WorldWideScience

Sample records for positive psychology movement

  1. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  2. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Positive psychology has been an influential movement within psychology in the early years of the twenty-first century. It is now timely to assess the value of its contribution to career education and guidance. This paper provides a critique of this perspective. Positive psychology can enrich approaches to career development. It can provide a…

  3. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  4. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  5. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  6. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  7. The Promise of Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychology has demonstrated its usefulness in studying and contributing to individual well being. The next big challenge for this new field is to help improving the social and cultural conditions in which people live. Three specific goals are discussed: A more complete understanding of human nature; forging a more sustainable and more fair social contract; and a rediscovery of the joys of existence. If Positive Psychology will be able to support these goals, it will become an important contributor to the evolution of human consciousness and the evolution of culture.

  8. CONTEMPLATIVE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: INTRODUCING MINDFULNESS INTO POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausiàs Cebolla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mindfulness is included in many positive psychology manuals as a “positive” technique, the implications of its use have scarcely been developed and the relationship between mindfulness and human well-being has barely been researched. Analyzing the main strengths of the two fields, the possibilities for their integration and the potential contradictions between their messages is essential in order to establish connections. Mindfulness is more than a meditation technique. It has implicit within it a set of values and ethical conditions that coincide to a great extent with the proposed assumptions from positive psychology, such as the development of kindness, compassion, and positive emotions. The aim of this paper is to present, on the one hand, the commonalities and similarities, and on the other, the differences between mindfulness and positive psychology. We also present the main studies that have investigated the role of mindfulness and contemplative practices on human well-being. Finally future research will be discussed and intervention suggested in order to bring the two proposals together.

  9. Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

  10. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfonso Piña López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.

  11. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical base...

  12. Extending family nursing: concepts from positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Karen

    2010-11-01

    This article identifies the burgeoning field of positive psychology as an important extension to the knowledge base of family nursing. Representing a new emphasis from the traditional social and human sciences, which have largely focused on problem- and deficit-based approaches, positive psychology focuses on optimal functioning and is an ideal complement to the strengths-based orientation of family nursing. Domains of positive psychology are presented and exemplars of supporting research offered. Finally, suggestions are given for ways to apply concepts from positive psychology to family nursing practice, research, and education.

  13. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  14. Positive Psychology: Positive Emotions and Emotional Intelegence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...

  15. Introduction to Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Phillips, Brian; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology has received increasing attention in rehabilitation counseling research and practice. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis of personal assets and strengths, which provides a solid foundation for the integration of positive psychology into the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling. In…

  16. Positive psychological interventions aimed at enhancing psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni; Stemmet, Lehan; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni

    2017-01-01

    Interventions aimed at the enhancement of positive organisational behaviours, within organisational contexts, are imperative for creating and sustaining a high-performance culture, where individual and organisational strengths are optimized and top-talent retained. Psychological ownership, one form

  17. Contribution of eye position to movement perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Panichi, R; Bambagioni, D; Grassi, S; Botti, F M

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the influence of gaze eccentricity on movement perception during asymmetric vestibular stimulation. Subjects (n = 10) were placed on a rotating platform and oscillated asymmetrically in the dark. Subjects were asked to reproduce with a pointer the location in space of a light spot that was turned off at the beginning of the oscillation. The target was presented in centric and eccentric (0 degrees, 20 degrees and 40 degrees) positions. In the centric position a large shift from the real position of the target was observed in the opposite direction to that of the faster vestibular stimulation. The shift increased when the target was placed eccentrically toward the slower vestibular stimulation side and decreased when it was placed in the opposite direction. The dependence of rotation perception on the target position suggests that the eye deviation, imposed by the eccentricity of the target, is able to influence the perception of body movement and may modulate the internal reference frame.

  18. South African universities, research and positive psychology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to highlight pioneering and fundamental contributions by South African researchers to establishing a new paradigm in psychology, namely positive psychology. The article provides an overview of the national and international historic development of this field. Current and completed South ...

  19. A Positive Psychology Intervention With Emerging Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Leontopoulou

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a positive psychology intervention in a sample of 40 young men (35%) and women (65%) aged 18-30 years. Participants were 1st and 4th year undergraduate University students, postgraduate students and working youths. The study examined the effects of a battery of interventions commonly used in positive psychology interventions, including a video and three exercises (i.e. expressing gratitude, best possible selves, goal setting) on character strengths, hope, gra...

  20. Positive Psychology: Transforming Young Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    To reach responsible independence, young people must become invested in setting their life course. A rich history of research and practice shows that democratic group climates foster autonomy and prosocial behavior. This article explores principles and practices for creating positive peer cultures to develop strengths and help youth meet their…

  1. The social constructionist movement in modern psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Gergen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionism views discourse about the world not as a reflection or map of the world but as an artifact of communal interchange. Both as an orientation to knowledge and to the character of psychological constructs, constructionism forms a significant challenge to conventional understandings. Although the roots of constructionist thought may be traced to long-standing debates between empiricist and rationalist schools of thought, constructionism attempts to move beyond the dualism to which both of these traditions are committed and to place knowledge within the process of social interchange. Although the role of psychological explanation is rendered problematic, a fully developed constructionism could furnish a means for understanding the process of science and invites the development of alternative criteria for the evaluation of psychological inquiry.

  2. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical bases in which it leans on. One of these transformations arises of its encounter with the positive Psychology, of recent appearance too. The theoretical work in this field is of interest because from a classic perspec- tive, from a biological view, aging is regarded as the decline in physical and psychic strengths and, therefore, the loss of those features and positive qualities that were fundamental during the youthful and mature life. Old age would be marked by a deterioration, fragility and loss of progressive selfregulation of the individual person. This view lead to ignoring clearly positive aspects of old the age such as the gathering experience or the greater availability of free time that would allow elderly people to search for ways of personal realization, among others. Of the journey for the different concepts in those that positive psychology and gerontology go being defined a group of characteristic of what we can call the psychic aging. In the first place a change appears in the perspective about what this process implies. Aging is not seen as a relentless and universal process of decline, but rather besides a great variability, it presents different aspects in those that we see the development of potentialities and resources that were not present in other ages. 

  3. Review of the Application of Positive Psychology to Substance Use, Addiction, and Recovery Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in positive psychology have grown exponentially over the past decade. The addictions field has experienced its own growth in a positive direction, embodied by the recovery movement. Despite parallel developments, and great momentum on both sides, there has been little crosspollination. This review introduces positive psychology and the recovery movement, describes the research on positive psychology in the addictions, and discusses future avenues of theory, research, and intervention based on a positive-psychology framework. A systematic review of positive psychology applied to substance use, addiction, and recovery found nine studies which are discussed according to the following themes: theoretical propositions, character strengths and drinking, positive psychology and recovery, positive interventions, and addiction: feeling good and feeling bad. The current scholarship is scant, but diverse, covering a wide range of populations (adults, adolescents, those in and out of treatment), topics (character strengths, recovery, positive affect), and addictive behaviors (work addiction, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use disorders). There is diversity, too, in country of origin, with work originating in the US, UK, Poland, and Spain. The rigorous application of the lens, tools, and approaches of positive psychology to addiction research generally, and to the aims of the recovery movement specifically, has potential for the development of theory and innovation in prevention and intervention. Further, because the work in positive psychology has primarily focused on microsystems, it may be primed to make contributions to the predominantly macro-systems focus of the recovery movement. PMID:22985057

  4. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Contextual positive psychology: Policy recommendations for implementing positive psychology into schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ciarrochi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in positive psychology, a research and intervention approach that focuses on promoting optimal functioning and well-being. Positive psychology interventions are now making their way into classrooms all over the world. However, positive psychology has been criticized for being decontextualized and coercive, and for putting an excessive emphasis on positive states, whilst failing to adequately consider negative experiences. Given this, how should policy be used to regulate and evaluate these interventions? We review evidence that suggests these criticisms may be valid, but only for those interventions that focus almost exclusively on changing the content of people’s inner experience (e.g., make it more positive and personality (improving character strength, and overemphasize the idea that inner experience causes action. We describe a contextualized form of positive psychology that not only deals with the criticisms, but also has clear policy implications for how to best implement and evaluate positive education programs so that they do not do more harm than good.

  6. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Macaskill

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) created to develop these strengths further in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care...

  7. A comparison of ventilatory prostate movement in four treatment positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Laura A.; Litzenberg, Dale W.; Brock, Kristy K.; Sanda, Martin; Sullivan, Molly; Sandler, Howard M.; Balter, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure target coverage during radiotherapy, all sources of geometric uncertainty in target position must be considered. Movement of the prostate due to breathing has not traditionally been considered in prostate radiotherapy. The purpose of this study is to report the influence of patient orientation and immobilization on prostate movement due to breathing. Methods and Materials: Four patients had radiopaque markers implanted in the prostate. Fluoroscopy was performed in four different positions: prone in alpha cradle, prone with an aquaplast mold, supine on a flat table, and supine with a false table under the buttocks. Fluoroscopic movies were videotaped and digitized. Frames were analyzed using 2D-alignment software to determine the extent of movement of the prostate markers and the skeleton for each position during normal and deep breathing. Results: During normal breathing, maximal movement of the prostate markers was seen in the prone position (cranial-caudal [CC] range: 0.9-5.1 mm; anterior-posterior [AP] range: up to 3.5 mm). In the supine position, prostate movement during normal breathing was less than 1 mm in all directions. Deep breathing resulted in CC movements of 3.8-10.5 mm in the prone position (with and without an aquaplast mold). This range was reduced to 2.0-7.3 mm in the supine position and 0.5-2.1 mm with the use of the false table top. Deep breathing resulted in AP skeletal movements of 2.7-13.1 mm in the prone position, whereas AP skeletal movements in the supine position were negligible. Conclusion: Ventilatory movement of the prostate is substantial in the prone position and is reduced in the supine position. The potential for breathing to influence prostate movement, and thus the dose delivered to the prostate and normal tissues, should be considered when positioning and planning patients for conformal irradiation

  8. The added value of the positive : A literature review of positive psychology interventions in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyers, M.C.; van Woerkom, M.; Bakker, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews research investigating the effects of positive psychology interventions applied in the organizational context. We characterize a positive psychology intervention as any intentional activity or method that is based on (a) the cultivation of positive subjective

  9. Positive Psychology in Turkey: A Review Study of Postgraduate Theses

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent Baki Telef

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the trends of postgraduate theses in psychology, psychiatry, and education related to positive psychology in Turkey. The sample consisted of 204 masters’ and doctoral theses written in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, and education in relation to positive psychology between 2005 and 2015 for which access was permitted. The “Thesis Classification Form” prepared by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The findings are presented with perce...

  10. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  11. LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology: An inclusive and systemic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Daniela G; Bobele, Monte; Coppock, Jacqueline; Peña, Ezequiel

    2015-05-01

    Positive psychologists have contributed to our understandings of how positive emotions and flexible cognition enhance resiliency. However, positive psychologists' research has been slow to address the relational resources and interactions that help nonheterosexual families overcome adversity. Addressing overlooked lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) and systemic factors in positive psychology, this article draws on family resilience literature and LGBTQ literature to theorize a systemic positive psychology framework for working with nonheterosexual families. We developed the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework that integrates positive psychology's strengths-based perspective with the systemic orientation of Walsh's (1996) family resilience framework along with the cultural considerations proposed by LGBTQ family literature. We theorize that the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework takes into consideration the sociopolitical adversities impacting nonheterosexual families and sensitizes positive psychologists, including those working in organized care settings, to the systemic interactions of same-sex loving relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Neuroscience and Positive Psychology: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Sue A.; Callaway, Yvonne L.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing research findings are pointing out that using positive psychology and wellness strategies in counseling and therapy are helpful in fostering healthy human development (Snyder & Lopez, 2001). Positive psychology is addressing the importance of positive emotions, character traits, and features of enabling institutions such as the 'good…

  13. Observing position and movements in hydrotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Mary Ann; Rudell, Barb; Haus, George

    2008-01-01

    To observe and describe the positions and movements women choose while immersed in water during the first stage of labor. Descriptive, observational pilot study. A rural community hospital that provided hydrotherapy in labor. Women (N = 7) who intended to use hydrotherapy in labor were recruited prenatally from a midwife-managed practice. For 15 minutes of each hour during the first stage of labor, position and movements of the participants were observed and recorded on a laptop computer. The observational tool was developed for this study from a review of the literature and interviews with nursing experts; 435 observations were recorded. Women were free to choose when and how long to use hydrotherapy and had no restriction on their positions and movements. Only 3 of the 7 participants labored in the tub. Women demonstrated a greater range of positions and movements in the tub than in bed, both throughout labor and during late first-stage labor (7-10 cm of dilatation). Women had more contractions and made more rhythmic movements while in the tub than in bed. Hydrotherapy may encourage upright positions and movements that facilitate labor progress and coping, helping women avoid unnecessary interventions.

  14. Activities for Teaching Positive Psychology: A Guide for Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…

  15. The Positive Psychology of Interested Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jeremy P.; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2003-01-01

    Using the experience sampling method with a diverse national sample of 1,215 high school students, identified 2 groups of adolescents, those who experience chronic interest in everyday life experiences and those who experience widespread boredom. Suggests that a generalized chronic experience of interest can be a signal of psychological health.…

  16. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS ENEMIES: A REPLY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Vázquez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology has been the subject of passionate attacks. Its novelty, its scientific scope, its intentions and even the honesty of its followers have been questioned. Furthermore, by extension, the concern of psychology on a whole with human well-being has been placed in doubt. In this review, we offer an answer to some disproportionate criticism and make an overview of the existing overwhelming evidence derived from the active, robust research agenda on positive emotions and cognitions (e.g., optimism and their relationship to health and psychological wellness. Psychology cannot ignore a growing general movement in social sciences and in political and economic discussion that places psychological well-being in the legitimate focus of attention. In this regard, positive psychology is contributing, with the best standard tools psychological research, to articulate and support a good part of the research in and promotion of those crucial issues. Finally, it is argued that, based on a true and respectful academic dialogue, psychology must inevitably and fluently integrate the focus on positive functioning for a more inclusive explanation of human nature.

  17. Positive psychology and the training of psychologists: Students’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharina Guse

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the personal and professional impact of including positive psychology in the professional training of clinical and counselling psychologists. Motivation for the study: It is not known how students previously educated in a pathogenic paradigm experience the exposure to positive psychology, and resultant paradigm shift, as part of their professional training. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research design was implemented. Data consisted of written documents submitted by the participants and was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. Main findings: Integrating positive psychology in the professional training curriculum was valuable and enriching on both a professional and personal level. The participants reported an experience of positive emotions and increased sense of self-understanding and psychological well-being. Professionally they experienced a sense of increased self-efficacy. Practical/managerial implications: Positive psychology should be considered as part of the basic training of psychologists since it may enhance the development of trainee psychologists’ professional self, enhance aspects of psychological well-being as well as prevent stress and burnout. Contribution/value-add: This is the first South African study to explore the impact of including positive psychology principles and interventions in professional training.

  18. Positive psychology interventions in breast cancer. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas-Grau, Anna; Font, Antoni; Vives, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is an emerging area of empirical study, not only in clinical, but also in health psychology. The present systematic review aims to synthesize the evidence about the positive psychology interventions utilized in breast cancer. Relevant studies were identified via Pubmed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, CINAHL, Wiley Online Library, TDX, and DIALNET databases (up to April 2013). Only those papers focused on interventions related to positive psychology and carried out on breast cancer patients were included. Of the 7266 articles found through databases, 16 studies were finally included in this review. Five groups of therapies were found: mindfulness-based approaches, expression of positive emotions, spiritual interventions, hope therapy, and meaning-making interventions. These specific interventions promoted positive changes in breast cancer participants, such as enhanced quality of life, well-being, hope, benefit finding, or optimism. However, the disparity of the interventions and some methodological issues limit the outcomes. Some studies provided relevant evidence about the clear development of positive aspects from the breast cancer experience. Positive interventions applied to patients and survivors of breast cancer were found to be able to promote positive aspects. A global consensus of a positive therapies classification is needed to take one more step in structuring positive psychology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, situating it within the field of positive psychology. The theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn build their enduring personal resources (physical, intellectual, social, and psychological). Reviews…

  20. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…

  1. The Humanistic Psychology-Positive Psychology Divide: Contrasts in Philosophical Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the fields of humanistic and positive psychology has been marked by continued tension and ambivalence. This tension can be traced to extensive differences in the philosophical grounding characterizing the two perspectives within psychology. These differences exist with respect to (a) ontology, including the ways in which…

  2. Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits. International Society of Sport Psychology Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    International Society of Sport Psychology clarifies the psychological benefits of physical activity, noting the positive relationship between physical activity level and mental health. Exercise can reduce anxiety, decrease depression levels, reduce neuroticism and anxiety, reduce stress, and have beneficial emotional effects for both sexes across…

  3. Positive Youth Psychology: Lessons from Positive Peer Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula; Brendtro, Larry K.

    2013-01-01

    Positive Peer Culture (PPC) is a strength-oriented approach developed by Vorrath and Brendtro (1985) to prevent or reverse negative peer influence by building a climate of peer concern and respect. PPC operates in a range of settings including residential treatment, alternative schools, juvenile justice, and youth leadership groups. It is an…

  4. Stress, positive psychology and the National Student Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to explore the predictive ability of sources of stress and a range of dispositional and coping behaviours on student satisfaction and motivation. Most research exploring sources of stress and coping in students construes stress as psychological distress, with little attempt to consider positive experiences of stress. A questionnaire was administered to 120 first-year UK psychology students. Questions were asked which measured sources of stress when rated as likely to contribute to...

  5. Positive psychology online: using the internet to promote flourishing on a large scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Online positive psychology enhances well-being and reduces mental health symptoms Positive psychological interventions, and online positive psychological interventions in particular, can be effective in enhancing well-being and reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms, according to the dissertation

  6. Personal determinants of positive states and stress in psychology students

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    G.S. Kozhukhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report study results of personality characteristics as predictors of positive states (active, optimistic, emotional, subjective comfort and stress experience in adults with one higher education and ongoing training in Psychology. The respondents were 107 people aged 23 to 52 years. Diagnostic methods we used were: "SMIL" (L. Sobchik, Optimism and Activity Scale (adapted by E. Vodopyanova, C. Izard Differential Emotions Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, Subjective Comfort Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, PSM-25 Scale by Lemyr-Tessier-Fillion. The regression analysis revealed that in subjects ongoing training in Psychology, basic predictor of positive emotions and stress experience is anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three types of subjects by their positive states experiences, which differ primarily by the level of baseline anxiety and related personality characteristics. The group of risk comprised Psychology students with a tendency to depression and negative emotions and specific personality profile.

  7. Place of psychotherapy in psychology movement toward cognitivism

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    Todorović Milorad V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychology striving to make us more aware of our own nature dominantly, if not exclusively, is realized through psychotherapy. Psychotherapy as a praxis of psychology, which only follows the psychological theory and without it we can hardly call it that, is largely dependent on the prevailing social trends and the dominant form of pathology that can occur in them. That theoretical aspects of many forms of pathology are not completely understood and not give the right to cancel the search for the unconscious forces that determine the subject. Dominant tendencies in contemporary psychology not only do not favor psychotherapy, but are directly aimed against it. At least against that psychotherapy which is based on the split subject, the interior space in which the physical and perceptual sensations, moral rules, mood depression and everything else that we call 'mental'. The great danger that is above psycho­therapy activity comes by pharmacology and cognitivism (lat. Cognitio 'knowledge' and the intellectual soul. Equating the mind and the brain makes psychotherapy unnecessary in relation to the pharmacology whose power impact becomes decisive on each deviation and every suffering. The fact that in the psychology shortens the long and uncertain path of mental knowledge that does not correspond to the nature of 'psychological' seems to be replaced by those efforts which are only concerned with the question of science. The fact that there is no comprehensive theory of emotions that can not be resolved by cognitivism which is opposite to emotional. Rorty's cynicism towards such efforts, which emphasize that the spirit is the same as that stimulate the brain and that the theorem symphonies and excreted in the same way that the spleen is excreted dark juices (Rorty 1990: 54 exhorts the psychology of the fact that instead of being which has a spirit, that is different from the 'physical body', 'matter', the central nervous system, has been the

  8. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting ...

  9. Acknowledging and Appreciating the Full Spectrum of the Human Condition: School Psychology's (Limited) Focus on Positive Psychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Huebner, E. Scott; Youssef, Al-Jameela; Conte, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    This study is a content analysis of a random selection of 20% (N = 1,168) of articles from "School Psychology Quarterly", "Psychology in the Schools", the "Journal of School Psychology", and "School Psychology Review". Across the four journals, 27% of the articles had a positive focus, and the percentage of articles focused on the positive has…

  10. Innovative Behavior and Psychological Capital: Does Positivity Make any Difference

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    Yomna M. Sameer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - Despite increasing importance of fostering innovation among employees, and the growing interest in Positive Organizational Behaviour (POB constructs, little empirical research has been conducted on the topic of innovation with POB. Moreover, though research proved significant relationship between positive psychological capital (PsyCap and creative performance, no studies examined PsyCap with innovative behavior. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the link between positive psychological capital and innovative behavior as well as the link between innovative behavior and job satisfaction as well as engagement. Design/methodology/approach - Using regression analyses, data were obtained from Egyptian professionals (N = 250. The survey included measures of psychological capital and innovative behavior as well as job satisfaction and engagement. Findings - Regression analyses reveal that PsyCap, with its four components of hope, optimism, resilience and efficacy, predict innovative behavior, which in turn affects satisfaction and engagement. Research implications/limitations - Limitations, contributions and recommendations for future research are noted. Results contribute to a better understanding of how psychological capital enhances Innovative behavior in the workplace, which in turns, enhances job satisfaction and engagement. Originality/value/contribution - The study is the first to examine the relationship between psychological capital and innovative behavior.(original abstract

  11. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.

  12. The Power of Montessori's Positive Psychology in an Expanding Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Annette

    1999-01-01

    Relates Montessori theory of development with the concept of connection to the universe and natural world, noting Montessori education's role in nurturing reestablished connection with the natural world. Describes events leading to a fulfilled life as part of psychological normalization, noting the importance of identifying positive tendencies of…

  13. Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shyh Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

  14. Growth Following Adversity: Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress

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    Stephen Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of traumatic events is well documented within the clinical psychology literature where it is recognized that people who experience traumatic events may go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. At first glance one might ask what the relevance of positive psychology is to the study of trauma. But a number of literatures and philosophies throughout human history have conveyed the idea that there is personal gain to be found in suffering. The observation that stressful and traumatic events can provoke positive psychological changes is also contained in the major religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Within existential philosophy and humanistic psychology it has also been recognized that positive changes can come about as a result of suffering. But it is only within the last decade that the topic of growth following adversity has become a focus for empirical work. In this paper I will provide an overview of the subject and the research we have conducted at the Centre for Trauma, Resilience, and Growth (CTRG.

  15. Effect of Positive Training on Positive Psychological States (Character Strengths of Female High School Students

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    Ali Farnam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available psychological states of female students in second and third grades of high school. The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and follow-up. The sample consisted of forty students selected randomly in two groups (twenty students in each group. To collect data, Positive Psychological State Inventory (Rajaei, Khuy Nzhad and Nesaei was used. The experimental group received ninety minute positive training sessions (for two months and the control group did not receive treatment. The results of analysis  of covariance showed that positive training had positive effects on positive psychological states (trust in God, optimism, self-efficacy, duty, sense of control, targeted, hope, satisfaction with life, meaningful life, pleasant, sociability, self-esteem and self-worth, sense of peace, gratitude, and forgiveness among adolescents  both in the post  and follow-up tests

  16. The Role of Positive Emotion and Contributions of Positive Psychology in Depression Treatment: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska; Paes, Flavia; Pereira, Valeska; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to conduct a systematic review of the literature by checking the impact of positive emotion in the treatment of depression and on the use of strategies of positive psychology which involves positive emotion to treat and reduce symptoms of depression. For this purpose, we conducted searches in databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed and found a total of 3400 studies. After inclusion application and exclusion criteria, 28 articles remained, presented and discussed in this study. The studies have important relations between humor and positive emotion as well as a significant improvement in signs and symptoms of depression using differents strategies of positive psychology. Another relevant aspect is the preventative character of the proposed interventions by positive psychology by the fact that increase well-being and produce elements such as resilience and coping resources that reduce the recurrent relapses in the treatment of depression. The strategies of positive psychology, such as increasing positive emotions, develop personal strengths: seeking direction, meaning and engagement for the day-to-day life of the patients, appear as potentially tools for the prophylaxis and treatment of depression, helping to reduce signs and symptoms as well as for prevention of relapses. PMID:24358052

  17. The Role of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Medicine: Addressing the Psychological and Physical Symptoms Stemming from Adverse Life Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Francine

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of research shows that adverse life experiences contribute to both psychological and biomedical pathology. Twenty-four randomized controlled trials support the positive effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in the treatment of emotional trauma and other adverse life experiences relevant to clinical practice. Twelve randomized studies of the eye movement component noted rapid decreases in negative emotions and/or vividness of disturbing images.

  18. Positive psychology leadership coaching experiences in a financial organisation

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    Frans Cilliers

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe the positive psychology leadership coaching experiences of leaders in a large financial organisation. Motivation for the study: The researcher addressed the organisation’s need to develop leadership by structuring and presenting a coaching programme. He chose positive psychology as the paradigm and experiential learning as the method to meet the organisation’s goal of enabling its leaders to take up their roles with self-awareness, internal motivation and effective interpersonal connections. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a qualitative and descriptive research design with a case study. Leaders attended ten experiential leadership-coaching sessions over three months. The sessions focused on work engagement, learned resourcefulness, sense of coherence, self-actualisation values and locus of control. The data gathering consisted of the coach’s field notes and the participants’ reflective essays, which they wrote after the last coaching session. The researcher analysed the data using discourse analysis. Main findings: The manifesting themes were the coaching context, engagement in roles, understanding role complexity, emotional self-awareness and demands, self-authorisation and inability to facilitate the growth of others. Contribution/value-add: Although intrapersonal awareness increased significantly, leaders struggled with the interpersonal complexity of the leadership role. Positive psychology leadership coaching should refine the operationalisation of interpersonal effectiveness. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should integrate the methodology of leadership coaching with leadership development interventions to expose leaders to better intrapersonal awareness and functioning.

  19. Emotional Capital Development, Positive Psychology and Mindful Teaching: Which Links?

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    Bénédicte Gendron

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The start of university life requires a period of adaptation, which can sometimes have an impact on the mental health of students. The latest results from the Observatoire National de la Vie Etudiante (OVE, 2013 show that more that 40% of university students report symptoms of psychological fragility (sleep problems, fatigue, depression, stress or loneliness, which can impact their level of wellbeing and performance. Beyond Savoirs [knowledge], Savoir Faire [knowing what to do], the role of Savoir Être [knowing how to be] referring to a set of emotional competencies, is crucial in sustaining human capital in a broad sense, personal development and health (Gendron 2004. During the Initiatives d'Excellence en Formations Innovantes (IDEFI Programme, [Initiatives of Excellence in Innovative Training] 132 first year university students of education underwent an intervention (a minimum of six workshops of four hours aimed at developing their emotional capital. Using two approaches PIA2 (European Management and Project Management Methodology and ACT Training derived from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT the objective was to develop trainees’ social and personal emotional competencies such as self-esteem, self-knowledge, empathy and conflict management. Using an interdisciplinary approach drawing on educational theory, theory of human resources and positive psychology, the results show that emotional capital, developed using positive psychology tools, can improve wellbeing and contribute to a holistic personal development.

  20. Integrating positive psychology into health-related quality of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L

    2015-07-01

    Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.

