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Sample records for positive quantity setting

  1. Transport and diffusion of material quantities on propagating interfaces via level set methods

    CERN Document Server

    Adalsteinsson, D

    2003-01-01

    We develop theory and numerical algorithms to apply level set methods to problems involving the transport and diffusion of material quantities in a level set framework. Level set methods are computational techniques for tracking moving interfaces; they work by embedding the propagating interface as the zero level set of a higher dimensional function, and then approximate the solution of the resulting initial value partial differential equation using upwind finite difference schemes. The traditional level set method works in the trace space of the evolving interface, and hence disregards any parameterization in the interface description. Consequently, material quantities on the interface which themselves are transported under the interface motion are not easily handled in this framework. We develop model equations and algorithmic techniques to extend the level set method to include these problems. We demonstrate the accuracy of our approach through a series of test examples and convergence studies.

  2. Transport and diffusion of material quantities on propagating interfaces via level set methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adalsteinsson, David; Sethian, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We develop theory and numerical algorithms to apply level set methods to problems involving the transport and diffusion of material quantities in a level set framework. Level set methods are computational techniques for tracking moving interfaces; they work by embedding the propagating interface as the zero level set of a higher dimensional function, and then approximate the solution of the resulting initial value partial differential equation using upwind finite difference schemes. The traditional level set method works in the trace space of the evolving interface, and hence disregards any parameterization in the interface description. Consequently, material quantities on the interface which themselves are transported under the interface motion are not easily handled in this framework. We develop model equations and algorithmic techniques to extend the level set method to include these problems. We demonstrate the accuracy of our approach through a series of test examples and convergence studies

  3. Comparing children's Homo sapiens and chimpanzees' Pan troglodytes quantity judgments of sequentially presented sets of items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. BERAN, Julie S. JOHNSON-PYNN, Christopher READY

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We presented a quantity judgment task that involved comparing two sequentially presented sets of items to preschoolers and chimpanzees using nearly identical procedures that excluded verbal instructions to children. Trial difficulty in this task reflected the ratio difference between sets of discrete items where larger ratios (e.g., 0.80 as from comparing 4 to 5 were more difficult than smaller ones (e.g., 0.50 as from comparing 4 to 8. Children also completed verbal-based tasks probing the relationship between counting proficiency and performance on the quantity judgment task of sequentially presented identical sized items. Both species’ performance was best when ratios between comparison sets were small regardless of set size in all types of tasks. Generally, chimpanzees and older children performed better than younger children except at larger ratios. Children’s counting proficiency was not related to success in choosing the larger of two quantities of identical-sized items. These results indicate that chimpanzees and children share an approximate number sense that is reflected through analog magnitude estimation when comparing quantities [Current Zoology 57 (4: 419–428, 2011].

  4. Identifying finite-time coherent sets from limited quantities of Lagrangian data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Matthew O. [Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Rypina, Irina I. [Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, Massachusetts 02543 (United States); Rowley, Clarence W. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    A data-driven procedure for identifying the dominant transport barriers in a time-varying flow from limited quantities of Lagrangian data is presented. Our approach partitions state space into coherent pairs, which are sets of initial conditions chosen to minimize the number of trajectories that “leak” from one set to the other under the influence of a stochastic flow field during a pre-specified interval in time. In practice, this partition is computed by solving an optimization problem to obtain a pair of functions whose signs determine set membership. From prior experience with synthetic, “data rich” test problems, and conceptually related methods based on approximations of the Perron-Frobenius operator, we observe that the functions of interest typically appear to be smooth. We exploit this property by using the basis sets associated with spectral or “mesh-free” methods, and as a result, our approach has the potential to more accurately approximate these functions given a fixed amount of data. In practice, this could enable better approximations of the coherent pairs in problems with relatively limited quantities of Lagrangian data, which is usually the case with experimental geophysical data. We apply this method to three examples of increasing complexity: The first is the double gyre, the second is the Bickley Jet, and the third is data from numerically simulated drifters in the Sulu Sea.

  5. Identifying finite-time coherent sets from limited quantities of Lagrangian data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Matthew O.; Rypina, Irina I.; Rowley, Clarence W.

    2015-01-01

    A data-driven procedure for identifying the dominant transport barriers in a time-varying flow from limited quantities of Lagrangian data is presented. Our approach partitions state space into coherent pairs, which are sets of initial conditions chosen to minimize the number of trajectories that “leak” from one set to the other under the influence of a stochastic flow field during a pre-specified interval in time. In practice, this partition is computed by solving an optimization problem to obtain a pair of functions whose signs determine set membership. From prior experience with synthetic, “data rich” test problems, and conceptually related methods based on approximations of the Perron-Frobenius operator, we observe that the functions of interest typically appear to be smooth. We exploit this property by using the basis sets associated with spectral or “mesh-free” methods, and as a result, our approach has the potential to more accurately approximate these functions given a fixed amount of data. In practice, this could enable better approximations of the coherent pairs in problems with relatively limited quantities of Lagrangian data, which is usually the case with experimental geophysical data. We apply this method to three examples of increasing complexity: The first is the double gyre, the second is the Bickley Jet, and the third is data from numerically simulated drifters in the Sulu Sea

  6. Identifying finite-time coherent sets from limited quantities of Lagrangian data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew O; Rypina, Irina I; Rowley, Clarence W

    2015-08-01

    A data-driven procedure for identifying the dominant transport barriers in a time-varying flow from limited quantities of Lagrangian data is presented. Our approach partitions state space into coherent pairs, which are sets of initial conditions chosen to minimize the number of trajectories that "leak" from one set to the other under the influence of a stochastic flow field during a pre-specified interval in time. In practice, this partition is computed by solving an optimization problem to obtain a pair of functions whose signs determine set membership. From prior experience with synthetic, "data rich" test problems, and conceptually related methods based on approximations of the Perron-Frobenius operator, we observe that the functions of interest typically appear to be smooth. We exploit this property by using the basis sets associated with spectral or "mesh-free" methods, and as a result, our approach has the potential to more accurately approximate these functions given a fixed amount of data. In practice, this could enable better approximations of the coherent pairs in problems with relatively limited quantities of Lagrangian data, which is usually the case with experimental geophysical data. We apply this method to three examples of increasing complexity: The first is the double gyre, the second is the Bickley Jet, and the third is data from numerically simulated drifters in the Sulu Sea.

  7. Complement Set Reference after Implicitly Small Quantities: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Joanne; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2018-01-01

    An anaphoric reference to the complement-set is a reference to the set that does not fulfil the predicate of the preceding sentence. Preferred reference to the complement-set has been found in eye movements when a character's implicit desire for a high amount has been denied using a negative emotion. We recorded event-related potentials to examine…

  8. Diabetes Management in the School Setting. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sarah; Fekaris, Nina; Pontius, Deborah; Zacharski, Susan

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is the only school staff member who has the skills, knowledge base, and statutory authority to fully meet the healthcare needs of students with diabetes in the school setting. Diabetes management…

  9. Diabetes Management in the School Setting. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Janet B.; Easterling, Traci; Hardy, Alicen

    2017-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is the school staff member who has the knowledge, skills, and statutory authority to fully meet the healthcare needs of students with diabetes in the school setting. Diabetes management in…

  10. Probabilistic soft sets and dual probabilistic soft sets in decision making with positive and negative parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, F.; Rosadi, D.; Hakim, R. B. F.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we motivate and introduce probabilistic soft sets and dual probabilistic soft sets for handling decision making problem in the presence of positive and negative parameters. We propose several types of algorithms related to this problem. Our procedures are flexible and adaptable. An example on real data is also given.

  11. A Positive Behavioral Approach for Aggression in Forensic Psychiatric Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolisano, Peter; Sondik, Tracey M; Dike, Charles C

    2017-03-01

    Aggression toward self and others by complex patients admitted to forensic psychiatric settings is a relatively common yet extremely difficult behavior to treat. Traditional interventions in forensic inpatient settings have historically emphasized control and management over treatment. Research over the past several years has demonstrated the value of behavioral and psychosocial treatment interventions to reduce aggression and to increase prosocial skill development in inpatient forensic population. Positive behavioral support (PBS) offers a comprehensive approach that incorporates the science of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) in support of patients with challenging behaviors, including aggression and violence. In this article, we describe a PBS model to treat aggression in forensic settings. PBS includes a comprehensive functional assessment, along with four basic elements: ecological strategies, positive programming, focused support strategies, and reactive strategies. Other key components are described, including data collection, staff training, fidelity checks to ensure correct implementation of the plan, and ongoing monitoring and revision of PBS strategies, according to treatment outcomes. Finally, a behavioral consultation team approach within the inpatient forensic setting is recommended, led by an assigned doctoral-level psychologist with specialized knowledge and training in behavioral methods. The behavioral consultation team works directly with the unit treatment team and the identified patient to develop, implement, and track a plan that may extend over several weeks to several months including transition into the community. PBS can offer a positive systemic impact in forensic inpatient settings, such as providing a nonpharmacologic means to address aggression, reducing the incidences of restraint and seclusion, enhancing staff proficiency in managing challenging patient presentations, and reducing recidivism when used as part of the bridge to

  12. The experimental determination of the relationship between the energising time of the common rail injector and the set fuel quantity and rail pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of experimentally determining the relationship between the energising time of the common rail electromagnetic injector and the set fuel quantity and rail pressure. Experimental studies according to the assumed methodology were made on a test bench enabling the dynamic flow rate measurement of the injector. The fuel system mounted on the test bench was controlled by the laboratory CI engine control unit based on the original concept of one of the authors of the article. The results of the experimental studies have made it possible to determine many of the characteristics of the fuel flow rate depending on the specified rail pressure and the energising time of the injector. An analysis was then performed followed by extrapolation of the obtained results. The data obtained from these analyses are the basis for the development of the energising time control algorithm based on a set fuel quantity and rail pressure.

  13. analytic sets and extension of holomorphic maps of positive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    11

    (1) (1990),. 49-100. 11. F. Forstneric, Extending proper holomorphic mappings of positive codimension, Invent. Math. 95 (1989), 31-61. 12. M. Hakim, Applications holomorphes propres continues de domaines strictement pseudocon- vexes de ...

  14. Public green spaces and positive mental health - investigating the relationship between access, quantity and types of parks and mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Hooper, Paula; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    Associations between parks and mental health have typically been investigated in relation to the presence or absence of mental illness. This study uses a validated measure of positive mental health and data from RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) Project to investigate the association between the presence, amount and attributes of public green space in new greenfield neighbourhood developments and the mental health of local residents (n = 492). Both the overall number and total area of public green spaces were significantly associated with greater mental wellbeing, and findings support a dose-response relationship. Positive mental health was not only associated with parks with a nature focus, but also with green spaces characterised by recreational and sporting activity. The study demonstrates that adequate provision of public green space in local neighbourhoods and within walking distance is important for positive mental health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Positive Operator Valued Measures: A General Setting for Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Bill; Howard, Stephen; Cochran, Doug

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of close parallels that exist between the theory of positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) associated with a separable Hilbert space and the theory of frames on that space, including its most important generalizations. The concept of a framed POVM is introduced, and classical frames, fusion frames, generalized frames, and other variants of frames are all shown to to arise as framed POVMs. This observation allows drawing on a rich existing theory of POVMs to ...

  16. Positive Predictive Value of True Bacteremia according to the Number of Positive Culture Sets in Adult Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaura, Tsuyoshi; Chikumi, Hiroki; Fujiwara, Hiromitsu; Okada, Kensaku; Hayabuchi, Tatsuya; Nakamoto, Masaki; Takata, Miyako; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Burioka, Naoto; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-12-01

    Performing multiple blood culture sets simultaneously is a standard blood culture methodology, although it is often difficult to distinguish true bacteremia from contamination when only one of several blood culture sets is positive. This study clarified the relationship between the number of positive blood culture sets and clinical significance in patients with positive blood culture. Patients aged 18 years and over with at least 1 positive blood culture were enrolled. Positive blood culture episodes were categorized from clinical records as true bacteremia, contamination, or unknown clinical significance. The associations among episodes of true bacteremia, isolated bacteria, the number of positive blood culture sets from among the performed sets, and the clinical background of patients were analyzed. Among a total of 407 episodes, 262, 67 and 78 were true bacteremia, contamination and unknown clinical significance, respectively. The positive predictive values (PPVs) of 1 out of 1, 1 out of 2 and 2 out of 2 positive sets in cases of Staphylococcus aureus, were 81.3%, 50% and 100% respectively; those in cases of coagulase-negative Staphylococci were 20.5%, 10.8% and 63.5%, respectively. Almost all cases of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species and Candida species were true bacteremia. The probability of true bacteremia was strongly associated with recent surgery in multivariate analysis (P sets from among the performed sets varies by microorganism. Therefore, PPVs calculated using this method may help physicians distinguish true bacteremia from contamination.

  17. Secondary syphilis in HIV positive individuals: correlation with histopathologic findings, CD4 counts, and quantity of treponemes in microscopic sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gabriela; Procop, Gary W; Schold, Jesse D; Piliang, Melissa P

    2016-10-01

    Although syphilis is uncommon, infection rates are much higher in HIV-infected individuals than the general population. A proposed explanation is impaired cellular immunity with HIV infection. A search of one institution yielded 10 patients with a diagnosis of secondary syphilis on skin biopsy, positive syphilis serology and available CD4 counts. We evaluated 11 biopsies from the 10 patients. We correlated the patients' CD4 counts with the histologic findings and with the number of treponemes on skin biopsies, highlighted by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also compared the detection of spirochetes in silver stained sections (e.g. Warthin-Starry) with T. pallidum IHC. All biopsies were assessed for various histologic features. The sensitivity of IHC to detect treponemes was 64% and of silver stain was 9% (p-value 0.04). The number of treponemes on the biopsies was determined by IHC. High numbers of spirochetes (i.e. >100 per 10 hpf) were only seen in patients with CD4 counts less than 250 cells/ml. The most consistent histologic finding was a moderate to severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Although the study is small, it appears that a higher number of spirochetes is associated with CD4 counts less than 250 cell/ml. The T. pallidum IHC stain was vastly superior to the Warthin-Starry stain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Human Eye Position Control System in a Rehabilitation Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Nolan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work at Ireland’s National Rehabilitation Hospital involves designing communication systems for people suffering from profound physical disabilities. One such system uses the electro-oculogram, which is an (x,y system of voltages picked up by pairs of electrodes placed, respectively, above and below and on either side of the eyes. The eyeball has a dc polarisation between cornea and back, arising from the photoreceptor rods and cones in the retina. As the eye rotates, the varying voltages projected onto the electrodes drive a cursor over a mimic keyboard on a computer screen. Symbols are selected with a switching action derived, for example, from a blink. Experience in using this mode of communication has given us limited facilities to study the eye position control system. We present here a resulting new feedback model for rotation in either the vertical or the horizontal plane, which involves the eyeball controlled by an agonist-antagonist muscle pair, modelled by a single equivalent bidirectional muscle with torque falling off linearly with angular velocity. We have incorporated muscle spindles and have tuned them by pole assignment associated with an optimum stability criterion.

  19. Communicative positioning of one's own profession in interprofessional settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posenau, André

    2016-04-01

    appeared in the discourse surrounding IPE; however, it is, in the authors’ opinion, not only necessary to compare interprofessional interactions with lived reality, but also to be in a position to operationalize interprofessional practice and ultimately assign it to competency areas. For this reason, further empirical observations and analyses are needed to tighten the still unclear definition of interprofessional communication and to develop empirically founded, measurable criteria for teaching and testing.

  20. An ILP based memetic algorithm for finding minimum positive influence dominating sets in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Geng; Guan, Jian; Feng, Huibin

    2018-06-01

    The positive influence dominating set problem is a variant of the minimum dominating set problem, and has lots of applications in social networks. It is NP-hard, and receives more and more attention. Various methods have been proposed to solve the positive influence dominating set problem. However, most of the existing work focused on greedy algorithms, and the solution quality needs to be improved. In this paper, we formulate the minimum positive influence dominating set problem as an integer linear programming (ILP), and propose an ILP based memetic algorithm (ILPMA) for solving the problem. The ILPMA integrates a greedy randomized adaptive construction procedure, a crossover operator, a repair operator, and a tabu search procedure. The performance of ILPMA is validated on nine real-world social networks with nodes up to 36,692. The results show that ILPMA significantly improves the solution quality, and is robust.

  1. Dimensional changes in plaster cast models due to the position of the impression tray during setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Grehs Porto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess whether the positioning of the impression tray could cause distortion to plaster casts during gypsum setting time.Materials and Methods: Fifteen pairs of master models were cast with alginate impression material and immediately filled with gypsum. Impressions were allowed to set with the tray in the noninverted position (Group A or in the inverted position (Group B. The plaster models were digitized using a laser scanner (3Shape R-700, 3Shape A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark. Measurements of tooth size and distance were obtained using O3d software (Widialabs, Brazil measurement tools. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and linear regression with 5% significance.Results and Conclusion: Most of the measurements from both groups were similar, except forthe lower intermolar distance. It was not possible to corroborate the presence of distortions due to the position of the impression tray during gypsum setting time.

  2. Empowering community settings: agents of individual development, community betterment, and positive social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I

    2008-03-01

    The pathways and processes through which empowering community settings influence their members, the surrounding community and the larger society are examined. To generate the proposed pathways and processes, a broad range of studies of community settings were reviewed, in the domains of adult well-being, positive youth development, locality development, and social change. A set of organizational characteristics and associated processes leading to member empowerment across domains were identified, as well as three pathways through which empowering settings in each domain contribute to community betterment and positive social change. The paper concludes with an examination of the ways that community psychology and allied disciplines can help increase the number and range of empowering settings, and enhance the community and societal impact of existing ones.

  3. Radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. In line, with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection 1.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. As in ICRU Report 19, the definitions of quantities and units specifically designed for radiation protection (Part B) are separated from those of the general quantities (Part A). The inclusion of the index concept outlined in ICRU Report 25[4] required an extension of Part B

  4. A Rotational Crofton Formula for Flagged Intrinsic Volumes of Sets of Positive Reach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel

    A rotational Crofton formula is derived relating the flagged intrinsic volumes of a compact set of positive reach with the flagged intrinsic volumes measured on sections passing through a fixed point. In particular cases, the flagged intrinsic volumes defined in the present paper are identical...

  5. Nursing Delegation to Unlicensed Assistive Personnel in the School Setting. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagginello, Joan; Blackborow, Mary; Porter, Jessica; Disney, Jody; Andresen, Kathleen; Tuck, Christine

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the delegation of nursing tasks in the school setting can be a valuable tool for the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse), when based on the nursing definition of delegation (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2012) and in…

  6. A Positive Psychological Intervention to Promote Well-Being in a Multicultural School Setting in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Dimitropoulou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the effectiveness of a Positive Psychology Intervention in enhancing well-being in a multicultural school setting. 121 5th and 6th grade primary school male and female students participated in the study. 57.9% were native Greeks and 42.1% were migrant children. 81 students were allocated to the positive intervention group, while 40 students partook in a control group with no positive orientation. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire battery a day prior to the interventions and also fifteen days later. Results indicated that only the positive intervention was effective in enhancing positive emotional experiences, optimism and self-efficacy in peer interactions two weeks after its implementation. The results were mostly undifferentiated for gender, migrant and socioeconomic status as far as positive emotions are concerned, while the patterns of influence of demographic variables on the efficacy of the intervention concerning the participants’ benefits in optimism and self-efficacy are discussed. The PPI group, as opposed to the control group, evaluated the intervention as particularly helpful with respect to all well-being variables, an effect maintained two weeks after the intervention. This positive intervention appears appropriate as a universal mental health promotion vehicle, especially within a demanding multicultural classroom context.

  7. Human herpesvirus-8 positive iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma in the setting of refractory ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Duh, Erica; Fine, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Although Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has been more traditionally considered an AIDS-defining illness, it may also be seen in individuals on immunosuppresive therapy. We report a case of a patient who presented to the hospital in the setting of increasingly refractory ulcerative colitis. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen was consistent with sigmoid diverticulititis and blood cultures were positive for Klebsiella. After a course of antibiotics with resolution of infection, a colonoscopy was perfo...

  8. Motivational intensity modulates the effects of positive emotions on set shifting after controlling physiological arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya; Siu, Angela F Y

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the construct of emotion suggests the integration of a motivational dimension into the traditional two-dimension (subjective valence and physiological arousal) model. The motivational intensity of an emotional state should be taken into account while investigating the emotion-cognition relationship. This study examined how positive emotional states varying in motivational intensity influenced set shifting, after controlling the potential confounding impacts of physiological arousal. In Experiment 1, 155 volunteers performed a set-shifting task after being randomly assigned to five states: high- vs. low-motivating positive affect (interest vs. serenity), high- vs. low-motivating negative affect (disgust vs. anxiety), and neutral state. Eighty-five volunteers participated in Experiment 2, which further examined the effects of higher vs. lower degree of interest. Both experiments measured and compared participants' physiological arousal (blood pressure and pulse rate) under the normal and experimental conditions as the covariate. Results showed no difference in switching performance between the neutral and serenity groups. As compared with the neutral state, the high-motivating positive affect significantly increased set-switching reaction time costs, but reduced error rate costs; the higher the motivational intensity, the greater the time-costs impairment. This indicates a role of the high-motivating positive affect in regulating the balance between the flexible and stable cognitive control. Motivational intensity also modulated the effects of negative emotional states, i.e., disgust caused a larger increase in time costs than anxiety. Further exploration into neurobiological mechanisms that may mediate the emotional effects on set shifting is warranted. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Positive affect and physical activity: Testing effects on goal setting, activation, prioritisation, and attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David S; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-02-01

    The present research tested whether incidental positive affect promotes pursuit of physical activity goals. Four key features of goal pursuit were examined - setting physical activity goals (Study 1), goal activation (Study 2), and goal prioritization and goal attainment (Study 3). Participants (N s = 80, 81, and 59, in Studies 1-3, respectively) were randomized to positive affect (joy, hope) or neutral affect (control) conditions in each study. Questionnaire measures of goal level, goal commitment, and means selection (Study 1); a lexical decision task indexed goal activation (Study 2), a choice task captured goal prioritization and MET minutes quantified goal attainment (Study 3). Study 1 showed that positive affect led to a greater number of intended physical activities, and that joy engendered greater willingness to try activities. In Study 2, a positive affect induction led to heightened activation of the physical activity goal compared to the control condition. The joy induction in Study 3 led to greater physical activity, and a trend towards greater goal prioritization. These findings suggest that positive affect enhances the pursuit of physical activity goals. Implications for health behavior theories and interventions are outlined.

  10. Human herpesvirus-8 positive iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma in the setting of refractory ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Erica; Fine, Sean

    2017-12-16

    Although Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has been more traditionally considered an AIDS-defining illness, it may also be seen in individuals on immunosuppresive therapy. We report a case of a patient who presented to the hospital in the setting of increasingly refractory ulcerative colitis. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen was consistent with sigmoid diverticulititis and blood cultures were positive for Klebsiella. After a course of antibiotics with resolution of infection, a colonoscopy was performed to evaluate his diverticulitis and incidentally revealed a new rectal tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed the tumor was consistent with KS, with cells staining strongly positive for human herpesvirus-8. This case not only illustrates a rare case of KS found in an HIV-negative individual, but it also highlights the importance of considering an alternative diagnosis in a patient refractory to medical treatment. We discuss the management and care of an ulcerative colitis patient diagnosed with KS on immunosuppressive therapy.

  11. An extended set-value observer for position estimation using single range measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcal, Jose; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    the observability of the system is briefly discussed and an extended set-valued observer is presented, with some discussion about the effect of the measurements noise on the final solution. This observer estimates bounds in the errors assuming that the exogenous signals are bounded, providing a safe region......The ability of estimating the position of an underwater vehicle from single range measurements is important in applications where one transducer marks an important geographical point, when there is a limitation in the size or cost of the vehicle, or when there is a failure in a system...... of transponders. The knowledge of the bearing of the vehicle and the range measurements from a single location can provide a solution which is sensitive to the trajectory that the vehicle is following, since there is no complete constraint on the position estimate with a single beacon. In this paper...

  12. Positive airway pressure adherence and mask interface in the setting of sinonasal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Amy E; Soose, Ryan J

    2017-10-01

    Despite reports of lower positive pressure adherence rates with oronasal masks, patients with sinonasal problems are often prescribed this interface over a nasal interface. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between mask type and therapy adherence in the setting of sinonasal symptoms. Retrospective case series with chart review. We reviewed 328 patients who underwent positive pressure titration between January 2012 and May 2015. Follow-up adherence data were available for 218 patients (66.5%). Multivariate analysis examined whether patients with sinonasal symptoms have improved adherence with oronasal masks compared to nasal or nasal pillow interfaces. At a median follow-up of 95 days, positive pressure adherence in patients with sinonasal symptoms was highest with the nasal pillow interface. When compared with oronasal interfaces, the odds of adequate therapy adherence were >5 times greater with nasal pillow interfaces (odds ratio [OR] = 5.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61-16.80, P = .006) and >3 times greater with nasal interfaces (OR = 3.67, 95% CI = 1.20-11.26, P = .02) in these symptomatic patients. The presence of nasal problems does not predict the need for an oronasal mask. Positive pressure adherence rates are higher with nasal and nasal pillow interfaces compared to oronasal masks, even in patients with sinonasal complaints. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2418-2422, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fifth chapter presents the conceptual evolution, the definition procedures, the radiological quantities themselves, the relation between them, the new operational quantities and the new quantities defined in the ICRP 60 that replaced ICRP 26 and was included in the CNEN-NN-3.01 standard of 2011

  14. Determinants of compliance with nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment applied in a community setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, E M.; Banks, M B.

    2001-05-01

    Objectives: To assess determinants of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compliance when applied in a community setting.Background: One-third of obstructive sleep apnea patients eventually refuse CPAP therapy. Treatment outcomes may be improved by identifying predictors of CPAP failure, including whether management by primary care physicians without sleep consultation affects results.Methods: Polysomnogram, chart review, and questionnaire results for regular CPAP users (n=123) were compared with those returning the CPAP machine (n=26).Results: Polysomnographic data and the presence of multiple sleep disorders were only modestly predictive of CPAP compliance. Striking differences in questionnaire responses separated CPAP users from non-users, who reported less satisfaction with all phases of their diagnosis and management. Rates of CPAP use were not significantly different between patients managed solely by their primary care physician or by a sleep consultant.Conclusions: Polysomnographic findings are unlikely to identify eventual CPAP non-compliers in a cost-effective fashion. Improvements in sleep apnea management may result from addressing the role of personality factors and multiple sleep disorders in determining compliance. In this practice setting, management by primary care physicians did not significantly degrade CPAP compliance.

  15. CHANGE IN CONDYLAR POSITION AND SKELETAL STABILITY ASSESSMENT FOLLOWING BSSO FOR MANDIBULAR SET BACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Change in condylar position following mandibular bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO has been implicated as an important factor in the appearance of immediate postoperative relapse during rigid fixation. It has been suggested that the control of the condylar segment following BSSO is the most important aspect in preventing relapse. The study was done to evaluate changes in position of condyle taken with lateral and frontal cephalograms with 20 patients were assessed, 10 male and 10 female patients wer e divided as group 1 and group 2. Patients undergoing sagittal split ramus osteotomy for mandibular set back were selected; radiographs before operation/surgery, immediately after surgery, 3 months and 6 months post - surgery. Differences between groups were measured by PAIRED ‘T’ TEST a nd time dependent changes in cephalometric measurements were examined by FISCHERS TEST. The present study results conclude significant difference occurring in both proximal and distal segment including condyle. Occlusal stabil ity and skeletal stability also maintained post operatively

  16. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  17. MMPI-based employment decisions for high-risk positions in nuclear power settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilikofsky, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    To asses the feasibility of using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as a personnel screening device for high-risk occupations, the test protocols of 735 applicants to and employees of the nuclear facilities owned by a southeastern utility were obtained. Institutional information on initial screening, hiring, and follow-up status was provided. MMPI data were processed to yield pass-and-fail screening decisions using a commercially available computer-based test interpretation system and a locally developed (NC) clerical interpretive system. The latter method was applied both with and without K corrections to component scores. The clerical system using K-corrected scores produced the largest number of true and false positives. The same rules, using uncorrected scores, produced the greatest number of false negatives. The computer-based system produced the most-acceptable set of decisions overall, striking a balance between these two kinds of errors. It was concluded that, when assessed against the available criterion information, the MMPI could not be recommended as a screening device. However, due to serious limitations inherent in these data, further study is needed.

  18. MMPI-based employment decisions for high-risk positions in nuclear power settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilikofsky, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    To asses the feasibility of using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as a personnel screening device for high-risk occupations, the test protocols of 735 applicants to and employees of the nuclear facilities owned by a southeastern utility were obtained. Institutional information on initial screening, hiring, and follow-up status was provided. MMPI data were processed to yield pass-and-fail screening decisions using a commercially available computer-based test interpretation system and a locally developed (NC) clerical interpretive system. The latter method was applied both with and without K corrections to component scores. The clerical system using K-corrected scores produced the largest number of true and false positives. The same rules, using uncorrected scores, produced the greatest number of false negatives. The computer-based system produced the most-acceptable set of decisions overall, striking a balance between these two kinds of errors. It was concluded that, when assessed against the available criterion information, the MMPI could not be recommended as a screening device. However, due to serious limitations inherent in these data, further study is needed

  19. Characterization of the order relation on the set of completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we characterize the order relation on the set of all nondegenerate completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras in terms of a self-dual Hilbert module induced by each completely n-positive linear map.

  20. Interactive "Video doctor" counseling reduces drug and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive patients in diverse outpatient settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, P; Ciccarone, D; Gansky, SA; Bangsberg, DR; Clanon, K; McPhee, SJ; Calderón, SH; Bogetz, A; Gerbert, B

    2008-01-01

    Background Reducing substance use and unprotected sex by HIV-positive persons improves individual health status while decreasing the risk of HIV transmission. Despite recommendations that health care providers screen and counsel their HIV-positive patients for ongoing behavioral risks, it is unknown how to best provide “prevention with positives” in clinical settings. Positive Choice, an interactive, patient-tailored computer program, was developed in the United States to improve clinic-based...

  1. Positive Implicative Ideals of BCK-Algebras Based on Intersectional Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hwan Roh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to lay a foundation for providing a soft algebraic tool in considering many problems that contain uncertainties. In order to provide these soft algebraic structures, the notion of int-soft positive implicative ideals is introduced, and related properties are investigated. Relations between an int-soft ideal and an int-soft positive implicative ideal are established. Characterizations of an int-soft positive implicative ideal are obtained. Extension property for an int-soft positive implicative ideal is constructed. The ∧-product and ∨-product of int-soft positive implicative ideals are considered, and the soft intersection (resp., union of int-soft positive implicative ideals is discussed.

  2. 17 CFR 150.5 - Exchange-set speculative position limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., straddles, or arbitrage,” of from fixing limits which apply to such positions which are different from... opportunity for arbitrage between the futures market and the cash market in the commodity underlying the... pursuant to this section shall apply to bona fide hedging positions as defined by a contract market in...

  3. Integrating Content and Language in Institutionally Monolingual Settings: Teacher Positioning and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Translanguaging pedagogy offers a way to differentiate between students' varying linguistic repertoires when embedding an additional language across the curriculum. In this article I draw on positioning theory to show the relevance of teacher positioning to translanguaging pedagogy and differentiation. Differentiation is discussed in relation to…

  4. Quantities for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    It is recommended that if measurements are made with the objective of monitor radiation levels in the environment to elucidate long-term changes in these levels, then air kerma should be used. If the objective is to give an indication that levels from man-made sources are acceptable within specified limits for the exposure of people, then ambient dose equivalent should be used. It should be noted that radiation risks to individuals are best expressed by the quantity effective dose equivalent. If this latter quantity is to be accurately assessed, it may be necessary to obtain details of the quality of the environmental radiation that cannot be described adequately by simple measurements of either air kerma or ambient dose equivalent. If the above objectives pertain, the measurements should record both air kerma and ambient dose equivalent. If neutrons are measured in the environment then ambient dose equivalent is the appropriate quantity for both the above objectives. (author)

  5. Emission sources and quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines emission sources and quantities for SO 2 and NO x . Natural SO 2 is released from volcanic sources and to a much lower extent from marsh gases. In nature NO x is mainly produced in the course of the chemical and bacterial denitrification processes going on in the soil. Manmade pollutants are produced in combustion processes. The paper concentrates on manmade pollution. Aspects discussed include: mechanism of pollution development; manmade emission sources (e.g. industry, traffic, power plants and domestic sources); and emission quantities and forecasts. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Top dogs have set the agenda for peace: international social position and peace attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.; van der Veer, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Everybody agrees that peace is good, but not on how to achieve it. The Y2K study contained many questions on peace proposals, as well as on prospects for East/West and North/South peace. It ranked these proposals by popularity and studied how the social positions of the 1967 respondents and their

  7. The Use of Restraints or Seclusion in the School Setting. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Elizabeth; Compton, Linda; Westendorf, Georgene; Buswell, Sue; Chau, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is an essential advocate for the health and well-being of all students. Promoting a safe and secure environment is vital to the educational success and emotional development of children. The…

  8. Would Having a Lead Instructional Designer Position Encourage Change in a K-12 Educational Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John

    2011-01-01

    Adding the position Lead Instructional Designer (LID) will help an educational company or school district to work with principals and instructional designers to implement better instructional design strategies. This type of change creates more jobs and takes added pressure away from schools. The vision is to create better customer service to the…

  9. Implementing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in High School Settings: Analysis of Eight High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Frank, Jennifer L.; Kato, Mimi McGrath; Doren, Bonnie; Fenning, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is a systems-level intervention designed to prevent the occurrence of problem behavior and increase social competence. A growing body of research documents that SWPBS reduces problem behavior and improves academics (e.g., McIntosh, Chard, Boland, & Horner, 2006), yet documentation of the feasibility…

  10. Allergy/Anaphylaxis Management in the School Setting. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharski, Susan; DeSisto, Marie; Pontius, Deborah; Sheets, Jodi; Richesin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the safe and effective management of allergies and anaphylaxis in schools requires a collaborative, multidisciplinary team approach. The registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as the school nurse), is the leader in a comprehensive management approach…

  11. Shape, smoothness and invariant stratification of an attracting set for delayed monotone positive feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Krisztin, Tibor; Wu, Jianhong

    1998-01-01

    This book contains recent results about the global dynamics defined by a class of delay differential equations which model basic feedback mechanisms and arise in a variety of applications such as neural networks. The authors describe in detail the geometric structure of a fundamental invariant set, which in special cases is the global attractor, and the asymptotic behavior of solution curves on it. The approach makes use of advanced tools which in recent years have been developed for the investigation of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems: local invariant manifolds and inclination lemmas f

  12. DOE approach to threshold quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Kluk, A.F.; Department of Energy, Washington, DC)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the concept of threshold quantities for use in determining which waste materials must be handled as radioactive waste and which may be disposed of as nonradioactive waste at its sites. Waste above this concentration level would be managed as radioactive or mixed waste (if hazardous chemicals are present); waste below this level would be handled as sanitary waste. Ideally, the threshold must be set high enough to significantly reduce the amount of waste requiring special handling. It must also be low enough so that waste at the threshold quantity poses a very small health risk and multiple exposures to such waste would still constitute a small health risk. It should also be practical to segregate waste above or below the threshold quantity using available instrumentation. Guidance is being prepared to aid DOE sites in establishing threshold quantity values based on pathways analysis using site-specific parameters (waste stream characteristics, maximum exposed individual, population considerations, and site specific parameters such as rainfall, etc.). A guidance dose of between 0.001 to 1.0 mSv/y (0.1 to 100 mrem/y) was recommended with 0.3 mSv/y (30 mrem/y) selected as the guidance dose upon which to base calculations. Several tasks were identified, beginning with the selection of a suitable pathway model for relating dose to the concentration of radioactivity in the waste. Threshold concentrations corresponding to the guidance dose were determined for waste disposal sites at a selected humid and arid site. Finally, cost-benefit considerations at the example sites were addressed. The results of the various tasks are summarized and the relationship of this effort with related developments at other agencies discussed

  13. An explanatory framework of teachers' perceptions of a positive mealtime environment in a preschool setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Satoko C; Gray, Samuel A; Goodell, L Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    Attending a preschool center may help preschoolers with growth and development that encourage a healthy lifestyle, including sound eating behaviors. Providing a positive mealtime environment (PME) may be one of the keys to fostering a child's healthy eating habits in the classroom. However, a specific definition of a PME, the components of a PME, or directions on how to create one have not been established. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore Head Start teachers' perceptions related to a PME and create a conceptual framework representing these perceptions. To achieve this purpose, researchers conducted 65 in-depth phone interviews with Head Start teachers around the US. Applying principles of grounded theory, researchers developed a conceptual framework depicting teachers' perceptions of PME, consisting of five key components: (1) the people (i.e., teachers, kitchen staff, parent volunteers, and children), (2) positive emotional tone (e.g., relaxed and happy), (3) rules, expectations, and routines (e.g., family-style mealtime), (4) operations of a PME (i.e., eating, socialization, and learning), and (5) both short- and long-term outcomes of a PME. With this PME framework, researchers may be able to enhance the effectiveness of nutrition interventions related to a PME, focusing on the factors in the conceptual framework as well as barriers associated with achieving these factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineering students’ instrumental motivation and positive attitude towards learning English in a trilingual tertiary setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba González Ardeo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory small-scale study focuses on the attitude towards learning English and levels of motivation of 132 engineering students from the University of the Basque Country (Spain. The extent to which they consider themselves competent in three languages (Basque/Spanish/English is also evaluated. For assessing these variables, a 35-item questionnaire is used. The participants were taking an ESP (English for Specific Purposes course and were familiar with English as a vehicular language through CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning and/or EMI (English Medium Instruction courses. The results demonstrate that their attitude is positive, and it has improved since 2003, despite certain historical events concerning the minority language (Basque. With regard to motivation, the students show a high level of instrumental orientation but a low level of extrinsic-integrative motivation. Relatively high levels of intrinsic motivation are also observed, not far from extrinsic-instrumental motivation levels. The students’ mother tongue (Basque vs. Spanish vs. Basque/Spanish does not affect results significantly. Finally, high levels of self-perceived confidence with respect to their command of English are observed.

  15. Set-membership fault detection under noisy environment with application to the detection of abnormal aircraft control surface positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Houda Thabet, Rihab; Combastel, Christophe; Raïssi, Tarek; Zolghadri, Ali

    2015-09-01

    The paper develops a set membership detection methodology which is applied to the detection of abnormal positions of aircraft control surfaces. Robust and early detection of such abnormal positions is an important issue for early system reconfiguration and overall optimisation of aircraft design. In order to improve fault sensitivity while ensuring a high level of robustness, the method combines a data-driven characterisation of noise and a model-driven approach based on interval prediction. The efficiency of the proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation results obtained based on data recorded in several flight scenarios of a highly representative aircraft benchmark.

  16. Optimal trading quantity integration as a basis for optimal portfolio management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The author in this paper points out the reason behind calculating and using optimal trading quantity in conjunction with Markowitz’s Modern portfolio theory. In the opening part the author presents an example of calculating optimal weights using Markowitz’s Mean-Variance approach, followed by an explanation of basic logic behind optimal trading quantity. The use of optimal trading quantity is not limited to systems with Bernoulli outcome, but can also be used when trading shares, futures, options etc. Optimal trading quantity points out two often-overlooked axioms: (1 a system with negative mathematical expectancy can never be transformed in a system with positive mathematical expectancy, (2 by missing the optimal trading quantity an investor can turn a system with positive expectancy into a negative one. Optimal trading quantity is that quantity which maximizes geometric mean (growth function of a particular system. To determine the optimal trading quantity for simpler systems, with a very limited number of outcomes, a set of Kelly’s formulas is appropriate. In the conclusion the summary of the paper is presented.

  17. Forage quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Janet C.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Felix, Nancy A.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Porcupine caribou herd has traditionally used the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, for calving. Availability of nutritious forage has been hypothesized as one of the reasons the Porcupine caribou herd migrates hundreds of kilometers to reach the coastal plain for calving (Kuropat and Bryant 1980, Russell et al. 1993).Forage quantity and quality and the chronology of snowmelt (which determines availability and phenological stages of forage) have been suggested as important habitat attributes that lead calving caribou to select one area over another (Lent 1980, White and Trudell 1980, Eastland et al. 1989). A major question when considering the impact of petroleum development is whether potential displacement of the caribou from the 1002 Area to alternate calving habitat will limit access to high quantity and quality forage.Our study had the following objectives: 1) quantify snowmelt patterns by area; 2) quantify relationships among phenology, biomass, and nutrient content of principal forage species by vegetation type; and 3) determine if traditional concentrated calving areas differ from adjacent areas with lower calving densities in terms of vegetation characteristics.

  18. Prices versus Quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank

    illustrate that this result does not generalise to a search fishery, where marginal costs are allowed to depend on harvest. Hansen et al (2008) study a fishery where non-compliance with regulations is a problem. When the regulator is uncertain about non-compliance (compliance uncertainty), then landing fees......Weitzman (2002) studies the regulation of a fishery characterised by constant marginal harvest costs and shows that price regulation performs better than quantity regulation when the regulator is uncertain about the biological reproduction function (ecological uncertainty). Here, we initially...... are the preferred type of regulation, and Hansen et al (2008) find that this result does generalise to a search fishery where marginal costs depend on harvest. In this paper, we simulate a stochastic stock-recruitment model for the Danish cod fishery in the Kategat capturing both ecological and compliance...

  19. Allen's astrophysical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This new, fourth, edition of Allen's classic Astrophysical Quantities belongs on every astronomer's bookshelf. It has been thoroughly revised and brought up to date by a team of more than ninety internationally renowned astronomers and astrophysicists. While it follows the basic format of the original, this indispensable reference has grown to more than twice the size of the earlier editions to accommodate the great strides made in astronomy and astrophysics. It includes detailed tables of the most recent data on: - General constants and units - Atoms, molecules, and spectra - Observational astronomy at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays, and neutrinos - Planetary astronomy: Earth, planets and satellites, and solar system small bodies - The Sun, normal stars, and stars with special characteristics - Stellar populations - Cataclysmic and symbiotic variables, supernovae - Theoretical stellar evolution - Circumstellar and interstellar material - Star clusters, galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei ...

  20. Toward Value Co-Creation: Increasing Women’s Presence in Management Positions through Competition against a Set Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Comeig

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite empirical evidence that women’s presence in management positions is a source of value co-creation for firms, these positions are still male-dominated. Some evidence from experimental economics suggests that one reason for this imbalance is that women shy away from competition. However, most of these studies have focused on competition systems that pit individuals against each other. We present an economic laboratory experiment that compares competition against others with competition against a set target. The crucial difference is that whereas the former involves competing against opponents, the latter does not. Our results show that significantly more women are willing to compete against a set target than against others. Furthermore, there is no reduction in men’s participation and no general efficiency reduction. Our findings suggest that firms that aim at value co-creation and sustainability through a gender-neutral promotion mechanism should introduce competition against a set target and reduce competition against others. This paper contributes to dispelling stereotypes about women’s reluctance to compete.

