Used Needling and Moxibustion Techniques]. (United States)

    Tian, Hongfang; Yang, Chao; Tang, Jie; Qin, Qiuguo; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhao, Jiping


    The book Acupuncture-moxibustion Clinical Skills Training is one of "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" in novative teaching materials, which is published by People's Medical Publishing House. Through learning the first half of the book commonly used needling and moxibustion techniques, it is realized that the selection of book content is reasonable and much attention is paid to needling and moxibustion techniques; the chapter arrangement is well-organized, and the form is novel, which is concise and intuitive; for every technique, great attention is paid to standardize the manipulation procedure and clarify the technique key, simultaneously the safety of acupuncture and moxibustion is also emphasized. The characteristics of the book, including innovativeness, practicability, are highlighted, and it greatly helps to improve students' clinical skills and examination ability.

  5. Seismic evaluation of reinforced masonry walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, T.E.; Button, M.R.; Mayes, R.L.


    Masonry walls in operating nuclear plants are in many cases found to be overstressed in terms of allowable stresses when evaluated using current seismic design criteria. However, experimental evidence exists indicating that reinforced masonry walls have a considerable margin between the load levels at which allowable stresses are exceeded and the load levels at which structural distress and loss of function occurs. This paper presents a methodology which allows the actual capacity of reinforced masonry walls under seismic loading to be quantified. The methodology is based on the use of non-linear dynamic analyses and incorporates observed hysteretic behavior for both in-plane and out-of-plane response. Experimental data is used to develop response parameters and to validate the results predicted by the models. Criteria have been concurrently developed to evaluate the deformations and material performance in the walls to ensure adequate margins of safety for the required function. An example of the application of these procedures is provided

  6. 3D accuracy of implant positions in template-guided implant placement as a function of the remaining teeth and the surgical procedure: a retrospective study. (United States)

    Schnutenhaus, Sigmar; Edelmann, Cornelia; Rudolph, Heike; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Luthardt, Ralph G


    The aim of this study was to investigate differences between the virtually planned and clinically achieved implant positions in completely template-guided implantations as a function of the type of edentulous space, the residual natural dentition, and the surgical implementation. Fifty-six patient cases with a total of 122 implants were evaluated retrospectively. The implantations were completely template-based. The data of the planned implant positions were overlaid with the actual clinical implant positions, followed by measurements of the 3D deviations in terms of coronal (x c ) and apical distance, height (x h ), and angulation (ang) and statistical analysis. The mean x c was 1.2 mm (SD 0.7 mm); the mean x a was 1.8 mm (SD 0.9 mm), the mean x h was 0.8 mm (SD 0.7 mm); and the mean ang was 4.8° (SD 3.1). The type of edentulous space and the jaw (maxilla/mandible) had no significant effect on the results in terms of implant positions. The presence of an adjacent natural tooth at the time of implantation had a significant influence on x h (p = 0.04) and ang (p = 0.05). No significant differences were found regarding the surgical approach for any of the parameters examined. The results of our study are in the same range as those of other studies. Template-guided implantation offers a high degree of accuracy even in the presence of different configurations of the residual dentition or different surgical approaches. A clinical benefit is therefore present, especially from a prosthetic point of view. The clinically achievable accuracy can be described as sufficient for further prosthetic treatment, given the intrinsic and methodological tolerances, making prosthetic rehabilitation safe and predictable.

  7. The Behavioral Economics of Substance Use Disorders: reinforcement pathologies and their repair (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G.


    The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics. PMID:24679180

  8. The behavioral economics of substance use disorders: reinforcement pathologies and their repair. (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Johnson, Matthew W; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G


    The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics.

  9. Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Santiago Mejía


    Full Text Available This article presents an application of Genetic Algorithms (GA and Finite Element Analysis (FEA to solve a structural optimisation problem on reticular plastic structures. Structural optimisation is used to modify the original shape by placing reinforcements at optimum locations. As a result, a reduction in the maximum stress by 14,70% for a structure with a final volume increase of 8,36% was achieved. This procedure solves the structural optimisation problem by adjusting the original mold and thereby avoiding the re-construction of a new one.Este artículo presenta una aplicación de Algoritmos Genéticos (GA y Análisis por Elementos Finitos (FEA a la solución de un problema de optimización estructural en estructuras reticulares plásticas. Optimización estructurales usada para modificar la forma original colocando refuerzos en posiciones óptimas. Como resultado se obtuvo una reducción en el esfuerzo máximo de 14,70% para una estructura cuyo volumen original aumento en 8,36%. Este procedimiento soluciona el problema de optimización estructural ajustando el molde original y evitando la manufactura de un nuevo molde.

  10. Repairing reinforced concrete slabs using composite layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibdehi, M. Ghasemi; Sharbatdar, M.K.; Mastali, M.


    There are several strengthening methods for rehabilitation of RC structural elements. The efficiency of these methods has been demonstrated by many researchers. Due to their mechanical properties, using fibrous materials in rehabilitation applications is growing fast. Therefore, this study presents rehabilitation of slabs in such a way that plain concrete layers on top, on bottom, on the entire cross section are replaced by reinforced concrete layers. In order to reinforce the concrete, Polypropylene (PP) and steel fibers were used by 0.5%, 1% and 2% fiber volume fractions. Nineteen slabs were studied under flexural loadings and fibrous material effects on the initial crack force, the maximum loading carrying capacity, absorbed energy and ductility were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing the fiber volume fraction or using reinforced concrete layer on top, bottom, or at the entire cross section of the slabs not only always leads to improvement in the slab performance, but also sometimes debilitates the slab performance. Hence, this study will propose the best positioning of reinforced concrete layer, fiber volume fraction and fiber type to achieve the best flexural performance of slabs. - Highlights: • Using PP fibers at the bottom layer led to the best slab performance in bending. • Using steel fiber at the top layer and entire cross-section led to the best slab performance. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 2% steel fiber. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 1% PP fiber

  11. Tough ceramic coatings: Carbon nanotube reinforced silica sol-gel (United States)

    López, A. J.; Rico, A.; Rodríguez, J.; Rams, J.


    Silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes were produced via sol-gel route using two mixing techniques of the sol-gel precursors, mechanical and ultrasonic mixing, and dip-coating as deposition process on magnesium alloy substrates. Effective incorporation and distribution of 0.1 wt.% of carbon nanotubes in the amorphous silica matrix of the coatings were achieved using both techniques. Fabrication procedure determines the morphological aspects of the coating. Only mechanical mixing process produced coatings dense and free of defects. Nanoindentation technique was used to examine the influence of the fabrication process in the mechanical features of the final coatings, i.e. indentation fracture toughness, Young's modulus and hardness. A maximum toughening effect of about 24% was achieved in silica coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes produced by the mechanical mixing route. Scanning electron microscopy investigation revealed that the toughening of these reinforced coatings was mainly due to bridging effect of the reinforcement.

  12. Reinforced seal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.


    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  13. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning. (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding


    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  14. Solvent Front Position Extraction procedure with thin-layer chromatography as a mode of multicomponent sample preparation for quantitative analysis by instrumental technique. (United States)

    Klimek-Turek, A; Sikora, E; Dzido, T H


    A concept of using thin-layer chromatography to multicomponent sample preparation for quantitative determination of solutes followed by instrumental technique is presented. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is used to separate chosen substances and their internal standard from other components (matrix) and to form a single spot/zone containing them at the solvent front position. The location of the analytes and internal standard in the solvent front zone allows their easy extraction followed by quantitation by HPLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A conditioned reinforcer did not help to maintain an operant conditioning in the absence of a primary reinforcer in horses. (United States)

    Lansade, Léa; Calandreau, Ludovic


    The use of conditioned reinforcers is increasingly promoted in animal training. Surprisingly, the efficiency of their use remains to be demonstrated in horses. This study aimed to determine whether an auditory signal which had previously been associated with a food reward 288 times could be used as a conditioned reinforcer to replace the primary reinforcer in an unrelated operant conditioning procedure. Fourteen horses were divided into two groups of 7: No Reinforcement (NR) and Conditioned Reinforcement (CR). All horses underwent nine sessions of Pavlovian conditioning during which the word "good" was associated with food (32 associations/session). The horses then followed five sessions of operant conditioning (30 trials/session) during which they had to touch a cone signaled by an experimenter to receive a food reward. The last day, horses underwent one test session of the operant response: no reward was given, but the word "good" was said each time a CR horse touched the cone. Nothing was said in the NR group. CR horses did not achieve more correct trials than NR horses during the test. These findings again show that the conditioned reinforcement was ineffective when used instead of the primary reinforcement to maintain conditioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik


    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure....

  17. The Reinforcement Learning Competition 2014


    Dimitrakakis, Christos; Li, Guangliang; Tziortziotis, Nikoalos


    Reinforcement learning is one of the most general problems in artificial intelligence. It has been used to model problems in automated experiment design, control, economics, game playing, scheduling and telecommunications. The aim of the reinforcement learning competition is to encourage the development of very general learning agents for arbitrary reinforcement learning problems and to provide a test-bed for the unbiased evaluation of algorithms.

  18. Performance of universal adhesives on bonding to leucite-reinforced ceramic. (United States)

    Kim, Ryan Jin-Young; Woo, Jung-Soo; Lee, In-Bog; Yi, Young-Ah; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Seo, Deog-Gyu


    This study aimed to investigate the microshear bond strength of universal bonding adhesives to leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic. Leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic blocks were polished and etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid for 1 min. The specimens were assigned to one of four groups based on their surface conditioning (n = 16): 1) NC: negative control with no further treatment; 2) SBU: Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE); 3) ABU: ALL-BOND Universal (Bisco); and 4) PC: RelyX Ceramic Primer and Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive (3M ESPE) as a positive control. RelyX Ultimate resin cement (3M ESPE) was placed on the pretreated ceramic and was light cured. Eight specimens from each group were stored in water for 24 h, and the remaining eight specimens were thermocycled 10,000 times prior to microshear bond strength evaluation. The fractured surfaces were examined by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After water storage and thermocycling, the microshear bond strength values decreased in the order of PC > SBU and ABU > NC (P universal adhesives were used, conventional surface conditioning using a separate silane and adhesive is preferable to a simplified procedure that uses only a universal adhesive for cementation of leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic.

  19. Thermally sprayed prepregs for thixoforging of UD fiber reinforced light metal MMCs (United States)

    Silber, Martin; Wenzelburger, Martin; Gadow, Rainer


    Low density and good mechanical properties are the basic requirements for lightweight structures in automotive and aerospace applications. With their high specific strength and strain to failure values, aluminum alloys could be used for such applications. Only the insufficient stiffness and thermal and fatigue strength prevented their usage in high-end applications. One possibility to solve this problem is to reinforce the light metal with unidirectional fibers. The UD fiber allows tailoring of the reinforcement to meet the direction of the component's load. In this study, the production of thermally sprayed prepregs for the manufacturing of continuous fiber reinforced MMC by thixoforging is analysed. The main aim is to optimize the winding procedure, which determines the fiber strand position and tension during the coating process. A method to wind and to coat the continuous fibers with an easy-to-use handling technique for the whole manufacturing process is presented. The prepregs were manufactured by producing arc wire sprayed AlSi6 coatings on fibers bundles. First results of bending experiments showed appropriate mechanical properties.



    Nizhnikov, Michael Edward; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman


    Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol’s positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25–200 mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn’s response to a surrogate nipple scented with the CS. It has been shown that ethanol’s first metabolite, acetaldehyde, exerts significant reinforcing effects in the central nervous sy...

  1. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri


    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  2. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN


    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  3. Factors that influence the reinforcing value of foods and beverages. (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L


    Behavioral economic principles state that as the cost of a product increases, purchasing or consumption of that product will decrease. To understand the impact of behavioral economics on ingestive behavior, our laboratory utilizes an operant behavior paradigm to measure how much work an individual will engage in to get access to foods and beverages. This task provides an objective measure of the reinforcing value. We have shown that consumption of the same high fat snack food every day for two weeks reduces its reinforcing value in lean individuals, but increases its reinforcing value in a subset of obese individuals. This increase in the reinforcing value of food predicts future weight gain. Similarly, we have shown that repeated intake of caffeinated soda increases its reinforcing value in boys, but not in girls. This increase in reinforcing value is not related to usual caffeine consumption, but may be associated with positive, subjective effects of caffeine that are more likely to be reported by boys than by girls. Because food and beverage reinforcement relates to real-world consumption, it is important to determine factors that increase or decrease the reinforcing value and determine the consequences of these responses. We are especially interested in determining ways to shift the behavioral economic curve in order to develop novel strategies to decrease the reinforcing value of less healthy snack foods and beverages, such as soda, potato chips and candy and to increase the reinforcing value of healthier foods and beverages, such as water, fruits, and vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex Differences in Reinforcement and Punishment on Prime-Time Television. (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris; Gowan, Darryl C.


    Television programs were analyzed for frequencies of positive reinforcement and punishment exchanged among performers varying in age and sex. Females were found to more often exhibit and receive reinforcement, whereas males more often exhibited and received punishment. These findings have implications for children's learning of positive and…

  5. Research Review: Dopamine Transfer Deficit: A Neurobiological Theory of Altered Reinforcement Mechanisms in ADHD (United States)

    Tripp, Gail; Wickens, Jeff R.


    This review considers the hypothesis that changes in dopamine signalling might account for altered sensitivity to positive reinforcement in children with ADHD. The existing evidence regarding dopamine cell activity in relation to positive reinforcement is reviewed. We focus on the anticipatory firing of dopamine cells brought about by a transfer…

  6. Reinforcement Learning for Online Control of Evolutionary Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiben, A.; Horvath, Mark; Kowalczyk, Wojtek; Schut, Martijn


    The research reported in this paper is concerned with assessing the usefulness of reinforcment learning (RL) for on-line calibration of parameters in evolutionary algorithms (EA). We are running an RL procedure and the EA simultaneously and the RL is changing the EA parameters on-the-fly. We

  7. Operant Reinforcement with Structural Family Therapy in Treating Anorexia Nervosa (United States)

    Perlman, Lawrence M.; Bender, Sheila S.


    The authors successfully treated two families in which the index patients were anorectic adolescent girls by combining structural family therapy with behavioral modification techniques. Phases which appear to be typical of the treatment are described. A discussion of the value of the operant reinforcement procedure in family therapy follows.…

  8. Experience with dynamic reinforcement rates decreases resistance to extinction. (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A


    The ability of organisms to detect reinforcer-rate changes in choice preparations is positively related to two factors: the magnitude of the change in rate and the frequency with which rates change. Gallistel (2012) suggested similar rate-detection processes are responsible for decreases in responding during operant extinction. Although effects of magnitude of change in reinforcer rate on resistance to extinction are well known (e.g., the partial-reinforcement-extinction effect), effects of frequency of changes in rate prior to extinction are unknown. Thus, the present experiments examined whether frequency of changes in baseline reinforcer rates impacts resistance to extinction. Pigeons pecked keys for variable-interval food under conditions where reinforcer rates were stable and where they changed within and between sessions. Overall reinforcer rates between conditions were controlled. In Experiment 1, resistance to extinction was lower following exposure to dynamic reinforcement schedules than to static schedules. Experiment 2 showed that resistance to presession feeding, a disruptor that should not involve change-detection processes, was unaffected by baseline-schedule dynamics. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that change detection contributes to extinction. We discuss implications of change-detection processes for extinction of simple and discriminated operant behavior and relate these processes to the behavioral-momentum based approach to understanding extinction. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Constitutive model for reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.H.; Borst, de R.


    A numerical model is proposed for reinforced-concrete behavior that combines the commonly accepted ideas from modeling plain concrete, reinforcement, and interaction behavior in a consistent manner. The behavior of plain concrete is govern by fracture-energy-level-based formulation both in tension

  10. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    .0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire...

  11. Tangible Reinforcers: Bonuses or Bribes? (United States)

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others


    Objections to the use of tangible reinforcers, such as prizes, candy, cigarettes, and money, are discussed. Treatment programs using tangible reinforcers are recommended as powerful modifers of behavior to be implemented only after less powerful means of modification have been tried. (Author)

  12. Separation of time-based and trial-based accounts of the partial reinforcement extinction effect. (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E; Woods, Amanda M; Todd, Travis P


    Two appetitive conditioning experiments with rats examined time-based and trial-based accounts of the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE). In the PREE, the loss of responding that occurs in extinction is slower when the conditioned stimulus (CS) has been paired with a reinforcer on some of its presentations (partially reinforced) instead of every presentation (continuously reinforced). According to a time-based or "time-accumulation" view (e.g., Gallistel and Gibbon, 2000), the PREE occurs because the organism has learned in partial reinforcement to expect the reinforcer after a larger amount of time has accumulated in the CS over trials. In contrast, according to a trial-based view (e.g., Capaldi, 1967), the PREE occurs because the organism has learned in partial reinforcement to expect the reinforcer after a larger number of CS presentations. Experiment 1 used a procedure that equated partially and continuously reinforced groups on their expected times to reinforcement during conditioning. A PREE was still observed. Experiment 2 then used an extinction procedure that allowed time in the CS and the number of trials to accumulate differentially through extinction. The PREE was still evident when responding was examined as a function of expected time units to the reinforcer, but was eliminated when responding was examined as a function of expected trial units to the reinforcer. There was no evidence that the animal responded according to the ratio of time accumulated during the CS in extinction over the time in the CS expected before the reinforcer. The results thus favor a trial-based account over a time-based account of extinction and the PREE. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Associative and Temporal Learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Rubberized Concrete in Cold Regions (United States)


    This report documents and presents the use of steel fiber-reinforced rubberized concrete (SFRRC) in cold regions. Further investigation of SFRRC use was conducted with the wheel tracker rut and freeze-thaw laboratory testing procedures at the Univers...

  14. A technical report on structural evaluation of the Meade County reinforced concrete bridge. (United States)


    This is a technical report on the first phase of the evaluation of the Meade County reinforced concrete bridge. : The first three chapters introduce the main problem and provide a general review of the existing evaluation : methods and the procedures...

  15. Reinforced orbitotemporal lift: contribution to midface rejuvenation. (United States)

    Renó, Waldir Teixeira


    The changes in the aging face occur from progressive ptosis of the skin, fat, and muscle, in conjunction with bone absorption and cartilage atrophy. In the orbital region, hollowness and compartmentalization occur. Conventional face lift procedures correct only the skin flaccidity, and superficial musculoaponeurotic system techniques reposition the skin and platysma without repositioning the middle third of the face, creating an artificial jawline. Subperiosteal rhytidectomy disrupts the anatomy of the periorbita, which gives the patient a certain scarecrow aspect. Composite rhytidectomy associated with brow lift and blepharoplasty may offer better results, with improvement in the malar and orbital regions. The reinforced orbitotemporal lift (ROTEL) is a new procedure in a face lift that allows the orbicularis oculi muscle and all the structures connected to it to be elevated and stretched and the orbitotemporal skin to be raised, repositioning these structures and ending orbital compartmentalization. The result is an impressive improvement in the malar-orbitotemporal region, resulting in a natural and youthful appearance.

  16. Pretreatment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    It is frequently in the patient's best interest that radiation treatments are initiated soon after the decision to treat is made. However, it is essential to good radiation therapy that the patient's treatment course be planned and beam-modifying devices be fabricated with utmost care prior to treatment. The objectives of the treatment, along with the treatment parameters and techniques necessary to achieve these objectives, must be discussed prior to initiating planning procedures. Determination of the target volume is made by the radiation oncologist; this is based on knowledge of the history of the tumor, the patterns of spread of the disease, and on diagnostic findings during the work-up of each patient. It is then necessary to obtain several measurements of the patient and also to identify the position of the target volume and of adjacent normal organs with respect to known external skin marks before the actual treatment planning is begun. Such localization can be done through several methods. The two most commonly used methods are radiographic and computed tomography (CT), both of which are discussed in this chapter. The measurements often include contours of the patient's external surface, usually in the axial plane of the central axis of the beam, and often in multiple levels within the region to be treated. Three dimensional localization and treatment planning requires thorough understanding of geometry as well as of patient positioning and immobilization. This chapter attempts to clarify some of these complicated but essential preparations for treatment

  17. Positive Parenting and Challenging Children (United States)

    Knoll, Melissa


    Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…

  18. Durability evaluation method on rebar corrosion of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsutaka, Yoshinori


    In this paper, method on the durability evaluation in nuclear power plant concrete structures was investigated. In view of the importance of evaluating the degree of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, relationships should be formulated among the number of years elapsed, t, the amount of action of a deteriorative factor, F, the degree of material deterioration, D, and the performance of the structure, P. Evaluation by PDFt diagrams combining these relationships may be effective. A detailed procedure of durability evaluation for a reinforced concrete structure using PDFt concept is presented for the deterioration of rebar corrosion caused by neutralization and penetration of salinity by referring to the recent papers. (author)

  19. Behavioral sensitivity to changing reinforcement contingencies in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. (United States)

    Alsop, Brent; Furukawa, Emi; Sowerby, Paula; Jensen, Stephanie; Moffat, Cara; Tripp, Gail


    Altered sensitivity to positive reinforcement has been hypothesized to contribute to the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we evaluated the ability of children with and without ADHD to adapt their behavior to changing reinforcer availability. Of one hundred sixty-seven children, 97 diagnosed with ADHD completed a signal-detection task in which correct discriminations between two stimuli were associated with different frequencies of reinforcement. The response alternative associated with the higher rate of reinforcement switched twice during the task without warning. For a subset of participants, this was followed by trials for which no reinforcement was delivered, irrespective of performance. Children in both groups developed an initial bias toward the more frequently reinforced response alternative. When the response alternative associated with the higher rate of reinforcement switched, the children's response allocation (bias) followed suit, but this effect was significantly smaller for children with ADHD. When reinforcement was discontinued, only children in the control group modified their response pattern. Children with ADHD adjust their behavioral responses to changing reinforcer availability less than typically developing children, when reinforcement is intermittent and the association between an action and its consequences is uncertain. This may explain the difficulty children with ADHD have adapting their behavior to new situations, with different reinforcement contingencies, in daily life. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model. (United States)

    Bowins, Brad


    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  1. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.


    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  2. Bariatric Surgery Procedures (United States)

    ... Meetings of Interest Online Education Job Board CME Policies CBN Fellowship Certificate Research Grant Program Resources All Resources Approved Procedures Patient Safety Vignettes Dr. Mason Historical Library Governing Documents Guidelines Access and Insurance Position and ...

  3. Neural mechanisms of negative reinforcement in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders


    Damiano, Cara R; Cockrell, Dillon C; Dunlap, Kaitlyn; Hanna, Eleanor K; Miller, Stephanie; Bizzell, Joshua; Kovac, Megan; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Sideris, John; Kinard, Jessica; Dichter, Gabriel S


    Background Previous research has found accumulating evidence for atypical reward processing in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), particularly in the context of social rewards. Yet, this line of research has focused largely on positive social reinforcement, while little is known about the processing of negative reinforcement in individuals with ASD. Methods The present study examined neural responses to social negative reinforcement (a face displaying negative affect) and non-social negative re...

  4. Reinforced concrete behavior due to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.; Bartley, R.; O'Brien, T.P.


    The assessment of the safety of nuclear reactors has necessitated the study of the effect of missiles on reinforced concrete containment structures. Two simple theoretical calculational methods have been developed to provide basic information. The first is based on a crude energy balance approach in which that part of the kinetic energy of the missile which is transferred into the containment structure, is absorbed only as bending strain energy. To determine the energy transferred into the structure it is assumed that during the loading the target does not respond. The energy input to the structure is thus equal to the kinetic energy it will possess immediately the impulse has been removed. The boundary of the responding zone is defined by the distance travelled by the shear stress wave during the time in which the impact force increases to the load at which the shear capacity reaches the ultimate shear resistance. The second method is based on the equation of motion for an equivalent one-degree-of-freedom system assuming that only the peak value of deflection is important and that damping can be ignored. The spring stiffness of the equivalent system has been based upon the stiffness of the actual disc configuration responding in the flexural mode only. The boundaries of the disc have been defined by using the elastic plate formulae and equating those positive and negative moments which will produce a specified yield line pattern which may be inferred from plastic plate formulae. The equation of motion is solved to indicate how the quantity of reinforcement included in the structure may modify the peak deflection. By limiting the ductility ratio of the reinforcement to some prescribed level it is possible to indicate the quantity of reinforcement w

  5. Modeling reinforced concrete durability : [summary]. (United States)


    Many Florida bridges are built of steel-reinforced concrete. Floridas humid and marine : environments subject steel in these structures : to corrosion once water and salt penetrate the : concrete and contact the steel. Corroded steel : takes up mo...

  6. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.


    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  7. Deep Reinforcement Learning: An Overview


    Li, Yuxi


    We give an overview of recent exciting achievements of deep reinforcement learning (RL). We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications. We start with background of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Next we discuss core RL elements, including value function, in particular, Deep Q-Network (DQN), policy, reward, model, planning, and exploration. After that, we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsuperv...

  8. Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling (United States)

    Butler, Leon Harvey


    Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

  9. Double positivity to bee and wasp venom: improved diagnostic procedure by recombinant allergen-based IgE testing and basophil activation test including data about cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. (United States)

    Eberlein, Bernadette; Krischan, Lilian; Darsow, Ulf; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes


    Specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies to both bee and wasp venom can be due to a sensitivity to both insect venoms or due to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). Investigating whether a basophil activation test (BAT) with both venoms as well as with bromelain and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or recombinant allergen-based IgE testing can improve the diagnostic procedure. Twenty-two Hymenoptera-venom allergic patients with sIgE antibodies to both bee and wasp venom were studied. sIgE antibodies to MUXF3 CCD, bromelain, HRP, rApi m 1, and rVes v 5 were determined, and a BAT (Flow2 CAST) with venom extracts, bromelain, and HRP was performed. Further recombinant allergen-based IgE testing was done by using an ELISA, if required. The reactivity of basophils was calculated from the insect venom concentration at half-maximum stimulation. Double positivity/double negativity/single positivity to rApi m 1 and rVes v 5 was seen in 12/1/9 patients. Further recombinant allergen-based IgE testing in the last ones revealed positive results to the other venom in all cases except one. BAT was double positive/double negative/single positive in 6/2/14 patients. Four patients with negative results in sIgE antibodies to CCDs had positive results in BAT. BAT with bromelain/HRP showed a sensitivity of 50%/81% and a specificity of 91%/90%. Component-resolved IgE testing elucidates the pattern of double positivity, showing a majority of true double sensitizations independent of CCD sensitization. BAT seems to add more information about the culprit insect even if the true clinical relevance of BAT is not completely determined because of ethical limitations on diagnostic sting challenges. BAT with HRP is a good method to determine sensitivity to CCDs. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic relaxation method in analysis of reinforced concrete bent elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szcześniak


    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for the analysis of nonlinear behaviour of reinforced concrete bent elements subjected to short-term static load. The considerations in the range of modelling of deformation processes of reinforced concrete element were carried out. The method of structure effort analysis was developed using the finite difference method. The Dynamic Relaxation Method, which — after introduction of critical damping — allows for description of the static behaviour of a structural element, was used to solve the system of nonlinear equilibrium equations. In order to increase the method effectiveness in the range of the post-critical analysis, the Arc Length Parameter on the equilibrium path was introduced into the computational procedure.[b]Keywords[/b]: reinforced concrete elements, physical nonlinearity, geometrical nonlinearity, dynamic relaxation method, arc-length method

  11. A Neuro-Control Design Based on Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katebi, S.D.; Blanke, M.

    This paper describes a neuro-control fuzzy critic design procedure based on reinforcement learning. An important component of the proposed intelligent control configuration is the fuzzy credit assignment unit which acts as a critic, and through fuzzy implications provides adjustment mechanisms....... The fuzzy credit assignment unit comprises a fuzzy system with the appropriate fuzzification, knowledge base and defuzzification components. When an external reinforcement signal (a failure signal) is received, sequences of control actions are evaluated and modified by the action applier unit. The desirable...... ones instruct the neuro-control unit to adjust its weights and are simultaneously stored in the memory unit during the training phase. In response to the internal reinforcement signal (set point threshold deviation), the stored information is retrieved by the action applier unit and utilized for re...