  1. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, EMOTIONAL EDUCATION AND THE HAPPY CLASSROOMS PROGRAM

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    Rafael Bisquerra Alzina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology has multiple applications. This article is focused on formal education, from the ages of 3 to 18 years. The development of well-being should be one of the aims of education, which would affect teachers, students, families and by extension society at large. This has been a clear aim for emotional education (Bisquerra, 2000, 2009, from the outset. With the emergence of positive psychology, there was a renewed effort in this direction, as a means of providing a better foundation. GROP (Grup de Recerca en Orientación Psicopedagógica [Research in Psychopedagogical Education Group] at the University of Barcelona is conducting research on this subject. The Happy Classrooms (“Aulas felices” program developed by the SATI team is the first program in Spanish aimed at working on positive education. It is designed for children and youths in pre-school, primary and secondary education. The program focuses its applications on character strengths and mindfulness. It is freely available for access and distribution. This article argues for the importance of enhancing well-being in education. Practical activities and intervention strategies are presented, with special reference to the importance of teacher training.

  2. Behavioural medicine and gastrointestinal disorders: the promise of positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie

    2018-04-12

    Psychosocial risk factors linked to brain-gut dysregulation are prevalent across the spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders and are associated with poor patient outcomes. Robust and reproducible data in the areas of behavioural intervention science and the brain-gut axis have led to major advances in patient care, including the routine use of brain-gut psychotherapies to manage digestive symptoms and optimize coping. The logical next step for the emerging field of psychogastroenterology is to develop a scientific framework that enables the identification of those individual characteristics and coping styles that buffer patients against the negative psychological effects of chronic gastrointestinal disorders. A shift towards a strength-based, positive psychological science of gastrointestinal disorders could facilitate the integration of early, effective psychological care into gastroenterology practice. In this Perspective, I discuss the potential role of three human strengths with relevance to gastrointestinal health - resilience, optimism and self-regulation - and how these three constructs can be cultivated through existing or emerging brain-gut psychotherapies.

  3. Footsteps on the road to a positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, J E; Seligman, M E

    1999-07-01

    We have argued that psychology as a field has been preoccupied with the negative side of life and has left us with a view of human qualities that is warped and one-sided. Psychology is literally 'half-baked'. We need to bake the other half now. It is time for us to become equally concerned with the qualities and experiences that make life most worthwhile. A balance is needed between work that strives to relieve damage and work that endeavors to build strength. This balance is beautifully exemplified by Jack Rachman's work over the past 40 years. As an astute and compassionate clinician and researcher, Jack developed and evaluated effective treatments for some of the most debilitating anxiety disorders. At the same time, he was impressed by the resiliency of his clients and the courage they exhibited daily. His observations and studies of courage have helped to launch a systematic science of human strengths. They are giant footsteps on the road to a positive psychology.

  4. Yoga Enhances Positive Psychological States in Young Adult Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Bethany; Ahmed, Khalique; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2016-06-01

    Although yoga has been shown to be a viable technique for improving the performance of the mind and body, little attention has been directed to studying the relationship between yoga and the psychological states of flow and mindfulness. Musicians enrolled in a 2-month fellowship program in 2005, 2006 and 2007 were invited to participate in a yoga and meditation program. Fellows not participating in the yoga program were recruited separately as controls. All participants completed baseline and end-program questionnaires evaluating dispositional flow, mindfulness, confusion, and music performance anxiety. Compared to controls, yoga participants reported significant decreases in confusion and increases in dispositional flow. Yoga participants in the 2006 sample also reported significant increases in the mindfulness subscale of awareness. Correlational analyses revealed that increases in participants' dispositional flow and mindfulness were associated with decreases in confusion and music performance anxiety. This study demonstrates the commonalities between positive psychology and yoga, both of which are focused on enhancing human performance and promoting beneficial psychological states. The results suggest that yoga and meditation may enhance the states of flow and mindful awareness, and reduce confusion.

  5. The effects of practice on movement distance and final position reproduction: implications for the equilibrium-point control of movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaric, S; Corcos, D M; Gottlieb, G L; Ilic, D B; Latash, M L

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of two views on single-joint motor control, namely programming of muscle force patterns and equilibrium-point control, were compared with the results of experiments with reproduction of movement distance and final location during fast unidirectional elbow flexions. Two groups of subjects were tested. The first group practiced movements over a fixed distance (36 degrees), starting from seven different initial positions (distance group, DG). The second group practiced movements from the same seven initial positions to a fixed final location (location group, LG). Later, all the subjects were tested at the practiced task with their eyes closed, and then, unexpectedly for the subjects, they were tested at the other, unpracticed task. In both groups, the task to reproduce final position had lower indices of final position variability than the task to reproduce movement distance. Analysis of the linear regression lines between initial position and final position (or movement distance) also demonstrated a better (more accurate) performance during final position reproduction than during distance reproduction. The data are in a good correspondence with the predictions of the equilibrium-point hypothesis, but not with the predictions of the force-pattern control approach.

  6. The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: contrasts in philosophical foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between the fields of humanistic and positive psychology has been marked by continued tension and ambivalence. This tension can be traced to extensive differences in the philosophical grounding characterizing the two perspectives within psychology. These differences exist with respect to (a) ontology, including the ways in which human nature is conceptualized regarding human potentials and well-being; (b) epistemology, specifically, the choice of research strategies for the empirical study of these concepts; and (c) practical philosophy, particularly the goals and strategies adopted when conducting therapy or undertaking counseling interventions. Because of this philosophical divide, adherents of the two perspectives may best be advised to pursue separately their shared desire to understand and promote human potentials and well-being.

  7. A Shortage of Medical Residency Positions: Parallels with Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Donna; Robiner, William N; Yozwiak, John A; Brosig, Cheryl; Cubic, Barbara; Leventhal, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Physician shortages in the US are expected to intensify with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. These shortages may negatively impact access to care, quality of care, and confidence in the system's ability to adequately provide for health needs in the US. Concerns regarding physician demand underscore how critical Graduate Medical Education funding is to preparing the physician workforce. In 2014 5.6 % of US medical school seniors did not match into residency. Psychology has faced longstanding training imbalance issues with a misalignment between the number of internship positions and the number of applicants. The authors summon attention to the damaging effects a training imbalance poses to a health care profession, its trainees, and ultimately the public it serves.

  8. MYTHS OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: DECEPTIVE MANOEUVRES AND PSEUDOSCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernández-Ríos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychology (PP has experienced a huge boom in the last twenty years. The aim of this study is to list a number of myths and fallacious argumentative manoeuvres which sow serious doubts about the novelty and originality of PP. The PP discourse is notably pseudoscientific and has a certain intellectual dishonesty. Additionally, PP extends knowledge through social networks, books and journals. This knowledge is alleged to be empirically evidence-based, but in fact it is sustained upon tautological statements, superficial knowledge and obvious conclusions. All of the knowledge produced by PP reveals what it is provided by common sense and traditional wisdom. In conclusion, PP is not necessary in producing this knowledge and is academically and socially irrelevant and dispensable. This paper concludes with some considerations about the uncertain future of the always controversial PP.

  9. Advancing Positive Psychology in South East Asia: the Importance of Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hashim, Intan Hashimah

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the field of positive psychology has been overwhelming. This can be observed from the number of academic conferences and journals attributed to this field. Similar patterns can be observed in Asia where more and more research are concentrating on investigating constructs deemed as important within the field of positive psychology. However, comparable to other fields within psychology, positive psychology cannot ignore the importance of culture. This is especially true in South Eas...

  10. Putting the positive in health psychology: a content analysis of three journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christa K; Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L; Piontkowski, Sarah; Schaefer, Kathryn L

    2011-05-01

    This content analysis investigated the inclusion of positive psychological constructs in research published in three leading health psychology journals. A list of positive constructs relevant to health psychology was compiled and their inclusion in these journals was examined. It was found that although there has been a sharp increase in recent years, only 3 percent of all articles published (114 of 3789) included the study of overtly positive constructs. The constructs that have been most and least studied in health psychology were identified and are discussed. This analysis provides insight into the foundations of positive health psychology and identifies future directions.

  11. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    OpenAIRE

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam; mahin Fekraty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:...

  12. Psychological experiences in South African society before the 2010 FIFA World Cup from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Koortzen

    2012-05-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to analyse and describe the psychological experiences of South Africans before the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted the study from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives. The study comprised a qualitative, explorative and social phenomenological study. The researchers conducted interviews with a wide range of their colleagues and clients. Main findings: The results seemed to indicate that South Africans had had a number of positive and negative experiences before the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Practical/managerial implications: The researchers presented the findings as a number of systems psychodynamic and positive psychology themes. Contribution/value-add: This study presents original research that contributes valuable new knowledge to the positive psychology and systems psychodynamic perspectives.

  13. Evaluating the effect of rectal distension and rectal movement on prostate gland position using cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhani, Anwar R.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Suckling, John; Husband, Janet E.; Leach, Martin O.; Dearnaley, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dynamic interrelationship between rectal distension and rectal movements, and to determine the effect of rectal movement on the position of the prostatic gland using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven or suspected prostate cancer were examined in the axial plane using repeated spoiled gradient-echo sequences every 10 seconds for 7 minutes. Twenty-four patients received bowel relaxants before imaging. Images were analyzed for the degree of rectal distension, for the incidence, magnitude, and number of rectal and prostate movements. Results: Rectal movements were seen in 28 (51%) patients overall, in 10 (42%) of those receiving bowel relaxants and in 18 (58%) not receiving bowel relaxants. The incidence of rectal movements correlated with the degree of rectal distension (p = 0.0005), but the magnitude of rectal movements did not correlate with the degree of rectal distension. Eighty-six rectal movements resulting in 33 anterior-posterior (AP) prostate movements were seen. The magnitude of rectal movements correlated well with degree of prostate movements (p < 0.001). Prostate movements in the AP direction were seen in 16 (29%) patients, and in 9 (16%) patients the movement was greater than 5 mm. The median prostate AP displacement was anterior by 4.2 (-5 to +14 mm). Conclusions: Cine MRI is able to demonstrate near real time rectal and associated prostate movements. Rectal movements are related to rectal distension and result in significant displacements of the prostate gland over a time period similar to that used for daily fractionated radiotherapy treatments. Delivery of radiotherapy needs to take into account these organ movements

  14. Positive Psychology in Research with the Deaf Community: An Idea Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarkowski, Amy; Brice, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of positive psychology as an approach to studying what makes life worth living has inspired a new wave of research. Studies have focused on the prevalence and degree of positive attributes, attitudes, and characteristics in the wider population. Increasingly, lessons learned from positive psychology have been applied to understanding…

  15. Dance/movement therapy for improving psychological and physical outcomes in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Shim, Minjung; Goodill, Sherry W

    2015-01-07

    Current cancer care increasingly incorporates psychosocial interventions. Cancer patients use dance/movement therapy to learn to accept and reconnect with their bodies, build new self-confidence, enhance self-expression, address feelings of isolation, depression, anger and fear and to strengthen personal resources. To update the previously published review that examined the effects of dance/movement therapy and standard care versus standard care alone or standard care and other interventions on psychological and physical outcomes in patients with cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (OvidSP, 1950 to June week 4, 2014), EMBASE (OvidSP, 1980 to 2014 week 26), CINAHL (EBSCOhost, 1982 to July 15 2014), PsycINFO (EBSCOhost, 1806 to July 15 2014), LILACS (Virual Health Library, 1982 to July 15 2014), Science Citation Index (ISI, 1974 to July 15 2014), CancerLit (1983 to 2003), International Bibliography of Theatre and Dance (1989 to July 15 2014), the National Research Register (2000 to September 2007), Proquest Digital Dissertations, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Current Controlled Trials (all to July 15 2014). We handsearched dance/movement therapy and related topics journals, reviewed reference lists and contacted experts. There was no language restriction. We included all randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of dance/movement therapy interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in patients with cancer. We considered studies only if dance/movement therapy was provided by a formally trained dance/movement therapist or by trainees in a formal dance/movement therapy program. Two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality, seeking additional information from the trial researchers when necessary. Results were presented using standardized mean differences. We identified one new trial for inclusion in this update. In

  16. Empathy for the psychological underdog: A positive psychological approach to Luke’s Gospel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Scheffler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking the lead from Wisdom of Solomon 7:20, which clearly indicates that ancient authors did engage in the specialised ‘scientific’ (although contemporary study of mental processes (διαλογισμοὺς ἀνθρώπων, it is argued that the author of Luke’s Gospel paid special attention to the alleviation of human psychological suffering. Employing an approach recently being labelled as ‘positive psychology’, attention will be paid to general affliction (e.g. Lk 4:18; 6:21, 25, old age (Lk 1:5−80; 2:25−38, grief (e.g. Lk 7:11−17 and the emphasis on mental processes in Luke’s portrayal of Jesus’ exorcisms (e.g. Lk 4:35; 6:18−19; 9:38, as well as the psychological dimension involved in other types of suffering (e.g. poverty, sickness, enmity and social ostracism. The ‘mental process’, ‘feelings’ or ‘empathy’ that motivate the alleviation of suffering (in the behaviour of Jesus and his followers will also come into focus in the discussion of the Lucan use of the terms οἰκτίρμων (Lk 6:36, ἔλεος and σπλαγχνίζομαι (e.g. Lk 10:33, 37.

  17. Intracellular Position of Centrioles and the Direction of Homeostatic Epithelial Cell Movements in the Mouse Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Erika; Zhao, Jin; Merriam, John C; Nagasaki, Takayuki

    2017-02-01

    Corneal epithelial cells exhibit continuous centripetal movements at a rate of about 30 µm per day, but neither the driving force nor the mechanism that determines the direction of movements is known. To facilitate the investigation of homeostatic cell movement, we examined if the intracellular position of a centriole can be used as a directional marker of epithelial cell movements in the mouse cornea. A direction of cell movements was estimated in fixed specimens from a pattern of underlying subepithelial nerve fibers. Intracellular position of centrioles was determined by gamma-tubulin immunohistology and plotted in a narrow strip along the entire diameter of a cornea from limbus to limbus. When we determined the position of centrioles in the peripheral cornea where cell movements proceed generally along a radial path, about 55% of basal epithelial cells contained a centriole in the front half of a cell. However, in the central cornea where cells exhibit a spiral pattern of movements, centrioles were distributed randomly. These results suggest that centrioles tend to be positioned toward the direction of movement in corneal basal epithelial cells when they are moving centripetally at a steady rate.

  18. Walking on the sunny side: what positive psychology can contribute to psychiatric rehabilitation concepts and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Galia S; Nemec, Patricia B

    2013-09-01

    This article suggests a positive psychology framework to strengthen and broaden psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery thought and practice. We inform about positive psychology concepts and measures that can be used to further knowledge, enhance practice, and guide research. Foundational concepts are drawn from the published literature. Specific positive psychology concepts and measures are highlighted: complete mental health, well being, flourishing, positive emotions, flow, self-determination, posttraumatic growth, and resilience. Employing a positive psychology framework can advance research on recovery phenomena and be used to assess rehabilitation outcomes. In addition we advocate positive psychology interventions in education and training of service providers that will enhance a positive focus and the culture of recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Determination of ventilatory liver movement via radiographic evaluation of diaphragm position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Dawson, Laura A.; Kazanjian, Sahira; McGinn, Cornelius; Brock, Kristy K.; Lawrence, Theodore; Haken, Randall ten

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the accuracy of estimation of liver movement inferred by observing diaphragm excursion on radiographic images. Methods and Materials: Eight patients with focal liver cancer had platinum embolization microcoils implanted in their livers during catheterization of the hepatic artery for delivery of regional chemotherapy. These patients underwent fluoroscopy, during which normal breathing movement was recorded on videotape. Movies of breathing movement were digitized, and the relative projected positions of the diaphragm and coils were recorded. For 6 patients, daily radiographs were also acquired during treatment. Retrospective measurements of coil position were taken after the diaphragm was aligned with the superior portion of the liver on digitally reconstructed radiographs. Results: Coil movement of 4.9 to 30.4 mm was observed during normal breathing. Diaphragm position tracked inferior-superior coil displacement accurately (population σ 1.04 mm) throughout the breathing cycle. The range of coil movement was predicted by the range of diaphragm movement with an accuracy of 2.09 mm (σ). The maximum error observed measuring coil movement using diaphragm position was 3.8 mm for a coil 9.8 cm inferior to the diaphragm. However, the distance of the coil from the top of the diaphragm did not correlate significantly with the error in predicting liver excursion. Analysis of daily radiographs showed that the error in predicting coil position using the diaphragm as an alignment landmark was 1.8 mm (σ) in the inferior-superior direction and 2.2 mm in the left-right direction, similar in magnitude to the inherent uncertainty in alignment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the range of ventilatory movement of different locations within the liver is predicted by diaphragm position to an accuracy that matches or exceeds existing systems for ventilatory tracking. This suggests that the diaphragm is an acceptable anatomic landmark for radiographic

  20. Assessment of Motor Control during Three-Dimensional Movements Tracking with Position-Varying Gravity Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Active movements are important in the rehabilitation training for patients with neurological motor disorders, while weight of upper limb impedes movements due to muscles weakness. The objective of this study is to develop a position-varying gravity compensation strategy for a cable-based rehabilitation robot. The control strategy can estimate real-time gravity torque according to position feedback. Then, the performance of this control strategy was compared with the other two kinds of gravity compensation strategies (i.e., without compensation and with fixed compensation during movements tracking. Seven healthy subjects were invited to conduct tracking tasks along four different directions (i.e., upward, forward, leftward, and rightward. The performance of movements with different compensation strategies was compared in terms of root mean square error (RMSE between target and actual moving trajectories, normalized jerk score (NJS, mean velocity ratio (MVR of main motion direction, and the activation of six muscles. The results showed that there were significant effects in control strategies in all four directions with the RMSE and NJS values in the following order: without compensation > fixed compensation > position-varying compensation and MVR values in the following order: without compensation < fixed compensation < position-varying compensation (p < 0.05. Comparing with movements without compensation in all four directions, the activation of muscles during movements with position-varying compensation showed significant reductions, except the activations of triceps and in forward and leftward movements, the activations of upper trapezius and middle parts of deltoid in upward movements and the activations of posterior parts of deltoid in all four directions (p < 0.05. Therefore, with position-varying gravity compensation, the upper limb cable-based rehabilitation robotic system might assist subjects to perform movements with higher quality and

  1. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:In this cross sectional study 200 psychological students of Azad university (Rudehen branch selected using cluster sampling method. Then they were estimated by Bradbery and Grivers emotional intelligence questionnaire , Bamrind parenting styles and Rajayi et al positive psychological components questionnaire. Research data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, inferential statistics (multiple regression and Pierson correlation coefficient and SPSS software. Results:Among the components of emotional intelligence, the component of emotional self consciousness (β=0.464 had the greatest predictable , and reaction leadership showed no predictability in this research between parenting styles , authority parenting styles had positive significance relationship with positive psychological components. And no significant relationship was found between despot parenting styles and positive psychological components. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this research and importance of positive psychological components, it is suggested to treat the emotional intelligence from childhood and to learn it to parents and remind them the parenting way to decrease the satisfaction of individuals which leads to promotion of society mental health.

  2. Positive Psychology Factors as Predictors of Latina/o College Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier Cavazos; Smith, Wayne D.; Whittenberg, James F.; Guardiola, Rebekah; Savage, Miranda

    2018-01-01

    Latina/o college students (N = 130) provided perceptions of psychological grit, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, life satisfaction, and mindfulness. Hope and mindfulness were significant predictors of psychological grit. A discussion regarding the importance of these findings and implications for counselors are…

  3. Sleep positions and nocturnal body movements based on free-living accelerometer recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarpsno, Eivind Schjelderup; Mork, Paul Jarle; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2017-01-01

    Background: In order to establish normative values for body positions and movements during sleep, the objective of this study was to explore the distribution of sleep positions and extent of nocturnal body moments and the association with sex, age, body-mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol......), but more arm, thigh, and upper-back movements compared to normal-weight participants. Smokers had fewer shifts in body position than nonsmokers (-0.27, 95% CI -0.4 to -0.13). Conclusion: The predominant sleep position in adults is on the side. This preference increases with age and BMI. The extent...

  4. Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Riper, H.; Smit, F.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for

  5. Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, L.; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, G.J.; Riper, H.; Smit, H.F.E.; Bohlmeijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for

  6. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  7. How the Post-Secondary Classroom Can Benefit from Positive Psychology Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennette, Lynne N.; Myatt, Beverley

    2018-01-01

    Positive psychology is based on the notion that people are motivated to develop into their best selves and reach their maximum potential. Martin Seligman, a pioneer of positive psychology, defines it as "the scientific study of the strengths that enable individuals and communities to thrive. The field is founded on the belief that people want…

  8. Contributions of Positive Psychology to Peace: Toward Global Well-Being and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, J. Christopher; Christie, Daniel J.; White, Mathew P.; Das, Chaitali

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an…

  9. Positive Psychology in Jewish Education: Gratitude in the School and Synagogue Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Eliezer; Schnall, David

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly growing area of study for research psychologists, and more recently for school psychologists and educators as well. Yet religious education researchers and practitioners have yet to embrace this exciting new field. The current article introduces positive psychology to clergy and educators in religious institutions.…

  10. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  11. Freedom of Movement and Position in the First Stage of Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Canhoto Ferrão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the scientific evidence, in the literature published between january 2007 and february 2016, about the benefits of freedmon of movement and position in the first stage of labor. Method: Review of literature with articles researched in selected databases on plataforms b-On and EBSCOhost, using descriptors: first stage of labour/labor, ambulation, upright positions, benefits and midwife/midwives. Results: Sample with 15 studies that showed, almost unanimously, that the free movement associated with the vertical position provides numerous benefits, especially in the progression of the first stage of labor, reduction of pain and increased maternal satisfaction, in the quality of uterine contractions and maternal-fetal circulation compared to the dorsal lithotomy position. Conclusion: Woman should have the right of choice as to freedom of movement and position during first stage of labor, being informed about the benefits of this intervention by the nurse midwife who cares for her.

  12. Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: the mediating role of positive psychological capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, P.; Pereira Lopes, M.; Nascimento, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope). Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism). They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results. (Author)

  13. Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: the mediating role of positive psychological capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, P.; Pereira Lopes, M.; Nascimento, J.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope). Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism). They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results. (Author)

  14. Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: The mediating role of positive psychological capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rego

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope. Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism. They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results.

  15. Head position affects the direction of occlusal force during tapping movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Minami, I; Wada, J; Ikawa, Y; Wakabayashi, N

    2018-05-01

    Despite numerous reports describing the relationship between head position and mandibular movement in human subjects, the direction and magnitude of force at the occlusal contacts have not been investigated in relation to head position. The objective was to investigate the effect of head position on the direction of occlusal force while subjects performed a tapping movement. Twenty-three healthy adult subjects were asked to sit on a chair with their back upright and to perform 15 tapping movements in five different head positions: natural head position (control); forward; backward; and right and left rolled. The direction and magnitude of force were measured using a small triaxial force sensor. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bonferroni test were used to compare head positions in each angle of the anteroposterior axis direction and the lateral axis direction with respect to the superior axis. The force element in the anteroposterior axis shifted to the forward direction in the head position pitched backward, compared with control, pitched forward and rolled left positions (P = .02, tapping movement can be performed in a relaxed position without anteroposterior and lateral loading. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Adaptability and Prediction of Anticipatory Muscular Activity Parameters to Different Movements in the Sitting Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikh, Soufien; Watelain, Eric; Faupin, Arnaud; Pinti, Antonio; Jarraya, Mohamed; Garnier, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary movement often causes postural perturbation that requires an anticipatory postural adjustment to minimize perturbation and increase the efficiency and coordination during execution. This systematic review focuses specifically on the relationship between the parameters of anticipatory muscular activities and movement finality in sitting position among adults, to study the adaptability and predictability of anticipatory muscular activities parameters to different movements and conditions in sitting position in adults. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Springer-Link, Engineering Village, and EbscoHost. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to retain the most rigorous and specific studies, yielding 76 articles, Seventeen articles were excluded at first reading, and after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 were retained. In a sitting position, central nervous system activity precedes movement by diverse anticipatory muscular activities and shows the ability to adapt anticipatory muscular activity parameters to the movement direction, postural stability, or charge weight. In addition, these parameters could be adapted to the speed of execution, as found for the standing position. Parameters of anticipatory muscular activities (duration, order, and amplitude of muscle contractions constituting the anticipatory muscular activity) could be used as a predictive indicator of forthcoming movement. In addition, this systematic review may improve methodology in empirical studies and assistive technology for people with disabilities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The popularisation of Positive Psychology as a defence against behavioural complexity in research and organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the systems psychodynamic nature of the manifesting defensive structures operating in Positive Psychology. Motivation for the study: The study investigated the popularity of Positive Psychology amongst academics, students and organisational consultants and the tendency to avoid the complexity of the relatedness between positive and negative as part of the human condition. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research by means of a Listening Post was used, consisting of six psychologists in their roles as lecturers and organisational consultants. Thematic analyses led to the formulation of various working hypotheses, integrated into a research hypothesis. Main findings: Four themes manifested – namely, the manifesting defence mechanisms, a reluctance to relinquish positive psychology as an object of hope, a need to guard against being too hasty in breaking down positive psychology and a need for a psychology that can engage us in a conversation about integrating the complexities of the human condition. Practical/managerial implications: The findings were linked to Deo Strümpfer’s work, indicating that Positive Psychology originated in early 20th century psychology, which is indeed not about simplification, but is imbedded in the complexity of various behavioural continua. Contribution/value-add: Academics, students and organisational consultants are encouraged to revisit Strümpfer’s work to ensure that this psychology is appreciated for its depth and quality.

  18. Verb Movement and the Licensing of NP-positions in the Germanic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    1990-01-01

    In this dissertation, I want to discuss a certain set of interrelated phenomena in Danish and other Germanic languages. What   I am interested in is the position of the finite verb, the factors that determine this verb-position, and the consequences that the choice of position has for other...... into which other positions NPs may occupy, and how they depend on certain verb movements either taking place in the same sentence, or at least being possible in the language in question. The thesis is organised as follows: In chapter 1, I briefly introduce the theoretical background for my study, and discuss...... a number of definitions central to the following chapters. In chapter 2, I discuss the two kinds of movement of the finite verb found in the Germanic languages: Verb Second (V2) and V-to-I movement, and their distrib­ution across the Germanic languages. (French (and to some extent Italian) is sometimes...

  19. [Transposition errors during learning to reproduce a sequence by the right- and the left-hand movements: simulation of positional and movement coding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakhovetskiĭ, V A; Bobrova, E V; Skopin, G N

    2012-01-01

    Transposition errors during the reproduction of a hand movement sequence make it possible to receive important information on the internal representation of this sequence in the motor working memory. Analysis of such errors showed that learning to reproduce sequences of the left-hand movements improves the system of positional coding (coding ofpositions), while learning of the right-hand movements improves the system of vector coding (coding of movements). Learning of the right-hand movements after the left-hand performance involved the system of positional coding "imposed" by the left hand. Learning of the left-hand movements after the right-hand performance activated the system of vector coding. Transposition errors during learning to reproduce movement sequences can be explained by neural network using either vector coding or both vector and positional coding.

  20. Working with LGBT Individuals: Incorporating Positive Psychology into Training and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Megan C.; Vaughan, Michelle D.; Rodriguez, Eric M.; Shmerler, David L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how positive psychology principles can be incorporated into clinical training and practice to work with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) clients. LGBT psychology literature has all too often relied on heterosexual and cisgender reference groups as the norm with respect to psychological health, primarily framing the experiences of LGBT individuals through the lens of psychopathology. As a result, strengths that could be ascribed to the LGBT experience have been overlooked within training and practice. While positive psychology is actively being incorporated into clinical and counseling psychology curricula, broadening the paradigm to include LGBT individuals has generally not been included in the discussion. Specific recommendations for training psychologists to incorporate and foster positive social institutions, positive subjective experiences and character strengths when working with LGBT clients and celebrating their unique experiences are provided. PMID:25544947

  1. The Effects of a Music and Movement Program on Gait, Balance and Psychological Parametres of Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efraimidou, Vasiliki; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Proios, Miltiadis; Tsimaras, Vasileios; Orologas, Anastasios

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a music and movement intervention program on gait, balance and psychological parameters of 10 male athletes in throwing events (ball and disc) with Cerebral Palsy (CP) (spastic hemiplegia), all coming from a sport club in Thessaloniki. Participants were divided randomly by methodical…

  2. Positive Psychology in Cancer Care: Bad Science, Exaggerated Claims, and Unproven Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, James C.; Tennen, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Background Claims of positive psychology about people with cancer enjoy great popularity because they seem to offer scientific confirmation of strongly held cultural beliefs and values. Purpose Our goal is to examine critically four widely accepted claims in the positive psychology literature regarding adaptational outcomes among individuals living with cancer. Methods We examine: (1) the role of positive factors, such as a ?fighting spirit? in extending the life of persons with cancer; (2) e...