  1. An assessment of the positive partnership project in Thailand: key considerations for scaling-up microcredit loans for HIV-positive and negative pairs in other settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M; Wolf, R C; Guest, P

    2008-01-01

    Stigmatization and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), and their families, remains a barrier to participation in prevention and care programmes. This barrier takes on added significance as Thailand expands provision of free antiretroviral therapy (ART). This paper documents an innovative approach to improve quality of life for PLHA, while reducing levels of stigma and discrimination. The Population and Community Development Association (PDA) began implementing the Positive Partnership Project (PPP) in 2002. In this project, an HIV-negative person must team up with an HIV-positive person to become eligible for a loan for income-generating activities. The use of microcredit to explicitly reduce stigma and discrimination is a unique feature of the PPP. While the microcredit component of the project is an important dimension for improving the status of participating PLHA, the impacts of the project extend far beyond the PLHA who receive loans. Both directly and indirectly, it has contributed to improved quality of life and economic conditions for PLHA, while raising their visibility and acceptance in hundreds of communities throughout urban and rural Thailand. This paper identifies key features of the project and considerations for adapting its use in other settings.

  2. Interactive "Video Doctor" counseling reduces drug and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive patients in diverse outpatient settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gilbert

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing substance use and unprotected sex by HIV-positive persons improves individual health status while decreasing the risk of HIV transmission. Despite recommendations that health care providers screen and counsel their HIV-positive patients for ongoing behavioral risks, it is unknown how to best provide "prevention with positives" in clinical settings. Positive Choice, an interactive, patient-tailored computer program, was developed in the United States to improve clinic-based assessment and counseling for risky behaviors.We conducted a parallel groups randomized controlled trial (December 2003-September 2006 at 5 San Francisco area outpatient HIV clinics. Eligible patients (HIV-positive English-speaking adults completed an in-depth computerized risk assessment. Participants reporting substance use or sexual risks (n = 476 were randomized in stratified blocks. The intervention group received tailored risk-reduction counseling from a "Video Doctor" via laptop computer and a printed Educational Worksheet; providers received a Cueing Sheet on reported risks. Compared with control, fewer intervention participants reported continuing illicit drug use (RR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.689, 0.957, p = 0.014 at 3 months; and RR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.540, 0.785, p<0.001 at 6 months and unprotected sex (RR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.773, 0.993, p = 0.039 at 3 months; and RR 0.80, 95% CI: 0.686, 0.941, p = 0.007 at 6 months. Intervention participants reported fewer mean days of ongoing illicit drug use (-4.0 days vs. -1.3 days, p = 0.346, at 3 months; and -4.7 days vs. -0.7 days, p = 0.130, at 6 months than did controls, and had fewer casual sex partners at (-2.3 vs. -1.4, p = 0.461, at 3 months; and -2.7 vs. -0.6, p = 0.042, at 6 months.The Positive Choice intervention achieved significant cessation of illicit drug use and unprotected sex at the group-level, and modest individual-level reductions in days of ongoing drug use and number of casual sex partners compared with the

  3. Relativity of Electric Quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Zhong-wen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration foundation,which is used to demonstrate that observed values from the interaction force between two charges,which are not at the same point would be different in different reference frames,is that the transmission of the interaction between charges needs time. Firstly,this paper analyzes the foundation of hypothetical process that the electric field and the magnetic field are built by one charge,and then the electromagnetic field would be transferred to another charge in vacuo by the speed of light,and produces force. It points out that from the simultaneity of relativity,the force applied to charge would occur in different time in the different reference frames,the force would be neither in the same size nor in the opposite direction,and Newton’s Third Law is not valid longer, the deeper cause of these conclusions would be known. On this basis,this paper gives the basis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,and according to this condition,with the situation of the charge that under the Coulombian force and electromagnetism,the relative form of expression and demonstration methods of electric quantity in different reference frames are given. On the basis of the hypothesis that force would keep invariant in different reference frames,with the similar derivation process,the mass relativity equation of Einstein would be obtained.

  4. Role of Leadership in Transforming the Profession of Quantity Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ofori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is facing a period of change. The roles ofthe professions involved in the industry in general, and of quantitysurveyors in particular, are also changing. There are opportunitiesfor surveyors to seize the initiative to broaden their involvement inprojects, and attain strategic positions within the industry. However,they will have to improve upon their skill sets and their knowledgebases. Senior quantity surveyors interviewed in Singapore sharedtheir views on the challenges facing the construction industry,and their profession. They suggested that the quantity surveyingprofession would only be able to address the pressing issues itfaces if it pays more attention to innovation and the development ofits people. It should be able to attract and retain talent. Knowledgemanagement will be of critical importance. This will be enabled andfacilitated by knowledge leadership.

  5. Management of persistent occiput posterior position: a substantial role of instrumental rotation in the setting of failed manual rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerby, Paul; Allouche, Mickael; Simon-Toulza, Caroline; Vayssiere, Christophe; Parant, Olivier; Vidal, Fabien

    2018-01-01

    To compare the maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with Instrumental Rotation (IR) to operative vaginal delivery in occiput posterior (OP) position with Thierry's spatulas (TS), in the setting of failed manual rotation (MR). We led a prospective observational cohort study in a tertiary referral hospital in Toulouse, France. All women presenting in labor with persistent OP position at full cervical dilatation and who delivered vaginally after failed MR and with IR or OP assisted delivery were included from January 2014 to December 2015. The main outcomes measured were maternal morbidity parameters including episiotomy rate, incidence and severity of perineal lacerations, perineal hematomas and postpartum hemorrhage. Severe perineal tears corresponded to third and fourth degree lacerations. Fetal morbidity outcomes comprised neonatal Apgar scores, acidemia, fetal injuries, birth trauma and neonatal intensive care unit admissions. Among 9762 women, 910 (9.3%) presented with persistent OP position at full cervical dilatation and 222 deliveries were enrolled. Of 111 attempted IR, 97 were successful (87.4%). The incidence of anal sphincter injuries was significantly reduced after IR attempt (1.8% vs. 12.6%; p manual rotation.

  6. Proprioceptive assessment in clinical settings: Evaluation of joint position sense in upper limb post-stroke using a robotic manipulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Contu

    Full Text Available Proprioception is a critical component for motor functions and directly affects motor learning after neurological injuries. Conventional methods for its assessment are generally ordinal in nature and hence lack sensitivity. Robotic devices designed to promote sensorimotor learning can potentially provide quantitative precise, accurate, and reliable assessments of sensory impairments. In this paper, we investigate the clinical applicability and validity of using a planar 2 degrees of freedom robot to quantitatively assess proprioceptive deficits in post-stroke participants. Nine stroke survivors and nine healthy subjects participated in the study. Participants' hand was passively moved to the target position guided by the H-Man robot (Criterion movement and were asked to indicate during a second passive movement towards the same target (Matching movement when they felt that they matched the target position. The assessment was carried out on a planar surface for movements in the forward and oblique directions in the contralateral and ipsilateral sides of the tested arm. The matching performance was evaluated in terms of error magnitude (absolute and signed and its variability. Stroke patients showed higher variability in the estimation of the target position compared to the healthy participants. Further, an effect of target was found, with lower absolute errors in the contralateral side. Pairwise comparison between individual stroke participant and control participants showed significant proprioceptive deficits in two patients. The proposed assessment of passive joint position sense was inherently simple and all participants, regardless of motor impairment level, could complete it in less than 10 minutes. Therefore, the method can potentially be carried out to detect changes in proprioceptive deficits in clinical settings.

  7. Varieties of Quantity Estimation in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In the number-to-position task, with increasing age and numerical expertise, children's pattern of estimates shifts from a biased (nonlinear) to a formal (linear) mapping. This widely replicated finding concerns symbolic numbers, whereas less is known about other types of quantity estimation. In Experiment 1, Preschool, Grade 1, and Grade 3…

  8. Quantity and quality limit detritivore growth: mechanisms revealed by ecological stoichiometry and co-limitation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorson, Halvor M; Sperfeld, Erik; Evans-White, Michelle A

    2017-12-01

    Resource quantity and quality are fundamental bottom-up constraints on consumers. Best understood in autotroph-based systems, co-occurrence of these constraints may be common but remains poorly studied in detrital-based systems. Here, we used a laboratory growth experiment to test limitation of the detritivorous caddisfly larvae Pycnopsyche lepida across a concurrent gradient of oak litter quantity (food supply) and quality (phosphorus : carbon [P:C ratios]). Growth increased simultaneously with quantity and quality, indicating co-limitation across the resource gradients. We merged approaches of ecological stoichiometry and co-limitation theory, showing how co-limitation reflected shifts in C and P acquisition throughout homeostatic regulation. Increased growth was best explained by elevated consumption rates and improved P assimilation, which both increased with elevated quantity and quality. Notably, C assimilation efficiencies remained unchanged and achieved maximum 18% at low quantity despite pronounced C limitation. Detrital C recalcitrance and substantive post-assimilatory C losses probably set a minimum quantity threshold to achieve positive C balance. Above this threshold, greater quality enhanced larval growth probably by improving P assimilation toward P-intensive growth. We suggest this interplay of C and P acquisition contributes to detritivore co-limitation, highlighting quantity and quality as potential simultaneous bottom-up controls in detrital-based ecosystems, including under anthropogenic change like nutrient enrichment. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Measuring health-related quality of life of HIV-positive adolescents in resource-constrained settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Masquillier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Access to antiretroviral treatment among adolescents living with HIV (ALH is increasing. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is relevant for monitoring the impact of the disease on both well-being and treatment outcomes. However, adequate screening tools to assess HRQOL in low-resource settings are scarce. This study aims to fill this research gap, by 1 assessing the psychometric properties and reliability of an Eastern African English version of a European HRQOL scale for adolescents (KIDSCREEN and 2 determining which version of the KIDSCREEN (52-, 27- and 10-item version is most suitable for low-resource settings. METHODS: The KIDSCREEN was translated into Eastern African English, Luganda (Uganda and Dholuo (Kenya according to standard procedures. The reconciled version was administered in 2011 to ALH aged 13-17 in Kenya (n = 283 and Uganda (n = 299. All three KIDSCREEN versions were fitted to the data with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. After comparison, the most suitable version was adapted based on the CFA outcomes utilizing the results of previous formative research. In order to develop a general HRQOL factor, a second-order measurement model was fitted to the data. RESULTS: The CFA results showed that without adjustments, the KIDSCREEN cannot be used for measuring the HRQOL of HIV-positive adolescents. After comparison, the most suitable version for low-resource settings--the 27-item version--was adapted further. The introduction of a negative wording factor was required for the Dholuo model. The Dholuo (CFI: 0.93; RMSEA: 0.039 and the Luganda model (CFI: 0.90; RMSEA: 0.052 showed a good fit. All cronbach's alphas of the factors were 0.70 or above. The alpha value of the Dholuo and Lugandan HRQOL second-order factor was respectively 0.84 and 0.87. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the adapted KIDSCREEN-27 is an adequate tool for measuring HRQOL in low-resource settings with high HIV prevalence.

  10. Asymptotic conditions and conserved quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Two problems have been investigated in this dissertation. The first one deals with the relationship between stationary space-times which are flat at null infinity and stationary space-times which are asymptotic flat at space-like infinity. It is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat, in the Penrose sense, at null infinity, are asymptotically flat at space-like infinity in the Geroch sense and metric at space like infinity is at least C 1 . In the converse it is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat at space like infinity, in the Beig sense, are asymptotically flat at null infinity in the Penrose sense. The second problem addressed deals with the theories of arbitrary dimensions. The theories treated are the ones which have fiber bundle structure, outside some compact region. For these theories the criterion for the choice of the background metric is specified, and the boundary condition for the initial data set (q ab , P ab ) is given in terms of the background metric. Having these boundary conditions it is shown that the symplectic structure and the constraint functionals are well defined. The conserved quantities associated with internal Killing vector fields are specified. Lastly the energy relative to a fixed background and the total energy of the theory have been given. It is also shown that the total energy of the theory is independent of the choice of the background

  11. Relevance of protection quantities in medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to classify the exposures to radiation in three categories; namely 1- occupational exposure, 2- public exposure, and 3- medical exposure. Protection quantities are primarily meant for the regulatory purpose in radiological protection for controlling and limiting stochastic risks in occupational and public exposures. These are based on two basic assumptions of 1- linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship (LNT) at low doses and 2- long-term additivity of low doses. Medical exposure are predominantly delivered to individuals (patients) undergoing diagnostic examinations, interventional procedures and radiation therapy but also include individual caring for or comforting patients incurring exposure and the volunteers of biomedical medical research programmes. Radiation protection is as relevant to occupational and public exposure as to medical exposures except that the dose limits set for the formers are not applicable to medical exposure but reference levels and dose constrains are recommended for diagnostic and interventional medical procedures. In medical institutions, both the occupational and medical exposure takes place. Since the doses in diagnostic examinations are low, it has been observed that not only the protection quantities are often used in such cases but these are extended to estimate the number of cancer deaths due to such practices. One of the striking features of the new ICRP recommendations has been to elaborate the concepts of the dosimetric quantities. The limitation of protection quantities ((Effective dose, E=Σ RT D TR .W T .W R and Equivalent Dose H T =Σ RT D TR .W R ) have been brought out and this has raised a great concern and initiated debates on the use of these quantities in medical exposures. Consequently, ICRP has set a task group to provide more details and the recommendations. It has, therefore, became important to draw the attention of medical physics community

  12. Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

  13. Endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin: Clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde Sharat Shivaramaiah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes of patients with endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin. Methods: Retrospective case series of all patients with culture-proven endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin between January 2010 and December 2016 in LV Prasad Eye Institute, Visakhapatnam, India. Results: The current study included 14 patients. The clinical settings were post-cataract surgery in 8/14 (57.1% and open globe injury in 6/14 (42.8%. Primary intervention for all patients included tap and intravitreal antibiotic injection. During subsequent follow-up, pars plana vitrectomy was performed in 6 patients and one patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty. Mean number of intravitreal antibiotic injections performed were 3.4 per patient. The most common organisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 6/14 (42.8%, Staphylococcus aureus in 5/14 (35.7%, Streptococcus sp in 2/14 (14.2% and Bacillus sp in 1/14 (7.14%. In addition to vancomycin, resistance to multiple drugs (three or more groups of antibiotics was found in all 14 cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed susceptibility to amikacin in 7/14 (50.0%, gatifloxacin in 6/14 (42.8%, moxifloxacin in 3/13 (23.0%, cefazoline in 5/14 (35.7%, cefuroxime in 3/14 (21.4%, ciprofloxacin in 2/14 (14.2% and linezolid in 5/5 (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 30.7 weeks (6 weeks–90 weeks. At last follow-up, visual acuity (VA of 20/200 or better was recorded in 7/14 (50% and VA < 5/200 occurred in 7/14 (50%. Conclusion and importance: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing may help in selection of suitable antimicrobial agents for repeat intravitreal injection. Inspite of retreatment with intravitreal antibiotics, these patients generally had poor VA outcomes. Keywords: Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Endophthalmitis

  14. Root-induced decomposer growth and plant N uptake are not positively associated among a set of grassland plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saj, S.; Mikola, J.; Ekelund, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    It is known that plant species can induce development of different soil decomposer communities and that they differ in their influence on organic matter decomposition and N mineralization in soil. However, no study has so far assessed whether these two observations are related to each other. Base...... that plant traits such as competitive ability for soil mineral N were more important for plant uptake of litter-N than those that directly affected the growth of soil decomposers.......It is known that plant species can induce development of different soil decomposer communities and that they differ in their influence on organic matter decomposition and N mineralization in soil. However, no study has so far assessed whether these two observations are related to each other. Based...... on the hypothesis that root-induced growth of soil decomposers leads to accelerated decomposition of SOM and increased plant N availability in soil, we predicted that (1) among a set of grassland plants the abundance of soil decomposers in the plant rhizosphere is positively associated with plant N uptake from soil...

  15. Thermal quantities of 46Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities of 46 Ti have been calculated in the framework of the BCS model with inclusion of modified nuclear pairing gap (MPBCS) that was proposed in our previous publication. Using modified paring gap results in an S-shaped heat capacity curve at critical temperature with a smooth behavior instead of singular behavior of the same curve in the BCS calculations. In addition the thermal quantities have been extracted within the framework of a canonical ensemble according to the new experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. Comparison shows a good agreement between our calculations in MPBCS and the extracted quantities in the canonical ensemble framework

  16. Effectiveness and safety of a prehospital program of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmore, Andrew; Dionne, Richard; Maloney, Justin; Ouston, Ed; Stiell, Ian

    2015-11-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is commonly used in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). In-hospital evidence is robust: CPAP has been shown to improve respiratory status and to reduce intubation rates. There is less evidence on prehospital CPAP, although the emergency medical services (EMS) adoption of this modality is increasing. The objectives of this study were to 1) measure the effectiveness of prehospital CPAP on morbidity, mortality, and transport times; and 2) audit the selection of patients by medics for appropriateness and safety. We conducted a before-and-after study from August 1 to October 31 in 2010 and 2011, before and after the implementation of prehospital CPAP in a city of one million people with large rural areas. Medics were trained to apply CPAP to patients with respiratory distress and a presumed diagnosis of ACPE or AECOPD. Charts were selected using the search criteria of the chief complaint of shortness of breath, emergent transport to hospital, and any patients receiving CPAP in the field. Data extracted from ambulance call reports and hospital records were analysed with appropriate univariate statistics. A total of 373 patients enrolled (186 pre-non-invasive ventilation [NIV] and 187 post-NIV), mean age 71.5 years, female 51.4%, and final diagnoses of ACPE 18.9%, AECOPD 21.9%. In the post group of 84 patients meeting NIV criteria, 41.6% received NIV; and of 102 patients not meeting the criteria, 5.2% received NIV. There were 12 minor adverse events in 36 applications (33.3%) as per protocol. Comparing post versus pre, there were higher rates of emergency department (ED) NIV (20.0% v. 13.4%, pCPAP in our prehospital setting with respect to morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. EMS must exercise caution in making the decision to invest in the equipment and training required to implement prehospital CPAP.

  17. Test Review for Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET) Manual: Assessing Universal Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo

    2013-01-01

    The Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET; Steed & Pomerleau, 2012) is published by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company in Baltimore, MD. The PreSET purports to measure universal and program-wide features of early childhood programs' implementation fidelity of program-wide positive behavior intervention and support (PW-PBIS) and is,…

  18. Set-up error in supine-positioned patients immobilized with two different modalities during conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorino, C.; Cattaneo, G.M.; Calandrino, R.; Reni, M.; Bolognesi, A.; Bonini, A.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Conformal radiotherapy requires reduced margins around the clinical target volume (CTV) with respect to traditional radiotherapy techniques. Therefore, high set-up accuracy and reproducibility are mandatory. Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of two different immobilization techniques during conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer with small fields. Materials and methods: 52 patients with prostate cancer were treated by conformal three- or four-field techniques with radical or adjuvant intent between November 1996 and March 1998. In total, 539 portal images were collected on a weekly basis for at least the first 4 weeks of the treatment on lateral and anterior 18 MV X-ray fields. The average number of sessions monitored per patient was 5.7 (range 4-10). All patients were immobilized with an alpha-cradle system; 25 of them were immobilized at the pelvis level (group A) and the remaining 27 patients were immobilized in the legs (group B). The shifts with respect to the simulation condition were assessed by measuring the distances between the same bony landmarks and the field edges. The global distributions of cranio-caudal (CC), posterior-anterior (PA) and left-right (LR) shifts were considered; for each patient random and systematic error components were assessed by following the procedure suggested by Bijhold et al. (Bijhold J, Lebesque JV, Hart AAM, Vijlbrief RE. Maximising set-up accuracy using portal images as applied to a conformal boost technique for prostatic cancer. Radiother. Oncol. 1992;24:261-271). For each patient the average isocentre (3D) shift was assessed as the quadratic sum of the average shifts in the three directions. Results 5 mm equal to 4.4% with respect to the 21.6% of group A (P<0.0001). This value was also better than the corresponding value found in a previously investigated group of 21 non-immobilized patients (Italia C, Fiorino C, Ciocca M, et al. Quality control by portal film analysis of the conformal radiotherapy

  19. SU-D-204-03: Comparison of Patient Positioning Methods Through Modeling of Acute Rectal Toxicity in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer. Does Quality of Data Matter More Than the Quantity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X; Fatyga, M; Vora, S; Wong, W; Schild, S; Schild, M [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Herman, M [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Li, J; Wu, T [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine if differences in patient positioning methods have an impact on the incidence and modeling of grade >=2 acute rectal toxicity in prostate cancer patients who were treated with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). Methods: We compared two databases of patients treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer: a database of 79 patients who were treated with 7 field IMRT and daily image guided positioning based on implanted gold markers (IGRTdb), and a database of 302 patients who were treated with 5 field IMRT and daily positioning using a trans-abdominal ultrasound system (USdb). Complete planning dosimetry was available for IGRTdb patients while limited planning dosimetry, recorded at the time of planning, was available for USdb patients. We fit Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model to IGRTdb only, and Univariate Logistic Regression (ULR) NTCP model to both databases. We perform Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis to determine the predictive power of NTCP models. Results: The incidence of grade >= 2 acute rectal toxicity in IGRTdb was 20%, while the incidence in USdb was 54%. Fits of both LKB and ULR models yielded predictive NTCP models for IGRTdb patients with Area Under the Curve (AUC) in the 0.63 – 0.67 range. Extrapolation of the ULR model from IGRTdb to planning dosimetry in USdb predicts that the incidence of acute rectal toxicity in USdb should not exceed 40%. Fits of the ULR model to the USdb do not yield predictive NTCP models and their AUC is consistent with AUC = 0.5. Conclusion: Accuracy of a patient positioning system affects clinically observed toxicity rates and the quality of NTCP models that can be derived from toxicity data. Poor correlation between planned and clinically delivered dosimetry may lead to erroneous or poorly performing NTCP models, even if the number of patients in a database is large.

  20. Accurate positioning of pedestrains in mixed indoor/outdoor settings : A particle filter approach to sensor and map fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftkjær, Thomas

    , through an extensive GNSS measurement campaign. The results of this campaign provides researchers a foundation for choosing and designing complementary technologies and systems. The contributions in this thesis are novel sensor fusion methods based on particle lters for improved positioning, hence......Pedestrian positioning with full coverage in urban environments is a long sought after research goal. This thesis proposes new techniques for handling the challenging task of truly pervasive pedestrian positioning. It shows that through sensor fusion one can both improve accuracy and extend...... the following four aspects all advance this research direction. Firstly, this thesis proposes ProPosition, a system that utilizes GNSS-complementary technologies such as WiFi and Dead Reckoning by Inertial Measurements Units. We show, that through ProPosition's use of the probabilistic Bayes lter technique...

  1. Layer-Mean Quantities, Local Conservation Laws, and Vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camassa, R.; Levermore, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    We derive local conservation laws for layer-mean quantities in two general settings. When applied to Euler flows, the first of these settings yields well-known local conservation laws for quantities averaged between material surfaces. The second, however, leads to new local conservation laws for quantities involving the vorticity that are averaged between arbitrary surfaces. These produce the crucial vorticity conservation laws in shallow water models that admit nonhydrostatic and noncolumnar motion. Moreover, they seem to lie outside the Hamiltonian paradigm of fluid dynamics. The formalism generalizes to skew-symmetric matrix fields; applications to electromagnetism are suggested. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions

  3. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  4. Definitions of Quantities and Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, C. B.

    1983-01-01

    Compares various methods of defining derived quantities, arguing for a definitional formula using base or fundamental units in a word equation, or symbol-equations with the symbols explained. Suggests that fundamental units be defined operationally or left regarded as intuitive as in the case of length and time. (JM)

  5. Radiation quantities and units. ICRU report 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. It is recommended that energy state be inserted into the definition of activity and that the word transformation be replaced by transition. These modifications have now been incorporated into the current definition. Helpful comments on the previous quantities and units report have resulted in clarification of several points in the present Report. In line with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection I.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. 11 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Emergency Preparedness and Response in the School Setting--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Christine M.; Haynie, Kathey; Davis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) provides leadership in all phases of emergency preparedness and response. School nurses are a vital part of the school team responsible for developing emergency response procedures for the…

  7. How to position ‘mildly sustainable’ products: The joint impact of assortment display and price setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van H.W.I.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    To tempt consumers towards more sustainable food choices, ‘intermediately’ sustainable products (i.e., in between conventional and organic) have been introduced. This poses the managerial question how to best position this range of products. In an experiment with intermediately sustainable meat

  8. Is there any advantage to combined trastuzumab and chemotherapy in perioperative setting her 2neu positive localized gastric adenocarcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albouzidi Abderrahmane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report here a 44-year-old Moroccan man with resectable gastric adenocarcinoma with overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 by immunohistochemistry who was treated with trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy in perioperative setting. He received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of trastuzumab, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine. Afterwards, he received total gastrectomy with extended D2 lymphadenectomy without spleno-pancreatectomy. A pathologic complete response was obtained with a combination of trastuzumab and oxaliplatin and capecitabine. He received 3 more cycles of trastuzumab containing regimen postoperatively. We conclude that resectable gastric carcinoma with overexpression of the c-erbB-2 protein should ideally be managed with perioperative combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapy. Further research to evaluate trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy regimens in the perioperative and adjuvant setting is urgently needed.

  9. Quantities used in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menossi, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The application of ICRP recommendations requires knowledge of a variety of concepts and magnitudes. Many of them are employed in other fields of science and precision in its definition reflects this wide application. In this regard, information on quantities and basic units of radiation, which exists in numerous publications, are subjects of great interest. The characteristics and radiation effects are studied by physicists, biologists and chemists mainly. However, there are basics that must be known and to be recognized by general practitioners and specialists from all branches of medicine. The information on quantities and units are used only in radiation protection, have been obtained from the reports listed on the attached bibliography. Such quantities and units contain weighting factors used to provide for different types of radiation and energies that affect the body and thus take into account the relative radio-sensitivity of different tissues. Additionally, they have added a series of data for a better understanding of the units: for example, multiples and sub-multiples, and some examples of converting the units used in radiation protection. (author) [es

  10. Overcoming job demands to deliver high quality care in a hospital setting across Europe: The role of teamwork and positivity

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery Anthony; Panagopoulou Efharis; Costa Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals deal on a daily basis with several job demands – emotional, cognitive, organizational and physical. They must also ensure high quality care to their patients. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of job demands on quality of care and to investigate team (backup behaviors) and individual (positivity ratio) processes that help to shield that impact. Data was collected from 2,890 doctors and nurses in 9 European countries by means of questionnaires. Job demand...

  11. A comparative study of set up variations and bowel volumes in supine versus prone positions of patients treated with external beam radiation for carcinoma rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, K R; Menon, Smrithy S; Beena, K; Holla, Raghavendra; Kumar, R Rajaneesh; Dinesh, M

    2014-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of patient positioning on the set up variations to determine the planning target volume (PTV) margins and to evaluate the clinical relevance volume assessment of the small bowel (SB) within the irradiated volume. During the period of months from December 2011 to April 2012, a computed tomography (CT) scan was done either in supine position or in prone position using a belly board (BB) for 20 consecutive patients. All the patients had histologically proven rectal cancer and received either post- or pre-operative pelvic irradiation. Using a three-dimensional planning system, the dose-volume histogram for SB was defined in each axial CT slice. Total dose was 46-50 Gy (2 Gy/fraction), delivered using the 4-field box technique. The set up variation of the study group was assessed from the data received from the electronic portal imaging device in the linear accelerator. The shift along X, Y, and Z directions were noted. Both systematic and random errors were calculated and using both these values the PTV margin was calculated. The systematic errors of patients treated in the supine position were 0.87 (X-mm), 0.66 (Y-mm), 1.6 (Z-mm) and in the prone position were 1.3 (X-mm), 0.59 (Y-mm), 1.17 (Z-mm). The random errors of patients treated in the supine positions were 1.81 (X-mm), 1.73 (Y-mm), 1.83 (Z-mm) and in prone position were 2.02 (X-mm), 1.21 (Y-mm), 3.05 (Z-mm). The calculated PTV margins in the supine position were 3.45 (X-mm), 2.87 (Y-mm), 5.31 (Z-mm) and in the prone position were 4.91 (X-mm), 2.32 (Y-mm), 5.08 (Z-mm). The mean volume of the peritoneal cavity was 648.65 cm 3 in the prone position and 1197.37 cm 3 in the supine position. The prone position using BB device was more effective in reducing irradiated SB volume in rectal cancer patients. There were no significant variations in the daily set up for patients treated in both supine and prone positions.

  12. Effects of a healthy food supply intervention in a military setting: positive changes in cereal, fat and sugar containing foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham Clarissa ML

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, all men are liable to military service and a clear majority completes service. The increasing prevalence of obesity also among soldiers concerns conscripts’ food choices. Conscripts are served nutritionally planned regular main meals but individual choices take place in free-time eating. This study assesses the effects in conscripts’ eating habits in an intervention targeting the supply of healthy foods available in the military setting. Methods Participants were 604 18-21-year old male conscripts of whom 242 belonged to Control Group and 362 to Intervention Group. Participants of Control Group were historical controls performing military service one year before Intervention Group. The intervention targeted selection, placement, and attractiveness of healthy foods in garrison refectories and soldier’s home cafeterias, the two main food providers in the military. Dietary intake data was collected by self-administered questionnaire at three time points: before/beginning of military service (T0, 8 weeks (T1 and 6 months (T2 of military service. Outcome measures were food consumption frequencies and four dietary indexes (Cereal Index, Fruit and Vegetable Index, Fat Index and Sugar Index developed to characterize the diet. Changes between study groups in outcome variables and in time were analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Results Significant (p  Conclusions In the military setting, healthier food choices can be promoted by intervening on the main food environments by improving the supply of healthy foods. However, impacting on conscripts’ individual selection as fruit and vegetable consumption is more challenging.

  13. How necessary are the new quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.

    1991-01-01

    The necessity of the ICRU operational quantities is discussed from the point of view of practical, opertional radiation protection, on the basis of ICRU report 43. It is clear that, although the new quantities have some advantages over previous systems of operational quantities, there are some disadvantages as well. The decision to adopt these quantities is, therefore, not clear cut. (orig.)

  14. Growth patterns reflect response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive infants: potential utility in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, D K; Miller, W C; Ryder, R W; Weber, D J; Walter, E; McKinney, R E

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory monitoring of HIV-infected children is the current standard of care in the United States to guide the appropriate use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although ART is becoming a reality in some developing countries, laboratory monitoring of ART is costly, necessitating creative approaches to monitoring. As an initial step to guide monitoring of HIV progression in low resource settings, we assessed the utility of the physical examination to predict clinical progression of HIV. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected children using data from Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 300. We developed a clinical predictive model, and compared the utility of the clinical model to the change in HIV RNA viral load as diagnostic tests of ART failure. The clinical model incorporated treatment regimen, age, and height velocity: a three-level clinical predictive model provided likelihood ratios of 0.3, 3.9, and 14. For decline in RNA the likelihood ratios were 0.2 (> 1 log decline), 1.4, and 3.5 (> log increase). We developed a simple clinical predictive model that was able to predict clinical progression of HIV after initiation of new ART. The clinical model performed similarly to using changes in HIV RNA viral load. These data should be validated internationally and prospectively, because the test subjects were from a resource rich environment and growth patterns in undernourished children may be impacted differently by HIV and its treatment. The model was most pertinent to children 36 months of age or younger, and was conducted in children receiving monotherapy and dual therapy.

  15. Overcoming job demands to deliver high quality care in a hospital setting across Europe: The role of teamwork and positivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia L. Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los profesionales de la salud tratan a diario con múltiples exigencias laborales –emocionales, cognitivas, organizacionales y físicas. También deben garantizar la máxima calidad de atención a sus pacientes. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el impacto de las demandas laborales en la calidad de los cuidados y de investigar los procesos de equipo (backup behaviors e individuales (positivity ratio que ayudan a proteger al trabajador de ese impacto. Se recogieron datos de 2.890 médicos y enfermeros en 9 países europeos a través de cuestionarios. Las demandas laborales tienen un impacto negativo en la calidad de los cuidados proporcionados por profesionales de la salud. Los procesos de equipo (backup behaviors tuvieron un efecto de mediación entre las demandas del trabajo y la calidad de los cuidados. Además, la ratio de positividad de los profesionales (proporción de emociones positivas y negativas también se encontró como un mediador importante entre la mayoría de demandas de trabajo y la calidad del cuidado. Por último, se encontró una doble mediación entre la mayoría de las demandas de trabajo y calidad de la atención, donde los procesos de equipo influyeron en la ratio de positividad. La calidad de los cuidados proporcionados en los hospitales está muy relacionada con las exigencias del trabajo. Los directores de hospitales deben considerar la importancia de la cooperación entre equipos de profesionales de salud y encontrar formas de desarrollar el trabajo en equipo con el fin de promover la seguridad de los pacientes.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Lubeck, Deborah; Lalla, Deepa; Paton, Virginia; Dueck, Amylou; Perez, Edith A

    2007-08-01

    Adding trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy provides significant clinical benefit in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to assess clinical and economic implications of adding trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy, based upon joint analysis of NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831 trials. A Markov model with 4 health states was used to estimate the cost utility for a 50-year-old woman on the basis of trial results through 4 years and estimates of long-term recurrence and death based on a meta-analysis of trials. From 6 years onward, rates of recurrence and death were assumed to be the same in both trastuzumab and chemotherapy-only arms. Incremental costs were estimated for diagnostic and treatment-related costs. Analyses were from payer and societal perspectives, and these analyses were projected to lifetime and 20-year horizons. Over a lifetime, the projected cost of trastuzumab per quality-adjusted life year (QALY; discount rate 3%) gained was 26,417 dollars (range 9,104 dollars-69,340 dollars under multiway sensitivity analysis). Discounted incremental lifetime cost was 44,923 dollars, and projected life expectancy was 3 years longer for patients who received trastuzumab (19.4 years vs 16.4 years). During a 20-year horizon, the projected cost of adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy was 34,201 dollars per QALY gained. Key cost-effectiveness drivers were discount rate, trastuzumab price, and probability of metastasis. The cost-effectiveness result was robust to sensitivity analysis. Trastuzumab for adjuvant treatment of early stage breast cancer was projected to be cost effective over a lifetime horizon, achieving a cost-effectiveness ratio below that of many widely accepted oncology treatments. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  17. Beta-and gamma-turns in proteins revisited: a new set of amino acid turn-type dependent positional preferences and potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, K; Rajkumar, S

    2000-06-01

    The number of beta-turns in a representative set of 426 protein three-dimensional crystal structures selected from the recent Protein Data Bank has nearly doubled and the number of gamma-turns in a representative set of 320 proteins has increased over seven times since the previous analysis. Beta-turns (7153) and gamma-turns (911) extracted from these proteins were used to derive a revised set of type-dependent amino acid positional preferences and potentials. Compared with previous results, the preference for proline, methionine and tryptophan has increased and the preference for glutamine, valine, glutamic acid and alanine has decreased for beta-turns. Certain new amino acid preferences were observed for both turn types and individual amino acids showed turn-type dependent positional preferences. The rationale for new amino acid preferences are discussed in the light of hydrogen bonds and other interactions involving the turns. Where main-chain hydrogen bonds of the type NH(i + 3) --> CO(i) were not observed for some beta-turns, other main-chain hydrogen bonds or solvent interactions were observed that possibly stabilize such beta-turns. A number of unexpected isolated beta-turns with proline at i + 2 position were also observed. The NH(i + 2) --> CO(i) hydrogen bond was observed for almost all gamma-turns. Nearly 20% classic gamma-turns and 43% inverse gamma-turns are isolated turns.

  18. Are necessary unmeasurable quantities in radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, M.G.; Correa, M.F.; Videira, A.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss in this paper the metrological status of unmeasurable protection quantities and the need to maintain these kind of quantities in the system. The discussion is based on reports from the institutions responsible for the quantities and on scientific publications. In conclusion, we can say that there are alternatives for changing the system in a way that it keep just measurable quantities, nevertheless the present system is well assimilated. Even though a proposal yet to be presented for changing the system, although might simplify and improve it, is not intended to overcome the existence of unmeasurable quantities or the two kinds of quantities. (author)

  19. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  20. Barriers to access prevention of mother-to-child transmission for HIV positive women in a well-resourced setting in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Pamela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to Vietnamese policy, HIV-infected women should have access at least to HIV testing and Nevirapine prophylaxis, or where available, to adequate counselling, HIV infection staging, ARV prophylaxis, and infant formula. Many studies in high HIV prevalence settings have reported low coverage of PMTCT services, but there have been few reports from low HIV prevalence settings, such as Asian countries. We investigated the access of HIV-infected pregnant women to PMTCT services in the well-resourced setting of the capital city, Hanoi. Methods Fifty-two HIV positive women enrolled in a self-help group in Hanoi were consulted, through in-depth interviews and bi-weekly meetings, about their experiences in accessing PMTCT services. Results Only 44% and 20% of the women had received minimal and comprehensive PMTCT services, respectively. Nine women did not receive any services. Twenty-two women received no counselling. The women reported being limited by lack of knowledge and information due to poor counselling, gaps in PMTCT services, and fear of stigma and discrimination. HIV testing was done too late for optimal interventions and poor quality of care by health staff was frequently mentioned. Conclusion In a setting where PMTCT is available, HIV-infected women and children did not receive adequate care because of barriers to accessing those services. The results suggest key improvements would be improving quality of counselling and making PMTCT guidelines available to health services. Women should receive early HIV testing with adequate counselling, safe care and prophylaxis in a positive atmosphere towards HIV-infected women.

  1. QUANTITY AND QUALITY IN ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Cristea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a synthesis of the scopes of accounting in understanding the economic processes and transactions from the quantitative and qualitative point of view. The economic life is a continuous set of choices and decisions (of maintaining, developing, correcting based on the information supplied by the accounting. The input information that are processed can be incorrect, processed with correct models and the outputs can be correct, incorrectly processed and with incorrect results.

  2. Quantity precommitment and price matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    We revisit the question of whether price matching is anti-competitive in a capacity constrained duopoly setting. We show that the effect of price matching depends on capacity. Specifically, price matching has no effect when capacity is relatively low, but it benefits the firms when capacity...... is relatively high. Interestingly, when capacity is in an intermediate range, price matching benefits only the small firm but does not affect the large firm in any way. Therefore, one has to consider capacity seriously when evaluating if price matching is anti-competitive. If the firms choose their capacities...... simultaneously before pricing decisions, then the effect of price matching is either pro-competitive or ambiguous. We show that if the cost of capacity is high, then price matching can only (weakly) decrease the market price. On the other hand, if the cost of capacity is low, then the effect of price matching...

  3. Dose rate constants for new dose quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.; Daverda, G.; Leitner, A.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual changes and new quantities made is necessary to reassess dose rate quantities. Calculations of the dose rate constant were done for air kerma, ambient dose equivalent and directional dose equivalent. The number of radionuclides is more than 200. The threshold energy is selected as 20 keV for the dose equivalent constants. The dose rate constant for the photon equivalent dose as used mainly in German speaking countries as a temporary quantity is also included. (Author)

  4. The new operational quantities for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Philosophies and quantities for radiation protection have often been subjected to changes, and some of the developments are traced which ultimately led to recent proposals by ICRU. Development in the past has largely been towards clarification and generalisation of definitions. The present changes, however, reflect a more fundamental issue, the transition from the limitation system to the assessment system in radiation protection. The index quantities were suitable tools to ascertain compliance with the limitation system of radiation protection. The new quantities proposed by ICRU are suitable estimators for effective dose equivalent, which is an essential quantity in the assessment system of radiation protection. A synopsis of the definitions is given. (author)

  5. Positive end expiratory pressure during one-lung ventilation: Selecting ideal patients and ventilator settings with the aim of improving arterial oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoftman Nir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP in treating intraoperative hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV remains in question given conflicting results of prior studies. This study aims to (1 evaluate the efficacy of PEEP during OLV, (2 assess the utility of preoperative predictors of response to PEEP, and (3 explore optimal intraoperative settings that would maximize the effects of PEEP on oxygenation. Forty-one thoracic surgery patients from a single tertiary care university center were prospectively enrolled in this observational study. After induction of general anesthesia, a double-lumen endotracheal tube was fiberoptically positioned and OLV initiated. Intraoperatively, PEEP = 5 and 10 cmH 2 O were sequentially applied to the ventilated lung during OLV. Arterial oxygenation, cardiovascular performance parameters, and proposed perioperative variables that could predict or enhance response to PEEP were analysed. T-test and c2 tests were utilized for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate analyses were carried out using a classification tree model of binary recursive partitioning. PEEP improved arterial oxygenation by ≥20% in 29% of patients (n = 12 and failed to do so in 71% (n = 29; however, no cardiovascular impact was noted. Among the proposed clinical predictors, only intraoperative tidal volume per kilogram differed significantly between responders to PEEP and non-responders (mean 6.6 vs. 5.7 ml/kg, P = 0.013; no preoperative variable predicted response to PEEP. A multivariate analysis did not yield a clinically significant model for predicting PEEP responsiveness. PEEP improved oxygenation in a subset of patients; larger, although still protective tidal volumes favored a positive response to PEEP. No preoperative variables, however, could be identified as reliable predictors for PEEP responders.

  6. Factors associated with performing tuberculosis screening of HIV-positive patients in Ghana: LASSO-based predictor selection in a large public health data set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Mueller-Using

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to propose the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operators procedure (LASSO as an alternative to conventional variable selection models, as it allows for easy interpretation and handles multicollinearities. We developed a model on the basis of LASSO-selected parameters in order to link associated demographical, socio-economical, clinical and immunological factors to performing tuberculosis screening in HIV-positive patients in Ghana. Methods Applying the LASSO method and multivariate logistic regression analysis on a large public health data set, we selected relevant predictors related to tuberculosis screening. Results One Thousand Ninety Five patients infected with HIV were enrolled into this study with 691 (63.2 % of them having tuberculosis screening documented in their patient folders. Predictors found to be significantly associated with performance of tuberculosis screening can be classified into factors related to the clinician’s perception of the clinical state, as well as those related to PLHIV’s awareness. These factors include newly diagnosed HIV infections (n = 354 (32.42 %, aOR 1.84, current CD4+ T cell count (aOR 0.92, non-availability of HIV type (n = 787 (72.07 %, aOR 0.56, chronic cough (n = 32 (2.93 %, aOR 5.07, intake of co-trimoxazole (n = 271 (24.82 %, aOR 2.31, vitamin supplementation (n = 220 (20.15 %, aOR 2.64 as well as the use of mosquito bed nets (n = 613 (56.14 %, aOR 1.53. Conclusions Accelerated TB screening among newly diagnosed HIV-patients indicates that application of the WHO screening form for intensifying tuberculosis case finding among HIV-positive individuals in resource-limited settings is increasingly adopted. However, screening for TB in PLHIV is still impacted by clinician’s perception of patient’s health state and PLHIV’s health awareness. Education of staff, counselling of PLHIV and sufficient financing are

  7. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus: A Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1 in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available, 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition, and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available. The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2, the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research.