  12. Quantization Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J. A.; Martin, R.


    We present in this work a review of the conventional quantization procedure, the proposed by I.E. Segal and a new quantization procedure similar to this one for use in non linear problems. We apply this quantization procedures to different potentials and we obtain the appropriate equations of motion. It is shown that for the linear case the three procedures exposed are equivalent but for the non linear cases we obtain different equations of motion and different energy spectra. (Author) 16 refs

  13. Central reinforcing effects of ethanol are blocked by catalase inhibition. (United States)

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Molina, Juan C; Spear, Norman E


    Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25-200mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn's response to a surrogate nipple scented with the CS. It has been shown that ethanol's first metabolite, acetaldehyde, exerts significant reinforcing effects in the central nervous system. A significant amount of acetaldehyde is derived from ethanol metabolism via the catalase system. In newborn rats, catalase levels are particularly high in several brain structures. The present study tested the effect of catalase inhibition on central ethanol reinforcement. In the first experiment, pups experienced lemon odor either paired or unpaired with intracisternal (IC) administrations of 100mg% ethanol. Half of the animals corresponding to each learning condition were pretreated with IC administrations of either physiological saline or a catalase inhibitor (sodium-azide). Catalase inhibition completely suppressed ethanol reinforcement in paired groups without affecting responsiveness to the CS during conditioning or responding by unpaired control groups. A second experiment tested whether these effects were specific to ethanol reinforcement or due instead to general impairment in learning and expression capabilities. Central administration of an endogenous kappa opioid receptor agonist (dynorphin A-13) was used as an alternative source of reinforcement. Inhibition of the catalase system had no effect on the reinforcing properties of dynorphin. The present results support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism regulated by the catalase system plays a critical role in determination of ethanol reinforcement in newborn rats.

  14. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA


    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  15. The influence of stiffeners on axial crushing of glass-fabric-reinforced epoxy composite shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vasanthanathan


    Full Text Available A generic static and impact experimental procedure has been developed in this work aimed at improving the stability of glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell structures by bonding with axial stiffeners. Crashworthy structures fabricated from composite laminate with stiffeners would offer energy absorption superior to metallic structures under compressive loading situations. An experimental material characterisation of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite under uni-axial tension has been carried out in this study. This work provides a numerical simulation procedure to describe the static and dynamic response of unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (without stiffeners and stiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (with axial stiffeners under static and impact loading using the Finite Element Method. The finite element calculation for the present study was made with ANSYS®-LS-DYNA® software. Based upon the experimental and numerical investigations, it has been asserted that glass fabric reinforced epoxy shells stiffened with GFRP stiffeners are better than unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell and glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell stiffened with aluminium stiffeners. The failure surfaces of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell structures tested under impact were examined by SEM.

  16. Simulation analysis of impact tests of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs against aircraft impact and its validation with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, Muhammad; Xiu Yun, Zhu; Rong, Pan


    Highlights: • Simulation analysis is carried out with two constitutive concrete models. • Winfrith model can better simulate nonlinear response of concrete than CSCM model. • Performance of steel plate concrete is better than reinforced concrete. • Thickness of safety related structures can be reduced by adopting steel plates. • Analysis results, mainly concrete material models should be validated. - Abstract: The steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete structures are used in nuclear power plants for protection against impact of an aircraft. In order to compare the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs panels, simulation analysis of 1/7.5 scale model impact tests is carried out by using finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The damage modes of all finite element models, velocity time history curves of the aircraft engine and damage to aircraft model are compared with the impact test results of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slab panels. The results indicate that finite element simulation results correlate well with the experimental results especially for constitutive winfrith concrete model. Also, the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete slab panels is better than reinforced concrete slab panels, particularly the rear face steel plate is very effective in preventing the perforation and scabbing of concrete than conventional reinforced concrete structures. In this way, the thickness of steel plate reinforced concrete structures can be reduced in important structures like nuclear power plants against impact of aircraft. It also demonstrates the methodology to validate the analysis procedure with experimental and analytical studies. It may be effectively employed to predict the precise response of safety related structures against aircraft impact

  17. Dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete beam subjected to impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chihiro; Ohnuma, Hiroshi; Sato, Koichi; Takano, Hiroshi


    The purpose of this report is to find out the impact behavior of reinforced concrete beams by means of experiment. The reinforced concrete is widely used for such an important structure as the building facilities of the nuclear power plant, and so the impact behavior of the reinforced concrete structures must be examined to estimate the resistance of concrete containment against impact load and to develope the reasonable and reliable design procedure. The impact test on reinforced concrete beam which is one of the most basic elements in the structure was conducted. Main results are summarized as follows. 1) Bending failure occured on static test. On the other hand, shear failure occured in the case of high impact velocity on impact test. 2) Penetration depth and residual deflection are approximately proportional to V 2 (V: velocity at impact). 3) Flexural wave propagates about at the speed of 2000 m/s. 4) The resistance of reinforced concrete beam against the impact load is fairly good. (author)

  18. Fun While Learning and Earning. A Look Into Chattanooga Public Schools' Token Reinforcement Program. (United States)

    Smith, William F.; Sanders, Frank J.

    A token reinforcement program was used by the Piney Woods Research and Demonstration Center in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Children who were from economically deprived homes received tokens for positive behavior. The tokens were redeemable for recess privileges, ice cream, candy, and other such reinforcers. All tokens were spent on the day earned so…

  19. Use of extinction and reinforcement to increase food consumption and reduce expulsion.


    Coe, D A; Babbitt, R L; Williams, K E; Hajimihalis, C; Snyder, A M; Ballard, C; Efron, L A


    Extinction and reinforcement contingencies were used to treat 2 children with feeding disorders. Positive reinforcement and avoidance extinction effectively increased food acceptance but also increased food expulsion. Reduced expulsion and increased swallowing were achieved by repeated presentation of expelled food, a second extinction component

  20. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    and the influence of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks in concrete. Moreover, the impact of fibres on corrosion-induced cover cracking was covered. The impact of steel fibres on propagation of reinforcement corrosion was investigated through studies of their impact on the electrical resistivity...... of concrete, which is known to affect the corrosion process of embedded reinforcement. The work concerning the impact of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks was linked to corrosion initiation and propagation of embedded reinforcement bars via additional studies. Cracks in the concrete cover...... are known to alter the ingress rate of depassivating substances and thereby influence the corrosion process. The Ph.D. study covered numerical as well as experimental studies. Electrochemically passive steel fibres are electrically isolating thus not changing the electrical resistivity of concrete, whereas...

  1. Conditioned reinforcement can be mediated by either outcome-specific or general affective representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A Burke


    Full Text Available Conditioned reinforcers are Pavlovian cues that support the acquisition and maintenance of new instrumental responses. Responding on the basis of conditioned rather than primary reinforcers is a pervasive part of modern life, yet we have a remarkably limited understanding of what underlying associative information is triggered by these cues to guide responding. Specifically, it is not certain whether conditioned reinforcers are effective because they evoke representations of specific outcomes or because they trigger general affective states that are independent of any specific outcome. This question has important implications for how different brain circuits might be involved in conditioned reinforcement. Here, we use specialized Pavlovian training procedures, reinforcer devaluation and transreinforcer blocking, to create cues that were biased to preferentially evoke either devaluation-insensitive, general affect representations or, devaluationsensitive, outcome-specific representations. Subsequently, these cues, along with normally conditioned control cues, were presented contingent on lever pressing.We found that intact rats learned to lever press for either the outcome or the affect cues to the same extent as for a normally conditioned cue. These results demonstrate that conditioned reinforcers can guide responding through either type of associative information. Interestingly, conditioned reinforcement was abolished in rats with basolateral amygdala lesions. Consistent with the extant literature, this result suggests a general role for basolateral amygdala in conditioned reinforcement. The implications of these data, combined with recent reports from our laboratory of a more specialized role of orbitofrontal cortex in conditioned reinforcement, will be discussed.

  2. Fiber-Reinforced Origamic Robotic Actuator. (United States)

    Yi, Juan; Chen, Xiaojiao; Song, Chaoyang; Wang, Zheng


    A novel pneumatic soft linear actuator Fiber-reinforced Origamic Robotic Actuator (FORA) is proposed with significant improvements on the popular McKibben-type actuators, offering nearly doubled motion range, substantially improved force profile, and significantly lower actuation pressure. The desirable feature set is made possible by a novel soft origamic chamber that expands radially while contracts axially when pressurized. Combining this new origamic chamber with a reinforcing fiber mesh, FORA generates very high traction force (over 150N) and very large contractile motion (over 50%) at very low input pressure (100 kPa). We developed quasi-static analytical models both to characterize the motion and forces and as guidelines for actuator design. Fabrication of FORA mostly involves consumer-grade three-dimensional (3D) printing. We provide a detailed list of materials and dimensions. Fabricated FORAs were tested on a dedicated platform against commercially available pneumatic artificial muscles from Shadow and Festo to showcase its superior performances and validate the analytical models with very good agreements. Finally, a robotic joint was developed driven by two antagonistic FORAs, to showcase the benefits of the performance improvements. With its simple structure, fully characterized mechanism, easy fabrication procedure, and highly desirable performance, FORA could be easily customized to application requirements and fabricated by anyone with access to a 3D printer. This will pave the way to the wider adaptation and application of soft robotic systems.

  3. UV-Curing of Nanoparticle Reinforced Acrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, F.


    Polymer reinforcement by silica and alumina nanoparticles evidently yields improved surface hardness. Single mixing of nanoparticles into an acrylate formulations, however, leads to highly viscous solutions inappropriate for coating procedures. The incompatibility of inorganic fillers and organic polymers can be avoided by surface modification providing an interface between the two dissimilar materials. For example, vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMO) can react via hydrolysis/condensation reactions with hydroxyl groups present on the inorganic surface and should bond via the polymerisation-active vinyl group to an acrylate resin through crosslinking reactions. Grafting reactions of surface OH groups and different trialkoxysilanes were studied by thermogravimetry, infrared, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The copolymeri-zation of modified nanoparticles with the acrylate matrix has been investigated by 13 C NMR spectroscopy. UV curing under nitrogen inertization revealed a lower reactivity of vinyl groups of VTMO-modified silica compared to grafted methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MEMO) which showed complete conversion of olefinic carbons (signals at 120 - 140 ppm). Under conditions of oxygen inhibition, the effect of the kind and the concentration of photoinitiator on the photopoly-merization reaction was studied. Compared to neat polyacrylate coatings the nanocomposite materials exhibit markedly improved properties, e.g., heat, scratch, and abrasion resistance. However, a much better abrasion resistance was obtained for coatings containing both silica nano-particles and corundum microparticles. In particular cases, radiation curing with 172 nm photons generated by Xe excimer was performed to obtain structured polymer surfaces, i.e., matting of the reinforced acrylate coatings

  4. Reinforcement principles for addiction medicine; from recreational drug use to psychiatric disorder. (United States)

    Edwards, Scott


    The transition from recreational drug use to addiction can be conceptualized as a pathological timeline whereby the psychological mechanisms responsible for disordered drug use evolve from positive reinforcement to favor elements of negative reinforcement. Abused substances (ranging from alcohol to psychostimulants) are initially ingested at regular occasions according to their positive reinforcing properties. Importantly, repeated exposure to rewarding substances sets off a chain of secondary reinforcing events, whereby cues and contexts associated with drug use may themselves become reinforcing and thereby contribute to the continued use and possible abuse of the substance(s) of choice. Indeed, the powerful reinforcing efficacy of certain drugs may eclipse that of competing social rewards (such as career and family) and lead to an aberrant narrowing of behavioral repertoire. In certain vulnerable individuals, escalation of drug use over time is thought to drive specific molecular neuroadaptations that foster the development of addiction. Research has identified neurobiological elements of altered reinforcement following excessive drug use that comprise within-circuit and between-circuit neuroadaptations, both of which contribute to addiction. Central to this process is the eventual potentiation of negative reinforcement mechanisms that may represent the final definitive criterion locking vulnerable individuals into a persistent state of addiction. Targeting the neural substrates of reinforcement likely represents our best chances for therapeutic intervention for this devastating disease. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Grids for Shear and End Zone Reinforcement in Bridge Beams (United States)


    Corrosion of reinforcing steel reduces life spans of bridges throughout the United States; therefore, using non-corroding carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement is seen as a way to increase service life. The use of CFRP as the flexural ...

  6. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. (United States)


    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  7. The power reinforcement framework revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Andersen, Kim Normann; Danziger, James N.


    Whereas digital technologies are often depicted as being capable of disrupting long-standing power structures and facilitating new governance mechanisms, the power reinforcement framework suggests that information and communications technologies tend to strengthen existing power arrangements within...... public organizations. This article revisits the 30-yearold power reinforcement framework by means of an empirical analysis on the use of mobile technology in a large-scale programme in Danish public sector home care. It explores whether and to what extent administrative management has controlled decision......-making and gained most benefits from mobile technology use, relative to the effects of the technology on the street-level workers who deliver services. Current mobile technology-in-use might be less likely to be power reinforcing because it is far more decentralized and individualized than the mainly expert...

  8. Human Responding on Random-Interval Schedules of Response-Cost Punishment: The Role of Reduced Reinforcement Density (United States)

    Pietras, Cynthia J.; Brandt, Andrew E.; Searcy, Gabriel D.


    An experiment with adult humans investigated the effects of response-contingent money loss (response-cost punishment) on monetary-reinforced responding. A yoked-control procedure was used to separate the effects on responding of the response-cost contingency from the effects of reduced reinforcement density. Eight adults pressed buttons for money…

  9. Rapid acquisition of operant conditioning in 5-day-old rat pups: a new technique articulating suckling-related motor activity and milk reinforcement. (United States)

    Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos; Molina, Agustin; Molina, Juan Carlos


    Newborn rats are capable of obtaining milk by attaching to a surrogate nipple. During this procedure pups show a gradual increase in head and forelimb movements oriented towards the artificial device that are similar to those observed during nipple attachment. In the present study the probability of execution of these behaviors was analyzed as a function of their contingency with intraoral milk infusion using brief training procedures (15 min). Five-day-old pups were positioned in a smooth surface having access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Physical contact with the sensor activated an infusion pump which served to deliver intraoral milk reinforcement (Paired group). Yoked controls received the reinforcer when Paired neonates touched the sensor. Paired pups trained under a continuous reinforcement schedule emitted significantly more responses than Yoked controls following two (Experiment 1) or one training session (Experiment 2). These differences were also observed during an extinction session conducted immediately after training. The level of maternal deprivation before training (3 or 6 hr) or the volume of milk delivered (1.0 or 1.5 microl per pulse) did not affect acquisition or extinction performances. In addition, it was observed that the rate of responding of Paired pups during the early phase of the extinction session significantly predicted subsequent levels of acceptance of the reinforcer. These results indicate that the frequency of suckling-related behaviors can be rapidly modified by means of associative operant processes. The operant procedure here described represents an alternative tool for the ontogenetic analysis of self-administration or behavior processes of seeking. .

  10. Performance of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soils Under Static and Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Touahmia


    Full Text Available This paper investigates and discusses the composite behavior of geosynthetic reinforced soil mass. It presents the results of a series of large-scale laboratory tests supported by analytical methods to examine the performance of geogrid reinforcement subjected to static and cyclic pullout loading. The testing equipment and procedures used for this investigation are outlined. The results show that geosynthetic reinforcement can mobilize great resistance to static pulling load under high confining pressures. The reinforcement exhibits gradual deformation under cyclic loading showing no sign of imminent pullout failure for all levels of applied loads. In general, the results demonstrate that geosynthetic can be used in situations where loads are non-static, although care will be required in ensuring that appropriate factors of safety are applied to control the resulting deformation. A simplified analytical model for calculating the pulling capacity of geosynthetic reinforcement is proposed.

  11. Response-reinforcer dependency and resistance to change. (United States)

    Cançado, Carlos R X; Abreu-Rodrigues, Josele; Aló, Raquel Moreira; Hauck, Flávia; Doughty, Adam H


    The effects of the response-reinforcer dependency on resistance to change were studied in three experiments with rats. In Experiment 1, lever pressing produced reinforcers at similar rates after variable interreinforcer intervals in each component of a two-component multiple schedule. Across conditions, in the fixed component, all reinforcers were response-dependent; in the alternative component, the percentage of response-dependent reinforcers was 100, 50 (i.e., 50% response-dependent and 50% response-independent) or 10% (i.e., 10% response-dependent and 90% response-independent). Resistance to extinction was greater in the alternative than in the fixed component when the dependency in the former was 10%, but was similar between components when this dependency was 100 or 50%. In Experiment 2, a three-component multiple schedule was used. The dependency was 100% in one component and 10% in the other two. The 10% components differed on how reinforcers were programmed. In one component, as in Experiment 1, a reinforcer had to be collected before the scheduling of other response-dependent or independent reinforcers. In the other component, response-dependent and -independent reinforcers were programmed by superimposing a variable-time schedule on an independent variable-interval schedule. Regardless of the procedure used to program the dependency, resistance to extinction was greater in the 10% components than in the 100% component. These results were replicated in Experiment 3 in which, instead of extinction, VT schedules replaced the baseline schedules in each multiple-schedule component during the test. We argue that the relative change in dependency from Baseline to Test, which is greater when baseline dependencies are high rather than low, could account for the differential resistance to change in the present experiments. The inconsistencies in results across the present and previous experiments suggest that the effects of dependency on resistance to change are

  12. Reinforced concrete tomography; Tomografia de hormigon armado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscotti, M A.J.; Morixe, M; Tarela, P A; Thieberger, P [Tomografia de Hormigon Armado S.A., Boulogne (Argentina)


    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of {+-} 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) 8 refs., 12 figs. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describe la tecnica de tomografia de hormigon armado, sus antededentes, recientes desarrollos y aplicaciones mas importantes. Esta tecnica se basa en el uso de radiacion gamma para penetrar piezas de hormigon. Placas gammagraficas son sensibilizadas con la radiacion que atraviesa la pieza bajo estudio y luego procesadas para revelar la presencia de armadura e inhomogeneidades en la densidad del concreto. La reconstruccion tridimensional o tomografia, de la armadura a partir de una sola gammagrafia es un desarrollo original alternativo a los metodos convencionales. Diametros y posiciones de los hierros existentes en el interior de columnas, vigas y losas pueden ser determinados con precisiones de {+-} 1 mm y 0.5-1 cm, respectivamente. La condicion de no destructiva hace que esta tecnica sea particularmente apreciada en los casos de edificios habitados y sea insustituible para el diagnostico de balcones. (autor)

  13. Self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone suture anchors. (United States)

    Feerick, Emer M; Wilson, Joanne; Jarman-Smith, Marcus; Ó'Brádaigh, Conchur M; McGarry, J Patrick


    An experimental and computational investigation of the self-tapping ability of carbon fibre reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) has been conducted. Six CFR-PEEK suture anchor designs were investigated using PEEK-OPTIMA® Reinforced, a medical grade of CFR-PEEK. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the maximum axial force and torque required for self-taping insertion of each anchor design. Additional experimental tests were conducted for some anchor designs using pilot holes. Computational simulations were conducted to determine the maximum stress in each anchor design at various stages of insertion. Simulations also were performed to investigate the effect of wall thickness in the anchor head. The maximum axial force required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 150 N for any anchor design. The maximum torque required to insert a self-tapping CFR-PEEK suture anchor did not exceed 0.8 Nm. Computational simulations reveal significant stress concentrations in the region of the anchor tip, demonstrating that a re-design of the tip geometry should be performed to avoid fracture during self-tapping, as observed in the experimental component of this study. This study demonstrates the ability of PEEK-OPTIMA Reinforced suture anchors to self-tap polyurethane foam bone analogue. This provides motivation to further investigate the self-tapping ability of CFR-PEEK suture anchors in animal/cadaveric bone. An optimised design for CFR-PEEK suture anchors offers the advantages of radiolucency, and mechanical properties similar to bone with the ability to self-tap. This may have positive implications for reducing surgery times and the associated costs with the procedure. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  14. Effect of reinforcement learning on coordination of multiangent systems (United States)

    Bukkapatnam, Satish T. S.; Gao, Greg


    For effective coordination of distributed environments involving multiagent systems, learning ability of each agent in the environment plays a crucial role. In this paper, we develop a simple group learning method based on reinforcement, and study its effect on coordination through application to a supply chain procurement scenario involving a computer manufacturer. Here, all parties are represented by self-interested, autonomous agents, each capable of performing specific simple tasks. They negotiate with each other to perform complex tasks and thus coordinate supply chain procurement. Reinforcement learning is intended to enable each agent to reach a best negotiable price within a shortest possible time. Our simulations of the application scenario under different learning strategies reveals the positive effects of reinforcement learning on an agent's as well as the system's performance.

  15. Reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties of music in goldfish. (United States)

    Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ono, Haruka; Watanabe, Shigeru


    This paper investigated whether music has reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties in goldfish. Experiment 1 examined the discriminative stimulus properties of music. The subjects were successfully trained to discriminate between two pieces of music--Toccata and Fugue in D minor (BWV 565) by J. S. Bach and The Rite of Spring by I. Stravinsky. Experiment 2 examined the reinforcing properties of sounds, including BWV 565 and The Rite of Spring. We developed an apparatus for measuring spontaneous sound preference in goldfish. Music or noise stimuli were presented depending on the subject's position in the aquarium, and the time spent in each area was measured. The results indicated that the goldfish did not show consistent preferences for music, although they showed significant avoidance of noise stimuli. These results suggest that music has discriminative but not reinforcing stimulus properties in goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Constructive solutions for beamless capitalless floors with prestressed reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardysheva Yuliya Anatol'evna


    Full Text Available In the article the authors present advanced constructions of prestressed reinforced concrete flat ceiling, where high-strength ropes in elastic shell are used as stressed reinforcement. The novelty of the solution lays in diagonal arrangement of hard valves and use of high-strength ropes in a flexible shell of "Monostrand" type. This type of prestress, in our opinion, is the most acceptable from technical point of view for selective reinforcement of separate tense rods or cables. The use of pre-stressed reinforcement in the form of individual rods or cables increases the rigidity and crack resistance of concrete beamless slabs. The use of high-strength ropes in the monostrand-type shell makes it possible to prestress in frames of single cell plate or floor in general and to reduce labour input for stressing armature. The paper presents original solution with diagonal position of the valve. The authors suggest the use of prestressed diagonal valves as in all cells of the floor with the cells of the same or only slightly different size and in separate cells of the floor (for roofs with different cells. The diagonal location of stressed reinforcement proposed in the work is an efficient solution for extending the range of dimensions and loads size.

  17. Variability in prescription opioid intake and reinforcement amongst 129 substrains. (United States)

    Jimenez, S M; Healy, A F; Coelho, M A; Brown, C N; Kippin, T E; Szumlinski, K K


    Opioid abuse in the United States has reached epidemic proportions, with treatment admissions and deaths associated with prescription opioid abuse quadrupling over the past 10 years. Although genetics are theorized to contribute substantially to inter-individual variability in the development, severity and treatment outcomes of opioid abuse/addiction, little direct preclinical study has focused on the behavioral genetics of prescription opioid reinforcement and drug-taking. Herein, we employed different 129 substrains of mice currently available from The Jackson Laboratory (129S1/SvlmJ, 129X1/SvJ, 129S4/SvJaeJ and 129P3/J) as a model system of genetic variation and assayed mice for oral opioid intake and reinforcement, as well as behavioral and somatic signs of dependence. All substrains exhibited a dose-dependent increase in oral oxycodone and heroin preference and intake under limited-access procedures and all, but 129S1/SvlmJ mice, exhibited oxycodone reinforcement. Relative to the other substrains, 129P3/J mice exhibited higher heroin and oxycodone intake. While 129X1/SvJ exhibited the highest anxiety-like behavior during natural opioid withdrawal, somatic and behavior signs of precipitated withdrawal were most robust in 129P3/J mice. These results demonstrate the feasibility and relative sensitivity of our oral opioid self-administration procedures for detecting substrain differences in drug reinforcement/intake among 129 mice, of relevance to the identification of genetic variants contributing to high vs. low oxycodone reinforcement and intake. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie


    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  19. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.


    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...

  20. Stability of reinforced cemented backfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.J.; Stone, D.M.


    Mining with backfill has been the subject of several international meetings in recent years and a considerable research effort is being applied to improve both mining economics and ore recovery by using backfill for ground support. Classified mill tailings sands are the most commonly used backfill material but these fine sands must be stabilized before full ore pillar recovery can be achieved. Normal portland cement is generally used for stabilization but the high cost of cement prohibits high cement usage. This paper considers the use of reinforcements in cemented fill to reduce the cement usage. It is concluded that strong cemented layers at typical spacings of about 3 meters in a low cement content bulk fill can reinforce the fill and reduce the overall cement usage. Fibre reinforcements introduced into strong layers or into bulk fills are also known to be effective in reducing cement usage. Some development work is needed to produce the ideal type of anchored fibre in order to realize economic gains from fibre-reinforced fills

  1. Adaptive representations for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.


    This book presents new algorithms for reinforcement learning, a form of machine learning in which an autonomous agent seeks a control policy for a sequential decision task. Since current methods typically rely on manually designed solution representations, agents that automatically adapt their own

  2. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...... and alters the former, and vice versa. Consequently, if the appointed procedures of a game are no longer fixed and rigid in their conveyance of meaning, qua the appropriative and dissolving nature of play, then understandings of games as conveying a fixed meaning through their procedures are inadequate...