  3. Investigating positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tersia Nel

    2015-11-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether perceived positive leadership behaviour could predict psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life of employees in a chemical organisation in South Africa and whether positive leadership behaviour has an indirect effect on employees work engagement and satisfaction with life by means of psychological empowerment. Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study arose from the evident gap in academic literature as well as in terms of practical implications for the chemical industry regarding positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (n = 322. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to examine the structural relationships between the constructs. Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Positive leadership has an indirect effect on work engagement and satisfaction with life via psychological empowerment. Practical/managerial implications: This study adds to the lack of literature in terms of positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life within a chemical industry. It can also assist managers and personnel within the chemical industry to understand and perhaps further investigate relationships that exist between the above mentioned concepts. Contribution/value-add: It is recommended that leadership discussions, short training programs and individual coaching about positive leadership and particularly psychological empowerment take place.

  4. Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa: time course and mechanisms of change. Journal of Clinical consulting Psychology 2002, 20, 267-274. [44...RTO-MP-HFM-181 14 - 1 Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots...practical tool using different techniques in order to improve regulation of emotions before, during and after actions [3]. This psychological training is

  5. Creativity as an Attribute of Positive Psychology: The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect on the Creative Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Hutchison, Shannon; Snow, Lindsay; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Elliott, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology explores how optimism can lead to health, happiness, and creativity. However, questions remain as to how affective states influence creativity. Data on creative personality, optimism, pessimism, positive and negative affect, and current and usual happiness ratings were collected on 161 college students enrolled in an…

  6. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Shoshani; Michelle Slone

    2017-01-01

    Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention co...

  7. [One of the approaches to psychological-pedagogical help to children with severe movement disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, I Iu; Simonova, T N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to work out an effective model of complex help to children with severe movement disorders. We examined 440 preschoolers with children cerebral palsy with severe movement disorders and 70 children with mild movement disorders. Functions of motor, emotional-personal and cognitive spheres and independence status with determination of 5 levels were studied in 47 patients. Three groups (from the group without concomitant (sensor, intellectual etc) disorders to the group with most severe disorders) were singled out. The authors characterize the model as an open integral system of methods, tools and ways providing the adaptation of children in response to external circumstances and changes in the state of patients. The creation of a correction-developing environment, consisting of 3 components: spatial-objective, technological (methodological) and social, is discussed. We present results of the development of children, evaluated by the following indices: general technique, sensory perceptive development, social adaptation, anxiety, cognitive activity, from 1997 to 2008. The 15 year follow-up demonstrated the stability of achieved positive results.

  8. Enhancing the Educational Subject: Cognitive Capitalism, Positive Psychology and Well-Being Training in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…

  9. Assessment of Positive Psychology Course According to Comments and Life Satisfaction Levels of Counselor Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Asli Uz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the "Positive Psychology" course according to comments and life satisfaction levels of counselor candidates. The course was offered in Guidance and Psychological Counseling undergraduate program as an elective course. The participants of the study were 56 senior undergraduate students attended…

  10. Developing Autonomous Learning in First Year University Students Using Perspectives from Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous learning is a commonly occurring learning outcome from university study, and it is argued that students require confidence in their own abilities to achieve this. Using approaches from positive psychology, this study aimed to develop confidence in first-year university students to facilitate autonomous learning. Psychological character…

  11. Positive Psychology in Cross-Cultural Narratives: Mexican Students Discover Themselves While Learning Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca L.; Cuéllar, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Using the principles of positive psychology and the tools of narrative research, this article focuses on the psychology of five language learners who crossed cultural and linguistic borders. All five were university students learning Chinese in Mexico, and two of them also studied Chinese in China. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze…

  12. Positive Psychology in SLA: An Agenda for Learner and Teacher Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article begins with an outline of the developments in Positive Psychology (PP) generally and specifically within SLA focusing on theoretical, empirical and practical developments. It moves on to consider PP's potential contribution to language teaching focusing on how it can help promote emotional, social and psychological wellbeing for…

  13. Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Attitudes, Behaviors, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B.; Reichard, Rebecca J.; Luthans, Fred; Mhatre, Ketan H.

    2011-01-01

    The positive core construct of psychological capital (or simply PsyCap), consisting of the psychological resources of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, has recently been demonstrated to be open to human resource development (HRD) and performance management. The research stream on PsyCap has now grown to the point that a quantitative…

  14. Positive Psychology Theory, Research, and Practice: A Primer for Rehabilitation Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…

  15. Position sensitive proportional counter for measurement of tritium labelled gas movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Chizuo; Nakamoto, Makihiko; Uritani, Akira; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1984-01-01

    A position sensitive proportional counter of a charge division type with a single resistive anode wire was constructed for the measurement of the movement of 3 H labelled gas which is flowing or diffusing in a pipe. The introduction of resistors between the anode wire and pre-amplifiers brought a uniform detection efficiency for 3 H β-rays throughout the counter. The position resolution was 3.1 mm FWHM. Detection efficiency was almost 100% uniformly over about 700 mm in the total anode length of 740 mm. The movement of 3 H labelled gas could be measured effectively. (author)

  16. Virtue ethics, positive psychology, and a new model of science and engineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-04-01

    This essay develops a new conceptual framework of science and engineering ethics education based on virtue ethics and positive psychology. Virtue ethicists and positive psychologists have argued that current rule-based moral philosophy, psychology, and education cannot effectively promote students' moral motivation for actual moral behavior and may even lead to negative outcomes, such as moral schizophrenia. They have suggested that their own theoretical framework of virtue ethics and positive psychology can contribute to the effective promotion of motivation for self-improvement by connecting the notion of morality and eudaimonic happiness. Thus this essay attempts to apply virtue ethics and positive psychology to science and engineering ethics education and to develop a new conceptual framework for more effective education. In addition to the conceptual-level work, this essay suggests two possible educational methods: moral modeling and involvement in actual moral activity in science and engineering ethics classes, based on the conceptual framework.

  17. Amplition in the workplace: building a sustainable workforce through individual positive psychological interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, P.M.; Oerlemans, W.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Workforce sustainability is of vital utmost importance for the viability and competitive advantage of contemporary organizations. Therefore, and in parallel with the rise of positive organizational psychology, organizations have become increasingly interested in how to enhance their employees’

  18. Development of a Causal Framework linking High Perofrmance HRM Practices, Positive Psychological Capital, Creative Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vishal

    2013-01-01

    Synthesizing the ideas of high-performance Human Resource Management (HRM), positive psychological capital, and componential theory of creativity, the present study develops a multi-level causal framework linking high-performance work practices (HPWP), positive psychological capital, employee creative performance behaviors and creative performance. The paper argues that to provide a convincing explanation of the association between HRM practices and creativity, we need to improve our theoreti...

  19. Positive Psychology and Disaster Mental Health: Strategies for Working with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernberg, Eric M; Hambrick, Erin P; Cho, Bridget; Hendrickson, Michelle L

    2016-12-01

    Positive psychology concepts and principles can be incorporated into preparedness, crisis response, and recovery phases of disaster mental health efforts to address the needs of children, adolescents, and families. This article articulates general developmental considerations for applying positive psychology in disaster mental health contexts and discusses how 5 essential elements of immediate and midterm mass trauma intervention identified by Hobfoll et al. (2007) may be infused in applications of positive psychology for children and adolescents. Specific strategies for working with children, adolescents, and their families in home, community, and school contexts are drawn in part from disaster mental health resources developed jointly by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, including the Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide (Brymer et al., 2006), the Skills for Psychological Recovery Field Operations Guide (Berkowitz et al., 2010), and the Psychological First Aid for Schools Field Operations Manual (Brymer et al., 2012). Two case examples illustrate the use of positive psychology principles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Posture and movement in healthy preterm infants in supine position in and outside the nest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, F.; Bertoncelli, N.; Gallo, C.; Roversi, M. F.; Guerra, M. P.; Ranzi, A.; Madders-Algra, M.

    Objective: To evaluate whether lying in a nest affects the posture and spontaneous movements of healthy preterm infants. Method: 10 healthy preterm infants underwent serial video recording in the supine position, when lying in a nest and outside it, at three ages: 30-33 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA)

  1. The globe system : An unambiguous description of shoulder positions in daily life movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Harlaar, J.; Veeger, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Positions of the shoulder joint are commonly described in terms of degrees of humeral elevation in the principal planes. This approach is inadequate for an accurate and unambiguous description of functional arm movements that are not confined to these planes. In this paper, a general unambiguous

  2. Online manual movement adjustments in response to target position changes and apparent target motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostwoud Wijdenes, L.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to determine whether the fastest online hand movement corrections are only responses to changing judgments of the targets' position or whether they are also influenced by the apparent target motion. Introducing a gap between when a target disappears and when it reappears at a new

  3. An integral, positive psychology paradigm for global coherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article reviews research evidence in relation to psychophysiological coherence, which is characterised by a heart rhythm pattern of elevated amplitude in low frequency heart rate variability of around 0.1 Hz. This is associated with synchronisation between various physiological systems, positive emotions, athletes' ...

  4. Ten Ways to Infuse Positive Psychology in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Scott

    2012-01-01

    School professionals, including school psychologists, have often operated from a problem- or deficit-based perspective with a focus on identifying and remediating psychoeducational disorders in children and adolescents. However, positive psychologists have argued that an exclusive focus on deficits does not offer a comprehensive perspective of…

  5. Positive resources for combating job burnout among Chinese telephone operators: Resilience and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaohong; Liu, Chunqin; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Guopeng; Kong, Linghua; Li, Ping

    2015-08-30

    Job burnout is a major concern within the service industry. However, there is a lack of research exploring positive resources for combating burnout among telephone operators. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resilience, psychological empowerment, and job burnout, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment. A cross-sectional survey of 575 telephone operators was conducted in 2 call centers in Shandong Province, China. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess job burnout symptoms, resilience, and psychological empowerment. Hierarchical linear regression was performed to analyze the degree to which resilience and psychological empowerment are associated with job burnout, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment. The results showed that resilience and psychological empowerment had significant "net effects" on job burnout, which may represent positive resources for combating job burnout. Psychological empowerment may partially mediate the relationship between resilience and job burnout. Thus, interventions focused on resilience and psychological empowerment may be useful options for managers concerned about burnout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial Adaptation to Disability Within the Context of Positive Psychology: Philosophical Aspects and Historical Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Martz, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the conceptual and clinical similarities that exist between the principles of positive psychology and those underlying rehabilitation counseling and psychology, occupational rehabilitation, and those espoused by the field of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID). Three themes were selected for review. These included the historical contributions of early scholars in the area of psychosocial adaptation to CID that later were indirectly infused into mainstream positive psychology; state and trait constructs that constitute much of the infrastructure of positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID; and, finally, the philosophical congruencies between positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID. The existing literature indicates that there is a substantial philosophical and conceptual overlap between the fields of positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID. Since theoreticians and researchers, from both fields, often use differing terminology and definitions to describe similar concepts, as well as seek similar research goals, it would behoove both fields to seek a closer partnership in order to establish a meaningful dialogue that focuses on human strengths and virtues in the lives of people with CID.

  7. Positive psychology in cancer care: bad science, exaggerated claims, and unproven medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C; Tennen, Howard

    2010-02-01

    Claims of positive psychology about people with cancer enjoy great popularity because they seem to offer scientific confirmation of strongly held cultural beliefs and values. Our goal is to examine critically four widely accepted claims in the positive psychology literature regarding adaptational outcomes among individuals living with cancer. We examine: (1) the role of positive factors, such as a "fighting spirit" in extending the life of persons with cancer; (2) effects of interventions cultivating positive psychological states on immune functioning and cancer progression and mortality; and evidence concerning (3) benefit finding and (4) post-traumatic growth following serious illness such as cancer and other highly threatening experiences. Claims about these areas of research routinely made in the positive psychology literature do not fit with available evidence. We note in particular the incoherence of claims about the adaptational value of benefit finding and post-traumatic growth among cancer patients, and the implausibility of claims that interventions that enhance benefit finding improve the prognosis of cancer patients by strengthening the immune system. We urge positive psychologists to rededicate themselves to a positive psychology based on scientific evidence rather than wishful thinking.

  8. The Positioning Accuracy of BAUV Using Fusion of Data from USBL System and Movement Parameters Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naus Krzysztof

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study of the accuracy of estimating the position coordinates of BAUV (Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle by the extended Kalman filter (EKF method. The fusion of movement parameters measurements and position coordinates fixes was applied. The movement parameters measurements are carried out by on-board navigation devices, while the position coordinates fixes are done by the USBL (Ultra Short Base Line system. The problem of underwater positioning and the conceptual design of the BAUV navigation system constructed at the Naval Academy (Polish Naval Academy—PNA are presented in the first part of the paper. The second part consists of description of the evaluation results of positioning accuracy, the genesis of the problem of selecting method for underwater positioning, and the mathematical description of the method of estimating the position coordinates using the EKF method by the fusion of measurements with on-board navigation and measurements obtained with the USBL system. The main part contains a description of experimental research. It consists of a simulation program of navigational parameter measurements carried out during the BAUV passage along the test section. Next, the article covers the determination of position coordinates on the basis of simulated parameters, using EKF and DR methods and the USBL system, which are then subjected to a comparative analysis of accuracy. The final part contains systemic conclusions justifying the desirability of applying the proposed fusion method of navigation parameters for the BAUV positioning.

  9. The Positioning Accuracy of BAUV Using Fusion of Data from USBL System and Movement Parameters Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysztof, Naus; Aleksander, Nowak

    2016-08-15

    The article presents a study of the accuracy of estimating the position coordinates of BAUV (Biomimetic Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) by the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method. The fusion of movement parameters measurements and position coordinates fixes was applied. The movement parameters measurements are carried out by on-board navigation devices, while the position coordinates fixes are done by the USBL (Ultra Short Base Line) system. The problem of underwater positioning and the conceptual design of the BAUV navigation system constructed at the Naval Academy (Polish Naval Academy-PNA) are presented in the first part of the paper. The second part consists of description of the evaluation results of positioning accuracy, the genesis of the problem of selecting method for underwater positioning, and the mathematical description of the method of estimating the position coordinates using the EKF method by the fusion of measurements with on-board navigation and measurements obtained with the USBL system. The main part contains a description of experimental research. It consists of a simulation program of navigational parameter measurements carried out during the BAUV passage along the test section. Next, the article covers the determination of position coordinates on the basis of simulated parameters, using EKF and DR methods and the USBL system, which are then subjected to a comparative analysis of accuracy. The final part contains systemic conclusions justifying the desirability of applying the proposed fusion method of navigation parameters for the BAUV positioning.

  10. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S-1920S: "OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY"/"REFLEXOLOGY" AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20(th) century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled "objective psychology" and from the 1910s renamed "reflexology." The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's "objective psychology" and "reflexology" occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20(th) century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that "objective psychology" and "reflexology" had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, "experimental pedagogy" in the pre-revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet "pedology" during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned "objective psychology"/"reflexology" as a transformative scientific movement. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Positive psychological strengths and school engagement in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Wilkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A sizeable body of research has investigated the impact of specific character strengths or traits on significant outcomes. Some recent research is beginning to consider the effects of groups of strengths, combined as a higher order variable and termed covitality. This study investigated the combined influence of four positive character traits, gratitude, optimism, zest and persistence, upon school engagement, within a sample of 112 Australian primary school students. The combined effect of these four traits, in defining covitality as a higher or second-order factor within a path analysis, was found to predict relatively higher levels of school engagement and pro-social behaviour.

  12. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are positive... from the animals positive to an official Johne's disease test to the healthy animals in the vehicle. ...

  13. Pointing movements both impair and improve visuospatial working memory depending on serial position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of pointing movements on the item and order recall of random, horizontal, and vertical arrays consisting of 6 and 7 squares (Experiment 1) or 8 and 9 squares (Experiment 2). In the encoding phase, participants either viewed the items passively (passive-view condition) or pointed towards them (pointing condition). Then, after a brief interval, they were requested to recall the locations of the studied squares in the correct order of presentation. The critical result was that, for all types of arrays, the effects of the encoding condition varied as a function of serial position: for the initial and central positions accuracy was higher in the passive-view than in the pointing condition (confirming the standard inhibitory effect of pointing movements on visuospatial working memory), whereas the reverse pattern occurred in the final positions-showing a significant advantage of the pointing condition over the passive-view condition. Findings are interpreted as showing that pointing can have two simultaneous effects on the recall of spatial locations, a positive one due to the addition of a motor code and a negative one due to the attentional requirements of hand movements, with the net impact on serial recall depending on the amount of attention resources needed for the encoding of each position. Implications for the item-order hypothesis and the perceptual-gestural account of working memory are also discussed.

  14. Positive psychology and ideas of cultural-historical school of L.S. Vygotsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilev V.K.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article was carried out a comparative analysis between two distinctive psychology schools: the cultural-historical psychology of L.V. Vygotsky and the positive psychological school. Distinct are a number of significant similarities between their basic ideas that are valuable both for the development of human knowledge and for public practice. The authors have outlined and systematized the leading personal and intellectual qualities of the famous psychologists who have created the most promising theories in the psychological science. The category is highlighted as well as a small group of visionary psychologists who have identified the most important problems of man and psychology and have offered the best quality solutions to these problems. These are W. James, S. Freud, L. Vygotsky, E. Eriksson and A. Maslow; We’ve noticed that Vygotsky alone meets all the criteria, as if the concept of insightful psychologists was modeled over his creative work and his personality.

  15. Positive technology–A powerful partnership between positive psychology and interactive technology. A discussion of potential and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Diefenbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the umbrella term "positive computing" concepts of positive psychology are transferred to the domain of human-computer interaction (HCI. In an interdisciplinary community psychologist, computer scientists, designers and others are exploring promising ways how to utilize interactive technology to support wellbeing and human flourishing. Along with this, the recent popularity of smartphone apps aiming at the improvement of health behavior, mindfulness and positive routines, suggests the general acceptance of technology as a facilitator of personal development. Given this, there generally seems a high potential for a technology mediated trigger of positive behavior change, especially in context of positive psychology and resource oriented approaches such as solution-focused coaching. At the same time, there is still a lack of well-founded approaches to design such technology which consider its responsible role as an "interactive coach" and systematically integrate the needed expertise of different disciplines. The present article discusses the general potential and particular challenges to support the goals of positive psychology and human desire for self-improvement through interactive technology and highlights critical steps for a successful partnership between both.

  16. The Role of Wellbeing and Wellness: A Positive Psychological Model in Supporting Young People With ASCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years sport psychology expanded its applicability in a variety of fields which have helped to address some of the challenges related to high level performance and sport competition. When we talk about performance in its wider sense, sport psychology is able to help develop a better understanding on how strategies can be adopted in improving general human performance levels. This includes increasing the knowledge of key concepts such as motivation, self-confidence and resilience. Furthermore performance in its wider sense helps in the understanding of the impact of stress and arousal and how these can affect both positively and negatively performance levels including appreciating individual differences as well as dynamics between groups of individuals. In this paper performance rather than solely be related to the field of competitive or professional sport has been discussed in people with ASCs and aims to explore how by adopting a positive psychological model in the formulation of individual assessments and subsequent interventions have led to improvement in individual skills, participation, engagement and ultimately quality of life. Positive psychological principles, such as the role of wellbeing and wellness, the PERMA Model has increased our understanding of human potentials, performance and wellbeing. The aim of this paper is to present and reflect on the applicability and benefits of adopting sport psychology models, the PERMA model and positive psychological principles in special education and care settings with the presentation and discussion of their theoretical and some practical implementation in two case studies.

  17. Positive effects of robotic exoskeleton training of upper limb reaching movements after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6 weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients’ group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0–66 points), Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0–60 pts) and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion) and clinical (4.6 ± 4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2 ± 2.1 decrease in MA) parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement) and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space). These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved interjoint coordination of

  18. Positive effects of robotic exoskeleton training of upper limb reaching movements after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisoli Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6 weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients’ group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0–66 points, Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0–60 pts and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion and clinical (4.6 ± 4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2 ± 2.1 decrease in MA parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space. These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved

  19. Positive Psychology Interventions for Patients With Heart Disease: A Preliminary Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikrahan, Gholam Reza; Suarez, Laura; Asgari, Karim; Beach, Scott R; Celano, Christopher M; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Abedi, Mohammad Reza; Etesampour, Ali; Abbas, Rezaei; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychologic characteristics have been linked to superior cardiac outcomes. Accordingly, in this exploratory study, we assessed positive psychology interventions in patients who had recently undergone a procedure to treat cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 different 6-week face-to-face interventions or a wait-list control condition. We assessed intervention feasibility and compared changes in psychologic outcome measures postintervention (7wk) and at follow-up (15wk) between intervention and control participants. Across the interventions, 74% of assigned sessions were completed. When comparing outcomes between interventions and control participants (N = 55 total), there were no between-group differences post-intervention, but at follow-up intervention participants had greater improvements in happiness (β = 14.43, 95% CI: 8.66-20.2, p psychology intervention for cardiac patients. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive Psychology for Overcoming Symptoms of Depression: A Pilot Study Exploring the Efficacy of a Positive Psychology Self-Help Book versus a CBT Self-Help Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Katie

    2018-04-25

    Depression is an extremely common mental health disorder, with prevalence rates rising. Low-intensity interventions are frequently used to help meet the demand for treatment. Bibliotherapy, for example, is often prescribed via books on prescription schemes (for example 'Reading Well' in England) to those with mild to moderate symptomology. Bibliotherapy can effectively reduce symptoms of depression (Naylor et al., 2010). However, the majority of self-help books are based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which may not be suitable for all patients. Research supports the use of positive psychology interventions for the reduction of depression symptoms (Bolier et al., 2013) and as such self-help books from this perspective should be empirically tested. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 'Positive Psychology for Overcoming Depression' (Akhtar, 2012), a self-help book for depression that is based on the principles of positive psychology, in comparison with a CBT self-help book that is currently prescribed in England as part of the Reading Well books on prescription scheme. Participants (n = 115) who were not receiving treatment, but had symptoms of depression, read the positive psychology or the CBT self-help book for 8 weeks. Depression and well-being were measured at baseline, post-test and 1-month follow-up. Results suggest that both groups experienced a reduction in depression and an increase in well-being, with no differences noted between the two books. Future directions are discussed in terms of dissemination, to those with mild to moderate symptoms of depression, via books on prescription schemes.

  1. Predicting College Students' Positive Psychology Associated Traits with Executive Functioning Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Seth

    2016-01-01

    More research is needed that investigates how positive psychology-associated traits are predicted by neurocognitive processes. Correspondingly, the purpose of this study was to ascertain how, and to what extent, four traits, namely, grit, optimism, positive affect, and life satisfaction were predicted by the executive functioning (EF) dimensions…

  2. Positive Psychology in Cancer Care : A Story Line Resistant to Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyne, James C.; Tennen, Howard; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Aspinwall and Tedeschi (Ann Behav Med, 2010) summarize evidence they view as supporting links between positive psychological states, including sense of coherence (SOC) and optimism and health outcomes, and they refer to persistent assumptions that interfere with understanding how positive states

  3. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current

  4. A Critique of Positive Psychology--Or "The New Science of Happiness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the new science of positive psychology is founded on a whole series of fallacious arguments; these involve circular reasoning, tautology, failure to clearly define or properly apply terms, the identification of causal relations where none exist, and unjustified generalisation. Instead of demonstrating that positive attitudes…

  5. Psychosocial Adaptation to Disability Within the Context of Positive Psychology: Findings from the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Erin; Livneh, Hanoch

    2016-03-01

    This purpose of this article is to review of the trends of research that examined positive psychology constructs in the context of adapting to chronic illness and disability (CID). This article examines the empirical findings on the relationships between six selected positive psychology-associated constructs (optimism, hope, resilience, benefit-finding, meaning-making, and post-traumatic growth) and adaptation to disability. Six positive psychology constructs were selected to represent the trends found in recent literature published on CID. The process of choosing these six variables included reviewing chapters on positive psychology and CID, reviewing the top rehabilitation journals that typically publish articles on psychosocial adaptation to CID, using search engines to find relevant journal articles published since the year 2000, and selecting the most important constructs based on the authors’ professional judgment. The available evidence supports the unique benefits of these six positive psychology constructs in predicting successful adaptation to a range of disabling conditions. Based on the available findings, the authors offer four suggestions for occupational rehabilitation researchers.

  6. Supported Decision-Making: Implications from Positive Psychology for Assessment and Intervention in Rehabilitation and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanik, Hatice; Shogren, Karrie A; Blanck, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Purpose This article reviews existing literature on positive psychology, supported decision-making (SDM), employment, and disability. It examines interventions and assessments that have been empirically evaluated for the enhancement of decision-making and overall well-being of people with disabilities. Additionally, conceptual themes present in the literature were explored. Methods A systematic review was conducted across two databases (ERIC and PsychINFO) using various combination of keywords of 'disabilit*', work rehabilitation and employment terms, positive psychology terms, and SDM components. Seven database searches were conducted with diverse combinations of keywords, which identified 1425 results in total to be screened for relevance using their titles and abstracts. Database search was supplemented with hand searches of oft-cited journals, ancestral search, and supplemental search from grey literature. Results Only four studies were identified in the literature targeting SDM and positive psychology related constructs in the employment and job development context. Results across the studies indicated small to moderate impacts of the assessment and interventions on decision-making and engagement outcomes. Conceptually there are thematic areas of potential overlap, although they are limited in the explicit integration of theory in supported decision-making, positive psychology, disability, and employment. Conclusion Results suggest a need for additional scholarship in this area that focuses on theory development and integration as well as empirical work. Such work should examine the potential utility of considering positive psychological interventions when planning for SDM in the context of career development activities to enhance positive outcomes related to decision-making, self-determination, and other positive psychological constructs.

  7. Influence of Marker Movement Errors on Measuring 3 Dimentional Scapular Position and Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsoun Nodehi-Moghaddam

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Scapulothoracic muscles weakness or fatique can result in abnormal scapular positioning and compromising scapulo-humeral rhythm and shoulder dysfunction .The scapula moves in a -3 Dimentional fashion so the use of 2-Dimentional Techniques cannot fully capture scapular motion . One of approaches to positioining markers of kinematic systems is to mount each marker directly on the skin generally over a bony anatomical landmarks . Howerer skin movement and Motion of underlying bony structures are not Necessaritly identical and substantial errors may be introduced in the description of bone movement when using skin –mounted markers. evaluation of Influence of marker movement errors on 3-Dimentional scapular position and orientation. Materials & Methods: 10 Healthy subjects with a mean age 30.50 participated in the study . They were tested in three sessions A 3-dimentiional electro mechanical digitizer was used to measure scapular position and orientation measures were obtained while arm placed at the side of the body and elevated 45٫90٫120 and full Rang of motion in the scapular plane . At each test positions six bony landmarks were palpated and skin markers were mounted on them . This procedure repeated in the second test session in third session Removal of markers was not performed through obtaining entire Range of motion after mounting the markers . Results: The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC for scapulor variables were higher (0.92-0.84 when markers were replaced and re-mounted on bony landmarks with Increasing the angle of elevation. Conclusion: our findings suggested significant markers movement error on measuring the upward Rotation and posterior tilt angle of scapula.