  8. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was conducted in order to investigate Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the South African quantity surveying profession. The study further aimed to establish the reasons why some quantity surveyors do not acquire the required CPD hours and face losing their professional registration with ...

  9. Continuing Professional Development in the quantity surveying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-01

    Jan 1, 1991 ... The research established that quantity surveyors regarded handing in their CPD ... Surveying, Walter Sisulu University, PO Box 1421, East London, 5200, South Africa. ... Keywords: Continuing professional development, quantity surveying, perception .... In spite of this opportunity enshrined in the Act, the.

  10. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...

  11. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the exposure of miners. (i) A ventilating air quantity that is less than what is required by paragraph... results of sampling that demonstrate that the lesser air quantity will maintain continuous compliance with applicable TLV ®'s. (j) If during sampling required by § 70.1900(c) of this subchapter the ventilating air is...

  12. Method and means for determining heat quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waasdorp, G G; de Jong, J J; Bijl, A

    1965-08-24

    To determine the quantity of potential heat W that has flowed past a certain point in a certain time, the velocity of the combustible Q, the temperature T, and the specific gravity YDTU are measured, and these values are transmitted to a computer which automatically calculates the quantity: ..pi..EQUATION/sup -/ in which delta T is the difference between the combustible temperature T and a reference temperature, and in which the relation f(YDTU, delta T) represents the heat of combustion as a function of the quantities YDTU and delta T and possibly other properties of the combustible. Alternatively the quantity: ..pi..EQUATION/sup -/ may be measured; here the quantities have the same meaning as above.

  13. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  14. Principles and foundation: national standards on quantities and units in nuclear science field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-11-01

    The main contents of National Standards on Quantities and units of atomic and nuclear physics (GB 3102.9) and Quantities and Units of nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations (GB 310.10) are presented in which most important quantities with their symbols and definitions in the nuclear scientific field are given. The principles and foundation, including the International System of Units (SI) and its application to the nuclear scientific field, in the setting of the National Standards are explained

  15. Workplace stress experienced by quantity surveyors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paul (P.A.) Bowen, Department of Construction Economics and Management,. University of Cape Town, Private ..... Explore workplace stress levels among quantity surveyors in the developing nation of ...... London: Free. Association Books.

  16. The Radiometric Measurement Quantity for SAR Images

    OpenAIRE

    Döring, Björn J.; Schwerdt, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system measures among other quantities the terrain radar reflectivity. After image calibration, the pixel intensities are commonly expressed in terms of radar cross sections (for point targets) or as backscatter coefficients (for distributed targets), which are directly related. This paper argues that pixel intensities are not generally proportional to radar cross section or derived physical quantities. The paper further proposes to replace the inaccurate term...

  17. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of su...

  18. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, J. A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-02-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant.

  19. On pure-strategy Nash equilibria in price-quantity games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, I.; Vermeulen, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the existence and characteristics of pure-strategy Nash equilibria in oligopoly models in which firms set both prices and quantities. Existence is proved for a broad and natural class of price-quantity games. With differentiated products, the equilibrium outcome is similar to

  20. "I am a scientist": How setting conditions that enhance focused concentration positively relate to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Robin B.

    This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged thirteen to fourteen years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on forty-six percent of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. This research also illustrates the positive gains in motivation and achievement outcomes that emerge from student experiences with extended time in isolated areas referred to

  1. Relationship between hunger, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and plasma HIV RNA suppression among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Feng, Cindy; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2014-04-01

    Food insecurity may be a barrier to achieving optimal HIV treatment-related outcomes among illicit drug users. This study therefore, aimed to assess the impact of severe food insecurity, or hunger, on plasma HIV RNA suppression among illicit drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A cross-sectional Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the potential relationship between hunger and plasma HIV RNA suppression. A sample of n = 406 adults was derived from a community-recruited open prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. A total of 235 (63.7%) reported "being hungry and unable to afford enough food," and 241 (59.4%) had plasma HIV RNA hunger was associated with lower odds of plasma HIV RNA suppression (Odds Ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.90, p = 0.015). In multivariate analyses, this association was no longer significant after controlling for socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, including 95% adherence (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.37-1.10, p = 0.105). Multivariate models stratified by 95% adherence found that the direction and magnitude of this association was not significantly altered by the adherence level. Hunger was common among illicit drug users in this setting. Although, there was an association between hunger and lower likelihood of plasma HIV RNA suppression, this did not persist in adjusted analyses. Further research is warranted to understand the social-structural, policy, and physical factors shaping the HIV outcomes of illicit drug users.

  2. Optimal sharing of quantity risk for a coalition of wind power producers facing nodal prices

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E. Y.; Baeyens, E.; Khargonekar, P. P.; Poolla, K.; Varaiya, P.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that aggregation of geographically diverse wind energy resources offers compelling potential to mitigate wind power variability, as wind speed at different geographic locations tends to decorrelate with increasing spatial separation. In this paper, we explore the extent to which a coalition of wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation to mitigate the risk of quantity shortfall with respect to forward contract offerings for energy. We propose a simple augmentation of the existing two-settlement market system with nodal pricing to permit quantity risk sharing among wind power producers by affording the group a recourse opportunity to utilize improved forecasts of their ensuing wind energy production to collectively modify their forward contracted positions so as to utilize the projected surplus in generation at certain buses to balance the projected shortfall in generation at complementary buses. Working within this framework, we show that the problem of optimally sizing a set of forward contracts for a group of wind power producers reduces to convex programming and derive closed form expressions for the set of optimal recourse policies. We also asses the willingness of individual wind power producers to form a coalition to cooperatively offer contracts for energy. We first show that the expected profit derived from coalitional contract offerings with recourse is greater than that achievable through independent contract offerings. And, using tools from coalitional game theory, we show that the core for our game is non-empty.

  3. Optimal sharing of quantity risk for a coalition of wind power producers facing nodal prices

    KAUST Repository

    Bitar, E. Y.

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted that aggregation of geographically diverse wind energy resources offers compelling potential to mitigate wind power variability, as wind speed at different geographic locations tends to decorrelate with increasing spatial separation. In this paper, we explore the extent to which a coalition of wind power producers can exploit the statistical benefits of aggregation to mitigate the risk of quantity shortfall with respect to forward contract offerings for energy. We propose a simple augmentation of the existing two-settlement market system with nodal pricing to permit quantity risk sharing among wind power producers by affording the group a recourse opportunity to utilize improved forecasts of their ensuing wind energy production to collectively modify their forward contracted positions so as to utilize the projected surplus in generation at certain buses to balance the projected shortfall in generation at complementary buses. Working within this framework, we show that the problem of optimally sizing a set of forward contracts for a group of wind power producers reduces to convex programming and derive closed form expressions for the set of optimal recourse policies. We also asses the willingness of individual wind power producers to form a coalition to cooperatively offer contracts for energy. We first show that the expected profit derived from coalitional contract offerings with recourse is greater than that achievable through independent contract offerings. And, using tools from coalitional game theory, we show that the core for our game is non-empty.

  4. Food quantity affects the sensitivity of Daphnia to road salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arran H; Yan, Norman D

    2015-04-07

    Road deicing operations have raised chloride (Cl) levels in many temperate lakes in Europe and North America. These lakes vary widely in trophic status, but to date, no one has quantified the interaction between food quantity and road salt toxicity. We examined the effects of food quantity (particulate algal C concentration (C)) on the chronic toxicity of Cl to Daphnia in soft-water bioassays. There was a strong positive linear relationship (r(2) = 0.92 for NaCl and r(2) = 0.96 for CaCl2) between food quantity and Cl LC50. As food quantity increased from 0.2 to 1.0 mg C/L (levels characteristic of oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes, respectively), the chronic Cl LC50 increased from 55.7 to 284.8 mg Cl/L. Salt type (NaCl or CaCl2) did not affect the Cl LC50, Daphnia life history parameters, or the intrinsic rate of population increase (r). The life history parameter most sensitive to Cl was neonate production. Cl did not inhibit egg production, nor was the maternal lipid investment in eggs changed, but egg viability and the subsequent release of live neonates decreased as Cl levels increased and food decreased. Our results suggest the trophic status of lakes should be considered when assessing ecological threat from Cl.

  5. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  6. Critical review of the current radiation protection quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.

    1998-01-01

    Examples exist in dosimetry and radiation protection where primary attention was focused on the unit rather than the corresponding quantity. Another difficulty arises from the fact that quantities in this field cannot be considered as pure physical quantities, they are rather biophysical quantities. There are too many quantities (e. g. 17 quantities based on the dose equivalent), with differences in numerical values of 'similar' quantities, not always satisfactory approximations of virtually unmeasurable quantities by measurable quantities, inconsistency in definitions and interpretations of quantities of some international expert bodies, and problems of weighting and conversion factors. (M.D.)

  7. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  8. Management of small quantities of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide practical guidance primarily to developing Member States on the predisposal management of small quantities of radioactive waste arising from hospitals, laboratories, industries, institutions, research reactors and research centres.The publication covers the management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes at the users' premises and gives general guidance on procedures at a centralized waste management facility. Predisposal management of radioactive waste includes handling, treatment, conditioning, storage and transportation. This publication provides information and guidance on the following topics: national waste management framework; origin and characteristics of radioactive waste arising from users generating small quantities of waste; radioactive waste management concepts appropriate for small quantities; local waste management; the documentation and approval necessary for the consignment of waste to a centralized waste management facility; centralized waste management; exemption of radionuclides from the regulatory body; transportation; environmental monitoring; quality assurance for the whole predisposal process; regional co-operation aspects

  9. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, J.A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-01-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  10. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, J.A., E-mail: hannaj@vt.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pendar, H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant. - Highlights: • A conserved quantity relevant to the dynamical equilibria of thin structures. • A mixed Lagrangian–Eulerian non-material action principle for fixed windows of axially moving systems. • Analytical solutions for rotating, flowing strings (yarn balloons). • Noether meets Bernoulli in a textile factory.

  11. Editorial: New operational dose equivalent quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The ICRU Report 39 entitled ''Determination of Dose Equivalents Resulting from External Radiation Sources'' is briefly discussed. Four new operational dose equivalent quantities have been recommended in ICRU 39. The 'ambient dose equivalent' and the 'directional dose equivalent' are applicable to environmental monitoring and the 'individual dose equivalent, penetrating' and the 'individual dose equivalent, superficial' are applicable to individual monitoring. The quantities should meet the needs of day-to-day operational practice, while being acceptable to those concerned with metrological precision, and at the same time be used to give effective control consistent with current perceptions of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations. (U.K.)

  12. Calibration of personal dosimeters: Quantities and terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleinikov, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    The numerical results obtained in the interpretation of individual monitoring of external radiation depend not only on the accurate calibration of the radiation measurement instruments involved, but also on the definition of the quantities in term of which these instruments are calibrated The absence of uniformity in terminology not only makes it difficult to understand properly the scientific and technical literature but can also lead to incorrect interpretation of particular concepts and recommendations. In this paper, brief consideration is given to definition of radiation quantities and terminology used in calibration procedures. (author)

  13. A randomised controlled trial of flow driver and bubble continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazmanyan, P; Mellor, K; Doré, C J; Modi, N

    2016-01-01

    The variable-flow flow driver (FD; EME) and continuous-flow bubble (Fisher-Paykel) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) systems are widely used. As these differ in cost and technical requirements, determining comparative efficacy is important particularly where resources are limited. We performed a randomised, controlled, equivalence trial of CPAP systems. We specified the margin of equivalence as 2 days. We analysed binary variables by logistical regression adjusted for gestation, and log transformed continuous variables by multiple linear regression adjusted for gestation, sex and antenatal steroids. A neonatal unit with no blood gas analyser or surfactant availability and limited X-ray and laboratory facilities Neonates CPAP at delivery followed by randomisation to FD or bubble (B). Primary outcome included total days receiving CPAP; secondary outcomes included days receiving CPAP, supplemental oxygen, ventilation, death, pneumothorax and nasal excoriation. We randomised 125 infants (B 66, FD 59). Differences in infant outcomes on B and FD were not statistically significant. The median (range) for CPAP days for survivors was B 0.8 (0.04 to 17.5), FD 0.5 (0.04 to 5.3). B:FD (95% CI) ratios were CPAP days 1.3 (0.9 to 2.1), CPAP plus supplementary oxygen days 1.2 (0.7 to 1.9). B:FD (95% CI) ORs were death 2.3 (0.2 to 28), ventilation 2.1 (0.5 to 9), nasal excoriation 1.2 (0.2 to 8) and pneumothorax 2.4 (0.2 to 26). In a resource-limited setting we found B CPAP equivalent to FD CPAP in the total number of days receiving CPAP within a margin of 2 days. ISRCTN22578364. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination, a shipment of 25 packages or...

  15. Symmetries and conserved quantities in geodesic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, S.; Nunez, L.; Patino, A.; Rago, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently obtained results linking several constants of motion to one (non-Noetherian) symmetry to the problem of geodesic motion in Riemannian space-times are applied. The construction of conserved quantities in geodesic motion as well as the deduction of geometrical statements about Riemannian space-times are achieved

  16. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  17. 16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... good distribution practice and which unavoidably result in change of weight or mass or measure. (c... good packaging practice: Provided, that such variations shall not be permitted to such extent that the... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net quantity, average quantity, permitted...

  18. MapMySmoke: feasibility of a new quit cigarette smoking mobile phone application using integrated geo-positioning technology, and motivational messaging within a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Kelsey, Thomas W; Marston, John; Samson, Kay; Humphris, Gerald W

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 11,000 people die in Scotland each year as a result of smoking-related causes. Quitting smoking is relatively easy; maintaining a quit attempt is a very difficult task with success rates for unaided quit attempts stubbornly remaining in the single digits. Pharmaceutical treatment can improve these rates by lowering the overall reward factor of nicotine. However, these and related nicotine replacement therapies do not operate on, or address, the spatial and contextual aspects of smoking behaviour. With the ubiquity of smartphones that can log spatial, quantitative and qualitative data related to smoking behaviour, there exists a person-centred clinical opportunity to support smokers attempting to quit by first understanding their smoking behaviour and subsequently sending them dynamic messages to encourage health behaviour change within a situational context. We have built a smartphone app-MapMySmoke-that works on Android and iOS platforms. The deployment of this app within a clinical National Health Service (NHS) setting has two distinct phases: (1) a 2-week logging phase where pre-quit patients log all of their smoking and craving events; and (2) a post-quit phase where users receive dynamic support messages and can continue to log craving events, and should they occur, relapse events. Following the initial logging phase, patients consult with their general practitioner (GP) or healthcare provider to review their smoking patterns and to outline a precise, individualised quit attempt plan. Our feasibility study consists of assessment of an initial app version during and after use by eight patients recruited from an NHS Fife GP practice. In addition to evaluation of the app as a potential smoking cessation aid, we have assessed the user experience, technological requirements and security of the data flow. In an initial feasibility study, we have deployed the app for a small number of patients within one GP practice in NHS Fife. We recruited eight

  19. Effect of Financial Stress and Positive Financial Behaviors on Cost-Related Nonadherence to Health Regimens Among Adults in a Community-Based Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Kruger, Daniel J; Cupal, Suzanne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2016-04-07

    Little is known about the role of positive financial behaviors (behaviors that allow maintenance of financial stability with financial resources) in mitigating cost-related nonadherence (CRN) to health regimens. This study examined the relationships between positive financial behaviors, financial stress, and CRN. Data came from the 2011 Speak to Your Health! Community Survey (n = 1,234). Descriptive statistics were computed to examine financial stress and CRN, by chronic condition and health insurance status. We used multivariate logistic regression models to examine the relationship between positive financial behaviors and financial stress and their interaction on a composite score of CRN, controlling for health insurance status, educational level, age, marital status, number of chronic conditions, and employment status. Thirty percent of the sample engaged in CRN. Participants reported moderate financial stress (mean, 13.85; standard deviation [SD] = 6.97), and moderate positive financial behavior (mean, 8.84; SD = 3.24). Participants with employer-sponsored insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, the Genesee Health Plan, high blood pressure, asthma, and diabetes had the highest proportion of CRN. The relationship between financial stress and CRN was not significantly different between those who reported lower versus higher levels of positive financial behavior (P = .32). Greater financial stress was associated with a greater likelihood of CRN (odds ratio [OR] = 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08-2.99). Higher level of positive financial behavior was associated with a lower likelihood of CRN (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.94). Financial literacy as a means of promoting positive financial behavior may help reduce CRN. An intervention strategy focused on improving financial literacy may be relevant for high-risk groups who report high levels of financial stress.

  20. Can Caring Create Prejudice? An Investigation of Positive and Negative Intergenerational Contact in Care Settings and the Generalisation of Blatant and Subtle Age Prejudice to Other Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Lisbeth; Abrams, Dominic; Swift, Hannah J; Lamont, Ruth A; Gerocova, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Caring is a positive social act, but can it result in negative attitudes towards those cared for, and towards others from their wider social group? Based on intergroup contact theory, we tested whether care workers' (CWs) positive and negative contact with old-age care home residents (CHRs) predicts prejudiced attitudes towards that group, and whether this generalises to other older people. Fifty-six CWs were surveyed about their positive and negative contact with CHRs and their blatant and subtle attitudes (humanness attributions) towards CHRs and older adults. We tested indirect paths from contact with CHRs to attitudes towards older adults via attitudes towards CHRs. Results showed that neither positive nor negative contact generalised blatant ageism. However, the effect of negative, but not positive, contact on the denial of humanness to CHRs generalised to subtle ageism towards older adults. This evidence has practical implications for management of CWs' work experiences and theoretical implications, suggesting that negative contact with a subgroup generalises the attribution of humanness to superordinate groups. Because it is difficult to identify and challenge subtle prejudices such as dehumanisation, it may be especially important to reduce negative contact. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Strategic Planning in Irish Quantity Surveying Pracitces

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Roisin

    2011-01-01

    The role and usefulness of strategic planning has been well documented over several decades of strategic management research. Despite the significant body of existing knowledge in the field of strategic planning, there remains a paucity of investigation into the construction sector, specifically in Professional Service Firms (PSF’s) operating within it. The aim of this research was to ascertain the type, scope and extent of strategic planning within Irish Quantity Surveying (QS) practices and...

  2. Quantity discrimination in wolves (Canis lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina eUtrata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested eleven hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris and coyotes (Canis latrans, our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current setup are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

  3. Barriers to access prevention of mother-to-child transmission for HIV positive women in a well-resourced setting in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.A.; Oosterhoff, P.P.J.; Yen, P.N.; Wright, P.; Hardon, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: According to Vietnamese policy, HIV-infected women should have access at least to HIV testing and Nevirapine prophylaxis, or where available, to adequate counselling, HIV infection staging, ARV prophylaxis, and infant formula. Many studies in high HIV prevalence settings have reported

  4. Device for positioning a component directly opposite the holes in a plate and method of setting up such a device at a distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeon, Michel; Saglio, Robert.

    1982-01-01

    The device includes a hooking finger placed in position at a distance, for example by means of a hooking pole on which the remainder of the device is threaded. A remote controlled locking system makes it possible join firmly the two parts, each of which has a hooking component able to become fixed in a hole. These movements of the device after it has been brought into position are also controlled from a distance. Application to the testing of nuclear power station steam generator tubes by eddy current probe [fr

  5. A positive psychological intervention using virtual reality for patients with advanced cancer in a hospital setting: a pilot study to assess feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M; Espinoza, Macarena; García-Palacios, Azucena; Cervera, José M; Esquerdo, Gaspar; Barrajón, Enrique; Botella, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This study presents data on the feasibility and possible benefits of a psychological intervention that uses virtual reality to induce positive emotions on adult hospitalized patients with metastatic cancer. The patient's satisfaction and perceived utility was also examined. The sample was composed of 19 patients (53 % men, aged from 29 to 85 years old; x = 60.9; standard deviation = 14.54). The intervention consisted of four 30-min sessions during 1 week in which patients navigated through virtual environments designed to induce joy or relaxation. Mood was assessed before and after each session using the Visual Analog Scale. Patient satisfaction was assessed after each session and at the end of the intervention. Qualitative data were also collected with open-ended questions. There were no major difficulties with the use of devices, and any difficulties that did arise were solved through practice. There were adequate levels of pleasantness and perceived utility of the proposed intervention. The main perceived benefits were distraction, entertainment, and promotion of relaxation states. Regarding mood changes, an increase in positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions were also detected. The intervention was positively assessed and rated as minimally uncomfortable. Future actions are discussed as well as the need to implement brief interventions that take into account the patients' medical state and physical discomfort level, especially with those in the advanced stages of disease.

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Bronchial-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in the Posttransplant Setting: An Immunodeficiency-Related (Posttransplant) Lymphoproliferative Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Daniel P; Vega, Francisco; Chapman, Jennifer R

    2017-12-20

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a heterogeneous group of hematolymphoid proliferations arising in the context of chronic immunosuppression. The common and indolent B-cell lymphomas, including extranodal marginal zone lymphomas (ENMZLs) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), are excluded from the category of PTLD in the current World Health Organization classification. We report a case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma involving the lungs of a transplant patient. Aside from history of cardiac transplant, young patient age, and EBV positivity, the histopathologic findings were indistinguishable from usual BALT lymphoma. We review the literature of ENMZL occurring in immunocompromised patients and present this case for consideration that this specific entity is a PTLD. We believe that additional studies might lend strength to the hypothesis that this particular group of EBV-positive, posttransplant ENMZLs merits classification and management as PTLDs. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. The Acquisition of Quantity Contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Katsura; Reid, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the acquisition of quantity contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok, an indigenous language spoken in the Philippines. Four-year-old and 5-year-old children's perception and production of quantity contrasts were examined using a pair of names that contrast in the quantity of the medial nasal. Frequencies of the quantity contrast were…

  8. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. Result...

  9. EFFECT OF SALES PROMOTION SCHEMES ON PURCHASE QUANTITY: A STUDY OF MALAYSIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa JALLOW

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to study the effect of sales promotion on the purchase quantity and recommend sales promotional means and methods that could improve sales for retail sector in Malaysia. The impact of coupons, bonus packages, premiums, free samples and price discount is measured on purchase quantity of Malaysian retail consumers. Empirical data is gathered from 150 respondents using self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using correlation and regression analysis to examine the relationship between variables. The findings of the study reveal that all independent variables influences purchase quantity positively and significantly while free samples and price discounts are most influential factors for Malaysian market.

  10. The estimation of differential counting measurements of possitive quantities with relatively large statistical errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Bayes' principle is applied to the differential counting measurement of a positive quantity in which the statistical errors are not necessarily small in relation to the true value of the quantity. The methods of estimation derived are found to give consistent results and to avoid the anomalous negative estimates sometimes obtained by conventional methods. One of the methods given provides a simple means of deriving the required estimates from conventionally presented results and appears to have wide potential applications. Both methods provide the actual posterior probability distribution of the quantity to be measured. A particularly important potential application is the correction of counts on low radioacitvity samples for background. (orig.)

  11. Setting individualized positive end-expiratory pressure level with a positive end-expiratory pressure decrement trial after a recruitment maneuver improves oxygenation and lung mechanics during one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlos; Mugarra, Ana; Gutierrez, Andrea; Carbonell, Jose Antonio; García, Marisa; Soro, Marina; Tusman, Gerardo; Belda, Francisco Javier

    2014-03-01

    We investigated whether individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation, ventilation, and lung mechanics during one-lung ventilation compared with standardized PEEP. Thirty patients undergoing thoracic surgery were randomly allocated to the study or control group. Both groups received an alveolar recruitment maneuver at the beginning and end of one-lung ventilation. After the alveolar recruitment maneuver, the control group had their lungs ventilated with a 5 cm·H2O PEEP, while the study group had their lungs ventilated with an individualized PEEP level determined by a PEEP decrement trial. Arterial blood samples, lung mechanics, and volumetric capnography were recorded at multiple timepoints throughout the procedure. The individualized PEEP values in study group were higher than the standardized PEEP values (10 ± 2 vs 5 cm·H2O; P decrement trial than with a standardized 5 cm·H2O of PEEP.

  12. Quality and quantity: the role of social interactions in individual health

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano, Fiorillo; Fabio, Sabatini

    2011-01-01

    The public health literature focusing on the detrimental effects of social isolation has shown that the quantity of social connections is positively correlated with individual health. Drawing on pooled cross-sectional data, we test this hypothesis on a representative sample of the Italian population. Our findings show that, besides the quantity of interactions, it is their quality – as measured by subjective satisfaction derived from relationships with friends – that works as the best pre...

  13. Intra-facility linkage of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed babies into HIV chronic care: rural and urban experience in a resource limited setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mugasha

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Linkage of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV care remains critical for improvement of maternal and child outcomes through prevention of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT and subsequent chronic HIV care. This study determined proportions and factors associated with intra-facility linkage to HIV care and Early Infant Diagnosis care (EID to inform strategic scale up of PMTCT programs. METHODS: A cross-sectional review of records was done at 2 urban and 3 rural public health care facilities supported by the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI. HIV-infected pregnant mothers, identified through routine antenatal care (ANC and HIV-exposed babies were evaluated for enrollment in HIV clinics by 6 weeks post-delivery. RESULTS: Overall, 1,025 HIV-infected pregnant mothers were identified during ANC between January and June, 2012; 267/1,025 (26% in rural and 743/1,025 (74% in urban facilities. Of these 375/1,025 (37% were linked to HIV clinics [67/267(25% rural and 308/758(41% urban]. Of 636 HIV-exposed babies, 193 (30% were linked to EID. Linkage of mother-baby pairs to HIV chronic care and EID was 16% (101/636; 8/179 (4.5%] in rural and 93/457(20.3% in urban health facilities. Within rural facilities, ANC registration <28 weeks-of-gestation was associated with mothers' linkage to HIV chronic care [AoR, 2.0 95% CI, 1.1-3.7, p = 0.019] and mothers' multi-parity was associated with baby's linkage to EID; AoR 4.4 (1.3-15.1, p = 0.023. Stigma, long distance to health facilities and vertical PMTCT services affected linkage in rural facilities, while peer mothers, infant feeding services, long patient queues and limited privacy hindered linkage to HIV care in urban settings. CONCLUSION: Post-natal linkage of HIV-infected mothers to chronic HIV care and HIV-exposed babies to EID programs was low. Barriers to linkage to HIV care vary in urban and rural settings. We recommend targeted interventions to rapidly improve linkage to

  14. Radiation quantities, units and measurements. Final report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Allisy, A.; Caswell, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    The determination of human exposure to radiation and radioactivity, whether arising from environmental exposures, medical practice or industrial activities, requires a fundamental set of quantities and units with which exposures can be specified and the means and ability to make measurements which yield results in terms of these quantities and units. Radiation protection then, as well as effective use of radiation in medical applications, requires the capability to accurately quantify the characteristics and extent of radiation exposure, so that appropriate and useful assessments of the potential health consequences and risks, whether for protection of the public and workers or for diagnosis and treatment of disease, can be formulated. The work carried out via this concerted action on ''Radiation quantities, units and measurements'' has addressed these needs. Measurement of radiation is a complex subject and is a science in itself. Yet many users of radiation who need to make radiation measurements cannot be expected to become experts in this particular field. They need authoritative guidance on how to deal with the measurement problems connected with their particular use of radiation. The work carried out pursuant to this concerted action has resulted in publications that meet this need. Important achievements include the publication of seven new ICRU reports, the completion of all but the printing of three other ICRU reports, completion of the drafting work on two other reports, the development of many others reports and the initiation of seven new activities that will result in ICRU reports representing important future contribution to the needs identified in this project. (orig.)

  15. Diversity and antibiograms of bacterial organisms isolated from samples of household drinking-water consumed by HIV-positive individuals in rural settings, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samie, A; Mashao, M B; Bessong, P O; NKgau, T F; Momba, M N B; Obi, C L

    2012-09-01

    Diarrhoea is a hallmark of HIV infections in developing countries, and many diarrhoea-causing agents are often transmitted through water. The objective of the study was to determine the diversity and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacterial organisms isolated from samples of household drinking-water consumed by HIV-infected and AIDS patients. In the present study, household water stored for use by HIV-positive patients was tested for microbial quality, and isolated bacterial organisms were analyzed for their susceptibility profiles against 25 different antibiotics. The microbial quality of water was generally poor, and about 58% of water samples (n=270) were contaminated with faecal coliforms, with counts varying from 2 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL to 2.4x10⁴ CFU/100 mL. Values of total coliform counts ranged from 17 CFU/100 mL to 7.9x10⁵/100 mL. In total, 37 different bacterial species were isolated, and the major isolates included Acinetobacter lwoffii (7.5%), Enterobacter cloacae (7.5%), Shigella spp. (14.2%), Yersinia enterocolitica (6.7%), and Pseudomonas spp. (16.3%). No Vibrio cholerae could be isolated; however, V. fluvialis was isolated from three water samples. The isolated organisms were highly resistant to cefazolin (83.5%), cefoxitin (69.2%), ampicillin (66.4%), and cefuroxime (66.2%). Intermediate resistance was observed against gentamicin (10.6%), cefepime (13.4%), ceftriaxone (27.6%), and cefotaxime (29.9%). Levofloxacin (0.7%), ceftazidime (2.2%), meropenem (3%), and ciprofloxacin (3.7%) were the most active antibiotics against all the microorganisms, with all recording less than 5% resistance. Multiple drug resistance was very common, and 78% of the organisms were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Education on treatment of household water is advised for HIV-positive patients, and measures should be taken to improve point-of-use water treatment as immunosuppressed individuals would be more susceptible to opportunistic

  16. Method of Converting Wheat Flour Quantity into Rice Flour Quantity in Cookies (Part-1)

    OpenAIRE

    村田,美穂子; 髙橋,由加

    2016-01-01

    A method of converting the wheat flour quantity of a recipe of wheat-flour cookies into the rice flour quantity of a recipe of rice-flour cookies used domestically for wheat-allergic children was studied. The proportion of the water content with respect to the flour content (the wheat or rice flour content) in cut cookies prepared according to a commercially available recipe was obtained. Next, four types of rice-flour cookies were prepared according to a recipe for wheat-flour cookies using ...

  17. Witnessing stressful events induces glutamatergic synapse pathway alterations and gene set enrichment of positive EPSP regulation within the VTA of adult mice: An ontology based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jacob S.

    It is well known that exposure to severe stress increases the risk for developing mood disorders. Currently, the neurobiological and genetic mechanisms underlying the functional effects of psychological stress are poorly understood. Presenting a major obstacle to the study of psychological stress is the inability of current animal models of stress to distinguish between physical and psychological stressors. A novel paradigm recently developed by Warren et al., is able to tease apart the effects of physical and psychological stress in adult mice by allowing these mice to "witness," the social defeat of another mouse thus removing confounding variables associated with physical stressors. Using this 'witness' model of stress and RNA-Seq technology, the current study aims to study the genetic effects of psychological stress. After, witnessing the social defeat of another mouse, VTA tissue was extracted, sequenced, and analyzed for differential expression. Since genes often work together in complex networks, a pathway and gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed using data from the differential expression analysis. The pathway and GO analyzes revealed a perturbation of the glutamatergic synapse pathway and an enrichment of positive excitatory post-synaptic potential regulation. This is consistent with the excitatory synapse theory of depression. Together these findings demonstrate a dysregulation of the mesolimbic reward pathway at the gene level as a result of psychological stress potentially contributing to depressive like behaviors.

  18. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification of Gram-negative oxidase-positive bacilli in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Mahmooda; Khan, Adnan; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2013-06-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. The diagnosis and surveillance of diseases is dependent, to a great extent, on laboratory services, which cannot function without effective reliable reagents and diagnostics. Despite the advancement in microbiology diagnosis globally, resourcelimited countries still struggle to provide an acceptable diagnosis quality which helps in clinical disease management and improve their mortality and morbidity data. During this study an indigenous product, Quick Test Strip (QTS) NE, was developed for the rapid identification of biochemically slower group of Gram-negative oxidase-positive bacilli that covers 19 different bacterial genera. Some of the members belonging to these groups are well-established human pathogens, e.g. various species of Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Aeromonas, Achromobacter and Stenotrophomonas. This study also evaluates the performance of QTS-NE by comparing with genotypic characterization methods. A total of 232 clinical and reference bacterial isolates were tested by three different methods. QTSNE provides 100 percent concordant results with other rapid identification and molecular characterization methods and confirms the potential to be used in clinical diagnosis.

  19. Evaluating the utility of provider-recorded clinical status in the medical records of HIV-positive adults in a limited-resource setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonbraker, Samantha; Befus, Montina; Nadal, Leonel Lerebours; Halpern, Mina; Larson, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Provider-reported summaries of clinical status may assist with clinical management of HIV in resource poor settings if they reflect underlying biological processes associated with HIV disease progression. However, their ability to do so is rarely evaluated. Therefore, we aimed to assess the relationship between a provider-recorded summary of clinical status and indicators of HIV progression. Data were abstracted from 201 randomly selected medical records at a large HIV clinic in the Dominican Republic. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between provider-assigned clinical status and demographic (gender, age, nationality, education) and clinical factors (reported medication adherence, CD4 cell count, viral load). The mean age of patients was 41.2 (SD = ±10.9) years and most were female (n = 115, 57%). None of the examined characteristics were significantly associated with provider-recorded clinical status. Higher CD4 cell counts were more likely for females (OR = 2.2 CI: 1.12–4.31) and less likely for those with higher viral loads (OR = 0.33 CI: 0.15–0.72). Poorer adherence and lower CD4 cell counts were significantly associated with higher viral loads (OR = 4.46 CI: 1.11–20.29 and 6.84 CI: 1.47–37.23, respectively). Clinics using provider-reported summaries of clinical status should evaluate the performance of these assessments to ensure they are associated with biologic indicators of disease progression. PMID:27495146

  20. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel) activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results - most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal - standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  1. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results – most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal – standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots.

  2. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  3. Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Margaret S.; Pettine, Warren W.; Srihasam, Krishna; Moore, Brandon; Morocz, Istvan A.; Lee, Daeyeol

    2014-01-01

    Weber’s law can be explained either by a compressive scaling of sensory response with stimulus magnitude or by a proportional scaling of response variability. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by asking how quantities are added or subtracted. We trained Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 distinct symbols with 0–25 drops of reward, and then tested how they combine, or add, symbolically represented reward magnitude. We found that they could combine symbolically represented magnitudes, and they transferred this ability to a novel symbol set, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. The way they combined pairs of symbols indicated neither a linear nor a compressed scale, but rather a dynamically shifting, relative scaling. PMID:24753600

  4. Joint decision of pricing and order quantity by considering product substitution in dual channel supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Erwin

    2017-11-01

    Dual channel supply chain (DCSC) has been attracting many researchers' attention. Their contributions mainly are in two folds, namely pricing problem and inventory policy. However, research to address both pricing and inventory problems simultaneously are still scarce. Meanwhile in recent competitive market, product substitution is an unavoidable practice in fulfilling customer demand when the main product is unavailable. Thus how to decide price and order quantity by considering product substitution under DCSC setting is an interesting topic to address. In this paper, corresponding mathematical model incorporating such problem is proposed. This model consists of objective function measuring sales revenue and inventory cost, and some constraints to assure positive profit margin, interplaying price between online and offline channel, and positive demand. Two pricing schemes, namely Vertical Nash and Stackelberg Leadership are evaluated. The result shows that in any situation of substitution level, Vertical Nash solution provides higher financial performance than that under Stackelberg Leadership. In addition, this work's results have also revealed that there exist some threshold values differentiating when it is better off to apply Vertical Nash scenario an, when Stackelberg Leadership scenario is preferable.

  5. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  6. Discounting of quantity surveying fees in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by clients have forced Quantity Surveying firms into competition with ... Furthermore, 43% of consulting engineering firms were discounting their fees at a rate of .... Quantity. Surveying services are also offered in the fields of dispute resolution,.

  7. Rainwater in Egypt: quantity, distribution and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. ABDEL-SHAFY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress within the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider the natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such problem. Rain harvesting is one solution; but not all; particularly on the north coast by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. In this paper, the rainwater issue is reviewed and discussed in terms of the quantities and distribution at different selected areas in Egypt. The amount of rain falls at different location in Egypt was collected for a period of 16 months. The data indicated that rainfall in Egypt is very scarce, with an annual average of 12 mm and ranges from 0 mm/year in the desert to 200 mm/year in the north coastal region. The maximum total amount of rain does not exceed 1.8 billion m3per year. However, the average annual amount of rainfall water that is effectively utilized for agriculture purposes is estimated to be 1 billion m3. Harvesting pilot plant was constructed and implemented in Alexandria directly on the Mediterranean Sea. The harvested rain was used for irrigation and treated for drinking. It was, therefore, recommended to develop sustainable catchments at appropriate locations in the rain-fed areas at the north coast as well as cost effective grafting of the indigenous technologies with the innovative techniques.

  8. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the EOQ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Economic order quantity...

  9. Relationships of chemical composition, quantity of milt to fertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... determining the right quantity of milt that can be used to fertilize certain quantity of eggs. ... quantity of milt used for artificial reproduction in fish significantly affect water quality used ... is the major organic substance that supplies the spermatozoa with energy.

  10. Six categories of ionizing radiation quantities practical in various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Junzheng; Zhuo Weihai

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the part of review on the evolvement of the systems for ionizing radiation quantities and units. In the paper, for better understanding and correct use of the relevant quantities of ionizing radiation, the major ionizing radiation quantities in various fields are divided into six categories. (authors)

  11. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia, plus 5. (b) For American Pima cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102...

  12. Market making, prices, and quantity limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, D.Y.

    2000-01-01

    This article develops a model of spread and depth setting under asymmetric information where the equilibrium depth is proportionally more sensitive than the spread to changes in the degree of information asymmetry. The analysis uses a one-period model in which a risk-neutral, monopolistic market

  13. The covariance matrix of derived quantities and their combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.; Perey, F.G.

    1992-06-01

    The covariance matrix of quantities derived from measured data via nonlinear relations are only approximate since they are functions of the measured data taken as estimates for the true values of the measured quantities. The evaluation of such derived quantities entails new estimates for the true values of the measured quantities and consequently implies a modification of the covariance matrix of the derived quantities that was used in the evaluation process. Failure to recognize such an implication can lead to inconsistencies between the results of different evaluation strategies. In this report we show that an iterative procedure can eliminate such inconsistencies

  14. HIV-positive pregnant women attending the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS (PMTCT) services in Ethiopia: economic productivity losses across urban-rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Mbonigaba, Josue; Kaye, Sylvia Blanche

    2018-06-01

    HIV/AIDS impacts significantly on pregnant women and on children in Ethiopia. This impact has a multiplier effect on household economies and on productivity losses, and is expected to vary across rural and urban settings. Applying the human capital approach to data collected from 131 respondents, this study estimated productivity losses per HIV-positive pregnant woman-infant pair across urban and rural health facilities in Ethiopia, which in turn were used to estimate the national productivity loss. The study found that the annual productivity loss per woman-infant pair was Ethiopian birr (ETB) 7,433 or United States dollar (US$) 378 and ETB 625 (US$ 32) in urban and rural settings, respectively. The mean patient days lost per year due to inpatient admission at hospitals/health centres was 11 in urban and 22 in rural health facilities. On average, urban home care-givers spent 20 (SD = 21) days annually providing home care services, while their rural counterparts spent 23 days (SD = 26). The productivity loss accounted for 16% and 7% of household income in urban and rural settings, respectively. These high and varying productivity losses require preventive interventions that are appropriate to each setting to ensure the welfare of women and children in Ethiopia.

  15. Quantity Discrimination in Trained Lizards (Podarcis sicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative abilities have been reported in many animal species. Two main methods have been extensively used: spontaneous choice tests and training procedures. A recent study showed that ruin lizards are capable of spontaneously discriminating between the surface area of two food items of different size, but failed when food was presented in sets of discrete items differing in number. In the present study, we used a training procedure to further investigate quantitative abilities in ruin lizards. Subjects were presented with two sets of yellow disks differing either in number (Experiment 1 or in area (Experiment 2 and were trained on different discriminations of increasing difficulty (1 vs. 4, 2 vs. 4, and 2 vs. 3. Results showed that lizards were more accurate in discriminating sets of discrete items differing in number than the area of two individual items, in contrast to what had earlier been observed in spontaneous choice tests. Although we cannot exclude other factors that affected the performance of ruin lizards, the poor accuracy here observed in both experiments might reflect a true limit in lizards’ quantitative abilities.

  16. The effects of quantity and depth of processing on children's time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlin, M

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of quantity and depth of processing on children's time perception. These experiments tested the appropriateness of two adult time-perception models (attentional and storage size) for younger ages. Children were given stimulus sets of equal time which varied by level of processing (deep/shallow) and quantity (list length). In the first experiment, 28 children in Grade 6 reproduced presentation times of various quantities of pictures under deep (living/nonliving categorization) or shallow (repeating label) conditions. Students also compared pairs of durations. In the second experiment, 128 children in Grades K, 2, 4, and 6 reproduced presentation times under similar conditions with three or six pictures and with deep or shallow processing requirements. Deep processing led to decreased estimation of time. Higher quantity led to increased estimation of time. Comparative judgments were influenced by quantity. The interaction between age and depth of processing was significant. Older children were more affected by depth differences than were younger children. Results were interpreted as supporting different aspects of each adult model as explanations of children's time perception. The processing effect supported the attentional model and the quantity effect supported the storage size model.

  17. Detection Dynamics Of Nitrogen Based Explosive Quantities In Selected Cylindrical Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngusha Tavershima Almighty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental set up for examining the variation of detection intensity with explosive quantity has been studied. Containers made from ceramic carbon steel wood and HDPE were filled with explosive masses ranging from 10 kg to 500 kg and irradiated by a 14.1 MeV point isotropic neutron source. The resulting gamma photons were analyzed for their C N and O composition and the sum computed to yield a quantity known as the material quotient MQ. Examination of MQ values indicates an initial increase in detection intensity with increasing explosive quantity. Saturation is however reached at an explosive quantity of about 25kg where detection intensity reduces with further increase in explosive quantity. Effects of variation in explosive quantity appeared to be more pronounced for explosives contained in HDPE and wooden containers and least pronounced for those in steel containers. Source-detector configuration was identified as a major factor affecting effective detection of large masses of explosives.