  3. Autologous Dermis Graft Implantation: A Novel Approach to Reinforcement in Giant Hiatal Hernias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Kovács


    Full Text Available Objectives. Nonreinforced tensile repair of giant hiatal hernias is susceptible to recurrence, and the role of mesh graft implantation remains controversial. Creating a new and viable choice without the use of high-cost biological allografts is desirable. This study presents the application of dermis graft reinforcement, a cost-efficient, easily adaptable alternative, in graft reinforcement of giant hiatal hernia repairs. Methods. A 62-year-old female patient with recurrent giant hiatal hernia (9 × 11 cm and upside down stomach, immediately following the Belsey repair done in another department, was selected for the pilot procedure. The standard three-stitch nonabsorbable reconstruction of diaphragmatic crura was undertaken via laparoscopic approach. A 12 × 6 cm dermis autograft was harvested from the loose abdominal skin. “U” figure onlay reinforcement of diaphragm closure was secured with titanium staples. The procedure was completed with a standard Dor fundoplication. One- and seven-month follow-ups were conducted. Results. No short-term postoperative complications were observed. One-month follow-up showed normal anatomical location of abdominal viscera on computed tomography imaging. High-resolution manometry showed normal lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Preoperative abdominal complaints were resolved. Procedural costs were lower than the average cost following mesh graft reinforcement. Conclusion. Dermis graft reinforcement is a cheap, easily adaptable procedure in the repair of giant hiatal hernias, even in the setting of laparoscopic reoperative procedure.

  4. On token reinforcement and stuttering therapy: another view on findings reported by Howie and Woods (1982). (United States)

    Ingham, R J


    Howie and Woods (1982) have provided data that, they claim, indicate that a token reinforcement system is redundant in instating and shaping fluent speech within a stuttering treatment program developed by Ingham and Andrews (1973a, b). However, there were substantial procedural differences between the treatment programs referred to in both studies, as well as methodological weaknesses in Howie and Woods' study. These factors provide ample sources of explanation for Howie and Woods' failure to demonstrate benefits from their token reinforcement system.

  5. Effect of reinforcer magnitude on performance maintained by progressive-ratio schedules. (United States)

    Rickard, J F; Body, S; Zhang, Z; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E


    This experiment examined the relationship between reinforcer magnitude and quantitative measures of performance on progressive-ratio schedules. Fifteen rats were trained under a progressive-ratio schedule in seven phases of the experiment in which the volume of a 0.6-M sucrose solution reinforcer was varied within the range 6-300 microl. Overall response rates in successive ratios conformed to a bitonic equation derived from Killeen's (1994) Mathematical Principles of Reinforcement. The "specific activation" parameter, a, which is presumed to reflect the incentive value of the reinforcer, was a monotonically increasing function of reinforcer volume; the "response time" parameter, delta, which defines the minimum response time, increased as a function of reinforcer volume; the "currency" parameter, beta, which is presumed to reflect the coupling of responses to the reinforcer, declined as a function of volume. Running response rate (response rate calculated after exclusion of the postreinforcement pause) decayed monotonically as a function of ratio size; the index of curvature of this function increased as a function of reinforcer volume. Postreinforcement pause increased as a function of ratio size. Estimates of a derived from overall response rates and postreinforcement pauses showed a modest positive correlation across conditions and between animals. Implications of the results for the quantification of reinforcer value and for the use of progressive-ratio schedules in behavioral neuroscience are discussed.

  6. Depression, Activity, and Evaluation of Reinforcement (United States)

    Hammen, Constance L.; Glass, David R., Jr.


    This research attempted to find the causal relation between mood and level of reinforcement. An effort was made to learn what mood change might occur if depressed subjects increased their levels of participation in reinforcing activities. (Author/RK)

  7. Articularities of Analysis and Behaviour of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fibrous Polymer Composite Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ţăranu


    Full Text Available Traditional steel based reinforcement systems for concrete elements are facing with serious problems mainly caused by corrosion due to chemically aggressive environments and salts used in deicing procedures, especially in case of bridge steel reinforced concrete girders. Also in some cases special applications require structural members with magnetic transparency. An alternative to this major problem has recently become the use of fiber reinforced polymer (FPR composite bars as internal reinforcement for concrete beams. The particularities of their mechanical properties are making the design process a difficult task for engineers, numerous research centers being involved in correcting this situation. The general aspects concerning the conceiving of FR.P reinforced concrete beams are firstly analyzed, compared to those reinforced with steel bars. Some results of a Finite Element Analysis, as part of a complex program which also implies full scale testing of FRP reinforced beams subjected to bending, are given and discussed in the paper. The low elasticity modulus presented by glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars does not justify its use from structural point of view when deflection is the limiting condition but for corrosive resistance reasons and special electromagnetic properties this system can be promoted.

  8. Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning (United States)

    Chater, Nick


    This special issue describes important recent developments in applying reinforcement learning models to capture neural and cognitive function. But reinforcement learning, as a theoretical framework, can apply at two very different levels of description: "mechanistic" and "rational." Reinforcement learning is often viewed in mechanistic terms--as…

  9. Rats do not respond differently in the presence of stimuli signaling wheel-running reinforcers of different durations. (United States)

    Belke, Terry W


    Rats were exposed to a fixed interval 30 s schedule that produced opportunities to run of equal or unequal durations to assess the effect of differences in duration on responding. Each duration was signaled by a different stimulus. Wheel-running reinforcer duration pairs were 30 s 30 s, 50 s 10 s, and 55 s 5 s. An analysis of median postreinforcement pause duration and mean local lever-pressing rates broken down by previous reinforcer duration and duration of signaled upcoming reinforcer showed that postreinforcement pause duration was affected by the duration of the previous reinforcer but not by the stimulus signaling the duration of the upcoming reinforcer. Local lever-pressing rates were not affected by either previous or upcoming reinforcer duration. In general, the results are consistent with indifference between these durations obtained using a concurrent choice procedure.

  10. Fibre reinforced composites '84; Proceedings of the International Conference, University of Liverpool, England, April 3-5, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Among the topics discussed are phenolic resin matrix composites for high temperature and fire-exposure applications, novel resins for fiber-reinforced composite productivity improvement, the use of engineering textiles for mechanical property improvement in composites, the significance of aramid fiber reinforcement in composites, the energy absorption properties of Sheet Metal Compounds (SMCs) under crash conditions, and SMC impact behavior variations with temperature. Also covered are CFRP applications in high performance structures, composite helicopter main rotor blade technology, composite vehicular leaf springs, carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, filament winding development status, the injection processing of fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, civil aircraft composite structure certification, composite radomes, design procedures for short fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, the strength limitations of mechanically fastened lap joints, environmental fatigue and creep in glass-reinforced materials, the effects of moisture on high performance laminates, the environmental behavior of SMC, and corrugated composites.

  11. Democratic reinforcement: A principle for brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassinopoulos, D.; Bak, P.


    We introduce a simple ''toy'' brain model. The model consists of a set of randomly connected, or layered integrate-and-fire neurons. Inputs to and outputs from the environment are connected randomly to subsets of neurons. The connections between firing neurons are strengthened or weakened according to whether the action was successful or not. Unlike previous reinforcement learning algorithms, the feedback from the environment is democratic: it affects all neurons in the same way, irrespective of their position in the network and independent of the output signal. Thus no unrealistic back propagation or other external computation is needed. This is accomplished by a global threshold regulation which allows the system to self-organize into a highly susceptible, possibly ''critical'' state with low activity and sparse connections between firing neurons. The low activity permits memory in quiescent areas to be conserved since only firing neurons are modified when new information is being taught

  12. Woodflour as Reinforcement of Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Caraschi


    Full Text Available The effect of the filler content and size, as well as accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with woodflour (WF/PP were evaluated. The composites were prepared by the extrusion of polypropylene with woodflour (Pinus elliotti based on following ratios: 15, 25 and 40 wt% with two different granulometries. The specimens were injection molded according to ASTM standards. The composite properties did not show significant differences as a function of the filler granulometry. We also observed that by increasing the filler content, both the mechanical properties and the melt flow index (MFI decreased, and the elasticity modulus, hardness and density increased. Concerning the accelerated aging, the composite presented a reduction in tensile properties. The results showed that the composite properties are extremely favorable when compared to other commercial systems reinforced by inorganic fillers.

  13. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.


    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  14. FRP reinforcement of timber structures


    Schober, Kay-Uwe; Harte, Annette M.; Kliger, Robert; Jockwer, Robert; Xu, Qingfeng; Chen, Jian-Fei


    Timber engineering has advanced over recent decades to offer an alternative to traditional materials and methods. The bonding of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) with adhesives to timber structures for repair and strengthening has many advantages. However, the lack of established design rules has strongly restrained the use of FRP strengthening in many situations, where these could be a preferable option to most traditional techniques. A significant body of research has been carried out in rec...

  15. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites. (United States)

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M


    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  16. Mechanics of fiber reinforced materials (United States)

    Sun, Huiyu

    This dissertation is dedicated to mechanics of fiber reinforced materials and the woven reinforcement and composed of four parts of research: analytical characterization of the interfaces in laminated composites; micromechanics of braided composites; shear deformation, and Poisson's ratios of woven fabric reinforcements. A new approach to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of interfaces between composite laminae based on a modified laminate theory is proposed. By including an interface as a special lamina termed the "bonding-layer" in the analysis, the mechanical properties of the interfaces are obtained. A numerical illustration is given. For micro-mechanical properties of three-dimensionally braided composite materials, a new method via homogenization theory and incompatible multivariable FEM is developed. Results from the hybrid stress element approach compare more favorably with the experimental data than other existing numerical methods widely used. To evaluate the shearing properties for woven fabrics, a new mechanical model is proposed during the initial slip region. Analytical results show that this model provides better agreement with the experiments for both the initial shear modulus and the slipping angle than the existing models. Finally, another mechanical model for a woven fabric made of extensible yarns is employed to calculate the fabric Poisson's ratios. Theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data. A thorough examination on the influences of various mechanical properties of yarns and structural parameters of fabrics on the Poisson's ratios of a woven fabric is given at the end.

  17. Reinforcement learning in computer vision (United States)

    Bernstein, A. V.; Burnaev, E. V.


    Nowadays, machine learning has become one of the basic technologies used in solving various computer vision tasks such as feature detection, image segmentation, object recognition and tracking. In many applications, various complex systems such as robots are equipped with visual sensors from which they learn state of surrounding environment by solving corresponding computer vision tasks. Solutions of these tasks are used for making decisions about possible future actions. It is not surprising that when solving computer vision tasks we should take into account special aspects of their subsequent application in model-based predictive control. Reinforcement learning is one of modern machine learning technologies in which learning is carried out through interaction with the environment. In recent years, Reinforcement learning has been used both for solving such applied tasks as processing and analysis of visual information, and for solving specific computer vision problems such as filtering, extracting image features, localizing objects in scenes, and many others. The paper describes shortly the Reinforcement learning technology and its use for solving computer vision problems.

  18. Place preference and vocal learning rely on distinct reinforcers in songbirds. (United States)

    Murdoch, Don; Chen, Ruidong; Goldberg, Jesse H


    In reinforcement learning (RL) agents are typically tasked with maximizing a single objective function such as reward. But it remains poorly understood how agents might pursue distinct objectives at once. In machines, multiobjective RL can be achieved by dividing a single agent into multiple sub-agents, each of which is shaped by agent-specific reinforcement, but it remains unknown if animals adopt this strategy. Here we use songbirds to test if navigation and singing, two behaviors with distinct objectives, can be differentially reinforced. We demonstrate that strobe flashes aversively condition place preference but not song syllables. Brief noise bursts aversively condition song syllables but positively reinforce place preference. Thus distinct behavior-generating systems, or agencies, within a single animal can be shaped by correspondingly distinct reinforcement signals. Our findings suggest that spatially segregated vocal circuits can solve a credit assignment problem associated with multiobjective learning.

  19. Educational Accounting Procedures. (United States)

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…

  20. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning. (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, B J


    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The present study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than did adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents toward action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggest possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior.

  1. Distal Oblique Bundle Reinforcement for Treatment of DRUJ Instability. (United States)

    Brink, Peter R G; Hannemann, Pascal F W


    Background Chronic, dynamic bidirectional instability in the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is diagnosed clinically, based on the patient's complaints and the finding of abnormal laxity in the vicinity of the distal ulna. In cases where malunion is ruled out or treated and there are no signs of osteoarthritis, stabilization of the DRUJ may offer relief. To this end, several different techniques have been investigated over the past 90 years. Materials and Methods In this article we outline the procedure for a new technique using a tendon graft to reinforce the distal edge of the interosseous membrane. Description of Technique A percutaneous technique is used to harvest the palmaris longus tendon and to create a tunnel, just proximal to the sigmoid notch, through the ulna and radius in an oblique direction. By overdrilling the radial cortex, the knotted tendon can be pulled through the radius and ulna and the knot blocked at the second radial cortex, creating a strong connection between the radius and ulna at the site of the distal oblique bundle (DOB). The tendon is fixed in the ulna with a small interference screw in full supination, preventing subluxation of the ulna out of the sigmoid notch during rotation. Results Fourteen patients were treated with this novel technique between 2011 and October 2013. The QuickDASH score at 25 months postoperatively (range 16-38 months) showed an improvement of 32 points. Similarly, an improvement of 33 points (67-34 months) was found on the PRWHE. Only one recurrence of chronic, dynamic bidirectional instability in the DRUJ was observed. Conclusion This simple percutaneous tenodesis technique between radius and ulna at the position of the distal edge of the interosseous membrane shows promise in terms of both restoring stability and relieving complaints related to chronic subluxation in the DRUJ.

  2. Conceptual design of reinforced concrete structures using topology optimization with elastoplastic material modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogomolny, Michael; Amir, Oded


    Design of reinforced concrete structures is governed by the nonlinear behavior of concrete and by its different strengths in tension and compression. The purpose of this article is to present a computational procedure for optimal conceptual design of reinforced concrete structures on the basis...... response must be considered. Optimized distribution of materials is achieved by introducing interpolation rules for both elastic and plastic material properties. Several numerical examples illustrate the capability and potential of the proposed procedure. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  3. Electromagnetic configurable architectures for assessment of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steigmann Rozina


    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics are used in most wide domains due their low density, lack of mechanical fatigue phenomena and high strength–to weight ratio. From electromagnetic point of view, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics structure represents an inhomogeneous structure of electric conductive fibers embedded into a dielectric material, thus an electromagnetic configurable architecture can be used to evaluate above mentioned defects. The paper proposes a special sensor, send receiver type and the obtaining of electromagnetic image by post-processing each coil signals in each point of scanning, using a sub-encoding image reconstruction algorithm and super-resolution procedures. The layout of fibers can be detected interrogating only diagonal reception coils.

  4. The effect of rules on differential reinforcement of other behavior. (United States)

    Watts, Amanda C; Wilder, David A; Gregory, Meagan K; Leon, Yanerys; Ditzian, Kyle


    Previous research on the treatment of problem behavior has shown differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) to be an effective behavior-reduction procedure. However, the extent to which presession descriptions of the DRO contingency enhance intervention effects has not been examined. In the current study, we compared a condition in which a presession rule that described the DRO contingency was given to a condition in which no rule was given for 4 participants. The target behavior was toy play, which served as an analogue to problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results showed that DRO was more efficient for 1 participant and more effective for 2 participants when a rule was given. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Neural mechanisms of negative reinforcement in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Damiano, Cara R; Cockrell, Dillon C; Dunlap, Kaitlyn; Hanna, Eleanor K; Miller, Stephanie; Bizzell, Joshua; Kovac, Megan; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Sideris, John; Kinard, Jessica; Dichter, Gabriel S


    Previous research has found accumulating evidence for atypical reward processing in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), particularly in the context of social rewards. Yet, this line of research has focused largely on positive social reinforcement, while little is known about the processing of negative reinforcement in individuals with ASD. The present study examined neural responses to social negative reinforcement (a face displaying negative affect) and non-social negative reinforcement (monetary loss) in children with ASD relative to typically developing children, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that children with ASD demonstrated hypoactivation of the right caudate nucleus while anticipating non-social negative reinforcement and hypoactivation of a network of frontostriatal regions (including the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) while anticipating social negative reinforcement. In addition, activation of the right caudate nucleus during non-social negative reinforcement was associated with individual differences in social motivation. These results suggest that atypical responding to negative reinforcement in children with ASD may contribute to social motivational deficits in this population.

  6. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites: Processing and properties (United States)

    Liu, Qiang

    A high efficiency rig was designed and built for in-plane permeability measurement of fabric materials. A new data derivation procedure to acquire the flow fluid pattern in the experiment was developed. The measurement results of the in-plane permeability for basalt twill 31 fabric material showed that a high correlation exists between the two principal permeability values for this fabric at 35% fiber volume fraction. This may be the most important scientific contribution made in this thesis. The results from radial measurements corresponded quite well with those from Unidirectional (UD) measurements, which is a well-established technique. No significant differences in mechanical properties were found between basalt fabric reinforced polymer composites and glass composites reinforced by a fabric of similar weave pattern. Aging results indicate that the interfacial region in basalt composites may be more vulnerable to environmental damage than that in glass composites. However, the basalt/epoxy interface may have been more durable than the glass/epoxy interface in tension-tension fatigue because the basalt composites have significantly longer fatigue life. In this thesis, chapter I reviews the literature on fiber reinforced polymer composites, with concentration on permeability measurement, mechanical properties and durability. Chapter II discusses the design of the new rig for in-plane permeability measurement, the new derivation procedure for monitoring of the fluid flow pattern, and the permeability measurement results. Chapter III compares the mechanical properties and durability between basalt fiber and glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Lastly, chapter IV gives some suggestions and recommendations for future work.

  7. An experiment on the use of disposable plastics as a reinforcement in concrete beams (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mostafiz R.


    Illustrated here is the concept of reinforced concrete structures by the use of computer simulation and an inexpensive hands-on design experiment. The students in our construction management program use disposable plastic as a reinforcement to demonstrate their understanding of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete beams. The plastics used for such an experiment vary from plastic bottles to steel reinforced auto tires. This experiment will show the extent to which plastic reinforcement increases the strength of a concrete beam. The procedure of using such throw-away plastics in an experiment to explain the interaction between the reinforcement material and concrete, and a comparison of the test results for using different types of waste plastics are discussed. A computer analysis to simulate the structural response is used to compare the test results and to understand the analytical background of reinforced concrete design. This interaction of using computers to analyze structures and to relate the output results with real experimentation is found to be a very useful method for teaching a math-based analytical subject to our non-engineering students.

  8. Structural reinforcement of a {theta}16 inches tee made during operation with composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beim, Andre [Tresca Engenharia Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vilani, Eduardo Cesar [Rust Engenharia Ltda., Diadema, SP (Brazil)


    An industrial installation went through a turnaround to increase capacity. A tie-in line had to be made for this, and a 16 inches diameter branch was required to be made on an existing 16 inches pipe. The joining of these elements resulted in a 'tee' that was supposed to receive a reinforcement plate. This reinforcement plate was not installed before the plant start-up. Code calculations and a finite element stress analysis showed that reinforcement was necessary. The only viable solution was the application of a composite material reinforcement, designed to substitute the missing reinforcement plate, and reduce the stresses to allowable levels. A new finite element stress analysis was made to determine the required thickness of this reinforcement. The first part of this work shows the results of the finite element stress analysis. Figures with stress contours of the analyses show the results. The second part shows the details of the installation of the reinforcement, which was made during normal operation of the plant. Pictures illustrate the main steps of the installation procedure. (author)

  9. Stress-Strain Relationship of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concrete Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Many empirical confinement models for normal and high strength concrete have been developed. Nevertheless, reported studies in the term of confinement of fiber reinforced concrete are limited. Whereas, the use of fiber reinforced concrete in structural elements has become the subject of the research and has indicated positive experiences. Since the stress-strain relationship of concrete in compression is required for analysis of structural members, the study of the stress-strain relationship for synthetic fiber reinforced concrete is substantial. The aim of the study is to examine the capabilities of the various models available in the literature to predict the actual experimental behavior of synthetic fiber reinforced high-strength concrete columns. The experimental data used are the results of the circular column specimens with the spiral spacing and the volume fraction of synthetic fiber as the test variables. The axial stress-strain curves from the tests are then compared with the various models of confinement from the literature. The performance index of each model is measured by using the coefficient of variation (COV concept of stress and strain behavior parameter. Among the confinement models, Cusson model shows the closest valid value of the coefficient of variation.

  10. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzad Abdul Saboor


    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  11. Radiochemical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.


    The modern counting instrumentation has largely obviated the need for separation processes in the radiochemical analysis but problems in low-level radioactivity measurement, environmental-type analyses, and special situations caused in the last years a renaissance of the need for separation techniques. Most of the radiochemical procedures, based on the classic works of the Manhattan Project chemists of the 1940's, were published in the National Nuclear Energy Series (NNES). Improvements such as new solvent extraction and ion exchange separations have been added to these methods throughout the years. Recently the Los Alamos Group have reissued their collected Radiochemical Procedures containing a short summary and review of basic inorganic chemistry - 'Chemistry of the Elements on the Basis of Electronic Configuration'. (A.L.)

  12. The repair and protection of reinforced concrete with migrating corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, D.


    The concrete is a very durable construction material and his use is based on the principle that concrete is an ideal environment for steel if properly proportioned and placed. In general, reinforced concrete has proved to be successful in terms of both structural performance and durability. However, there are instances of premature failure of reinforced concrete components due to corrosion of the reinforcement. Experience has shown that there are certain portions of exposed concrete structures more vulnerable than others. Methodology for concrete repair it addresses to suggestions of the types of repair methods and materials and a detailed description of the uses, limitations, materials, and procedures for Repair of Concrete. At same the time the methodology presents recommendation on materials, methods of mixing, application, curing and precautions to be exercised during placement. This work presents guidelines for managing reinforced concrete components and specifies the repair strategy with inhibitors incorporating. (authors)

  13. The effects of physical activity on impulsive choice: Influence of sensitivity to reinforcement amount and delay. (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Feinstein, Max A; Lacy, Ryan T; Smith, Mark A


    Impulsive choice is a diagnostic feature and/or complicating factor for several psychological disorders and may be examined in the laboratory using delay-discounting procedures. Recent investigators have proposed using quantitative measures of analysis to examine the behavioral processes contributing to impulsive choice. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of physical activity (i.e., wheel running) on impulsive choice in a single-response, discrete-trial procedure using two quantitative methods of analysis. To this end, rats were assigned to physical activity or sedentary groups and trained to respond in a delay-discounting procedure. In this procedure, one lever always produced one food pellet immediately, whereas a second lever produced three food pellets after a 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80-s delay. Estimates of sensitivity to reinforcement amount and sensitivity to reinforcement delay were determined using (1) a simple linear analysis and (2) an analysis of logarithmically transformed response ratios. Both analyses revealed that physical activity decreased sensitivity to reinforcement amount and sensitivity to reinforcement delay. These findings indicate that (1) physical activity has significant but functionally opposing effects on the behavioral processes that contribute to impulsive choice and (2) both quantitative methods of analysis are appropriate for use in single-response, discrete-trial procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Limit analysis of solid reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske


    Recent studies have shown that Semidefinite Programming (SDP) can be used effectively for limit analysis of isotropic cohesive-frictional continuums using the classical Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion. In this paper we expand on this previous research by adding reinforcement to the model and a solid...... reinforcement and it is therefore possible to analyze structures with complex reinforcement layouts. Tests are conducted to validate the method against well-known analytical solutions....

  15. Strength Characteristics of Reinforced Sandy Soil


    S. N. Bannikov; Mahamed Al Fayez


    Laboratory tests on determination of reinforced sandy soil strength characteristics (angle of internal friction, specific cohesive force) have been carried out with the help of a specially designed instrument and proposed methodology. Analysis of the obtained results has revealed that cohesive forces are brought about in reinforced sandy soil and an angle of internal soil friction becomes larger in comparison with non-reinforced soil.

  16. Behavior of reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freskakis, G.N.


    A study is presented concerning the behavior of reinforced concrete sections at elevated temperatures. Material properties of concrete and reinforcing steel are discussed. Behavior studies are made by means of moment-curvature-axial force relationships. Particular attention is given to the load carrying capacity, thermal forces and moments, and deformation capacity. The effects on these properties of variations in the strength properties, the temperature level and distribution, the amount of reinforcing steel, and limiting values of strains are considered

  17. Reinforcement Learning in Repeated Portfolio Decisions


    Diao, Linan; Rieskamp, Jörg


    How do people make investment decisions when they receive outcome feedback? We examined how well the standard mean-variance model and two reinforcement models predict people's portfolio decisions. The basic reinforcement model predicts a learning process that relies solely on the portfolio's overall return, whereas the proposed extended reinforcement model also takes the risk and covariance of the investments into account. The experimental results illustrate that people reacted sensitively to...

  18. Influence of fibre orientation on the performance of steel fibre-reinforced concrete


    Grünewald, Steffen; Laranjeira de Oliveira, Filipe; Walraven, Joost; Aguado de Cea, Antonio; Molins i Borrell, Climent


    The performance of fibre-reinforced materials in the hardened state depends on the material behaviour, the production method and influences related to the structure. The position and the orientation of fibres in a structure can differ from the homogenous distribution and the random orientation in a mixer. Due to the flow of the concrete, fibres are able to orient which makes the prediction of the structural behaviour of fibre-reinforced concrete more complex, but it also offers the potential ...

  19. Reinforcement of RC structure by carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissi B.


    Full Text Available In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to the increased spending on building maintenance work and restoration of built works. In all cases, it is essential to carry out methods of reinforcement or maintenance of structural elements, following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. This research focuses on the calculation of the necessary reinforcement sections of carbon fiber for structural elements with reinforced concrete in order to improve their load bearing capacity and rigidity. The different results obtained reveal a considerable gain in resistance and deformation capacity of reinforced sections without significant increase in the weight of the rehabilitated elements.