  8. Multi-Functional Sensor System for Heart Rate, Body Position and Movement Intensity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael MAO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-functional wearable sensor has been developed with multi-axis accelerometer, disposable hydro-gel electrodes, and analog filtering components. This novel sensor implementation can be used for detecting common body positions, movement intensity, and measures bio-potential signals for ECG and heart rate analysis. Based on the novel sensor principle, a prototype combines position detection, heart rate detection, and motion intensity level detection together in a handheld device that records the physiological information and wirelessly transmits the signals through Bluetooth to a mobile phone. Static body positions such as standing/sitting, lying supine, prone, and on the sides have been detected with high accuracy (97.7 % during the subject tests. Further, an algorithm that detects body movement intensity that can potentially be applied in real-time monitoring physical activity level is proposed based on average variance values. Motion intensity results show variance values increase and exercise intensity increases for almost all of the cases. A clear relation between movement intensity level shown by an increase in frequency and/or speed of exercise increases the variance values detected in all three spatial axes.

  9. Evaluation of the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program: A Positive Psychology Intervention With Prison Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Kim H; Hall, Brittany; Hurst, Mark A; Bikos, Lynette H

    2015-08-01

    Two groups of male inmates (n = 31, n = 31) participated in the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program (PRCP). This positive psychology intervention focused on teaching offenders skills that facilitate re-entry into the community. Offenders participated in weekly lectures, discussions, and homework assignments focused on positive psychology principles. The two groups differed in duration of treatment (8 weeks and 12 weeks). Participants completed pre- and post-intervention measures of gratitude, hope, and life satisfaction. Using a 2 × 2 mixed design ANOVA, we hypothesized that the intervention (with two between-subjects levels of 8 and 12 weeks) and duration (with two repeated measures levels of pre and post) of treatment would moderate pre- to post-intervention change. Results indicated significant differences on pre- and post-intervention scores for both groups of offenders on all measures. The analysis did not yield statistically significant differences between groups, demonstrating no additive benefits from the inclusion of four additional sessions, thus saving time and money for correctional programming and funding. This research supports the use of positive psychology in prison interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. [Influence of "prehistory" of sequential movements of the right and the left hand on reproduction: coding of positions, movements and sequence structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrova, E V; Liakhovetskiĭ, V A; Borshchevskaia, E R

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of errors during reproduction of a sequence of hand movements without visual feedback on the previous right- and left-hand performance ("prehistory") and on positions in space of sequence elements (random or ordered by the explicit rule) was analyzed. It was shown that the preceding information about the ordered positions of the sequence elements was used during right-hand movements, whereas left-hand movements were performed with involvement of the information about the random sequence. The data testify to a central mechanism of the analysis of spatial structure of sequence elements. This mechanism activates movement coding specific for the left hemisphere (vector coding) in case of an ordered sequence structure and positional coding specific for the right hemisphere in case of a random sequence structure.

  11. The Validity and Reliability of the Gymaware Linear Position Transducer for Measuring Counter-Movement Jump Performance in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Shannon; Tavares, Francisco; McMaster, Daniel; Chambers, Samuel; Driller, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of a linear position transducer when compared to a force plate through a counter-movement jump in female participants. Twenty-seven female recreational athletes (19 ± 2 years) performed three counter-movement jumps simultaneously using the linear position transducer and…

  12. Psychological resilience, pain catastrophizing, and positive emotions: perspectives on comprehensive modeling of individual pain adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, John A; Zautra, Alex J

    2013-03-01

    Pain is a complex construct that contributes to profound physical and psychological dysfunction, particularly in individuals coping with chronic pain. The current paper builds upon previous research, describes a balanced conceptual model that integrates aspects of both psychological vulnerability and resilience to pain, and reviews protective and exacerbating psychosocial factors to the process of adaptation to chronic pain, including pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and positive psychological resources predictive of enhanced pain coping. The current paper identifies future directions for research that will further enrich the understanding of pain adaptation and espouses an approach that will enhance the ecological validity of psychological pain coping models, including introduction of advanced statistical and conceptual models that integrate behavioral, cognitive, information processing, motivational and affective theories of pain.

  13. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Jacki; Stoner, Charlotte R; Wenborn, Jennifer; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Orrell, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and psychometric properties of existing positive psychology measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia to determine their potential utility in research and practice. A systematic review of positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people with dementia was conducted. The databases searched were as follows: PsychINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed. Scale development papers were subject to a quality assessment to appraise psychometric properties. Twelve positive outcome measures and six validation papers of these scales were identified. The emerging constructs of self-efficacy, spirituality, resilience, rewards, gain, and meaning are in line with positive psychology theory. There are some robust positive measures in existence for family caregivers of people living with dementia. However, lack of reporting of the psychometric properties hindered the quality assessment of some outcome measures identified in this review. Future research should aim to include positive outcome measures in interventional research to facilitate a greater understanding of the positive aspects of caregiving and how these contribute to well-being.

  14. Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B; Luthans, Fred; Smith, Ronda M; Palmer, Noel F

    2010-01-01

    The recently recognized core construct of psychological capital or PsyCap (consisting of the positive psychological resources of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) has been demonstrated to be related to various employee attitudinal, behavioral, and performance outcomes. However, to date, the impact of this positive core construct over time and on important employee well-being outcomes has not been tested. This study meets this need by analyzing the relationship between a broad cross-section of employees' (N = 280) level of PsyCap and two measures of psychological well-being over time. The results indicated that employees' PsyCap was related to both measures of well-being and, importantly, that PsyCap explained additional variance in these well-being measures over time. The limitations, needed future research, and practical implications conclude the article.

  15. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2014-01-01

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current study we aimed to provide these insights by introducing an experimental dynamical research design. Rowing pairs had to compete against a virtual opponent on rowing ergometers, while a screen in front of the team broadcasted the ongoing race. The race was manipulated so that the team's rowing avatar gradually progressed (positive momentum) or regressed (negative momentum) in relation to the victory. The participants responded verbally to collective efficacy and task cohesion items appearing on the screen each minute. In addition, effort exertion and interpersonal coordination were continuously measured. Our results showed negative psychological changes (perceptions of collective efficacy and task cohesion) during negative team momentum, which were stronger than the positive changes during positive team momentum. Moreover, teams' exerted efforts rapidly decreased during negative momentum, whereas positive momentum accompanied a more variable and adaptive sequence of effort exertion. Finally, the interpersonal coordination was worse during negative momentum than during positive momentum. These results provide the first empirical insights into actual team momentum dynamics, and demonstrate how a dynamical research approach significantly contributes to current knowledge on psychological and behavioral processes.

  16. Positive and negative psychological impact after secondary exposure to politically motivated violence among body handlers and rehabilitation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Alkalay, Yasmin; Meiner, Zeev; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2008-12-01

    The positive and negative psychological impact of secondary exposure to politically motivated violence was examined among body handlers and hospital rehabilitation workers, 2 groups that differed in their proximity and immediacy to violent events. Survivors of politically motivated violence served as a comparison group. Body handlers experienced high levels of positive psychological impact and traumatic stress symptoms. Levels of positive psychological impact among on-scene body handlers were higher than those experienced by rehabilitation workers. Traumatic stress symptoms predicted positive psychological impact among body handlers. These findings indicate that proximity to stressors is associated with higher levels of positive and negative psychological impact. Physical proximity is a major contributory factor to both positive and negative psychological effects of secondary exposure to trauma.

  17. Teaching for Civic Engagement: Lesson Learned from Integrating Positive Psychology and Future Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeanie K.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching for civic education holds promise for assisting colleges and universities that suggest the promotion of global citizenship in their mission statements. This paper presents the study of a course where readings and activities from the literature of positive psychology were integrated with studies about current global issues and potential…

  18. The Promising but Challenging Case of Humility as a Positive Psychology Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter C.; Sandage, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    In maintaining that virtue is a legitimate concept worthy of empirical study, a strong situationist approach to the study of behavior is countered. An earlier analysis is then drawn upon to maintain that virtue has the capability of integrating several themes in positive psychology: ethics and health, embodied character, strength and resilience,…

  19. The Role of Positive Psychology in Enhancing Satisfaction, Motivation, and Productivity in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology offers scope for enhancing satisfaction, motivation, and productivity in the workplace. Wiegand and Geller (2004, this issue) point to a number of strategies to enhance individuals' success orientation and conclude their discussion with the actively caring model which appears to be a useful means of representing pivotal facets…

  20. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Hope and College Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…

  1. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  2. Positive Psychological Interventions for Children: A Comparison of Gratitude and Best Possible Selves Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Rhea L.; Patterson, Meagan M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have found benefits of positive psychological interventions, such as gratitude promotion or thinking about best possible selves, for adolescents and adults. Almost no research, however, has been conducted on the efficacy of such interventions for children. The authors' primary goal was to compare the outcomes of gratitude promotion…

  3. Using a Positive Psychology and Family Framework to Understand Mexican American Adolescents' College-Going Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…

  4. Analyzing the Relationship between Positive Psychological Capital and Organizational Commitment of the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine the relationship between teachers' positive psychological capital levels and organisational commitment. The study was conducted as a correlational survey which is one of the quantitative methods. The sample group consists of 244 teachers selected by using random sampling method among 1270 teachers working in…

  5. Teacher Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Positive Psychological Capital: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseu, João; Neves de Jesus, Saul; Rus, Claudia; Canavarro, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher motivation is vital for the educational system. For teachers to be motivated their work satisfaction and positive psychological capital are crucial. The state-of-the-art on teacher motivation requires a literature review regarding the studies that relate teacher motivation and the above mentioned constructs. In this paper, through…

  6. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  7. Health Care "as Usual": The Insertion of Positive Psychology in Canadian Mental Health Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhangiani, Surita Jassal; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    The recent shift to a "positive psychological" approach that emphasizes a "health model," rather than a "disease model," in mental health discourses is intended both to reduce the stigma around mental health issues and to enable people to play a role in monitoring their own mental health. As a component of a larger…

  8. Positive Psychology in Cancer Care: A Story Line Resistant to Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, James C.; Tennen, Howard; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aspinwall and Tedeschi (Ann Behav Med, 2010) summarize evidence they view as supporting links between positive psychological states, including sense of coherence (SOC) and optimism and health outcomes, and they refer to persistent assumptions that interfere with understanding how positive states predict health. Purpose We critically evaluate Aspinwall and Tedeschi?s assertions. Methods We examine evidence related to SOC and optimism in relation to physical health, and revisit propo...

  9. Imagining with the body in analytical psychology. Movement as active imagination: an interdisciplinary perspective from philosophy and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Ana

    2018-04-01

    This article explores how the body and imagination operate as pathways of knowledge through the use of Movement as Active Imagination in clinical practice. This method activates the transcendent function, thus encouraging new therapeutic responses. A philosophical perspective (Spinoza, Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty) and some concepts from neuroscience (embodied cognition, somatic markers, image schema, mirror neurons, neuronal plasticity) will accompany us throughout this work, illustrated with a clinical vignette. Three levels of integration: 1) body, 2) body-emotion, 3) body-emotion-imagination are proposed: these mark a progressive sense of articulation and complexity. Finally the relation between creativity and neuronal plasticity will be considered. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  10. The role of storm scale, position and movement in controlling urban flood response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. ten Veldhuis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of spatial and temporal variability of rainfall on hydrological response remains poorly understood, in particular in urban catchments due to their strong variability in land use, a high degree of imperviousness and the presence of stormwater infrastructure. In this study, we analyze the effect of storm scale, position and movement in relation to basin scale and flow-path network structure on urban hydrological response. A catalog of 279 peak events was extracted from a high-quality observational dataset covering 15 years of flow observations and radar rainfall data for five (semiurbanized basins ranging from 7.0 to 111.1 km2 in size. Results showed that the largest peak flows in the event catalog were associated with storm core scales exceeding basin scale, for all except the largest basin. Spatial scale of flood-producing storm events in the smaller basins fell into two groups: storms of large spatial scales exceeding basin size or small, concentrated events, with storm core much smaller than basin size. For the majority of events, spatial rainfall variability was strongly smoothed by the flow-path network, increasingly so for larger basin size. Correlation analysis showed that position of the storm in relation to the flow-path network was significantly correlated with peak flow in the smallest and in the two more urbanized basins. Analysis of storm movement relative to the flow-path network showed that direction of storm movement, upstream or downstream relative to the flow-path network, had little influence on hydrological response. Slow-moving storms tend to be associated with higher peak flows and longer lag times. Unexpectedly, position of the storm relative to impervious cover within the basins had little effect on flow peaks. These findings show the importance of observation-based analysis in validating and improving our understanding of interactions between the spatial distribution of rainfall and catchment variability.

  11. The role of storm scale, position and movement in controlling urban flood response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; Zhou, Zhengzheng; Yang, Long; Liu, Shuguang; Smith, James

    2018-01-01

    The impact of spatial and temporal variability of rainfall on hydrological response remains poorly understood, in particular in urban catchments due to their strong variability in land use, a high degree of imperviousness and the presence of stormwater infrastructure. In this study, we analyze the effect of storm scale, position and movement in relation to basin scale and flow-path network structure on urban hydrological response. A catalog of 279 peak events was extracted from a high-quality observational dataset covering 15 years of flow observations and radar rainfall data for five (semi)urbanized basins ranging from 7.0 to 111.1 km2 in size. Results showed that the largest peak flows in the event catalog were associated with storm core scales exceeding basin scale, for all except the largest basin. Spatial scale of flood-producing storm events in the smaller basins fell into two groups: storms of large spatial scales exceeding basin size or small, concentrated events, with storm core much smaller than basin size. For the majority of events, spatial rainfall variability was strongly smoothed by the flow-path network, increasingly so for larger basin size. Correlation analysis showed that position of the storm in relation to the flow-path network was significantly correlated with peak flow in the smallest and in the two more urbanized basins. Analysis of storm movement relative to the flow-path network showed that direction of storm movement, upstream or downstream relative to the flow-path network, had little influence on hydrological response. Slow-moving storms tend to be associated with higher peak flows and longer lag times. Unexpectedly, position of the storm relative to impervious cover within the basins had little effect on flow peaks. These findings show the importance of observation-based analysis in validating and improving our understanding of interactions between the spatial distribution of rainfall and catchment variability.

  12. Six movements measurement system employed for GAIA secondary mirror positioning system vacuum tests at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Garranzo García-Ibarrola, Daniel; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the optical measurement system employed to evaluate the performance of a 6 degrees of freedom (dof) positioning mechanism under cryogenic conditions is explored. The mechanism, the flight model of three translations and three rotations positioning mechanism, was developed by the Spanish company SENER (for ASTRIUM) to fulfil the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for the positioning of a secondary mirror within the GAIA Astrometric Mission. Its performance has been evaluated under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions (up to a 10-6mbar and 100K) at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA). After the description of the 'alignment tool' developed to compare a fixed reference with the optical signal corresponding to the movement under evaluation, the optical system that allows measuring the displacements and the rotations in the three space directions is reported on. Two similar bread-boards were defined and mounted for the measurements purpose, one containing two distancemeters, in order to measure the displacements through the corresponding axis, and an autocollimator in order to obtain the rotations on the plane whose normal vector is the axis mentioned before, and other one containing one distancemeter and one autocollimator. Both distancemeter and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions.

  13. Promoting Positive Psychology Using Social Networking Sites: A Study of New College Entrants on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Man Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of promoting college students’ positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students’ Internet time and has the potential to assist students’ positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their strength effectively when facing objective difficulties and how this capability can be cultivated with certain approaches. A positive message delivery approach was designed for a group of new college entrants. A series of positive messages was edited by university counselors and delivered by students to their Facebook social groups. Responses from each posted positive messages were collected and analyzed by researchers. The responses indicated that: (1 relationships of individual engagement and social influence in this study can partially explain the observed student behavior; (2 using class-based social groups can promote a positive atmosphere to enhance strong-tie relationships in both the physical and virtual environments, and (3 promoting student’s positive attitudes can substantially impact adolescents’ future developments, and many positive attitudes can be cultivated by emotional events and social influence.

  14. Promoting positive psychology using social networking sites: a study of new college entrants on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Man; Lin, Yung-Hsiu; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chang, Her-Kun; Chong, Ping Pete

    2014-04-29

    This study explores the potential of promoting college students' positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students' Internet time and has the potential to assist students' positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their strength effectively when facing objective difficulties and how this capability can be cultivated with certain approaches. A positive message delivery approach was designed for a group of new college entrants. A series of positive messages was edited by university counselors and delivered by students to their Facebook social groups. Responses from each posted positive messages were collected and analyzed by researchers. The responses indicated that: (1) relationships of individual engagement and social influence in this study can partially explain the observed student behavior; (2) using class-based social groups can promote a positive atmosphere to enhance strong-tie relationships in both the physical and virtual environments, and (3) promoting student's positive attitudes can substantially impact adolescents' future developments, and many positive attitudes can be cultivated by emotional events and social influence.

  15. AMPLITION IN THE WORKPLACE: BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE WORKFORCE THROUGH INDIVIDUAL POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale M. Le Blanc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Workforce sustainability is of vital utmost importance for the viability and competitive advantage of contemporary organizations. Therefore, and in parallel with the rise of positive organizational psychology, organizations have become increasingly interested in how to enhance their employees’ positive psychological well being. In this paper, amplition interventions – i.e. interventions aimed at enhancing positive work-related well being - are presented as a valuable tool to increase workforce sustainability. In the past decade, some work-related interventions focused on amplition have been developed and tested for their effectiveness. In this paper, we will first outline some important preconditions for successful interventions and briefly discuss the intervention process itself. Next, we will give an overview of empirical work on amplition interventions, focusing on interventions that are aimed at enhancing employee work engagement. Future research should focus on testing the effects of these type of interventions on outcomes at the team and organizational level.

  16. Being Positive. Approaching Career Design from the Perspective of Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Klimka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Constructing a career path based upon positive personal potential and positive individual resources is a significant factor for professional development of employees and their success on today’s labour market. A satisfying career, an inherent element of personal well-being and good life, is linked with an ability to explore and reinforce signature strengths. In order to effectively design programmes which could support young people who are preparing to enter a job market, it is essential to acquire knowledge about values and character strengths and their perceptions among young people living in Poland and abroad. The article presents comparative analysis of signature strengths perceptions among young people in different cultures and discusses the significance of the most striking differences.

  17. Positive Psychological Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Rationale, Theoretical Model, and Intervention Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff C. Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D have suboptimal adherence to recommended diet, physical activity, and/or medication. Current approaches to improve health behaviors in T2D have been variably effective, and successful interventions are often complex and intensive. It is therefore vital to develop interventions that are simple, well-accepted, and applicable to a wide range of patients who suffer from T2D. One approach may be to boost positive psychological states, such as positive affect or optimism, as these constructs have been prospectively and independently linked to improvements in health behaviors. Positive psychology (PP interventions, which utilize systematic exercises to increase optimism, well-being, and positive affect, consistently increase positive states and are easily delivered to patients with chronic illnesses. However, to our knowledge, PP interventions have not been formally tested in T2D. In this paper, we review a theoretical model for the use of PP interventions to target health behaviors in T2D, describe the structure and content of a PP intervention for T2D patients, and describe baseline data from a single-arm proof-of-concept (N=15 intervention study in T2D patients with or without depression. We also discuss how PP interventions could be combined with motivational interviewing (MI interventions to provide a blended psychological-behavioral approach.

  18. The cognitive nature of action - functional links between cognitive psychology, movement science, and robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schack, Thomas; Ritter, Helge

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the cognitive architecture of human action, showing how it is organized over several levels and how it is built up. Basic action concepts (BACs) are identified as major building blocks on a representation level. These BACs are cognitive tools for mastering the functional demands of movement tasks. Results from different lines of research showed that not only the structure formation of mental representations in long-term memory but also chunk formation in working memory are built up on BACs and relate systematically to movement structures. It is concluded that such movement representations might provide the basis for action implementation and action control in skilled voluntary movements in the form of cognitive reference structures. To simulate action implementation we discuss challenges and issues that arise when we try to replicate complex movement abilities in robots. Among the key issues to be addressed is the question how structured representations can arise during skill acquisition and how the underlying processes can be understood sufficiently succinctly to replicate them on robot platforms. Working towards this goal, we translate our findings in studies of motor control in humans into models that can guide the implementation of cognitive robot architectures. Focusing on the issue of manual action control, we illustrate some results in the context of grasping with a five-fingered anthropomorphic robot hand.

  19. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, NL; Lyubomirsky, S

    2009-01-01

    Do positive psychology interventions - that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions - enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.2...

  20. Homosexuals, dykes and queers: political positions in the lesbian and gay movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coll-Planas, Gerard

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available (English In this article I aim to explore conflicts among the variety of political projects in the lesbian and gay movement.I base the article on Alberto Mira’s (2004 proposed models for the expression of homosexuality: decadentist, homophile and camp. I discuss the main theoretical and political debates that arise from these models. Firstly, I ask whether life on the margins of mainstream social rules allows gays and lesbians to live a freer existence or merely means internalised homophobia (using Jean Genet’s and Michel Foucault’s approaches as examples. Secondly, I question whether the demand for “normality” entails the creation of new exclusions (following Judith Butler’s approach to normality: Finally, I consider whether camp culture reproduces and/or subverts gender rules (introducing a discussion between Sheila Jeffreys and Judith Butler’s positions. On the basis of this exploration of Mira's three cultural models, I develop a typology of political positions ('normalization of homosexuality', 'transformation' and 'queer', which I apply to the case study of the Catalan lesbian and gay movement.

  1. Homosexuals, dykes and queers: political positions in the lesbian and gay movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Coll-Planas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I aim to explore conflicts among the variety of political projects in the lesbian and gay movement.I base the article on Alberto Mira’s (2004 proposed models for the expression of homosexuality: decadentist, homophile and camp. I discuss the main theoretical and political debates that arise from these models. Firstly, I ask whether life on the margins of mainstream social rules allows gays and lesbians to live a freer existence or merely means internalised homophobia (using Jean Genet’s and Michel Foucault’s approaches as examples. Secondly, I question whether the demand for “normality” entails the creation of new exclusions (following Judith Butler’s approach to normality: Finally, I consider whether camp culture reproduces and/or subverts gender rules (introducing a discussion between Sheila Jeffreys and Judith Butler’s positions. On the basis of this exploration of Mira's three cultural models, I develop a typology of political positions ('normalization of homosexuality', 'transformation' and 'queer', which I apply to the case study of the Catalan lesbian and gay movement.

  2. Positive Psychological Capital and Parenting Styles among adolescents: Khasi and Non-Khasi Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Karmakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychological capital (PsyCap, an individual’s positive psychological state of development, is characterized by four components. These four components are (1 Hope (commonly associated with one’s positive expectancy towards the future, (2 Self-efficacy (confidence to put in considerable effort to succeed at challenging task, (3 Resilience (individual’s capability to successfully cope with adverse circumstances, uncertainty and conflict and (4 Optimism (a cognitive process directed at positive outcomes or expectancies of a bright and prosperous future. The sample consists of 160 Khasi (75 boys and 85 girls selected from East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya and 185 non-Khasi (100 boys and 85 girls selected from Kolkata district of West Bengal adolescents studying at high schools of East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya and Kolkata district of West Bengal. Parental Authority Questionnaire and Psychological Capital Scale were used to assess the parenting style and positive PsyCap, respectively. The results revealed that dimensions of positive PsyCap vary with respect to culture and the effect of culture is prominent among adolescent boys. Non-Khasi adolescent boys are significantly higher on positive PsyCap dimensions than their Khasi counterparts. Adolescents who perceive their parents as high on authoritarian dimension display lower level of Positive PsyCap and its dimensions while those perceive their parents as high on authoritative style score higher on Positive PsyCap and its dimensions. Implications for parental practices and positive PsyCap in families and schools are discussed.

  3. Integrating the ICF with positive psychology: Factors predicting role participation for mothers with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ruth S; Kern, Margaret L; Brusilovsky, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Being a mother has become a realizable life role for women with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying psychosocial factors that facilitate participation in important life roles-including motherhood-is essential to help women have fuller lives despite the challenge of their illness. By integrating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and a positive psychology perspective, this study examined how environmental social factors and positive personal factors contribute to daily role participation and satisfaction with parental participation. One hundred and 11 community-dwelling mothers with MS completed Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, the Short Form-36, and the Parental Participation Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses examined associations between social support and positive personal factors (environmental mastery, self-acceptance, purpose in life) with daily role participation (physical and emotional) and satisfaction with parental participation. One-way ANOVAs tested synergistic combinations of social support and positive personal factors. Social support predicted daily role participation (fewer limitations) and greater satisfaction with parental participation. Positive personal factors contributed additional unique variance. Positive personal factors and social support synergistically predicted better function and greater satisfaction than either alone. Integrating components of the ICF and positive psychology provides a useful model for understanding how mothers with MS can thrive despite challenge or impairment. Both positive personal factors and environmental social factors were important contributors to positive role functioning. Incorporating these paradigms into treatment may help mothers with MS participate more fully in meaningful life roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Do positive psychology exercises work? A replication of Seligman et al. (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongrain, Myriam; Anselmo-Matthews, Tracy

    2012-04-01

    The current work replicated a landmark study conducted by Seligman and colleagues (2005) that demonstrated the long-term benefits of positive psychology exercises (PPEs). In the original study, two exercises administered over 1 week ("Three Good Things" and "Using your Signature Strengths in a New Way") were found to have long-lasting effects on depression and happiness (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005). These exercises were tested here using the same methodology except for improvements to the control condition, and the addition of a second "positive placebo" to isolate the common factor of accessing positive, self-relevant constructs. This component control design was meant to assess the effect of expectancies for success (expectancy control), as well the cognitive access of positive information about the self (positive placebo). Repeated measures analyses showed that the PPEs led to lasting increases in happiness, as did the positive placebo. The PPEs did not exceed the control condition in producing changes in depression over time. Brief, positive psychology interventions may boost happiness through a common factor involving the activation of positive, self-relevant information rather than through other specific mechanisms. Finally, the effects of PPEs on depression may be more modest than previously assumed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Positive Psychological Functioning: evidence for a new construct and its measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Dolores Merino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the Institute of Happiness conducted one of the most ambitious studies ever done on this subject in Spain. Many different variables were measured: socio-demographics and psychological, (the latter through new instruments and all were applied to a representative sample of 3000 participants of the Spanish population. Study 1 of this research used that database. The objective of this Study was to understand how key psychological resources are organized (Autonomy, Resilience, Self-Esteem, Purpose in life, Enjoyment, Optimism, Curiosity, Creativity, Humor, Environmental mastery and Vitality. The purpose of Study 2 was to replicate the results of Study 1 and to test the psychometrical properties of the new scales used in Study 1, but using a sample of 130 college students. This research proves that key psychological resources are interconnected, forming a second order construct we call Positive Psychological Functioning (PPF, and, it develops a new Spanish scale to assess it. This measure is formed with 11 subscales each containing three items. This scale structure allows a general and a specific assessment of PPF and, in consequence, of human psychological well-being.

  6. Movement of Genetic Counselors from Clinical to Non-clinical Positions: Identifying Driving Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stephanie A; Tucker, Megan E

    2018-03-05

    A previous study of genetic counselors (GCs) in the state of Indiana identified movement out of clinical positions within the past 2 years. The aims of this study were to determine if this trend is nationwide and identify reasons why GCs are leaving their positions and factors that might help employers attract and retain GCs. An email was sent to members of the American Board of Genetic Counseling with a link to an online confidential survey. There were 939 responses (23.5% response rate). Overall, 52% of GCs report being highly satisfied in their current position, although almost two thirds think about leaving and one third had changed jobs within the past 2 years. Of those who had changed jobs (n = 295), 74.9% had been working in a hospital/clinic setting but only 46.3% currently do, demonstrating a major shift out of the clinic (p < 0.001). The top three reasons cited for leaving a position were work environment/institutional climate, salary/benefits, and a lack of feeling valued/recognized as a professional. These results confirm that GCs are moving out of clinical positions and document elements of job satisfaction. We suggest points for employers to consider when trying to recruit or retain GCs.