  18. Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabus Hans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP [1], the joint research project “Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy” (BioQuaRT [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 μm, and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

  19. Definition, significance and measurement of quantities pertaining to the oxygen carrying properties of human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, WG; Maas, AHJ; Moran, RF

    1996-01-01

    A consistent set of definitions is given of the principal quantities pertaining to the oxygen transport by the blood, and of their mutual relationships, in relation to the methods used in their measurement. At the core is the correct definition of oxygen saturation, the deviation of which has

  20. Would more social partners leads to enhanced health? The paradox between quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cai; Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2017-09-01

    In the current investigation, we examined the association between social network composition (SNC) and mental health, as well as whether quantity and quality of social network could influence mental health differently. The social network quantity and quality of 345 middle-aged and older Chinese adults were measured by the Social Convoy Questionnaire. The Chinese version of the Medical Outcome Studies 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess mental health while controlling for physical health. It was found that both quantity and quality of social network were associated with mental health, and more specifically that (1) quantity of peripheral partners (PP) was positively associated with mental health; (2) quality of emotionally close social partners (ECSP) influenced mental health the most; and (3) paradoxically, the effect of ECSP quality on mental health depended on quantity of ECSP, that is, participants with more ECSP showed a stronger association between ECSP quality and mental health. The findings replicated and extended previous studies on SNC and suggested that structure/quantity and quality of SNC were both important for mental health. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  2. A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quantity, and sludge volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Parkhurst, David L.; Means, Brent P; McKenzie, Bob; Morris, Harry; Arthur, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH and decrease concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and/or manganese in largevolume, metal-laden discharges from active coal mines. Generally, aluminum and iron can be removed effectively at near-neutral pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment cost depends on the specific chemical used (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) and increases with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearly with the amount of chemical added. Consequently, the amount of caustic chemical needed to achieve a target pH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical titration data or the application of geochemical models to simulate the titration of the discharge water with caustic chemical(s). The AMDTreat computer program (http://amd.osmre.gov/ ) is widely used to compute costs for treatment of coal-mine drainage. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration with industrial grade caustic chemicals to compute chemical costs for treatment of net-acidic or net-alkaline mine drainage, such data are rarely available. To improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the concentrations of dissolved metals in treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program PHREEQC (wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/) that will be coupled as a module to AMDTreat. The simulated titration results can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities and costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module for AMDTreat.

  3. Physical quantities, their role and treatment in gasflow measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narjes, L.

    1977-06-01

    We begin by taking a closer look at the concepts physical quantity, dimension and unit of measurement. Then a survey is given of the physical quantities applied in gasflow measurement techniques. Here the volume-, as well as the mass-flow rate, as derived quantities are of particular interest. The application of these quantities in relation to the legal units of measurement is specifically described. In addition the quantity equation and further the quantity equation adapted to the use of suitable units and their modes of application are compared. In the appendix four examples clarify these modes. Special attention is paid to the quantity equation adapted to practically oriented units. The applications of this type of equation in VDI regulations, standards and other technical guidelines for measurement of flow are mentioned. Moreover, the meaning of the standard state for the comparison of flows of gaseous fluids is illustrated. The difficulties concerning an international agreement on uniform standard temperature are explained. Starting from there, the advantages of the fundamental quantity 'amount of substance' applied to the measurement of flow are described. The use of this quantity for the thermodynamic state of ideal and real gases, respectively gas mixtures, is demonstrated in the appendix by an example. (orig.) [de

  4. Pollen quality, quantity and fruit set of some self- compatible and self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... (Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A.Webb) as affected by cross, self-, and non- pollination. Ann. Bot. 51: 469-479. Pırlak L (2001). Investigations on the fertilization biology of some sweet cherry varieties grown in Çoruh valley ecological conditions. J. Agric. Fac. Atatürk Univ. 32 (4): 391-402. Pırlak L (2002). The effects ...

  5. Effect of difference between group constants processed by codes TIMS and ETOX on integral quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hideki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Matsui, Yasushi.

    1978-06-01

    Group constants of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Pu have been produced with the processing code TIMS using the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-1. The temperature and composition dependent self-shielding factors have been calculated for the two cases with and without considering mutual interference resonant nuclei. By using the group constants set produced by the TIMS code, the integral quantities, i.e. multiplication factor, Na-void reactivity effect and Doppler reactivity effect, are calculated and compared with those calculated with the use of the cross sections set produced by the ETOX code to evaluate accuracy of the approximate calculation method in ETOX. There is much difference in self-shielding factor in each energy group between the two codes. For the fast reactor assemblies under study, however, the integral quantities calculated with these two sets are in good agreement with each other, because of eventual cancelation of errors. (auth.)

  6. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2009-10-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted.

  8. 48 CFR 52.217-6 - Option for Increased Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option for Increased....217-6 Option for Increased Quantity. As prescribed in 17.208(d), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Option for Increased Quantity (MAR 1989) The Government may increase the...

  9. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  10. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indefinite-quantity, multiple award contracts to ensure that adequate consideration exists to contractually... contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504 Indefinite-quantity...

  11. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322... quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of noxious or poisonous gases, other than carbon dioxide, shall... Governmental Industrial Hygienists in “Threshold Limit Values for Substance in Workroom Air” (1972). Detectors...

  12. Memory-Based Quantity Discrimination in Coyotes (Canis latrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salif Mahamane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that the ratio between competing quantities of food significantly mediates coyotes‘ (Canis latrans ability to choose the larger of two food options. These previous findings are consistent with predictions made by Weber‘s Law and indicate that coyotes possess quantity discrimination abilities that are similar to other species. Importantly, coyotes‘ discrimination abilities are similar to domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, indicating that quantitative discrimination may remain stable throughout certain species‘ evolution. However, while previously shown in two domestic dogs, it is unknown whether coyotes possess the ability to discriminate visual quantities from memory. Here, we address this question by displaying different ratios of food quantities to 14 coyotes before placing the choices out of sight. The coyotes were then allowed to select one of either non-visible food quantities. Coyotes‘ discrimination of quantity from memory does not follow Weber‘s Law in this particular task. These results suggest that working memory in coyotes may not be adapted to maintain information regarding quantity as well as in domestic dogs. The likelihood of a coyote‘s choosing the large option increased when it was presented with difficult ratios of food options first, before it was later presented with trials using more easily discriminable ratios, and when the large option was placed on one particular side. This suggests that learning or motivation increased across trials when coyotes experienced difficult ratios first, and that location of food may have been more salient in working memory than quantity of food.

  13. Symbols and definitions of quantities and units in isotope stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, P.; Krumbiegel, P.; Faust, H.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the International System of Units and recent recommendations of the IUPAC on 'Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units' a system is proposed of uniform and unambiguous symbols and definitions of quantities and units used in the isotope dilution technique. The close relationship between isotope stoichiometry and common stoichiometry is demonstrated. (author)

  14. Variation in Quantity of Heat Produced from Charcoal of Prosopis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected using the copper calorimeter, a thermometer, an air tight burner and a weight balance. The results showed a gradual decrease in the quantity of heat produced as combustion time increased from 10 40 minutes in all wood species. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the quantity of heat produced both ...

  15. 19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. 144.33 Section 144.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of...

  16. 21 CFR 1314.20 - Restrictions on sales quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on sales quantity. 1314.20 Section 1314.20 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.20 Restrictions on sales quantity. (a) Without...

  17. Quantifying cannabis: A field study of marijuana quantity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Mark A; Conner, Bradley T; Pearson, Matthew R

    2018-05-17

    The assessment of marijuana use quantity poses unique challenges. These challenges have limited research efforts on quantity assessments. However, quantity estimates are critical to detecting associations between marijuana use and outcomes. We examined accuracy of marijuana users' estimations of quantities of marijuana they prepared to ingest and predictors of both how much was prepared for a single dose and the degree of (in)accuracy of participants' estimates. We recruited a sample of 128 regular-to-heavy marijuana users for a field study wherein they prepared and estimated quantities of marijuana flower in a joint or a bowl as well as marijuana concentrate using a dab tool. The vast majority of participants overestimated the quantity of marijuana that they used in their preparations. We failed to find robust predictors of estimation accuracy. Self-reported quantity estimates are inaccurate, which has implications for studying the link between quantity and marijuana use outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Quantity and Quality of Inhaled Dose Predicts Immunopathology in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Patrick Fennelly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animal models of tuberculosis (TB have convincingly demonstrated that inhaled dose predicts immunopathology and survival. In contrast, the importance of inhaled dose has generally not been appreciated in TB epidemiology, clinical science, or the practice of TB control. Infectiousness of TB patients has traditionally been assessed using microscopy for acid-fast bacilli in the sputum, which should be considered only a risk factor. We have recently demonstrated that cough aerosol cultures from index cases with pulmonary TB are the best predictors of new infection among household contacts. We suggest that cough aerosols of M. tuberculosis are the best surrogates of inhaled dose, and we hypothesize that the quantity of cough aerosols is associated with TB infection versus disease. Although several factors affect the quality of infectious aerosols, we propose that the particle size distribution of cough aerosols is an important predictor of primary upper airway disease and cervical lymphadenitis and of immune responses in exposed hosts. We hypothesize that large droplet aerosols (> 5 microns containing M. tuberculosis deposit in the upper airway and can induce immune responses without establishing infection. We suggest that this may partially explain the large proportion of humans who never develop TB disease in spite of having immunological evidence of M. tuberculosis infection (e.g. positive TST or IGRA. If these hypotheses are proven true, they would alter the current paradigm of latent TB infection and reactivation, further demonstrating the need for better biomarkers or methods of assessing TB infection and the risk of developing disease.

  19. Dynamic Coding of Signed Quantities in Cortical Feedback Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eBallard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early sensory and motor areas of the cortex, individual neurons transmit information about specific sensory features via a peaked response. This concept has been crystallized as `labeled lines,' to denote that axons communicate the specific properties of their sensory or motor parent cell. Such cells also can be characterized as being polarized, that is, as representing a signed quantity that is either positive or negative. We show in a model simulation that there are two important consequences when learning receptive fields using such signed codings in circuits that subtract different inputs. The first is that, in feedback circuits using labeled lines, such arithmetic operations need to be distributed across multiple distinct pathways. The second consequence is that such pathways must be necessarily dynamic, i.e. that synapses can grow and retract when forming receptive fields. The model monitors the breaking and growing of new circuit connections when their synapses need to change polarities and predicts that the rate of such changes should be inversely correlated with the progress of receptive field formation.

  20. A modular method to handle multiple time-dependent quantities in Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J; Faddegon, B A; Perl, J; Schümann, J; Paganetti, H

    2012-01-01

    A general method for handling time-dependent quantities in Monte Carlo simulations was developed to make such simulations more accessible to the medical community for a wide range of applications in radiotherapy, including fluence and dose calculation. To describe time-dependent changes in the most general way, we developed a grammar of functions that we call ‘Time Features’. When a simulation quantity, such as the position of a geometrical object, an angle, a magnetic field, a current, etc, takes its value from a Time Feature, that quantity varies over time. The operation of time-dependent simulation was separated into distinct parts: the Sequence samples time values either sequentially at equal increments or randomly from a uniform distribution (allowing quantities to vary continuously in time), and then each time-dependent quantity is calculated according to its Time Feature. Due to this modular structure, time-dependent simulations, even in the presence of multiple time-dependent quantities, can be efficiently performed in a single simulation with any given time resolution. This approach has been implemented in TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation), designed to make Monte Carlo simulations with Geant4 more accessible to both clinical and research physicists. To demonstrate the method, three clinical situations were simulated: a variable water column used to verify constancy of the Bragg peak of the Crocker Lab eye treatment facility of the University of California, the double-scattering treatment mode of the passive beam scattering system at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), where a spinning range modulator wheel accompanied by beam current modulation produces a spread-out Bragg peak, and the scanning mode at MGH, where time-dependent pulse shape, energy distribution and magnetic fields control Bragg peak positions. Results confirm the clinical applicability of the method. (paper)

  1. Impact of a computer-assisted, provider-delivered intervention on sexual risk behaviors in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Laura H; Grimley, Diane M; Gao, Hongjiang; Aban, Inmaculada; Chen, Huey; Raper, James L; Saag, Michael S; Rhodes, Scott D; Hook, Edward W

    2013-04-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to assist providers with delivering secondary HIV prevention in the primary care setting. This longitudinal HIV clinic-based study conducted from 2004-2007 in a Birmingham, Alabama HIV primary care clinic tested a computer-assisted, provider-delivered intervention designed to increase condom use with oral, anal and vaginal sex, decrease numbers of sexual partners and increase HIV disclosure among HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Significant declines were found for the number of unprotected insertive anal intercourse acts with HIV+ male partners during the intervention period (p = 0.0003) and with HIV-/UK male partners (p = 0.0007), as well as a 47% reduction in the number of male sexual partners within the preceding 6 months compared with baseline (p = 0.0008). These findings confirm and extend prior reports by demonstrating the effectiveness of computer-assisted, provider-delivered messaging to accomplish risk reduction in patients in the HIV primary care setting.

  2. mGluR5 positive allosteric modulation and its effects on MK-801 induced set-shifting impairments in a rat operant delayed matching/non-matching-to-sample task

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCrosse, Amber L.; Burrows, Brian T.; Angulo, Rachel M.; Conrad, Phoebe R.; Himes, Sarah M.; Mathews, Nordia; Wegner, Scott A.; Taylor, Sara B.; Olive, M. Foster

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5) exert pro-cognitive effects in animal models of various neuropsychiatric diseases. However, few studies to date have examined ability of mGluR5 PAMs to reverse cognitive deficits in operant delayed matching/non-matching-to-sample (DMS/DNMS) tasks. Objectives To determine the ability of the mGluR5 PAM 3-cyano-N-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) to reverse set-shifting deficits induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were initially trained to lever press for sucrose reinforcement under either DMS or DNMS conditions. Following successful acquisition of the task, reinforcement conditions were reversed (DNMS→DMS or DMS→DNMS). In Experiment 1, rats were treated daily prior to each session with either vehicle/vehicle, vehicle/MK-801 (0.06 mg/kg) simultaneously, CDPPB (20 mg/kg)/MK-801 simultaneously, or CDPPB 30 min prior to MK-801. In Experiment 2, rats were treated with either vehicle/vehicle, vehicle/MK-801, or CDPPB 30 min prior to MK-801 only prior to sessions that followed task reversal. Results In Experiment 1, no group differences in initial task acquisition were observed. Rats treated with vehicle+MK−801 showed significant set-shifting impairments following task reversal, which were partially attenuated by simultaneous administration of CDPPB/MK-801, and completely precluded by administration of CDPPB 30 min prior to MK-801. In Experiment 2, MK-801 did not impair reversal learning and no other group differences were observed. Conclusions MK-801 induced deficits in operant set-shifting ability were prevented by pretreatment with CDPPB. MK-801 did not produce deficits in initial task learning or when treatment was initiated following task reversal. PMID:24973895

  3. Counting SET-free sets

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Nate

    2016-01-01

    We consider the following counting problem related to the card game SET: How many $k$-element SET-free sets are there in an $n$-dimensional SET deck? Through a series of algebraic reformulations and reinterpretations, we show the answer to this question satisfies two polynomiality conditions.

  4. Concept of ICRU's operational quantity and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hiroyuki

    1995-01-01

    The operational quantity which was introduced in the ICRU report 39 published in 1985 was shocking rather than fresh for the author. The report was translated into Japanese, but at the beginning, the contents were not able to be understood. Thereafter, the measurement of ICRU sphere dose equivalent was introduced in a national law. But it is feared that the understanding of this operational quantity is limited to specialist level, and is not by men of practical works. The meaning of ''operational'' must be that workers measure and obtain dose on the spot for the radiation protection for themselves. The principles used when ICRU considered the new practical measured quantity are shown. In the definition of operational quantity in area monitoring, two concepts of expanded and aligned connect real measurement with the operational quantity. The problems of measuring individual dose equivalent are discussed. As to the reality of applying the operational quantity, the fundamentals of the calibration of measuring instruments, the investigation of the operational quantity in relation to measuring instruments and measurement mode, and the relation of area monitoring and individual monitoring are described. (K.I.)

  5. Effect of Sowing Quantity on Soil Temperature and Yield of Winter Wheat under Straw Strip Mulching in Arid Region of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xuemei; Chai, Yuwei; Li, Rui; Li, Bowen; Cheng, Hongbo; Chang, Lei; Chai, Shouxi

    2018-01-01

    In order to explore the characteristics and relationship between soil temperature and yield of winter wheat, under different sowing quantities conditions of straw mulching conventional drilling in Northwest China, this study took Lantian 26 as material, under the whole corn mulching conventional drilling in Changhe town and Pingxiang town, setting up 3 different seeding quantities of 270 kg/ha (SSMC1), 324 kg/ha (SSMC2) and 405 kg/ha (SSMC3), to study the difference of soil temperature during the growth period of winter wheat and its correlation with yield components. Results showed: the average soil temperature of 0∼25cm in two ecological zones in the whole growth period have a significant change with the increase of sowing quantities; too much seeding had a sharp drop in soil temperature; the highest temperature of SSMC in Changhe town was the middle quantity of SSMC 2; the highest temperature of SSMC in Pingxiang town was the lowest sowing quantity of SSMC1. Diurnal variation of soil temperature at all growth stages showed: with the increase of SSMC, in the morning it increased with the increase of soil depth, noon and evening reducing with the depth of the soil. The average soil temperature of SSMC2 was higher than that of in all the two ecological zones in the whole growth period of SSMC.The maximum day temperature difference of each treatment was at noon. With the increase of SSMC, the yield increase varied with two ecological zones. SSMC of the local conventional sowing quantity of 270kg/ha SSMC1 yield was the highest in Changhe Town. SSMC of the middle sowing quantity SSMC2 of 324kg/ha yield was the highest in Pingxiang town. The difference of grain number per spike was the main cause of yield difference among these 3 treatments. Correlation analysis showed: the correlation among the yield and yield components, growth index and soil temperature varied with different ecological zones; thousand kernel weight and grain number per ear (.964** and.891**) had a

  6. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  7. Impact of the Velo 2 half misalignment on physical quantities

    CERN Document Server

    Roguljic, Matej; Borghi, Silvia; Grillo, Lucia; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the misalignment of the Vertex Locator of the LHCb experiment on the physical quantities of the decay "$D^{*+} \\rightarrow (D^{0}\\rightarrow K^{-}\\pi^{+}) \\pi^{+} $" is studied in this note. Different misalignments of the 2 halves are applied to Monte Carlo data and the variations of the physical quantities with respect to the case without misalignment are evaluated. The results show the importance of the VELO 2 half alignment which can significantly affect the physics performance in the large misalignment case. A misalignment equal to the precision of the real-time alignment of the Vertex Locator is found to have a negligible effect on the studied physical quantities.

  8. New quantities in radiation protection and conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Four new quantities have been proposed by the ICRP for use in radiation protection from external sources, i.e. the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent (penetrating), and the individual dose equivalent (superficial). These quantities are briefly described together with two new concepts of expanded and aligned fields. The BCRU recommends that these quantities should be adopted for use in the UK together with conversion coefficients when re-calibrating existing instruments, reporting the results of measurements and designing instruments. (UK)

  9. RJMCMC based Text Placement to Optimize Label Placement and Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touya, Guillaume; Chassin, Thibaud

    2018-05-01

    Label placement is a tedious task in map design, and its automation has long been a goal for researchers in cartography, but also in computational geometry. Methods that search for an optimal or nearly optimal solution that satisfies a set of constraints, such as label overlapping, have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods mainly focus on finding the optimal position for a given set of labels, but rarely allow the removal of labels as part of the optimization. This paper proposes to apply an optimization technique called Reversible-Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo that enables to easily model the removal or addition during the optimization iterations. The method, quite preliminary for now, is tested on a real dataset, and the first results are encouraging.

  10. Analysis of successive data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Breeuwer, Marcel; Haselhoff, Eltjo Hans

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to the analysis of successive data sets. A local intensity variation is formed from such successive data sets, that is, from data values in successive data sets at corresponding positions in each of the data sets. A region of interest is localized in the individual data sets on

  11. Analysis of successive data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Breeuwer, Marcel; Haselhoff, Eltjo Hans

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to the analysis of successive data sets. A local intensity variation is formed from such successive data sets, that is, from data values in successive data sets at corresponding positions in each of the data sets. A region of interest is localized in the individual data sets on

  12. Operational quantities for use in external radiation protection measurements. An investigation of concepts and principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Under the terms of the Euratom Treaty the Commission of the European Communities is required to draw up basic standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation. The basic standards lay down reference values for particular quantities; these values are required to be measured, and appropriate steps taken to ensure that they are not exceeded. To ensure that the basic standards are applied uniformly in the Member States, it is necessary to harmonize not only national laws but also measurement and recording techniques. As a practical contribution towards this objective, the Commission has since 1964 been conducting intercomparison programmes on operational radiation protection dosimetry. Effective monitoring against the dangers of ionizing radiation cannot be guaranteed unless the measuring instruments meet the necessary requirements, the quantities measured are those for which limit values have been laid down, and the instruments can be calibrated unequivocally. The differences between the concepts of quantity and unit of measurement in radiation protection were often unclear. In the light of developments at international level, the introduction of the international system of units of measurements (SI units) and the contents of ICRP Publication No 26, the services of the European Community responsible for radiation protection decided to review the whole question of quantities. The introduction of the 'index' quantities (absorbed dose index and dose equivalent index) was greeted with initial enthusiasm, but it soon became clear, on closer critical examination, that these too had major shortcomings. The Commission, in collaboration with experts from the Member States of the European Community, has therefore set out in this publication the various considerations and points of view concerning the use of these quantities in practical dosimetry. It is hoped that this publication will be of use to all

  13. A Principal Component Analysis of Skills and Competencies Required of Quantity Surveyors: Nigerian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwasuji Dada, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the intrinsic relationships among sets of quantity surveyors’ skill and competence variables with a view to reducing them into principal components. The research adopts a data reduction technique using factor analysis statistical technique. A structured questionnaire was administered among major stakeholders in the Nigerian construction industry. The respondents were asked to give rating, on a 5 point Likert scale, on skills and competencies re...

  14. Urban rainwater runoff quantity and quality: a potential endogenous resource in cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Angrill Toledo, Sara; Petit Boix, Anna; Morales Pinzon, Tito; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro; Rieradevall Pons, Joan; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting might help to achieve self-sufficiency, but it must comply with health standards. We studied the runoff quantity and quality harvested from seven urban surfaces in a university campus in Barcelona according to their use (pedestrian or motorized mobility) and materials (concrete, asphalt and slabs). An experimental rainwater harvesting system was used to collect the runoff resulting from a set of rainfall events. We estimated the runoff coefficient and initial abstraction ...

  15. WEB TECHNOLOGIES USED TO FORECAST FUTURE WASTE QUANTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu LUPU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors propose a modality of prognosis of the quantities of waste generated in a certain period. The proposition was finalized by achieving a model of prognosis present on a site hosted by a Web server. The software solve the problem for the general case, depending on the input data after analysis. After analyzing input data sets are used with one, two or three components (trend, seasonality and residual variable. According to the input data the adjustment model regarding the description of the analyzed phenomenon (additive and multiplying is chosen. If the chronogram of the analyzed phenomenon indicates an oscillating evolution, of sinusoidal nature, the additive model (+ is chosen, otherwise the multiplying model (  is chosen. The seasonal component is estimated and the deseasonalized chronological series is determined. The seasonality is determined by: the procedure of arithmetical means, the procedure of moving averages and the procedure of analytical tendency. The adjustment function is specified regarding the tendency of the phenomenon and its parameters are estimated. The significance of the adjustment function is verified specifying the significance threshold with which it may be accepted as significant. The estimation of the parameters of the adjustment function is made on the basis of the application of the method of least squares. The values of the phenomenon on two or three trimesters/ months are estimated for the processed data (by using time series with two or three steps ahead. Several types of waste specified by the value of the meter for waste from the database may be accepted. The model proposed makes decisions and justifies if the data prognosticated is accepted or not. All information from the input data to the final data is stored in a MySQL database.

  16. A note on the expectation and deviation of physical quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Masao

    2009-01-01

    By using the function representation of self-adjoint operators, the expectation and variance of physical quantities (self-adjoint operators) are defined, and it is shown that the so-called uncertainty principle does not hold.

  17. The ICRU dose equivalence quantities in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimbergen, T.W.M.

    1990-09-01

    The definitions and application of the new ICRU radiation protection quantities have been reviewed and studied in literature. Special emphasis was laid on the consequences of the use of the new quantities by personnel dosimetry services, and on the consequences of the use of the new quantities during an intercomparison programme for dosimetry services. The study shows that the recommendations of the ICRU are not yet complete and not fully realizable. This means that the dosimetry services always have to make certain approximations, when they use the new quantities. In literature, several approaches have been proposed. The feasibility of an approach depends on the characteristics of the dosimeters used. The use of different approaches by the dosimetry services is thought to be of possible influence on the results of an intercomparison programme. (author). 42 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Foreign materials in the repository - update of estimated quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagros, A.

    2007-03-01

    In a repository for spent nuclear fuel, a variety of materials are used during the construction process and during the operation of the repository. In addition to materials necessary for the construction and operation, some materials may be transported into the repository through the ventilation air, as emissions from vehicles, as waste produced by the staff etc. Both of these two types of materials are considered here and their quantities - both the introduced quantities and the quantities that remain after closure - in the repository constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Finland are estimated here based on new information. This work is intended to update the estimations that have been made previously, and it takes advantage of the experience collected during the construction of the underground rock characterisation facility ONKALO at Olkiluoto. During this construction process, the quantities of the different construction materials introduced into the underground openings have been monitored and they form a basis for estimating the quantities to be used in the future. The estimations made in this report are specific to a KBS-3V type repository and to the Olkiluoto site, although in some cases more generic information has been used, particularly when the relevant quantities have not been monitored in the ONKALO. The estimations are based on the new repository layout produced in 2006 and consider the latest plans for grouting and rock support. As these plans are generally not final yet, several different alternative plans are assumed when necessary. Also two different strategies for the backfilling of the tunnels are considered. The most significant differences with respect to the results of an earlier estimation are related to the materials used in grouting, shotcreting and in support bolts. In the cases where a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock is the used backfill alternative, gypsum and cement are the materials with the largest quantities remaining in the

  19. Import and export of small quantities of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1986-06-01

    Administrative procedures for import export of nuclear materials are specific for each country. In France regulations are reviewed for small quantities, lower threshold, in some cases, allows a simplified procedure, however thresholds are not the same in the different texts (and for one of them, concerning proliferation, is zero). It is obvious that regulations are necessary even for small quantities but national and international threshold should be harmonized [fr

  20. Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    by the Army Acquisition Executive contains the following language . As a recently delegated Acquisition Category IC program, the AH-64E Apache...Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis, Project Leader Margaret L. Giles David M. Tate I...F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-8490 Complexity in an Unexpected Place: Quantities in Selected Acquisition Reports Gregory A. Davis

  1. Charaterisation of function spaces via mollification; fractal quantities for distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Triebel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First we characterise elements f belonging to the Besov spaces Bpqs(ℝn with s∈ℝ,  0quantities for distributions generalising well-known corresponding quantities for Radon measures.

  2. Information quantity in a pixel of digital image

    OpenAIRE

    Kharinov, M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problem of integer-valued estimating of information quantity in a pixel of digital image. The definition of an integer estimation of information quantity based on constructing of the certain binary hierarchy of pixel clusters is proposed. The methods for constructing hierarchies of clusters and generating of hierarchical sequences of image approximations that minimally differ from the image by a standard deviation are developed. Experimental results on integer-valu...

  3. Uncertainty analysis of thermal quantities measurement in a centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurda, Lukáš; Matas, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Compressor performance characteristics evaluation process based on the measurement of pressure, temperature and other quantities is examined to find uncertainties for directly measured and derived quantities. CFD is used as a tool to quantify the influences of different sources of uncertainty of measurements for single- and multi-thermocouple total temperature probes. The heat conduction through the body of the thermocouple probe and the heat-up of the air in the intake piping are the main phenomena of interest.

  4. Testing quantity theory of money for the Turkish economy

    OpenAIRE

    Levent, Korap

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, it is tried to test the main assumptions of the Quantity Theory of Money for the Turkish economy. Using some contemporaneous estimation techniques to examine the long-run stationary economic relationships on which the quantity theory is constructed, it is found that stationary characteristics of the velocitities of narrowly and broadly defined monetary aggregates cannot be rejected. However, monetary aggregates seem to be endogenous for the long-run evoluation of prices and rea...

  5. On the correlation between the shape of eggs and their quantity in the clutches of Grass snake Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klenina Anastasia Alexandrovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive correlation between the quantity of eggs in clutch of the grass snake and their diameter as well as negative correlation between quantity of eggs and their length and between the diameter of eggs and their length was revealed. It was determined that the more the quantity of eggs in the clutch, the more they are rounded, that was explained by their deformation in accumulating in the oviduct.

  6. Dosimetric radiation protection quantities. Impact of the forthcoming ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.; Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.L.; Kim, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    The physical quantities namely fluence, kerma and absorbed dose provide the base for the operational and the protection quantities. The absorbed dose continues to be the fundamental physical quantity for the radiological protection. The most striking feature relating the quantities in the forthcoming recommendations is the updating of the radiation and tissue weighting factors based on the latest available scientific information on radiobiology and the physics of radiation exposure. This is bound to make a significant impact in arriving at the equivalent doses and effective dose. For external exposures of neutrons, the forthcoming recommendations are going to improve the relationship between the operational and protection quantities. The changes in the tissue weighting factors of some tissues/organs, the inclusion of several new tissues/organs for the consideration of tissue weighting factors and the use of the proposed Reference Male and Reference Female voxel phantoms would require new conversion coefficients and dose coefficients for external and internal exposures. The other striking feature appears to be the details of the concepts to ensure that the protections quantities are used for the appropriate and intended purposes only and the misuse is avoided. (author)

  7. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, A; Haeseler, F von

    2004-01-01

    Automatic sets D part of Z m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D part of Z m to be a Delone set in R m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples

  8. Positive Psychology: Positive Emotions and Emotional Intelegence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...

  9. ADM pseudotensors, conserved quantities and covariant conservation laws in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatibene, L.; Ferraris, M.; Francaviglia, M.; Lusanna, L.

    2012-01-01

    The ADM formalism is reviewed and techniques for decomposing generic components of metric, connection and curvature are obtained. These techniques will turn out to be enough to decompose not only Einstein equations but also covariant conservation laws. Then a number of independent sets of hypotheses that are sufficient (though not necessary) to obtain standard ADM quantities (and Hamiltonian) from covariant conservation laws are considered. This determines explicitly the range in which standard techniques are equivalent to covariant conserved quantities. The Schwarzschild metric in different coordinates is then considered, showing how the standard ADM quantities fail dramatically in non-Cartesian coordinates or even worse when asymptotically flatness is not manifest; while, in view of their covariance, covariant conservation laws give the correct result in all cases. - Highlights: ► In the paper ADM conserved quantities for GR are obtained from augmented conservation laws. ► Boundary conditions for this to be possible are considered and compared with the literature. ► Some different forms of Schwarzschild solutions are considered as simple examples of different boundary conditions.

  10. Appraisal of Information Technology Requirements in Quantity Surveying Firms in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. U. Datti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A worrisome trend in the adoption of emerging technologies for competitive advantages and improved productivities by QSs have been observed in that there is overwhelming evidence that there is an increasing usage of IT in quantity surveying firms but little or no noticeable benefits on the practice. It however becomes pertinent to ask then, that despite the increases adoption of computing and telecommunication technologies, why isn’t there any noticeable change due to the impacts of IT in the Nigerian Construction Industry with particular reference to Quantity Surveying practices. The study appraised the requirement of IT in quantity surveying practice in Nigeria. It examined the position of IT in quantity surveying firms in terms of its requirement and analyzed IT requirements-based problem constraining quantity surveying firms. The study is a survey research designed to obtain information on information technology in QS firms. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to quantity surveyors in consulting firms for responses. Responses were returned and analyzed using severity index and later ranked in order of importance. The results indicate a high level of computerization of professional services among the firms with greater number of their computers being networked. However, despite high level of networking of available computers, sharing of printers and other scarce tools/technologies are not established. Compared to developed countries such as Canada, Australia, United Kingdom and USA, the position of IT requirements in QS firms in Nigeria can be said to be at basic level with organization possessing and applying basic IT tools and technologies (e.g. scanners, digital cameras, dvd/cd-rom, general purpose software, QS application software, chat programs etc. in their daily operation and processes. While most firms are progressing toward intermediate level by possessing intermediate IT tools and technologies (e.g. teleconferencing

  11. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Rubinsten

    Full Text Available In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1 the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2 core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD. Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1 and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2. In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks, DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  12. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  13. Quantities of natural gas transported in January-December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2009: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  14. Quantities of natural gas transported in August-December 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the available monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity from August to December 2007: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  15. BIRTHDAY CAKE ACTIVITY STRUCTURED ARRANGEMENT FOR HELPING CHILDREN DETERMINING QUANTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatialthinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused onone component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and onecomponent of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. Thisstudy focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which weinvestigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability inmaking structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities bylooking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children wereable to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties eitherto determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structuresto easily recognize number of objects.Keywords: structures, structured arrangement, cardinality DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.790.53-70

  16. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  17. Multimodal semantic quantity representations: further evidence from Korean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eDomahs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their RT profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean Sign Language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese. We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity.

  18. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik [National Nuclear Management and Control Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material.

  19. Analysis on Domestic Law and Management Trend Related to Small-Quantity Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyong Woo; Shim, Hye Won; Min, Gyung Sik

    2005-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has requested Korea to establish and manage the law ruling all nuclear materials through the INFCIRC/153. Now, it has been 30 years since Korea made the agreement, INFCIRC/153, with IAEA. Korea has tried their best to accomplish the international standard in nuclear control field and it is a fact that Korea finally produced some results in the nuclear control field. Related to nuclear material control, Korea is above the common level appropriately ranked 6th in the world in terms of nuclear power. Before 2000, Korea was making the foundation secure in the nuclear control. IAEA did not urge to establish the law supervising the small-quantity nuclear material and depleted uranium (DU). In a turnaround from early IAEA moderate line to Korea, the situation was changed. Since IAEA brought up the agenda to 2000 Joint Review Meeting between Korea-IAEA, IAEA has asked Korea to establish the control system for smallquantity nuclear material and DU. In 2003, the Korean government set up a project establishing the control system about all nuclear material including small-quantity nuclear material and DU. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), delegating the business relating to international controlling materials from government, developed some modules in nuclear material control system and operated it. The system includes a controlling system for small-quantity nuclear material. NNCA on behalf of government has collected the information and Korea Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) has reported the information to the IAEA. This paper introduces you the background of controlling the small-quantity nuclear material and the system of controlling nuclear material in Korea. And it will suggest the improvement of the management method in the system for small-quantity nuclear material

  20. How tobacco companies have used package quantity for consumer targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Ryant, Chase

    2018-05-31

    Package quantity refers to the number of cigarettes or amount of other tobacco product in a package. Many countries restrict minimum cigarette package quantities to avoid low-cost packs that may lower barriers to youth smoking. We reviewed Truth Tobacco Industry Documents to understand tobacco companies' rationales for introducing new package quantities, including companies' expectations and research regarding how package quantity may influence consumer behaviour. A snowball sampling method (phase 1), a static search string (phase 2) and a follow-up snowball search (phase 3) identified 216 documents, mostly from the 1980s and 1990s, concerning cigarettes (200), roll-your-own tobacco (9), smokeless tobacco (6) and 'smokeless cigarettes' (1). Companies introduced small and large packages to motivate brand-switching and continued use among current users when faced with low market share or threats such as tax-induced price increases or competitors' use of price promotions. Companies developed and evaluated package quantities for specific brands and consumer segments. Large packages offered value-for-money and matched long-term, heavy users' consumption rates. Small packages were cheaper, matched consumption rates of newer and lighter users, and increased products' novelty, ease of carrying and perceived freshness. Some users also preferred small packages as a way to try to limit consumption or quit. Industry documents speculated about many potential effects of package quantity on appeal and use, depending on brand and consumer segment. The search was non-exhaustive, and we could not assess the quality of much of the research or other information on which the documents relied. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Foreign materials in the repository. Update of estimated quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2011-06-01

    A variety of materials are used during the construction process and the operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Finland. In addition to materials necessary for the construction and operation, some materials may be transported into the repository with the ventilation air, as emissions from vehicles etc. Both of these two types of materials are considered here and both introduced quantities and the quantities that remain after the closure in the repository are estimated here based on the most recent information. This work is intended to update the previous estimations, and it takes advantage of the experience collected during the construction of the underground rock characterisation facility called ONKALO at Olkiluoto. The implemented quantities as well as designs and preliminary designs have been used in calculating the quantities of the foreign materials. The estimations made in this report are specific to a KBS-3V type repository. In some cases more generic information has been used, particularly when the relevant quantities have not been monitored in ONKALO. The estimations are based on the new repository layout produced in 2010 and consider the latest plans for grouting and rock support. As all of these plans are not final some quantities may change in the future. As the repository layout may still go through some changes this report also provides the foreign materials for a hundred meters of different deposition tunnels designed for the OL and LO type canisters1. The results have also been calculated for a space demanded by a deposition tunnel end plug and the tunnel lengths before and after one. The most significant foreign materials are certain accessory minerals of the clay materials followed by organic materials (including the organic carbon from the clay materials), cement, steel and silica. (orig.)

  2. A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Baker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris, for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (C. latrans. Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical less/more discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family—one domesticated, and one wild—make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition.Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given 9 trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker and colleagues (2011.The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar nonverbal quantitative abilities across

  3. Quality or Quantity: A Statement for Teacher Training in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AZAR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Developed countries are initiating and implementing effective and appropriate technics in the field of teacher training. In Turkey, much research has been done in order to determine the qualification of teachers and, by this way, to train qualified teachers. Ministry of Education, Turkish Council of Higher Education, Faculties of Education and Faculties of Sciences have cooperated some certification systems, however, the research which is not supported by preliminary studies but exposured to political coercions lowered the quality of education. Besides, quantity is increased by pedagogical formation programs. In this study, Turkish teacher training system is analyzed with respect to quantity and quality.

  4. Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units, 1979 Edition contains physical quantity tabulations of products. The Commission on Symbols, Terminology, and Units is a part of the Division of Physical Chemistry of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Its general responsibilities are to secure clarity and precision, and wider agreement in the use of symbols, by chemists in different countries, among physicists, chemists, and engineers, and by editors of scientific journals. This book is composed of 13 chapters, and begins with the determination o

  5. Units for physical quantities used in dosimetry and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubert, R; Wagner, S

    1976-04-01

    The 15th General Conference on Weights and Measures (1975) decided to introduce the name Becquerel for the SI unit of the quantity activity (1 Bq = 1 s/sup -1/) and the name Gray for the SI unit of ionizing radiations (1 Gy = 1 J/kg). The consequences of this latter decision are discussed. The Bundesanstalt is of the opinion that no further names for this unit should be introduced, but that the Gray should be used also for other quantities of the same dimension, especially for the dose equivalent.

  6. Studies on quantity and composition of dairy cow excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, H.

    1982-01-01

    After feeding a lactating dairy cow a day ration completely enriched with 15 N, the quantities of feces and urine were registered over a period of ten days and put into proportion to the animal mass. The fecal dry matter was put into proportion to the dry matter of the fodder by means of 15 N analysis the N excretion with the excreta was determined concerning quantity and time. Selected feces and urine charges were used to produce a slurry model. The content of nutritive elements of the initial components and of the organic fertilizer are discussed. (author)

  7. Photosynthesis-related quantities for education and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Taras K; Kovalenko, Ilya B; Rubin, Andrew B; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2013-11-01

    A quantitative understanding of the photosynthetic machinery depends largely on quantities, such as concentrations, sizes, absorption wavelengths, redox potentials, and rate constants. The present contribution is a collection of numbers and quantities related mainly to photosynthesis in higher plants. All numbers are taken directly from a literature or database source and the corresponding reference is provided. The numerical values, presented in this paper, provide ranges of values, obtained in specific experiments for specific organisms. However, the presented numbers can be useful for understanding the principles of structure and function of photosynthetic machinery and for guidance of future research.

  8. Uncertainty evaluation in correlated quantities: application to elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Miranda, J.; Pineda, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    One of the aspects that are frequently overlooked in the evaluation of uncertainty in experimental data is the possibility that the involved quantities are correlated among them, due to different causes. An example in the elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols using techniques like X-ray Fluorescence (X RF) or Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). In these cases, the measured elemental concentrations are highly correlated, and then are used to obtain information about other variables, such as the contribution from emitting sources related to soil, sulfate, non-soil potassium or organic matter. This work describes, as an example, the method required to evaluate the uncertainty in variables determined from correlated quantities from a set of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in the Metropolitan Area of the Mexico Valley and analyzed with PIXE. The work is based on the recommendations of the Guide for the Evaluation of Uncertainty published by the International Organization for Standardization. (Author)

  9. The impact of purchase quantity on the compromise effect: The balance heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hui Cheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Most prior research on the compromise effect has focused on single rather than multiple choices. This research investigates the potential effects of purchase quantity on the compromise effect. We propose that the share of the middle option in a trinary choice set decreases as the purchase quantity increases, because people tend to employ a balance heuristic to distribute their multiple choices among the available options to achieve a balanced state and to satisfy their variety-seeking tendency. Furthermore, we propose that the need for justification and an optimal stimulation level moderate the relationship between the number of purchase items and the compromise effect. These proposed hypotheses are supported by results from three experiments.

  10. Optimal ordering quantities for substitutable deteriorating items under joint replenishment with cost of substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vinod Kumar

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we develop an inventory model, to determine the optimal ordering quantities, for a set of two substitutable deteriorating items. In this inventory model the inventory level of both items depleted due to demands and deterioration and when an item is out of stock, its demands are partially fulfilled by the other item and all unsatisfied demand is lost. Each substituted item incurs a cost of substitution and the demands and deterioration is considered to be deterministic and constant. Items are order jointly in each ordering cycle, to take the advantages of joint replenishment. The problem is formulated and a solution procedure is developed to determine the optimal ordering quantities that minimize the total inventory cost. We provide an extensive numerical and sensitivity analysis to illustrate the effect of different parameter on the model. The key observation on the basis of numerical analysis, there is substantial improvement in the optimal total cost of the inventory model with substitution over without substitution.