  20. Methodology of shell structure reinforcement layout optimization (United States)

    Szafrański, Tomasz; Małachowski, Jerzy; Damaziak, Krzysztof


    This paper presents an optimization process of a reinforced shell diffuser intended for a small wind turbine (rated power of 3 kW). The diffuser structure consists of multiple reinforcement and metal skin. This kind of structure is suitable for optimization in terms of selection of reinforcement density, stringers cross sections, sheet thickness, etc. The optimisation approach assumes the reduction of the amount of work to be done between the optimization process and the final product design. The proposed optimization methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm to generate the optimal reinforcement layout. The obtained results are the basis for modifying the existing Small Wind Turbine (SWT) design.

  1. Reinforcement learning or active inference? (United States)

    Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J


    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  2. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Friston


    Full Text Available This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  3. Enhancing corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures with hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunt, J.; Jen, G.; Ostertag, C.P.


    Highlights: • Reinforced concrete beams were subjected to cyclic flexural loading. • Hybrid fiber reinforced composites were effective in reducing corrosion rates. • Crack resistance due to fibers increased corrosion resistance of steel rebar. • Galvanic corrosion measurements underestimated corrosion rates. • Polarization resistance measurements predicted mass loss more accurately. - Abstract: Service loads well below the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars lead to cracking of reinforced concrete. This paper investigates whether the crack resistance of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HyFRC) reduces the corrosion rate of steel reinforcing bars in concrete after cyclic flexural loading. The reinforcing bars were extracted to examine their surface for corrosion and compare microcell and macrocell corrosion mass loss estimates against direct gravimetric measurements. A delay in corrosion initiation and lower active corrosion rates were observed in the HyFRC beam specimens when compared to reinforced specimens containing plain concrete matrices cycled at the same flexural load

  4. Intranasal oxytocin enhances socially-reinforced learning in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Parr


    Full Text Available There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of social deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. One hypothesis for these deficits is that individuals with ASD lack the motivation to attend to social cues because those cues are not implicitly rewarding. Therefore, any drug that could enhance the rewarding quality of social stimuli could have a profound impact on the treatment of ASD, and other social disorders. Oxytocin (OT is a neuropeptide that has been effective in enhancing social cognition and social reward in humans. The present study examined the ability of OT to selectively enhance learning after social compared to nonsocial reward in rhesus monkeys, an important species for modeling the neurobiology of social behavior in humans. Monkeys were required to learn an implicit visual matching task after receiving either intranasal (IN OT or Placebo (saline. Correct trials were rewarded with the presentation of positive and negative social (play faces/threat faces or nonsocial (banana/cage locks stimuli, plus food. Incorrect trials were not rewarded. Results demonstrated a strong effect of socially-reinforced learning, monkeys’ performed significantly better when reinforced with social versus nonsocial stimuli. Additionally, socially-reinforced learning was significantly better and occurred faster after IN-OT compared to placebo treatment. Performance in the IN-OT, but not Placebo, condition was also significantly better when the reinforcement stimuli were emotionally positive compared to negative facial expressions. These data support the hypothesis that OT may function to enhance prosocial behavior in primates by increasing the rewarding quality of emotionally positive, social compared to emotionally negative or nonsocial images. These data also support the use of the rhesus monkey as a model for exploring the neurobiological basis of social behavior and its impairment.

  5. GA-based fuzzy reinforcement learning for control of a magnetic bearing system. (United States)

    Lin, C T; Jou, C P


    This paper proposes a TD (temporal difference) and GA (genetic algorithm)-based reinforcement (TDGAR) learning method and applies it to the control of a real magnetic bearing system. The TDGAR learning scheme is a new hybrid GA, which integrates the TD prediction method and the GA to perform the reinforcement learning task. The TDGAR learning system is composed of two integrated feedforward networks. One neural network acts as a critic network to guide the learning of the other network (the action network) which determines the outputs (actions) of the TDGAR learning system. The action network can be a normal neural network or a neural fuzzy network. Using the TD prediction method, the critic network can predict the external reinforcement signal and provide a more informative internal reinforcement signal to the action network. The action network uses the GA to adapt itself according to the internal reinforcement signal. The key concept of the TDGAR learning scheme is to formulate the internal reinforcement signal as the fitness function for the GA such that the GA can evaluate the candidate solutions (chromosomes) regularly, even during periods without external feedback from the environment. This enables the GA to proceed to new generations regularly without waiting for the arrival of the external reinforcement signal. This can usually accelerate the GA learning since a reinforcement signal may only be available at a time long after a sequence of actions has occurred in the reinforcement learning problem. The proposed TDGAR learning system has been used to control an active magnetic bearing (AMB) system in practice. A systematic design procedure is developed to achieve successful integration of all the subsystems including magnetic suspension, mechanical structure, and controller training. The results show that the TDGAR learning scheme can successfully find a neural controller or a neural fuzzy controller for a self-designed magnetic bearing system.

  6. Learning alternative movement coordination patterns using reinforcement feedback. (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Hsiang; Denomme, Amber; Ranganathan, Rajiv


    One of the characteristic features of the human motor system is redundancy-i.e., the ability to achieve a given task outcome using multiple coordination patterns. However, once participants settle on using a specific coordination pattern, the process of learning to use a new alternative coordination pattern to perform the same task is still poorly understood. Here, using two experiments, we examined this process of how participants shift from one coordination pattern to another using different reinforcement schedules. Participants performed a virtual reaching task, where they moved a cursor to different targets positioned on the screen. Our goal was to make participants use a coordination pattern with greater trunk motion, and to this end, we provided reinforcement by making the cursor disappear if the trunk motion during the reach did not cross a specified threshold value. In Experiment 1, we compared two reinforcement schedules in two groups of participants-an abrupt group, where the threshold was introduced immediately at the beginning of practice; and a gradual group, where the threshold was introduced gradually with practice. Results showed that both abrupt and gradual groups were effective in shifting their coordination patterns to involve greater trunk motion, but the abrupt group showed greater retention when the reinforcement was removed. In Experiment 2, we examined the basis of this advantage in the abrupt group using two additional control groups. Results showed that the advantage of the abrupt group was because of a greater number of practice trials with the desired coordination pattern. Overall, these results show that reinforcement can be successfully used to shift coordination patterns, which has potential in the rehabilitation of movement disorders.

  7. Structural Effects of Reinforced Concrete Beam Due to Corrosion (United States)

    Noh, Hamidun Mohd; Idris, Nur'ain; Noor, Nurazuwa Md; Sarpin, Norliana; Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah


    Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete is one of the main issues among construction stakeholders. The main consequences of steel corrosion include loss of cross section of steel area, generation of expansive pressure which caused cracking of concrete, spalling and delaminating of the concrete cover. Thus, it reduces the bond strength between the steel reinforcing bar and concrete, and deteriorating the strength of the structure. The objective of this study is to investigate the structural effects of corrosion damage on the performance of reinforced concrete beam. A series of corroded reinforced concrete beam with a corrosion rate of 0%, 20% and 40% of rebar corrosion is used in parametric study to assess the influence of different level of corrosion rate to the structural performance. As a result, the used of interface element in the finite element modelling predicted the worst case of corrosion analysis since cracks is induced and generate at this surface. On the other hand, a positive linear relationship was sketched between the increase of expansive pressure and the corrosion rate. Meanwhile, the gradient of the graph is decreased with the increase of steel bar diameter. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of the structure where the higher corrosion rate generates a higher stress concentration at the mid span of the beam. This study could predict the residual strength of reinforced concrete beam under the corrosion using the finite element analysis. The experimental validation is needed on the next stage to investigate the quantitative relation between the corrosion rate and its influence on the mechanical properties.

  8. Collapse mechanisms and strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe G.; Hoang, Linh Cao


    . Calculations have been compared with nearly 200 test results found in the literature. Satisfactory agreement has been found. The analyses are conducted on concentrically loaded caps supported by four piles. The paper briefly outlines how the approach may be extended to more complicated loadings and geometries......This paper describes an upper bound plasticity approach for strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps. A number of collapse mechanisms are identified and analysed. The procedure leads to an estimate of the load-carrying capacity and an identification of the critical collapse mechanism...

  9. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in bending with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. VIEIRA

    Full Text Available The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP has been widely used for the reinforcement of concrete structures due to its practicality and versatility in application, low weight, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance. Some construction companies use CFRP in flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, but without anchor systems. Therefore, the aim of this study is analyze, through an experimental program, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams flexural strengthened by CFRP without anchor fibers, varying steel reinforcement and the amount of carbon fibers reinforcement layers. Thus, two groups of reinforced concrete beams were produced with the same geometric feature but with different steel reinforcement. Each group had five beams: one that is not reinforced with CFRP (reference and other reinforced with two, three, four and five layers of carbon fibers. Beams were designed using a computational routine developed in MAPLE software and subsequently tested in 4-point points flexural test up to collapse. Experimental tests have confirmed the effectiveness of the reinforcement, ratifying that beams collapse at higher loads and lower deformation as the amount of fibers in the reinforcing layers increased. However, the increase in the number of layers did not provide a significant increase in the performance of strengthened beams, indicating that it was not possible to take full advantage of strengthening applied due to the occurrence of premature failure mode in the strengthened beams for pullout of the cover that could have been avoided through the use of a suitable anchoring system for CFRP.

  10. Full surface inspection methods regarding reinforcement corrosion of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichling, K.; Raupach, M.; Broomfield, J.; Gulikers, J.; L'Hostis, Valerie


    For reinforced concrete structures a localisation of all significant critical areas can only be done by a full surface inspection. The economic advantages are obvious: uncritical areas have not to be repaired expensively.The first step of the assessment should always be a visual inspection. The range of deterioration causes can be limited and the degree of deterioration may be estimated roughly. The inspection program can be adjusted to the requirements. By means of a full surface potential mapping areas with a high risk for chloride induced reinforcement corrosion can be localised, although no deteriorations are visually detectable at the concrete surface. In combination with concrete cover depth and resistivity measurements areas with corrosion promoting exposure conditions can be localised even if the reinforcement is not yet de-passivated. The following publication gives an overview about the essential full surface investigation methods to localise critical areas regarding corrosion of steel in concrete. The selection of methods is based on the inspection procedure given in reference 2. (authors)

  11. Structure identification in fuzzy inference using reinforcement learning (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap


    In our previous work on the GARIC architecture, we have shown that the system can start with surface structure of the knowledge base (i.e., the linguistic expression of the rules) and learn the deep structure (i.e., the fuzzy membership functions of the labels used in the rules) by using reinforcement learning. Assuming the surface structure, GARIC refines the fuzzy membership functions used in the consequents of the rules using a gradient descent procedure. This hybrid fuzzy logic and reinforcement learning approach can learn to balance a cart-pole system and to backup a truck to its docking location after a few trials. In this paper, we discuss how to do structure identification using reinforcement learning in fuzzy inference systems. This involves identifying both surface as well as deep structure of the knowledge base. The term set of fuzzy linguistic labels used in describing the values of each control variable must be derived. In this process, splitting a label refers to creating new labels which are more granular than the original label and merging two labels creates a more general label. Splitting and merging of labels directly transform the structure of the action selection network used in GARIC by increasing or decreasing the number of hidden layer nodes.

  12. Investigation of nanoscale reinforcement into textile polymers (United States)

    Khan, Mujibur Rahman

    A dual inclusion strategy for textile polymers has been investigated to increase elastic energy storage capacity of fibers used in high velocity impact applications. Commercial fibers such as Spectra and Dyneema are made from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Dynamic elastic energy of these fibers is still low therefore limiting their wholesale application without a secondary metallic or ceramic component. The idea in this investigation is to develop methodologies so that the elastic energy of polyethylene based fibers can be increased by several folds. This would allow manufacturing of an all-fabric system for high impact applications. The dual inclusion consists of a polymer phase and a nanoscale inorganic phase to polyethylene. The polymer phase was nylon-6 and the inorganic phase was carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nylon-6 was blended as a minor phase into UHMWPE and was chosen because of its large fracture strain -- almost one order higher than that of UHMWPE. On the other hand, CNTs with their very high strength, modulus, and aspect ratio, contributed to sharing of load and sliding of polymer interfaces as they aligned during extrusion and strain hardening processes. A solution spinning process was developed to produce UHMWPE filaments reinforced with CNTs and nylon-6. The procedure involved dispersing of CNTs into paraffin oil through sonication followed by dissolving polymers into paraffin-CNT solution using a homogenizer. The admixture was fed into a single screw extruder for melt mixing and extrusion through an orifice. The extrudate was rinsed via a hexane bath, stabilized through a heater, and then drawn into a filament winder with controlled stretching. In the next step, the as produced filaments were strain-hardened through repeated loading unloading cycles under tension. Neat and reinforced filaments were characterized through DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), XRD (X-ray Diffraction), Raman Spectroscopy, SEM (Scanning Electron

  13. Nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete shells with edge beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa Rao, P.; Duraiswamy, S.


    The structural design of reinforced and prestressed concrete shells demands the application of nonlinear finite element analysis (NFEM) procedures to ensure safety and serviceability. In this paper the details of a comprehensive NFEM program developed are presented. The application of the program is highlighted by solving two numerical problems and comparing the results with experimental results. (author). 20 refs., 15 figs

  14. Creating Tic Suppression: Comparing the Effects of Verbal Instruction to Differential Reinforcement (United States)

    Woods, Douglas W.; Himle, Michael B.


    The purpose of this study was to compare two methods designed to produce tic reduction in 4 children with Tourette's syndrome. Specifically, a verbal instruction not to engage in tics was compared to a verbal instruction plus differential reinforcement of zero-rate behavior (DRO). Results showed that the DRO-enhanced procedure yielded greater…

  15. Improve and reinforced aspects associated with the behaviour of control-room operators of NNPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A. S.


    This article is devoted to explain the training experience carried out in Tecnatom, in order to improve and reinforce aspects associated with the behavior of Control-Room (CR) Operators of Nuclear Power Stations (Reactor Operators/Supervisors) in the training Simulator-setting, centered mainly in aspects of: Team Work, Effective Communications, Use of Procedures, Self checking, Decisions Making, Diagnosis, Leadership, Motivation and other attitudes to promote during the shift. The experience has been positive for everybody and the results welcomed by the participants, who have fed back the process positively. The experienced training cycle is new and it basically consists in developing, in the Simulator setting and, with a specific programme, behaviors in such a way that the participants reflect and, consider as theirs, the expectations and criteria developed on the previously points, where the role of the instructor Assistant, is only to guide, help, observe, challenge, encourage, create possibilities, motivate, suggest and reflect in such a way that the participant may be able to learn by himself. (Author)

  16. Shear Bond Strength of Resin Buttons to Lithium Disilicate and Leucite Reinforced Feldspathic Restorations (United States)


    utilizing enamel bonding procedures. These fixed orthodontic appliances are the gold standard in orthodontic treatment and can be used to correct... enamel of teeth. When this same procedure needs to be done on a restorative material such as lithium disilicate, or leucite reinforced feldspathic...toughness from its crystal size and orientation which causes cracks to deflect instead of propagate. The second material being tested, IPS Empress

  17. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... place until the matrix, the continuous component of the composite, fails. When an isotropic matrix is reinforced as described above, the result is an anisotropic composite material. Even if the material is anisotropic, it usually exhibits a rather high degree of symmetry and such symmetries place...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  18. Prior methylphenidate self-administration alters the subsequent reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in rats. (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; Umpierre, Anthony; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E


    Methylphenidate (MPD) is clinically effective in treating the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; however, its relatively widespread availability has raised public health concerns on nonmedical use of MPD among certain adult populations. Most preclinical studies investigate whether presumed therapeutically relevant doses of MPD alter sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of other drugs, but it remains unclear whether doses of MPD likely exceeding therapeutic relevance impact the subsequent reinforcing effects of drugs. To begin to address this question, the effect of prior MPD self-administration (0.56 mg/kg/infusion) on the subsequent reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (METH, 0.032 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. For comparison, it was also determined whether prior experimenter-administered MPD, injected daily at a presumed therapeutically relevant dose (2 mg/kg), altered the subsequent reinforcing effects of METH. Results indicated that, under the current conditions, only a history of MPD self-administration increased sensitivity to the subsequent reinforcing effects of METH. Furthermore, MPD did not impact food-maintained responding, suggesting that the effect of MPD might be specific to drug reinforcers. These data suggest that short-term, nonmedical use of MPD might alter the positive reinforcing effects of METH in a manner relevant to vulnerability to drug use in humans.

  19. The partial-reinforcement extinction effect and the contingent-sampling hypothesis. (United States)

    Hochman, Guy; Erev, Ido


    The partial-reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) implies that learning under partial reinforcements is more robust than learning under full reinforcements. While the advantages of partial reinforcements have been well-documented in laboratory studies, field research has failed to support this prediction. In the present study, we aimed to clarify this pattern. Experiment 1 showed that partial reinforcements increase the tendency to select the promoted option during extinction; however, this effect is much smaller than the negative effect of partial reinforcements on the tendency to select the promoted option during the training phase. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the overall effect of partial reinforcements varies inversely with the attractiveness of the alternative to the promoted behavior: The overall effect is negative when the alternative is relatively attractive, and positive when the alternative is relatively unattractive. These results can be captured with a contingent-sampling model assuming that people select options that provided the best payoff in similar past experiences. The best fit was obtained under the assumption that similarity is defined by the sequence of the last four outcomes.

  20. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. ... interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the ... preferably in the areas of industrial and transport activities. ... For controlling the embedded corrosion sensors, elec- .... danger of corrosion of reinforcement seems to be more.

  1. Reinforcement, Behavior Constraint, and the Overjustification Effect. (United States)

    Williams, Bruce W.


    Four levels of the behavior constraint-reinforcement variable were manipulated: attractive reward, unattractive reward, request to perform, and a no-reward control. Only the unattractive reward and request groups showed the performance decrements that suggest the overjustification effect. It is concluded that reinforcement does not cause the…

  2. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jute fibre; laminated paper composite; plastic bag pollution. Abstract. Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate ...

  3. Durability of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard


    The planned research will indicate, whether fibre reinforced concrete has better or worse durability than normal concrete. Durability specimens will be measured on cracked as well as uncracked specimens. Also the pore structure in the concrete will be characterized.Keywords: Fibre reinforced...... concrete, durability, pore structure, mechanical load...

  4. Rotational Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune


    programme where 120 reinforced concrete beams, 54 plain concrete beams and 324 concrete cylinders are tested. For the reinforced concrete beams four different parar meters are varied. The slenderness is 6, 12 and 18, the beam depth is 100 mm, 200 mm and 400 mm giving nine different geometries, five...

  5. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars (United States)

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  6. Stripping demolition of reinforced concrete by electric heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Wahei; Nishita, Kiwamu; Kasai, Yoshio


    The present paper describes the procedures and results of a series of experiments the authors conducted to verify the efficiency of the electric heating method, previously proposed for so-called stripping demolition by applying electric current through reinforcing bars. In this method, a low voltage high current is run from one end to the other of a reinforcing bar or bars existing in a concrete structure, inducing intense heat in the bar(s) which in its turn brings about cracks in the surrounding concrete mass, facilitating secondary demolition by hammer picks or other means. The experiments were performed on full-scale biological shield wall mock-ups of a BWR and a small reactor. The results of the experiments are summarized as follows. (1) When electric current is applied through reinforcing bars, the bond between concrete and bars is loosened, and cracks start from one bar and progress toward other bars. Under appropriate conditions, the cracks in concrete run from the contact surface at one bar all the way to its the contact surface on another bar. (2) Cracks appear and grow only between two electrodes between which current is applied, not extending out of the area thus defined. (3) The concrete in the region closer to a current-bearing bar is intensely heated, whereas the concrete far from the bars remains nearly unheated. (4) Concrete walls after electric heating of bars disintegrates, if demolished with hammers, with the covering concrete are removed from the remaining portion of the structure together with heated bars, in shapes of flakes. (5) The reinforced concrete collapses in massive pieces of concrete, without generating much dust as is the case with the demolition of a concrete structure not heated by electricity. Results of the experiments show that the electric heating method is worth applying also to the demolition of nuclear power plants where concrete in the radioactivated surface region of shield walls needs to be stripped off in flakes

  7. Improving Toilet-Use (Encopresis) in a Nine-Year-Old Male through Full-Cleanliness Training and Token Reinforcement. (United States)

    Akande, Adebowale


    Describes assessment and successful treatment of a preadolescent with erratic toileting behavior and related social skills difficulties. Treatment included monitoring of bowel movements, using a star chart, and applying rewards as positive reinforcement of acceptable behavior. (HTH)

  8. Uncertainties Concerning the Free Vibration of Inhomogeneous Orthotropic Reinforced Concrete Plates (United States)

    Shahsavar, Vahid Lal; Tofighi, Samira


    Analyzing nearly collapsed and broken structures gives good insights into possible architectural and engineering design mistakes and faults in the detailing and mismanagement of a construction by building contractors. Harmful vibration effects of construction operations occur frequently. The background reviews have demonstrated that the problem of the vibration serviceability of long-span concrete floors in buildings is complex and interdisciplinary in nature. In public buildings, floor vibration control is required in order to meet Serviceability Limit States that ensure the comfort of the users of a building. In industrial buildings, machines are often placed on floors. Machines generate vibrations of various frequencies, which are transferred to supporting constructions. Precision machines require a stable floor with defined and known dynamic characteristics. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the motion of elastic bodies whose material properties (density, elastic moduli, etc.) are not constant, but vary with their position, perhaps in a random manner. Concrete is a non-homogeneous and anisotropic material. Modeling the mechanical behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) is still one of the most difficult challenges in the field of structural engineering. One of several methods for determining the dynamic modulus of the elasticity of engineering materials is the vibration frequency procedure. In this method, the required variables except for the modulus of elasticity are accurately and certainly determined. In this research, the uncertainly analysis of the free vibration of inhomogeneous orthotropic reinforced concrete plates has been investigated. Due to the numerous outputs obtained, the software package has been written in Matlab, and an analysis of the data and drawing related charts has been done.

  9. Reinforcement Learning State-of-the-Art

    CERN Document Server

    Wiering, Marco


    Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together the...

  10. The power of Nutrition Impact and Positive Practice (NIPP) Circles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family members we identify existing, positive behaviours of mothers or caretakers in ..... foods is practice to reinforce that idea. In order to help the volunteer ... exercises are only covered in theory, whereas the women's groups need to practice ...

  11. Position Information (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  12. Long-term performance of GFRP reinforcement : technical report. (United States)


    Significant research has been performed on glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) concrete reinforcement. : This research has shown that GFRP reinforcement exhibits high strengths, is lightweight, can decrease time of : construction, and is corrosion ...

  13. Differential reinforcement and resistance to change of divided-attention performance. (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Thrailkill, Eric; Shahan, Timothy A


    Behavioral momentum theory provides a framework for understanding how conditions of reinforcement influence instrumental response strength under conditions of disruption (i.e., resistance to change). The present experiment examined resistance to change of divided-attention performance when different overall probabilities of reinforcement were arranged across two components of a multiple schedule. Pigeons responded in a delayed-matching-to-sample procedure with compound samples (color + line orientation) and element comparisons (two colors or two line orientations). Reinforcement ratios of 1:9, 1:1, and 9:1 for accurate matches on the two types of comparison trials were examined across conditions using reinforcement probabilities (color/lines) of .9/.1, .5/.5, and .1/.9 in the rich component and .18/.02, .1/.1, and .02/.18 in the lean component. Relative accuracy with color and line comparisons was an orderly function of relative reinforcement, but this relation did not depend on the overall rate of reinforcement between components. The resistance to change of divided-attention performance was greater for both trial types in the rich component with presession feeding and extinction, but not with decreases in sample duration. These findings suggest promise for the applicability of quantitative models of operant behavior to divided-attention performance, but they highlight the need to further explore conditions impacting the resistance to change of attending.

  14. Autoshaping the pigeon's gape response: acquisition and topography as a function of reinforcer type and magnitude. (United States)

    Allan, R W; Zeigler, H P


    The pigeon's key-pecking response is experimentally dissociable into transport (head movement) and gape (jaw movement) components. During conditioning of the key-pecking response, both components come under the control of the conditioned stimulus. To study the acquisition of gape conditioned responses and to clarify the contribution of unconditioned stimulus (reinforcer) variables to the form of the response, gape and key-contact responses were recorded during an autoshaping procedure and reinforcer properties were systematically varied. One group of 8 pigeons was food deprived and subgroups of 2 birds each were exposed to four different pellet sizes as reinforcers, each reinforcer signaled by a keylight conditioned stimulus. A second group was water deprived and received water reinforcers paired with the conditioned stimulus. Water- or food-deprived control groups received appropriate water or food reinforcers that were randomly delivered with respect to the keylight stimulus. Acquisition of the conditioned gape response frequently preceded key-contact responses, and gape conditioned responses were generally elicited at higher rates than were key contacts. The form of the conditioned gape was similar to, but not identical with, the form of the unconditioned gape. The gape component is a critical topographical feature of the conditioned key peck, a sensitive measure of conditioning during autoshaping, and an important source of the observed similarities in the form of conditioned and consummatory responses.

  15. Studies of wheel-running reinforcement: parameters of Herrnstein's (1970) response-strength equation vary with schedule order. (United States)

    Belke, T W


    Six male Wistar rats were exposed to different orders of reinforcement schedules to investigate if estimates from Herrnstein's (1970) single-operant matching law equation would vary systematically with schedule order. Reinforcement schedules were arranged in orders of increasing and decreasing reinforcement rate. Subsequently, all rats were exposed to a single reinforcement schedule within a session to determine within-session changes in responding. For each condition, the operant was lever pressing and the reinforcing consequence was the opportunity to run for 15 s. Estimates of k and R(O) were higher when reinforcement schedules were arranged in order of increasing reinforcement rate. Within a session on a single reinforcement schedule, response rates increased between the beginning and the end of a session. A positive correlation between the difference in parameters between schedule orders and the difference in response rates within a session suggests that the within-session change in response rates may be related to the difference in the asymptotes. These results call into question the validity of parameter estimates from Herrnstein's (1970) equation when reinforcer efficacy changes within a session.