  7. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Positive Psychological Intervention for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Christina M; Millstein, Rachel A; Celano, Christopher M; Wexler, Deborah J; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychological attributes (eg, optimism) have been associated with a healthier lifestyle and superior medical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, there has been minimal study of behavioral interventions that target positive psychological constructs in this population. Accordingly, we developed a novel, telephone-based, 12-week positive psychology intervention and assessed its feasibility and short-term impact in adults with type 2 diabetes and suboptimal health behavior adherence. This was a pilot and feasibility study in adult inpatients and outpatients at an urban academic medical center recruited between December 2013 and December 2014. Adult patients with (1) type 2 diabetes (meeting American Diabetes Association criteria, eg, glycated hemoglobin A 1c [HbA 1c ] > 6.5% or fasting glucose > 126 mg/dL) and (2) suboptimal adherence (score psychology manual, completed exercises (eg, writing a gratitude letter, performing acts of kindness), and reviewed these activities by phone with a study trainer over the 12-week study period. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed via exercise completion rates and postexercise ratings of ease/utility on 0-10 Likert scales. Longer-term efficacy was explored by examining changes in psychological states and health behaviors from baseline to 12 weeks using random-effects regression models and estimates of effect size. A total of 15 participants enrolled; 12 participants provided complete baseline and follow-up data and were included in the analyses. Over 90% of these participants completed at least 2 exercises, and 75% completed a majority of the exercises. Participants rated the exercises as helpful (mean = 7.8/10) and easy to complete (mean = 7.1/10), and they reported improvements in optimism, gratitude, depression, anxiety, physical function, self-care, and health behaviors (Cohen d = 0.28-1.00). A positive psychology intervention for suboptimally adherent patients with type 2 diabetes was feasible

  8. Does Employee Recognition Affect Positive Psychological Functioning and Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M Dolores; Privado, Jesús

    2015-09-14

    Employee recognition is one of the typical characteristics of healthy organizations. The majority of research on recognition has studied the consequences of this variable on workers. But few investigations have focused on understanding what mechanisms mediate between recognition and its consequences. This work aims to understand whether the relationship between employee recognition and well-being, psychological resources mediate. To answer this question a sample of 1831 workers was used. The variables measured were: employee recognition, subjective well-being and positive psychological functioning (PPF), which consists of 11 psychological resources. In the analysis of data, structural equation models were applied. The results confirmed our hypothesis and showed that PPF mediate the relationship between recognition and well-being. The effect of recognition over PPF is two times greater (.39) with peer-recognition than with supervisor-recognition (.20), and, the effect of PPF over well-being is .59. This study highlights the importance of promoting employee recognition policies in organizations for the impact it has, not only on well-being, but also on the positive psychological functioning of the workers.

  9. Maternal Prenatal Psychological Distress and Preschool Cognitive Functioning: the Protective Role of Positive Parental Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Johnson, Katrina C

    2017-02-01

    Considerable animal research and available human studies suggest that psychological distress experienced by mothers during gestation is associated with later neurodevelopmental deficits in offspring; however, little research has examined potential protective factors that might mitigate this risk. The current study examined the impact of maternal prenatal psychological distress during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes in preschoolers (ages 2.5-5 years) and positive parenting as a potential protective factor. Mother-child dyads (N = 162, mean child age = 44 months, 49 % female) were recruited from a longitudinal cohort of women who had previously participated in a study of maternal mood disorders during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal distress was assessed with multiple measures collected throughout pregnancy. During a follow-up visit, mothers were interviewed about their psychological symptoms since the birth of the child, parenting behaviors were recorded during a parent-child interaction, and children's cognitive abilities were measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd Edition. Maternal prenatal distress significantly predicted lower general cognitive abilities; however, this relationship was strongest for children whose mothers exhibited low levels of positive engagement and not significant when mothers exhibited high levels of positive engagement. Results suggest that positive parental engagement can protect against the detrimental effects of maternal prenatal distress on preschoolers' cognitive abilities.

  10. A topographical map approach to representing treatment efficacy: a focus on positive psychology interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Lee, Josephine; Otto, Michael W

    2018-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis by Bolier et al. indicated that positive psychology interventions have overall small to moderate effects on well-being, but results were quite heterogeneous across intervention trials. Such meta-analytic research helps condense information on the efficacy of a broad psychosocial intervention by averaging across many effects; however, such global averages may provide limited navigational guidance for selecting among specific interventions. Here, we introduce a novel method for displaying qualitative and quantitative information on the efficacy of interventions using a topographical map approach. As an initial prototype for demonstrating this method, we mapped 50 positive psychology interventions targeting well-being (as captured in the Bolier et al. [2013] meta-analysis, [Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13, 83]). Each intervention domain/subdomain was mapped according to its average effect size (indexed by vertical elevation), number of studies providing effect sizes (indexed by horizontal area), and therapist/client burden (indexed by shading). The geographical placement of intervention domains/subdomains was determined by their conceptual proximity, allowing viewers to gauge the general conceptual "direction" in which promising intervention effects can be found. The resulting graphical displays revealed several prominent features of the well-being intervention "landscape," such as more strongly and uniformly positive effects of future-focused interventions (including, goal-pursuit and optimism training) compared to past/present-focused ones.

  11. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A quantitative, descriptive, transversal and correlational, research with a non-experimental design was realized, with a sample of 55 students of Intercultural Nursing. Two questionnaires were applied: the scale of Rosenberg self-esteem and happiness of Lima scale.Results: High levels of self-esteem and happiness were obtained. Through correlation of Pearson and hierarchical regression we found that self-esteem is associated in negative and positive way with certain factors of happiness; the same thing happened in the level of influence.Conclusion: In positive psychology is possible to associate variables such as self-esteem and happiness as strengths. Much more in the case of Intercultural Nursing students which have the aim to contribute to the indigenous communities development, that require nurses with favorable levels of self-esteem and the perception of subjective well-being to counteract an historical legacy of backwardness. From positive psychology is possible that this educational model will contribute to the mutual enrichment and empowerment within the work of the Intercultural Nursing.

  12. Positive psychology interventions in golf: Mindfulness versus positive self-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Results: There was a significant multivariate effect of Time on putting test scores, F(1, 21 = 13.9, p = .001, Ƞ2 = .399. Specifically, a mean increase of 1.4 out of 10 putts over the 4-week intervention period was found, but no univariate effect of Time on distance (cm from the hole for putts missed. There was no Group or Time by Group interaction effect for either putting test variable. Furthermore, groups did not differ at baseline or post-intervention on reported handicap, KIMS, technique adherence, or rounds of golf played. Conclusions: These preliminary findings fail to support previously reported findings that mindfulness or positive self-talk have short-term effects on putting accuracy. To maximise access, the current study used a self-guided intervention, which may have accounted for the lack of improvement that may occur with one-on-one coaching.

  13. Positive cross-cultural psychology: Exploring similarity\\ud and difference in constructions and experiences of wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Lomas, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Critical theorists have accused positive psychology of paying insufficient attention to cultural variation in the way wellbeing is constructed and experienced. While there may be some\\ud merit to this claim, the field has developed a more nuanced appreciation of culture than its critics suggest. However, it could also be argued that positive psychology has not sufficiently appreciated or absorbed the wealth of literature within cross-cultural psychology pertaining to\\ud wellbeing. This paper ...

  14. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals for slaughter. Domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test may be moved interstate...

  15. Adaptive Changes in the Perception of Fast and Slow Movement at Different Head Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, Roberto; Occhigrossi, Chiara; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Lucertini, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration). The rotations induced a bias in the perception of velocity (more pronounced with fast than with slow motion). At the end of rotation, a marked target position error (TPE) was present. For the on-vertical axis rotations, the TPE was no different if the rotations were performed with a 30° nose-down, a 60° nose-up, or a 90° side-down head tilt. With off-vertical axis rotations, the simultaneous activation of the semicircular canals and otolithic receptors produced a significant increase of TPE for all head positions. This difference between on-vertical and off-vertical axis rotation was probably partly due to the vestibular transfer function and partly due to different adaptation to the speed of rotation. Such a phenomenon might be generated in different components of the vestibular system. The adaptive process enhancing the perception of dynamic movement around the vertical axis is not related to the specific semicircular canals that are activated; the addition of an otolithic component results in a significant increase of the TPE.Panichi R, Occhigrossi C, Ferraresi A, Faralli M, Lucertini M, Pettorossi VE. Adaptive changes in the perception of fast and slow movement at different head positions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):463-468.

  16. Developing an affirmative position statement on sexual and gender diversity for psychology professionals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius J. Victor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Against the background of the dominance of patriarchy and heteronormativity in Africa and the resultant stigma, discrimination and victimisation of sexually and gender-diverse people, this article reports on the development of an affirmative position statement by the Psychological Society of South Africa (PsySSA for psychology professionals working with sexually and gender-diverse people. The position statement is an attempt to contribute positively to the de-stigmatisation, amongst psychology professionals, of all people with diverse sexual and gender identities. Objective. In documenting and reflecting on the process of developing the statement — a first on the African continent — the article aims to contribute to the potential resources available to others in their work on similar projects around the world. Design. Although initially intended to be relevant to the African continent, the position statement is appropriate to the South African context specifically, but developed in consultation with a range of stakeholders, also from other African countries. Results. Concerns expressed during stakeholder consultations, and thus taken into account in the development of the statement, include relevance to other African countries, negotiating the politics of representation and language, the importance of including gender and biological variance in addition to sexuality, and the need to be sensitive to how Western influence is constructed in some African contexts. Conclusion. Other national psychology organisations stand to benefit by ‘lessons learned’ during this country-specific process with global implications, especially with respect to broadening the lens from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI to sexual and gender diversity, as well as an acknowledgement of the multiple and fluid developmental pathways around sexuality and gender, in general.

  17. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez; Gloria Esthela González Quirarte; Rosario del Carmén Realpozo Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A...

  18. Work-Family facilitation: a positive psychological perspective on role combination

    OpenAIRE

    Steenbergen, Elianne Florence van

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation provides a balanced picture of the experiences that individuals can have in the combination of their work and family roles. Extending the common focus in previous literature on experiences of role conflict (and their detrimental consequences), the present research also addresses the positive side of role combination and reveals the different ways in which work and family roles can facilitate each other (energy-based, time-based, behavioral, and psychological facilitation). T...

  19. Making the world a better place to live through positive psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline a theoretical and practical model for the role of positive psychology at a societal level. Although the world is facing tremendous problems in terms of lack of natural resources, poverty, pollution, conflicts and the consequences of global warming, there se......The purpose of this paper is to outline a theoretical and practical model for the role of positive psychology at a societal level. Although the world is facing tremendous problems in terms of lack of natural resources, poverty, pollution, conflicts and the consequences of global warming......, there seems to be indecision among world leaders and international organisations. This lack of action makes one wonder how we can facilitate positive psychology to become a truly influential factor in society. With emphasis on virtues and character strengths, we can help people to become aware...... of the essential human values such as hope, dignity, kindness, trust and temperance. Furthermore, the conclusions of happiness research teach us that these qualities are fundamental aspects of people’s well-being. Happiness is improved through genuine and close social relations, trust in other people...

  20. A Positive Psychology Intervention in a Hindu Community: The Pilot Study of the Hero Lab Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Siddhi; Qureshi, Adil; Galiatsatos, Panagis

    2016-12-01

    India has high rates of mental health issues among its youth and low-income communities experience a disproportionate amount of depression and suicide. Positive psychology, the act of promoting well-being, could be used as a tool to promote wellness and help improve the mental health of youth living in slum areas of India. A pilot positively psychology program, "The Hero Lab", was conducted in a migratory slum in Worli, Mumbai, with trained Hindu community leaders implementing the interventions toward at-risk Hindu youth. The curriculum's impact showed statistical improvement (p < 0.001) in happiness (General Happiness Scale from 11.24 ± 1.56 to 19.08 ± 3.32), grit (Grit Survey from 2.23 ± 0.34 to 3.24 ± 0.67), empathy (Toronto Empathy Questionnaire from 24.92 ± 3.27 to 41.96 ± 8.41), and gratitude (Gratitude Survey from 16.88 ± 3.47 to 27.98 ± 6.59). While a pilot study, the Hero Lab curriculum demonstrates that positive psychology interventions may be an important tool in improving mental health in at-risk children.

  1. Parallel programming of saccades during natural scene viewing: evidence from eye movement positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Esther X W; Gilani, Syed Omer; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Amihai, Ido; Chua, Fook Kee; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2013-10-24

    Previous studies have shown that saccade plans during natural scene viewing can be programmed in parallel. This evidence comes mainly from temporal indicators, i.e., fixation durations and latencies. In the current study, we asked whether eye movement positions recorded during scene viewing also reflect parallel programming of saccades. As participants viewed scenes in preparation for a memory task, their inspection of the scene was suddenly disrupted by a transition to another scene. We examined whether saccades after the transition were invariably directed immediately toward the center or were contingent on saccade onset times relative to the transition. The results, which showed a dissociation in eye movement behavior between two groups of saccades after the scene transition, supported the parallel programming account. Saccades with relatively long onset times (>100 ms) after the transition were directed immediately toward the center of the scene, probably to restart scene exploration. Saccades with short onset times (programming of saccades during scene viewing. Additionally, results from the analyses of intersaccadic intervals were also consistent with the parallel programming hypothesis.

  2. Group intervention: A way to improve working teams' positive psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Bo; Gustafsson, John-Anders; Björkdahl, Ann; Möller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychological capital is reported to have positive effects on people's well-being and attitudes to their working lives. The objective of this study was to investigate if it is possible to increase the level of positive psychological capital by two group intervention programs. The research design was a controlled study with 2 × 2 experimental groups and two control groups. Two of the experimental groups received intervention I (IG I), the other two experimental groups received intervention II (IG II). Assessments were made before and after the intervention programs, with a follow-up at six months post-intervention. Instruments measuring the fundamentals of psychological capital: self-efficacy, hope, optimism, as well as health and job satisfaction were used. The results show that it is possible to increase the level of positive emotions, self-efficacy and job satisfaction of members of a working team by using group intervention methods. The positive changes observed at the end of the program remained six months after the intervention, with the exception of job satisfaction in IG II. It seems that the intervention had a greater influence on those persons who at the start of the study reported a low level of self-enhancement. The results were more pronounced in intervention group I where reinforcement of the resources and positive aspects of the work place environment were provided. A 10-week group intervention program that focused on learned optimism proved to be successful in increasing levels of self-efficacy and job satisfaction. While improvement was maintained six months post-intervention the small sample size and the attrition rate are limitations. Results are promising and further research is warranted.

  3. Differences in abdominal organ movement between supine and prone positions measured using four-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Seok; Park, Sung Ho; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Jeong Eun; Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the differences in intrafractional organ movement throughout the breathing cycles between the supine and prone positions using four-dimensional computed tomography (4D CT). Materials and methods: We performed 4D CT on nine volunteers in the supine and prone positions, with each examinee asked to breathe normally during scanning. The movement of abdominal organs in the cranio-caudal (CC), anterior-posterior (AP) and right-left (RL) directions was quantified by contouring on each phase between inspiration and expiration. Results: The mean intrafractional motions of the hepatic dome, lower tip, pancreatic head and tail, both kidneys, spleen, and celiac axis in the supine/prone position were 17.3/13.0, 14.4/11.0, 12.8/8.9, 13.0/10.0, 14.3/12.1, 12.3/12.6, 11.7/12.6 and 2.2/1.8 mm, respectively. Intrafractional movements of the liver dome and pancreatic head were reduced significantly in the prone position. The CC directional excursions were major determinants of the 3D displacements of the abdominal organs. Alteration from the supine to the prone position did not change the amount of intrafractional movements of kidneys, spleen, and celiac axis. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in the movements of the liver and pancreas during the prone position, especially in the CC direction, suggesting possible advantage of radiotherapy to these organs in this position

  4. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children’s mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children’s learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.

  5. Comparing the acceptability of a positive psychology intervention versus a cognitive behavioural therapy for clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gomez, Irene; Chaves, Covadonga; Hervas, Gonzalo; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2017-09-01

    There is growing evidence on the efficacy of positive psychology interventions (PPI) to treat clinical disorders. However, very few studies have addressed their acceptability. The present study aimed to analyse 2 key components of acceptability (i.e., client satisfaction and adherence to treatment) of a new PPI programme, the Integrative Positive Psychological Intervention for Depression (IPPI-D), in comparison to a standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme in the treatment of clinical depression. One hundred twenty-eight women with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia were allocated to a 10-session IPPI-D or CBT group intervention condition. Results showed that both interventions were highly acceptable for participants. Attendance rates were high, and there were no significant differences between conditions. However, the IPPI-D condition showed significantly higher client satisfaction than the CBT condition. Moreover, acceptability did not differ based on participants' severity of symptoms, regardless of condition. These findings encourage further investigations of the applicability of PPI in clinical settings in order to broaden the range of acceptable and suitable therapies for depressed patients. Key Practitioner Message This study sheds light on the client satisfaction and adherence to a positive intervention. For participants, positive psychology interventions (PPI) may be more satisfactory than CBT as PPI are framed within a positive mental health model and, consequently, may reduce the risk of stigmatization Because acceptability of treatments and preferences may affect the efficacy of treatments, this study provides an excellent opportunity to offer professionals more therapeutic options to tailor treatments to clients' needs and expectations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Negative cognitive errors and positive illusions for negative divorce events: predictors of children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relations among negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, actual divorce events, and psychological adjustment in 38 8- to 12-year-old children whose parents had divorced within the previous 2 years. Children's scores on a scale of negative cognitive errors (catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and personalizing) correlated significantly with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and self-esteem, and with maternal reports of behavior problems. Children's scores on a scale measuring positive illusions (high self-regard, illusion of personal control, and optimism for the future) correlated significantly with less self-reported aggression. Both appraisal types accounted for variance in some measures of symptomatology beyond that explained by actual events. There was no significant association between children's negative cognitive errors and positive illusions. The implications of these results for theories of negative cognitive errors and of positive illusions, as well as for future research, are discussed.

  7. Impact of body position on central and peripheral hemodynamic contributions to movement-induced hyperemia: implications for rehabilitative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinity, Joel D; McDaniel, John; Venturelli, Massimo; Fjeldstad, Anette S; Ives, Stephen J; Witman, Melissa A H; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Amann, Markus; Wray, D Walter; Richardson, Russell S

    2011-05-01

    This study used alterations in body position to identify differences in hemodynamic responses to passive exercise. Central and peripheral hemodynamics were noninvasively measured during 2 min of passive knee extension in 14 subjects, whereas perfusion pressure (PP) was directly measured in a subset of 6 subjects. Movement-induced increases in leg blood flow (LBF) and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were more than twofold greater in the upright compared with supine positions (LBF, supine: 462 ± 6, and upright: 1,084 ± 159 ml/min, P different between positions (supine: 8 ± 1, and upright: 10 ± 1 beats/min, P = 0.22); however, the elevated HR was maintained for a longer duration when upright. Stroke volume contributed to the increase in cardiac output (CO) during the upright movement only. CO increased in both positions; however, the magnitude and duration of the CO response were greater in the upright position. Mean arterial pressure and PP were higher at baseline and throughout passive movement when upright. Thus exaggerated central hemodynamic responses characterized by an increase in stroke volume and a sustained HR response combined to yield a greater increase in CO during upright movement. This greater central response coupled with the increased PP and LVC explains the twofold greater and more sustained increase in movement-induced hyperemia in the upright compared with supine position and has clinical implications for rehabilitative medicine.

  8. Positive psychological interventions for people with epilepsy: An assessment on factors related to intervention participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Siew-Tim; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Tang, Venus; Low, Wah-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Positive psychological interventions (PPI) are increasingly employed as a coping strategy with physical and mental conditions, including neurological diseases. Its effectiveness on improving wellbeing in people with epilepsy (PWE) has been shown in a few studies. This study aimed to explore factors related to participants' willingness to engage in psychological interventions from the perspective of patients with epilepsy. Participants answered a needs assessment questionnaire eliciting information about their illness perception (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief-IPQ)), emotions (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), willingness to participate in psychological interventions, preferences in types of PPI and intervention designs, as well as barriers in seeking mental health services. A total of 154 patients with epilepsy participated, with a mean age of 37.3years (range 16-86years). Most patients had focal epilepsy (68.2%), and drug-resistant (59.1%). Majority (71.4%) of them indicated a strong willingness to participate in PPI. Out of nine types of PPI, character strengths, mindfulness-based and expressive-based interventions were highly preferred. Those with negative illness perception (p=0.001), anxiety (p=0.004), and being unemployed (p=0.048) were more willing to participate in PPI. Most participants preferred group rather than individual session, and a shorter duration (30min) was favored by most. This study captured the self-report willingness to participate in psychological interventions. Findings suggested that psychological interventions delivered in short-group session were highly preferred. Future study is required to determine the feasibility of such design for patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. LMTK1 regulates dendritic formation by regulating movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tetsuya; Urushibara, Tomoki; Yoshioka, Nozomu; Saito, Taro; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Tomomura, Mineko; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi

    2014-06-01

    Neurons extend two types of neurites-axons and dendrites-that differ in structure and function. Although it is well understood that the cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in neurite differentiation and extension, the mechanisms by which membrane components are supplied to growing axons or dendrites is largely unknown. We previously reported that the membrane supply to axons is regulated by lemur kinase 1 (LMTK1) through Rab11A-positive endosomes. Here we investigate the role of LMTK1 in dendrite formation. Down-regulation of LMTK1 increases dendrite growth and branching of cerebral cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo. LMTK1 knockout significantly enhances the prevalence, velocity, and run length of anterograde movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes to levels similar to those expressing constitutively active Rab11A-Q70L. Rab11A-positive endosome dynamics also increases in the cell body and growth cone of LMTK1-deficient neurons. Moreover, a nonphosphorylatable LMTK1 mutant (Ser34Ala, a Cdk5 phosphorylation site) dramatically promotes dendrite growth. Thus LMTK1 negatively controls dendritic formation by regulating Rab11A-positive endosomal trafficking in a Cdk5-dependent manner, indicating the Cdk5-LMTK1-Rab11A pathway as a regulatory mechanism of dendrite development as well as axon outgrowth. © 2014 Takano et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Psychiatric framing affects positive but not negative schizotypy scores in psychology and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christine; Schofield, Kerry; Leonards, Ute; Wilson, Marc S; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2018-08-01

    When testing risk for psychosis, we regularly rely on self-report questionnaires. Yet, the more that people know about this condition, the more they might respond defensively, in particular with regard to the more salient positive symptom dimension. In two studies, we investigated whether framing provided by questionnaire instructions might modulate responses on self-reported positive and negative schizotypy. The O-LIFE (UK study) or SPQ (New Zealand study) questionnaire was framed in either a "psychiatric", "creativity", or "personality" (NZ only) context. We tested psychology students (without taught knowledge about psychosis) and medical students (with taught knowledge about psychosis; UK only). We observed framing effects in psychology students in both studies: positive schizotypy scores were lower after the psychiatric compared to the creativity instruction. However, schizotypy scores did not differ between the creativity and personality framing conditions, suggesting that the low scores with psychiatric framing reflect defensive responding. The same framing effect was also observed in medical students, despite their lower positive schizotypy scores overall. Negative schizotypy scores were not affected by framing in either study. These results highlight the need to reduce response biases when studying schizotypy, because these might blur schizotypy-behaviour relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and positive psychological intervention (PPI) on female offenders with psychological distress in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Vivian W M; Chan, Calais K Y

    2018-04-01

    Despite rapid growth in the female prison population, there is little research on effectiveness of psychological interventions for them. To test the hypotheses that (1) each of two psychological interventions administered separately - cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or positive psychology intervention (PPI) - would be more effective than 'treatment-as-usual' alone in reducing psychological distress and enhancing psychological well-being; (2) outcomes would differ according to intervention; and (3) combining the interventions would be more effective than delivering either alone. We recruited 40 women in a special Hong Kong prison unit for female offenders with psychological distress. Half of them received eight sessions of CBT followed by eight sessions of PPI; the other half received the same interventions in the reverse order. We recruited another 35 women who received only 'treatment as usual' (TAU) in the same unit. We used various clinical scales to assess the women's psychological distress or well-being before and after the interventions or at similar time points for the comparison women. All intervention group women showed a significant reduction in psychological distress and enhancement in psychological well-being after each intervention alone compared to the TAU women. There were no significant differences between CBT and PPI in this respect. Receiving both treatments, however, did yield significantly more improvement than either intervention alone in reducing depressive thoughts and enhancing global judgement of life satisfaction, self-perceived strengths and hopeful thinking style. Our findings provide preliminary empirical support for the effectiveness of psychological interventions with psychologically distressed women in prison. It would be important now to conduct a full, randomised trial to determine optimal length and combinations of treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Inverting the pyramid of needs: Positive psychology's new order for labor success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanas, Edgar; Sánchez-González, José-Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Positive psychologists claim to have demonstrated a causal relationship between happiness and life success, with the former accounting for why people usually end up better off in life than others, especially at workplace. In this paper we will analyse the role that happiness-based repertoires and techniques provided by positive psychologists are playing in the current labor sphere. Positive psychologists’ repertoires and techniques do not only meet the emerging demands derived from the changes in the notions of “work” and “worker” in the last decades, but also introduce a whole new logic in the construction of professional workers’ subjectivity, according to which happiness becomes a necessary psychological state that workers must first achieve and develop in order to attain job success at work. This emerging logic does not only circumscribe to the labor sphere, but also reflects a broader cultural and economic phenomenon.

  13. CONTRIBUTIONS FROM POSITIVE ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY TO DEVELOP HEALTHY AND RESILIENT ORGANIZATIONS

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    Marisa Salanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current paper is to show the main results obtained by the WANT Research team on the HERO Model (HEalthy & Resilient Organizations to conceptualize, evaluate and intervene in the development of healthy and positive people, groups and organizations. First, we present the theoretical model, methodology and tools to evaluate HEROs. These tools are collectively administered and applied to different stakeholders in the organization: interviews with CEOs, and questionnaires aimed at employees distributed in natural groups, supervisors and clients. Secondly, we present the main results obtained from the application of the HERO methodology in different socio-economic contexts. The last part of the paper is dedicated to highlighting the different options of positive interventions, as well as recent experiences in the HERO intervention carried out by WANT based on Positive Organizational Psychology.

  14. The constrained control of force and position in multi-joint movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ingen Schenau, G J; Boots, P J; de Groot, G; Snackers, R J; van Woensel, W W

    1992-01-01

    In many arm or leg movements the hand or foot has to exert an external force on the environment. Based on an inverse dynamical analysis of cycling, it is shown that the distribution of net moments in the joints needed to control the direction of the external force is often opposite to the direction of joint displacements associated with this task. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained from five experienced cyclists during ergometer cycling by means of film analysis and pedal force measurement. An inverse dynamic analysis, based on a linked segments model, yielded net joint moments, joint powers and muscle shortening velocities of eight leg muscles. Activation patterns of the muscles were obtained by means of surface electromyography. The results show that the transfer of rotations in hip, knee and ankle joints into the translation of the pedal is constrained by conflicting requirements. This occurs between the joint moments necessary to contribute to joint power and the moments necessary to establish a direction of the force on the pedal which allows this force to do work on the pedal. Co-activation of mono-articular agonists and their bi-articular antagonists appear to provide a unique solution for these conflicting requirements: bi-articular muscles appear to be able to control the desired direction of the external force on the pedal by adjusting the relative distribution of net moments over the joints while mono-articular muscles appear to be primarily activated when they are in the position to shorten and thus to contribute to positive work. Examples are given to illustrate the universal nature of this constrained control of force (external) and position (joint). Based on this study and published data it is suggested that different processes may underlie the organization of the control of mono- and bi-articular muscles.

  15. Exploring the use of positive psychology interventions in brain injury survivors with challenging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewes, H E; Walker, V; O'Neill, B

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of conducting two positive psychology interventions to improve mood and self-concept with survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI), within a neuro-rehabilitation hospital. Ten patients with brain injury were randomly allocated to an intervention and control group. The efficacy of the first intervention, 'three positive things in life' was measured via Seligman's Authentic Happiness Index (AHI), at base-line, directly following the intervention and at the end of the 12-week group programme. The second intervention, the 'Value in Action (VIA) signature strengths intervention' was measured by the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale (HISDS) at baseline and at the end of the group. Compared to baseline and control group scores, the AHI index showed an increase in the intervention group's happiness following the intervention and at the end of the 12-week programme, albeit the latter increase was non-significant. The HISDS showed non-significant improvement in self-concept and reduction in polarization of the self in the present, future and past in the second intervention. Anecdotal evidence revealed a clear improved mood following the interventions. This study shows promising results for the effectiveness of Positive Psychology interventions and methods to improve feasibility when applying this treatment within a hospital setting.