  11. Loneliness in Early Adolescence: Friendship Quantity, Friendship Quality, and Dyadic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Gerine M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2017-01-01

    Friendship quantity and quality are related to adolescent loneliness, but the exact link between these constructs is not well understood. The present study aimed to examine whether adolescents' perception of friendship quantity and quality, and the perceptions of their peers, were related to loneliness. We examined the relation between loneliness and the number of unilateral and reciprocal friendships and compared the views of best friendship quality. Overall, 1,172 Dutch adolescents (49.1% male, M age = 12.81, SD = .43) nominated their friends and rated their friendship quality. Friendship quantity was measured using sociometrics to distinguish reciprocated and unilateral (i.e., one-sided) friendships. The analyses indicated that loneliness was related to fewer reciprocal and unilateral-received friendships (i.e., the adolescent received a friendship nomination but did not reciprocate that nomination) and a lower quality of best friendship. Actor-partner interdependence analyses revealed that adolescents' loneliness was related to a less positive evaluation of their friendship, as reported by adolescents themselves (i.e., a significant actor effect) but not by their friends (i.e., nonsignificant partner effect). These findings (a) indicate that loneliness is negatively related to the number of friends adolescents have, as perceived by themselves and their peers and (b) suggest that, once a friendship is established, lonely adolescents may interpret the friendship quality less positively compared to their friends. Implications of these findings for our current understanding of adolescent loneliness are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  12. Quantities of natural gas transmitted in January-December 2012. Quantities of natural gas transported in January-December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents the monthly key figures of GRTgaz activity in 2012: Total quantities transmitted by GRTgaz (Inputs to the GRTgaz network/Outputs from the GRTgaz network); Maximum and minimum daily flow (Daily quantities transported, Daily consumption, Daily inputs excluding storage); Quantities exchanged on the wholesale market; Consumption on the GRTgaz Network (gross monthly consumption and Average monthly temperatures)

  13. Teacher quality and quantity as correlates of secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the twin variables of quality and quantity of teachers as correlates of secondary school academic performance in Ogun State of Nigeria between 1997/98 and 2000/2001 academic sessions. The study was conducted ex-post facto under a descriptive survey research design using the proportional to ...

  14. 16 CFR 1.23 - Quantity limit rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quantity limit rules. 1.23 Section 1.23 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL... Robinson-Patman Act. These rules have the force and effect of law. [32 FR 8444, June 13, 1967. Redesignated...

  15. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  16. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409... comparing export price or constructed export price with normal value, the Secretary will make a reasonable... section 773(a)(6)(C)(i) of the Act.) (b) Sales with quantity discounts in calculating normal value. The...

  17. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  18. Thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study some thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a linear plus inverselinear, scalar potential. We obtain the energy eigenvalues with the help of the quantization rule from the biconfluent Heun's equation.We use a method based on the Euler–MacLaurin formula to analytically compute thethermal ...

  19. Thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-01

    Feb 1, 2017 ... Abstract. We study some thermodynamic quantities for the Klein–Gordon equation with a linear plus inverse- linear, scalar potential. We obtain the energy eigenvalues with the help of the quantization rule from the biconfluent Heun's equation. We use a method based on the Euler–MacLaurin formula to ...

  20. Conserved quantities for stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.P.; Witten, L.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that every stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-time has eight divergence-free vector fields and these are isolated in general form. The vector fields and associated conserved quantities are calculated for several families of space-times. (Auth.)

  1. Photographs in Dutch History Textbooks: Quantity, type and educational use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kleppe (Martijn)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article demonstrates a media scientific approach by studying the use of photographs in Dutch History textbooks for High School pupils in the period 1970 – 2000. The quantity of photos has been determined as well as the types of pictures and its use as educational tool. Results show

  2. A colorimeter for measurement of picomole quantities of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurek, G G; Knepper, M A

    1982-04-01

    We described a new colorimeter for the measurement of picomole quantities of urea in nanoliter volume fluid samples. The diacetyl monoxime reaction was used to produce a colored product from urea. The method is capable of resolving differences of 10 pmoles between samples containing 0 to 225 pmoles.

  3. Estimating waste disposal quantities from raw waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Urland, C.S.; Hitz, C.G.; GPU Nuclear Corp., Middletown, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Estimating the disposal quantity of waste resulting from stabilization of radioactive sludge is complex because of the many factors relating to sample analysis results, radioactive decay, allowable disposal concentrations, and options for disposal containers. To facilitate this estimation, a microcomputer spread sheet template was created. The spread sheet has saved considerable engineering hours. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  4. Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

  5. Whither the Nigerian Quantity Surveyors in the Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paucity of information on the computing status of the quantity surveyors in Nigeria have been scanty and without empirical substantiation. The basic platform for entry to the information technology gateway is the acquisition, adoption and utilization of the computer. Baseline information is therefore indispensable for the ...

  6. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...

  7. Hazardous Waste Management for the Small Quantity Generator. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructional package for teaching about the regulations imposed on small quantity generators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act is organized around ll program objectives: students will be able to (l) determine a hazardous waste from lists or by identifying characteristics; (2) identify…

  8. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  9. 7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the preservation or safety of the loan collateral. Loans may be made on a lower percentage basis... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quantity for loan. 1427.170 Section 1427.170... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.170...

  10. Quantity and quality of written feedback, action plans, and student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) assessment forms that have been modified with the addition of specific spaces on separate sheets are expected to improve the quantity and quality of written feedback and the action plan for further learning which is agreed upon, and to encourage written reflection.

  11. Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    The following modifying factors are briefly considered in relation to the ambiguities and limitations of the Dose Equivalent Index: 1) Variations with time or of the movement of the exposed person 2) Irradiation geometry 3) Effect of radiation energy 4) Instrument performance and calibration, and other operational quantities. (U.K.)

  12. Threshold quantities for infectious diseases in periodic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Roberts, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    In this short note we give threshold quantities that determine the stability of the infection-free steady state for periodic deterministic systems that describe the spread of infectious diseases in populations whose individuals can be divided into a finite number of distinct groups. We concentrate

  13. The influence of prostate-specific antigen density on positive and negative predictive values of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging to detect Gleason score 7-10 prostate cancer in a repeat biopsy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nienke L; Barrett, Tristan; Koo, Brendan; Doble, Andrew; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Warren, Anne; Kastner, Christof; Bratt, Ola

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) on positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to detect Gleason score ≥7 cancer in a repeat biopsy setting. Retrospective study of 514 men with previous prostate biopsy showing no or Gleason score 6 cancer. All had mpMRI, graded 1-5 on a Likert scale for cancer suspicion, and subsequent targeted and 24-core systematic image-fusion guided transperineal biopsy in 2013-2015. The NPVs and PPVs of mpMRIs for detecting Gleason score ≥7 cancer were calculated (±95% confidence intervals) for PSAD ≤0.1, 0.1-0.2, ≤0.2 and >0.2 ng/mL/mL, and compared by chi-square test for linear trend. Gleason score ≥7 cancer was detected in 31% of the men. The NPV of Likert 1-2 mpMRI was 0.91 (±0.04) with a PSAD of ≤0.2 ng/mL/mL and 0.71 (±0.16) with a PSAD of >0.2 ng/mL/mL (P = 0.003). For Likert 3 mpMRI, PPV was 0.09 (±0.06) with a PSAD of ≤0.2 ng/mL/mL and 0.44 (±0.19) with a PSAD of >0.2 ng/mL/mL (P = 0.002). PSAD also significantly affected the PPV of Likert 4-5 mpMRI lesions: the PPV was 0.47 (±0.08) with a PSAD of ≤0.2 ng/mL/mL and 0.66 (±0.10) with a PSAD of >0.2 ng/mL/mL (P prostate cancer, not only in men with negative mpMRI, but also in men with equivocal imaging. Surveillance, rather than repeat biopsy, may be appropriate for these men. Conversely, biopsies are indicated in men with a high PSAD, even if an mpMRI shows no suspicious lesion, and in men with an mpMRI suspicious for cancer, even if the PSAD is low. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  15. The Impact of Product Assortment Size and Attribute Quantity on Information Searches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörnyei, Krisztina Rita; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper investigates the impact of assortment size and attribute quantity on the depth and content of consumer information searches. Design/methodology/approach: For a computer-aided experiment using an information display board, participants (n=393) were placed in a simulated shopping...... situation that involved choosing a product among three sets of frequently purchased, low-involvement, FMCG alternatives. Findings: The findings show that when the assortment size increases, consumers acquire information from more products and cues but sacrifice product attributes. In particular...

  16. Navy Supply: Economic Order Quantity and Item Essentiality Need More Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-06

    Risk and Essentiality Need To compute safety levels, the Navy uses a set of mathematical formulas to Be Recognized that considers such factors as demand...OderQtia~tit ma Safty Lvel -" " Chapter 2 EOQ Principle Not Followed To reduce the purchase workload, the Navy adopted a policy in fiscal year 1985 that...than a minimum of 1 year’s supply. Navy Policy Overrides The EoQ principle is a mathematical technique for determining the pur- chase quantity that will

  17. Estimating kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted MRI of a diffusable tracer: standardized quantities and symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofts, P.S.; Brix, G; Buckley, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a standard set of quantity names and symbols related to the estimation of kinetic parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data, using diffusable agents such as gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). These include a) the volume transfer constant K......-limited conditions K(trans) equals the blood plasma flow per unit volume of tissue; under permeability-limited conditions K(trans) equals the permeability surface area product per unit volume of tissue. We relate these quantities to previously published work from our groups; our future publications will refer...

  18. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  19. Does quantity generate quality? Testing the fundamental principle of brainstorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Adánez, Alfredo

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to test the chief principle of brainstorming, formulated as "quantity generates quality." The study is included within a broad program whose goal is to detect the strong and weak points of creative techniques. In a sample of 69 groups, containing between 3 and 8 members, the concurrence of two commonly accepted criteria was established as a quality rule: originality and utility or value. The results fully support the quantity-quality relation (r = .893): the more ideas produced to solve a problem, the better quality of the ideas. The importance of this finding, which supports Osborn's theory, is discussed, and the use of brainstorming is recommended to solve the many open problems faced by our society.

  20. On the operational quantity Hp(3) for eye lens dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R

    2012-01-01

    In the past the operational quantity H p (3) has been defined for calibration purposes in a slab phantom. Recently, an additional phantom in the form of a cylinder was suggested for eye lens dosimetry as a cylinder much better approximates the shape of a head than a slab. Therefore, this work investigates whether the quantity H p (3), when defined in the respective calibration phantom, adequately estimates the eye lens dose (or is at least conservative) depending on the phantom: it turns out that in most cases both calibration phantoms are similarly well suited. Finally, the definition of the eye lens dose is discussed together with possible consequences on the definition of H p (3): the consideration of only the radiation sensitive volume of the lens causes H p (3) not to be conservative in beta radiation fields. (paper)

  1. Dimensions of Organisational Culture in Quantity Surveying Firms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle Olubunmi Olanipekun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The functionalist paradigm of organisational culture (OC views culture as a variable subject to conscious manipulation and control in order to solve organisational challenges. Therefore, this paper provides information on how OC is a solution to the challenges in Quantity Surveying firms (QSFs.  This was achieved by eliciting the dimensions of OC in forty two QSFs in Lagos, Nigeria, which are the business, people and external environment dimensions. The paper concludes that OC is a relevant solution to the identity and management related challenges in QSFs. Specifically, the paper informs on the implications of business and people dimensions of OC as a solution to the identity challenges, as well as on the implication of the external environment dimension of OC to the management challenges. Based on the findings, practical implications and recommendations were directed at the management and employees QSs in QSFs and Quantity Surveying researchers.

  2. Conserved quantities for generalized KdV equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calogero, F.; Rome Univ.; Degasperis, A.; Rome Univ.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that the nonlinear evolution equation usub(t) = α(t)usub(xxx) - 6ν(t) usub(x)u, u is identical to u(x,t), possesses three (and, in some cases, four) conserved quantities, that are explicitly displayed. These results are of course relevant only to the cases in which this evolution equation is not known to possess an infinite number of conserved quantities. Purpose and scope of this paper is to report three or four simple conservation laws possessed by the evolution equation usub(t) = α(t)usub(xxx) - 6ν(t)usub(x)u, u is identical to u(x,t). (author)

  3. Feedback using an ePortfolio for medicine long cases: quality not quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleasel, Jane; Burgess, Annette; Weeks, Ruth; Haq, Inam

    2016-10-21

    The evidence for the positive impact of an electronic Portfolio (ePortfolio) on feedback in medicine is mixed. An ePortfolio for medical long cases in a Graduate Medical Program was developed. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of medical students and faculty of the impact of the ePortfolio on the feedback process. In total, 130 Year 3 medical students, and six faculty participated in the study. This is a mixed methods study, using a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods were used to quantify the number of long cases performed. Qualitative methods were used to explore the relationship between quantity and quality of feedback, and provide a rich understanding of both students' and faculty's experience and perceptions of the ePortfolio. Students received a variable quantity of feedback at each of the three studied clinical schools, with an average of between 4 - 5.4 feedback episodes per student. Feedback that was constructive, specific and timely and delivered by a senior academic was important. Quantity was not an essential factor, with two episodes of detailed feedback reported to be adequate. The barriers to the use of the ePortfolio were technical aspects of the platform that interfered with student engagement. Feedback using the ePortfolio for medical long cases is a valuable tool providing a senior clinician delivers detailed, constructive and personalized feedback in a timely fashion. The ePortfolio system needs to be user-friendly to engage students.

  4. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  5. Correlates of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is the sense of well- being, good feeling and positive mental state that emerge in an incumbent worker when his obtained reward consequent upon his performance is congruent with his equitable reward.The aim of this study is to ascertain the levels of job satisfaction amongst quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Biographical and job descriptive index questionnaires (JDI were administered to gather the data. The JDI measures job satisfaction on five facets, namely, pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers and the work itself. A total of 100 questionnaires were collected and used for the study. The survey covered quantity surveyors in consulting firms in Lagos and the respondents were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, t-test and one way anova. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents were satisfied with the relationship with co-workers, nature of work and the supervision they receive. Major sources of dissatisfaction are promotion and salaries of the respondents. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving major sources of dissatisfaction among quantity surveyors in consulting firms. The roles of other contextual factors on job satisfaction need to be contemplated for future research.

  6. Sperm competition selects for sperm quantity and quality in the Australian Maluridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Melissah; Pruett-Jones, Stephen

    2011-01-25

    When ejaculates from rival males compete for fertilization, there is strong selection for sperm traits that enhance fertilization success. Sperm quantity is one such trait, and numerous studies have demonstrated a positive association between sperm competition and both testes size and the number of sperm available for copulations. Sperm competition is also thought to favor increases in sperm quality and changes in testicular morphology that lead to increased sperm production. However, in contrast to sperm quantity, these hypotheses have received considerably less empirical support and remain somewhat controversial. In a comparative study using the Australian Maluridae (fairy-wrens, emu-wrens, grasswrens), we tested whether increasing levels of sperm competition were associated with increases in both sperm quantity and quality, as well as an increase in the relative amount of seminiferous tubule tissue contained within the testes. After controlling for phylogeny, we found positive associations between sperm competition and sperm numbers, both in sperm reserves and in ejaculate samples. Additionally, as sperm competition level increased, the proportion of testicular spermatogenic tissue also increased, suggesting that sperm competition selects for greater sperm production per unit of testicular tissue. Finally, we also found that sperm competition level was positively associated with multiple sperm quality traits, including the proportion of motile sperm in ejaculates and the proportion of both viable and morphologically normal sperm in sperm reserves. These results suggest multiple ejaculate traits, as well as aspects of testicular morphology, have evolved in response to sperm competition in the Australian Maluridae. Furthermore, our findings emphasize the importance of post-copulatory sexual selection as an evolutionary force shaping macroevolutionary differences in sperm phenotype.

  7. Securing water quality and quantity: Research and development perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available : ? economic growth & development ? human & environmental needs ? meeting international obligations ? energy needs (strategic water users) ? ensuring availability and allocation (all other users) ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 Background ? SA 30th driest country... and quantity: Research and development perspective 4th Biennial Conference Harrison Pienaar 10 October 2012 Presentation outline ? Introduction and background to water in South Africa ? Transboundary water resource aspects ? Water related challenges...

  8. Surface tension and related thermodynamic quantities of aqueous electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Matubayasi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Surface tension provides a thermodynamic avenue for analyzing systems in equilibrium and formulating phenomenological explanations for the behavior of constituent molecules in the surface region. While there are extensive experimental observations and established ideas regarding desorption of ions from the surfaces of aqueous salt solutions, a more successful discussion of the theory has recently emerged, which allows the quantitative calculation of the distribution of ions in the surface region. Surface Tension and Related Thermodynamic Quantities of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions provides a d

  9. Synthesis of bulk quantity BN nanotubes with uniform morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, G.; Zhang, T.; Huang, X.X.; Zhong, B.; Zhang, X.D.; Yu, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bulk quantity hexagonal BN nanotubes (h-BNNTs) with uniform morphology were synthesized via an improved ball-milling and annealing method. The sample was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM. The results show that the fabricated BNNTs have a uniform diameter ranging from 80 to 100 nm and a length of about 50-60 μm.

  10. Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R; Dietze, G

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H p (0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H p (3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H p (0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

  11. Mass spectrometry of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Noemia M.P. de; Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope analyses of submicrogram quantities of lead and cadmium are carried out by single filament solid source mass spectrometry. Thermionic emission of Pb and Cd is enhanced using silica gel as an emitter. Details of the chemical and mass spectrometric techniques are described. The low blank levels are maintained by extra purification of the reagents. The applications of isotope ratios of Pb and Cd in environmental sciences and geochemistry are discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Effects of nonindigenous invasive species on water quality and quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. McCormick; Glen C. Contreras; Sherri L. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Physical and biological disruptions of aquatic systems caused by invasive species alter water quantity and water quality. Recent evidence suggests that water is a vector for the spread of Sudden Oak Death disease and Port-Orfordcedar root disease. Since the 1990s, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of invasive species in the Nation’s waters. Media...

  13. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  14. Multidemand Multisource Order Quantity Allocation with Multiple Transportation Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a multidemand multisource order quantity allocation problem with multiple transportation alternatives. To solve this problem, a bilevel multiobjective programming model under a mixed uncertain environment is proposed. Two levels of decision makers are considered in the model. On the upper level, the purchaser aims to allocate order quantity to multiple suppliers for each demand node with the consideration of three objectives: total purchase cost minimization, total delay risk minimization, and total defect risk minimization. On the lower level, each supplier attempts to optimize the transportation alternatives with total transportation and penalty costs minimization as the objective. In contrast to prior studies, considering the information asymmetry in the bilevel decision, random and fuzzy random variables are used to model uncertain parameters of the construction company and the suppliers. To solve the bilevel model, a solution method based on Kuhn-Tucker conditions, sectional genetic algorithm, and fuzzy random simulation is proposed. Finally, the applicability of the proposed model and algorithm is evaluated through a practical case from a large scale construction project. The results show that the proposed model and algorithm are efficient in dealing with practical order quantity allocation problems.

  15. Questioning the quantity equation using an agent-based computational model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Charlotte

    2000-01-01

    by Stutzel (1954), argues that the functional relationship may as well be negative. Even focusing the money needed to carry out transactions, there is no immediate answer to the question of the functional relationship between trade turnover and money demand. An agent-based computational model is used......In the literature we find two opposing hypotheses relating the volume of money to the volume of transactions or national income. The classic hypothesis, implicitly entailed in the quantity equation, argues that this relation must be positive, while an opposing hypothesis, most strongly presented...

  16. Quantity and quality of interaction between staff and older patients in UK hospital wards: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Hannah Ruth; Griffiths, Peter; Mesa-Eguiagaray, Ines; Pickering, Ruth; Gould, Lisa; Bridges, Jackie

    2016-10-01

    The quality of staff-patient interactions underpins the overall quality of patient experience and can affect other important outcomes. However no studies have been identified that comprehensively explore both the quality and quantity of interactions in general hospital settings. To quantify and characterise the quality of staff-patient interactions and to identify factors associated with negative interaction ratings. Data were gathered at two acute English NHS hospitals between March and April 2015. Six wards for adult patients participated including medicine for older people (n=4), urology (n=1) and orthopaedics (n=1). Eligible patients on participating wards were randomly selected for observation. Staff-patient interactions were observed using the Quality of Interactions Schedule. 120h of care were observed with each 2h observation session determined from a balanced random schedule (Monday-Friday, 08:00-22:00h). Multilevel logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with negative interactions. 1554 interactions involving 133 patients were observed. The median length of interaction was 36s with a mean of 6 interactions per patient per hour. Seventy three percent of interactions were categorized as positive, 17% neutral and 10% negative. Forty percent of patients had at least one negative interaction (95% confidence interval 32% to 49%). Interactions initiated by the patient (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR] 5.30), one way communication (adjusted OR 10.70), involving two or more staff (adjusted OR 5.86 for 2 staff, 6.46 for 3+ staff), having a higher total number of interactions (adjusted OR 1.09 per unit increase), and specific types of interaction content were associated with increased odds of negative interaction (pinteraction was associated with increased odds of negative interaction in a reduced model. There was no significant association with gender, age or cognitive impairment. There was substantially more variation at ward level (variance

  17. Amount of Televised Alcohol Advertising Exposure and the Quantity of Alcohol Consumed by Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S; Ross, Craig S; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H

    2016-09-01

    Although studies demonstrate that exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising is associated with an increased likelihood of youth consuming particular brands, the relationship between quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure and quantity of brand-specific consumption has not been firmly established. Using the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) national sample of 1,031 young drinkers (ages 13-20), this study examined the relationship between their aggregated past-year exposure to advertising (in adstock units, a measure based on gross rating points) for 61 alcohol brands that advertised on the 20 most popular nonsports television programs viewed by underage youth and their aggregated total consumption of those same brands during the past 30 days. Predictive models adjusted for other media exposure, predictors of youth's alcohol consumption, and the consumption of brands not advertised on the 20 shows. For the fully adjusted models, each 100 adstock unit increase in exposure (about 1 SD) was associated with an increase of 5.9 drinks (95% CI [0.9, 11.0 drinks]) consumed during the past 30 days among those with less than 300 units of advertising exposure, and an increase of 55.7 drinks (95% CI [13.9, 97.4 drinks]) among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure. Among underage youth, the quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure is positively associated with the total quantity of consumption of those advertised brands, even after controlling for the consumption of non-advertised brands. Future research should examine exposure-consumption relationships longitudinally and in other media.

  18. Amount of Televised Alcohol Advertising Exposure and the Quantity of Alcohol Consumed by Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Timothy S.; Ross, Craig S.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although studies demonstrate that exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising is associated with an increased likelihood of youth consuming particular brands, the relationship between quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure and quantity of brand-specific consumption has not been firmly established. Method: Using the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) national sample of 1,031 young drinkers (ages 13–20), this study examined the relationship between their aggregated past-year exposure to advertising (in adstock units, a measure based on gross rating points) for 61 alcohol brands that advertised on the 20 most popular nonsports television programs viewed by underage youth and their aggregated total consumption of those same brands during the past 30 days. Predictive models adjusted for other media exposure, predictors of youth’s alcohol consumption, and the consumption of brands not advertised on the 20 shows. Results: For the fully adjusted models, each 100 adstock unit increase in exposure (about 1 SD) was associated with an increase of 5.9 drinks (95% CI [0.9, 11.0 drinks]) consumed during the past 30 days among those with less than 300 units of advertising exposure, and an increase of 55.7 drinks (95% CI [13.9, 97.4 drinks]) among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure. Conclusions: Among underage youth, the quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure is positively associated with the total quantity of consumption of those advertised brands, even after controlling for the consumption of non-advertised brands. Future research should examine exposure–consumption relationships longitudinally and in other media. PMID:27588530

  19. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  20. Entropy and Its Correlations with Other Related Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to find more correlations between entropy and other related quantities, an analogical analysis is conducted between thermal science and other branches of physics. Potential energy in various forms is the product of a conserved extensive quantity (for example, mass or electric charge and an intensive quantity which is its potential (for example, gravitational potential or electrical voltage, while energy in specific form is a dissipative quantity during irreversible transfer process (for example mechanical or electrical energy will be dissipated as thermal energy. However, it has been shown that heat or thermal energy, like mass or electric charge, is conserved during heat transfer processes. When a heat transfer process is for object heating or cooling, the potential of internal energy U is the temperature T and its potential “energy” is UT/2 (called entransy and it is the simplified expression of thermomass potential energy; when a heat transfer process is for heat-work conversion, the potential of internal energy U is (1 − T0/T, and the available potential energy of a system in reversible heat interaction with the environment is U − U0 − T0(S − S0, then T0/T and T0(S − S0 are the unavailable potential and the unavailable potential energy of a system respectively. Hence, entropy is related to the unavailable potential energy per unit environmental temperature for heat-work conversion during reversible heat interaction between the system and its environment. Entropy transfer, like other forms of potential energy transfer, is the product of the heat and its potential, the reciprocal of temperature, although it is in form of the quotient of the heat and the temperature. Thus, the physical essence of entropy transfer is the unavailable potential energy transfer per unit environmental temperature. Entropy is a non-conserved, extensive, state quantity of a system, and entropy generation in an irreversible heat transfer process

  1. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  2. Remarks and suggestions concerned with formulation of the definition of quantity ''committed dose'' and quantity ''radiation burden'' useful in estimates of population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cwik, T.

    1990-01-01

    The paper contains remarks to the definitions of the quantity ''commited dose'' given in the publications of the ICRP. The suggestions are presented on the mode of formulating the definition of the quantity ''commited dose'' and the definition of the quantity denoted hitherto by the symbol H 50 . The other suggestions deal with introduction of the quantity ''radiation burden'', assigned for use in assessments of irradiation expressed ''per caput'' of population. 9 refs. (author)

  3. Pretty Easy Pervasive Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing availability of positioning based on GPS, Wi-Fi, and cellular technologies and the proliferation of mobile devices with GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity, ubiquitous positioning is becoming a reality. While offerings by companies such as Google, Skyhook, and Spotigo render...... positioning possible in outdoor settings, including urban environments with limited GPS coverage, they remain unable to offer accurate indoor positioning. We will demonstrate a software infrastructure that makes it easy for anybody to build support for accurate Wi-Fi based positioning in buildings. All...... that is needed is a building with Wi-Fi coverage, access to the building, a floor plan of the building, and a Wi-Fi enabled device. Specifically, we will explain the software infrastructure and the steps that must be completed to obtain support for positioning. And we will demonstrate the positioning obtained...

  4. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  5. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002). IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  6. Solvation quantities from a COSMO-RS equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotou, C.; Tsivintzelis, I.; Aslanidou, D.; Hatzimanikatis, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Extension of the successful COSMO-RS model to an equation-of-state model. • Two scaling constants, obtained from atom-specific contributions. • Overall estimation of the solvation quantities and contributions. - Abstract: This work focuses on the extension of the successful COSMO-RS model of mixtures into an equation-of-state model of fluids and its application for the estimation of solvation/hydration quantities of a variety of chemical substances. These quantities include free-energies, enthalpies and entropies of hydration as well as the separate contributions to each of them. Emphasis is given on the estimation of contributions from the conformational changes of solutes upon solvation and the associated restructuring of solvent in its immediate neighborhood. COSMO-RS is a quantum-mechanics based group/segment contribution model in which the Quasi-Chemical (QC) approach is used for the description of the non-random distribution of interacting segments in the system. Thus, the equation-of-state development is done through such a QC framework. The new model will not need any adjustable parameters for the strong specific interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, since they will be provided by the quantum-mechanics based cosmo-files – a key feature of COSMO-RS model. It will need, however, one volumetric and one energy parameter per fluid, which are scaling constants or molecular descriptors of the fluid and are obtained from rather easily available data such as densities, boiling points, vapor pressures, heats of vaporization or second virial coefficients. The performance and the potential of the new equation-of-state model to become a fully predictive model are critically discussed

  7. Comparison of simulated and measured quantities of a duplex reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, M.; Kajava, M. [ABB Marine, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of an analog simulator as a design tool when designing new power electric equipment. The purpose of simulation is to predict the functionality of electrical equipment to be constructed. Duplex reactor is an electromagnetic device designed to reduce voltage harmonics and short circuit currents in the ship electrical network. In this report a comparison between simulated and measured electrical quantities of a duplex reactor has been made. The purpose of the measurements was to show the correct functioning of the reactor. The simulation results and the measured waveforms corresponds well to each other. (orig.) 4 refs.

  8. Sustainable economic production quantity models for inventory systems with shortage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Soleymanfar, Vahid Reza; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    optimal values of inventory system variables, we solve four independent profit maximization problems for four different situations. These proposed models include a basic model in which shortages are not allowed, and when shortages are allowed, the lost sale, full backordering and partial backordering...... (EPQ). The theoretical sustainable EOQ and EPQ models are basic models that ignore many real-life conditions such as the possibility of stock-out in inventory systems. In this paper, we develop four new sustainable economic production quantity models that consider different shortage situations. To find...

  9. Net present value analysis of the economic production quantity

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Stephen Michael; Warburton, R. D. H.; Zhong, Q. C.

    2013-01-01

    Using Laplace transforms we extend the economic production quantity (EPQ) model by analysing cash flows from a net present value (NPV) viewpoint. We obtain an exact expression for the present value of the cash flows in the EPQ problem. From this, we are able to derive the optimal batch size. We obtain insights into the monotonicity and convexity of the present value of each of the cash flows, and show that there is a unique minimum in the present value of the sum of the cash flows in the exte...

  10. Ultracold atoms for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Cooling and trapping of neutral atoms has been one of the most active fields of research in physics in recent years. Several methods were demonstrated to reach temperatures as low as a few nanokelvin allowing, for example, the investigation of quantum degenerate gases. The ability to control the quantum degrees of freedom of atoms opens the way to applications for precision measurement of fundamental physical quantities. Experiments in progress, planned or being considered using new quantum devices based on ultracold atoms, namely atom interferometers and atomic clocks, will be discussed.

  11. Physical quantities related to measurement campaigns for cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegel, W.

    1975-12-01

    The nomenclature in reports on the measurement campaigns for cooling towers will be adapted as far as possible to the already existing VDI report on this subject. On the other hand, the appropriate standards will also be accounted for. In order to facilitate a decision in individual cases in a first table the meteorologically or generally interesting quantities of the VDI reports are compared with the German, international, and WMO standards and - if necessary - also commented. A second table contains the air humidity parameters standardized by WMO including brief definitions. (orig/HP) [de

  12. MICROMICETES QUANTITY AND BIOMASS IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in edaphotopes around of freight checkpoint of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod», ore-enrichment factory and fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam of PJSC «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» there is an increase of heavy metals mobile forms (which are the most dangerous for microorganisms, plants, animals and human: for iron in 310; for zinc - in 4,3-6,5; for lead - in 3.2-5.7; for cadmium - in 5,6-9,8; for copper – 6,8-66,5 and for nickel - in 9 times as compared to zonal soil. Whereas in soils of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» sanitary protection zone number of copper, nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc mobile forms exceeded the control values in 2,4-6,6 times. For the first time the features of soil microscopic fungi seasonal dynamics of quantity in industrial disturbed soils of Kryvorizhzhya compared to zonal soil (chernozem usual were registered. Changes in fungal mycelium length and biomass, its spore’s amount and biomass in edaphotopes of ore-enrichment and chemical enterprises and of common chernozem are also presented. It is shown that in edaphotopes of heavy contamination areas of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» and of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» in spring, summer, and autumn there was decrease of microscopic fungi quantity in 4-10 times, moreover in tehnozems of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam their amount reduces in more than 100 times, compared with common chernozem. In low contamination area of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» their quantity decreases in 2 times. Also in heavy contamination areas of chemical and ore-enrichment enterprises there is strong decrease in the length of fungal mycelium in 2.7-4.2 times, its biomass in 2,6-4,5 times, the spores amount - in 4,5-7,7 times and their biomass - in 10,5-21 times compared to the natural soil, which could be explained by high contents of toxicants. While in the sanitary protection zone of the

  13. Documentation and analysis for packaging limited quantity ice chests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Documentation and Analysis for Packaging (DAP) is to document that ice chests meet the intent of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Code of Federal Regulations as strong, tight containers for the packaging of limited quantities for transport. This DAP also outlines the packaging method used to protect the sample bottles from breakage. Because the ice chests meet the DOT requirements, they can be used to ship LTD QTY on the Hanford Site

  14. Investigation on Capability of Reaming Process using Minimal Quantity Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Tosello, Guido; Piska, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    An investigation on reaming using minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) was carried out with the scope of documenting process capability using a metrological approach. Reaming tests were carried out on austenitic stainless steel, using HSS reamers with different cutting data and lubrication conditions...... depth of cut was employed. The suitability of MQL for reaming was proven under the investigated process conditions, concerning both the quality of the machined holes, in terms of geometrical characteristics and surface finishing, and the process quality, with respect to reaming torque and thrust, along...

  15. Fuzzy-set based contingency ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.Y.; Kuo, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach based on fuzzy set theory is developed for contingency ranking of Taiwan power system. To examine whether a power system can remain in a secure and reliable operating state under contingency conditions, those contingency cases that will result in loss-of-load, loss-of generation, or islanding are first identified. Then 1P-1Q iteration of fast decoupled load flow is preformed to estimate post-contingent quantities (line flows, bus voltages) for other contingency cases. Based on system operators' past experience, each post-contingent quantity is assigned a degree of severity according to the potential damage that could be imposed on the power system by the quantity, should the contingency occurs. An approach based on fuzzy set theory is developed to deal with the imprecision of linguistic terms

  16. A statistical law in the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests that a universal psychophysical law influences the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic. This law states that there will be a tendency to overestimate low probabilities or small quantities, while high probabilities or large quantities may be underestimated....... Studies of the perception of risk and physical quantities in traffic have found a highly consistent pattern....

  17. Discussion on concepts for radiological dosimetric quantities in the Japan Health Physics Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Oda, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    Many dosimetric quantities have been used for radiation protection purpose. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended protection quantities and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) has introduced operational quantities to provide a reasonable estimate of the protection quantities. Enthusiastic discussions are continuously made on the issues of the dosimetric quantities, such as basic biological data for the definition of these quantities and applicability of the quantities to actual radiation protection practice. At the moment, some changes are being proposed concerning dosimetric quantities in the draft recommendations of ICRP, opened for consultation in recent years. Thus, the Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) established the Expert Committee on concepts of Dosimetric Quantities used in radiological protection (ECDQ) in April 2005 to reviewed and discuss issues in the dosimetric quantities. (author)

  18. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostipo por Imagem; Silva, Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods: the study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results: No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (C{sub W}), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (C{sub VOL}), air kerma-length product (P{sub KL,CT}) and effective dose. Conclusion: Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, P{sub KL,CT} and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. (author)

  19. Peer Assessment for Construction Management and Quantity Surveying Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McLaughlin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Students undertaking the Bachelor of ConstructionManagement degree course at RMIT University, Melbourne,qualify for registration with the Australian Institute ofQuantity Surveyors (AIQS and the Australian Institute ofBuilding (AIB upon graduation. Over the past decade thedegree course has been constantly upgraded and altered inline with recommendations from professional bodies such asthese and other industry partners. In 1994 the Departmentof Building and Construction Economics re-assesseda range of subjects including the first year technologysubjects. Out of the review a problem-based integratedlearning unit was developed and tested. This unit has nowbeen in place for ten years.Quantity surveying and construction management likemost other professions in the construction industryrequire teamwork and advanced consultation skills. Theseskills may be learnt through experience but there isconsiderable evidence that these skills can be taught in theundergraduate years. Therefore in line with team-basedapproaches used in industry and professional constructionsettings, this year a new assessment model - peerassessment - will be applied to the problem-based learningunit. This paper describes the procedures and processesused to introduce the change and examines the theoreticalbase upon which the model was developed.

  20. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  1. Determinants of procurement strategy for construction works: quantity surveyors’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju AbdulLateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the ‘appropriate’ procurement strategy is a prerequisite to the success or failure of a construction project. This paper investigates the factors determining the selection of appropriate procurement strategy for construction works in Nigeria. Data for the study was collected through an online survey questionnaire. The survey administration involves only quantity surveyors. Quantity surveyors were targeted because they advise clients and other stakeholders on procurement and contractual issues on construction works. A total of 33 usable responses were received and analysed for this study. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that the selection of procurement strategies for construction depend on complex interrelated factors. The study could not detect a particular factor or few factors responsible for a procurement strategy selection. The findings of this study is useful because it argues that the construction sector needs to broaden its considerations on the procurement strategy’s determinants rather than focusing solely on the client’s type and nature of projects as is often cited. Future research could segment these factors in terms of class of construction works or increase the sample size, which might lead to different findings.

  2. Estimation of Waste Quantities Using DeCAT-Pro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Taesik; Jung, Hyejin; Oh, Jaeyoung; Kim, Younggook [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The D and D (Dismantling and Decontamination) is scheduled to get started in June 2022 elapsing five years of cooling spent fuels down. The final site status is postulated as Brown Field and tentative DCGL of less than 0.1 mSv per year to evaluate waste quantities in a conservative manner. The decommissioning strategy was determined the immediate decommissioning whose whole period would be taken for approximately 15 years; pre-decommissioning for two years, spent fuel cool-down for five years, D and D for six years, site remediation for two years. The assumption to dismantle the underground facilities including SSCs is to one meter beneath the ground level and the other facilities remain intact. In addition, non-radioactive concrete wastes would be used to landfill gaps of the remaining facilities. Although there are many assumptions we applied, the methodologies developed and the data produced by this research will play a meaningful role as a good starting point for the Kori-1 decommissioning after its shutdown to logically and reasonably estimate the waste quantity. However it is clear that tenacious efforts should be taken to successfully perform the decommissioning project.

  3. The orientation distribution of tunneling-related quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, W. M.; Refaie, A. I.; Botros, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    In the nuclear tunneling processes involving deformed nuclei, most of the tunneling-related quantities depend on the relative orientations of the participating nuclei. In the presence of different multipole deformations, we study the variation of a few relevant quantities for the α-decay and the sub-barrier fusion processes, in an orientation degree of freedom. The knocking frequency and the penetration probability are evaluated within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. The interaction potential is calculated with Skyrme-type nucleon-nucleon interaction. We found that the width of the potential pocket, the Coulomb barrier radius, the penetration probability, the α-decay width, and the fusion cross-section follow consistently the orientation-angle variation of the radius of the deformed nucleus. The orientation distribution patterns of the pocket width, the barrier radius, the logarithms of the penetrability, the decay width, and the fusion cross-section are found to be highly analogous to pattern of the deformed-nucleus radius. The curve patterns of the orientation angle distributions of the internal pocket depth, the Coulomb barrier height and width, as well as the knocking frequency simulate inversely the variation of the deformed nucleus radius. The predicted orientation behaviors will be of a special interest in predicting the optimum orientations for the tunneling processes.

  4. Highway route controlled quantity shipment routing reports - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Welles, B.W.; Welch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations require a postnotification report from the shipper for all shipments of radioactive materials categorized as a Highway Route Controlled Quantity. These postnotification reports, filed in compliance with 49 CFR 172.203(d), have been compiled by the DOT in a database known as the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT) since 1982. The data were sorted by each of its elements to establish historical records and trends of Highway Route Controlled Quantity shipments from 1982 through 1987. Approximately 1520 records in the RAMRT database were compiled for this analysis. Approximately half of the shipments reported for the study period were from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors, with the others being commercial movements. Two DOE installations, EG and G Idaho and Oak Ridge, accounted for nearly half of the DOE activities. Similarly, almost half of the commercial movements were reported by two vendors, Nuclear Assurance Corporation and Transnuclear, Incorporated. Spent fuel from power and research reactors accounted for approximately half of all shipments

  5. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  6. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  7. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  8. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  9. MICROMICETES QUANTITY AND BIOMASS IN TECHNOGENIC AND NATURAL SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinovskaya Olga Nikolaevna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that in edaphotopes around of freight checkpoint of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod», ore-enrichment factory and fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam of PJSC «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» there is an increase of heavy metals mobile forms (which are the most dangerous for microorganisms, plants, animals and human: for iron in 310; for zinc - in 4,3-6,5; for lead - in 3.2-5.7; for cadmium - in 5,6-9,8; for copper – 6,8-66,5 and for nickel - in 9 times as compared to zonal soil. Whereas in soils of CJSC «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» sanitary protection zone number of copper, nickel, lead, cadmium and zinc mobile forms exceeded the control values in 2,4-6,6 times. For the first time the features of soil microscopic fungi seasonal dynamics of quantity in industrial disturbed soils of Kryvorizhzhya compared to zonal soil (chernozem usual were registered. Changes in fungal mycelium length and biomass, its spore’s amount and biomass in edaphotopes of ore-enrichment and chemical enterprises and of common chernozem are also presented. It is shown that in edaphotopes of heavy contamination areas of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» and of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» in spring, summer, and autumn there was decrease of microscopic fungi quantity in 4-10 times, moreover in tehnozems of «Northern Iron Ore Enrichment Works» fresh-inwashed pool of tailings dam their amount reduces in more than 100 times, compared with common chernozem. In low contamination area of «Krivorozhskiy Surikovyy Zavod» their quantity decreases in 2 times. Also in heavy contamination areas of chemical and ore-enrichment enterprises there is strong decrease in the length of fungal mycelium in 2.7-4.2 times, its biomass in 2,6-4,5 times, the spores amount - in 4,5-7,7 times and their biomass - in 10,5-21 times compared to the natural soil, which could be explained by high contents of toxicants. While in the sanitary protection zone of the

  10. Simultaneous modelling of multi-purpose/multi-stop activity patterns and quantities consumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, John R.; Smith, Nariida C.; Xu, Blake

    Whereas for commuting travel there is a one-to-one correspondence between commuters and jobs, and for commodity flows a one-to-one correspondence between the size of orders and the shipping cost of the commodities, the situation is much more complex for retail/service travel. A typical shopper may make a single trip or multi-stop tour to buy/consume a quite diverse set of commodities/services at different locations in quite variable quantities. At the same time, the general pattern of the tour is clearly dependent on the activities and goods available at potential stops. These interdependencies have been alluded to in the literature, especially by spatial economists. However, until some preliminary work by the first author, there has been no attempt to formally include these interdependencies in a general model. This paper presents a framework for achieving this goal by developing an evolutionary set of models starting from the simplest forms available. From the above, it is clear that such interdependency models will inevitably have high dimensionality and combinatorial complexity. This rules out a simultaneous treatment of all the events using an individual choice approach. If an individual choice approach is to be applied in a tractable manner, the set of interdependent events needs to be segmented into several subsets, with simultaneity recognised within each subset, but a mere sequential progression occurring between subsets. In this paper, full event interdependencies are retained at the expense of modelling market segments of consumers rather than a sample of representative individuals. We couple the travel and consumption events in the only feasible way, by modelling the tours as discrete entities, in conjunction with the amount of each commodity consumed per stop on each such tour in terms of the continuous quantities of microeconomics. This is performed both under a budget/income constraint from microeconomics and a time budget constraint from time

  11. What Difference Does Quantity Make? On the Epistemology of Big Data in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Is big data science a whole new way of doing research? And what difference does data quantity make to knowledge production strategies and their outputs? I argue that the novelty of big data science does not lie in the sheer quantity of data involved, but rather in (1) the prominence and status acquired by data as commodity and recognised output, both within and outside of the scientific community; and (2) the methods, infrastructures, technologies, skills and knowledge developed to handle data. These developments generate the impression that data-intensive research is a new mode of doing science, with its own epistemology and norms. To assess this claim, one needs to consider the ways in which data are actually disseminated and used to generate knowledge. Accordingly, this paper reviews the development of sophisticated ways to disseminate, integrate and re-use data acquired on model organisms over the last three decades of work in experimental biology. I focus on online databases as prominent infrastructures set up to organise and interpret such data; and examine the wealth and diversity of expertise, resources and conceptual scaffolding that such databases draw upon. This illuminates some of the conditions under which big data need to be curated to support processes of discovery across biological subfields, which in turn highlights the difficulties caused by the lack of adequate curation for the vast majority of data in the life sciences. In closing, I reflect on the difference that data quantity is making to contemporary biology, the methodological and epistemic challenges of identifying and analyzing data given these developments, and the opportunities and worries associated to big data discourse and methods. PMID:25729586

  12. What Difference Does Quantity Make? On the Epistemology of Big Data in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2014-06-01

    Is big data science a whole new way of doing research? And what difference does data quantity make to knowledge production strategies and their outputs? I argue that the novelty of big data science does not lie in the sheer quantity of data involved, but rather in (1) the prominence and status acquired by data as commodity and recognised output, both within and outside of the scientific community; and (2) the methods, infrastructures, technologies, skills and knowledge developed to handle data. These developments generate the impression that data-intensive research is a new mode of doing science, with its own epistemology and norms. To assess this claim, one needs to consider the ways in which data are actually disseminated and used to generate knowledge. Accordingly, this paper reviews the development of sophisticated ways to disseminate, integrate and re-use data acquired on model organisms over the last three decades of work in experimental biology. I focus on online databases as prominent infrastructures set up to organise and interpret such data; and examine the wealth and diversity of expertise, resources and conceptual scaffolding that such databases draw upon. This illuminates some of the conditions under which big data need to be curated to support processes of discovery across biological subfields, which in turn highlights the difficulties caused by the lack of adequate curation for the vast majority of data in the life sciences. In closing, I reflect on the difference that data quantity is making to contemporary biology, the methodological and epistemic challenges of identifying and analyzing data given these developments, and the opportunities and worries associated to big data discourse and methods.