  16. A joint procedural position statement on imaging in cardiac sarcoidosis : from the Cardiovascular and Inflammation & Infection Committees of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, Riemer H J A; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Hyafil, Fabien; Blankstein, Ron; Schwartz, Ronald G; Jaber, Wael A; Russell, Raymond; Gimelli, Alessia; Rouzet, François; Hacker, Marcus; Gheysens, Olivier; Plein, Sven; Miller, Edward J; Dorbala, Sharmila; Donal, Erwan


    This joint position paper illustrates the role and the correct use of echocardiography, radionuclide imaging with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation and management of

  17. A joint procedural position statement on imaging in cardiac sarcoidosis: from the Cardiovascular and Inflammation & Infection Committees of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, and the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Hyafil, Fabien; Blankstein, Ron; Schwartz, Ronald G.; Jaber, Wael A.; Russell, Raymond; Gimelli, Alessia; Rouzet, Francois; Hacker, Marcus; Gheysens, Olivier; Plein, Sven; Miller, Edward J.; Dorbala, Sharmila; Donal, Erwan; Sciagra, Roberto; Bucerius, Jan; Verberne, Hein J.; Lindner, Oliver; Uebleis, Christopher; Agostini, Denis; Signore, Alberto; Edvardsen, Thor; Neglia, Danilo; Beanlands, Rob S.; Di Carli, Marcelo; Chareonthaitawee, Panithaya; Dilsizian, Vasken; Soman, Prem; Habib, Gilbert


    This joint position paper illustrates the role and the correct use of echocardiography, radionuclide imaging with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation and management of

  18. Development of technology for fabrication of lithium CPS on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina; Baklanov, Viktor; Ponkratov, Yuriy; Abdullin, Khabibulla; Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Zaurbekova, Zhanna; Lyublinski, Igor; Vertkov, Alexey; Skakov, Mazhyn


    Highlights: • Preliminary study of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium is presented. • Preliminary studies of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium consist in carrying out of experiments at temperatures 673,773 and 873 К in vacuum during long time. • A scheme of experimental device for manufacturing of lithium CPS and matrix filling procedure with liquid lithium are presented. • The concept of lithium limiter with CPS on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric is proposed. - Abstract: The paper describes the analysis of liquid lithium interaction with materials based on carbon, the manufacture technology of capillary-porous system (CPS) matrix on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric. Preliminary study of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium is presented. The development of technology includes: microstructural studies of carboxylic fabric before its CNT-reinforcing; validation of CNT-reinforcing technology; mode validation of CVD-method for CNT synthesize; study of synthesized carbon structures. Preliminary studies of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium consist in carrying out of experiments at temperatures 673, 773 and 873 К in vacuum during long time. The scheme of experimental device for manufacturing of lithium CPS and matrix filling procedure with liquid lithium are presented. The concept of lithium limiter with CPS on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric is proposed.

  19. Development of technology for fabrication of lithium CPS on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Baklanov, Viktor; Ponkratov, Yuriy [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Abdullin, Khabibulla [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Zaurbekova, Zhanna [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Lyublinski, Igor [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU «MEPhI», Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, Alexey [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); Skakov, Mazhyn [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)


    Highlights: • Preliminary study of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium is presented. • Preliminary studies of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium consist in carrying out of experiments at temperatures 673,773 and 873 К in vacuum during long time. • A scheme of experimental device for manufacturing of lithium CPS and matrix filling procedure with liquid lithium are presented. • The concept of lithium limiter with CPS on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric is proposed. - Abstract: The paper describes the analysis of liquid lithium interaction with materials based on carbon, the manufacture technology of capillary-porous system (CPS) matrix on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric. Preliminary study of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium is presented. The development of technology includes: microstructural studies of carboxylic fabric before its CNT-reinforcing; validation of CNT-reinforcing technology; mode validation of CVD-method for CNT synthesize; study of synthesized carbon structures. Preliminary studies of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium consist in carrying out of experiments at temperatures 673, 773 and 873 К in vacuum during long time. The scheme of experimental device for manufacturing of lithium CPS and matrix filling procedure with liquid lithium are presented. The concept of lithium limiter with CPS on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric is proposed.

  20. A Randomized Trial of Adjunct mHealth Abstinence Reinforcement With Transdermal Nicotine and Counseling for Smoking Cessation. (United States)

    Alessi, Sheila M; Rash, Carla J; Petry, Nancy M


    Abstinence reinforcement is efficacious for improving smoking treatment outcomes, but practical constraints related to the need for multiple in-person carbon monoxide (CO) breath tests daily to verify smoking abstinence have limited its use. This study tested an mHealth procedure to remotely monitor and reinforce smoking abstinence in individuals' natural environment. Eligible treatment-seeking smokers (N = 90) were randomized to (1) usual care and ecological monitoring with abstinence reinforcement (mHealth reinforcement) or (2) without reinforcement (mHealth monitoring). Usual care was 8 weeks of transdermal nicotine and twice-weekly telephone counseling. Following training, an interactive voice response system prompted participants to conduct CO tests 1-3 daily at pseudorandom times (7 am to 10 pm) for 4 weeks. When prompted, participants used a study cell phone and CO monitor to complete a CO self-test, video record the process, and submit videos using multimedia messaging. mHealth reinforcement participants could earn prizes for smoking-negative on-time CO tests. The interactive voice response generated preliminary earnings immediately. Earnings were finalized by comparing video records against participants' self-reports. mHealth reinforcement was associated with a greater proportion of smoking-negative CO tests, longest duration of prolonged abstinence, and point-prevalence abstinence during the monitoring/reinforcement phase compared to mHealth monitoring (p mHealth reinforcement has short-term efficacy. Research on methods to enhance and sustain benefits is needed. This study suggests that mHealth abstinence reinforcement is efficacious and may present temporal and spatial opportunities to research, engage, and support smokers trying to quit that do not exist with conventional (not technology-based) reinforcement interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights

  1. Positive Psychology (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher


    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  2. A Reinforcement Learning Model Equipped with Sensors for Generating Perception Patterns: Implementation of a Simulated Air Navigation System Using ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) Technology. (United States)

    Álvarez de Toledo, Santiago; Anguera, Aurea; Barreiro, José M; Lara, Juan A; Lizcano, David


    Over the last few decades, a number of reinforcement learning techniques have emerged, and different reinforcement learning-based applications have proliferated. However, such techniques tend to specialize in a particular field. This is an obstacle to their generalization and extrapolation to other areas. Besides, neither the reward-punishment (r-p) learning process nor the convergence of results is fast and efficient enough. To address these obstacles, this research proposes a general reinforcement learning model. This model is independent of input and output types and based on general bioinspired principles that help to speed up the learning process. The model is composed of a perception module based on sensors whose specific perceptions are mapped as perception patterns. In this manner, similar perceptions (even if perceived at different positions in the environment) are accounted for by the same perception pattern. Additionally, the model includes a procedure that statistically associates perception-action pattern pairs depending on the positive or negative results output by executing the respective action in response to a particular perception during the learning process. To do this, the model is fitted with a mechanism that reacts positively or negatively to particular sensory stimuli in order to rate results. The model is supplemented by an action module that can be configured depending on the maneuverability of each specific agent. The model has been applied in the air navigation domain, a field with strong safety restrictions, which led us to implement a simulated system equipped with the proposed model. Accordingly, the perception sensors were based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology, which is described in this paper. The results were quite satisfactory, and it outperformed traditional methods existing in the literature with respect to learning reliability and efficiency.

  3. Rigid-plastic seismic design of reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Joao Domingues; Bento, R.; Levtchitch, V.


    structural strength with respect to a pre-defined performance parameter using a rigid-plastic response spectrum, which is characteristic of the ground motion alone. The maximum strength demand at any point is solely dependent on the intensity of the ground motion, which facilitates the task of distributing......In this paper a new seismic design procedure for Reinforced Concrete (R/C) structures is proposed-the Rigid-Plastic Seismic Design (RPSD) method. This is a design procedure based on Non-Linear Time-History Analysis (NLTHA) for systems expected to perform in the non-linear range during a lifetime...... earthquake event. The theoretical background is the Theory of Plasticity (Rigid-Plastic Structures). Firstly, a collapse mechanism is chosen and the corresponding stress field is made safe outside the regions where plastic behaviour takes place. It is shown that this allows the determination of the required...

  4. The Effect of the Extinction Procedure in Function-Based Intervention (United States)

    Janney, Donna M.; Umbreit, John; Ferro, Jolenea B.; Liaupsin, Carl J.; Lane, Kathleen L.


    In this study, we examined the contribution of the extinction procedure in function-based interventions implemented in the general education classrooms of three at-risk elementary-aged students. Function-based interventions included antecedent adjustments, reinforcement procedures, and function-matched extinction procedures. Using a combined ABC…

  5. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin


    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  6. Vulnerability assessment for reinforced concrete buildings exposed to landslides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrouli, O.; Corominas, J.; Fotopoulou, S.; Pitilakis, K.; Zuccaro, G.; Cacace, F.; De Gregorio, D.; Santo, A.; Di Crescenzo, G.; Foerster, E.; Ulrich, T.


    The methodologies available for the analytical quantification of the vulnerability of buildings which are subject to actions resulting from slope instabilities and landslides are relatively limited in comparison with other components of quantitative landslide risk assessment. This paper provides a general methodology for calculating the vulnerabilities of reinforced concrete frame structures that are subject to three types of slope instability: slow-moving landslides, rapid flow-type slides and rock falls. The vulnerability is expressed using sets of fragility curves. A description of the general framework and of the specialised procedures employed is presented here, separately for each landslide mechanism, through the example of a single-bay one-storey reinforced concrete frame. The properties of the frame are taken into account as variables with associated uncertainties. The derived vulnerability curves presented here can be used directly by risk assessment practitioners without having to repeat the procedure, given the expected range of landslide intensities and for similar building typologies and ranges of structural characteristics. This permits the applicability of the calculated vulnerability to a wide variety of similar frames for a range of landslide intensity parameters. (authors)

  7. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit


    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich


    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  9. Vicarious reinforcement learning signals when instructing others. (United States)

    Apps, Matthew A J; Lesage, Elise; Ramnani, Narender


    Reinforcement learning (RL) theory posits that learning is driven by discrepancies between the predicted and actual outcomes of actions (prediction errors [PEs]). In social environments, learning is often guided by similar RL mechanisms. For example, teachers monitor the actions of students and provide feedback to them. This feedback evokes PEs in students that guide their learning. We report the first study that investigates the neural mechanisms that underpin RL signals in the brain of a teacher. Neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) signal PEs when learning from the outcomes of one's own actions but also signal information when outcomes are received by others. Does a teacher's ACC signal PEs when monitoring a student's learning? Using fMRI, we studied brain activity in human subjects (teachers) as they taught a confederate (student) action-outcome associations by providing positive or negative feedback. We examined activity time-locked to the students' responses, when teachers infer student predictions and know actual outcomes. We fitted a RL-based computational model to the behavior of the student to characterize their learning, and examined whether a teacher's ACC signals when a student's predictions are wrong. In line with our hypothesis, activity in the teacher's ACC covaried with the PE values in the model. Additionally, activity in the teacher's insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex covaried with the predicted value according to the student. Our findings highlight that the ACC signals PEs vicariously for others' erroneous predictions, when monitoring and instructing their learning. These results suggest that RL mechanisms, processed vicariously, may underpin and facilitate teaching behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Apps et al.

  10. Lung Nodule Detection via Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Ali


    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death globally. As a preventive measure, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommends annual screening of high risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography (CT. The resulting volume of CT scans from millions of people will pose a significant challenge for radiologists to interpret. To fill this gap, computer-aided detection (CAD algorithms may prove to be the most promising solution. A crucial first step in the analysis of lung cancer screening results using CAD is the detection of pulmonary nodules, which may represent early-stage lung cancer. The objective of this work is to develop and validate a reinforcement learning model based on deep artificial neural networks for early detection of lung nodules in thoracic CT images. Inspired by the AlphaGo system, our deep learning algorithm takes a raw CT image as input and views it as a collection of states, and output a classification of whether a nodule is present or not. The dataset used to train our model is the LIDC/IDRI database hosted by the lung nodule analysis (LUNA challenge. In total, there are 888 CT scans with annotations based on agreement from at least three out of four radiologists. As a result, there are 590 individuals having one or more nodules, and 298 having none. Our training results yielded an overall accuracy of 99.1% [sensitivity 99.2%, specificity 99.1%, positive predictive value (PPV 99.1%, negative predictive value (NPV 99.2%]. In our test, the results yielded an overall accuracy of 64.4% (sensitivity 58.9%, specificity 55.3%, PPV 54.2%, and NPV 60.0%. These early results show promise in solving the major issue of false positives in CT screening of lung nodules, and may help to save unnecessary follow-up tests and expenditures.

  11. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.


    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  12. Fatigue Performance of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jun, Zhang; Stang, Henrik


    The objective of the present study is to obtain basic data of fibre reinforced concrete under fatigue load and to set up a theoretical model based on micromechanics. In this study, the bridging stress in fiber reinforced concrete under cyclic tensile load was investigted in details. The damage...... mechanism of the interface between fiber and matrix was proposed and a rational model given. Finally, the response of a steel fiber reinforced concrete beam under fatigue loading was predicted based on this model and compared with experimental results....

  13. Seismic Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, I.; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.


    Over recent decades increased research interest has been observed on the dynamic response and stability issues of earth walls and reinforced soil structures. The current study aims to provide an insight into the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics...... to prevent the development of slope instability taking advantage of their reinforcing effect. For this purpose, a onedimensional (SDOF) model, based on Newmark’s sliding block model as well as a two-dimensional (plane-strain) dynamic finite-element analyses are conducted in order to investigate the impact...

  14. Numerical simulation of tornado-borne missile impact on reinforced concrete targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, D.K.; Larder, R.


    This study is a continuation of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) effort to evaluate the applicability of using the finite element procedure to numerically simulate the impact of tornado-borne missiles on reinforced concrete targets. The objective of this study is to assess the back-face scab threshold of a reinforced concrete target impacted by deformable and nondeformable missiles. Several simulations were run using slug and pipe-type impacting missiles. The numerical results were compared with full-scale experimental field tests

  15. Modelling of stiffness and damping change in reinforced concrete structures under seismic actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, G.; Oetes, A.


    Restoring force and energy dissipation properties of ductile reinforced concrete structures during seismic excitation are investigated. Interpreting the results of earthquake simulation experiments with large scale reinforced concrete structural members mainly subjected to cyclic bending the various types of the force-deflection response and energy dissipation capability will be identified. Two alternative concepts are suggested for modelling: A rigorous model which considers the numerous deformation and dissipation mechanisms using a step by step algorithm for analysis and a simplified practical model which employs a modified spectrum analysis technique and a simple updating procedure for changing stiffness and damping properties of the members. (orig.)

  16. Towards reinforcing telemedicine adoption amongst clinicians in Nigeria. (United States)

    Adenuga, Kayode I; Iahad, Noorminshah A; Miskon, Suraya


    Telemedicine systems have been considered as a necessary measure to alleviate the shortfall in skilled medical specialists in developing countries. However, the obvious challenge is whether clinicians are willing to use this technological innovation, which has aided medical practice globally. One factor which has received little academic attention is the provision of suitable encouragement for clinicians to adopt telemedicine, in the form of rewards, motivation or incentives. A further consideration for telemedicine usage in developing countries, especially sub-Saharan Africa and Nigeria in particular, are to the severe shortage of available practising clinicians. The researchers therefore explore the need to positively reinforce the adoption of telemedicine amongst clinicians in Nigeria, and also offer a rationale for this using the UTAUT model. Data were collected using a structured paper-based questionnaire, with 252 physicians and nurses from six government hospitals in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study applied SmartPLS 2.0 for analysis to determine the relationship between six variables. Demographic moderating variables, age, gender and profession, were included. The results indicate that performance expectancy (ptelemedicine systems, as predicted using the extended UTAUT model. Our results showed that the use of telemedicine by clinicians in the Nigerian context is perceived as a dual responsibility which requires suitable reinforcement. In addition, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating condition and reinforcement determinants are influential factors in the use of telemedicine services for remote-patient clinical diagnosis and management by the Nigerian clinicians. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Structural response of reinforced concrete slabs to impulsive loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florence, A.L.


    The structure treated here is a clamped circular slab of reinforced concrete. The loading is a rectangular pulse uniformly distributed over a central area. The practical value of this problem is that it probably represents a most severe loading case for bending response among more realistic cases, because it replaces the local loaded area with a circular area at the slab center, and because it replaces the pulse with a rectangular pulse of the same peak pressure and impulse. In the theoretical treatment the pulse is assumed to produce plastic deformations large enough to neglect elastic deformation but small enough to neglect membrane action. Yielding of the reinforced concrete slab is assumed to be governed by the Johansen criterion and the associated flow rule. For simplicity, the analysis is restricted to isotropic slabs with top and bottom steel reinforcement arranged to provide the same yield moment magnitude for positive and negative curvature changes. A consequence of the assumed rigid-perfectly plastic behavior is that the deformation modes may be considered as simple mechanism governed by a yield circle. Moreover, the yield circle is stationary while the constant pressure is being applied and expands to the support once the pressure is removed. After the yield circle has arrived at the support, the remaining deformation occurs in the static collapse mode. The principal results are explicit simple formulas for permanent central deflection in terms of pressure, duration, loaded area radius, and plate properties (radius, density, yield moment)

  18. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan


    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  19. Polymer reinforcement of cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, R.N.


    In the last couple of decades several cement- and concrete-based composites have come into prominence. Of these, cement-polymer composites, like cement-fibre composites, have been recognised as very promising, and considerable research and development on their properties, fabrication methods and application are in progress. Of the three types of concrete materials which incorporate polymers to form composites, polymer impregnated concrete forms a major development in which hardened concrete is impregnated with a liquid monomer which is subsequently polymerized to form a rigid polymer network in the pores of the parent material. In this first part of the extensive review of the polymer reinforcement of cement systems, the process technology of the various monomer impregnation techniques and the properties of the impregnated composite are assessed critically. It is shown that the high durability and superior performance of polymer impregnated concrete can provide an economic and competitive alternative in in situ strengthening, and in other areas where conventional concrete can only at best provide adequate performance. The review includes a section on radiation-induced polymerization. (author)

  20. Review of Positional Nystagmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio BENITO-OREJAS


    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Any change of position of the head (dynamic or static can trigger a nystagmus or increase the spontaneous. This nystagmus we call it positional. We intend to review in this chapter its definition, clinical features, etiology and the way of exploring it. Method: narrative review. Results: Positional vertigo is the most frequent vestibular disorder, and most of the times of peripheral cause. Characteristics of nystagmus or its association with other neurological symptoms are sufficient grounds to request a magnetic resonance, which will provide additional information on very few occasions. Discussion: The study of the positional nystagmus as a procedure to rule out central pathology has lost much of its relevance. Signs that Nylén defined mixed findings peripheral and central, making complex classification. Conclusion: Regardless of how to bring the patient change position (very slow or fast, if it appears an atypical nystagmus should rule out a central origin.

  1. Influence of reinforcement's corrosion into hyperstatic reinforced concrete beams: a probabilistic failure scenarios analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available AbstractThis work aims to study the mechanical effects of reinforcement's corrosion in hyperstatic reinforced concrete beams. The focus is the probabilistic determination of individual failure scenarios change as well as global failure change along time. The limit state functions assumed describe analytically bending and shear resistance of reinforced concrete rectangular cross sections as a function of steel and concrete resistance and section dimensions. It was incorporated empirical laws that penalize the steel yield stress and the reinforcement's area along time in addition to Fick's law, which models the chloride penetration into concrete pores. The reliability theory was applied based on Monte Carlo simulation method, which assesses each individual probability of failure. The probability of global structural failure was determined based in the concept of failure tree. The results of a hyperstatic reinforced concrete beam showed that reinforcements corrosion make change into the failure scenarios modes. Therefore, unimportant failure modes in design phase become important after corrosion start.

  2. Modeling of geosynthetic reinforced capping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanadham, B.V.S.; Koenig, D.; Jessberger, H.L.


    The investigation deals with the influence of a geosynthetic reinforcement on the deformation behavior and sealing efficiency of the reinforced mineral sealing layer at the onset of non-uniform settlements. The research program is mainly concentrated in studying the influence of reinforcement inclusion in restraining cracks and crack propagation due to soil-geosynthetic bond efficiency. Centrifuge model tests are conducted in the 500 gt capacity balanced beam Bochum geotechnical Centrifuge (Z1) simulating a differential deformation of a mineral sealing layer of a landfill with the help of trap-door arrangement. By comparing the performance of the deformed mineral sealing layer with and without geogrid, the reinforcement ability of the geogrid in controlling the crack propagation and permeability of the mineral swing layer is evaluated

  3. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  4. fatigue strength of reinforced concrete flexural members

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe


    Mar 1, 1980 ... cyclic loads behave differently compared with static bending and can collapse due to the fatigue of concrete, reinforcement or both when maximum fatigue stresses of ... under low and medium load levels, than under high load ...

  5. Thin fiber and textile reinforced cementitious systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldea, Corina-Maria


    This Special Publication (SP) contains ten papers which provide insight on the topics of state of the art of thin fiber and textile-reinforced cementitious systems both in academia and the industry...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    mechanical and thermal properties of chitin reinforced composites. ..... with crabyon fiber and normal viscose filaments. Also. Zhang et al.,[65] successfully blended chitin/cellulose using two different coagulating systems (immersed in 5.

  7. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2009 (United States)


    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for four-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focus...

  8. Belief reward shaping in reinforcement learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marom, O


    Full Text Available A key challenge in many reinforcement learning problems is delayed rewards, which can significantly slow down learning. Although reward shaping has previously been introduced to accelerate learning by bootstrapping an agent with additional...

  9. Reinforced Conductive Polyaniline-Paper Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Yan


    Full Text Available A method for direct aniline interfacial polymerization on polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE-reinforced paper substrate is introduced in this paper. Cellulose-based papers with and without reinforcement were considered. The polyaniline (PANI-paper composites had surface resistivity lower than 100 Ω/sq after more than 3 polymerizations. Their mechanical strength and thermal stability were analyzed by tensile tests and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR results revealed that there was strong interaction between NH groups in aniline monomers and OH groups in fibers, which did not disappear until after 3 polymerizations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and field emission (FE SEM images showed morphological differences between composites using reinforced and untreated base papers. Conductive composites made with PAE-reinforced base paper had both good thermal stability and good mechanical strength, with high conductivity and a smaller PANI amount.

  10. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2007 (United States)


    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for 4-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focused ...

  11. Fiber reinforced polymer bridge decks : [technical summary]. (United States)


    A number of researchers have addressed the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) deck as a replacement solution for deteriorated bridge decks made of traditional materials. The use of new, advanced materials such as FRP is advantageous when the bridg...

  12. Finite element modeling of reinforced concrete beams with a hybrid combination of steel and aramid reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawileh, R.A.


    Highlights: • Modeling of concrete beams reinforced steel and FRP bars. • Developed finite element models achieved good results. • The models are validated via comparison with experimental results. • Parametric studies are performed. - Abstract: Corrosion of steel bars has an adverse effect on the life-span of reinforced concrete (RC) members and is usually associated with crack development in RC beams. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been recently used to reinforce concrete members in flexure due to their high tensile strength and superior corrosion resistance properties. However, FRP materials are brittle in nature, thus RC beams reinforced with such materials would exhibit a less ductile behavior when compared to similar members reinforced with conventional steel reinforcement. Recently, researchers investigated the performance of concrete beams reinforced with a hybrid combination of steel and Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (AFRP) reinforcement to maintain a reasonable level of ductility in such members. The function of the AFRP bars is to increase the load-carrying capacity, while the function of the steel bars is to ensure ductility of the flexural member upon yielding in tension. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model that predicted the load versus mid-span deflection response of tested RC beams conducted by other researchers with a hybrid combination of steel and AFRP bars. The developed FE models account for the constituent material nonlinearities and bond–slip behavior between the reinforcing bars and adjacent concrete surfaces. It was concluded that the developed models can accurately capture the behavior and predicts the load-carrying capacity of such RC members. In addition, a parametric study is conducted using the validated models to investigate the effect of AFRP bar size, FRP material type, bond–slip action, and concrete compressive strength on the performance of concrete beams when reinforced

  13. Modelling root reinforcement in shallow forest soils (United States)

    Skaugset, Arne E.


    A hypothesis used to explain the relationship between timber harvesting and landslides is that tree roots add mechanical support to soil, thus increasing soil strength. Upon harvest, the tree roots decay which reduces soil strength and increases the risk of management -induced landslides. The technical literature does not adequately support this hypothesis. Soil strength values attributed to root reinforcement that are in the technical literature are such that forested sites can't fail and all high risk, harvested sites must fail. Both unstable forested sites and stable harvested sites exist, in abundance, in the real world thus, the literature does not adequately describe the real world. An analytical model was developed to calculate soil strength increase due to root reinforcement. Conceptually, the model is composed of a reinforcing element with high tensile strength, i.e. a conifer root, embedded in a material with little tensile strength, i.e. a soil. As the soil fails and deforms, the reinforcing element also deforms and stretches. The lateral deformation of the reinforcing element is treated analytically as a laterally loaded pile in a flexible foundation and the axial deformation is treated as an axially loaded pile. The governing differential equations are solved using finite-difference approximation techniques. The root reinforcement model was tested by comparing the final shape of steel and aluminum rods, parachute cord, wooden dowels, and pine roots in direct shear with predicted shapes from the output of the root reinforcement model. The comparisons were generally satisfactory, were best for parachute cord and wooden dowels, and were poorest for steel and aluminum rods. A parameter study was performed on the root reinforcement model which showed reinforced soil strength increased with increasing root diameter and soil depth. Output from the root reinforcement model showed a strain incompatibility between large and small diameter roots. The peak

  14. The Recent Research on Bamboo Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sri Murni


    Full Text Available The paper presents the last research on bamboo reinforced concrete in Brawijaya University Indonesia. Three kinds of structures studied in recent year, the mounting of pegs on reinforcement, the use of lightweight brick to reduce the weight of the beams, and the use the light weight aggregate for bamboo concrete composite frame. All that experiments overcome some problems exist in using bamboo as environmental acceptance structures.