  16. A Positive Psychological Intervention to Promote Well-Being in a Multicultural School Setting in Greece

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    Christina Dimitropoulou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the effectiveness of a Positive Psychology Intervention in enhancing well-being in a multicultural school setting. 121 5th and 6th grade primary school male and female students participated in the study. 57.9% were native Greeks and 42.1% were migrant children. 81 students were allocated to the positive intervention group, while 40 students partook in a control group with no positive orientation. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire battery a day prior to the interventions and also fifteen days later. Results indicated that only the positive intervention was effective in enhancing positive emotional experiences, optimism and self-efficacy in peer interactions two weeks after its implementation. The results were mostly undifferentiated for gender, migrant and socioeconomic status as far as positive emotions are concerned, while the patterns of influence of demographic variables on the efficacy of the intervention concerning the participants’ benefits in optimism and self-efficacy are discussed. The PPI group, as opposed to the control group, evaluated the intervention as particularly helpful with respect to all well-being variables, an effect maintained two weeks after the intervention. This positive intervention appears appropriate as a universal mental health promotion vehicle, especially within a demanding multicultural classroom context.

  17. Investigation of basic notions of positive psychology with an aid of Experience Sampling Method (ESM

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    Levit L.Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two investigations of the main concepts of the contemporary positive psychology (eudaimonia, hedonism, the flow, happiness and unhappiness with the help of ESM. The studies were built upon Person-Oriented Conception of Happiness (POCH elaborated by the author. The results indicate that the flow can be accompanied by the rise of the other «components of happiness» belonging to other theories. The study of the situations, that were associated with «unhappiness», showed that most of them belong to maintenance activities of the individual.

  18. Integrating Positive and Clinical Psychology: Viewing Human Functioning as Continua from Positive to Negative Can Benefit Clinical Assessment, Interventions and Understandings of Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J; Wood, AM

    2017-01-01

    In this review we argue in favour of further integration between the disciplines of positive and clinical psychology. We argue that most of the constructs studied by both positive and clinical psychology exist on continua ranging from positive to negative (e.g., gratitude to ingratitude, anxiety to calmness) and so it is meaningless to speak of one or other field studying the “positive” or the “negative”. However, we highlight historical and cultural factors which have led positive and clinic...

  19. Tracking the movement of Hawaiian volcanoes; Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Most, if not all, volcanic eruptions are preceded by surface movements near the volcano. These ground movements are the response of the shallow crust to the accumulation of the magma or the buildup of magma pressure within a subterranean reservoir beneath the volcano. As the magma reservoir expands, the summit and the flanks of the volcano rise and spread apart. Measurements made at many volcanoes show that slow ground movement may precede an eruption by as many as several years. Sudden increases in the rate of ground movement often precede an eruption by a few hours or days.

  20. Los movimientos sociales: ¿la nueva masa psicológica?. (Social Movements: the New Psychological Mass?.

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    María Fernanda Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Freud parece explicar el comportamiento psicológico de las masas organizadas a partir de los procesos anímicos de la psique individual. Bajo las consideraciones freudianas y a la luz de ciertas apreciaciones lacanianas, el presente trabajo, resultado de la una investigación de tesis de grado de la maestría en Psicoanálisis, subjetividad y Cultura de la Universidad Nacional, caracterizará una nueva formación colectiva que se ha venido gestando desde la década de los 80 y que parece diferenciarse radicalmente la masa psicológica freudiana. Se trata de los Movimientos Sociales, denominados así por los sociólogos y estudiosos de la psicología colectiva más recientes. Ésta nueva formación colectiva a primera vista parece poner en tela de juicio las apreciaciones freudianas sobre la psicología de las masas, o al menos demandar una nueva consideración de las mismas desde los aportes psicoanalíticos. Palabras clave: lazo social, psicología, masa, psicoanálisis, Movimiento Social. Abstract Freud seems to explain the psychological behavior of the organized masses from the mental processes of the individual psyche. Under the Freudian considerations and in light of certain Lacanian findings, the present research work, the result of an investigation thesis of the Master's Degree in Psychoanalysis, Subjectivity, and Culture at the National University of Colombia, will characterize a new collective formation that has been growing from the 1980s and that seems to be radically different from the Freudian psychological mass. This is the Social Movements, so called by the most recent sociologists and scholars of collective psychology. This new collective formation appears to call into question the Freudian insights on group psychology, or it demands at least a new consideration of masses from the psychoanalytic contributions. Keywords: social bond, psychology, mass, psychoanalysis, Social Movement. Résumé Freud semble expliquer le

  1. Altered brain functions in HIV positive patients free of HIV- associated neurocognitive disorders: A MRI study during unilateral hand movements

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    Jing Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to investigate the brain activity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients with normal cognition during unilateral hand movement and whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART could affect the brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was performed for 60 HIV positive (HIV+ subjects and −42 healthy age-matched right-handed control subjects. Each subject was evaluated by the neuropsychological test and examined with fMRI during left and right hand movement tasks. HIV+ subjects showed greater activation in anterior cingulum, precuneus, occipital lobes, ipsilateral postcentral gyrus and contralateral cerebellum compared with control group during right hand movement task. However, during left hand movement no statistically significant difference was detected between these two groups. HAART medication for HIV+ subjects lowered the increased activity to normal level. Meanwhile patients receiving the regimen of zidovudine, lamivudine and efavirenz showed lower activity at bilateral caudate and ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus in comparison with subjects receiving other HAART regimens. Therefore, HIV+ subjects demonstrated brain asymmetry in motor cortex, with increased activity present during right hand movement but absent during left hand movement. HAART proves effective in HIV+ subjects even with normal cognition and the specific regimen of HAART could prevent cerebral abnormal functions. Meanwhile, this study validates that during motor tasks, fMRI can detect the brain signal changes prior to the occurrences of other HIV- associated dysfunctions.

  2. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating psychological disturbances in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot

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    Tze-Chun Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this case–control study, we aimed to assess the intervention effects of four-session eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR on reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot. A total of 83 adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder related to Typhoon Morakot, major depressive disorder, or current moderate or high suicide risk after experiencing Typhoon Morakot were allocated to a four-session course of EMDR (N = 41 or to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 42. A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effects of EMDR in reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents by using preintervention severity values as covariates. The multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated that the EMDR group exhibited significantly lower preintervention severity values of general anxiety and depression than did the TAU group. In addition, the preintervention severity value of disaster-related anxiety in the EMDR group was lower than that in the TAU group (p = 0.05. The results of this study support that EMDR could alleviate general anxiety and depressive symptoms and reduce disaster-related anxiety in adolescents experiencing major traumatic disasters.

  3. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for treating psychological disturbances in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tze-Chun; Yang, Pinchen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Tai-Ling

    2015-07-01

    In this case-control study, we aimed to assess the intervention effects of four-session eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents who experienced Typhoon Morakot. A total of 83 adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder related to Typhoon Morakot, major depressive disorder, or current moderate or high suicide risk after experiencing Typhoon Morakot were allocated to a four-session course of EMDR (N = 41) or to treatment as usual (TAU; N = 42). A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effects of EMDR in reducing the severity of disaster-related anxiety, general anxiety, and depressive symptoms in adolescents by using preintervention severity values as covariates. The multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated that the EMDR group exhibited significantly lower preintervention severity values of general anxiety and depression than did the TAU group. In addition, the preintervention severity value of disaster-related anxiety in the EMDR group was lower than that in the TAU group (p = 0.05). The results of this study support that EMDR could alleviate general anxiety and depressive symptoms and reduce disaster-related anxiety in adolescents experiencing major traumatic disasters. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  4. Thoughts about implementation of positive psychology in education and emerging leadership roles of counselors in the process

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    Tülay Bozkurt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in positive psychology is rapidly expanding as the field continues to make progress in terms of scientific advancement and understanding. Its implications in different fields have remarkable outcomes to validate the theory especially in therapies, education and organizations. This paper frameworks fundamental features of positive psychology and how these features can be integrated into schools. The emerging leadership roles of the counselors as change agents is also discussed from a holistic point of view.

  5. The Status of Positive Psychology Strengths within the Romanian School in the Digital Society

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    Georgeta Pânişoară

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the possible correlations between the strengths that are taught in school and those which are necessary for reaching personal success. In order to test the extent to which these strengths correlate, we applied a psychological-assessment tool composed of 24 strengths with a Likert-type response scale. The subjects selected for this research were 100 teachers from Romania, both male and female. The results were processed in SPSS Statistics, where we also calculated Pearson's correlation coefficient. After analyzing the descriptive statistics and the correlation coefficient we noticed that the "Vitality" strength showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the two groups, therefore it is not taught in school but it is considered important for achieving personal success. The "Citizenship" strength showed a statistically significant positive correlation, being concurrently promoted in school and important in achieving success.The neuro-linguistic reprogramming of a young individual will need a considerable effort, first of all as regards being aware of the values which render his well-being, and secondly as regards his orientation towards these values, which as it seems he was not at all oriented to. The new student profile of today’s society, also known as the digital native, needs to assimilate a full set of positive psychology values in order to create a complete model of success for nowadays’ world.

  6. The concept of spirituality and its relation to religion in positive psychology

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    Luciana Fernandes Marques

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical study that aims to provide a review of current scientific studies on the concept of spirituality and proposes some issues for future research. The article brings a literature review on the subject, including several areas of positive psychology. Articles and books in Portuguese, Spanish and English were examined  and held a computerized search in the SciELO (www.scielo.br and electronic Indexer Google Scholar, and the references of materials examined. The descriptors were: conceit, espirit, religion, and their counterparts in Spanish and English. The purpose of this review is outline some definitions to set limits and help in conducting research when the researcher should choose constructs and measurement instruments. Comment some classical authors such as Wundt, Maslow and James. After there is a difference about religion and spirituality, discussing their similarities and antagonisms that are mentioned in the reviewed literature and how the concept of spirituality appears in Positive Psychology

  7. From authentic happiness to well-being: the flourishing of Positive Psychology

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    Fabio Scorsolini-Comin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to present paradigm shifts from the authentic happiness theory (2002 to the well-being theory (2011, both developed in Positive Psychology by Martin Seligman. The well-being theory adds fulfillment and interpersonal relationships to the elements already included in the first theory (positive emotions, engagement and meaning, highlighting that well-being does not depend only on individual aspects but on issues related to context and interpersonal relationships. Whereas authentic happiness seeks life satisfaction, well-being aspires to flourishing - a more complex and dynamic construct. Well-being theory opens the possibility of developing public policies related to promotion of quality of life without ruling out the need for constant review of such approach.

  8. The Role of Reactance and Positive Emotions in Persuasive Health Messages: Refining the Theory of Psychological Reactance and the Politeness Theory and Testing the Theories of Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunsoon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand research on persuasion 1) by examining psychological reactance as a function of threats to positive identity above and beyond threats to freedom and 2) by examining the role of positive emotions. An online survey recruited 478 students from undergraduate courses at several universities in the U.S. The study…

  9. Body Contact and Body Language: Moments of Personal Development and Social and Cultural Learning Processes in Movement Psychology and Education

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    Helle Winther

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia­logue between a written text and a visceral on-line performance involving photographs and music, the reader/audience has the possibility to be touched both sensually and intellectually, although through communication is in cyberspace, missing the liveliness of direct body language. See online performance: http://www.viddler.com/player/c3c7a343/. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802637

  10. Disseminating Self-Help: Positive Psychology Exercises in an Online Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Acacia C

    2012-01-01

    Background The recent growth of positive psychology has led to a proliferation in exercises to increase positive thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Preliminary evidence suggests that these exercises hold promise as an approach for reducing depressive symptoms. These exercises are typically researched in isolation as single exercises. The current study examined the acceptability of several multi-exercise packages using online dissemination. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate methods of dissemination that could increase the acceptability and effectiveness of positive psychology exercises. To achieve this goal, we compared the use of positive psychology exercises when delivered in packages of 2, 4, or 6 exercises. Methods Self-help–seeking participants enrolled in this study by visiting an online research portal. Consenting participants were randomly assigned to receive 2, 4, or 6 positive psychology exercises (or assessments only) over a 6-week period. These exercises drew from the content of group positive psychotherapy. Participants visited an automated website that distributed exercise instructions, provided email reminders, and contained the baseline and follow-up assessments. Following each exercise, participants rated their enjoyment of the exercise, answered how often they had used each technique, and completed outcome measures. Results In total, 1364 individuals consented to participate. Attrition rates across the 2-, 4-, and 6-exercise conditions were similar at 55.5% (181/326), 55.8% (203/364), and 52.7% (168/319) respectively but were significantly greater than the attrition rate of 42.5% (151/355) for the control condition (χ2 3 = 16.40, P < .001). Participants in the 6-exercise condition were significant more likely than participants in the 4-exercise condition to use both the third (F 1,312 = 5.61, P = .02) and fourth (F 1,313 = 6.03, P = .02) exercises. For 5 of the 6 exercises, enjoyment was related to continued use of the

  11. Effectiveness of a positive psychology intervention combined with cognitive behavioral therapy in university students

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    Rosario-Josefa Marrero

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and implement a positive intervention combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy to enhance subjective and psychological well-being and other positive functioning constructs in a convenience sample. Participants analysed were 48 university students (mean age 22.25, 25 assigned nonrandomized to intervention condition and 23 to no-treatment waiting-list control condition. All participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention to test the treatment program effectiveness. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs, controlling baseline differences between the two groups, indicated that the intervention group reported greater social support after the intervention period than the waiting-list control group. Within-group differences were found for happiness, selfacceptance, positive relations with others, optimism, and self-esteem in the intervention group; these differences did not appear in the waiting-list control group. These findings suggest the limited capacity of this intervention program for improving well-being through positive activities combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Future research should analyse what kind of activities could be more effective in promoting well-being depending on the characteristics of participants.

  12. Impact of body position on central and peripheral hemodynamic contributions to movement-induced hyperemia: implications for rehabilitative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Trinity, Joel D.; McDaniel, John; Venturelli, Massimo; Fjeldstad, Anette S.; Ives, Stephen J.; Witman, Melissa A. H.; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Amann, Markus; Wray, D. Walter; Richardson, Russell S.

    2011-01-01

    This study used alterations in body position to identify differences in hemodynamic responses to passive exercise. Central and peripheral hemodynamics were noninvasively measured during 2 min of passive knee extension in 14 subjects, whereas perfusion pressure (PP) was directly measured in a subset of 6 subjects. Movement-induced increases in leg blood flow (LBF) and leg vascular conductance (LVC) were more than twofold greater in the upright compared with supine positions (LBF, supine: 462 ±...

  13. Positive change following adversity and psychological adjustment over time in abused foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Christine E; Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Parker, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Many foster youth experience maltreatment in their family-of-origin and additional maltreatment while in foster care. Not surprisingly, rates of depression are higher in foster youth than the general population, and peak during ages 17-19 during the stressful transition into adulthood. However, no known studies have reported on whether foster youth perceive positive changes following such adversity, and whether positive change facilitates psychological adjustment over time. The current study examined components of positive change (i.e., compassion for others and self-efficacy) with depression severity from age 17 to 18 as youth prepared to exit foster care. Participants were youth from the Mental Health Service Use of Youth Leaving Foster Care study who endorsed child maltreatment. Components of positive change and severity of abuse were measured initially. Depression was measured initially and every three months over the following year. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the course of depression as a function of initial levels of positive change and severity of abuse. Results revealed that decreases in depression followed an inverse quadratic function in which the steepest declines occurred in the first three months and leveled off after that. Severity of abuse was positively correlated with higher initial levels of depression and negatively correlated with decreases in depression. Greater self-efficacy was negatively associated with initial levels of depression and predicted decreases in depression over the year, whereas compassion for others was neither associated with initial depression nor changes in depression. Implications for intervention, theory, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling the Relationship between Trauma and Psychological Distress among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumsey, Ayesha Delany; Joseph, Nataria T; Myers, Hector F; Ullman, Jodie B; Wyatt, Gail E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and psychosocial resources (i.e., social support, self-esteem and optimism). Structural equation modeling confirmed that cumulative trauma exposure is positively associated with greater psychological distress, and that this association is partially mediated through impaired psychosocial resources. However, although cumulative trauma was associated with greater problematic substance use, substance use did not mediate the relationship between trauma and psychological distress.

  15. The Role of Positive Psychological Capital and the Family Function in Prediction of Happiness in high school students

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    F rashidi kochi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the role of positive psychological capital and family functioning in predicting happiness among adolescence. Correlational research method was recruited to analyze the data. The sample comprised of 290 high Scholl students that selected by the convenience sampling method. In this research Snyder’s hope, Nezami and Colleagues self-efficacy, Scheier and Carver's optimism, McMaster's family functioning and Connor and Davidson's Resiliency and Oxford happiness questionnaire used to collect data. Pearson correlation and stepwise regression were used to analyze data. The finding showed that there was a significant positive relationship between family function components and positive psychological capital with happiness. The results of stepwise regression showed that roles, Resiliency, self-efficacy, optimism and emotion expression had significant and important role in predicting happiness. Totally, explained 35% of the variance happiness. In conclusion, these findings indicate the importance roles of family and positive psychological capital in adolescence's happiness.

  16. Psychological Distress in Jordanian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Positive Reappraisal Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad; Ahmad, Muayyad

    2017-02-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report poor psychological well-being. Positive reappraisal coping (PRC) is a coping strategy which offers a protective effect from anxiety and depression. However, the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD has yet to be established. This study examines the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD. In this descriptive correlational study, 104 parents of children with ASD completed measures of psychological distress and PRC. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents after controlling the influence of parental age and gender. The PRC was associated with the psychological distress in parents above and beyond the variance accounted for by parental age and gender. After controlling for parental age and gender, PRC had significant negative correlation with the levels of anxiety, stress, and depression in parents (Anxiety: β=-0.36, p<0.001; Stress: β=-0.21, p=0.03; Depression: β=- 0.37, p<0.001). Using positive reappraisal coping strategy may help to reduce psychological distress in parents of children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of a web-based positive psychology intervention on prenatal well-being : A case series study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corno, Giulia; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Espinoza, Macarena; Herrero, Rocío; Molinari, Guadelupe; Carrillo, Alba; Drossaert, Constance; Baños, Rosa Maria

    Background Detrimental effects of women’s negative feelings during pregnancy have been extensively examined and documented, but research on the influence of positive feelings and protective factors on their prenatal mental health is scarce. Evidence from the positive psychology field has shown that

  18. Modeling the Relationship Between Trauma and Psychological Distress Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women

    OpenAIRE

    Delany-Brumsey, A; Joseph, NT; Myers, HF; Ullman, JB; Wyatt, GE

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and ...

  19. The Positive Benefits of Negative Movement Patterns Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jesse C; Foreman, K Bo; LaStayo, Paul C

    2018-01-01

    Eccentric (negative) resistance exercise of the legs using specialized machines has been reported to be useful and often superior to standard exercise following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Movements that utilize body mass and gravity as a mode of eccentric resistance exercise in a more pragmatic rehabilitation paradigm may also be useful in reversing chronic muscle impairments observed years following surgery. This study explores whether an eccentrically biased, body mass resistance exercise induces greater magnitude of sagittal plane extensor angular impulse of the support torque and individual net joint torque contributions during both squatting and lunging movement patterns 6 weeks following TKA. Cross-sectional laboratory-based study design including 10 patients following primary unilateral TKA (6.5 ± 0.8 weeks.). All patients completed 3 trials of the squat and lunge movement pattern under both a concentric and an eccentric condition. Extensor angular impulse of the support torque and net joint torque contributions were calculated by integrating the joint torque versus time curves. A Two-way analysis of covariance was conducted and contracts of clinical interest were computed using Wald posttest. P Values for all pairwise comparisons were adjusted for multiplicity using Bonferroni multiple comparison procedure. The eccentric condition, compared to the concentric condition, displayed larger magnitude of extensor angular impulse during both the squat ( P movement patterns for the support torques. Similarly, the eccentric condition, compared to the concentric condition, displayed larger magnitude of extensor angular impulse of the hip, knee, and ankle ( P movement patterns. Eccentrically biased, body mass movement exercises can produce higher levels of extensor angular impulse on the surgical limb in patients early after TKA. Patients in this study were able to tolerate the higher extensor angular impulse demands and performed the eccentrically biased

  20. Positive technology: a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Cipresso, Pietro; Serino, Silvia; Campanaro, Danilo Marco; Pallavicini, Federica; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We describe the main features and preliminary evaluation of Positive Technology, a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress (http://positiveapp.info/). The mobile platform features three main components: (i) guided relaxation, which provides the user with the opportunity of browsing a gallery of relaxation music and video-narrative resources for reducing stress; (ii) 3D biofeedback, which helps the user learning to control his/her responses, by visualizing variations of heart rate in an engaging 3D environment; (iii) stress tracking, by the recording of heart rate and self-reports. We evaluated the Positive Technology app in an online trial involving 32 participants, out of which 7 used the application in combination with the wrist sensor. Overall, feedback from users was satisfactory and the analysis of data collected online indicated the capability of the app for reducing perceived stress levels. A future goal is to improve the usability of the application and include more advanced stress monitoring features, based on the analysis of heart rate variability indexes.

  1. Emotion Recognition by Body Movement Representation on the Manifold of Symmetric Positive Definite Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Daoudi , Mohamed; Berretti , Stefano; Pala , Pietro; Delevoye , Yvonne ,; Bimbo , Alberto ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Emotion recognition is attracting great interest for its potential application in a multitude of real-life situations. Much of the Computer Vision research in this field has focused on relating emotions to facial expressions, with investigations rarely including more than upper body. In this work, we propose a new scenario, for which emotional states are related to 3D dynamics of the whole body motion. To address the complexity of human body movement, we used covarianc...

  2. PLAYER POSITION DETECTION AND MOVEMENT PATTERN RECOGNITION FOR AUTOMATED TACTICAL ANALYSIS IN BADMINTON

    OpenAIRE

    KOKUM GAYANATH WEERATUNGA

    2018-01-01

    This thesis documents the development of a comprehensive approach to automate badminton tactical analysis. First, a computer algorithm was developed to automatically track badminton players moving on a court. Next, a machine learning algorithm was developed to analyse these movements and understand their underlying tactical implications. Both algorithms were tested and validated using video footage recorded at International badminton tournaments. The results demonstrate that the combination o...

  3. Narrating spiritual well-being in relationship to positive psychology and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Rooyen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Constructed as new and located in the discourse of positive psychology, “spiritual well-being” is a signifier with a (hisstory in which one possible reading is highlighted in this postmodern (deconstructive narrative. The construction of “spiritual + well-being” could be narrated as a secularisation of the religious by positivist psy-complex knowledges, where spiritual well-being is reconstructed as a measurable outcome. Or it could be nar-rated as a “spiritualisation” of the psy-complex by religious knowledges, with measurable well-being becoming dependent on the pursuit of the postmodern, multiple-storied spiritual/ religious features. As the psy-complex has followed medicine from a focus on pathology to a focus on holistic wellness, it has found itself in the religious realm which it has simultaneously centred and marginalised. Additionally, as the psy-complex has moved from measuring illness to measuring wellness, it could be described as having constructed new categories of non-well-being or ill-being.

  4. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Marketing analysis of a positive technology app for the self-management of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Boyd, Chelsie; Sulea, Camelia; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The INTERSTRESS project developed a completely new concept in the treatment of psychological stress: Interreality, a concept that combines cognitive behavioral therapy with a hybrid, closed-loop empowering experience bridging real and virtual worlds. This model provides the opportunity for individual citizens to become active participants in their own health and well-being. This article contains the results of the Marketing Trial and analysis of the opinions of individual consumers/end users of the INTERSTRESS product. The specific objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and user acceptance of a novel mobile-based relaxation training tool in combination with biofeedback exercises and wearable biosensors. Relaxation was aided through immersion in a mobile virtual scenario (a virtual island) featuring pre-recorded audio narratives guiding a series of relaxation exercises. During biofeedback exercises, a wearable biosensor system provided data which directly modified the virtual reality experience in real-time. Thirty-six participants evaluated the product and overall feedback from users was positive, with some variation seen based on participant gender. A larger market study is now underway to understand if there are cultural variations in acceptability of the device.

  6. [The positive psychological impact of rich childbirth experiences on child-rearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kenji; Noguchi, Makiko; Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological implications of emotionally enriching childbirth experiences for problems such as awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress among women after childbirth. All women who gave birth at five study centers (four birthing homes and one maternity hospital) during May 2002 and August 2003 were asked to participate in the cohort study. All 2314 women were approached and 1004 eligible women agreed to take part. Analyses were conducted using a baseline survey and four follow-up surveys conducted at 4 months, 9 months, 2 and a half years, and 3 years after childbirth. The questionnaire included four scales to evaluate the subjects' childbirth experiences, awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress and difficulties. Data were collected via structured interviews and transcription from medical records. Bivariate and multivariate analysis indicated that women who had good childbirth experiences had positive feelings concerning motherhood and parenting stress and anxiety were lower. Bivariate analysis also indicated that childbirth experience had an inverse relationship with postnatal depression. This study revealed that having good childbirth experiences inhibits negative awareness of motherhood and abusive behavior towards children. These results show that it is important for mothers to be provided with appropriate care during pregnancy and labor for preventing child abuse and parenting stress and anxiety. More research is needed to identify the determinants of childbirth

  7. Warrior Resilience Training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.

  8. Interrelation and independence of positive and negative psychological constructs in predicting general treatment adherence in coronary artery patients - Results from the THORESCI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfort, Eveline; Denollet, Johan; Widdershoven, Jos; Kupper, Nina

    2016-09-01

    In cardiac patients, positive psychological factors have been associated with improved medical and psychological outcomes. The current study examined the interrelation between and independence of multiple positive and negative psychological constructs. Furthermore, the potential added predictive value of positive psychological functioning regarding the prediction of patients' treatment adherence and participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) was investigated. 409 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients were included (mean age = 65.6 ± 9.5; 78% male). Self-report questionnaires were administered one month post-PCI. Positive psychological constructs included positive affect (GMS) and optimism (LOT-R); negative constructs were depression (PHQ-9, BDI), anxiety (GAD-7) and negative affect (GMS). Six months post-PCI self-reported general adherence (MOS) and CR participation were determined. Factor Analysis (Oblimin rotation) revealed two components (r = − 0.56), reflecting positive and negative psychological constructs. Linear regression analyses showed that in unadjusted analyses both optimism and positive affect were associated with better general treatment adherence at six months (p psychological constructs (i.e. optimism) may be of incremental value to negative psychological constructs in predicting patients' treatment adherence. A more complete view of a patients' psychological functioning will open new avenues for treatment. Additional research is needed to investigate the relationship between positive psychological factors and other cardiac outcomes, such as cardiac events and mortality.

  9. Design thinking in positive psychology : The development of a product-service combination that stimulates happiness-enhancing activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, H.P.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration of how knowledge drawn from the positive psychology domain can be used to design products and services that contribute to the happiness of the users. Two distinctions are proposed to structure initiatives in well-being driven design: activity- versus product-focus,

  10. Corporal punishment and long-term behavior problems: the moderating role of positive parenting and psychological aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Straus, Murray A; Carrobles, José Antonio; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J; Almendros, Carmen

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine the prevalence of corporal punishment (CP) of children in Spain; (b) to analyze the extent to which CP is used in combination with psychological aggression and positive parenting among Spanish parents; and (c) to investigate whether the relation between CP and behavior problems is moderated by a positive parenting context in which CP may be used, and by the co-occurrence of psychological aggression. The sample comprised 1,071 Spanish university students (74.8% female; 25.2% male). Findings indicate a high prevalence of CP of Spanish students, revealing that significantly more mothers than fathers used CP. Furthermore, more CP is related to more use of psychological aggression and less of positive parenting. Regression analyses revealed that CP was associated with an increased probability of antisocial traits and behaviors regardless of whether there was positive parenting and psychological aggression. These results highlight that, though many Spanish parents use CP as a disciplinary strategy, it appears to be related to negative outcomes for children regardless the parental context in which it is used.