  13. What difference does quantity make? On the epistemology of Big Data in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Leonelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Is Big Data science a whole new way of doing research? And what difference does data quantity make to knowledge production strategies and their outputs? I argue that the novelty of Big Data science does not lie in the sheer quantity of data involved, but rather in (1 the prominence and status acquired by data as commodity and recognised output, both within and outside of the scientific community and (2 the methods, infrastructures, technologies, skills and knowledge developed to handle data. These developments generate the impression that data-intensive research is a new mode of doing science, with its own epistemology and norms. To assess this claim, one needs to consider the ways in which data are actually disseminated and used to generate knowledge. Accordingly, this article reviews the development of sophisticated ways to disseminate, integrate and re-use data acquired on model organisms over the last three decades of work in experimental biology. I focus on online databases as prominent infrastructures set up to organise and interpret such data and examine the wealth and diversity of expertise, resources and conceptual scaffolding that such databases draw upon. This illuminates some of the conditions under which Big Data needs to be curated to support processes of discovery across biological subfields, which in turn highlights the difficulties caused by the lack of adequate curation for the vast majority of data in the life sciences. In closing, I reflect on the difference that data quantity is making to contemporary biology, the methodological and epistemic challenges of identifying and analysing data given these developments, and the opportunities and worries associated with Big Data discourse and methods.

  14. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, B. O.; Quaresma, D. S.; Peixoto, J. G. P.

    2018-03-01

    The metrology area has taken a step forward with regard to the uncertainty calculation. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (i) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1x10-4 s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it re-producible; (ii) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (iii) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate.

  15. Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A

    2014-09-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from moderately large samples of healthy adults confirmed prior findings of age-related declines in measures of the quantity of word knowledge beginning around age 65. Additional analyses were carried out to investigate the interrelations of different types of vocabulary knowledge at various periods in adulthood. Although the organizational structures were similar in adults of different ages, scores on tests with different formats had weaker relations to a higher-order vocabulary construct beginning when adults were in their 60's. The within-person dispersion among different vocabulary test scores was also greater after about 65 years of age. The discovery of quantitative decreases in amount of knowledge occurring at about the same age as qualitative shifts in the structure of knowledge raises the possibility that the two types of changes may be causally linked.

  16. Synthesis of pure iron magnetic nanoparticles in large quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, C S; Kashyap, S; Chattopadhyay, K; Biswas, K

    2013-01-01

    Free nanoparticles of iron (Fe) and their colloids with high saturation magnetization are in demand for medical and microfluidic applications. However, the oxide layer that forms during processing has made such synthesis a formidable challenge. Lowering the synthesis temperature decreases rate of oxidation and hence provides a new way of producing pure metallic nanoparticles prone to oxidation in bulk amount (large quantity). In this paper we have proposed a methodology that is designed with the knowledge of thermodynamic imperatives of oxidation to obtain almost oxygen-free iron nanoparticles, with or without any organic capping by controlled milling at low temperatures in a specially designed high-energy ball mill with the possibility of bulk production. The particles can be ultrasonicated to produce colloids and can be bio-capped to produce transparent solution. The magnetic properties of these nanoparticles confirm their superiority for possible biomedical and other applications. (paper)

  17. Protection of groundwater resources quality and quantity in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grmela, A.

    1997-01-01

    This contribution is devoted to the problems of the impact of land subsidence from coal and other mining systems on underground and surface waters, particularly in relation to the possible influence on quality and quantity of pumped waters for public or individual supply. It determines features of permanent and time-limited changes of hydrogeological structure and effectiveness of measures for their minimization (classification of sources from the point of view of protection, delineation of protection zones for water resources, monitoring of effectiveness of measures). Case studies are presented for examples from the Czech part of Upper Silesian Basin - catchment area Doubrava-Spluchov, Karvina-Stare Mesto, Ostrava-Nove Ves, and Dubi, Darkov Spa. Attention is focused on problems of delimitation of protection zones in undermined areas in respect to the new proposal of the Appendix to Water Law. 8 refs., 2 figs

  18. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50–60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30–40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste....... In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150–250 kg capita−1 year−1, and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions......, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled...

  19. ANALYZER OF QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF THE ELECTRIC POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Semilyak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the activities of the research center for “Energy Saving Technologies and Smart Metering in Electrical Power Engineering" is research work on the use of electronic devices and systems of intelligent power distribution, produced by Analog Devices and equipped with the accurate energy consumption measurement feature. The article focuses on the development of the analyzer of quantity and quality of electric energy.The main part of the analyzer is a metering IC by Analog Devices ADE7878, designed for use in commercial and industrial smart electricity meters. Such counters measure the amount of consumed or produced electric energy with high accuracy and have the means of remote meter reading.

  20. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordão, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel, E-mail: bjordan@on.br [Observatorio Nacional (LPTF/ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório Primário de Tempo e Frequência; Peixoto, José Guilherme P. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    The area of metrology has taken a step forward with regard to the calculation of uncertainty. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (1) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1 x 10{sup -4} s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it reproducible; (2) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (3) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate. (author)

  1. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordão, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel; Peixoto, José Guilherme P.

    2017-01-01

    The area of metrology has taken a step forward with regard to the calculation of uncertainty. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (1) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1 x 10 -4 s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it reproducible; (2) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (3) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate. (author)

  2. Measuring Radionuclides in the environment: radiological quantities and sampling designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.

    1998-10-01

    One aim of the workshop was to support and provide an ICRU report committee (International Union of Radiation Units) with actual information on techniques, data and knowledge of modern radioecology when radionuclides are to be measured in the environment. It has been increasingly recognised that some studies in radioecology, especially those involving both field sampling and laboratory measurements, have not paid adequate attention to the problem of obtaining representative, unbiased samples. This can greatly affect the quality of scientific interpretation, and the ability to manage the environment. Further, as the discipline of radioecology has developed, it has seen a growth in the numbers of quantities and units used, some of which are ill-defined and which are non-standardised. (orig.)

  3. An empirical test of the information-motivation-behavioral skills model of ART adherence in a sample of HIV-positive persons primarily in out-of-HIV-care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J; Smolenski, Derek; Amico, K Rivet

    2014-02-01

    The current body of evidence supporting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence rests exclusively on data collected from people living with HIV (PLWH) at point-of-HIV-care services. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if the IMB model is a useful predictive model of ART adherence among PLWH who were primarily recruited in out-of-HIV-care settings; and (2) assess whether the theorized associations between IMB model constructs and adherence persist in the presence of depression and current drug use. PLWH (n = 312) responding to a one-time online survey completed the Life Windows IMB-ART-Adherence Questionnaire, and demographic, depression (CES-D 10), and drug use items. Path models were used to assess the fit of a saturated versus fully mediated IMB model of adherence and examined for moderating effects of depression and current drug use. Participants were on average 43 years of age, had been living with HIV for 9 or more years, and mostly male (84.0%), Caucasian (68.8%), and gay-identified (74.8%). The a priori measurement models for information and behavioral skills did not have acceptable fit to the data and were modified accordingly. Using the revised IMB scales, IMB constructs were associated with adherence as predicted by the theory in all but one model (i.e., the IMB model operated as predicted among nondrug users and those with and without depression). Among drug users, information exerted a direct effect on adherence but was not significantly associated with behavioral skills. Results of this study suggest that the fully or partially mediated IMB model is supported for use with samples of PLWH recruited primarily out-of-HIV-care service settings and is robust in the presence of depression and drug use.

  4. Interpolation formulas for quantities related to radiative energy-loss of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, T.; Ito, R.

    1977-01-01

    An interpolation formula is given for the quantity PHIsub(rad)/PHI(bar) that is proportional to the radiative energy-loss divided by the total energy of the incident electron. Errors caused by the formula have been checked for three sets of values of PHIsub(rad)/PHI(bar) which have been computed by Berger and Seltzer with different empirical corrections to reduce Born-approximation errors. Incident energies from 1 keV to 1000 MeV and atomic numbers of material from 1 to 92 have been considered. Values of six parameters in the formula have been determined by using Tschebyschev's criterion of approximation, and the maximum error has been found to be less than 1.9% for the intermediate set with Aiginger-Rester correction as well as for the no-correction set. A table of parameters in the case of the Aiginger-Rester set is provided for 59 elements. An interpolation formula for the Aginger-Rester correction factor is also given. (Auth.)

  5. Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie-Jeanne Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI. We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone. The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the

  6. Is the dose equivalent index a quantity to be measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    ICRP introduced the concept of Effective Dose Equivalent H(sub)E and fixed the basic limits of radiation exposure in terms of H(sub)I. As H(sub)E cannot be measured, ICRP stated that with external exposure to penetrating radiation the limitation of the Dose Equivalent Index H(sub)I would afford at least as good a level of protection. However, difficulties arise in measuring H(sub)I and in calibrating instruments in terms of H(sub)I, since the height and location of the dose equivalent maximum in the sphere which is the phantom used in the definition of H(sub)I, depend on the energy and the angular distribution of the incident radiation. That is, H(sub)I is not an additive quantity relative to the partial H(sub)I(sub)i-values of the different energy and angular components. Hence, 1) the distribution of dose equivalent in the sphere must be measured in full for a determination of H(sub)I, and 2) it is not possible to calibrate an instrument which does not exhibit the scattering and absorption properties of the sphere, consistently for arbitrary radiation fields in terms of H(sub)I. Thus the calibration in an unidirectional beam would infer an uncertainty which may amount to a factor of up to 4. This would hardly be tolerable as a base for radiation protection provisions. An alternative is to introduce operational quantities which are additive, e.g. 1) the sum of maxima of the dose equivalent distributions in the sphere produced by different radiation components, and 2) the mean dose equivalent in the sphere. Their relation to H(sub)E for different types of radiation and consequences on secondary limits are discussed. (H.K.)

  7. Preservation of support and positivity for solutions of degenerate evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, David M; Wright, J Douglas

    2010-01-01

    We prove that sufficiently smooth solutions of equations of a certain class have two interesting properties. These evolution equations are in a sense degenerate, in that every term on the right-hand side of the evolution equation has either the unknown or its first spatial derivative as a factor. We first find a conserved quantity for the equation: the measure of the set on which the solution is non-zero. Second, we show that solutions which are initially non-negative remain non-negative for all times. These properties rely heavily upon the degeneracy of the leading order term. When the equation is more degenerate, we are able to prove that there are additional conserved quantities: the measure of the set on which the solution is positive and the measure of the set on which the solution is negative. To illustrate these results, we give examples of equations with nonlinear dispersion which have solutions in spaces with sufficient regularity to satisfy the hypotheses of the support and positivity theorems. An important family of equations with nonlinear dispersion are the Rosenau–Hyman compacton equations; there is no existence theory yet for these equations, but the known solutions of the compacton equations are of lower regularity than is needed for the preceding theorems. We prove an additional positivity theorem which applies to solutions of the same family of equations in a function space which includes some solutions of compacton equations

  8. Feedback using an ePortfolio for medicine long cases: quality not quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Bleasel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence for the positive impact of an electronic Portfolio (ePortfolio on feedback in medicine is mixed. An ePortfolio for medical long cases in a Graduate Medical Program was developed. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of medical students and faculty of the impact of the ePortfolio on the feedback process. Methods In total, 130 Year 3 medical students, and six faculty participated in the study. This is a mixed methods study, using a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods were used to quantify the number of long cases performed. Qualitative methods were used to explore the relationship between quantity and quality of feedback, and provide a rich understanding of both students’ and faculty’s experience and perceptions of the ePortfolio. Results Students received a variable quantity of feedback at each of the three studied clinical schools, with an average of between 4 – 5.4 feedback episodes per student. Feedback that was constructive, specific and timely and delivered by a senior academic was important. Quantity was not an essential factor, with two episodes of detailed feedback reported to be adequate. The barriers to the use of the ePortfolio were technical aspects of the platform that interfered with student engagement. Conclusions Feedback using the ePortfolio for medical long cases is a valuable tool providing a senior clinician delivers detailed, constructive and personalized feedback in a timely fashion. The ePortfolio system needs to be user-friendly to engage students.

  9. Moving beyond quantity of participation in process evaluation of an intervention to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Keriann H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle interventions have successfully prevented excessive gestational weight gain. Understanding the program processes through which successful interventions achieve outcomes is important for the design of effective programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the quantity and quality of participation in a healthy lifestyle intervention on risk of excessive gestational weight gain. Findings Pregnant women (N = 179 received five newsletters about weight, nutrition, and exercise plus postcards on which they were asked to set related goals and return to investigators. The quantity of participation (dose was defined as low for returning few or some vs. high for many postcards (N = 89, 49.7%. Quality of participation was low for setting few vs. high for some or many appropriate goals (N = 92, 51.4%. Fisher’s exact tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the effect of participation variables on the proportion with excessive weight gain. Quantity and quality of participation alone were each not significantly associated with excessive gestational weight gain, while quality of participation among those with high-levels of participation approached significance (p = 0.07. The odds of gaining excessively was decreased when women had both a high quantity and quality of participation (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.005, 0.30. Conclusions Both quantity and quality of participation are important program process measures in evaluations of lifestyle interventions to promote healthy weight gain during pregnancy.

  10. Secure positioning in wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    So far, the problem of positioning in wireless networks has been studied mainly in a non-adversarial settings. In this work, we analyze the resistance of positioning techniques to position and distance spoofing attacks. We propose a mechanism for secure positioning of wireless devices, that we call...... Verifiable Multilateration. We then show how this mechanism can be used to secure positioning in sensor networks. We analyze our system through simulations....

  11. Delegation. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Connie; Bushmiaer, Margo; Davis-Alldritt, Linda; Fekaris, Nina; Morgitan, Judith; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Yow, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the delegation of nursing tasks in the school setting can be a valuable tool for the school nurse, when based on the nursing definition of delegation and in compliance with state nursing regulations and guidance. Delegation in school nursing is a complex process in which…

  12. Global Multi-isotopologue fit of measured rotation and vibration-rotation line positions of CO in X1Σ+ state and new set of mass-independent Dunham coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, T.I.; Mikhailenko, S.N.; Tashkun, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    A set of mass-independent U mj and Δ mj parameters globally describing vibration-rotation energy levels of the CO molecule in the X 1 Σ + ground electronic state was fitted to more than 19,000 transitions of 12 C 16 O, 13 C 16 O, 14 C 16 O, 12 C 17 O, 13 C 17 O, 12 C 18 O, and 13 C 18 O isotopologues collected from the literature. The maximal values of the vibrational V and the rotational J quantum numbers included in the fit was 41 and 128, respectively. The weighted standard deviation of the fit is .66. Fitted parameters were used for calculation of Dunham coefficients Y mj for nine isotopologues 12 C 16 O, 13 C 16 O, 14 C 16 O, 12 C 17 O, 13 C 17 O, 14 C 17 O, 12 C 18 O, 13 C 18 O, and 14 C 18 O. Calculated transition frequencies based on the fitted parameters were compared with previously reported. A critical analysis of the CO HITRAN and HITEMP data is also presented.

  13. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  14. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Assessment of Sleep Quantity and Sleep Disturbances During Recovery From Sports-Related Concussion in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdaugh, Donna L; Ono, Kim E; Reisner, Andrew; Burns, Thomas G

    2018-05-01

    To determine the relation between sleep quantity and sleep disturbances on symptoms and neurocognitive ability during the acute phase (sports-related concussion (SRC; >21d). Prospective inception cohort study. General community setting of regional middle and high schools. A sample (N=971) including youth athletes with SRC (n=528) and controls (n=443) (age, 10-18y). Not applicable. Athletes completed the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing battery. Partial correlation analyses and independent t tests were conducted to assess sleep quantity the night before testing. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess sleep disturbances and their interaction with age. Less sleep quantity was correlated with greater report of cognitive (P=.001) and neuropsychological (P=.024) symptoms specific to prolonged recovery from SRC. Sleep disturbances significantly affect each migraine, cognitive, and neuropsychological symptoms (Psleep disturbances and age (P=.04) at >21 days post-SRC. Findings emphasize that the continued presence of low sleep quantity and sleep disturbances in youth athletes with SRC should be a specific indicator to health professionals that these athletes are at an increased risk of protracted recovery. Further research should identify additional factors that may interact with sleep to increase the risk of protracted recovery. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The benefits of, and barriers to, implementation of 5D BIM for quantity surveying in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stanley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Building Information Modelling (BIM models are relational and parametric in nature, and 5D BIM is where model objects include specification data and other properties which can be directly used for pricing construction work. There is huge potential for its use by quantity surveyors (QSs for such tasks as quantity take-offs, estimation and cost management, in a collaborative project environment. Perceptions regarding the benefits of, and barriers to, the implementation of 5D BIM by quantity surveyors in Auckland are presented, based on structured interviews with 8 QSs. Results suggest that 5D BIM may provide advantages over traditional forms of quantity surveying in Auckland by increasing efficiency, improving visualization of construction details, and earlier risk identification. However there are perceived barriers to 5D BIM implementation within the construction industry: a lack of software compatibility; prohibitive set-up costs; a lack of protocols for coding objects within building information models; lack of an electronic standard for coding BIM software, and the lack of integrated models, which are an essential pre-requisite for full inter-operability, and hence collaborative working, in the industry. Further research is recommended, to find solutions to overcome these barriers to inter-operability between 3D and 5D BIM, in order to facilitate the cost modelling process.

  17. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab, TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03. While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p < 0.05, protein source did not affect cardio-metabolic indices. In conclusion, diets varying in protein quantity with either beef/pork or soy/legume as the predominant source have minimal effects on appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  18. Guidelines for selecting preferred highway routes for highway-route-controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The document presents guidelines for use by State officials in selecting preferred routes for highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. A methodology for analyzing and comparing safety factors of alternative routes is described. Technical information on the impacts of radioactive material transportation needed to apply the methodology is also presented. Application of the methodology will identify the route (or set of routes) that minimizes the radiological impacts from shipments of these radioactive materials within a given State. Emphasis in the document is on practical application of the methodology. Some details of the derivation of the methods and data are presented in the appendices. All references in the body of the report can be found listed in the Bibliography (Appendix F)

  19. A Control Variate Method for Probabilistic Performance Assessment. Improved Estimates for Mean Performance Quantities of Interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, Robert J.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L

    2016-05-01

    We present a method of control variates for calculating improved estimates for mean performance quantities of interest, E(PQI) , computed from Monte Carlo probabilistic simulations. An example of a PQI is the concentration of a contaminant at a particular location in a problem domain computed from simulations of transport in porous media. To simplify the presentation, the method is described in the setting of a one- dimensional elliptical model problem involving a single uncertain parameter represented by a probability distribution. The approach can be easily implemented for more complex problems involving multiple uncertain parameters and in particular for application to probabilistic performance assessment of deep geologic nuclear waste repository systems. Numerical results indicate the method can produce estimates of E(PQI)having superior accuracy on coarser meshes and reduce the required number of simulations needed to achieve an acceptable estimate.

  20. Pengembangan Model Economic Production Quantity (EPQ dengan Sinkronisasi Demand Kontinu dan Diskrit Secara Simultan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurike Oktavia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most popular inventory model to determine production lot size is Economic Production Quantity (EPQ. It shows enterprise how to minimize total production cost by reducing inventory cost. But, three main parameters in EPQ which are demand, machine set up cost, and holding cost, are not suitable to solve issues nowadays. When an enterprise has two types of demand, continue and discrete demand, the basic EPQ would be no longer useful. Demand continues comes from a customer who wants their needs to be fulfilled every time per unit time, while the fulfillment of demand discrete is at a fixed interval of time. A literature review is done by writers to observe other formulation of EPQ model. As there is no other research can be found which adopt this topic, this study tries to develop EPQ model considering two types of demand simultaneously.

  1. Comparison of different uncertainty techniques in urban stormwater quantity and quality modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotto, C. B.; Mannina, G.; Kleidorfer, M.

    2012-01-01

    -UA), an approach based on a multi-objective auto-calibration (a multialgorithm, genetically adaptive multiobjective method, AMALGAM) and a Bayesian approach based on a simplified Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (implemented in the software MICA). To allow a meaningful comparison among the different uncertainty...... techniques, common criteria have been set for the likelihood formulation, defining the number of simulations, and the measure of uncertainty bounds. Moreover, all the uncertainty techniques were implemented for the same case study, in which the same stormwater quantity and quality model was used alongside...... the same dataset. The comparison results for a well-posed rainfall/runoff model showed that the four methods provide similar probability distributions of model parameters, and model prediction intervals. For ill-posed water quality model the differences between the results were much wider; and the paper...

  2. 3D facial expression recognition based on histograms of surface differential quantities

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin

    2011-01-01

    3D face models accurately capture facial surfaces, making it possible for precise description of facial activities. In this paper, we present a novel mesh-based method for 3D facial expression recognition using two local shape descriptors. To characterize shape information of the local neighborhood of facial landmarks, we calculate the weighted statistical distributions of surface differential quantities, including histogram of mesh gradient (HoG) and histogram of shape index (HoS). Normal cycle theory based curvature estimation method is employed on 3D face models along with the common cubic fitting curvature estimation method for the purpose of comparison. Based on the basic fact that different expressions involve different local shape deformations, the SVM classifier with both linear and RBF kernels outperforms the state of the art results on the subset of the BU-3DFE database with the same experimental setting. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Safeguards Implementation Guide for States with Small Quantities Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States' safeguards commitments are being respected. Most of the world's non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State's national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material. Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as 'small quantities protocols' or 'SQPs' and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system. States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA's ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have

  4. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  5. Process of quantity determination of uranium by chromatography in liquid zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, J.P.; Cojean, J.; Daubizit, M.

    1993-01-01

    The invention concerns a process of quantity determination of uranium by chromatography in liquid zone, usable to determine the quantity of uranium traces. Solutions to be treated can be aqueous or organic

  6. Evolution of sperm quality but not quantity in the internally fertilized fish Xiphophorus nigrensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C C; Ryan, M J

    2010-08-01

    Species with alternative reproductive strategies are characterized by discrete differences among males in suites of traits related to competition for fertilizations. Models predict sneaker males should allocate more resources to their ejaculates because they experience sperm competition more frequently and often occupy a disfavoured 'role' owing to subordinance in intramale competition and female preferences for larger males. We examined whether sperm number and quality differed between male strategies in the internally fertilized fish Xiphophorus nigrensis and explored the relationship between sperm morphology and performance. We found sneaker males had similar testes sizes compared to courting males but ejaculates with both more viable and longer lived sperm. Sneaker sperm also had longer midpieces, which was positively correlated with both velocity and longevity. Our study suggests that the evolution of sperm quantity and quality can be decoupled and that the sperm morphology is likely to play an important role in mediating sperm competition through its effects on sperm performance.

  7. Intraoral Digital Impressions for Virtual Occlusal Records: Section Quantity and Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Solaberrieta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to locate the 3D spatial position mandibular cast and determine its occlusal contacts in a novel way by using an intraoral scanner as part of the virtual occlusal record procedure. This study also analyzes the requirements in quantity and dimensions of the intraoral virtual occlusal record. The results showed that the best section combination consists of 2 lateral and frontal sections, the width of this section being that of 2 teeth (24 mm × 15 mm. This study concluded that this procedure was accurate enough to locate the mandibular cast on a virtual articulator. However, at least 2 sections of the virtual occlusal records were necessary, and the best results were obtained when the distance between these sections was maximum.

  8. Intraoral Digital Impressions for Virtual Occlusal Records: Section Quantity and Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaberrieta, Eneko; Garmendia, Asier; Brizuela, Aritza; Otegi, Jose Ramon; Pradies, Guillermo; Szentpétery, Andras

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to locate the 3D spatial position mandibular cast and determine its occlusal contacts in a novel way by using an intraoral scanner as part of the virtual occlusal record procedure. This study also analyzes the requirements in quantity and dimensions of the intraoral virtual occlusal record. The results showed that the best section combination consists of 2 lateral and frontal sections, the width of this section being that of 2 teeth (24 mm × 15 mm). This study concluded that this procedure was accurate enough to locate the mandibular cast on a virtual articulator. However, at least 2 sections of the virtual occlusal records were necessary, and the best results were obtained when the distance between these sections was maximum. PMID:26881226

  9. Order Quantity Distributions: Estimating an Adequate Aggregation Horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Poul Svante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an investigation into the demand, faced by a company in the form of customer orders, is performed both from an explorative numerical and analytical perspective. The aim of the research is to establish the behavior of customer orders in first-come-first-serve (FCFS systems and the impact of order quantity variation on the planning environment. A discussion of assumptions regarding demand from various planning and control perspectives underlines that most planning methods are based on the assumption that demand in the form of customer orders are independently identically distributed and stem from symmetrical distributions. To investigate and illustrate the need to aggregate demand to live up to these assumptions, a simple methodological framework to investigate the validity of the assumptions and for analyzing the behavior of orders is developed. The paper also presents an analytical approach to identify the aggregation horizon needed to achieve a stable demand. Furthermore, a case study application of the presented framework is presented and concluded on.

  10. Deep groundwater quantity and quality in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Ayars, J. E.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater demands are growing in many arid regions and adaptation through the use of non-traditional resources during extreme droughts is increasingly common. One such resource is deep groundwater, which we define as deeper than 300 m and up to several kilometer-depths. Although deep groundwater has been studied in the context of oil and gas, geothermal, waste disposal, and other uses, it remains poorly characterized, especially for the purposes of human consumption and irrigation uses. Therefore, we evaluate deep groundwater quantity and quality within these contexts. We compile and analyze data from water management agencies and oil and gas-based sources for the southwestern US, with a detailed look at California's Central Valley. We also use crop tolerance thresholds to evaluate deep groundwater quality for irrigation purposes. We find fresh and usable groundwater volume estimates in California's Central Valley to increase by three- and four-fold respectively when depths of up to 3 km are considered. Of the ten basins in the southwestern US with the most data, we find that the Great Basin has the greatest proportions of fresh and usable deep groundwater. Given the potentially large deep groundwater volumes, it is important to characterize the resource, guard against subsidence where extracted, and protect it for use in decades and centuries to come.

  11. Ship waste quantities prediction model for the port of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADANKA PRESBURGER ULNIKOVIĆ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and especially in the port of Belgrade. Data on solid waste, waste oils, oily waters, gray water and black water have been collected for a period of five years. The methodology of data collection is presented. Trends of data were analyzed and the regression model was used to predict the waste quantities in the Belgrade port. This data could be utilized as a basis for the calculation of the equipment capacity for waste selective collection, treatment and storage. The results presented in this study establish the need for an orga¬nized management system for this type of waste which can be achieved either by constructing and providing new specialized terminal or by providing mobile floating facilities and other plants in the Port of Belgrade for these kinds of ser¬vices. In addition to the above, the legislative and organizational strategy of waste management has been explored to complete the study because the im¬pact of good waste management on environment and prevention of environ¬mental accidents would be highly beneficial. This study demonstrated that ad¬dressing these issues should be considered at international as well as national level.

  12. Quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Ghorbanian, Tahereh; Yousefi, Nader; Dadashzadeh, Dariush; Khalili, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Amin; Raei, Mehdi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the generation rate of construction and demolition waste (C&D) has significantly augmented. The aim of this study was to assessed the quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran (capital of Iran). Questionnaire methods were used for estimating the amount of generated C&D wastes national statistical data and typical waste generation data. In order to defining the composition of C&D waste, trucks were randomly selected and their wastes were separated and weighted. According to obtained results, about 82,646,051 m 3 of C&D waste (average 16,529,210 m 3 per year) were generated during 2011 to 2016 which only about 26% of them has been recycled. Mixing sand and cement, concrete, broken bricks and soil have the highest amount of the composition of C&D waste in Tehran that was 30, 19, 18 and 11%, respectively. Based on the results, about 2,784,158 t of the waste will generate in 2025 and this is approximately 122% higher than wastes generate in 2016. Based on MAPSA's data, 360 teams of personnel cruise and control the illegal disposals, but due to the expansion of Tehran this number of teams is inadequate and can't be effective in controlling the situation. In general, the overall condition of C&D waste management in Tehran seems undesirable and needs to be updated based on the experience of successful countries in this field.

  13. BIM IMPLEMENTATION IN A NEW ZEALAND CONSULTING QUANTITY SURVEYING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Harrison

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 5D BIM – generating cost data via the building information modelling (BIM process- has the potential to be used by quantity surveyors (QSs to streamline their workflows and increase their provision of quality service. Consultant QSs experienced in the use 5D BIM, from the New Zealand office of one large global practice, were interviewed on their perceptions of the benefits of, and barriers to, 5D BIM implementation within their firm. Findings suggest that 5D BIM has numerous benefits over traditional methods, chiefly through the increased efficiency and visualization that BIM provides, along with the rapid identification of design changes. However, realization of these perceived benefits limited to date, due to several barriers hindering 5D BIM implementation: incomplete design and insufficient model object data in the BIM model; a lack of standards to facilitate electronic measurement; legal issues, and a lack of government support. However, participants perceived that 5D BIM implementation will achieve these benefits to a far greater extent in the future. Further research is recommended to identify the BIM skills which QSs will need in the future to reach the full potential of 5D BIM

  14. Quantities of actinides in nuclear reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000 MW reactors of the following types: water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breeder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium, and recycled uranium. The radioactivity levels of plutonium, americium, and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the United States nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium processed in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (U.S.)

  15. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  16. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  17. 48 CFR 245.7309-8 - Variations in quantity or weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Inventory 245.7309-8 Variations in quantity or weight. When property is sold on a “unit price” basis, the Contractor reserves the right to vary by up to 15 percent the quantity or weight listed in the Invitation and... price shall be adjusted in accordance with the unit price and on the basis of the quantity or weight...

  18. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that...

  19. Genital herpes evaluation by quantitative TaqMan PCR: correlating single detection and quantity of HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage fluids with cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Christopher

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the utility of a single quantitative PCR (qPCR measurement of HSV (HSV-1&2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from women with predominantly chronic HSV-2 infection in assessing genital HSV shedding and the clinical course of genital herpes (GH within a cohort with semiannual schedule of follow up and collection of specimens. Methods Two previously described methods used for detection of HSV DNA in mucocutaneous swab samples were adapted for quantification of HSV DNA in CVLs. Single CVL specimens from 509 women were tested. Presence and quantity of CVL HSV DNA were explored in relation to observed cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical data. Results The PCR assay was sensitive and reproducible with a limit of quantification of ~50 copies per milliliter of CVL. Overall, 7% of the samples were positive for HSV-2 DNA with median log10 HSV-2 DNA copy number of 3.9 (IQR: 2.6-5.7. No HSV-1 was detected. Presence and quantity of HSV-2 DNA in CVL directly correlated with the clinical signs and symptoms of presence of active symptomatic disease with frequent recurrences. Conclusion Single qPCR measurement of HSV DNA in CVL fluids of women with chronic HSV-2 infection provided useful information for assessing GH in the setting of infrequent sampling of specimens. Observed positive correlation of the presence and quantity of HSV-2 DNA with the presence of active and more severe course of HSV-2 infection may have clinical significance in the evaluation and management of HSV-2 infected patients.

  20. Influence of diet quantity on learning and memory ability and immunological function in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Diet can regulate gene expression via manifesting genetic style so as to make a correlation with senility and tumor onset of tissue organs.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of diet quantity on learning and memory ability and immunological function changes in mice and verify the correlation between functional changes and diet quantity.DESIGN:Completely randomized grouping design.SETTINGS:Three Gorges University Medical College;School of Medicine,Hubei Institute for Nationalities.MATERIALS:Eighty Kunming mice of 3 weeks old,grade Ⅱ,weighing 17 - 18 g and either gender,were selected from Animal Experimental Center,Tongji Medical College,Huazhong University of Science and Technology.The experimental animals were disposed according to ethical criteria.At one week after feeding,they were randomly divided into 4 groups,including over-diet group,quantitative-diet group,quantitative-limit diet group and over-limit diet group with 20 mice in each group.METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Medical Experimental Center of Hubei Institute for Nationalities and the Department of Laboratory,Central Hospital of Hubei Enshi Autonomous Prefecture from April to June 2006.① Diet quantity of animals was > 6 g/d in the over-diet group,4 g/d in the quantitative-diet group,3.34 g/d in the quantitative-limit diet group and 1.8 g/d in the over-limit diet group,respectively.Mice in the four groups drank freely.②At 35 days after feeding,every 10 mice were randomly selected from each group and enclosed in the wide mouthed bottle (250 mL,containing sodalime) to observe and record survival time under normal pressure and hypoxic condition.Other mice were given step down test,shuttle box test and autonomic activity test.Step down test:The first step-down latency and error times within 5 minutes were used to evaluate learning ability and the memory ability was retested at 24 hours later.Shuttle box test:The shuttle-box latency and error times within 5 minutes were used to

  1. Social Set Visualizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    -edge open source visual analytics libraries from D3.js and creation of new visualizations (ac-tor mobility across time, conversational comets etc). Evaluation of the dashboard consisting of technical testing, usability testing, and domain-specific testing with CSR students and yielded positive results.......This paper presents a state-of-the art visual analytics dash-board, Social Set Visualizer (SoSeVi), of approximately 90 million Facebook actions from 11 different companies that have been mentioned in the traditional media in relation to garment factory accidents in Bangladesh. The enterprise...

  2. Neighbourhood density and genetic relatedness interact to determine fruit set and abortion rates in a continuous tropical tree population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F A; Comita, L S

    2008-12-07

    Tropical trees may show positive density dependence in fruit set and maturation due to pollen limitation in low-density populations. However, pollen from closely related individuals in the local neighbourhood might reduce fruit set or increase fruit abortion in self-incompatible tree species. We investigated the role of neighbourhood density and genetic relatedness on individual fruit set and abortion in the neotropical tree Jacaranda copaia in a large forest plot in central Panama. Using nested neighbourhood models, we found a strong positive effect of increased conspecific density on fruit set and maturation. However, high neighbourhood genetic relatedness interacted with density to reduce total fruit set and increase the proportion of aborted fruit. Our results imply a fitness advantage for individuals growing in high densities as measured by fruit set, but realized fruit set is lowered by increased neighbourhood relatedness. We hypothesize that the mechanism involved is increased visitation by density-dependent invertebrate pollinators in high-density populations, which increases pollen quantity and carry-over and increases fruit set and maturation, coupled with self-incompatibility at early and late stages due to biparental inbreeding that lowers fruit set and increases fruit abortion. Implications for the reproductive ecology and conservation of tropical tree communities in continuous and fragmented habitats are discussed.

  3. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  4. On Complex Networks Representation and Computation of Hydrologycal Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, F.; Bancheri, M.; David, O.; Rigon, R.

    2017-12-01

    Water is our blue gold. Despite results of discovery-based science keep warning public opinion about the looming worldwide water crisis, water is still treated as a not worth taking resource. Could a different multi-scale perspective affect environmental decision-making more deeply? Can also a further pairing to a new graphical representation of processes interaction sway decision-making more effectively and public opinion consequently?This abstract introduces a complex networks driven way to represent catchments eco-hydrology and related flexible informatics to manage it. The representation is built upon mathematical category. A category is an algebraic structure that comprises "objects" linked by "arrows". It is an evolution of Petri Nets said Time Continuous Petri Nets (TCPN). It aims to display (water) budgets processes and catchment interactions using explicative and self-contained symbolism. The result improves readability of physical processes compared to current descriptions. The IT perspective hinges on the Object Modeling System (OMS) v3. The latter is a non-invasive flexible environmental modeling framework designed to support component-based model development. The implementation of a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) data structure, named Net3, has recently enhanced its flexibility. Net3 represents interacting systems as complex networks: vertices match up with any sort of time evolving quantity; edges correspond to their data (fluxes) interchange. It currently hosts JGrass-NewAge components, and those implementing travel time analysis of fluxes. Further bio-physical or management oriented components can be easily added.This talk introduces both graphical representation and related informatics exercising actual applications and examples.

  5. Technology development for evaluation of operational quantities in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, B. H.

    2003-03-01

    Korean government recently published a national regulation on the internal exposure monitoring and dose evaluation (internal dosimetry) based on the most recent ICRP recommendation 60 and subsequent publications, which supercede the former ICRP recommendation 26 and publication 30, on which the internal dosimetry practice in Korea had been based so far. Consequently, this project, according to the demand from both government and nuclear industry, had been launched to develop a user-friendly computer code on internal dosimetry adopting the most up to date ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric model to resolve the difficulties and problems faced to nuclear industry and to develop related technology. The reliability of this code, named as BiDAS, as a result of several benchmark calculations for self assurance appeared to be excellent comparing with the foreign computer code. This computer code is expected to be successfully utilized in nuclear industry and related fields in complying with the national regulation on internal dosimetry program started from late 2003. Reference low level gamma(γ) radiation field for calibration of environmental radiation(γ) monitor and reference neutron field for calibration of n monitoring equipment have been established and characterized. International cross comparison of these reference radiation fields have been performed and radiation response of various radiation monitoring instrument has been tested by using these reference radiation fields. A technology which can directly measure the radiation quality factor and tissue absorbed dose has been established to evaluate the neutron dose in terms of operational quantity in the unknown mixed n-γ radiation field. Spherical and cylindrical TEPC systems have been designed and manufactured and a portable TEPC system to measure the neutron quality and dose in the real work field has been developed and tested in accelerator laboratory

  6. Influence of adhesive bonding on quantity of emissions VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čech

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of urea-formaldehyde glue and veneered bolstering on technological operation veneering on quantity of emission VOCs (volatile organic compounds.The so-called Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC are among the largest pollution sources of both the internal and external environments.VOC is defined as emission of any organic compound or a mixture thereof, with the exception of methane, whereby the compound exerts the pressure of 0.01 kPa or more at the temperature of 20 °C (293.15 K and reaches the corresponding volatility under the specific conditions of its use and can undergo photochemical reactions with nitrogen oxides when exposed to solar radiation.The effects of VOC upon environment can be described by equation:VOC + NOx + UV radiation + heat = tropospheric ozone (O3.In this work there were tested background working environment in various parts of multi-storeyed press, next was judged emissive charge of veneered device and used glue. We used surface material such as chipboard. We used urea-formaldehyde glue KRONOCOL U300 on technological operation veneering.The VOC emissions from the wooden surfaces with or without finishing were tested in the Equipment for VOC Measuring with a small-space chamber. This equipment was installed in and made available by the Institute of Furniture, Design and Habitation. The small-space chamber is suitable for testing small parts of wood products. The device equipped with small-chamber satisfies all conditions mandated in the standard ENV 13 419 DIN -V-ENV 13 419 ”Determination of the emissions of Volatile organic compounds”.The VOC emissions were collected in columns with sorbent Tenax TA. We analyzed the columns with the VOC emissions by: the gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometer and Direct Thermal Desorption.

  7. Calculation of uncertainties in influence quantities in biological essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Morel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the need of showing the reliability of results from biological essays, such as in health and environmental areas, laboratories have been implementing quality systems, particularly ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001, which include as one of the requirements, the calculation of uncertainty in essays results. It is of common knowledge that estimating uncertainty in essays using organisms, such as animal and vegetal species, is difficult, preventing from meeting that requirement in the standard. The paper shows the calculation of uncertainties in influences quantities in these essays as a tool to allow validating the measuring process, by using the essays performed by Rhodia Environmental Impact Analysis Laboratory and IPEN Ecotoxicology Laboratory as examples.Devido à necessidade de demonstrar a confiabilidade dos resultados de ensaios biológicos como, por exemplo, nas áreas de saúde e ambiental, laboratórios vêm implementando sistemas da qualidade, em especial a ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025 (ABNT, 2001 que inclui como um dos requisitos o cálculo da incerteza dos resultados dos ensaios. É reconhecidamente difícil de estimar a incerteza de ensaios que utilizam organismos, como com espécies animais e vegetais o que impede, consequentemente, o atendimento deste requisito da norma. O trabalho apresenta o cálculo de incerteza das grandezas de influências nestes ensaios como uma ferramenta que permite validar o processo de medição, utilizando como exemplos aqueles realizados pelos Laboratórios de Análise de Impacto Ambiental da Rhodia e de Ecologia e Ecotoxicologia do IPEN.

  8. Influence of Cattle Trails on Runoff Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Curtis, Tony; Chanasyk, David S; Willms, Walter D

    2017-03-01

    Cattle trails in grazed pastures close to rivers may adversely affect surface water quality of the adjacent river by directing runoff to it. The objective of this 3-yr study (2013-2015) in southern Alberta, Canada, was to determine if cattle trails significantly increased the risk of runoff and contaminants (sediment, nutrients) compared with the adjacent grazed pasture (control). A portable rainfall simulator was used to generate artificial rainfall (140 mm h) and runoff. The runoff properties measured were time to runoff and initial abstraction (infiltration), total runoff depth and average runoff rates, as well as concentrations and mass loads of sediment, N, and P fractions. Cattle trails significantly ( ≤ 0.10) decreased time to runoff and initial abstraction (26-32%) in the 2 yr measured and increased total runoff depth, runoff coefficients, and average runoff rates (21-51%) in 2 of 3 yr. Concentrations of sediment, N, and P fractions in runoff were not significantly greater for cattle trails than for control areas. However, mass loads of total suspended solids (57-85% increase), NH-N (31-90%), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) (30-92%) were significantly greater because of increased runoff volumes. Overall, runoff quantity and loads of sediment, NH-N, and DRP were greater for cattle trails compared with the adjacent grazed pasture, and hydrologic connection with cattle-access sites on the riverbank suggests that this could adversely affect water quality in the adjacent river. Extrapolation of the study results should be tempered by the specific conditions represented by this rainfall simulation study. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. English Syllabic Consonants and Quantity Factor in Educated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Therefore // and syllabic /, , / occur typically in unstressed syllables. It is established in the literature reviewed on Standard Spoken. English that a vowel occurring in an unstressed position is more often than not reduced to the schwa sound // or totally elided. In some instances, especially at word boundaries, the elided vowel ...