  15. Reinforced concrete wall under hydrogen detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarenheimo, A.


    The structural integrity of a reinforced concrete wall in the BWR reactor building under hydrogen detonation conditions has been analysed. Of particular interest is whether the containment integrity can be jeopardised by an external hydrogen detonation. The load carrying capacity of a reinforced concrete wall was studied. The detonation pressure loads were estimated with computerised hand calculations assuming a direct initiation of detonation and applying the strong explosion theory. The results can be considered as rough and conservative estimates for the first shock pressure impact induced by a reflecting detonation wave. Structural integrity may be endangered due to slow pressurisation or dynamic impulse loads associated with local detonations. The static pressure following the passage of a shock front may be relatively high, thus this static or slowly decreasing pressure after a detonation may damage the structure severely. The mitigating effects of the opening of a door on pressure history and structural response were also studied. The non-linear behaviour of the wall was studied under detonations corresponding a detonable hydrogen mass of 0.5 kg and 1.428 kg. Non-linear finite element analyses of the reinforced concrete structure were carried out by the ABAQUS/Explicit program. The reinforcement and its non-linear material behaviour and the tensile cracking of concrete were modelled. Reinforcement was defined as layers of uniformly spaced reinforcing bars in shell elements. In these studies the surrounding structures of the non-linearly modelled reinforced concrete wall were modelled using idealised boundary conditions. Especially concrete cracking and yielding of the reinforcement was monitored during the numerical simulation. (au)

  16. Shaking Table Tests of Reinforced Concrete Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    -varying systems and to verify various methods for damage assessment of reinforced concrete structures from soft motion measurements. In this study the maximum softening concept will be evaluated. In the paper the assessment obtained by this method is compared to visual damage assessment. The structures considered...... vector ARMA model is suitable for modal identification of degrading reinforced concrete structures and the maximum softening damage index calculated from the obtained identification provides a valuable tool for assessment of the damage state of the structure....

  17. Design Methods for Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik


    The present paper describes the outline of a research project on Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) currently being carried out in Denmark under the supervision of Danish Council of Technology, Danish Technical Research Council and Danish Natural Science Research Counsil.......The present paper describes the outline of a research project on Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) currently being carried out in Denmark under the supervision of Danish Council of Technology, Danish Technical Research Council and Danish Natural Science Research Counsil....

  18. Autoshaping of key pecking in pigeons with negative reinforcement1 (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard


    Pigeons exposed to gradually increasing intensities of pulsing electric shock pecked a key and thereby reduced the intensity of shock to zero for 2 min. Acquisition of key pecking was brought about through an autoshaping process in which periodic brief keylight presentations immediately preceded automatic reduction of the shock. On the occasions of such automatic reduction of shock preceding the first measured key peck, little or no orientation to the key was observed. Observations of pigeons with autoshaping of positive reinforcement also revealed little evidence of orientation toward the key. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:16811371

  19. Autoshaping of key pecking in pigeons with negative reinforcement. (United States)

    Rachlin, H


    Pigeons exposed to gradually increasing intensities of pulsing electric shock pecked a key and thereby reduced the intensity of shock to zero for 2 min. Acquisition of key pecking was brought about through an autoshaping process in which periodic brief keylight presentations immediately preceded automatic reduction of the shock. On the occasions of such automatic reduction of shock preceding the first measured key peck, little or no orientation to the key was observed. Observations of pigeons with autoshaping of positive reinforcement also revealed little evidence of orientation toward the key.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A brief history of development of the Department Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Constructions SHEE “Prydniprov’ska State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture” is shown on the basis of the organic unity of components of “education – science – industry”. The team achievements of the Department shows that the best traditions still has been living, deepening and expanding along with the positive changes taking place in the social and political and economic life of our country Ukraine that were laid out by past generations.

  1. Zero-reinforcement vessel closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.; Mou, Y.


    Access to the secondary side of a nuclear steam generator is required in order to properly inspect and maintain critical components throughout the life. For the most part, it is only on newer units that sufficient openings have been provided. Older units must be field modified to provide access to the tube bundle and internal lateral support components for inspection and penetration by cleaning equipment. In order to avoid post weld heat treatment after welding on some materials it would be desirable to machine the opening directly into the pressure boundary without providing weld build-up to compensate for the material removed. In such a case, the pressure boundary may be locally thinned below the minimum thickness required by the ASME code. As a result it is not possible to meet reinforcement limits or elastic primary stress limited of the code. However, the ASME code permits justification of the design by utilizing elastic-plastic methods. Elastic-plastic analysis can be utilized to demonstrate shake-down to elastic action and to demonstrate that small deformations in the region of the gasket seating surfaces, or any loss of bolt preload, have not compromised leak tightness. Employing the technique developed by the authors for application in ANSYS, it is feasible to carry-out such a design analysis including the effects of time varying thermal stress. This paper presents the highlights of such an analysis. It is important to note that the method also permits the analysis of openings in locations formerly considered too restrictive, such as near support and major structural discontinuities. (author)

  2. Learning to trade via direct reinforcement. (United States)

    Moody, J; Saffell, M


    We present methods for optimizing portfolios, asset allocations, and trading systems based on direct reinforcement (DR). In this approach, investment decision-making is viewed as a stochastic control problem, and strategies are discovered directly. We present an adaptive algorithm called recurrent reinforcement learning (RRL) for discovering investment policies. The need to build forecasting models is eliminated, and better trading performance is obtained. The direct reinforcement approach differs from dynamic programming and reinforcement algorithms such as TD-learning and Q-learning, which attempt to estimate a value function for the control problem. We find that the RRL direct reinforcement framework enables a simpler problem representation, avoids Bellman's curse of dimensionality and offers compelling advantages in efficiency. We demonstrate how direct reinforcement can be used to optimize risk-adjusted investment returns (including the differential Sharpe ratio), while accounting for the effects of transaction costs. In extensive simulation work using real financial data, we find that our approach based on RRL produces better trading strategies than systems utilizing Q-learning (a value function method). Real-world applications include an intra-daily currency trader and a monthly asset allocation system for the S&P 500 Stock Index and T-Bills.

  3. High and low temperatures have unequal reinforcing properties in Drosophila spatial learning. (United States)

    Zars, Melissa; Zars, Troy


    Small insects regulate their body temperature solely through behavior. Thus, sensing environmental temperature and implementing an appropriate behavioral strategy can be critical for survival. The fly Drosophila melanogaster prefers 24 degrees C, avoiding higher and lower temperatures when tested on a temperature gradient. Furthermore, temperatures above 24 degrees C have negative reinforcing properties. In contrast, we found that flies have a preference in operant learning experiments for a low-temperature-associated position rather than the 24 degrees C alternative in the heat-box. Two additional differences between high- and low-temperature reinforcement, i.e., temperatures above and below 24 degrees C, were found. Temperatures equally above and below 24 degrees C did not reinforce equally and only high temperatures supported increased memory performance with reversal conditioning. Finally, low- and high-temperature reinforced memories are similarly sensitive to two genetic mutations. Together these results indicate the qualitative meaning of temperatures below 24 degrees C depends on the dynamics of the temperatures encountered and that the reinforcing effects of these temperatures depend on at least some common genetic components. Conceptualizing these results using the Wolf-Heisenberg model of operant conditioning, we propose the maximum difference in experienced temperatures determines the magnitude of the reinforcement input to a conditioning circuit.

  4. The construction features of the deformation and force model of concrete and reinforced concrete resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashko Vasyl


    Full Text Available The main features of the deformation and force model of deformation of reinforced concrete elements and structures based on generalized diagrams of their state are considered in the article. Particular attention is focused on the basic methodological problems and shortcomings of modern "deformation" models. It is shown that in the most cases these problems can be solved by the generalized diagrams of reinforced concrete elements and structures real state. Thanks to these diagrams, the developed method: provides a single methodological approach to the calculation of reinforced concrete elements and structures normal sections for limit states; allows to reveal the internal static indeterminacy of heterogeneously deformable elements and structures in their ultimate limit state calculation; justifies the application of the basic and derived criteria of reinforced concrete elements and structures bearing capacity exhaustion; retains the essence of the physical processes of concrete and reinforced concrete structures deformation. The defining positions of the generalized (universal methodology for calculating reinforced concrete elements and structures are stated.

  5. A study on the fatigue strength behavior of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.; Chae, W.K.; Kwak, K.H.


    Design methods for shear have been developed in these days.However, these are mainly based on the test results under static loading, and there are few information concerning the shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams under repeated dynamic loading. From this point of view, this study was performed to investigate the shear behavior of four reinforced concrete beams with web reinforcement under repeated dynamic loading. From these test results, the changes in strain of stirrups and the crack propagation procedures are found as functions of the number of repeated loading cycles. These results are compared with the existing experimental formula for predicting strain of stirrups under repeated loading and also used to find the coefficients in the empirical formula using the regression technique

  6. Three-Point Flexural Properties of Bonded Reinforcement Elements for Pleasure Craft Decks (United States)

    Di Bella, G.; Galtieri, G.; Borsellino, C.


    The aim of this work was both to study the performances of pleasure craft reinforced components, bonded using a structural adhesive, and to compare them with those obtained using over-lamination as joining system, typically employed in the shipbuilding. With such aim, two different lots of components were prepared: in the first lot, the reinforcement structures were laminated directly on the investigated composite components and, in the second one; they were made separately in a mould and, then, bonded to the composite components. This last method allowed to evaluate the introduction of a product/process innovation in a field typically unwilling to innovation, still tied to craft, and non-standardized procedures. The results of bending tests, performed in order to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of the reinforced components, evidenced the goodness of this innovative design choice. Finally, a finite element analysis was performed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram


    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  8. Introduction to Concrete Reinforcing. Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series. (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module on concrete reinforcing is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. This module contains three instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) concrete reinforcing materials; (2) concrete reinforcing tools; and (3) concrete reinforcing basic skills. Each…

  9. Reinforcement Enhances Vigilance Among Children With ADHD: Comparisons to Typically Developing Children and to the Effects of Methylphenidate (United States)

    Bubnik, Michelle G.; Hawk, Larry W.; Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Rosch, Keri S.


    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n=25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n=33; 22% female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n=19; 21% female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention. PMID:24931776

  10. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod


    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  11. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.


    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  12. Steel-reinforced concrete-filled steel tubular columns under axial and lateral cyclic loading (United States)

    Farajpourbonab, Ebrahim; Kute, Sunil Y.; Inamdar, Vilas M.


    SRCFT columns are formed by inserting a steel section into a concrete-filled steel tube. These types of columns are named steel-reinforced concrete-filled steel tubular (SRCFT) columns. The current study aims at investigating the various types of reinforcing steel section to improve the strength and hysteresis behavior of SRCFT columns under axial and lateral cyclic loading. To attain this objective, a numerical study has been conducted on a series of composite columns. First, FEM procedure has been verified by the use of available experimental studies. Next, eight composite columns having different types of cross sections were analyzed. For comparison purpose, the base model was a CFT column used as a benchmark specimen. Nevertheless, the other specimens were SRCFT types. The results indicate that reinforcement of a CFT column through this method leads to enhancement in load-carrying capacity, enhancement in lateral drift ratio, ductility, preventing of local buckling in steel shell, and enhancement in energy absorption capacity. Under cyclic displacement history, it was observed that the use of cross-shaped reinforcing steel section causes a higher level of energy dissipation and the moment of inertia of the reinforcing steel sections was found to be the most significant parameter affecting the hysteresis behavior of SRCFT columns.

  13. Prediction value of the Canadian CT head rule and the New Orleans criteria for positive head CT scan and acute neurosurgical procedures in minor head trauma: a multicenter external validation study. (United States)

    Bouida, Wahid; Marghli, Soudani; Souissi, Sami; Ksibi, Hichem; Methammem, Mehdi; Haguiga, Habib; Khedher, Sonia; Boubaker, Hamdi; Beltaief, Kaouthar; Grissa, Mohamed Habib; Trimech, Mohamed Naceur; Kerkeni, Wiem; Chebili, Nawfel; Halila, Imen; Rejeb, Imen; Boukef, Riadh; Rekik, Noureddine; Bouhaja, Bechir; Letaief, Mondher; Nouira, Semir


    The New Orleans Criteria and the Canadian CT Head Rule have been developed to decrease the number of normal computed tomography (CT) results in mild head injury. We compare the performance of both decision rules for identifying patients with intracranial traumatic lesions and those who require an urgent neurosurgical intervention after mild head injury. This was an observational cohort study performed between 2008 and 2011 on patients with mild head injury who were aged 10 years or older. We collected prospectively clinical head CT scan findings and outcome. Primary outcome was need for neurosurgical intervention, defined as either death or craniotomy, or the need of intubation within 15 days of the traumatic event. Secondary outcome was the presence of traumatic lesions on head CT scan. New Orleans Criteria and Canadian CT Head Rule decision rules were compared by using sensitivity specifications and positive and negative predictive value. We enrolled 1,582 patients. Neurosurgical intervention was performed in 34 patients (2.1%) and positive CT findings were demonstrated in 218 patients (13.8%). Sensitivity and specificity for need for neurosurgical intervention were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 90% to 100%) and 60% (95% CI 44% to 76%) for the Canadian CT Head Rule and 82% (95% CI 69% to 95%) and 26% (95% CI 24% to 28%) for the New Orleans Criteria. Negative predictive values for the above-mentioned clinical decision rules were 100% and 99% and positive values were 5% and 2%, respectively, for the Canadian CT Head Rule and New Orleans Criteria. Sensitivity and specificity for clinical significant head CT findings were 95% (95% CI 92% to 98%) and 65% (95% CI 62% to 68%) for the Canadian CT Head Rule and 86% (95% CI 81% to 91%) and 28% (95% CI 26% to 30%) for the New Orleans Criteria. A similar trend of results was found in the subgroup of patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. For patients with mild head injury, the Canadian CT Head Rule had higher

  14. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang


    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  15. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta). (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L


    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  16. Shear behaviour of reinforced phyllite concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom-Asamoah, Mark; Owusu Afrifa, Russell


    Highlights: ► Phyllite concrete beams often exhibited shear with anchorage bond failure. ► Different shear design provisions for reinforced phyllite beams are compared. ► Predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams must be modified by a reduction factor. -- Abstract: The shear behaviour of concrete beams made from phyllite aggregates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading is reported. First diagonal shear crack load of beams with and without shear reinforcement was between 42–58% and 42–92% of the failure loads respectively. The phyllite concrete beams without shear links had lower post-diagonal cracking shear resistance compared to corresponding phyllite beams with shear links. As a result of hysteretic energy dissipation, limited cyclic loading affected the stiffness, strength and deformation of the phyllite beams with shear reinforcement. Generally, beams with and without shear reinforcement showed anchorage bond failure in addition to the shear failure due to high stress concentration near the supports. The ACI, BS and EC codes are conservative for the prediction of phyllite concrete beams without shear reinforcement but they all overestimate the shear strength of phyllite concrete beams with shear reinforcement. It is recommended that the predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams reinforced with steel stirrups be modified by a reduction factor of 0.7 in order to specify a high enough safety factor on their ultimate strength. It is also recommended that susceptibility of phyllite concrete beams to undergo anchorage bond failure is averted in design by the provision of greater anchorage lengths than usually permitted.

  17. Evidence for a role of 5-HT2C receptors in the motor aspects of performance, but not the efficacy of food reinforcers, in a progressive ratio schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezzina, G.; Body, S.; Cheung, T.H.; Hampson, C.L.; Bradshaw, C.M.; Glennon, J.C.; Szabadi, E.


    RATIONALE: 5-Hydroxytryptamine2C (5-HT2C) receptor agonists reduce the breakpoint in progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, an effect that has been attributed to a decrease of the efficacy of positive reinforcers. However, a reduction of the breakpoint may also reflect motor impairment.

  18. On the weld strength of in situ tape placed reinforcements on weave reinforced structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Warnet, Laurent; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko


    Unidirectionally reinforced thermoplastic tapes were welded onto woven fabric reinforced laminates using a laser assisted tape placement process. A mandrel peel setup was used to quantify the interfacial fracture toughness between the tape and the laminate as a measure for weld strength. The tape

  19. The usage of carbon fiber reinforcement polymer and glass fiber reinforcement polymer for retrofit technology building (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Meka, Randi; Nursyamsi


    Fiber Reinforcement Polymer has been used as a material technology since the 1970s in Europe. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer can reinforce the structure externally, and used in many types of buildings like beams, columns, and slabs. It has high tensile strength. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer also has high rigidity and strength. The profile of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer is thin and light, installation is simple to conduct. One of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer material is Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer and Glass Fiber Reinforcement Polymer. These materials is tested when it is installed on concrete cylinders, to obtain the comparison of compressive strength CFRP and GFRP. The dimension of concrete is diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm. It is amounted to 15 and divided into three groups. The test is performed until it collapsed to obtain maximum load. The results of research using CFRP and GFRP have shown the significant enhancement in compressive strength. CFRP can increase the compressive strength of 26.89%, and GFRP of 14.89%. For the comparison of two materials, CFRP is more strengthening than GFRP regarding increasing compressive strength. The usage of CFRP and GFRP can increase the loading capacity.

  20. A successful approach for the implementation of symptom-based emergency operating procedures for VVER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhoest, V.; Prior, R.; Pascal, G.


    The paper provides an overview of the organization, the progress and the results of the various Emergence Operating Procedure (EOP) development programs for VVER type reactors conducted by Westinghouse so far. The detailed working process is presented through the solutions to some major plant issues. The EOPs have been developed for the Temelin, Dukovany, Bohunice, Mochovce and Paks VVER nuclear power plants. The procedures are developed in working teams of experts from the utility and Westinghouse. The completion of the programs constitute an indication of the overall success of this approach. This is further reinforced by the general acceptance of the new procedures by the plant personnel, together with the good results obtained so far from procedure testing. This is also confirmed by a new PSA-level 1 analysis for Dukovany plant, which shows a significant improvement in the overall plant safety. This means a 20% reduction in the Core Damage Frequency due to the introduction of the new EOPs. The fact that some modifications have been implemented to the plants to solve design weaknesses identified in the course of this programs also constitute a positive result

  1. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor


    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  2. Synthesis of Aluminum Triacrylate as Reactive Filler in EPDM Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Shokrzadeh


    Full Text Available The organo-metal salt of aluminum triacrylate (ALTA with a general formula of (CH2=CHCOO3Al was  synthesized  as  a  reactive  fller  for  elastomers through a two-step synthetic procedure. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, DSC and DTA were employed for ALTA analysis and to study its cure characteristics. In this research, two composites based on ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM with two types of reactive fllers of  modifed organoclay and ALTA were prepared by a laboratory two-roll mill. The types and different ratios of organoclay and ALTA on curing characteristics, mechanical properties such as tensile properties, hardness, and abrasion resistance were studied. The increase in fller content of both composites  led  to  the  incremental  increase  in  tensile strength, modulus, hardness, elongation-at-break and also the incremental increase in abrasion resistance of both composites. The improvement in reinforcing properties of ALTA in comparison with nanoclay is attributed to homopolymerization and graft copolymerization of ALTA at the same time during curing of the EPDM composites by peroxide. Making such additives may be taken as an effective action to achieve more durable and cheaper way to reinforce elastomers.

  3. Probabilistic Flexural Fatigue in Plain and Fiber-Reinforced Concrete. (United States)

    Ríos, José D; Cifuentes, Héctor; Yu, Rena C; Ruiz, Gonzalo


    The objective of this work is two-fold. First, we attempt to fit the experimental data on the flexural fatigue of plain and fiber-reinforced concrete with a probabilistic model (Saucedo, Yu, Medeiros, Zhang and Ruiz, Int. J. Fatigue, 2013, 48, 308-318). This model was validated for compressive fatigue at various loading frequencies, but not for flexural fatigue. Since the model is probabilistic, it is not necessarily related to the specific mechanism of fatigue damage, but rather generically explains the fatigue distribution in concrete (plain or reinforced with fibers) for damage under compression, tension or flexion. In this work, more than 100 series of flexural fatigue tests in the literature are fit with excellent results. Since the distribution of monotonic tests was not available in the majority of cases, a two-step procedure is established to estimate the model parameters based solely on fatigue tests. The coefficient of regression was more than 0.90 except for particular cases where not all tests were strictly performed under the same loading conditions, which confirms the applicability of the model to flexural fatigue data analysis. Moreover, the model parameters are closely related to fatigue performance, which demonstrates the predictive capacity of the model. For instance, the scale parameter is related to flexural strength, which improves with the addition of fibers. Similarly, fiber increases the scattering of fatigue life, which is reflected by the decreasing shape parameter.

  4. A micromorphic model for steel fiber reinforced concrete. (United States)

    Oliver, J; Mora, D F; Huespe, A E; Weyler, R


    A new formulation to model the mechanical behavior of high performance fiber reinforced cement composites with arbitrarily oriented short fibers is presented. The formulation can be considered as a two scale approach, in which the macroscopic model, at the structural level, takes into account the mesostructural phenomenon associated with the fiber-matrix interface bond/slip process. This phenomenon is contemplated by including, in the macroscopic description, a micromorphic field representing the relative fiber-cement displacement. Then, the theoretical framework, from which the governing equations of the problem are derived, can be assimilated to a specific case of the material multifield theory. The balance equation derived for this model, connecting the micro stresses with the micromorphic forces, has a physical meaning related with the fiber-matrix bond slip mechanism. Differently to previous procedures in the literature, addressed to model fiber reinforced composites, where this equation has been added as an additional independent ingredient of the methodology, in the present approach it arises as a natural result derived from the multifield theory. Every component of the composite is defined with a specific free energy and constitutive relation. The mixture theory is adopted to define the overall free energy of the composite, which is assumed to be homogeneously constituted, in the sense that every infinitesimal volume is occupied by all the components in a proportion given by the corresponding volume fraction. The numerical model is assessed by means of a selected set of experiments that prove the viability of the present approach.

  5. Influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation resistance of reinforced concrete slabs under hard missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbovic, Nebojsa; Sagals, Genadijs; Blahoianu, Andrei


    This paper describes the work conducted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) related to the influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs under “hard” missile impact (impact with negligible missile deformations). The paper presents the results of three tests on reinforced concrete slabs conducted at VTT Technical Research Centre (Finland), along with the numerical simulations as well as a discussion of the current code provisions related to impactive loading. Transverse reinforcement is widely used for improving the shear and punching strength of concrete structures. However, the effect of this reinforcement on the perforation resistance under localized missile impact is still unclear. The goal of this paper is to fill the gap in the current literature related to this topic. Based on similar tests designed by the authors with missile velocity below perforation velocity, it was expected that transverse reinforcement would improve the perforation resistance. Three slabs were tested under almost identical conditions with the only difference being the transverse reinforcement. One slab was designed without transverse reinforcement, the second one with the transverse reinforcement in form of conventional stirrups with hooks and the third one with the transverse reinforcement in form of T-headed bars. Although the transverse reinforcement reduced the overall damage of the slabs (the rear face scabbing), the conclusion from the tests is that the transverse reinforcement does not have important influence on perforation capacity of concrete slabs under rigid missile impact. The slab with T-headed bars presented a slight improvement compared to the baseline specimen without transverse reinforcement. The slab with conventional stirrups presented slightly lower perforation capacity (higher residual missile velocity) than the slab without transverse reinforcement. In conclusion, the performed tests show slightly

  6. Sex differences in snack food reinforcement in response to increasing dietary protein (United States)

    BRACKGROUND: Protein is posited to play a dynamic role in energy balance and reward-driven eating behavior. However, little is known about the effect of increasing protein intake on snack food reinforcement. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the extent to which increasing dietary protein changes th...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich


    Full Text Available The paper presents a brief review of new methods for repair of concrete and reinforced concrete products, structures etc. The review demonstrates that the usage of diffusion processes proceeding in the porous materials makes it possible to obtain positive effects while performing  repair works. 

  8. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripp Gail


    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  9. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolong


    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  10. The genetics of speciation by reinforcement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos


    Full Text Available Reinforcement occurs when natural selection strengthens behavioral discrimination to prevent costly interspecies matings, such as when matings produce sterile hybrids. This evolutionary process can complete speciation, thereby providing a direct link between Darwin's theory of natural selection and the origin of new species. Here, by examining a case of speciation by reinforcement in Drosophila,we present the first high-resolution genetic study of variation within species for female mating discrimination that is enhanced by natural selection. We show that reinforced mating discrimination is inherited as a dominant trait, exhibits variability within species, and may be influenced by a known set of candidate genes involved in olfaction. Our results show that the genetics of reinforced mating discrimination is different from the genetics of mating discrimination between species, suggesting that overall mating discrimination might be a composite phenomenon, which in Drosophila could involve both auditory and olfactory cues. Examining the genetics of reinforcement provides a unique opportunity for both understanding the origin of new species in the face of gene flow and identifying the genetic basis of adaptive female species preferences, two major gaps in our understanding of speciation.

  11. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)


    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  12. Reinforcement of Conducting Silver-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike JUNG


    Full Text Available Silver is a well-known material in the field of contact materials because of its high electrical and thermal conductivity. However, due to its bad mechanical and switching properties, silver alloys or reinforcements of the ductile silver matrix are required. Different reinforcements, e. g. tungsten, tungsten carbide, nickel, cadmium oxide or tin oxide, are used in different sectors of switches. To reach an optimal distribution of these reinforcements, various manufacturing techniques (e. g. powder blending, preform infiltration, wet-chemical methods, internal oxidation are being used for the production of these contact materials. Each of these manufacturing routes offers different advantages and disadvantages. The mechanical alloying process displays a successful and efficient method to produce particle-reinforced metal-matrix composite powders. This contribution presents the obtained fine disperse microstructure of tungsten-particle-reinforced silver composite powders produced by the mechanical alloying process and displays this technique as possible route to provide feedstock powders for subsequent consolidation processes. DOI:

  13. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche


    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  14. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.


    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Tensile Characterization of FRP Rods for Reinforced Concrete Structures (United States)

    Micelli, F.; Nanni, A.


    The application of FRP rods as an internal or external reinforcement in new or damaged concrete structures is based on the development of design equations that take into account the mechanical properties of FRP material systems.The measurement of mechanical characteristics of FRP requires a special anchoring and protocol, since it is well known that these characteristics depend on the direction and content of fibers. In this study, an effective tensile test method is described for the mechanical characterization of FRP rods. Twelve types of glass and carbon FRP specimens with different sizes and surface characteristics were tested to validate the procedure proposed. In all, 79 tensile tests were performed, and the results obtained are discussed in this paper. Recommendations are given for specimen preparation and test setup in order to facilitate the further investigation and standardization of the FRP rods used in civil engineering.