  11. The Pedagogical Benefits of Enacting Positive Psychology Practices through a Student-Faculty Partnership Approach to Academic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Sather, Alison; Schlosser, Joel Alden; Sweeney, Abigail; Peterson, Laurel M.; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Colón García, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Academic development that supports the enactment of positive psychology practices through student-faculty pedagogical partnership can increase faculty confidence and capacity in their first year in a new institution. When student partners practice affirmation and encouragement of strengths-based growth, processes of faculty acclimation and…

  12. The Effect of Positive or Negative Frame on the Choices of Students in School Psychology and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagley, N. S.; Miller, Paul M.; Jones, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    Doctoral students (N=109) in school psychology and educational administration responded to five decision problems whose outcomes were framed either positively as gains or negatively as losses. Frame and profession significantly affected the number of risky choices. Educational administration students made more risky choices than school psychology…

  13. Mirror neurons, procedural learning, and the positive new experience: a developmental systems self psychology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, N S; Gales, M; Shane, E; Shane, M

    2000-01-01

    In summary, we are impressed with the existence of a mirror neuron system in the prefrontal cortex that serves as part of a complex neural network, including afferent and efferent connections to the limbic system, in particular the amygdala, in addition to the premotor and motor cortex. We think it is possible to arrive at an integration that postulates the mirror neuron system and its many types of associated multimodal neurons as contributing significantly to implicit procedural learning, a process that underlies a range of complex nonconscious, unconscious, preconscious and conscious cognitive activities, from playing musical instruments to character formation and traumatic configurations. This type of brain circuitry may establish an external coherence with developmental systems self psychology which implies that positive new experience is meliorative and that the intentional revival of old-old traumatic relational configurations might enhance maladaptive procedural patterns that would lead to the opposite of the intended beneficial change. When analysts revive traumatic transference patterns for the purpose of clarification and interpretation, they may fail to appreciate that such traumatic transference patterns make interpretation ineffective because, as we have stated above, the patient lacks self-reflection under such traumatic conditions. The continued plasticity and immediacy of the mirror neuron system can contribute to positive new experiences that promote the formation of new, adaptive, implicit-procedural patterns. Perhaps this broadened repertoire in the patient of ways of understanding interrelational events through the psychoanalytic process allows the less adaptive patterns ultimately to become vestigial and the newer, more adaptive patterns to emerge as dominant. Finally, as we have stated, we believe that the intentional transferential revival of trauma (i.e., the old-old relational configuration) may not contribute to therapeutic benefit. In

  14. Impact of habitat-specific GPS positional error on detection of movement scales by first-passage time analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Williams

    Full Text Available Advances in animal tracking technologies have reduced but not eliminated positional error. While aware of such inherent error, scientists often proceed with analyses that assume exact locations. The results of such analyses then represent one realization in a distribution of possible outcomes. Evaluating results within the context of that distribution can strengthen or weaken our confidence in conclusions drawn from the analysis in question. We evaluated the habitat-specific positional error of stationary GPS collars placed under a range of vegetation conditions that produced a gradient of canopy cover. We explored how variation of positional error in different vegetation cover types affects a researcher's ability to discern scales of movement in analyses of first-passage time for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. We placed 11 GPS collars in 4 different vegetative canopy cover types classified as the proportion of cover above the collar (0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75%, and 76-100%. We simulated the effect of positional error on individual movement paths using cover-specific error distributions at each location. The different cover classes did not introduce any directional bias in positional observations (1 m≤mean≤6.51 m, 0.24≤p≤0.47, but the standard deviation of positional error of fixes increased significantly with increasing canopy cover class for the 0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% classes (SD = 2.18 m, 3.07 m, and 4.61 m, respectively and then leveled off in the 76-100% cover class (SD = 4.43 m. We then added cover-specific positional errors to individual deer movement paths and conducted first-passage time analyses on the noisy and original paths. First-passage time analyses were robust to habitat-specific error in a forest-agriculture landscape. For deer in a fragmented forest-agriculture environment, and species that move across similar geographic extents, we suggest that first-passage time analysis is robust with regard to

  15. Comparing Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Measures of Team Sport Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Benjamin M; Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; King, Trish; Peeling, Peter

    2018-02-21

    To compare data from conventional GPS and new GNSS-enabled tracking devices, and to examine the inter-unit reliability of GNSS devices. Inter-device differences between 10 Hz GPS and GNSS devices were examined during laps (n=40) of a simulated game circuit (SGC) and during elite hockey matches (n=21); GNSS inter-unit reliability was also examined during the SGC laps. Differences in distance values and measures in three velocity categories (low 5 m.s -1 ) and acceleration/deceleration counts (>1.46 m.s -2 and GPS devices in all conditions. These findings suggest that GNSS devices may be more sensitive than GPS in quantifying the physical demands of team sport movements, but further study into the accuracy of GNSS devices is required.

  16. Development of a novel positive psychology-based intervention for couples post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Reblin, Maija; MacKenzie, Justin J; Cardell, Beth; Einerson, Jackie; Berg, Cynthia A; Majersik, Jennifer J; Richards, Lorie

    2018-02-01

    Stroke provides challenges for survivors and partner caregivers. Stroke survivors and caregivers are interconnected in their emotional health, including depression, a common stroke sequelae. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a dyadic positive psychology-based intervention (PPI) for couples coping poststroke. Community-dwelling couples consisted of 1 partner who had a stroke ≥6 months ago and a cohabiting partner caregiver. One or both partner(s) had to report depressive symptoms. The PPI consisted of 1 brief face-to-face training session and an 8-week self-administered intervention in which participants were instructed to engage in at least 2 activities alone and 2 together each week. Two dyads were randomly assigned to a waitlist control to test feasibility of this process. Baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up assessments and post-program feedback were obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze sample characteristics, recruitment and retention rates, adherence, key pre- and postintervention outcomes, and satisfaction with the intervention. Eleven of 20 couples responding to recruitment letters were enrolled in the study. Ten of 11 dyads completed the program. All participants engaged in activities for at least 6 of 8 weeks. Feedback data indicated participant satisfaction with the intervention, and key outcome measures demonstrated adequate variability. The self-administered dyadic PPI is feasible for implementation with couples poststroke. The PPI represents a first step in a novel dyadic approach in this population. Recruitment, enrollment and attrition rates, and feedback will be used to inform a larger randomized trial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Three-dimensional intrafractional movement of prostate measured during real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy in supine and prone treatment positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kei; Shirato, Hiroki; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Onimaru, Rikiya; Oda, Makoto; Fujita, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Harabayashi, Toru; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify three-dimensional (3D) movement of the prostate gland with the patient in the supine and prone positions and to analyze the movement frequency for each treatment position. Methods and Materials: The real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system was developed to identify the 3D position of a 2-mm gold marker implanted in the prostate 30 times/s using two sets of fluoroscopic images. The linear accelerator was triggered to irradiate the tumor only when the gold marker was located within the region of the planned coordinates relative to the isocenter. Ten patients with prostate cancer treated with RTRT were the subjects of this study. The coordinates of the gold marker were recorded every 0.033 s during RTRT in the supine treatment position for 2 min. The patient was then moved to the prone position, and the marker was tracked for 2 min to acquire data regarding movement in this position. Measurements were taken 5 times for each patient (once a week); a total of 50 sets for the 10 patients was analyzed. The raw data from the RTRT system were filtered to reduce system noise, and the amplitude of movement was then calculated. The discrete Fourier transform of the unfiltered data was performed for the frequency analysis of prostate movement. Results: No apparent difference in movement was found among individuals. The amplitude of 3D movement was 0.1-2.7 mm in the supine and 0.4-24 mm in the prone positions. The amplitude in the supine position was statistically smaller in all directions than that in the prone position (p < 0.0001). The amplitude in the craniocaudal and AP directions was larger than in the left-right direction in the prone position (p < 0.0001). No characteristic movement frequency was detected in the supine position. The respiratory frequency was detected for all patients regarding movement in the craniocaudal and AP directions in the prone position. The results of the frequency analysis suggest that prostate movement is

  18. Novel, continuous monitoring of fine‐scale movement using fixed‐position radiotelemetry arrays and random forest location fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbicht, Andrew B.; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Ardren, William R.; Gorsky, Dimitry; Fraser, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Radio‐tag signals from fixed‐position antennas are most often used to indicate presence or absence of individuals, or to estimate individual activity levels from signal strength variation within an antenna's detection zone. The potential of such systems to provide more precise information on tag location and movement has not been explored in great detail in an ecological setting.By reversing the roles that transmitters and receivers play in localization methods common to the telecommunications industry, we present a new telemetric tool for accurately estimating the location of tagged individuals from received signal strength values. The methods used to characterize the study area in terms of received signal strength are described, as is the random forest model used for localization. The resulting method is then validated using test data before being applied to true data collected from tagged individuals in the study site.Application of the localization method to test data withheld from the learning dataset indicated a low average error over the entire study area (movement data for tagged fish along a single axis (a migratory path) and is particularly useful for monitoring passage along migratory routes. The new methods applied in this study can also be expanded to include multiple axes (x, y, z) and multiple environments (aquatic and terrestrial) for remotely monitoring wildlife movement.

  19. Specialty satisfaction, positive psychological capital, and nursing professional values in nursing students: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Chung Hee; Park, Ju Young

    2017-10-01

    Ideally, college majors should be chosen to achieve self-realization and correspond to self-concept. However, some students select a major based on extrinsic factors, rather than aptitude or interests, because of a lack of employment opportunities. If they have negative college experiences with an unsatisfactory major, they might not engage fully in their occupation following graduation. This study aimed to identify factors affecting specialty satisfaction in preclinical practice nursing-college students. A cross-sectional descriptive survey. A nonprobability convenience sample of 312 nursing-college students at colleges in Deajeon City, South Korea. The survey questionnaire was distributed to those who agreed to participate. Freshmen and sophomore nursing students (n=312). Participants were 312 students at colleges in Deajeon City. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, which were analyzed using SPSS/WIN. Positive psychological capital and nursing professional values were positively correlated with specialty satisfaction. Significant predictors for specialty satisfaction included hope and optimism (as components of positive psychological capital), the roles of nursing service and originality of nursing (as nursing professional values), and aptitude/interests and job value (as motives for selecting a major). The findings suggested that nursing students' specialty satisfaction was partially linked to positive psychological capital and professional values. Therefore, the promotion of positive factors should be useful in enhancing specialty satisfaction in preclinical-practice nursing-college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological distress after employment transitions: the role of subjective financial position as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Claudia; Benzeval, Michaela; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    To explore the extent to which the mental health effects of transitions into unemployment, or other forms of non-employment, and vice versa, are mediated by financial changes. Longitudinal analysis of the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2000. There were 89,264 person-years of observation from 14,686 individuals aged > or =16 years. Main outcome measure was psychological distress measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Transitions to unemployment were associated with increased risk of psychological distress for men (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.50 to 3.98)) and for women (OR 2.60 (95% CI 1.97 to 3.43)). Women who left work to look after the family were also more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.05)). A reduced risk of psychological distress was seen for transitions from unemployment to paid employment for men (OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.68)) and for women (OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.40)). Financial difficulty partially mediated these relationships: men who became unemployed and were worse off financially were more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 4.19 (95% CI 3.20 to 5.50)) than men who were not (OR 1.48 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.33)). Conversely, the beneficial health effect for people who left unemployment and became employed was confined to those who were better off financially (OR 0.34 (0.25 to 0.48) for men). Changes in employment status have both direct and indirect effects, through changes in financial circumstances, on subsequent psychological distress. The results support the view that the direction of causation runs from employment transitions to financial difficulties and psychological distress.

  1. Pointing the profession in the right direction: positive ethical movements among dental students and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Brooke

    2008-01-01

    The American Student Dental Association has a substantial stake in the future of the dental profession. ASDA is taking a proactive role in addressing recently publicized cases of academic dishonesty and other ethical problems. Some of these initiatives and a sampling of the positive efforts in dental schools to build sound ethical climates are reviewed.

  2. Considering Positive Psychology Constructs of Life Satisfaction and School Connectedness When Assessing Symptoms Related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B. Mancil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD demonstrate significant difficulty with academic and behavioral functioning. This, in turn, can lead to lower educational attainment and vocational achievement, which has serious long-term consequences and costs to individuals and society (Barkley, 2002, 2006; Mannuzza, Klein, Bessler, Malloy, & LaPadula, 1993. Researchers from a positive psychology framework suggest that ADHD symptoms (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity alone may not fully explain academic impairment (Diener, Scollon, & Lucas, 2004. From the standpoint of positive psychology, life satisfaction and school connectedness are important constructs that examine positive life functioning; however, they have been understudied, particularly in the area of ADHD. The current study investigated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and these positive psychological constructs. Results indicate that as ADHD symptoms increase, life satisfaction decreases; however, no relationship between ADHD symptoms and school connectedness was found. Beyond our primary analysis, we examined the relationship between gender and these variables. Results suggest that gender significantly moderates the relationship between ADHD and life satisfaction, with life satisfaction ratings decreasing for males as ADHD symptoms increase, yet remaining stable for females. ADHD symptoms did not significantly predict changes in school connectedness. Furthermore, gender did not significantly moderate the relationship between school connectedness and ADHD symptoms.

  3. Assessment of Isometric Trunk Strength - The Relevance of Body Position and Relationship between Planes of Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Andrej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the differences in maximal isometric trunk extension and flexion strength during standing, sitting and kneeling. Additionally, we were interested in correlations between the maximal strength in sagittal, frontal and transverse plane, measured in the sitting position. Sixty healthy subjects (24 male, 36 female; age 41.3 ± 15.1 yrs; body height 1.70 ± 0.09 m; body mass 72.7 ± 13.3 kg) performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles in standing, sitting and kneeling position. The subjects also performed lateral flexions and rotations in the sitting position. Each task was repeated three times and average of maximal forces was used for data analysis. RANOVA with post-hoc testing was applied to the flexion and extension data. The level of statistical significance was set to p strength showed the strongest correlation, followed by frontal-transverse and sagittal-frontal plane correlation pairs (R(2) = 0.830, 0.712 and 0.657). The baseline trunk isometric strength data provided by this study should help further strength diagnostics, more precisely, the prevention of low back disorders. Key pointsMaximal voluntary isometric force of the trunk extensors increased with the angle at the hips (highest in sitting, medium in kneeling and lowest in upright standing).The opposite trend was true for isometric MVC force of trunk flexors (both genders together and men only).In the sitting position, the strongest correlation between MVC forces was found between sagittal (average flexion/extension) and transverse plane (average left/right rotation).IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE VALIDITY OF TRUNK STRENGTH TESTING THE LETTER SHOULD INCLUDE: specific warm-up, good pelvic fixation and visual feedback.

  4. A three musketeering approach to pastoral care: Reflections on collaboration between pastoral care, narrative therapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred R. Brunsdon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current times of change, deconstruction and ever-growing relativisation, pastoral praxis finds itself in methodological limbo. Pastoral practitioners currently face the challenge of effectively reaching postmodern people through the pastoral process. This challenge is intensified by the innate tension between revelation and experience in pastoral theology as well as the philosophical migration from modernism to postmodernism, which necessitates an on-going rethinking of pastoral praxis. This research investigates a collaborative approach between pastoral care, narrative therapy and positive psychology as a possible method for dispensing pastoral care. A broad outline of these approaches as well as their underlying philosophical frameworks is contemplated in order to evaluate their suitability for a pastoral collaboration. Markers for a collaborative model are suggested where the narrative and positive psychology are employed as strategies in a so-called three- musketeering approach to pastoral care.

  5. Effect of repetitive yogic squats with specific hand position (Thoppukaranam on selective attention and psychological states

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    Angelica Chandrasekeran

    2014-01-01

    Results: There was a significant improvement in all measures of the d2 test of attention (TN, E, TN-E, E%, and concentration performance and state mindfulness after Thoppukaranam. Further state anxiety reduced significantly after the experimental session. Conclusions: These findings indicate Thoppukaranam results in enhancement of cognitive functioning and psychological states.

  6. The school psychologist's role in implementing the principles of positive psychology in the development of the school

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    Maksić Slavica B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian school system is currently undergoing a transformation process, dealing with important issues of interest to society as a whole. One of the possible directions of this transformation is the development of a positive school as an institution in which value is placed not only on achievement but also on the wellbeing of all parties. This paper considers to what extent the professional potential of school psychologists could be utilized in this process. The analysis presented here aims to reassess the possibilities of applying the principles of positive psychology to defining and implementing the role of school psychologists, and to put forward along these lines certain suggestions for their practical work. For this purpose, we have reviewed the theoretical foundations of positive education and related research findings, analysed regulations and research findings regarding the work of school psychologists in Serbian schools, and discussed prospects for their further engagement from the standpoint of contemporary theories of organizational changes and development. The possibilities for creating a positive school have been corroborated through numerous studies. According to Serbian school regulations, the school psychologist is expected to be engaged in improving all aspects of work in a school, as well as relationships between all participants in that process. Research findings on building a positive school provide a stimulus, while the position of the school psychologist provides the basis for his or her engagement in the process of transforming Serbian schools into positive schools. The conclusion is that school psychologists could contribute to the development of the school as a positive institution provided their professional role is redefined in accordance with the principles of positive psychology.

  7. Positive psychology, a science of strengths and virtues : beyond pathology and medication

    OpenAIRE

    Marujo, Helena Águeda

    2011-01-01

    Revista de psicologia da criança e do adolescente. - ISSN 1647-4120. - N. 3 (2011). - p. 127-145. Social sciences in general, and psychology in particular, have mainly approached children and adolescents through a focus on deviation from normality and of incidence of pathology. Even preventive approaches involve the expectation of potential illness. Taking into consideration that the choice for following this trend was based on a good intention of understanding and ending human suffering t...

  8. Effect of repetitive yogic squats with specific hand position (Thoppukaranam) on selective attention and psychological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekeran, Angelica; Rajesh, Sasidharan K; Srinivasan, Tm

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effect of Thoppukaranam is limited despite it being practiced as a form of worship to the elephant-headed deity Lord Ganapati and punishment in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Thoppukaranam on selective attention and psychological states in a sample of young adults. A randomized self-as-control within subjects design was employed. Thirty undergraduate students (4 females and 26 males) from a residential Yoga University in Southern India were recruited for this study (group mean age ± standard deviation, 20.17 ± 2.92). The d2 test, State Anxiety Inventory-Short Form and State Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (SMAAS) were used to measure cognitive performance and psychological states. Assessments were made in three sessions: Baseline, control (squats), and experimental (Thoppukaranam) on 3 separate days. Data were analyzed using one-way repeated measures analyses of variance between three sessions, that is, baseline, squat, and Thoppukaranam. There was a significant improvement in all measures of the d2 test of attention (TN, E, TN-E, E%, and concentration performance) and state mindfulness after Thoppukaranam. Further state anxiety reduced significantly after the experimental session. These findings indicate Thoppukaranam results in enhancement of cognitive functioning and psychological states.

  9. The position of the cancer patient undergoing radiotherapy -psychological and physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischenschlager, O.; Hohenberg, G.; Handl-Zeller, L.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the psychological strains experienced by patients undergoing radiotherapy, as well as their somatic complaints and the possible connection between these two aspects. The sample consisted of 87 cancer patients, 64 female, 23 male. We used two standardized clinical instruments, one Zerssen's list of somatic complaints ('Beschwerdeliste' in German) and Zerssen's questionnaire of wellbeing ('Befindlichkeitsskala' in German). These two research instruments were implemented four times: at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of radiation, and three month afterwards. Results: Both the psychological state of well-being and somatic complaints remained at approximately the same level during the whole course of therapy. The state of well-being increased significantly after therapy, which is indicated by the decrease in the number of psychological impairments, whereas the score for somatic complaints remained the same. We observed a general tendency on the part of the patients to play down their situation. Sex differences were not observed. The discussion of the results includes their implication on the doctor-patient relationship. (Author)

  10. Caregiving burden and psychological distress in Chinese spousal caregivers: gender difference in the moderating role of positive aspects of caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Ng, Ting Kin; Zhuang, Xiao Yu

    2018-05-21

    This study endeavors to advance the current literature by examining the gender differences in the caregiving experiences and the stress-buffering role of positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) among Chinese spousal caregivers of frail elders in Hong Kong. Forty-nine husband caregivers and 121 wife caregivers of frail elders in Hong Kong (N = 170) responded to the Positive Aspects of Caregiving (PAC) scale, the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21), and demographic questions. These spousal caregivers were diverse in age, and their care receivers were diverse in terms of age and health condition. As predicted, there were significant gender differences in the moderating effects of PAC on the relationships of caregiving burden to depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress. While PAC significantly buffered the effects of caregiving burden on depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress for wife caregivers, the moderating effects of PAC were not significant for husband caregivers. Unexpectedly, wife caregivers reported lower PAC, higher caregiving burden, and higher psychological distress. As these findings suggest that PAC is lower but more beneficial for Chinese wife caregivers than Chinese husband caregivers, helping professionals are recommended to use strengths-based interventions that target PAC when working with Chinese wife caregivers.

  11. Postural control during sit-to-stand movement and its relationship with upright position in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy and in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavão, Silvia L; Santos, Adriana N; Oliveira, Ana B; Rocha, Nelci A C F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare postural control in typically developing (TD) children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the sit-to-stand (STS) movement and to assess the relationship between static (during static standing position) and dynamic postural control (during STS movement) in both groups. The center of pressure (CoP) behavior of 23 TD children and 6 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I and II) was assessed during STS movement performance and during static standing conditions with the use of a force plate. The data obtained from the force plate were used to calculate CoP variables: anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) amplitudes of CoP displacement and the area and velocity of CoP oscillation. According to the Mann-Whitney test, children with CP exhibited higher CoP values in all of the analyzed variables during the beginning of STS movement. Pearson's correlation verified a positive correlation between the CoP variables during both static conditions and the performance of STS movement. Children with spastic hemiplegic CP present major postural oscillations during the beginning of STS movement compared with typical children. Moreover, the observed relationship between postural control in static and dynamic conditions reveals the importance of body control in the static position for the performance of functional activities that put the body in motion, such as STS movement.

  12. Postural control during sit-to-stand movement and its relationship with upright position in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy and in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Pavão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare postural control in typically developing (TD children and children with cerebral palsy (CP during the sit-to-stand (STS movement and to assess the relationship between static (during static standing position and dynamic postural control (during STS movement in both groups. METHOD: The center of pressure (CoP behavior of 23 TD children and 6 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I and II was assessed during STS movement performance and during static standing conditions with the use of a force plate. The data obtained from the force plate were used to calculate CoP variables: anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML amplitudes of CoP displacement and the area and velocity of CoP oscillation. RESULTS: According to the Mann-Whitney test, children with CP exhibited higher CoP values in all of the analyzed variables during the beginning of STS movement. Pearson's correlation verified a positive correlation between the CoP variables during both static conditions and the performance of STS movement. CONCLUSIONS: Children with spastic hemiplegic CP present major postural oscillations during the beginning of STS movement compared with typical children. Moreover, the observed relationship between postural control in static and dynamic conditions reveals the importance of body control in the static position for the performance of functional activities that put the body in motion, such as STS movement.

  13. Movement and personality development

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    Aida M. Aylamazyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.

  14. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  15. Deciding to adopt revised and new psychological and neuropsychological tests: an inter-organizational position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Shane S; Sweet, Jerry J; Bianchini, Kevin J; Johnson-Greene, Doug; Dean, Pamela M; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2018-04-01

    Neuropsychological tests undergo periodic revision intended to improve psychometric properties, normative data, relevance of stimuli, and ease of administration. In addition, new tests are developed to evaluate psychological and neuropsychological constructs, often purporting to improve evaluation effectiveness. However, there is limited professional guidance to neuropsychologists concerning the decision to adopt a revised version of a test and/or replace an older test with a new test purporting to measure the same or overlapping constructs. This paper describes ethical and professional issues related to the selection and use of older versus newer psychological and neuropsychological tests, with the goal of promoting appropriate test selection and evidence-based decision making. Ethical and professional issues were reviewed and considered. The availability of a newer version of a test does not necessarily render obsolete prior versions of the test for purposes that are empirically supported, nor should continued empirically supported use of a prior version of a test be considered unethical practice. Until a revised or new test has published evidence of improved ability to help clinicians to make diagnostic determinations, facilitate treatment, and/or assess change over time, the choice to delay adoption of revised or new tests may be viewed as reasonable and appropriate. Recommendations are offered to facilitate decisions about the adoption of revised and new tests. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of individual neuropsychologists to determine which tests best meet their patients' needs, and to be able to support their decisions with empirical evidence and sound clinical judgment.

  16. Assessing teachers' positive psychological functioning at work: Development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L; Long, Anna C J; Cook, Clayton R

    2015-06-01

    This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (TSWQ) with 2 samples of educators-a general sample of 185 elementary and middle school teachers, and a target sample of 21 elementary school teachers experiencing classroom management challenges. The TSWQ is an 8-item self-report instrument for assessing teachers' subjective wellbeing, which is operationalized via subscales measuring school connectedness and teaching efficacy. The conceptualization and development processes underlying the TSWQ are described, and results from a series of preliminary psychometric and exploratory analyses are reported to establish initial construct validity. Findings indicated that the TSWQ was characterized by 2 conceptually sound latent factors, that both subscales and the composite scale demonstrated strong internal consistency, and that all scales demonstrated convergent validity with self-reported school supports and divergent validity with self-reported stress and emotional burnout. Furthermore, results indicated that TSWQ scores did not differ according to teachers' school level (i.e., elementary vs. middle), but that they did differ according to unique school environment (e.g., 1 middle school vs. another middle school) and teacher stressors (i.e., general teachers vs. teachers experiencing classroom management challenges). Results also indicated that, for teachers experiencing classroom challenges, the TSWQ had strong short-term predictive validity for psychological distress, accounting for approximately half of the variance in teacher stress and emotional burnout. Implications for theory, research, and the practice of school psychology are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A cross-sectional examination of psychological distress, positive mental health and their predictors in medical students in their clinical clerkships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge van Dijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called ‘positive mental health’. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Methods Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF, dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors. Results Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89% completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were ‘acting with awareness’ (negative and ‘worrying’ (positive. Strongest predictors of positive mental health were ‘problem avoidance’ (negative and ‘emotional irresponsibility’ (negative. Conclusions The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support

  18. A cross-sectional examination of psychological distress, positive mental health and their predictors in medical students in their clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Inge; Lucassen, Peter L B J; van Weel, Chris; Speckens, Anne E M

    2017-11-17

    Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called 'positive mental health'. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory), positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF), dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory) and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables) and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors). Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89%) completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were 'acting with awareness' (negative) and 'worrying' (positive). Strongest predictors of positive mental health were 'problem avoidance' (negative) and 'emotional irresponsibility' (negative). The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support conclusions of previous research that psychological distress and positive mental

  19. Long-Term Positive and Negative Psychological Late Effects for Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Lisa; Cernvall, Martin; Grönqvist, Helena; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Increasing survival rates in childhood cancer have yielded a growing population of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). This systematic review compiles the literature on positive and negative long-term psychological late effects for parents of CCSs, reported at least five years after the child's diagnosis and/or two years after the end of the child's treatment. Systematic searches were made in the databases CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Fifteen studies, published between 1988 and 2010, from 12 projects were included. Thirteen studies used quantitative methodology, one quantitative and qualitative methodology, and one qualitative methodology. A total of 1045 parents participated in the reviewed studies. Mean scores were within normal ranges for general psychological distress, coping, and family functioning. However, a substantial subgroup reported a clinical level of general psychological distress, and 21–44% reported a severe level of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Worry, disease-related thoughts and feelings, marital strains, as well as posttraumatic growth was reported. Several factors were associated with the long-term late effects, such as parents' maladaptive coping during earlier stages of the childs disease trajectory and children's current poor adjustment. Quality assessments of reviewed studies and clinical implications of findings are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. PMID:25058607

  20. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Bakke Finne

    Full Text Available Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2 were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect

  1. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit) effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2) were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect. Furthermore, both

  2. Do positive psychological characteristics modify associations of physical performance with functional decline and institutionalization? Findings from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, R.; Huisman, M.; Kuh, D; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether 3 positive psychological characteristics, related to sense of control, modify the associations of physical performance levels with subsequent functional decline and institutionalization. Method. One thousand five hundred and thirty-two men and women participating

  3. Psychological effects of false-positive results in expanded newborn screening in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Tu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: As more families participate expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders in China, the overall number of false positives increases. Our goal was to assess the potential impact on parental stress, perceptions of the child's health, and family relationships. METHODS: Parents of 49 infants with false-positive screening results for metabolic disorders in the expanded newborn screening panel were compared with parents of 42 children with normal screening results. Parents first completed structured interview using likert scales, closed and open questions. Parents also completed the parenting stress index. RESULTS: A total of 88 mothers and 41 fathers were interviewed. More mothers in the false-positive group reported that their children required extra parental care (21%, compared with 5% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. 39% of mothers in the false-positive group reported that they worry about their child's future development, compared with 10% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. Fathers in the false-positive group did not differ from fathers in the normal-screened group in reporting worry about their child's extra care requirements, and their child's future development. Children with false-positive results compared with children with normal results were triple as likely to experience hospitalization (27%vs 9%, respectively; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The results showing false-positive screening results may affect parental stress and the parent-child relationship. Parental stress and anxiety can be reduced with improved education and communication to parents about false-positive results.