  10. variation of reverberation time with quantity of absorbers in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    broadcasting and recording studios, reverberation time can be simply controlled to achieve desired results. KEY WORDS: ..... Positions and Actual sizes and Numbers of. Absorbers Used. Measured. Reverberation. Times (s). Calculated with. Sabine Formula. Calculated with. Arau-Puchades. Formula. 500. (Hz). 1000. (Hz).

  11. Long-term biomass resources for energy aim - quantities, costs and conditions of the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, M.; Abildtrup, J.; Vodder Nielsen, K.; Petersen, S.M.; Varming, S.

    2001-01-01

    This project assesses the agricultural, technical and economic possibilities for producing the planned quantity of energy crops in year 2015. The assessments in this project are based on two essential assumptions: 1) The total demand for straw and energy crops to meet the energy plans is added up, and the available amount of straw is used first and energy crops will be used for the remaining amount. 2) As long as the present economic conditions for set-aside prevails, it will only be the set-aside areas that will be available for energy crop production. Energy crops are not seen as economic competitive with other cash-crops on the reform areas.Three different scenarios for the agricultural crop production up to year 2015 are outlined; a reference scenario where the current development is extrapolated; an environment scenario in which a higher degree of environmental awareness is taken into account and a market scenario in which the economic competitiveness of agricultural production gains more focus. (au)

  12. Prices versus quantities: choosing policies for promoting the development of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Philippe; Finon, Dominique; Lamy, Marie-Laure

    2003-01-01

    Now that the risks of climate change have been confirmed and the European States have declared their willingness to pursue ambitious objectives for producing electricity from renewable energy sources, it becomes crucial to take a look at the relative efficiency of the different incentive schemes used. Such schemes may focus on quantities-defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading, or they may focus on prices-feed-in tariffs. Clearly, these instruments are much the same as those used in environmental policies, with similar discussion involved in their choice. Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalised. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions--uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects--which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The authors examine the efficiency of the different incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources, both from a theoretical point of view by comparing price-based approaches with quantity-based approaches, and from a practical point of view by looking at concrete examples of how these different instruments have been implemented. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach

  13. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramusch, R.; Pertl, A.; Scherhaufer, S.; Schmied, E.; Obersteiner, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Informal collectors from Hungary collect bulky waste and reusable items in Austria. • Two methodologies were applied to estimate the informally collected quantities. • Both approaches lead to an estimation of roughly 100,000 t p.a. informally collected. • The formal Austrian system collects 72 kg/cap/yr of bulky waste, WEE & scrap metal. • Informal collection amounts to approx. 12 kg/cap/yr. - Abstract: Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector

  14. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramusch, R., E-mail: roland.ramusch@boku.ac.at; Pertl, A.; Scherhaufer, S.; Schmied, E.; Obersteiner, G.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Informal collectors from Hungary collect bulky waste and reusable items in Austria. • Two methodologies were applied to estimate the informally collected quantities. • Both approaches lead to an estimation of roughly 100,000 t p.a. informally collected. • The formal Austrian system collects 72 kg/cap/yr of bulky waste, WEE & scrap metal. • Informal collection amounts to approx. 12 kg/cap/yr. - Abstract: Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector.

  15. Methods, Devices and Computer Program Products Providing for Establishing a Model for Emulating a Physical Quantity Which Depends on at Least One Input Parameter, and Use Thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention proposes methods, devices and computer program products. To this extent, there is defined a set X including N distinct parameter values x_i for at least one input parameter x, N being an integer greater than or equal to 1, first measured the physical quantity Pm1 for each...

  16. Option Panels in Pure-Jump Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop parametric inference procedures for large panels of noisy option data in the setting where the underlying process is of pure-jump type, i.e., evolve only through a sequence of jumps. The panel consists of options written on the underlying asset with a (different) set of strikes...... specification for the risk-neutral asset return dynamics, the option prices are nonlinear functions of a time-invariant parameter vector and a time-varying latent state vector (or factors). Furthermore, no-arbitrage restrictions impose a direct link between some of the quantities that may be identified from...... the return and option data. These include the so-called jump activity index as well as the time-varying jump intensity. We propose penalized least squares estimation in which we minimize L_2 distance between observed and model-implied options and further penalize for the deviation of model-implied quantities...

  17. Rotary reactor for atomic layer deposition on large quantities of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J. A.; Cloutier, B. L.; Weimer, A. W.; George, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    Challenges are encountered during atomic layer deposition (ALD) on large quantities of nanoparticles. The particles must be agitated or fluidized to perform the ALD surface reactions in reasonable times and to prevent the particles from being agglomerated by the ALD film. The high surface area of nanoparticles also demands efficient reactant usage because large quantities of reactant are required for the surface reactions to reach completion. The residence time of the reactant in a fluidized particle bed reactor may be too short for high efficiency if the ALD surface reactions have low reactive sticking coefficients. To address these challenges, a novel rotary reactor was developed to achieve constant particle agitation during static ALD reactant exposures. In the design of this new reactor, a cylindrical drum with porous metal walls was positioned inside a vacuum chamber. The porous cylindrical drum was rotated by a magnetically coupled rotary feedthrough. By rotating the cylindrical drum to obtain a centrifugal force of less than one gravitational force, the particles were agitated by a continuous 'avalanche' of particles. In addition, an inert N 2 gas pulse helped to dislodge the particles from the porous walls and provided an efficient method to purge reactants and products from the particle bed. The effectiveness of this rotary reactor was demonstrated by Al 2 O 3 ALD on ZrO 2 particles. A number of techniques including transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the Al 2 O 3 ALD film conformally coats the ZrO 2 particles. Combining static reactant exposures with a very high surface area sample in the rotary reactor also provides unique opportunities for studying the surface chemistry during ALD

  18. The importance of food quantity and quality for reproductive performance in alpine water pipits (Anthus spinoletta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Paul A; Reyer, H-U; Bollmann, Kurt; Schläpfer, Alex R; Rauter, Claudia

    1997-01-01

    Studies relating reproduction to food availability are usually restricted to food quantity, but ignore food quality and the effects of habitat structure on obtaining the food. This is particularly true for insectivorous birds. In this study we relate measures of reproductive success, time of reproduction and nestling size of water pipits (Anthus spinoletta) to biomass, taxonomic composition and nutritional content of available food, and to vegetation structure and distance to feeding sites. Clutch size was positively correlated with the proportion of grass at the feeding sites, which facilitates foraging. This suggests that water pipits adapt their clutch size to environmental conditions. Also, pipits started breeding earlier and produced more fledglings when abundant food and a large proportion of grass were available, probably because these conditions allow the birds to gain more energy in less time. The number of fledglings was positively correlated with the energy content of available food. No significant relationships were found between feeding conditions and nestling size or the time that nestlings took to fledge. This suggests that water pipits do not invest more in individual nestlings when food conditions are favourable but rather start breeding earlier and produce more young. Taxonomic composition and nutritional content of prey were not correlated with any of the reproductive parameters, indicating that profitability rather than quality of food affects reproductive success.

  19. The effect of resource quantity and resource stoichiometry on microbial carbon-use-efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiblinger, K.M.; Hall, E.K.; Wanek, W.; Szukics, U.; Hämmerle, I.; Ellersdorfer, G.; Böck, S.; Strauss, J.; Sterflinger, K.; Richter, A.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon-use-efficiency (CUE) of microorganisms is an important parameter in determining ecosystem-level carbon (C) cycling; however, little is known about how variance in resources affects microbial CUE. To elucidate how resource quantity and resource stoichiometry affect microbial CUE, we cultured four microorganisms - two fungi (Aspergillus nidulans and Trichoderma harzianum) and two bacteria (Pectobacterium carotovorum and Verrucomicrobium spinosum) - under 12 unique C, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) ratios. Whereas the CUE of A. nidulans was strongly affected by C, bacterial CUE was more strongly affected by mineral nutrients (N and P). Specifically, CUE in P. carotovorum was positively correlated with P, while CUE of V. spinosum primarily depended on N. This resulted in a positive relationship between fungal CUE and resource C : nutrient stoichiometry and a negative relationship between bacterial CUE and resource C : nutrient stoichiometry. The difference in the direction of the relationship between CUE and C : nutrient for fungi vs. bacteria was consistent with differences in biomass stoichiometry and suggested that fungi have a higher C demand than bacteria. These results suggest that the links between biomass stoichiometry, resource demand and CUE may provide a mechanism for commonly observed temporal and spatial patterns in microbial community structure and function in natural habitats.

  20. The Dynamics of Pheromone Gland Synthesis and Release: a Paradigm Shift for Understanding Sex Pheromone Quantity in Female Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Casas, Jérôme

    2018-05-10

    Moths are exemplars of chemical communication, especially with regard to specificity and the minute amounts they use. Yet, little is known about how females manage synthesis and storage of pheromone to maintain release rates attractive to conspecific males and why such small amounts are used. We developed, for the first time, a quantitative model, based on an extensive empirical data set, describing the dynamical relationship among synthesis, storage (titer) and release of pheromone over time in a moth (Heliothis virescens). The model is compartmental, with one major state variable (titer), one time-varying (synthesis), and two constant (catabolism and release) rates. The model was a good fit, suggesting it accounted for the major processes. Overall, we found the relatively small amounts of pheromone stored and released were largely a function of high catabolism rather than a low rate of synthesis. A paradigm shift may be necessary to understand the low amounts released by female moths, away from the small quantities synthesized to the (relatively) large amounts catabolized. Future research on pheromone quantity should focus on structural and physicochemical processes that limit storage and release rate quantities. To our knowledge, this is the first time that pheromone gland function has been modeled for any animal.

  1. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Armstrong, Cheryl L H; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-26

    Higher protein meals increase satiety and the thermic effect of feeding (TEF) in acute settings, but it is unclear whether these effects remain after a person becomes acclimated to energy restriction or a given protein intake. This study assessed the effects of predominant protein source (omnivorous, beef/pork vs. lacto-ovo vegetarian, soy/legume) and quantity (10%, 20%, or 30% of energy from protein) on appetite, energy expenditure, and cardio-metabolic indices during energy restriction (ER) in overweight and obese adults. Subjects were randomly assigned to one protein source and then consumed diets with different quantities of protein (4 weeks each) in a randomized crossover manner. Perceived appetite ratings (free-living and in-lab), TEF, and fasting cardio-metabolic indices were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Protein source and quantity did not affect TEF, hunger, or desire to eat, other than a modestly higher daily composite fullness rating with 30% vs. 10% protein diet (p = 0.03). While the 20% and 30% protein diets reduced cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and APO-B vs. 10% protein (p appetite control, energy expenditure and cardio-metabolic risk factors during ER-induced weight loss.

  2. Memory for multiple cache locations and prey quantities in a food-hoarding songbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eArmstrong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most animals can discriminate between pairs of numbers that are each less than four without training. However, North Island robins (Petroica longipes, a food hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, can discriminate between quantities of items as high as eight without training. Here we investigate whether robins are capable of other complex quantity discrimination tasks. We test whether their ability to discriminate between small quantities declines with 1. the number of cache sites containing prey rewards and 2. the length of time separating cache creation and retrieval (retention interval. Results showed that subjects generally performed above chance expectations. They were equally able to discriminate between different combinations of prey quantities that were hidden from view in 2, 3 and 4 cache sites from between 1, 10 and 60 seconds. Overall results indicate that North Island robins can process complex quantity information involving more than two discrete quantities of items for up to one minute long retention intervals without training.

  3. Positive Parenting and Challenging Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…

  4. Measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in metallic lithium and lithium oxide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The LBM program requires that nanocurie quantities of tritium, bred in both lithium oxide pellets and lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding + or - 6%. Two methods of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in LBM lithium oxide pellets and one method of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in lithium samples are described. Potential errors associated with these tritium measurement techniques are also discussed

  5. Quantity-split strategy under two-contractor competitive procurement environment

    OpenAIRE

    Boger, Dan C.; Liao, Shu S.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the various market scenarios that provide bid price manipulation opportunities under the dual source competition environment. Two different quantity-split strategies were developed one for the case when one of the suppliers does not have the capacity to produce the majority of the annual quantity requirement and the other for the case when neither contractor is interested in using low prices to capture the larger share of annual quantity. Keywords: Dual sourcing, Quantit...

  6. Uncertainties in the measured quantities of water leaving waste Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minteer, D.J.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system each month. Such measurements are essential for heat removal estimation and tank liquid level verification purposes. The uncertainty associated with the current, infrequent, manual method of measurement (involves various psychrometric and pressure measurements) is suspected to be unreasonably high. Thus, the possible reduction of this uncertainty using a continuous, automated method of measurement will also be estimated. There are three major conclusions as a result of this analysis: (1) the uncertainties associated with the current (infrequent, manual) method of measuring the water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 per month via the ventilation system are indeed quite high (80% to 120%); (2) given the current psychrometric and pressure measurement methods and any tank which loses considerable moisture through active ventilation, such as Tank 241-C-106, significant quantities of liquid can actually leak from the tank before a leak can be positively identified via liquid level measurement; (3) using improved (continuous, automated) methods of taking the psychrometric and pressure measurements, the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water leaving Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system can be reduced by approximately an order of magnitude.

  7. Uncertainties in the measured quantities of water leaving waste Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minteer, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to estimate the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system each month. Such measurements are essential for heat removal estimation and tank liquid level verification purposes. The uncertainty associated with the current, infrequent, manual method of measurement (involves various psychrometric and pressure measurements) is suspected to be unreasonably high. Thus, the possible reduction of this uncertainty using a continuous, automated method of measurement will also be estimated. There are three major conclusions as a result of this analysis: (1) the uncertainties associated with the current (infrequent, manual) method of measuring the water which typically leaves Tank 241-C-106 per month via the ventilation system are indeed quite high (80% to 120%); (2) given the current psychrometric and pressure measurement methods and any tank which loses considerable moisture through active ventilation, such as Tank 241-C-106, significant quantities of liquid can actually leak from the tank before a leak can be positively identified via liquid level measurement; (3) using improved (continuous, automated) methods of taking the psychrometric and pressure measurements, the uncertainty in the measured quantity of water leaving Tank 241-C-106 via the ventilation system can be reduced by approximately an order of magnitude

  8. Lie-Mei symmetry and conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao-Wei; Li Yuan-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The Rosenberg problem is a typical but not too complicated problem of nonholonomic mechanical systems. The Lie—Mei symmetry and the conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem are studied. For the Rosenberg problem, the Lie and the Mei symmetries for the equation are obtained, the conserved quantities are deduced from them and then the definition and the criterion for the Lie—Mei symmetry of the Rosenberg problem are derived. Finally, the Hojman conserved quantity and the Mei conserved quantity are deduced from the Lie—Mei symmetry. (general)

  9. Lie-Mei symmetry and conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    The Rosenberg problem is a typical but not too complicated problem of nonholonomic mechanical systems. The Lie—Mei symmetry and the conserved quantities of the Rosenberg problem are studied. For the Rosenberg problem, the Lie and the Mei symmetries for the equation are obtained, the conserved quantities are deduced from them and then the definition and the criterion for the Lie—Mei symmetry of the Rosenberg problem are derived. Finally, the Hojman conserved quantity and the Mei conserved quantity are deduced from the Lie—Mei symmetry.

  10. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. [[Page 82321

  11. [Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system] / Stefan Werner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Werner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Pärtel Lippus. The acoustic features and perception of the Estonian quantity system. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2011. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 29)

  12. On the Output-Inflation Relationship When Price and Quantity Adjustments are Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danziger, Leif; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    A vast literature analyzes the real effects of price-adjustment costs assuming that quantity adjustments are costless. In this paper, we analyze whether the presence of quantity-adjustments costs, which presumably are significant, change the traditional results on the impact of inflation....... In particular, recent findings suggest that quantity-adjustment costs may remove the linkage between output and inflation. We show that this is not the case when inflation is anticipated. On the contrary, quantity-adjustment costs may significantly amplify the consequences of price-adjustment costs...

  13. Patterns in new dimensionless quantities containing melting temperature, and their dependence on pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. WALZER

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships existing between melting temperature and other
    macroscopic physical quantities are investigated. A new dimensionless
    quantity Q(1 not containing the Grtineisen parameter proves to be suited for serving in future studies as a tool for the determination of the melting temperature in the outer core of the Earth. The pressure dependence of more general dimensionless quantities Q„ is determined analytically and, for the chemical elements, numerically, too. The patterns of various interesting dimensionless quantities are shown in the Periodic Table and compared.

  14. Quantity assessment of waste in the dismantlement of liquid waste treatment plant and its actual state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Takafumi; Mitsuhashi, Ishi; Matsumoto, Tetsuo; Morishima, Kayoko; Tanzawa, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    From the progress of decommissioning project work of Tokyo City University Atomic Energy Research Institute, this paper reports the comparison between the actual amount of the waste generated during dismantlement work at liquid waste treatment facilities and the assessment quantity before starting the dismantlement. The quantity assessment was made on the basis of the installation license application, design specifications, drawings, records, history of use, site investigation results, etc. Since this quantity assessment did not take into account the dismantling contents of reservoir concrete, the assessed quantity of non-radioactive waste (NR waste) did not match the sum of actual NR waste. However, if an actually generated quantity of concrete of radioactive waste was added to the quantity assessment as NR waste, the quantity of actually generated NR waste and that of assessed NR waste were nearly consistent, which verified the validity of this assessment. This method is considered to be able to be utilized in the future quantity assessment of decommissioning work and the like. On the other hand, it was found that the number of drums that were actually stored tended to increase more than the estimated number of drum conversion. In old buildings, it is necessary to take into account the generation of waste other than radioactive materials in the quantity assessment stage and dismantlement stage. (A.O.)

  15. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  16. Relationships between interplanetary quantities and the global auroral electrojet index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, A.; Wolfe, A.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied, using linear cross correlation and multilinear regression analyses, statistical relations between the magnetospheric auroral electrojet intensity index AE and various parameters characterizing the interplanetary plasma and magnetic field. We also consider the recently proposed epsilon parameter as an independent variable. The analyses were carried out separately for twenty-eight days in mid 1975 and for each of five individual magnetic storm intervals that have been previously discussed extensively in the literature. We find that when the interplanetary data set is not distinguished as to the direction of the north-south component B/sub z/, the interplanetary electric field -VB/sub z/ carried to the front of the magnetosphere correlates with AE substantially better than does epsilon. Considering only data during which B/sub z/ is negative gives a slightly better correlation of epsilon with AE than of the electric field with AE. The correlations are valid for the specific storm periods as well as for the unrestricted twenty-eight days of data. Our results suggest that the physical processes involved in energy transfer to the nightside magnetosphere depend upon the direction of the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field: the interplanetary electric field plays an important role during northward B/sub z/ and the epsilon parameter and the electric field both provide an indication of energy transfer and substorm activity during southward B/sub z/

  17. A weight of evidence framework for environmental assessments: Inferring quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Glenn; Cormier, Susan; Barron, Mace

    2017-11-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a generally applicable framework for a weight-of-evidence (WoE) process for deriving quantitative values from multiple estimates. These guidelines are intended for environmental assessments that require the generation of quantitative parameters such as degradation rates or that develop quantitative products such as criterion values or magnitudes of effects. The basic steps are to weigh evidence for the environmental quality to be quantified, generate the value by merging estimates or by identifying the best estimate, and weight the results to determine confidence in the numerical value. When multiple data sets or outputs of multiple models are available, it may be appropriate to weigh the evidence. Use of the framework to weigh multiple estimates may increase the accuracy of quantitative results compared to a single estimate from a default method. Its use can provide greater transparency compared to ad hoc weighing of evidence. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1045-1051. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Survival with breast cancer: the importance of estrogen receptor quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, L L; Godolphin, W

    1989-02-01

    The survival of 1184 British Columbian women whose primary breast cancers were diagnosed and assayed for estrogen receptor (ER) between 1975 and 1981 was studied. Median follow-up was 60 months. ER concentrations yielded greater prognostic information than simple positive and negative categories. When ER data were divided into four strata: less than or equal to 1, 2-9, 10-159 and greater than or equal to 160 fmol/mg cytosol protein, the association of higher ER with prolonged survival was highly significant (P less than 0.0001) and independent of TNM stage, nodal status and menopausal status. ER less than or equal to 1 and ER = 2-9 groups were distinct with respect to overall disease-specific survival. Patient age did not predict survival when controlled for ER. Prolonged recurrence-free survival was associated with higher ER (P = 0.0001) for at least 5 years after diagnosis. This significant trend persisted after adjustments for nodal status, TNM stage, menopausal status and the type of systemic adjuvant therapy.

  19. Technology development for evaluation of operational quantities in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Lyul; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, L. T.; Kim, B. H.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Lim, G. S.; Kim, J. S.; Nam, Y. M.; Chang, J. K.; Kim, D. Y.; Yang, J. S

    2000-03-01

    A study on the fabrication of a new personal thermo-luminescence dosimeter, which can evaluate the personal dose equivalent H{sub p}(d), has been performed. Optimum conditions for fabrication of a LiF:Mg,Cu,Na,Si TL phosphor powder has been determined and a disc type TL pellet has been fabricated from this TL powder. Another type of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,Mo TL material has been also fabricated. These two TL materials have shown greater TL sensitivity than the foreign-made commercial TL materials. Mono-energetic fluorescence X-ray from 8.6 keV to 75 keV for use in performance testing of the developed TLDs energy response have been constructed and evaluated for the performance of the purity, air kerma, beam uniformity and distribution, and scattered fraction of X-rays. Reference neutron field of a D{sub 2}O moderated {sup 252}Cf source was characterized and the irradiation system using {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs sources was installed to construct the environmental gamma reference radiation and the low-level gamma radiation. A capability of calibration and measurement of KAERI In Vivo counting system for transuranic elements in the lung has been evaluated through the participation in the overseas intercomparison study on the In Vivo radioactivity measurement. An improvement and advancement of KAERI lung counting technology have been made by the analysis off uncertainties from the assumption of uniform radioactivity distribution in the lung, experimental determination and comparing of detection efficiency with different lung sets, and mathematical efficiency calibration of In Vivo counting system. (author)

  20. Estimation of a quantity of interest in uncertainty analysis: Some help from Bayesian decision theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasanisi, Alberto; Keller, Merlin; Parent, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In the context of risk analysis under uncertainty, we focus here on the problem of estimating a so-called quantity of interest of an uncertainty analysis problem, i.e. a given feature of the probability distribution function (pdf) of the output of a deterministic model with uncertain inputs. We will stay here in a fully probabilistic setting. A common problem is how to account for epistemic uncertainty tainting the parameter of the probability distribution of the inputs. In the standard practice, this uncertainty is often neglected (plug-in approach). When a specific uncertainty assessment is made, under the basis of the available information (expertise and/or data), a common solution consists in marginalizing the joint distribution of both observable inputs and parameters of the probabilistic model (i.e. computing the predictive pdf of the inputs), then propagating it through the deterministic model. We will reinterpret this approach in the light of Bayesian decision theory, and will put into evidence that this practice leads the analyst to adopt implicitly a specific loss function which may be inappropriate for the problem under investigation, and suboptimal from a decisional perspective. These concepts are illustrated on a simple numerical example, concerning a case of flood risk assessment.

  1. Urban rainwater runoff quantity and quality - A potential endogenous resource in cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrill, Sara; Petit-Boix, Anna; Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Josa, Alejandro; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2017-03-15

    Rainwater harvesting might help to achieve self-sufficiency, but it must comply with health standards. We studied the runoff quantity and quality harvested from seven urban surfaces in a university campus in Barcelona according to their use (pedestrian or motorized mobility) and materials (concrete, asphalt and slabs). An experimental rainwater harvesting system was used to collect the runoff resulting from a set of rainfall events. We estimated the runoff coefficient and initial abstraction of each surface and analyzed the physicochemical and microbiological properties, and hydrocarbon and metal content of the samples. Rainfall intensity, surface material and state of conservation were essential parameters. Because of low rainfall intensity and surface degradation, the runoff coefficient was variable, with a minimum of 0.41. Concrete had the best quality, whereas weathering and particulate matter deposition led to worse quality in asphalt areas. Physicochemical runoff quality was outstanding when compared to superficial and underground water. Microorganisms were identified in the samples (>1 CFU/100 mL) and treatment is required to meet human consumption standards. Motorized traffic mostly affects the presence of metals such as zinc (31.7 μg/L). In the future, sustainable mobility patterns might result in improved rainwater quality standards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Calculation of Hazard Category 2/3 Threshold Quantities Using Contemporary Dosimetric Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, William C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the methodology and selection of input data utilized to calculate updated Hazard Category 2 and Hazard Category 3 Threshold Quantities (TQs) using contemporary dosimetric information. The calculation of the updated TQs will be considered for use in the revision to the Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Standard (STD-) 1027-92 Change Notice (CN)-1, “Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.” The updated TQs documented in this report complement an effort previously undertaken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), which in 2014 issued revised Supplemental Guidance documenting the calculation of updated TQs for approximately 100 radionuclides listed in DOE-STD-1027-92, CN-1. The calculations documented in this report complement the NNSA effort by expanding the set of radionuclides to more than 1,250 radionuclides with a published TQ. The development of this report was sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Safety (AU-30) within the Associate Under Secretary for Environment, Health, Safety, and Security organization.

  3. Modelling informally collected quantities of bulky waste and reusable items in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramusch, R; Pertl, A; Scherhaufer, S; Schmied, E; Obersteiner, G

    2015-10-01

    Disparities in earnings between Western and Eastern European countries are the reason for a well-established informal sector actively involved in collection and transboundary shipment activities from Austria to Hungary. The preferred objects are reusable items and wastes within the categories bulky waste, WEEE and metals, intended to be sold on flea markets. Despite leading to a loss of recyclable resources for Austrian waste management, these informal activities may contribute to the extension of the lifetime of certain goods when they are reused in Hungary; nevertheless they are discussed rather controversially. The aim of this paper is to provide objective data on the quantities informally collected and transhipped. The unique activities of informal collectors required the development and implementation of a new set of methodologies. The concept of triangulation was used to verify results obtained by field visits, interviews and a traffic counting campaign. Both approaches lead to an estimation of approx. 100,000 t per year of reusable items informally collected in Austria. This means that in addition to the approx. 72 kg/cap/yr formally collected bulky waste, bulky waste wood, household scrap (excluding packaging) and WEEE, up to a further 12 kg/cap/yr might, in the case that informal collection is abandoned, end up as waste or in the second-hand sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bee pollination increases yield quantity and quality of cash crops in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Katharina; Coulibaly, Drissa; Stenchly, Kathrin; Goetze, Dethardt; Porembski, Stefan; Lindner, André; Konaté, Souleymane; Linsenmair, Eduard K

    2017-12-18

    Mutualistic biotic interactions as among flowering plants and their animal pollinators are a key component of biodiversity. Pollination, especially by insects, is a key element in ecosystem functioning, and hence constitutes an ecosystem service of global importance. Not only sexual reproduction of plants is ensured, but also yields are stabilized and genetic variability of crops is maintained, counteracting inbreeding depression and facilitating system resilience. While experiencing rapid environmental change, there is an increased demand for food and income security, especially in sub-Saharan communities, which are highly dependent on small scale agriculture. By combining exclusion experiments, pollinator surveys and field manipulations, this study for the first time quantifies the contribution of bee pollinators to smallholders' production of the major cash crops, cotton and sesame, in Burkina Faso. Pollination by honeybees and wild bees significantly increased yield quantity and quality on average up to 62%, while exclusion of pollinators caused an average yield gap of 37% in cotton and 59% in sesame. Self-pollination revealed inbreeding depression effects on fruit set and low germination rates in the F1-generation. Our results highlight potential negative consequences of any pollinator decline, provoking risks to agriculture and compromising crop yields in sub-Saharan West Africa.

  5. An analysis of fast critical experiments using JEF-1-based 50-group constant set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Do; Gil, Choong Sup; Kim, Young Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    JEF-1-based 50-group cross section set for fast reactor calculations was generated using NJOY system. The set was then examined by analyzing measured integral quantities such as criticality and central reaction rate ratios for 27 fast critical assemblies. The calculated results using the new set were also compared with those of ENDF/B-IV or -V based fast set. In general, the JEF-1-based set shows an improvement in predicting measured integral quantities in comparison with the previous set. With a few exceptions, JEF-1 results are compareble to those of ENDF/B-V.

  6. Fuzzy sets, rough sets, multisets and clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlbom, Anders; Narukawa, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Prof. Sadaaki Miyamoto and presents cutting-edge papers in some of the areas in which he contributed. Bringing together contributions by leading researchers in the field, it concretely addresses clustering, multisets, rough sets and fuzzy sets, as well as their applications in areas such as decision-making. The book is divided in four parts, the first of which focuses on clustering and classification. The second part puts the spotlight on multisets, bags, fuzzy bags and other fuzzy extensions, while the third deals with rough sets. Rounding out the coverage, the last part explores fuzzy sets and decision-making.

  7. Radio-Frequency Tank Eigenmode Sensor for Propellant Quantity Gauging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Buchanan, David A.; Follo, Jeffrey C.; Vaden, Karl R.; Wagner, James D.; Asipauskas, Marius; Herlacher, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Although there are several methods for determining liquid level in a tank, there are no proven methods to quickly gauge the amount of propellant in a tank while it is in low gravity or under low-settling thrust conditions where propellant sloshing is an issue. Having the ability to quickly and accurately gauge propellant tanks in low-gravity is an enabling technology that would allow a spacecraft crew or mission control to always know the amount of propellant onboard, thus increasing the chances for a successful mission. The Radio Frequency Mass Gauge (RFMG) technique measures the electromagnetic eigenmodes, or natural resonant frequencies, of a tank containing a dielectric fluid. The essential hardware components consist of an RF network analyzer that measures the reflected power from an antenna probe mounted internal to the tank. At a resonant frequency, there is a drop in the reflected power, and these inverted peaks in the reflected power spectrum are identified as the tank eigenmode frequencies using a peak-detection software algorithm. This information is passed to a pattern-matching algorithm, which compares the measured eigenmode frequencies with a database of simulated eigenmode frequencies at various fill levels. A best match between the simulated and measured frequency values occurs at some fill level, which is then reported as the gauged fill level. The database of simulated eigenmode frequencies is created by using RF simulation software to calculate the tank eigenmodes at various fill levels. The input to the simulations consists of a fairly high-fidelity tank model with proper dimensions and including internal tank hardware, the dielectric properties of the fluid, and a defined liquid/vapor interface. Because of small discrepancies between the model and actual hardware, the measured empty tank spectra and simulations are used to create a set of correction factors for each mode (typically in the range of 0.999 1.001), which effectively accounts for

  8. On the differentiability of central Cantor sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaza, S.; Vera, J.

    1992-09-01

    In this article for each r ≥ 1 we provide a class of C r central Cantor sets whose self-arithmetic difference is a Cantor set of positive Lebesgue measure. When r ≥ 2 these sets are dynamically defined. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs

  9. The good, the bad and the plenty: interactive effects of food quality and quantity on the growth of different Daphnia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovinszky, Tibor; Verschoor, Antonie M; Helmsing, Nico R; Bezemer, T Martijn; Bakker, Elisabeth S; Vos, Matthijs; de Senerpont Domis, Lisette N

    2012-01-01

    Effects of food quality and quantity on consumers are neither independent nor interchangeable. Although consumer growth and reproduction show strong variation in relation to both food quality and quantity, the effects of food quality or food quantity have usually been studied in isolation. In two experiments, we studied the growth and reproduction in three filter-feeding freshwater zooplankton species, i.e. Daphnia galeata x hyalina, D. pulicaria and D. magna, on their algal food (Scenedesmus obliquus), varying in carbon to phosphorus (C∶P) ratios and quantities (concentrations). In the first experiment, we found a strong positive effect of the phosphorus content of food on growth of Daphnia, both in their early and late juvenile development. Variation in the relationship between the P-content of animals and their growth rate reflected interspecific differences in nutrient requirements. Although growth rates typically decreased as development neared maturation, this did not affect these species-specific couplings between growth rate and Daphnia P-content. In the second experiment, we examined the effects of food quality on Daphnia growth at different levels of food quantity. With the same decrease in P-content of food, species with higher estimated P-content at zero growth showed a larger increase in threshold food concentrations (i.e. food concentration sufficient to meet metabolic requirements but not growth). These results suggest that physiological processes such as maintenance and growth may in combination explain effects of food quality and quantity on consumers. Our study shows that differences in response to variation in food quality and quantity exist between species. As a consequence, species-specific effects of food quality on consumer growth will also determine how species deal with varying food levels, which has implications for resource-consumer interactions.

  10. Price effects of changing quantities supplied at the integrated european fish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Smit, Jos; Guillen, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    to be −1.1. This implies that price flexibilities previously estimated for single European countries underestimate price changes at the European level caused by quantity changes. Results indicate that changing quantities can increase revenues from individual species with large own-price flexibilities...

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.507-4 - Quantities in excess of the maximum order limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Quantities in excess of... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.507-4 Quantities in...

  12. 48 CFR 852.270-2 - Bread and bakery products-quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bread and bakery products... Bread and bakery products—quantities. As prescribed in 870.111-3, insert the following clause: Bread and Bakery Products—Quantities (JAN 2008) The bidder agrees to furnish up to 25 percent more or 25 percent...

  13. 29 CFR 780.814 - “Grown in commercial quantities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT... “commercial” quantities, the trade understanding of what are “commercial” quantities of cotton would be...

  14. Non-Noether conserved quantity for differential equations of motion in the phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A non-Noether conserved quantity for the differential equations of motion of mechanical systems in the phase space is studied. The differential equations of motion of the systems are established and the determining equations of Lie symmetry are given. An existence theorem of non-Noether conserved quantity is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  15. Are Quantity Surveyors Competent to Value for Civil Engineering Works? Evaluating QSs' Competencies and Militating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olawumi, Timothy Oluwatosin; Ayegun, Olaleke Amos

    2016-01-01

    The role of the quantity surveyor is one that is often unclear amongst the general public. This study discussed the competencies of the quantity surveyor in measuring and managing civil engineering works and also carrying out the financial management for civil engineering construction projects; also outlined the various competencies and skills…

  16. 40 CFR 355.12 - What quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMERGENCY PLANNING AND NOTIFICATION Emergency Planning Who Must Comply § 355.12 What quantities of extremely... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What quantities of extremely hazardous substances trigger emergency planning requirements? 355.12 Section 355.12 Protection of Environment...

  17. Variations of influence quantities in industrial irradiators and their effect on dosimetry performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Many environmental factors, including irradiation temperature, post-irradiation storage temperature, dose rate, relative humidity, oxygen content and the energy spectrum may affect the response of dosimetry systems used in industrial radiation processing. Although the effects of individual influence quantities have been extensively studied, the variations of these influence quantities in production irradiators and the complex relationships between the effects of different influence quantities make it difficult to assess the overall effect on the measurement uncertainty. In the development of new dosimetry systems it is important to know the effect of each influence quantity and developers of new dosimetry systems should perform studies over a wide range of irradiation conditions. Analysis parameters and manufacturing specifications should be chosen to minimize the effect of influence quantities in the environments where the dosimeters will be used. Because of possible relationships between different influence quantities, care must be taken to ensure that the response function determined in the calibration of the dosimetry system is applicable for the conditions in which the dosimeters will be used. Reference standard dosimetry systems which have been thoroughly studied and have known relationships between dose response and influence quantities should be used to verify the calibration of routine dosimetry systems under the actual conditions of use. Better understanding of the variations in influence quantities in industrial irradiators may be obtained by modeling or direct measurements and may provide improvements in the calibration of routine dosimetry system and reduction of the overall measurement uncertainty. (author)

  18. 16 CFR 500.7 - Net quantity of contents, method of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... expression. The net quantity of contents shall be expressed in terms of weight or mass, measure, numerical... consumers. The net quantity of contents statement shall be in terms of fluid measure if the commodity is liquid, or in terms of weight or mass if the commodity is solid, semi-solid, or viscous, or a mixture of...

  19. 19 CFR 151.47 - Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products. 151.47 Section 151.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF... Petroleum and Petroleum Products § 151.47 Optional entry of net quantity of petroleum or petroleum products...

  20. A small quantity of sodium arsenite will kill large cull hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis M. Rushmore

    1956-01-01

    Although it is well known that sodium arsenite is an effective silvicide, forestry literature contains little information about the minimum quantities of this chemical that are required to kill large cull trees. Such information would be of value because if small quantities of a chemical will produce satisfactory results, small holes or frills in the tree will hold it...

  1. Radiation Exposure Decreases the Quantity and Quality of Cardiac Stem Cells in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lan; Urata, Yoshishige; Yan, Chen; Hasan, Al Shaimaa; Goto, Shinji; Guo, Chang-Ying; Tou, Fang-Fang; Xie, Yucai; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure may increase cardiovascular disease risks; however, the precise molecular/cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that radiation impairs cardiac stem cells (CSCs), thereby contributing to future cardiovascular disease risks. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3 Gy γ-rays, and heart tissues were collected 24 hours later for further experiments. Although c-kit-positive cells were rarely found, radiation exposure significantly induced apoptosis and DNA damage in the cells of the heart. The ex vivo expansion of CSCs from freshly harvested atrial tissues showed a significantly lower production of CSCs in irradiated mice compared with healthy mice. The proliferative activity of CSCs evaluated by Ki-67 expression was not significantly different between the groups. However, compared to the healthy control, CSCs expanded from irradiated mice showed significantly lower telomerase activity, more 53BP1 foci in the nuclei, lower expression of c-kit and higher expression of CD90. Furthermore, CSCs expanded from irradiated mice had significantly poorer potency in the production of insulin-like growth factor-1. Our data suggest that radiation exposure significantly decreases the quantity and quality of CSCs, which may serve as sensitive bio-parameters for predicting future cardiovascular disease risks. PMID:27195709

  2. Radiation Exposure Decreases the Quantity and Quality of Cardiac Stem Cells in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Luo

    Full Text Available Radiation exposure may increase cardiovascular disease risks; however, the precise molecular/cellular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that radiation impairs cardiac stem cells (CSCs, thereby contributing to future cardiovascular disease risks. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3 Gy γ-rays, and heart tissues were collected 24 hours later for further experiments. Although c-kit-positive cells were rarely found, radiation exposure significantly induced apoptosis and DNA damage in the cells of the heart. The ex vivo expansion of CSCs from freshly harvested atrial tissues showed a significantly lower production of CSCs in irradiated mice compared with healthy mice. The proliferative activity of CSCs evaluated by Ki-67 expression was not significantly different between the groups. However, compared to the healthy control, CSCs expanded from irradiated mice showed significantly lower telomerase activity, more 53BP1 foci in the nuclei, lower expression of c-kit and higher expression of CD90. Furthermore, CSCs expanded from irradiated mice had significantly poorer potency in the production of insulin-like growth factor-1. Our data suggest that radiation exposure significantly decreases the quantity and quality of CSCs, which may serve as sensitive bio-parameters for predicting future cardiovascular disease risks.

  3. Dynamics of the population quantity of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. in different habitats in Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Li, J.; Zhang, W.

    2015-01-01

    Transects were arranged on the shady and sunny slopes, as well as at different elevations of the main, eastern, central, and western gullies in the Wild Walnut Nature Reserve in Xinjiang, China to survey a large sample of Juglans mandshurica. The structures of height class and diameter at breast height (DBH) class were used to represent age structure to compare and analyze the dynamics of the population quantity of J. mandshurica in different habitats. Results showed that J. mandshurica population comprises numerous young seedlings, which develop into young plants with a high death rate. The number of adult plants is stable. J. mandshurica population is r-strategists in the young stage, and k-strategists supplemented by r-strategists in the juvenile and subsequent stages. The structures of height class and DBH class fluctuate at different slope aspects and elevations. The growth of young seedlings into adult plants is discontinuous. Tree height and DBH are relatively uniform in the same age class, and the coefficient of variation is independent of slope aspect and elevation. The maximum numbers of age classes in J. mandshurica population with different height and DBH classes differ at three elevations. Low- and medium-age classes are dominant in all situations. That is, population is mainly composed of juvenile and adult trees, and age structure is classified as a growth type. Without strong external interference, J. mandshurica population will maintain its superior position in the community. (author)

  4. Drivers militating against the pricing of sustainable construction materials: The Ghanaian quantity surveyors perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kissi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has in recent times attained much acceptance as a result of its positive impact on the environment, social and economic issues. Nevertheless, in developing countries, the price of sustainable construction materials are too high. The aim of the study was to examine drivers militating against the pricing of sustainable construction materials. Through an in-depth review of literature as well as an interview survey, questionnaire was designed and administered to practicing quantity surveyors. Data generated from the survey was analysed using Principal Component Analysis which resulted four main drivers. These included: awareness challenge (AC, sustainability measurement tools challenge (SMTC, economic challenge (EC, and information challenge (IC. The study offers useful lessons on sustainable practices that pricing experts in the construction industry can draw on when pricing.The need for this study cannot be doubted since the consciousness of such challenges will help in resolving issues associated with pricing of sustainable construction materials. Keywords: Drivers, Militating, Pricing, Sustainable construction materials, Ghanaian

  5. The effect of quantity of added eggs on whole meal pasta quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the convenience of different chemical and rheological methods for determining the quality of two spelt cultivars for pasta making and the influence of egg quantity on whole meal pasta quality. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit has been calculated to show significant differences between different samples. Score analysis is being useful tool for accessing the effect of eggs to spelt pasta quality, and this analysis proved that though lower scores (0.270 for rheological characteristics experienced with cultivar Eco, the addition of eggs is positively contributing to the spelt pasta quality yielding the best score for pasta (0.75, contrary to the cultivar Austria attributed with superior rheology scores. Whole meal spelt is characterised by lower Ca, but higher Fe and Mn content in comparison to bread wheat. In comparison with common pasta, spelt is a suitable raw material for a new product with improved functional properties at the market.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31055

  6. Toward new instruments for measurement of low concentration hydrogen sulfide in small-quantity aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiao Chu; Wu, Dong Qing; Zhang, W J; Sammynaiken, R; Yang, Wei; Wang, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Endogenously generated hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been found to play some important physiological roles in the nervous and cardiovascular systems, such as a neuromodulator and a vasorelaxant. These roles are in contrast to our common perception that H 2 S is toxic. However, whether H 2 S plays a positive or negative role is dependent on the H 2 S concentration levels in mammals. This further puts a high demand on the accurate measurement of H 2 S in mammals with a further desire to be real time, continuous and in vivo. Existing methods for H 2 S measurement require a large number of tissue samples with complex procedures, and these methods are extremely invasive. The development of new in vivo and real-time methods for measuring H 2 S is, however, a great challenge. In the present study, we proposed and examined five potential H 2 S measurement methods: (1) atomic force microscopy with coating materials, (2) Raman spectroscopy on the H 2 S solutions, (3) gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (with the static headspace technique) on the H 2 S solutions, (4) mass spectroscopy on unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes treated with the H 2 S solutions and (5) Raman spectroscopy on unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes treated with the H 2 S solutions. Our study concluded that method (5) is the most promising one for detecting low concentration H 2 S in small-quantity aqueous solutions in terms of measurement resolution and non-invasiveness, but the method is not very robust

  7. IDMS analysis of blank swipe samples for uranium quantity and isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryjinski, M.; Donohue, D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1996 the IAEA has started routine implementation of environmental sampling. During the last 5 years more than 1700 swipe samples were collected and analyzed in the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL). One sensitive point of analyzing environmental samples is evidence of the presence of enriched U. The U content on swipes is extremely low and therefore there is a relatively high probability of a false positive, e.g. small contamination or a measurement bias. In order to avoid and/or control this the IAEA systematically sends to the laboratories blind blank QC samples. In particular more than 50 blank samples were analyzed during the last two years. A preliminary analysis of blank swipes showed the swipe material itself contains up to 10 ng of NU per swipe. However, about 50% of blind blank swipes analyzed show the presence of enriched uranium. A source of this bias has to be clarified and excluded. This paper presents the results of modeling of IDMS analysis for quantity and isotopic composition of uranium in order to identify the possible contribution of different factors to the final measurement uncertainty. This modeling was carried out based on the IAEA Clean Laboratory measurement data and simulation technique

  8. MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICANT FLOW ANALYSIS IN END MILLING PROCESSES: A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Najiha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional steady-state incompressible analysis for the minimum quantity of lubricant flow in milling operations using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. The analysis of flow and heat transfer in a four-teeth milling cutter operation was undertaken. The domain of the rotating cutter along with the spray nozzle is defined. Operating cutting and boundary conditions are taken from the literature. A steady-state, pressure-based, planar analysis was performed with a viscous, realizable k-ε model. A mixture of oils and air were sprayed on the tool, which is considered to be rotating and is at a temperature near the melting temperature of the workpiece. Flow fields are obtained from the study. The vector plot of the flow field shows that the flow is not evenly distributed over the cutter surface, as well as the uneven distribution of the lubricant in the direction of the cutter rotation. It can be seen that the cutting fluid has not completely penetrated the tool edges. The turbulence created by the cutter rotation in the proximity of the tool throws oil drops out of the cutting zone. The nozzle position in relation to the feed direction is very important in order to obtain the optimum effect of the MQL flow.