  16. Reinforcement of cement-based matrices with graphite nanomaterials (United States)

    Sadiq, Muhammad Maqbool

    Cement-based materials offer a desirable balance of compressive strength, moisture resistance, durability, economy and energy-efficiency; their tensile strength, fracture energy and durability in aggressive environments, however, could benefit from further improvements. An option for realizing some of these improvements involves introduction of discrete fibers into concrete. When compared with today's micro-scale (steel, polypropylene, glass, etc.) fibers, graphite nanomaterials (carbon nanotube, nanofiber and graphite nanoplatelet) offer superior geometric, mechanical and physical characteristics. Graphite nanomaterials would realize their reinforcement potential as far as they are thoroughly dispersed within cement-based matrices, and effectively bond to cement hydrates. The research reported herein developed non-covalent and covalent surface modification techniques to improve the dispersion and interfacial interactions of graphite nanomaterials in cement-based matrices with a dense and well graded micro-structure. The most successful approach involved polymer wrapping of nanomaterials for increasing the density of hydrophilic groups on the nanomaterial surface without causing any damage to the their structure. The nanomaterials were characterized using various spectrometry techniques, and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). The graphite nanomaterials were dispersed via selected sonication procedures in the mixing water of the cement-based matrix; conventional mixing and sample preparation techniques were then employed to prepare the cement-based nanocomposite samples, which were subjected to steam curing. Comprehensive engineering and durability characteristics of cement-based nanocomposites were determined and their chemical composition, microstructure and failure mechanisms were also assessed through various spectrometry, thermogravimetry, electron microscopy and elemental analyses. Both functionalized and non-functionalized nanomaterials as well as different

  17. Measurement of reinforcement corrosion in marine structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Ismail; Nordin Yahaya


    The marine environment is known to be aggressive. Structures constructed on this belt need to undergo periodic assessment in order to ensure no defects or signs of deterioration had occurred. One of the most common deterioration that occurs on marine structures is corrosion of the reinforcement. Corrosion is an electrochemical process. The product of corrosion can increase the reinforcement volume, hence causing cracking on concrete cover. If no action is taken, delamination and spalling of concrete will follow and this will affect the structures integrity. It is therefore important to know the state of the structures condition by monitoring them periodically. NDT techniques that can detect the occurrence of corrosion of reinforcement in concrete uses half cell and resistivity meter. The method of application and interpretation of results are discussed. (author)

  18. Hypocretin / orexin involvement in reward and reinforcement (United States)

    España, Rodrigo A.


    Since the discovery of the hypocretins/orexins, a series of observations have indicated that these peptides influence a variety of physiological processes including feeding, sleep/wake function, memory, and stress. More recently, the hypocretins have been implicated in reinforcement and reward-related processes via actions on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Although investigation into the relationship between the hypocretins and reinforcement/reward remains in relatively early stages, accumulating evidence suggests that continued research into this area may offer new insights into the addiction process and provide the foundation to generate novel pharmacotherapies for drug abuse. The current chapter will focus on contemporary perspectives of hypocretin regulation of cocaine reward and reinforcement via actions on the mesolimbic dopamine system. PMID:22640614

  19. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fujiyama


    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the effect of the fibers on the fracture toughness of the material. The results obtained indicate that, while fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in compressive strength, J-integral calculations at maximum load for the different notch root radii have indicated, particularly for the case of long fibers, a significant superiority of the reinforced material in comparison with the plain cement mortar, in consistence with the impact test data.

  20. Simulating distributed reinforcement effects in concrete analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.


    The effect of the bond slip is brought into the TEMP-STRESS finite element code by relaxing the equal strain condition between concrete and reinforcement. This is done for the elements adjacent to the element which is cracked. A parabolic differential strain variation is assumed along the reinforcement from the crack, which is taken to be at the centroid of the cracked element, to the point where perfect bonding exists. This strain relationship is used to increase the strain of the reinforcement in the as yet uncracked elements located adjacent to a crack. By the same token the corresponding concrete strain is decreased. This estimate is made assuming preservation of strain energy in the element. The effectiveness of the model is shown by examples. Comparison of analytical results is made with structural test data. The influence of the bonding model on cracking is portrayed pictorially. 5 refs., 6 figs

  1. Slipforming of reinforced concrete shield building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, M.C.; King, J.R.


    The unique design and construction features of slipforming the heavily reinforced concrete cylindrical shield walls at the Satsop nuclear plant in Washington, D.C. site are presented. The shield walls were designed in compliance with seismic requirements which resulted in the need for reinforcing steel averaging 326 kg/m/sup 3/. A 7.6 m high, three-deck moving platform was designed to permit easy installation of the reinforcing steel, embedments, and blockouts, and to facilitate concrete placement and finishing. Two circular box trusses, one on each side of the shield wall, were used in combination with a spider truss to meet both the tolerance and strength requirements for the slipform assembly

  2. Pointwise probability reinforcements for robust statistical inference. (United States)

    Frénay, Benoît; Verleysen, Michel


    Statistical inference using machine learning techniques may be difficult with small datasets because of abnormally frequent data (AFDs). AFDs are observations that are much more frequent in the training sample that they should be, with respect to their theoretical probability, and include e.g. outliers. Estimates of parameters tend to be biased towards models which support such data. This paper proposes to introduce pointwise probability reinforcements (PPRs): the probability of each observation is reinforced by a PPR and a regularisation allows controlling the amount of reinforcement which compensates for AFDs. The proposed solution is very generic, since it can be used to robustify any statistical inference method which can be formulated as a likelihood maximisation. Experiments show that PPRs can be easily used to tackle regression, classification and projection: models are freed from the influence of outliers. Moreover, outliers can be filtered manually since an abnormality degree is obtained for each observation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bamboo reinforced polymer composite - A comprehensive review (United States)

    Roslan, S. A. H.; Rasid, Z. A.; Hassan, M. Z.


    Bamboo has greatly attention of researchers due to their advantages over synthetic polymers. It is entirely renewable, environmentally-friendly, non-toxic, cheap, non-abrasive and fully biodegradable. This review paper summarized an oveview of the bamboo, fiber extraction and mechanical behavior of bamboo reinforced composites. A number of studies proved that mechanical properties of bamboo fibers reinforced reinforced polymer composites are excellent and competent to be utilized in high-tech applications. The properties of the laminate are influenced by the fiber loading, fibre orientation, physical and interlaminar adhesion between fibre and matrix. In contrast, the presence of chemical constituents such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose and wax substances in natural fibres preventing them from firmly binding with polymer resin. Thus, led to poor mechanical properties for composites. Many attempt has been made in order to overcome this issue by using the chemical treatment.

  4. Reinforcement Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Schuetze


    Full Text Available Early behavioral interventions are recognized as integral to standard care in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and often focus on reinforcing desired behaviors (e.g., eye contact and reducing the presence of atypical behaviors (e.g., echoing others' phrases. However, efficacy of these programs is mixed. Reinforcement learning relies on neurocircuitry that has been reported to be atypical in ASD: prefrontal-sub-cortical circuits, amygdala, brainstem, and cerebellum. Thus, early behavioral interventions rely on neurocircuitry that may function atypically in at least a subset of individuals with ASD. Recent work has investigated physiological, behavioral, and neural responses to reinforcers to uncover differences in motivation and learning in ASD. We will synthesize this work to identify promising avenues for future research that ultimately can be used to enhance the efficacy of early intervention.

  5. Amygdala and ventral striatum make distinct contributions to reinforcement learning (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D.; Monte, Olga Dal; Lucas, Daniel R.; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Averbeck, Bruno B.


    Summary Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with a RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys’ choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy tradeoff that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL. PMID:27720488

  6. On the relative contributions of noncontingent reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal. (United States)

    Reed, Gregory K; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Layer, Stacy A; Bachmeyer, Melanie H; Bethke, Stephanie D; Gutshall, Katharine A


    In the current investigation, we evaluated the relative effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), escape extinction, and a combination of NCR and escape extinction as treatment for the feeding problems exhibited by 4 children. For each participant, consumption increased only when escape extinction was implemented, independent of whether NCR was present or absent. These results were consistent with prior research suggesting that positive reinforcement alone is insufficient for increasing consumption, and that escape extinction often is necessary to increase and maintain food acceptance. However, NCR appeared to decrease inappropriate behavior for some participants.

  7. Maintaining positive


    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA


    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  8. Reinforcement learning improves behaviour from evaluative feedback (United States)

    Littman, Michael L.


    Reinforcement learning is a branch of machine learning concerned with using experience gained through interacting with the world and evaluative feedback to improve a system's ability to make behavioural decisions. It has been called the artificial intelligence problem in a microcosm because learning algorithms must act autonomously to perform well and achieve their goals. Partly driven by the increasing availability of rich data, recent years have seen exciting advances in the theory and practice of reinforcement learning, including developments in fundamental technical areas such as generalization, planning, exploration and empirical methodology, leading to increasing applicability to real-life problems.

  9. Seismic response of reinforced soil slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, Ioanna; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis


    The main aim of the current study is to assess the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures taking into account the most important aspects of the problem and to compare the available design methods. For this purpose, initially the most commonly used pseudostatic approach is implemented via...... a parametric investigation to illustrate the impact of the crucial parameters of this approach. Subsequently, Newmark’s sliding block model is modified to account for the reinforcement forces in the calculation of seismic displacements. Finally, finite element analyses were performed and the numerical results...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina IANASI


    Full Text Available One of the defining goals of this paper is getting new resistant material which combine the qualities of basic materials that get into its composition but not to borrow from them their negative properties. In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of CFRP composite materials as reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem which are presented in this paper.

  11. Risk-targeted safety distance of reinforced concrete buildings from natural-gas transmission pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Paola; Parisi, Fulvio


    Natural-gas pipeline accidents mostly result in major damage even to buildings located far away. Therefore, proper safety distances should be observed in land use planning to ensure target safety levels for both existing and new buildings. In this paper, a quantitative risk assessment procedure is presented for the estimation of the annual probability of direct structural damage to reinforced concrete buildings associated with high-pressure natural-gas pipeline explosions. The procedure is based on Monte Carlo simulation and takes into account physical features of blast generation and propagation, as well as damage to reinforced concrete columns. The natural-gas jet release process and the flammable cloud size are estimated through SLAB one-dimensional integral model incorporating a release rate model. The explosion effects are evaluated by a Multi-Energy Method. Damage to reinforced concrete columns is predicted by means of pressure–impulse diagrams. The conditional probability of damage was estimated at multiple pressure–impulse levels, allowing blast fragility surfaces to be derived at different performance limit states. Finally, blast risk was evaluated and allowed the estimation of minimum pipeline-to-building safety distances for risk-informed urban planning. The probabilistic procedure presented herein may be used for performance-based design/assessment of buildings and to define the path of new natural-gas pipeline networks. - Highlights: • The safety of buildings against blast loads due to pipeline accidents is assessed. • A probabilistic risk assessment procedure is presented for natural-gas pipelines. • The annual risk of collapse of reinforced concrete building columns is evaluated. • Monte Carlo simulation was carried out considering both pipeline and column features. • A risk-targeted safety distance is proposed for blast strength class 9.

  12. On token reinforcement and stuttering therapy: Another view on findings reported by Howie and Woods (1982)


    Ingham, Roger J.


    Howie and Woods (1982) have provided data that, they claim, indicate that a token reinforcement system is redundant in instating and shaping fluent speech within a stuttering treatment program developed by Ingham and Andrews (1973a, b). However, there were substantial procedural differences between the treatment programs referred to in both studies, as well as methodological weaknesses in Howie and Woods' study. These factors provide ample sources of explanation for Howie and Woods' failure t...

  13. Critical Speed Analysis of Fibre Reinforced Composite Rotor Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires


    Gupta, K.


    In the present analysis, the fundamental natural frequency of a Jeffcott and a two-mass rotor with fibre reinforced composite shaft embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA) wires is evaluated by Rayleigh's procedure. The flexibility of rotor supports is taken into account. The effect of three factors, either singly or in combination with each other, on rotor critical speed is studied. The three factors are: (i) increase in Young's modulus of SMA (NITINOL) wires when activated, (ii) tension in w...

  14. Theoretical and numerical analysis of reinforced concrete beams with confinement reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Delalibera

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of confinement in over-reinforced concrete beams. This reinforcement consists of square stirrups, placed in the compression zone of the beam cross-section, in order to improve its ductility. A parametric numerical study is initially performed, using a finite element computational program that considers the material nonlinearities and the confinement effect. To investigate the influence of the transverse reinforcing ratio on the beam ductility, an experimental program was also conducted. Four over-reinforced beams were tested; three beam specimens with additional transverse reinforcement to confine the beams, and one without it. All specimens were fabricated with a concrete designed for a compressive strength of 25 MPa. The experimental results show that the post-peak ductility factor is proportional to the confining reinforcement ratio, however the same is not observed for the pre-peak ductility factor, which varied randomly with changes in the confining reinforcement ratio. It was also observed from the experiments that the confinement effect tends to be smaller close to the beam neutral axis.

  15. Finite element modelling of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid fiber reinforced bars (United States)

    Smring, Santa binti; Salleh, Norhafizah; Hamid, NoorAzlina Abdul; Majid, Masni A.


    Concrete is a heterogeneous composite material made up of cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water mixed in a desired proportion to obtain the required strength. Plain concrete does not with stand tension as compared to compression. In order to compensate this drawback steel reinforcement are provided in concrete. Now a day, for improving the properties of concrete and also to take up tension combination of steel and glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars promises favourable strength, serviceability, and durability. To verify its promise and support design concrete structures with hybrid type of reinforcement, this study have investigated the load-deflection behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid GFRP and steel bars by using ATENA software. Fourteen beams, including six control beams reinforced with only steel or only GFRP bars, were analysed. The ratio and the ordinate of GFRP to steel were the main parameters investigated. The behaviour of these beams was investigated via the load-deflection characteristics, cracking behaviour and mode of failure. Hybrid GFRP-Steel reinforced concrete beam showed the improvement in both ultimate capacity and deflection concomitant to the steel reinforced concrete beam. On the other hand, finite element (FE) modelling which is ATENA were validated with previous experiment and promising the good result to be used for further analyses and development in the field of present study.

  16. Positioning devices for patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, M.


    It has been suggested that it is very important to position patients reproducibly at different stages of radiotherapy treatment planning and treatment, or similar procedures. Devices have been described for positioning a patient's upper and lower thorax. This invention provides reproducible positioning for a female patient's breasts, for example in planning treatment of and treating breast tumours. The patient is placed prone, using for example an upper thorax device. A support device is placed central to and beneath her breasts to partially displace them outwards. The device may be triangular in section with one apex contacting the chest wall at the sternum. Restraining straps may be provided to hold the breasts against the support device. Means may be provided to take a healthy breast from the path of radiation through the tumour. (author)

  17. The possibility of using high strength reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Nobuaki


    There is recently much research about and developments in reinforced concrete using high strength concrete and reinforcement. As a result, some high-rise buildings and nuclear buildings have been constructed with such concrete. Reinforced concrete will be stronger in the future, but there is a limit to its strength defined by the character of the materials and also by the character of the reinforced concrete members made of the concrete and reinforcement. This report describes the merits and demerits of using high strength reinforced concrete. (author)

  18. Strengthening of the Timber Members Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc


    Full Text Available The reinforcement of structural wood products has become in the last decades an efficient method of improving structural capabilities of load carrying members made of this material. Some important steps in earlier stages of research were focused on using metallic reinforcement, including steel bars, prestressed stranded cables, and bonded steel and aluminum plates. A disadvantage of the metallic reinforcement was the poor compatibility between the wood and the reinforcing materials. In comparison with metallic reinforcement, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP composites are compatible with structural wood products leading to efficient hybrid members. Some interesting strengthening alternatives using FRP applied to wood beams and to wood columns are presented in this paper.

  19. Corrosion performance of epoxy-coated reinforcement in aggressive environments (United States)

    Vaca Cortes, Enrique

    The objective of this research was to investigate the integrity and corrosion performance of epoxy-coated reinforcement in aggressive environments. A series of experimental studies were conducted: (a) hot water immersion and knife adhesion testing for assessment of coating adhesion; (b) materials and procedures for repairing coating damage; (c) degree of mechanical damage caused during concrete placement when using metal head and rubber head vibrators; (d) accelerated corrosion of coated bars embedded in macrocell and beam specimens placed in a corrosive environment for more than four years. The effects of coating condition and amount of damage, repaired vs. unrepaired damage, bar fabrication, and concrete cracking were studied. Regardless of coating condition, the performance of epoxy-coated bars was better than that of uncoated bars. Unlike black bars, coated bars did not exhibit deep pitting or substantial loss of cross section at crack locations. Damage to epoxy coating was the most significant factor affecting corrosion performance. Bars with coating in good condition, without any visible damage, performed best. The greater the size and frequency of damage, the more severe and extensive the amount of corrosion. The performance of bars that were fabricated or bent after coating was worse than that of coated straight bars. Mixing coated and uncoated bars in the same concrete member led to undesirable performance. Patching damaged coating reduced but did not prevent corrosion, particularly at bar ends. The most important factor in coating repair was the type and properties of the patching material. Surface preparation prior to coating had little effect. The absence of cracks in the concrete delayed, but did not prevent the onset of corrosion of coated bars. During consolidation of concrete, rubber head vibrators caused less damage to epoxy-coated reinforcement than did comparable metal heads. Hot water and adhesion tests were useful and practical for evaluating

  20. Advancing Continence in Typically Developing Children: Adapting the Procedures of Foxx and Azrin for Primary Care. (United States)

    Warzak, William J; Forcino, Stacy S; Sanberg, Sela Ann; Gross, Amy C


    To (1) identify and summarize procedures of Foxx and Azrin's classic toilet training protocol that continue to be used in training typically developing children and (2) adapt recent findings with the original Foxx and Azrin procedures to inform practical suggestions for the rapid toilet training of typically developing children in the primary care setting. Literature searches of PsychINFO and MEDLINE databases used the search terms "(toilet* OR potty* AND train*)." Selection criteria were only peer-reviewed experimental articles that evaluated intensive toilet training with typically developing children. Exclusion criteria were (1) nonpeer reviewed research, (2) studies addressing encopresis and/or enuresis, (3) studies excluding typically developing children, and (4) studies evaluating toilet training during infancy. In addition to the study of Foxx and Azrin, only 4 publications met the above criteria. Toilet training procedures from each article were reviewed to determine which toilet training methods were similar to components described by Foxx and Azrin. Common training elements include increasing the frequency of learning opportunities through fluid loading and having differential consequences for being dry versus being wet and for voiding in the toilet versus elsewhere. There is little research on intensive toilet training of typically developing children. Practice sits and positive reinforcement for voids in the toilet are commonplace, consistent with the Foxx and Azrin protocol, whereas positive practice as a corrective procedure for wetting accidents often is omitted. Fluid loading and differential consequences for being dry versus being wet and for voiding in the toilet also are suggested procedures, consistent with the Foxx and Azrin protocol.

  1. Analytical, Numerical and Experimental Examination of Reinforced Composites Beams Covered with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (United States)

    Kasimzade, A. A.; Tuhta, S.


    In the article, analytical, numerical (Finite Element Method) and experimental investigation results of beam that was strengthened with fiber reinforced plastic-FRP composite has been given as comparative, the effect of FRP wrapping number to the maximum load and moment capacity has been evaluated depending on this results. Carbon FRP qualitative dependences have been occurred between wrapping number and beam load and moment capacity for repair-strengthen the reinforced concrete beams with carbon fiber. Shown possibilities of application traditional known analysis programs, for the analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) strengthened structures.

  2. Flexural strength using Steel Plate, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) on reinforced concrete beam in building technology (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Patra, Fadel Muhammad; Sitorus, Torang


    Reinforced concrete structures are very commonly used in buildings because they are cheaper than the steel structures. But in reality, many concrete structures are damaged, so there are several ways to overcome this problem, by providing reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and reinforcement with steel plates. Each type of reinforcements has its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, researchers discuss the comparison between flexural strength of reinforced concrete beam using steel plates and Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). In this case, the researchers use Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as external reinforcements. The dimension of the beams is 15 x 25 cm with the length of 320 cm. Based on the analytical results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.991 times its initial, GFRP is 1.877 times while with the steel plate is 1.646 times. Based on test results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.444 times its initial, GFRP is 1.333 times while the steel plate is 1.167 times. Based on these test results, the authors conclude that beam with CFRP is the best choice for external reinforcement in building technology than the others.

  3. Graphics and control of the guide tube assembly reinforcement manipulators at Sizewell 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, C.


    A method was devised to reinforce the lower lug welds of the Guide Tube Assemblies (GTA's) at Sizewell 'A'. A six degree of freedom manipulator was designed to place a clamp around the lugs and tighten it. The manipulator was fitted with the three fixed cameras but required another surveillance manipulator positioned in an adjacent standpipe to provide additional views. The need to prepare two standpipes limited the rate at which reinforcements could be made. Therefore an articulated two arm camera manipulator, which could be used on the existing manipulator mast was designed and built. The two manipulators were driven from separate desks and were controlled by the same supervisory computer linked to online graphics. The camera arm joints were driven on preplanned routes using a single joystick because of the complex moves and tight spaces involved. A large number of GTA sites have now been reinforced including a dropped GTA which had to be raised to carry out clamping. (Author)

  4. Energy efficient microwave heating of carbon fibre reinforced plastic; Energieeffiziente Mikrowellentemperierung von kohlenstofffaserverstaerkten Duroplasten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, Maksim


    The polymerization of carbon fiber reinforced thermosetting composites (CFRP) is a dull process step with high energy requirements within the production chain. His improvement would affect the economic and ecological balance of the fiber reinforced materials in a positive way. One possible approach investigated here is tempering of raw materials in a microwave oven. In this work the material to be processed - a carbon fiber-reinforced plastic laminate - is being characterized in the microwave field through electromagnetic and thermal parameters. The relationship between its design parameters (fiber orientation and number of layers), the energy levels (reflection, absorption and transmittance) and the thermal process parameters (temperature gradient achievable) will be established. Afterwards, constructive options will be examined and evaluated which are suitable to install a low-loss (both by means of wave reflections and heat losses) industrial process.

  5. [Effects and mechanisms of plant roots on slope reinforcement and soil erosion resistance: a research review]. (United States)

    Xiong, Yan-Mei; Xia, Han-Ping; Li, Zhi-An; Cai, Xi-An


    Plant roots play an important role in resisting the shallow landslip and topsoil erosion of slopes by raising soil shear strength. Among the models in interpreting the mechanisms of slope reinforcement by plant roots, Wu-Waldron model is a widely accepted one. In this model, the reinforced soil strength by plant roots is positively proportional to average root tensile strength and root area ratio, the two most important factors in evaluating slope reinforcement effect of plant roots. It was found that soil erosion resistance increased with the number of plant roots, though no consistent quantitative functional relationship was observed between them. The increase of soil erosion resistance by plant roots was mainly through the actions of fiber roots less than 1 mm in diameter, while fiber roots enhanced the soil stability to resist water dispersion via increasing the number and diameter of soil water-stable aggregates. Fine roots could also improve soil permeability effectively to decrease runoff and weaken soil erosion.

  6. A Robust Cooperated Control Method with Reinforcement Learning and Adaptive H∞ Control (United States)

    Obayashi, Masanao; Uchiyama, Shogo; Kuremoto, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kunikazu

    This study proposes a robust cooperated control method combining reinforcement learning with robust control to control the system. A remarkable characteristic of the reinforcement learning is that it doesn't require model formula, however, it doesn't guarantee the stability of the system. On the other hand, robust control system guarantees stability and robustness, however, it requires model formula. We employ both the actor-critic method which is a kind of reinforcement learning with minimal amount of computation to control continuous valued actions and the traditional robust control, that is, H∞ control. The proposed system was compared method with the conventional control method, that is, the actor-critic only used, through the computer simulation of controlling the angle and the position of a crane system, and the simulation result showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Nonlinear seismic analysis of reinforced concrete framed structures considering joint distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Akanshu; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Eligehausen, Rolf; Hofmann, J.


    Seismic behavior of a reinforced concrete framed structure can be assessed with various analytical tools that may broadly be classified as linear elastic procedures and non-linear or inelastic analysis procedures. Since the reinforced concrete structures generally go in the inelastic range due to seismic loading, it can be easily said that the inelastic procedures would predict the performance of the structures in a much better and realistic way than the linear elastic procedures. However, at the same time, the inelastic procedures are computationally much more demanding. Thus, a good balance between accuracy and computational effort is often sought for. To assess the seismic behaviour of reinforced concrete framed structures, various experimental procedures can be used. Pushover tests that consist of loading the structure monotonically till failure can be conducted on large scale structures and give information about the load carrying and deformational capacity of the structure along with sequence of failure modes but only in one direction. Static cyclic tests, where inertia effects are not included give the above mentioned information for to and fro loading direction along with the information on energy consumption. Shake table tests, which are closest to the real life earthquake tests provide almost all the information required to understand the seismic behaviour but the scale of such tests are usually limited by the capacity of the shaking table facility. In this work, practically usable and sufficiently accurate models are reported to realistically model the inelastic response of the structures. A new model to consider the inelastic behaviour of the joints of poorly detailed structures is developed and presented. A practical hysteretic rule based on the extension of Pivot hysteretic model is developed for members and beam-column joints and the same is also reported. The analytical models are validated against the experimental results using pushover analysis

  8. HASL procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.


    Additions and corrections to the following sections of the HASL Procedures Manual are provided: General, Sampling, Field Measurements; General Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Procedures, Data Section, and Specifications

  9. The contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the personality-psychopathology hierarchical structure in childhood and adolescence. (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R


    This study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the hierarchical structure of child personality and common psychopathology in community samples of parent reports of children aged 2-18 (N = 968) and self-reports of adolescents aged 10-18 (N = 1,543) using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences-Short version (ICID-S), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). A joint higher-order factor analysis of the ICID-S and SDQ scales suggested a 4-factor solution; congruence coefficients indicated replicability of the factors across the 2 samples at all levels of the personality-psychopathology hierarchy. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and personality-psychopathology dimensions shared much of their variance. The main contribution of reinforcement sensitivity was through opposing effects of reward and punishment sensitivities. The superordinate factors Beta and Internalizing were best predicted by reinforcement sensitivity, followed by the Externalizing and Positive personality factors. These findings provide evidence for consistency of the hierarchical structure of personality and common psychopathology across informants and highlight the role of reinforcement systems in the development of normal and abnormal patterns of behavior and affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Deletion of the δ opioid receptor gene impairs place conditioning but preserves morphine reinforcement. (United States)

    Le Merrer, Julie; Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Del Boca, Carolina; Matifas, Audrey; Maldonado, Rafael; Kieffer, Brigitte L


    Converging experimental data indicate that δ opioid receptors contribute to mediate drug reinforcement processes. Whether their contribution reflects a role in the modulation of drug reward or an implication in conditioned learning, however, has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the impact of δ receptor gene knockout on reinforced conditioned learning under several experimental paradigms. We assessed the ability of δ receptor knockout mice to form drug-context associations with either morphine (appetitive)- or lithium (aversive)-induced Pavlovian place conditioning. We also examined the efficiency of morphine to serve as a positive reinforcer in these mice and their motivation to gain drug injections, with operant intravenous self-administration under fixed and progressive ratio schedules and at two different doses. Mutant mice showed impaired place conditioning in both appetitive and aversive conditions, indicating disrupted context-drug association. In contrast, mutant animals displayed intact acquisition of morphine self-administration and reached breaking-points comparable to control subjects. Thus, reinforcing effects of morphine and motivation to obtain the drug were maintained. Collectively, the data suggest that δ receptor activity is not involved in morphine reinforcement but facilitates place conditioning. This study reveals a novel aspect of δ opioid receptor function in addiction-related behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of reinforcement contingencies on AD/HD: a review and theoretical appraisal. (United States)

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph A


    One of the core deficits in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is thought to be an aberrant sensitivity to reinforcement, such as reward and response cost. Twenty-two studies (N=1181 children) employing AD/HD and reinforcement contingencies are reviewed from vantage points: task performance, motivation, and psychophysiology. Results indicate that reinforcement contingencies have a positive impact on task performance and levels of motivation for both children with AD/HD and normal controls. There is evidence that the effect related to task performance is somewhat more prominent in AD/HD. There is some evidence that a high intensity of reinforcement is highly effective in AD/HD. Children with AD/HD prefer immediate over delayed reward. From a psychophysiological point of view, children with AD/HD seem less sensitive to reinforcement compared to controls. While comorbid disorders are suggested to be confounders of the dependent variables, many studies do not examine the effect of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). We discuss the implications of the findings for five theoretical frameworks, including the model by, the cognitive-energetic model (CEM), the dual-pathway model and the BIS/BAS model. Results show a discrepancy between the theoretical models and the behavioural findings.

  12. Stripping demolition of concrete by applying electric current through reinforcing bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Wahei; Kumegawa, Sadatsune


    The presence of reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete structures is an obstruction hindering the smooth progress of demolition works. The electric heating method is, on the other hand, a demolition technique of unique concept since it adopts the bars to help the demolition of reinforced concrete structures. This technique has the following advantages for demolition: 1) the more densely a structure is reinforced with bars, the greater is the effect of the electric heating, 2) demolition after heating produces little dust, and 3) electric heating of reinforcing bars causes no damage to the portions of concrete not subjected to electric current. The present paper describes the procedures and results of a series of experiments we conducted to verify the efficiency of the electric heating method. In this method, a low-voltage high-current is run through reinforcing bars existing in a concrete structure, inducing intense heat in the bars which in its turn brings about cracks in the surrounding concrete mass, facilitating secondary demolition by hammer picks or other means. The experiments were performed on full-scale biological shield wall mock-ups of a BWR and a small nuclear reactor. The experiments revealed that these excellent features of the electric heating method are worth utilizing in stripping demolition of radioactivated regions of biological shield walls in nuclear power plants. The electric heating method is currently being adopted and shows effective results in partial demolition works in diaphragm wall shafts where starting/arriving holes are to be fixed for shield machines without damaging surrounding portions. (author)

  13. Self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.


    The project 'self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete (SCFRC)' is part of the Dutch STW/PPM program - 'cement-bonded materials' - DCT.4010. Subproject III to which the project ,SCFRC' belongs deals with the development of new high performance concretes. The project 'SCFRC' aims at investigating the

  14. The Reinforcements of Religiousness in Adolescence. (United States)

    Ozorak, Elizabeth Weiss

    A study conducted in 1986 found that parents were the critical influence on the religious beliefs and commitment of their adolescent sons and daughters, while the adolescent's peers seemed to have no significant effect. In addition, the content of the beliefs did not seem to act as a strong reinforcer. Thirty-two of the 390 subjects who…

  15. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.


    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  16. Membrane reinforcement in concrete shells: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.


    A historical evolution of the membrane reinforcement design in concrete shells is presented. Theoretical developments, experimental verifications and the history of US codes and standards have been traced. For two decades now, the evidence is converging towards application of the principle of minimum resistance. This principle is rational, and it can reasonably explain the experimental results. (orig.)

  17. Using a board game to reinforce learning. (United States)

    Yoon, Bona; Rodriguez, Leslie; Faselis, Charles J; Liappis, Angelike P


    Experiential gaming strategies offer a variation on traditional learning. A board game was used to present synthesized content of fundamental catheter care concepts and reinforce evidence-based practices relevant to nursing. Board games are innovative educational tools that can enhance active learning. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Embedded Incremental Feature Selection for Reinforcement Learning (United States)


    Prior to this work, feature selection for reinforce- ment learning has focused on linear value function ap- proximation ( Kolter and Ng, 2009; Parr et al...InProceed- ings of the the 23rd International Conference on Ma- chine Learning, pages 449–456. Kolter , J. Z. and Ng, A. Y. (2009). Regularization and feature

  19. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials (United States)


    Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented. PMID:29562635

  20. Scheduling reinforcement about once a day. (United States)

    Eckerman, D A


    A pigeon earned its daily food by pecking a key according to reinforcement schedules that produced food about once per day. Fixed-interval (FI), Fixed-time (FT), and various complex schedules were arranged to demonstrate the degree to which a scalloped pattern of responding remained. Pausing continued until about an hour before the reinforcer could be earned for FIs of 12, 24, and 48 h. Pausing was not as long for FIs of 18, 19, and 23 h. Pausing of about 24 h was seen for FI 36 h. FT 24 h produced continued responding but at a diminished frequency. The pattern of responding was strongly controlled by the schedule of reinforcement and seemed relatively independent of the cycle of human activity in the surrounding laboratory. Effects of added ratio contingencies and of signaling the availability of reinforcement in FT were also examined. Signaled FTs of 5 min-3 h produced more responding during the signal (autoshaping) than did FTs of 19 or 24 h.

  1. Corrosion and Cracking of Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of the deterioration of reinforced concrete has in recent years changed from being a deterministic modelling based on experience to be stochastic modelling based on sound and consistent physical, chemical and mechanical principles. In this paper is presented a brief review of modern mod...... for time to initial corrosion, time to initial cracking, and time to a given crack width may be obtained....

  2. Decentralized Reinforcement Learning of robot behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leottau, David L.; Ruiz-del-Solar, Javier; Babuska, R.


    A multi-agent methodology is proposed for Decentralized Reinforcement Learning (DRL) of individual behaviors in problems where multi-dimensional action spaces are involved. When using this methodology, sub-tasks are learned in parallel by individual agents working toward a common goal. In

  3. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the action of chloride solutions may intensify the process of corrosion of steel reinforcement in comparison to the converse sequence of the action of mentioned media. At the same time the natrium chloride solution has been shown as a more aggressive medium opposite to the calcium and magnesium chloride solutions.

  4. Assessing corrosion of MSE wall reinforcement. (United States)


    The primary objective of this study was to extract reinforcement coupons from select MSE walls and document the extent of corrosion. In doing this, a baseline has been established against which coupons extracted in the future can be compared. A secon...

  5. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caggiano


    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented.

  6. Reinforcement versus fluidization in cytoskeletal mechanoresponsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Krishnan

    Full Text Available Every adherent eukaryotic cell exerts appreciable traction forces upon its substrate. Moreover, every resident cell within the heart, great vessels, bladder, gut or lung routinely experiences large periodic stretches. As an acute response to such stretches the cytoskeleton can stiffen, increase traction forces and reinforce, as reported by some, or can soften and fluidize, as reported more recently by our laboratory, but in any given circumstance it remains unknown which response might prevail or why. Using a novel nanotechnology, we show here that in loading conditions expected in most physiological circumstances the localized reinforcement response fails to scale up to the level of homogeneous cell stretch; fluidization trumps reinforcement. Whereas the reinforcement response is known to be mediated by upstream mechanosensing and downstream signaling, results presented here show the fluidization response to be altogether novel: it is a direct physical effect of mechanical force acting upon a structural lattice that is soft and fragile. Cytoskeletal softness and fragility, we argue, is consistent with early evolutionary adaptations of the eukaryotic cell to material properties of a soft inert microenvironment.

  7. Shape and Reinforcement Optimization of Underground Tunnels (United States)

    Ghabraie, Kazem; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Ren, Gang

    Design of support system and selecting an optimum shape for the opening are two important steps in designing excavations in rock masses. Currently selecting the shape and support design are mainly based on designer's judgment and experience. Both of these problems can be viewed as material distribution problems where one needs to find the optimum distribution of a material in a domain. Topology optimization techniques have proved to be useful in solving these kinds of problems in structural design. Recently the application of topology optimization techniques in reinforcement design around underground excavations has been studied by some researchers. In this paper a three-phase material model will be introduced changing between normal rock, reinforced rock, and void. Using such a material model both problems of shape and reinforcement design can be solved together. A well-known topology optimization technique used in structural design is bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO). In this paper the BESO technique has been extended to simultaneously optimize the shape of the opening and the distribution of reinforcements. Validity and capability of the proposed approach have been investigated through some examples.

  8. Biopolymer nanocomposite films reinforced with nanocellulose whiskers (United States)

    Amit Saxena; Marcus Foston; Mohamad Kassaee; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas


    A xylan nanocomposite film with improved strength and barrier properties was prepared by a solution casting using nanocellulose whiskers as a reinforcing agent. The 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the spectral data obtained for the NCW/xylan nanocomposite films indicated the signal intensity originating...

  9. Global methods for reinforced concrete slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, A.; Lepareux, M.; Combescure, A.


    This paper develops the global method strategy to compute elastoplastic thin shells or beams. It is shown how this methodology can be applied to the case of reinforced concrete structures. Two cases of applications are presented: one static, the other dynamic. The numerical results are compared to experimental data

  10. Online reinforcement learning control for aerospace systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.


    Reinforcement Learning (RL) methods are relatively new in the field of aerospace guidance, navigation, and control. This dissertation aims to exploit RL methods to improve the autonomy and online learning of aerospace systems with respect to the a priori unknown system and environment, dynamical

  11. Reinforcement Learning in Continuous Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasselt, H. van; Wiering, M.A.


    Quite some research has been done on Reinforcement Learning in continuous environments, but the research on problems where the actions can also be chosen from a continuous space is much more limited. We present a new class of algorithms named Continuous Actor Critic Learning Automaton (CACLA)

  12. Fundamentals of fibre-reinforced soil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Sanjay Kumar


    This book is intended to serve as a one-stop reference on fibre-reinforced soils. Over the past 30-35 years, the engineering behaviour of randomly distributed/oriented fibre-reinforced soil, also called simply fibre-reinforced soil, has been investigated in detail by researchers and engineers worldwide. Waste fibres (plastic waste fibres, old tyre fibres, etc.) create disposal and environmental problems. Utilization of such fibres in construction can help resolve these concerns. Research studies and some field applications have shown that the fibres can be utilized in large quantities in geotechnical and civil engineering applications in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. This book covers a complete description of fibres, their effects when included within a soil or other similar materials such as the fly ash, and their field applications. It gives a detailed view of fibre-reinforced soil engineering. The book will be useful to students, professional, and researchers alike, and can also ser...

  13. Reinforcement Data for Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    Idealized materials data are derived from a number of test series reported in the literature and made by the author. The data cover a variety of reinforcing steels from mild steel, deformed bars and cold worked bars to cold drawn prestressing steels. Processes are described, which are responsible...

  14. Efficient abstraction selection in reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijen, H. van; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.


    This paper introduces a novel approach for abstraction selection in reinforcement learning problems modelled as factored Markov decision processes (MDPs), for which a state is described via a set of state components. In abstraction selection, an agent must choose an abstraction from a set of

  15. Structural design guidelines for concrete bridge decks reinforced with corrosion-resistant reinforcing bars. (United States)


    This research program develops and validates structural design guidelines and details for concrete bridge decks with : corrosion-resistant reinforcing (CRR) bars. A two-phase experimental program was conducted where a control test set consistent : wi...

  16. Reinforcement Toolbox, a Parametric Reinforcement Modelling Tool for Curved Surface Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauppe, J.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.


    This paper presents a computational strategy and parametric modelling toolbox which aim at enhancing the design- and production process of reinforcement in freeform curved surface structures. The computational strategy encompasses the necessary steps of raising an architectural curved surface model

  17. Effect of hybrid fiber reinforcement on the cracking process in fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.


    The simultaneous use of different types of fibers as reinforcement in cementitious matrix composites is typically motivated by the underlying principle of a multi-scale nature of the cracking processes in fiber reinforced cementitious composites. It has been hypothesized that while undergoing...... tensile deformations in the composite, the fibers with different geometrical and mechanical properties restrain the propagation and further development of cracking at different scales from the micro- to the macro-scale. The optimized design of the fiber reinforcing systems requires the objective...... materials is carried out by assessing directly their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The efficiency of hybrid fiber reinforcements and the multi-scale nature of cracking processes are discussed based on the experimental results obtained, as well as the micro-mechanisms underlying the contribution...

  18. The implementation of unit price of work standard SNI 7394: 2008 for the construction of reinforced concrete beam (United States)

    Tripoli; Mubarak; Nurisra; Mahmuddin


    This paper discusses the implementation of Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 7394: 2008 on procedures for calculating the unit price of concrete work for the construction of building and housing. The standard provides some reinforced concrete constructions unit price (UP) analysis by specified the total number of reinforcing uses. Related to reinforced concrete beam work (Analysis No. 6.31), the reinforcement requirement is stated at 200 kg/m3 of concrete. Once the implementation considers various earthquake zoning, the question will arise about the extent to which the standard is feasible to apply. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze the possibility of UP standard implementation by certain earthquake zonation. This research is focused on the construction of reinforced concrete beam for buildings with function as educational, residential and office buildings. The data used are sourced from 21 buildings in two zones in Aceh Province, covering Zone 10 and Zone 15 based on earthquake map of SNI 1726: 2012. The analysis results indicate that the UP standard for reinforced concrete beam cannot be applied to all zoning. The UP standard is only possible on buildings constructed in Zone 10 or zonation with seismic spectral response 0.6g to 0.7g or lower.

  19. simulation models for presiction of structrual fibre-reinforced come

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    showed increasing flexural strength up to the optimum fibre volume fraction while the ... the analysis and design of palmnut fibre-reinforced cement composites. ..... Nilson, L. “Reinforcement of Concrete with Sisal and other Vegetable Fibres”.

  20. Acquisition with partial and continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel A


    Contemporary time accumulation models make the unique prediction that acquisition of a conditioned response will be equally rapid with partial and continuous reinforcement, if the time between conditioned stimuli is held constant. To investigate this, acquisition of conditioned responding was examined in pigeon autoshaping under conditions of 100% and 25% reinforcement, holding intertrial interval constant. Contrary to what was predicted, evidence for slowed acquisition in partially reinforced animals was observed with several response measures. However, asymptotic performance was superior with 25% reinforcement. A switching of reinforcement contingencies after initial acquisition did not immediately affect responding. After further sessions, partial reinforcement augmented responding, whereas continuous reinforcement did not, irrespective of an animal's reinforcement history. Subsequent training with a novel stimulus maintained the response patterns. These acquisition results generally support associative, rather than time accumulation, accounts of conditioning.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    mechanical and corrosion wear behaviour of any reinforced composites. In other ..... physical properties of glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin and the following .... waste in concrete and cement composites," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.

  2. Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavement research in south Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perrie, BD


    Full Text Available Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavements (UTCRCP), in literature also referred to as Ultra Thin Reinforced High Performance Concrete (UTHRHPC), have been used in Europe successfully as a rehabilitation measure on steel bridge decks...

  3. Mechanical Behavior of Granular/Particulate Media Reinforced with Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michalowski, Radoslw


    Fiber-reinforced ganular composites (for instance, fiber-reinforced sand) are considered as construction materials for such applications as subgrades of airfields and roads, aircraft parking facilities, etc...

  4. Reinforced soil structures. Volume I, Design and construction guidelines (United States)


    This report presents comprehensive guidelines for evaluating and using soil reinforcement techniques in the construction of retaining walls, embankment slopes, and natural or cut slopes. A variety of available systems for reinforced soil including in...

  5. Evaluation of size effect on shear strength of reinforced concrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the longitudinal and the web reinforcement, shear span-to-depth ratio and the ... A simple equation for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete deep ..... AASHTO 2007 LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, American Association of ...

  6. Video game addiction, ADHD symptomatology, and video game reinforcement. (United States)

    Mathews, Christine L; Morrell, Holly E R; Molle, Jon E


    Up to 23% of people who play video games report symptoms of addiction. Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at increased risk for video game addiction, especially when playing games with more reinforcing properties. The current study tested whether level of video game reinforcement (type of game) places individuals with greater ADHD symptom severity at higher risk for developing video game addiction. Adult video game players (N = 2,801; Mean age = 22.43, SD = 4.70; 93.30% male; 82.80% Caucasian) completed an online survey. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were used to test type of game, ADHD symptom severity, and the interaction between type of game and ADHD symptomatology as predictors of video game addiction severity, after controlling for age, gender, and weekly time spent playing video games. ADHD symptom severity was positively associated with increased addiction severity (b = .73 and .68, ps .05. The relationship between ADHD symptom severity and addiction severity did not depend on the type of video game played or preferred most, ps > .05. Gamers who have greater ADHD symptom severity may be at greater risk for developing symptoms of video game addiction and its negative consequences, regardless of type of video game played or preferred most. Individuals who report ADHD symptomatology and also identify as gamers may benefit from psychoeducation about the potential risk for problematic play.

  7. Mechanical behaviour of fibre reinforced concrete using soft - drink can (United States)

    Ilya, J.; Cheow Chea, C.


    This research was carried out to study the behaviour of concrete, specifically compressive and flexural strength, by incorporating recycled soft drink aluminium can as fibre reinforcement in the concrete. Another aim of the research is to determine the maximum proportion of fibres to be added in the concrete. By following standard mix design, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete was made to have a target mean strength of 30 N/mm2 with not more than 30 mm of slump. Having the same workability, OPC concrete with 0%, 1% and 2% of soft drink can aluminium fibre was prepared based on weight of cement. The specimens were tested for compressive strength and flexural strength. Laboratory test results based on short term investigation reveals that the compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete containing fibre are higher than of normal OPC concrete. Among two volume fractions, concrete with 1% of soft drink can fibre have performed better result in compressive strength and flexural strength compared with 2% amount of soft drink can fibre. The optimum proportion of aluminium fibre to be added in the concrete as fibre reinforcement is 1% fibre content by weight of cement which gave all the positive response from all the tests conducted.

  8. Ultimate resistance of a reinforced concrete foundation under impulsive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaro, D.; Forasassi, G.; Marconi, M.


    The impact of a spent nuclear fuel cask against a reinforced concrete slab of a temporary repository for spent nuclear fuel is numerically analysed. The analysis considers accidental events in which a spent nuclear fuel cask would drop against the floor of a repository during lifting operations. Two types of solutions have been taken into account: a simple reinforced concrete structure and a structure provided with a 40 mm thick steel liner on the impacted surface, connected to a 1600 mm thick concrete bed. The model is assumed to be axisymmetric and positioned on an elastic ground (Winkler model). The concrete has been simulated as: elastic perfectly plastic under compressive stresses limited by a crushing strain; elastic linear under tensile stresses until a cracking stress value and a following decrease of stress characterized by a constant or variable softening modulus; limited ability to resist at shear stresses after cracking characterized by a shear retention factor. The steel of the reinforcement bars and of the cask has been simulated as an elastic perfectly plastic material. Several numerical simulations have been performed in order to determine the influence, on the ultimate resistance of the structure under examination, of the steel liner, of some characteristic parameters of concrete (as the softening module and the shear retention factor) and of the Winkler coefficient values, simulating the elastic behaviour of the ground. The obtained results demonstrate that a steel liner produces a lower stress in the concrete as well as in the reinforcement but the bed is still subjected to the cracking phenomenon throughout its entire width although the crushing is localized to only a few elements near the impact zone. The use of a more complex constitutive equation for the concrete considering the shear retention factor and the softening module has given results which do not differ greatly from those related to a more simplified model. A different degree of

  9. Producing Durable Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement using Glass-ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel (United States)


    reinforcement if the enamel is broken  Embedded cement grains hydrate if enamel is cracked to self-heal with the formation of calcium silicate hydrate Goal...Reinforced Concrete Pavement The 600% volume change in the iron to iron oxide formation put the concrete in tension and it cracks an spalls BUILDING...corrodes prematurely and delaminates the pavement  Moisture and chlorides can move through the natural porosity of concrete and the cracks in the

  10. The effect of concrete strength and reinforcement on toughness of reinforced concrete beams


    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.; Jalali, Said; Teixeira, Vasco M. P.; Tomás, M.


    The objective pursued with this work includes the evaluating of the strength and the total energy absorption capacity (toughness) of reinforced concrete beams using different amounts of steel-bar reinforcement. The experimental campaign deals with the evaluation of the threshold load prior collapse, ultimate load and deformation, as well as the beam total energy absorption capacity, using a three point bending test. The beam half span displacement was measured using a displacement transducer,...



    Passage, Michael; Tincani, Matt; Hantula, Donald A.


    This study examined the effectiveness of using qualitatively different reinforcers to teach self-control to an adolescent boy who had been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. First, he was instructed to engage in an activity without programmed reinforcement. Next, he was instructed to engage in the activity under a two-choice fixed-duration schedule of reinforcement. Finally, he was exposed to self-control training, during which the delay to a more preferred reinforcer was initially sh...

  12. Influence of facing vertical stiffness on reinforced soil wall design


    Puig Damians, Ivan; Bathurst, Richard; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro; Lloret Morancho, Antonio


    Current design practices for reinforced soil walls typically ignore the influence of facing type and foundation compressibility on the magnitude and distribution of reinforcement loads in steel reinforced soil walls under operational conditions. In this paper, the effect of the facing vertical stiffness (due to elastomeric bearing pads placed in the horizontal joints between panels) on load capacity of steel reinforced soil walls is examined in a systematic manner using a numerical modelli...

  13. Normal Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Explosive Loading


    Mohammed Alias Yusof; Norazman Norazman; Ariffin Ariffin; Fauzi Mohd Zain; Risby Risby; CP Ng


    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the behavior of plain reinforced concrete and Normal strength steel fiber reinforced concrete panels (SFRC) subjected to explosive loading. The experiment were performed by the Blast Research Unit Faculty of Engineering, University Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia A total of 8 reinforced concrete panels of 600mm x 600mm x 100mm were tested. The steel fiber reinforced concrete panels incorporated three different volume fraction, 0...

  14. Prediction of reinforcement corrosion using corrosion induced cracks width in corroded reinforced concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Inamullah; François, Raoul; Castel, Arnaud


    This paper studies the evolution of reinforcement corrosion in comparison to corrosion crack width in a highly corroded reinforced concrete beam. Cracking and corrosion maps of the beam were drawn and steel reinforcement was recovered from the beam to observe the corrosion pattern and to measure the loss of mass of steel reinforcement. Maximum steel cross-section loss of the main reinforcement and average steel cross-section loss between stirrups were plotted against the crack width. The experimental results were compared with existing models proposed by Rodriguez et al., Vidal et al. and Zhang et al. Time prediction models for a given opening threshold are also compared to experimental results. Steel cross-section loss for stirrups was also measured and was plotted against the crack width. It was observed that steel cross-section loss in the stirrups had no relationship with the crack width of longitudinal corrosion cracks. -- Highlights: •Relationship between crack and corrosion of reinforcement was investigated. •Corrosion results of natural process and then corresponds to in-situ conditions. •Comparison with time predicting model is provided. •Prediction of load-bearing capacity from crack pattern was studied

  15. Enhancement of shear strength and ductility for reinforced concrete wide beams due to web reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Said


    Full Text Available The shear behavior of reinforced concrete wide beams was investigated. The experimental program consisted of nine beams of 29 MPa concrete strength tested with a shear span-depth ratio equal to 3.0. One of the tested beams had no web reinforcement as a control specimen. The flexure mode of failure was secured for all of the specimens to allow for shear mode of failure. The key parameters covered in this investigation are the effect of the existence, spacing, amount and yield stress of the vertical stirrups on the shear capacity and ductility of the tested wide beams. The study shows that the contribution of web reinforcement to the shear capacity is significant and directly proportional to the amount and spacing of the shear reinforcement. The increase in the shear capacity ranged from 32% to 132% for the range of the tested beams compared with the control beam. High grade steel was more effective in the contribution of the shear strength of wide beams. Also, test results demonstrate that the shear reinforcement significantly enhances the ductility of the wide beams. In addition, shear resistances at failure recorded in this study are compared to the analytical strengths calculated according to the current Egyptian Code and the available international codes. The current study highlights the need to include the contribution of shear reinforcement in the Egyptian Code requirements for shear capacity of wide beams.

  16. Study of the internal confinement of concrete reinforced (in civil engineering) with woven reinforcement (United States)

    Dalal, M.; Goumairi, O.; El Malik, A.


    Concrete is generally the most used material in the field of construction. Despite its extensive use in structures, it represents some drawbacks related to its properties including its low tensile strength and low ductility. To solve this problem, the use of steel reinforcement in concrete structures is possible. Another possibility is the introduction of different types of continuous fibre / staple in the concrete, such as steel fibres or synthetic fibres, to obtain ″Concretes bundles″. Many types of fibre concrete, which have been developed and for many of them, the gain provided by the fibre was rather low and no significant improvement in tensile strength was really reaching. By cons, the ductility was higher than that of ordinary concrete. The objective of this study is to examine concrete reinforcement by inserting reinforcements woven polyester. These are either woven bidirectional (2D) or three-dimensional woven (3D). So we will report the properties of each type of reinforcement and the influence of the method of weaving on the strength reinforcements and on the strength of concrete in which they are incorporated. Such influence should contribute to improving the sustainability and enhancement of reinforcement

  17. Plasma position control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Haruhiko.


    Purpose: To conduct position control stably to various plasmas and reduce the burden on the control coil power source. Constitution: Among the proportional, integration and differentiation controls, a proportional-differentiation control section and an integration control section are connected in parallel. Then, a signal switching circuit is disposed to the control signal input section for the proportional-differentiation control section such that either a present position of plasmas or deviation between the present plasma position and an aimed value can be selected as a control signal depending on the control procedures or the state of the plasmas. For instance, if a rapid response is required for the control, the deviation between the present plasma position and the aimed value is selected as the input signal to conduct proportional, integration and differentiation controls. While on the other hand, if it is intended to reduce the burden on the control coil power source, it is adapted such that the control signal inputted to the proportional-differentiation control section itself can select the present plasma position. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Application of Fiber Reinforcement Concrete Technique in Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modulus of elasticity, high tensile strength, improved fatigue and impact resistance. Reinforcing the concrete structures with fibers such as polyester is one of the possible ways to provide all the criteria of the durable repair material. This type of reinforcement is called Fiber Reinforcement of Concrete Structures. There is an ...

  19. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance. (United States)

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others


    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  20. Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinberg, J [comp.


    This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.