  9. Calibration of personal dosemeters in terms of the ICRU operational quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Hertel, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) has defined several new operational quantities for radiation protection purposes. The quantities to be used for personal monitoring are defined at depths in the human body. Because these quantities are impossible to measure directly, the ICRU has recommended that personal dosimeters should be calibrated under simplified conditions on an appropriate phantom, such as the ICRU sphere. The U.S. personal dosimetry accreditation programs make use of a 30 x 30 x 15 cm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom; therefore it is necessary to relate the response of dosimeters calibrated on this phantom to the ICRU operational quantities. Calculations of the conversion factors to compute dosimeter response in terms of the operational quantities have been performed using the code MCNP. These calculations have also been compared to experimental measurements using thermoluminescent (TLD) detectors. (author)

  10. Calibration of personal dosemeters in terms of the ICRU operational quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Hertel, N.E.

    1992-05-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) has defined several new operational quantities for radiation protection purposes. The quantities to be used for personal monitoring are defined at depths in the human body. Because these quantities are impossible to measure directly, the ICRU has recommended that personal dosemeters should be calibrated under simplified conditions on an appropriate phantom, such as the ICRU sphere. The US personal dosimetry accreditation programs make use of a 30 x 30 x 15 cm polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) phantom, therefore it is necessary to relate the response of dosemeters calibrated on this phantom to the ICRU operational quantities. Calculations of the conversion factors to compute dosemeter response in terms of the operational quantities have been performed using the code MCNP. These calculations have also been compared to experimental measurements using thermoluminescent (TLD) detectors

  11. Climate change policy position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is a firm believer in the need to take action to mitigate the risks associated with climate change, and that clear government policy is called for. The principles of sustainable development must guide this policy development effort. The initiatives required to address greenhouse gas emissions over both the short and long term must be carefully considered, and it is up to industries to ensure their production efficiency and emission intensity. Promoting improved performance of industries in Canada and developing technology that can be deployed internationally for larger global effects represents Canada's best contribution to progress on greenhouse gas emissions. The increase in energy demand along with increases in population and economic growth have contributed to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions despite improved energy efficiency in industry. Significant damage to the economy will result if Canada is to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol, forcing the country to buy large quantities of foreign credits instead of using those funds for increased research and development. CAPP indicated that an effective plan must be: balanced, equitable, responsible, competitive, focused on technology and innovation, and based on agreements on sectoral plans. Each of these principles were discussed, followed by the fundamentals of approach for upstream oil and gas. The framework for climate change policy was described as well as the elements of a sector plan. CAPP wants to work with all levels of government on an appropriate plan for Canada, that considers our unique circumstances. Canada can play a significant role on the international stage by properly implementing the policy position proposed by the CAPP without unnecessary risks to the economy. refs

  12. Competition and facilitation between a native and a domestic herbivore: trade-offs between forage quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, David J; Springer, Tim L

    2013-06-01

    Potential competition between native and domestic herbivores is a major consideration influencing the management and conservation of native herbivores in rangeland ecosystems. In grasslands of the North American Great Plains, black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are widely viewed as competitors with cattle but are also important for biodiversity conservation due to their role in creating habitat for other native species. We examined spatiotemporal variation in prairie dog effects on growing-season forage quality and quantity using measurements from three colony complexes in Colorado and South Dakota and from a previous study of a fourth complex in Montana. At two complexes experiencing below-average precipitation, forage availability both on and off colonies was so low (12-54 g/m2) that daily forage intake rates of cattle were likely constrained by instantaneous intake rates and daily foraging time. Under these dry conditions, prairie dogs (1) substantially reduced forage availability, thus further limiting cattle daily intake rates, and (2) had either no or a small positive effect on forage digestibility. Under such conditions, prairie dogs are likely to compete with cattle in direct proportion to their abundance. For two complexes experiencing above-average precipitation, forage quantity on and off colonies (77-208 g/m2) was sufficient for daily forage intake of cattle to be limited by digestion rather than instantaneous forage intake. At one complex where prairie dogs enhanced forage digestibility and [N] while having no effect on forage quantity, prairie dogs are predicted to facilitate cattle mass gains regardless of prairie dog abundance. At the second complex where prairie dogs enhanced digestibility and [N] but reduced forage quantity, effects on cattle can vary from competition to facilitation depending on prairie dog abundance. Our findings show that the high spatiotemporal variation in vegetation dynamics characteristic of semiarid grasslands

  13. The central position currently occupied by remittances in the economic fi eld has largely restricted its scope on the monetary dimension of them, setting aside their hidden complexity and the variety of forms, uses and meanings that they can take. In fact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Lacomba Vázquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The central position currently occupied by remittances in the economic fi eld has largely restricted its scope on the monetary dimension of them, setting aside their hidden complexity and the variety of forms, uses and meanings that they can take. In fact, the social dimension of different types of remittances, as mainly own social remittances, should be considered more as one of the most signifi cant effects of migration in relation to human development. The purpose of this paper is try to contribute to the field of remittances, both in studying the socia dimensions that they contain, and in trying to make a more precise onceptualization on them.

  14. Estimated quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H repository at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagros, Annika

    2008-12-01

    The quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H type repository have been estimated in this report. The repository is assumed to be constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Western Finland. Both the total quantities of the materials introduced into the repository and the quantities of materials that remain in the repository after closure have been calculated. The calculations are largely based on a similar work regarding the material quantities in the Finnish KBS-3V repository and the main goal has been to identify the differences between the KBS-3H and KBS-3V repositories with respect to the type and quantities of residual materials. As the design of the KBS-3H repository is not final yet, the results are only preliminary. Several alternative designs were assumed in the calculations, resulting in different total quantities of materials. The design alternatives that had the greatest effect on the total material quantities were the two different tunnel backfill options, bentonite-crushed rock and Friedland clay. If Friedland clay is used instead of a bentonite-crushed rock mixture, the total quantity of pyrite remaining in the repository is 20 times larger and the quantities of organic materials and gypsum are also increased significantly. The other design alternatives did not have a substantial effect on the total material quantities. The remaining quantity of cement can be reduced by some 20% by selecting the silica grouting alternative in the sealing of the rock mass and low-pH cement in the shotcreting of the repository, instead of using the ordinary cement alternatives. If the total quantity of steel should be minimised, the use of the DAWE design alternative would be better than the Basic Design, although the total reduction would be less than 10%. The main difference between the different drift end plug alternatives is related to the total remaining quantity of silica, which is some 80% smaller if the rock plug is used instead of the LHHP (Low Heat High

  15. Estimated quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H repository at Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagros, Annika (Sannio and Riekkola OY (Finland))

    2008-12-15

    The quantities of residual materials in a KBS-3H type repository have been estimated in this report. The repository is assumed to be constructed at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki, Western Finland. Both the total quantities of the materials introduced into the repository and the quantities of materials that remain in the repository after closure have been calculated. The calculations are largely based on a similar work regarding the material quantities in the Finnish KBS-3V repository and the main goal has been to identify the differences between the KBS-3H and KBS-3V repositories with respect to the type and quantities of residual materials. As the design of the KBS-3H repository is not final yet, the results are only preliminary. Several alternative designs were assumed in the calculations, resulting in different total quantities of materials. The design alternatives that had the greatest effect on the total material quantities were the two different tunnel backfill options, bentonite-crushed rock and Friedland clay. If Friedland clay is used instead of a bentonite-crushed rock mixture, the total quantity of pyrite remaining in the repository is 20 times larger and the quantities of organic materials and gypsum are also increased significantly. The other design alternatives did not have a substantial effect on the total material quantities. The remaining quantity of cement can be reduced by some 20% by selecting the silica grouting alternative in the sealing of the rock mass and low-pH cement in the shotcreting of the repository, instead of using the ordinary cement alternatives. If the total quantity of steel should be minimised, the use of the DAWE design alternative would be better than the Basic Design, although the total reduction would be less than 10%. The main difference between the different drift end plug alternatives is related to the total remaining quantity of silica, which is some 80% smaller if the rock plug is used instead of the LHHP (Low Heat High

  16. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  17. SETS reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Set Equation Transformation System (SETS) is used to achieve the symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations. Symbolic manipulation involves changing equations from their original forms into more useful forms - particularly by applying Boolean identities. The SETS program is an interpreter which reads, interprets, and executes SETS user programs. The user writes a SETS user program specifying the processing to be achieved and submits it, along with the required data, for execution by SETS. Because of the general nature of SETS, i.e., the capability to manipulate Boolean equations regardless of their origin, the program has been used for many different kinds of analysis

  18. Non-Noether Conserved Quantity for Relativistic Nonholonomic System with Variable Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yongfen; Li Renjie; Ma Yongsheng

    2005-01-01

    Using form invariance under special infinitesimal transformations in which time is not variable, the non-Noether conserved quantity of the relativistic nonholonomic system with variable mass is studied. The differential equations of motion of the system are established. The definition and criterion of the form invariance of the system under infinitesimal transformations are studied. The necessary and sufficient condition under which the form invariance is a Lie symmetry is given. The condition under which the form invariance can be led to a non-Noether conserved quantity and the form of the conserved quantity are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  19. Coordinated Lot-sizing and Dynamic Prizing under a Supplier All-units Quantity Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Transchel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider an economic order quantity model where the supplier offers an all-units quantity discount and a price sensitive customer demand. We compare a decentralized decision framework where selling price and replenishment policy are determined independently to simultaneous decision making. Constant and dynamic pricing are distinguished. We derive structural properties and develop algorithms that determine the optimal pricing and replenishment policy and show how quantity discounts not only influence the purchasing strategy but also the pricing policy. A sensitivity analysis indicates the impact of the fixed-holding cost ratio, the discount policy, and the customers' price sensitivity on the optimal decisions.

  20. Validity of the concept of absorbed dose as a physical quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Jun-Ichiro; Katoh, Kazuaki.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of the 'absorbed dose' of ionizing radiation is scrutinized from physical point of view. It is shown that the concept and definition of the quantity in the ICRU system is disqualified as a physical quantity and the absorbed dose can not always be a 'measure of cause' in describing causality relation between radiation and effects on matter. The current absorbed dose depends even on the energy that have already been brought out from the matter, contrary to the intention of introducing the quantity. Trials to remove these difficulties are made. However, it is also shown there still exists an essential problem that cannot be solved by improving the formulation. (author)

  1. QUANTITY DISCOUNTS IN SUPPLIER SELECTION PROBLEM BY USE OF FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjo Perić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection in supply chain is a multi-criteria problem that involves a number of quantitative and qualitative factors. This paper deals with a concrete problem of flour purchase by a company that manufactures bakery products and the purchasing price of flour depends on the quantity ordered. The criteria for supplier selection and quantities supplied by individual suppliers are: purchase costs, product quality and reliability of suppliers. The problem is solved using a model that combines revised weighting method and fuzzy multi-criteria linear programming (FMCLP. The paper highlights the efficiency of the proposed methodology in conditions when purchasing prices depend on order quantities.

  2. Benign positional vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; BPPV: dizziness- positional ... Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). It is caused by a problem in the inner ear. ...

  3. Prescribed fires effects on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion in a Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Plaza Alvaréz, Pedro Antonio; Sagra, Javier; Alfaro Sánchez, Raquel; Moya, Daniel; Ferrandiz Gotor, Pablo; De las Heras Ibañez, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    Wildfires have an important influence in forest ecosystems. Contrary to high severity fire, which may have negative impacts on the ecosystems, low severity induce small changes on soil properties. Thus and in order to reduce fire risk, low-severity prescribed fires have been widely used as a fuel reduction tool and silvicultural treatment in Mediterranean forest ecosystems. However, fire may alter microsite conditions and little is known about the impact of prescribed burning on the physico-chemical properties of runoff. In this study, we compared the effects of prescribed burning on physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil erosion during twelve months after a low severity prescribed fire applied in twelve 16 m2 plot (6 burned plots and 6 control plots used for comparison) set up in the Lezuza forest (Albacete, central-eastern Spain). Physico-chemical properties and quantity of runoff and soil losses were monitored after each rainfall event (five rainfall events in total). Also, different forest stand characteristics (slope, tree density, basal area and shrub/herbal cover) affecting each plot were measured. Results showed that forest stand characteristics were very similar in all used plots. Also, physico-chemical runoff properties were highly modified after the prescribed fire, increasing water pH, carbonates, bicarbonates, total dissolved solids and organic matter content dissolved in water. Electrical conductivity, calcium, sodium, chloride and magnesium were not affected by prescribed fire. Soil losses were highly related to precipitation intensity and tree interception. Tree intercepted the rainfall and significantly reduced soil losses and also runoff quantity. In conclusion and after the first six-month experiment, the influence of prescribed fires on physico-chemical runoff properties should be taken into account for developing proper prescribed burnings guidelines.

  4. Impacts of biofuels production alternatives on water quantity and quality in the Iowa River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn stover as well as perennial grasses like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and miscanthus are being considered as candidates for the second generation biofuel feedstocks. However, the challenges to biofuel development are its effects on the environment, especially water quality. This study evaluates the long-term impacts of biofuel production alternatives (e.g., elevated corn stover removal rates and the potential land cover change) on an ecosystem with a focus on biomass production, soil erosion, water quantity and quality, and soil nitrate nitrogen concentration at the watershed scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified for setting land cover change scenarios and applied to the Iowa River Basin (a tributary of the Upper Mississippi River Basin). Results show that biomass production can be sustained with an increased stover removal rate as long as the crop demand for nutrients is met with appropriate fertilization. Although a drastic increase (4.7–70.6%) in sediment yield due to erosion and a slight decrease (1.2–3.2%) in water yield were estimated with the stover removal rate ranging between 40% and 100%, the nitrate nitrogen load declined about 6–10.1%. In comparison to growing corn, growing either switchgrass or miscanthus can reduce sediment erosion greatly. However, land cover changes from native grass to switchgrass or miscanthus would lead to a decrease in water yield and an increase in nitrate nitrogen load. In contrast to growing switchgrass, growing miscanthus is more productive in generating biomass, but its higher water demand may reduce water availability in the study area.

  5. Impact of Past Land Use Changes on Drinking Water Quantity and Quality in Ljubljana Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Cencur Curk, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    Most of the practical problems that we face today with the on-site management of drinking water sources and distribution of healthy drinking water, originate from past actions, interventions and political decisions. In Ljubljana, the capital of the Republic of Slovenia, underlying groundwater is the main drinking water source. The main threat to drinking water sources is constant input of pollutant loads from roads, roofs, sewers, industry and agricultural areas. The main problems are directly and indirectly related to the significant decrease of groundwater level and deterioration of groundwater quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices under varying climate conditions. The Vodovod-Kanalizacija Public Utility is responsible for water supply of the city residents as well as for management of the water supply system, its surveillance and maintenance. In the past, the Ljubljana Municipality was responsible for the protection of water resources and the first delineation of groundwater protection areas was issued in Decree in 1955. In 2004 a Decree on the water protection zones for the aquifer of Ljubljansko polje on the state level was issued and passed the competences of proclamation of the water protection zones to the state. Spatial planning is a domain of The Municipality and land use is limited according to water protection legislation. For several observation wells long-time data sets about groundwater levels and quality are available, which enable us to analyse changes in groundwater quantity and quality parameters. From the data it is obvious that climate variations are affecting groundwater recharge. In addition, changing of land use affects groundwater quality. In spite of the Decree on the water protection there is a heavy pressure of investors to change land use plans and regulations on protection zones, which causes every day problems in managing the drinking water source. Groundwater management in Ljubljana demands strong

  6. Sets in Coq, Coq in Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Barras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is about formalizing models of various type theories of the Calculus of Constructions family. Here we focus on set theoretical models. The long-term goal is to build a formal set theoretical model of the Calculus of Inductive Constructions, so we can be sure that Coq is consistent with the language used by most mathematicians.One aspect of this work is to axiomatize several set theories: ZF possibly with inaccessible cardinals, and HF, the theory of hereditarily finite sets. On top of these theories we have developped a piece of the usual set theoretical construction of functions, ordinals and fixpoint theory. We then proved sound several models of the Calculus of Constructions, its extension with an infinite hierarchy of universes, and its extension with the inductive type of natural numbers where recursion follows the type-based termination approach.The other aspect is to try and discharge (most of these assumptions. The goal here is rather to compare the theoretical strengths of all these formalisms. As already noticed by Werner, the replacement axiom of ZF in its general form seems to require a type-theoretical axiom of choice (TTAC.

  7. Study of dimensionless quantities to analyse front and rear wall of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydrodynamic quantities describe the mechanism behind flow pattern present in .... beam is focused into a small spot adjustable approximately 0.1 to 0.8 mm in ... moves, the liquefied metal around the 'keyhole' flows back in, solidifying and.

  8. The Effect of Quantity, Quality and Timing of Headquarters-Initiated Knowledge Flows on Subsidiary Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Mahnke, Volker; Ambos, Björn

    2010-01-01

    quality/performance relationship and a curvilinear quantity/performance relationship, indicating that too much knowledge sharing can be detrimental to the receiving subsidiary. Most importantly, we show that the timing of a knowledge flow significantly affects subsidiary sales performance....

  9. The effect of vial type and cocktail quantity on tritium measurement in LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhilin; Xing Shixiong; Wang Heyi; Chang Ruimin; Wu Guanyin; Zhou Yinhang

    2010-01-01

    The effect of sample vial type and cocktail quantity on tritium measurement in liquid scintillation counting is studied in this paper. With both high and low level tritium samples, glass vials allow higher counting rates than plastic vials do. We also present detailed analysis of the way to obtain the optimal counting condition by dispensing different quantity of cocktail into sample vials. Results indicate that the optimal counting condition has little relationship with tritium concentration in the sample. The main factor which influences the counting is the quantity of cocktail added into samples. Figure of merit is employed to access the results, which increases as the quantity of cocktail increasing. But when the ratio of cocktail and sample reaches 2.0, increase of ratio makes little contribution to the counts, and the disintegrations per minute comes nearly to be a constant.

  10. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement

  11. 3D facial expression recognition based on histograms of surface differential quantities

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Chen, Liming

    2011-01-01

    . To characterize shape information of the local neighborhood of facial landmarks, we calculate the weighted statistical distributions of surface differential quantities, including histogram of mesh gradient (HoG) and histogram of shape index (HoS). Normal cycle

  12. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality management with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth......-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water...... quality module can handle conservative pollutants, first order depletion and non-linear reactions. For demonstration purposes, we model pollutant releases as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and use the Streeter-Phelps equation for oxygen deficit to compute the resulting min-imum dissolved oxygen...

  13. Effects of herbivore exclosures on variation in quality and quantity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of herbivore exclosures on variation in quality and quantity of plants among ... commercial and game) and among habitat types (open savanna, rocky and pan) in a semiarid savanna in South Africa. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaku Fukunaga

    Full Text Available The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor's law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases.

  15. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Gaku; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor's law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases.

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved organic matter quantity and quality in the Mississippi River Basin, 1997–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Stets, Edward G.; Clow, David W.; Burns, Douglas A.; Aiken, George R.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Creed, Irena F.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Laudon, Hjalmar; Pellerin, Brian; Striegl, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have found insignificant or decreasing trends in time-series dissolved organic carbon (DOC) datasets, questioning the assumption that long-term DOC concentrations in surface waters are increasing in response to anthropogenic forcing, including climate change, land use, and atmospheric acid deposition. We used the weighted regressions on time, discharge, and season (WRTDS) model to estimate annual flow-normalized concentrations and fluxes to determine if changes in DOC quantity and quality signal anthropogenic forcing at 10 locations in the Mississippi River Basin. Despite increases in agriculture and urban development throughout the basin, net increases in DOC concentration and flux were significant at only 3 of 10 sites from 1997 to 2013 and ranged between −3.5% to +18% and −0.1 to 19%, respectively. Positive shifts in DOC quality, characterized by increasing specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm, ranged between +8% and +45%, but only occurred at one of the sites with significant DOC quantity increases. Basinwide reductions in atmospheric sulfate deposition did not result in large increases in DOC either, likely because of the high buffering capacity of the soil. Hydroclimatic factors including annual discharge, precipitation, and temperature did not significantly change during the 17-year timespan of this study, which contrasts with results from previous studies showing significant increases in precipitation and discharge over a century time scale. Our study also contrasts with those from smaller catchments, which have shown stronger DOC responses to climate, land use, and acidic deposition. This temporal and spatial analysis indicated that there was a potential change in DOC sources in the Mississippi River Basin between 1997 and 2013. However, the overall magnitude of DOC trends was not large, and the pattern in quantity and quality increases for the 10 study sites was not consistent throughout the basin.

  17. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  18. By Default: The Effect of Prepopulated Prescription Quantities on Opioid Prescribing in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santistevan, Jamie R; Sharp, Brian R; Hamedani, Azita G; Fruhan, Scott; Lee, Andrew W; Patterson, Brian W

    2018-03-01

    Opioid prescribing patterns have come under increasing scrutiny with the recent rise in opioid prescriptions, opioid misuse and abuse, and opioid-related adverse events. To date, there have been limited studies on the effect of default tablet quantities as part of emergency department (ED) electronic order entry. Our goal was to evaluate opioid prescribing patterns before and after the removal of a default quantity of 20 tablets from ED electronic order entry. We performed a retrospective observational study at a single academic, urban ED with 58,000 annual visits. We identified all adult patients (18 years or older) seen in the ED and discharged home with prescriptions for tablet forms of hydrocodone and oxycodone (including mixed formulations with acetaminophen). We compared the quantity of tablets prescribed per opioid prescription 12 months before and 10 months after the electronic order-entry prescription default quantity of 20 tablets was removed and replaced with no default quantity. No specific messaging was given to providers, to avoid influencing prescribing patterns. We used two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum test, two-sample test of proportions, and Pearson's chi-squared tests where appropriate for statistical analysis. A total of 4,104 adult patients received discharge prescriptions for opioids in the pre-intervention period (151.6 prescriptions per 1,000 discharged adult patients), and 2,464 post-intervention (106.69 prescriptions per 1,000 discharged adult patients). The median quantity of opioid tablets prescribed decreased from 20 (interquartile ration [IQR] 10-20) to 15 (IQR 10-20) (pdefault quantity. While the most frequent quantity of tablets received in both groups was 20 tablets, the proportion of patients who received prescriptions on discharge that contained 20 tablets decreased from 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.48-0.52]) to 0.23 (95% CI [0.21-0.24]) (pdefault quantity removal. Although the median number of tablets differed significantly

  19. Unified Symmetry and Conserved Quantities of Mechanical System in Phase Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jianhui; Ding Ning; Wang Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new symmetry and its conserved quantities of a mechanical system in phase space are studied. The definition of this new symmetry, i.e., a unified one is presented, and the criterion of this symmetry is also given. The Noether, the generalized Hojman and the Mei conserved quantities of the unified symmetry of the system are obtained. The unified symmetry contains the Noether, the Lie and the Mei symmetries, and has more generalized significance.

  20. Water Quality and Quantity in Intermittent and Continuous Piped Water Supplies in Hubli-Dharwad, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpel, Emily Katherine

    2013-01-01

    In at least 45 low- and middle-income countries, piped water systems deliver water for limited durations. Few data are available of the impact of intermittent water supply (IWS) on the water quality and quantity delivered to households. This thesis examines the impact of intermittently supplied piped water on the quality and quantity of water delivered to residential taps in Hubli-Dharwad, India, when compared to continuous piped water supply. A framework for understanding the pathways throug...

  1. QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN ECOLOGICAL AND INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIKA TOBIAŠOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Impact of farming system on the quantity and quality of soil organic matter was studied. The experiment was situated on Haplic Luvisol of Research – experimental base of Slovak University of Agriculture Dolná Malanta, where over a period of 5 years soil samples from ecological (ES and integrated (IS farming system were collected. In period of 5 years, on average higher contents of total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (NT were in ES (1.219%; 1382 mg.kg-1 than in IS (1.121%; 1262 mg.kg-1. TOC content in the ES was on the level of variants with application of farmyard manure, while in the IS it was on the level of non-fertilized variants. The highest contents of TOC and non-labile carbon (CNL were recorded in 2010 when the previous crops were alfalfa (Medicago sativa and pea (Pisum sativum. Higher content of CNL was in the ES than in the IS. A positive linear relationship between the amounts of precipitation per year and during the vegetation was observed not only between TOC contents (r = 0.914, P < 0.05 and r = 0.971, P < 0.01, but also CNL contents (r = 0.880, P < 0.05 and r = 0.952, P < 0.05. The most stabilized humus substances were in 2007, when the highest average temperature per year and during the vegetation was recorded. In 2010, the lowest amounts of extracted humus substances were recorded, with domination of humic acids. Their stability, however, on the base of colour coefficients of humus substances and humic acids were the lowest from all years. The humus substances were more stabilized in the IS than in the ES.

  2. Sperm competition leads to functional adaptations in avian testes to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim; Damm, Oliver S; Rivers, James W; Birkhead, Tim R

    2011-05-01

    The outcome of sperm competition (i.e. competition for fertilization between ejaculates from different males) is primarily determined by the relative number and quality of rival sperm. Therefore, the testes are under strong selection to maximize both sperm number and quality, which are likely to result in trade-offs in the process of spermatogenesis (e.g. between the rate of spermatogenesis and sperm length or sperm energetics). Comparative studies have shown positive associations between the level of sperm competition and both relative testis size and the proportion of seminiferous (sperm-producing) tissue within the testes. However, it is unknown how the seminiferous tissue itself or the process of spermatogenesis might evolve in response to sperm competition. Therefore, we quantified the different germ cell types and Sertoli cells (SC) in testes to assess the efficiency of sperm production and its associations with sperm length and mating system across 10 species of New World Blackbirds (Icteridae) that show marked variation in sperm length and sperm competition level. We found that species under strong sperm competition generate more round spermatids (RS)/spermatogonium and have SC that support a greater number of germ cells, both of which are likely to increase the maximum sperm output. However, fewer of the RS appeared to elongate to mature spermatozoa in these species, which might be the result of selection for discarding spermatids with undesirable characteristics as they develop. Our results suggest that, in addition to overall size and gross morphology, testes have also evolved functional adaptations to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

  3. Relationship between Performance of Quantity Surveying Students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Nathaniel Ayinde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholders in the educational sector over the century have devoted substantial resources in seeking ways of improving students’ academic performance, yet, the desired improved academic performance has not been achieved. By appraising the relationship between the performance of Quantity Surveying (QS students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement courses; the study identified a major curriculum drafting deficiency in the QS programmes in Nigeria which if addressed could help achieve the much needed improved students’ academic performance. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the performance of QS students in Building construction and construction Measurement Courses; and to determine whether a relationship exist in the performances of QS students in the two subject areas. Purposive sampling technique was used to select Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State for the study. Random sampling technique was used to select 241 students who provide data for the study. Close ended questionnaire was used to collect data for the study and data was analyzed using frequency, percentile and correlation analysis. Finding indicates that 43% of the respondents on the average put up good performances in Building Construction Courses while only 19% of the respondents on the average had good grades in Construction Measurement Courses. Results also showed that a significant relationship exist between the performance of QS students in Building Construction and Construction Measurement courses as 83.3% (five out of six pair courses shows significant positive linear correlation. The study recommends that a quick curriculum re-adjustment should be initiated so as to enhance improved academic performance by QS Students especially in Construction Measurement courses.

  4. Positive Youth Psychology: Lessons from Positive Peer Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula; Brendtro, Larry K.

    2013-01-01

    Positive Peer Culture (PPC) is a strength-oriented approach developed by Vorrath and Brendtro (1985) to prevent or reverse negative peer influence by building a climate of peer concern and respect. PPC operates in a range of settings including residential treatment, alternative schools, juvenile justice, and youth leadership groups. It is an…

  5. Progress toward forecasting product quality and quantity of mammalian cell culture processes by performance-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidberger, Timo; Posch, Christoph; Sasse, Alexandra; Gülch, Carina; Huber, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The production of biopharmaceuticals requires highly sophisticated, complex cell based processes. Once a process has been developed, acceptable ranges for various control parameters are typically defined based on process characterization studies often comprising several dozens of small scale bioreactor cultivations. A lot of data is generated during these studies and usually only the information needed to define acceptable ranges is processed in more detail. Making use of the wealth of information contained in such data sets, we present here a methodology that uses performance data (such as metabolite profiles) to forecast the product quality and quantity of mammalian cell culture processes based on a toolbox of advanced statistical methods. With this performance based modeling (PBM) the final product concentration and 12 quality attributes (QAs) for two different biopharmaceutical products were predicted in daily intervals throughout the main stage process. The best forecast was achieved for product concentration in a very early phase of the process. Furthermore, some glycan isoforms were predicted with good accuracy several days before the bioreactor was harvested. Overall, PBM clearly demonstrated its capability of early process endpoint prediction by only using commonly available data, even though it was not possible to predict all QAs with the desired accuracy. Knowing the product quality prior to the harvest allows the manufacturer to take counter measures in case the forecasted quality or quantity deviates from what is expected. This would be a big step towards real-time release, an important element of the FDA's PAT initiative. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Automated Decisional Model for Optimum Economic Order Quantity Determination Using Price Regressive Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşu, M. M.; Tarbă, C. I.; Neagu, C.

    2016-11-01

    The current models for inventory management are complementary, but together they offer a large pallet of elements for solving complex problems of companies when wanting to establish the optimum economic order quantity for unfinished products, row of materials, goods etc. The main objective of this paper is to elaborate an automated decisional model for the calculus of the economic order quantity taking into account the price regressive rates for the total order quantity. This model has two main objectives: first, to determine the periodicity when to be done the order n or the quantity order q; second, to determine the levels of stock: lighting control, security stock etc. In this way we can provide the answer to two fundamental questions: How much must be ordered? When to Order? In the current practice, the business relationships with its suppliers are based on regressive rates for price. This means that suppliers may grant discounts, from a certain level of quantities ordered. Thus, the unit price of the products is a variable which depends on the order size. So, the most important element for choosing the optimum for the economic order quantity is the total cost for ordering and this cost depends on the following elements: the medium price per units, the stock cost, the ordering cost etc.

  7. Establishment and Evaluation of Decommissioning Plant Inventory DB and Waste Quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Moon, Sang-Rae; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Hee-Geun; Sung, Nak-Hoon; Jung, Seung Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) made a decision for permanent shutdown of Kori-1 and has progressed the strategy determination and R and D for the decommissioning of Kori-1. Decommissioning waste, Structure, System and Components (SSCs) is one of the most important elements. Decommissioning waste quantity is calculated based on Plant Inventory Database (PI DB) with activation and contamination data. Due to the largest portion of waste management and disposal in decommissioning, it is necessary to exactly evaluate waste quantity (applying the regulation, guideline and site-specific characterization) for economic feasibility. In this paper, construction of PI DB and evaluation of waste quantity for Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR-1000) are mainly described. Decommissioning waste quantities evaluated are going to be applied to calculation of the project cost. In fact, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) in Korea expected the decommissioning waste quantity in a range of 14,500-18,850 drums, and predicted appropriate liability for decommissioning fund by using waste quantity. The result of this study is also computed by the range of 14,500-18,850 drums. Since there is no site-specific data for the NPP site, this evaluation is the preliminary analysis

  8. Establishment and Evaluation of Decommissioning Plant Inventory DB and Waste Quantity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Yong; Moon, Sang-Rae; Yun, Taesik; Kim, Hee-Geun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Nak-Hoon; Jung, Seung Hyuk [KONES Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) made a decision for permanent shutdown of Kori-1 and has progressed the strategy determination and R and D for the decommissioning of Kori-1. Decommissioning waste, Structure, System and Components (SSCs) is one of the most important elements. Decommissioning waste quantity is calculated based on Plant Inventory Database (PI DB) with activation and contamination data. Due to the largest portion of waste management and disposal in decommissioning, it is necessary to exactly evaluate waste quantity (applying the regulation, guideline and site-specific characterization) for economic feasibility. In this paper, construction of PI DB and evaluation of waste quantity for Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR-1000) are mainly described. Decommissioning waste quantities evaluated are going to be applied to calculation of the project cost. In fact, Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) in Korea expected the decommissioning waste quantity in a range of 14,500-18,850 drums, and predicted appropriate liability for decommissioning fund by using waste quantity. The result of this study is also computed by the range of 14,500-18,850 drums. Since there is no site-specific data for the NPP site, this evaluation is the preliminary analysis.

  9. Value Set Authority Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The VSAC provides downloadable access to all official versions of vocabulary value sets contained in the 2014 Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Each value set...

  10. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suicide Populations Racial/Ethnic Groups Older Adults Adolescents LGBT Military/Veterans Men Effective Prevention Comprehensive Approach Identify ... Based Prevention Settings American Indian/Alaska Native Settings Schools Colleges and Universities Primary Care Emergency Departments Behavioral ...

  11. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  12. Evaluating the Quantity and Quality of Continuing medical education Programs from the Viewpoint of General Medical Practitioners, Ilam Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Fatahi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the quantity and quality of continuing medical education programs from the viewpoint of general medical practitioners in Ilam province.Methods: The research method was descriptive survey and the statistic sample was a group of 61 general medical practitioners who have been working in Ilam during 2010-2011 and were chosen by simple random sampling method. The data collection tool was a questionnaire with 50 items and reliability coefficient obtained using Cronbach's alpha which was 88%.Results: The findings showed that there is a meaningful/significant relationship between CME (Continuing Medical Education/retraining programs and improving GPs (General Practitioner clinical skills with reliability of 99% and this relationship is direct and positive (r=0.502. It means that increasing the quality and quantity of these programs has positive effect on improving general practitioners’ clinical skills. There was no meaningful/significant relationship between the method of teaching and GPs satisfaction (r=0.160. It means most of these practitioners were not satisfied with using training equipment, teaching methods, teachers' knowledge and manners. Also, there was no meaningful/significant relationship between teaching times and educational materials and GPs satisfaction (r=0.73 .It shows that the rate of GPs satisfaction from teaching times and educational materials is very low and there is little coherence between them. But there was a meaningful/significant relationship between GPs job requirements and educational materials with reliability of 95% (r=0.326. It means presenting suitable teaching materials and content related to GPs jobs requirements led to increase GPs desire to attend educational classes .There was no meaningful/significant relationship between time dedicated to each topic and improving GPs skills (r=0.096. So, findings indicate that there is no coincidence between

  13. Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization and urban land use leads to degradation of local stream habitat and 'urban stream syndrome.' Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often used in an attempt to mitigate the impact of urban land use on stream water quality and quantity. Traditional development has employed stormwater BMPs that were placed in a centralized manner located either in the stream channel or near the riparian zone to treat stormwater runoff from large drainage areas; however, urban streams have largely remained impaired. Recently, distributed placement of BMPs throughout the landscape has been implemented in an attempt to detain, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas near its source. Despite increasing implementation of distributed BMPs, little has been reported on the catchment-scale (1-10 km^2) performance of distributed BMPs and how they compare to centralized BMPs. The Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA), located in the Washington, DC exurbs within the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed, is undergoing rapid urbanization and employs distributed BMPs on the landscape that treat small drainage areas with the goal of preserving high-quality stream resources in the area. In addition, the presence of a nearby traditionally developed (centralized BMPs) catchment and an undeveloped forested catchment makes the CSPA an ideal setting to understand how the best available stormwater management technology implemented during and after development affects stream water quality and quantity through a comparative watershed analysis. The Clarksburg Integrated Monitoring Partnership is a consortium of local and federal agencies and universities that conducts research in the CSPA including: monitoring of stream water quality, geomorphology, and biology; analysis of stream hydrological and water quality data; and GIS mapping and analysis of land cover, elevation change and BMP implementation data. Here, the impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity

  14. Sets, Planets, and Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mark; Beltran, Jane; Buell, Jason; Conrey, Brian; Davis, Tom; Donaldson, Brianna; Detorre-Ozeki, Jeanne; Dibble, Leila; Freeman, Tom; Hammie, Robert; Montgomery, Julie; Pickford, Avery; Wong, Justine

    2013-01-01

    Sets in the game "Set" are lines in a certain four-dimensional space. Here we introduce planes into the game, leading to interesting mathematical questions, some of which we solve, and to a wonderful variation on the game "Set," in which every tableau of nine cards must contain at least one configuration for a player to pick up.

  15. Axiomatic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1972-01-01

    This clear and well-developed approach to axiomatic set theory is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, finite sets and cardinal numbers, rational and real numbers, and other subjects. 1960 edition.

  16. Paired fuzzy sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we want to stress the relevance of paired fuzzy sets, as already proposed in previous works of the authors, as a family of fuzzy sets that offers a unifying view for different models based upon the opposition of two fuzzy sets, simply allowing the existence of different types...

  17. Numeric model to predict the location of market demand and economic order quantity for retailers of supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradinata, Edy; Marli Kesuma, Zurnila

    2018-05-01

    Polynomials and Spline regression are the numeric model where they used to obtain the performance of methods, distance relationship models for cement retailers in Banda Aceh, predicts the market area for retailers and the economic order quantity (EOQ). These numeric models have their difference accuracy for measuring the mean square error (MSE). The distance relationships between retailers are to identify the density of retailers in the town. The dataset is collected from the sales of cement retailer with a global positioning system (GPS). The sales dataset is plotted of its characteristic to obtain the goodness of fitted quadratic, cubic, and fourth polynomial methods. On the real sales dataset, polynomials are used the behavior relationship x-abscissa and y-ordinate to obtain the models. This research obtains some advantages such as; the four models from the methods are useful for predicting the market area for the retailer in the competitiveness, the comparison of the performance of the methods, the distance of the relationship between retailers, and at last the inventory policy based on economic order quantity. The results, the high-density retail relationship areas indicate that the growing population with the construction project. The spline is better than quadratic, cubic, and four polynomials in predicting the points indicating of small MSE. The inventory policy usages the periodic review policy type.

  18. Set size and culture influence children's attention to number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Lisa; Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B

    2015-03-01

    Much research evidences a system in adults and young children for approximately representing quantity. Here we provide evidence that the bias to attend to discrete quantity versus other dimensions may be mediated by set size and culture. Preschool-age English-speaking children in the United States and Japanese-speaking children in Japan were tested in a match-to-sample task where number was pitted against cumulative surface area in both large and small numerical set comparisons. Results showed that children from both cultures were biased to attend to the number of items for small sets. Large set responses also showed a general attention to number when ratio difficulty was easy. However, relative to the responses for small sets, attention to number decreased for both groups; moreover, both U.S. and Japanese children showed a significant bias to attend to total amount for difficult numerical ratio distances, although Japanese children shifted attention to total area at relatively smaller set sizes than U.S. children. These results add to our growing understanding of how quantity is represented and how such representation is influenced by context--both cultural and perceptual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ISSP Position Stand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia; Si, Gangyan

    2013-01-01

    The multicultural landscape of contemporary sport sets a challenge to rethink sport and exercise psychology research and practice through a culturally re␣exive lens. This ISSP Position Stand provides a rigorous synthesis and engagement with existing scholarship to outline a roadmap for future work...... in the ␣eld. The shift to culturally competent sport and exercise psychology implies: (a) recognizing hidden ethnocentric philosophical assumptions permeating much of the current theory, research, and practice; (b) transitioning to professional ethics in which difference is seen as not inherent and ␣xed...... but as relational and ␣uid; and (c) focusing on meaning (instead of cause) in cross-cultural and cultural research projects, and cultural praxis work. In the paper, we ␣rst provide an overview of the concepts of cultural competence and ethics of difference. Second, we present a step-by-step approach for developing...

  20. A Comparative Study of Face Milling of D2 Steel Using Al2O3 Based Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication and Minimum Quantity Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahsan Ul Haq

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of process parameters feed, depth of cut and flow rate, on the temperature during face milling of the D2 tool steel under two different lubricant conditions, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL and Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication (NFMQL. Distilled water with the flow rate range 200-400 ml/hr was used in MQL. 2% by weight concentration of Al2O3 nanoparticles with distilled water as the base fluid used as NFMQL with same flow rate. Response surface methodology RSM central composite design CCD was used to design experiment run, modeling, and analysis. ANOVA was used for the adequacy and validation of the system. The comparison shows that NFMQL condition reduced more temperature during machining.