  4. Effects of Positive Psychology Interventions on Risk Biomarkers in Coronary Patients: A Randomized, Wait-List Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikrahan, Gholam Reza; Laferton, Johannes A C; Asgari, Karim; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Abedi, Mohammad Reza; Etesampour, Ali; Rezaei, Abbas; Suarez, Laura; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    Among cardiac patients, positive psychologic factors are consistently linked with superior clinical outcomes and improvement in key markers of inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning. Further, positive psychology interventions (PPI) have effectively increased psychologic well-being in a wide variety of populations. However, there has been minimal study of PPIs in cardiac patients, and no prior study has evaluated their effect on key prognostic biomarkers of cardiac outcome. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of 3 distinct PPIs on risk biomarkers in cardiac patients. In an exploratory trial, 69 patients with recent coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous intervention were randomized to (1) one of three 6-week in-person PPIs (based on the work of Seligman, Lyubomirsky, or Fordyce) or (2) a wait-list control group. Risk biomarkers were assessed at baseline, postintervention (7 weeks), and at 15-week follow-up. Between-group differences in change from baseline biomarker levels were examined via random effects models. Compared with the control group, participants randomized to the Seligman (B = -2.06; p = 0.02) and Fordyce PPI (B = -1.54; p = 0.04) had significantly lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels at 7 weeks. Further, the Lyubomirsky PPI (B = -245.86; p = 0.04) was associated with a significantly lower cortisol awakening response at 7 weeks when compared with control participants. There were no other significant between-group differences. Despite being an exploratory pilot study with multiple between-group comparisons, this initial trial offers the first suggestion that PPIs might be effective in reducing risk biomarkers in high-risk cardiac patients. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50–79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Proyer, Rene T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Various positive psychology interventions have been experimentally tested, but only few studies addressed the effects of such activities in participants aged 50 and above. Method: We tested the impact of four self-administered positive psychology interventions in an online setting (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, three funny things, and using signature strengths in a new way) on happiness and depressive symptoms in comparison with a placebo control exercise (i.e., ear...

  6. Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Self-Help Intervention: Study Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossaert, Constance HC; Pieterse, Marcel E; Walburg, Jan A; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2015-01-01

    Background Positive psychology interventions have been found to enhance well-being and decrease clinical symptomatology. However, it is still unknown how flourishing can also be increased. Although multicomponent interventions seem to be necessary for this purpose, different formats can be used. A cost-effective approach could be a positive psychology-based self-help book with tailored email support to reach large target groups and to prevent dropout. Objective This study will evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive multicomponent self-help intervention with or without email support on well-being and flourishing, and will seek to determine the working mechanisms underlying the intervention. Methods In this 3-armed, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 396 participants with low or moderate levels of well-being and without clinical symptomatology will be randomly assigned to (1) a self-help book condition with weekly email support, (2) a self-help book condition without email support but with a weekly information email, or (3) a waiting list control condition. Online measurements will be assessed at baseline, at post-test (3 months after baseline), and at 6 and 12 months after baseline. Results The primary outcomes are well-being and flourishing (ie, high levels of well-being). Secondary outcomes are the well-being components included in the intervention: positive emotion, use of strengths, optimism, self-compassion, resilience, and positive relations. Other measures include depressive and anxiety symptoms, personality traits, direct medical and non-medical costs, life-events, and client satisfaction. Conclusions This study will add knowledge to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent positive psychology intervention. We will also explore who can benefit most from this intervention. If the intervention is found to be effective, our results will be especially relevant for public mental health services, governments, and primary care. Trial

  7. Narrative perspective shift at retrieval: The psychological-distance-mediated-effect on emotional intensity of positive and negative autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuan; Tse, Chi-Shing

    2016-10-01

    The present study manipulated participants' narrative perspectives (1st-personal pronoun "I" and 3rd-personal pronoun "He/She") to vary their field and observer visual perspectives that they took to retrieve autobiographical events and examine how the shifts in narrative perspective could influence the self-rated emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Results showed that when narrative perspectives effectively shifted participants' visual perspectives from field to observer, they felt attenuated emotional intensities of positive and negative autobiographical memories. However, this did not occur when narrative perspectives effectively shifted the visual perspectives from observer to field. Multiple mediator models further showed that the changes in psychological distance and imagery vividness (a distance-related construct) of autobiographical memory mediated the relationship between the narrative perspective shift from the 1st- to 3rd-person and the reduction in the intensities of negative and positive emotion. This provides support for the role of psychological distancing in reducing the emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Positive emotions: A psychological tool for promoting resilience process in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this theoretical work is to assess the relation between the capacity to experiment positive emotions and the process of resilience throughout childhood. Our interest arises from two research works being carried out in the province of Mendoza, in Argentina (INCIHUSA-CRICYT-CONICET, directed by Dr Mirta Ison. One the so called “Assessment of resilience in childhood maltreatment”, and the other “ Positive emotions as psycological tools for fostering mental health throughout childhood within vulnerable social contexts”. Resilience is always associated to risky or vulnerable social situations. Positive emotions constitute a resource favorable to the development of resilience. This working hypothesis is based on previous studies which hold that positive emotions favor creative thinking for the solution of interpersonal problems, promote cognitive flexibility, reduce risks at decision making, promote replies to generosity and altruism, increase intelectual resources and counteract depressive tendencies among others. Other authors support the fact that the features a resilient child holds are closely connected to cognitive flexibility, to creative capacity, to the capacity for solving interpersonal problems, to self esteem and attachment links among others. Thus, positive emotions are believed to be one of the psycological resources and tools needed for the development of resilience throughout childhood. 

  9. Parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness: role of socioeconomic position, psychological well-being and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, Z; Madarasova Geckova, A; Orosova, O; van Dijk, J P; Reijneveld, S A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. We obtained data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%). Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the last 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced, their socioeconomic position (education of parents, family affluence), the composition of the household (one or two parents/step-parents), social support from the family and their own well-being. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks, as well as high socioeconomic position, low social support from the family and high depression/anxiety. The effect of divorce on drunkenness decreased only slightly after adding social support into the model. Our findings indicate that parental divorce has a persistent influence on risk behavior independent of the influence of socioeconomic position and well-being. Parental divorce may increase the likelihood of drunkenness more than other factors such as low parental support and poor socioeconomic position. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Positive correlation of employment and psychological well-being for veterans with major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, David J; Wendel, Christopher S; Skeps, Raymond; Rawl, Susan M; Grant, Marcia; Schmidt, C Max; Ko, Clifford Y; Krouse, Robert S

    2010-11-01

    Intestinal stomas (ostomies) have been associated negatively with multiple aspects of health-related quality of life. This article examines the relationship between employment status and psychological well-being (PWB) in veterans who underwent major bowel procedures with or without ostomy. Veterans from 3 Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers were surveyed using the City of Hope ostomy-specific questionnaire and the Short Form 36 item Veteran's version (SF-36V). Response rate was 48% (511 of 1,063). Employment and PWB relationship was assessed using multiple regression with age, income, SF-36V physical component summary (PCS), and employment status as independent variables. Employed veterans reported higher PWB compared with unemployed veterans (P = .003). Full-time workers also reported higher PWB than part-time or unemployed workers (P = .001). Ostomy was not an independent predictor of PWB. Employment among veterans after major abdominal surgery may have intrinsic value for PWB. Patients should be encouraged to return to work, or do volunteer work after recovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Improving job satisfaction of Chinese doctors: the positive effects of perceived organizational support and psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J; Sun, W; Wang, Y; Yang, X; Wang, L

    2013-10-01

    The huge population basic and the transformational changes to healthcare system in China have gained wide public attention in recent years. Along with these issues is a growing literature about doctor's job satisfaction; however, more is known about its negative related factors. Thus, this study was an attempt to assess the level of job satisfaction among Chinese doctors and to explore factors that enhance their job satisfaction. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of September/October 2010. A questionnaire containing job satisfaction assessed by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristics, work conditions, psychological capital (PsyCap) and perceived organizational support (POS) was distributed to 1300 registered doctors in Liaoning province. A total of 984 respondents became our subjects (effective response rate 75.7%). Hierarchical regression was performed to explore the factors associated with satisfaction. The average MSQ score was 65.86 (level ranking for MSQ, 20-100) in our study population. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that POS (β = 0.412, P work environment and developing doctors' PsyCap should be considered by health administrators in order to promote job satisfaction among Chinese doctors. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disaster Mental Health and Positive Psychology-Considering the Context of Natural and Technological Disasters: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2016-12-01

    This article serves as an introduction to the Journal of Clinical Psychology's special issue on disaster mental health and positive psychology. The special issue comprises two sections. The first section presents a series of data-driven articles and research-informed reviews examining meaning and resilience in the context of natural and technological disasters. The second section presents key topics in the area of disaster mental health, with particular relevance for positive psychology and related frameworks. The special issue is intended to bridge the gap between these two areas of applied science, with the audience being experienced clinicians or clinicians in training. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Unequally distributed psychological assets: are there social disparities in optimism, life satisfaction, and positive affect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K; Chen, Ying; Williams, David R; Ryff, Carol; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns. Participants from the Midlife in the United States study self-reported their optimism, satisfaction, positive affect, and socioeconomic status (gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupational class and prestige, income). Social disparities in optimism were evident. Optimistic individuals tended to be white and highly educated, had an educated parent, belonged to higher occupational classes with more prestige, and had higher incomes. Findings were generally similar for satisfaction, but not positive affect. Greater optimism and satisfaction were also associated with educational achievement across generations. Optimism and life satisfaction are consistently linked with socioeconomic advantage and may be one conduit by which social disparities influence health.

  14. Parental Divorce and Adolescent Drunkenness : Role of Socioeconomic Position, Psychological Well-Being and Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. Methods: We

  15. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stansfeld, J.; Stoner, C.R.; Wenborn, J.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Moniz-Cook, E.; Orrell, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and

  16. The impact of mindfulness-based interventions on symptom burden, positive psychological outcomes, and biomarkers in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouleau CR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Codie R Rouleau,1 Sheila N Garland,2 Linda E Carlson3 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Research on the use of mindfulness-based stress reduction and related mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs in cancer care has proliferated over the past decade. MBIs have aimed to facilitate physical and emotional adjustment to life with cancer through the cultivation and practice of mindfulness (ie, purposeful, nonjudgmental, moment-to-moment awareness. This descriptive review highlights three categories of outcomes that have been evaluated in MBI research with cancer patients – namely, symptom reduction, positive psychological growth, and biological outcomes. We also examine the clinical relevance of each targeted outcome, while describing recently published original studies to highlight novel applications of MBIs tailored to individuals with cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that participation in a MBI contributes to reductions in psychological distress, sleep disturbance, and fatigue, and promotes personal growth in areas such as quality of life and spirituality. MBIs may also influence markers of immune function, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation, and autonomic nervous system activity, though it remains unclear whether these biological changes translate to clinically important health benefits. We conclude by discussing methodological limitations of the extant literature, and implications of matching MBIs to the needs and preferences of cancer patients. Overall, the growing popularity of MBIs in cancer care must be balanced against scientific evidence for their impact on specific clinical outcomes. Keywords: mindfulness-based intervention

  17. Linguistic positivity in historical texts reflects dynamic environmental and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Rumen; Hoover, Joe; Dehghani, Morteza; Axelrod, Robert

    2016-12-06

    People use more positive words than negative words. Referred to as "linguistic positivity bias" (LPB), this effect has been found across cultures and languages, prompting the conclusion that it is a panhuman tendency. However, although multiple competing explanations of LPB have been proposed, there is still no consensus on what mechanism(s) generate LPB or even on whether it is driven primarily by universal cognitive features or by environmental factors. In this work we propose that LPB has remained unresolved because previous research has neglected an essential dimension of language: time. In four studies conducted with two independent, time-stamped text corpora (Google books Ngrams and the New York Times), we found that LPB in American English has decreased during the last two centuries. We also observed dynamic fluctuations in LPB that were predicted by changes in objective environment, i.e., war and economic hardships, and by changes in national subjective happiness. In addition to providing evidence that LPB is a dynamic phenomenon, these results suggest that cognitive mechanisms alone cannot account for the observed dynamic fluctuations in LPB. At the least, LPB likely arises from multiple interacting mechanisms involving subjective, objective, and societal factors. In addition to having theoretical significance, our results demonstrate the value of newly available data sources in addressing long-standing scientific questions.

  18. Television viewing, psychological positive health, health complaints and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.

  19. Scapular Resting Position and Gleno-Humeral Movement Dysfunction in Asymptomatic Racquet Players: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Apurv P; Bhakti, Shah; Roshni, Karnik; Rairikar, Savita A; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag K

    2015-12-01

    Racquet sports, especially lawn tennis and badminton have been gaining popularity in Asian countries like India. With this increase in popularity, the injury rate in the sport has also increased. The study will help detect the presence of gleno-humeral movement dysfunction and scapular resting position abnormality in asymptomatic racquet players, thus providing basis for screening the players and allow the clinician to determine if the asymmetry is a normal adaptation in the player or an abnormal change associated with injury. 46 asymptomatic professional players were divided into a study group of 23 players (16 tennis and 7 badminton) and control group of 23 football players. Assessment of passive gleno-humeral range of motion and distance of spine and inferior angle of scapula from corresponding spinous process were measured bilaterally and between groups. There was statistically significant reduction in range of internal rotation (62.17 ± 8.09), extension (39.78 ± 4.12) and an increase in the external rotation (106.95 ± 7.49) of dominant compared to non-dominant arm of racquet players and a statistically significant decrease in internal rotation (78.69 ± 10.24), extension (44.78 ± 3.19), adduction (37.39 ± 6.54) and an increase in external rotation (102.6 ± 5.19) of dominant arm of racquet players compared to football players. Study also showed statistically significant increase in the spino-scapular distance at the level of inferior angle of scapula (10.23 ± 1.43) on dominant side compared to non-dominant. The dominant side scapula of asymptomatic racquet players showed increased external rotation and elevation as compared to the non-dominant side. Also, reduced shoulder internal rotation, extension and adduction and gain in shoulder external rotation was observed on the dominant side of racquet players when compared to the control group.

  20. Human Nature, Flourishing, and Happiness: Toward a Synthesis of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Younkins

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a skeleton of a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It is an exploratory attempt to construct an understanding from various disciplines and to integrate them into a clear, consistent, coherent, and systematic whole. Holding that there are essential interconnections among objective ideas, the article specifically emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated into a paradigm of human flourishing and happiness based on the nature of man and the world. Such a paradigm will help people to understand the world and to survive and flourish in it. It is hoped that the paradigm will grow and evolve as scholars engage, question, critique, interpret, and extend its ideas. Our goal is to have a paradigm that accords with reality and there is always more to learn from reality.

  1. Educator Toolkits on Second Victim Syndrome, Mindfulness and Meditation, and Positive Psychology: The 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Smart

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus of attention for the medical education community. Methods: As part of the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit in Las Vegas, Nevada, resident participants from 31 programs collaborated in the Educator Toolkit workgroup. Over a seven-month period leading up to the summit, this workgroup convened virtually in the Wellness Think Tank, an online resident community, to perform a literature review and draft curricular plans on three core wellness topics. These topics were second victim syndrome, mindfulness and meditation, and positive psychology. At the live summit event, the workgroup expanded to include residents outside the Wellness Think Tank to obtain a broader consensus of the evidence-based toolkits for these three topics. Results: Three educator toolkits were developed. The second victim syndrome toolkit has four modules, each with a pre-reading material and a leader (educator guide. In the mindfulness and meditation toolkit, there are three modules with a leader guide in addition to a longitudinal, guided meditation plan. The positive psychology toolkit has two modules, each with a leader guide and a PowerPoint slide set. These toolkits provide educators the necessary resources, reading materials, and lesson plans to implement didactic sessions in their residency curriculum. Conclusion: Residents from across the world collaborated and convened to reach a consensus on high-yield—and potentially high-impact—lesson plans that programs can use to promote and improve resident wellness. These lesson plans may stand alone or be incorporated into a larger wellness curriculum.

  2. Educator Toolkits on Second Victim Syndrome, Mindfulness and Meditation, and Positive Psychology: The 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Arlene S; Smart, Jon; Zdradzinski, Michael; Roth, Sarah; Gende, Alecia; Conroy, Kylie; Battaglioli, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus of attention for the medical education community. As part of the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit in Las Vegas, Nevada, resident participants from 31 programs collaborated in the Educator Toolkit workgroup. Over a seven-month period leading up to the summit, this workgroup convened virtually in the Wellness Think Tank, an online resident community, to perform a literature review and draft curricular plans on three core wellness topics. These topics were second victim syndrome, mindfulness and meditation, and positive psychology. At the live summit event, the workgroup expanded to include residents outside the Wellness Think Tank to obtain a broader consensus of the evidence-based toolkits for these three topics. Three educator toolkits were developed. The second victim syndrome toolkit has four modules, each with a pre-reading material and a leader (educator) guide. In the mindfulness and meditation toolkit, there are three modules with a leader guide in addition to a longitudinal, guided meditation plan. The positive psychology toolkit has two modules, each with a leader guide and a PowerPoint slide set. These toolkits provide educators the necessary resources, reading materials, and lesson plans to implement didactic sessions in their residency curriculum. Residents from across the world collaborated and convened to reach a consensus on high-yield-and potentially high-impact-lesson plans that programs can use to promote and improve resident wellness. These lesson plans may stand alone or be incorporated into a larger wellness curriculum.

  3. Positive results of clinical educational support in situations of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Education is a complex process that involves the individual in the course of his entire life and leads to the maturation and the overall development of his personality. The educational process involves the complete growth of each and completes the infinite possibilities that every child has potential since birth. Education also is a necessity for the human being, as only adequate environmental stimulation causes the mental processes to begin. In fact, the higher intellectual functions, such as language, thought, memory, emerge only from social and educational experiences of the child. The educational surgery creates experiences and learning that allow the person to change by improving the efficiency of synaptic connections. Clinical pedagogy has developed in Italy in the last decades of the twentieth century with the aim of research and experimenting educational purposes suitable for different situations in order to provide each subject with appropriate development opportunities. Clinical pedagogical support is offered in the form of artistic or bodily activities and represents for the individual a positive environment that allows the development of different brain areas and the potential inherent in them. The various methods are suitable for any situation of existential discomfort, which are understood as moments of personal growth.

  4. Possible mechanisms in a multicomponent email guided positive psychology intervention to improve mental well-being, anxiety and depression : A multiple mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Walburg, Jan A.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of several multicomponent positive psychology interventions (PPIs) have been demonstrated, but little is known about its possible mechanisms of change. We examined (1) the efficacy of an email guided self-help PPI on six core well-being processes (positive emotion, use of strengths,

  5. Global Positioning System Technology (GPS for Psychological Research: A Test of Convergent and Nomological Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eWolf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the convergent and nomological validity of a GPS-based measure of daily activity, operationalized as Number of Places Visited (NPV. Relations among the GPS-based measure and two self-report measures of NPV, as well as relations among NPV and two factors made up of self-reported individual differences were examined. The first factor was composed of variables related to an Active Lifestyle (AL (e.g. positive affect, extraversion… and the second factor was composed of variables related to a Sedentary Lifestyle (SL (e.g. depression, neuroticism…. NPV was measured over a four-day period. This timeframe was made up of two week and two weekend days. A bi-variate analysis established one level of convergent validity and a Split-Plot GLM examined convergent validity, nomological validity, and alternative hypotheses related to constraints on activity throughout the week simultaneously. The first analysis revealed significant correlations among NPV measures- weekday, weekend, and the entire four day blocks, supporting the convergent validity of the Diary-, Google Maps-, and GPS-NPV measures. Results from the second analysis, indicating non-significant mean differences in NPV regardless of method, also support this conclusion. We also found that AL is a statistically significant predictor of NPV no matter how NPV was measured. We did not find a statically significant relation among NPV and SL. These results permit us to infer that the GPS-based NPV measure has convergent and nomological validity.

  6. Unusual postero-inferior condylar movements that depend on the position of occlusal contact during fictive mastication in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takumi; Hiraba, Katsunari; Matsunaga, Tomoko; Ito, Yu; Maruo, Hisanobu; Kurita, Kenichi

    2015-03-01

    The mandible can be modelled as a triangular plate supported at two joints and the point of occlusion. The mandible is stable if the vector of the jaw-closing muscle forces lies within the triangle of support. If this vector lies outside of the triangle of support, one of the three contact points will tend to separate as the mandible rotates around a line connecting the other two points. Here, we examined whether postero-inferior condylar movements (Pi-Cm) due to mandibular rotation may occur during fictive mastication in anaesthetized rabbits. EMG activities of the masseter (MS) and lateral pterygoid (LP) muscles and movements of the condyle and incisal points were recorded. Condylar movements in the sagittal plane were recorded using a high speed CCD camera. Pi-Cm were observed on the working side during occlusal phase in half of the rabbits (altered-movement group), if the biting point was restricted at the posterior most tooth (M3) on the working side using a metal biting plate. Pi-Cm appeared in the period between the estimated maximum force of the MS and the LP during late occlusal phase. The MS EMG ratio between the working and balancing sides in the altered-movement group was significantly less than that in the unaltered-movement group. Since the space lying between the condyle and the articular eminence expanded during the Pi-Cm, it is likely that the posterior band of the articular disc tended to slip anteriorly. The clinical significance of the Pi-Cm is discussed concerning the anterior dislocation of the disc in patients with TMJ disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A positive psychology to cope with radicalisation and terrorism? A case study of the speech by Barack Obama at Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Moyano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the September 11 terrorist attacks, coping with radicalisation and jihadist terrorism has been at the forefront of the domestic and foreign policy agendas in Western societies. During this time, the influence that political leaders can exert in their interaction with institutions, citizens, and terrorist organizations has been demonstrated. We present a case study of the speech by Barak Obama on June 4, 2009 at the University of Cairo (“A New Beginning”. Its content and internal structure is analysed using the classification of virtues and strengths defined by Peterson and Seligman (2004 as a theoretical and conceptual reference within the framework of positive psychology. This speech marked a turning point in the relationship between the USA and the Arab-Muslim world and could be considered to be a genuine exercise in positive communication. Its implications are yet to be determined, because it continues to exert an influence on the Obama administration’s domestic and foreign policy. In a globalized and networking world in which risks and adversities require innovative responses, more than ever we suggest that social communication capable of promoting virtues and strengths associated with optimism, hope, confidence, strength, or vitality is needed more than ever.

  8. Domestic work and psychological distress--what is the importance of relative socioeconomic position and gender inequality in the couple relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Harryson

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position.In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men. The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis.Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position ('having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position' and 'having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position' were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having 'less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship' and 'more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship'. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men.This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings.

  9. Smiling Instead of Smoking: Development of a Positive Psychology Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for Non-daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, Lourah; Schick, Melissa; Kelly, John F

    2017-10-01

    The usefulness of mobile technology in supporting smoking cessation has been demonstrated, but little is known about how smartphone apps could best be leveraged. The purpose of this paper is to describe the program of research that led to the creation of a smoking cessation app for non-daily smokers, so as to stimulate further ideas to create "smart" smartphone apps to support health behavior change. Literature reviews to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed app, content analyses of existing apps, and smoking cessation sessions with non-daily smokers (n = 38) to inform the design of the app. The literature reviews showed that (1) smoking cessation apps are sought after by smokers, (2) positive affect plays an important role in smoking cessation, (3) short, self-administered exercises consistently bring about enduring positive affect enhancements, and (4) low treatment-seeking rates of non-daily smokers despite high motivation to quit indicate a need for novel smoking cessation support. Directed content analyses of existing apps indicated that tailoring, two-way interactions, and proactive features are under-utilized in existing apps, despite the popularity of such features. Conventional content analyses of audio-recorded session tapes suggested that difficulty in quitting was generally linked to specific, readily identifiable occasions, and that social support was considered important but not consistently sought out. The "Smiling Instead of Smoking" (SIS) app is an Android app that is designed to act as a behavioral, in-the-pocket coach to enhance quitting success in non-daily smokers. It provides proactive, tailored behavioral coaching, interactive tools (e.g., enlisting social support), daily positive psychology exercises, and smoking self-monitoring.

  10. Which way the natural gas price. An attempt to predict the direction of natural gas spot price movements using trader positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, W.K.; Hodges, P.; Theis, J.

    2001-01-01

    This research provides a method of predicting direction of spot price movements in the natural gas market for the month succeeding from market participants positions in the futures market. Cumby and Modest (Cumby, R.E., Modest, D.M., 1987. Testing for market timing ability: a framework for forecast evaluation. Journal of Financial Economics 19, 169-189) provide the backdrop for analyzing the futures market positions of large hedgers and speculators to arrive at conclusions of market price movements in the spot market. This methodology is suggested as a means for municipalities entering the natural gas market to improve upon their ordering of quantities of gas for the ensuing months in order to take advantage of possibly foreseeable price trends

  11. Training in positivity for stroke? A qualitative study of acceptability of use of Positive Mental Training (PosMT) as a tool to assist stroke survivors with post-stroke psychological problems and in coping with rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavaddat, Nahal; Ross, Sheila; Dobbin, Alastair; Williams, Kate; Graffy, Jonathan; Mant, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Post-stroke psychological problems predict poor recovery, while positive affect enables patients to focus on rehabilitation and may improve functional outcomes. Positive Mental Training (PosMT), a guided self-help audio shows promise as a tool in promoting positivity, optimism and resilience. To assess acceptability of training in positivity with PosMT for prevention and management of post-stroke psychological problems and to help with coping with rehabilitation. A modified PosMT tool consisted of 12 audio tracks each lasting 18 minutes, one listened to every day for a week. Survivors and carers were asked to listen for 4 weeks, but could volunteer to listen for more. Interviews took place about experiences of the tool after 4 and 12 weeks. 10 stroke survivors and 5 carers from Stroke Support Groups in the UK. Three stroke survivors did not engage with the tool. The remainder reported positive physical and psychological benefits including improved relaxation, better sleep and reduced anxiety after four weeks. Survivors who completed the programme gained a positive outlook on the future, increased motivation, confidence and ability to cope with rehabilitation. No adverse effects were reported. The PosMT shows potential as a tool for coping with rehabilitation and overcoming post-stroke psychological problems including anxiety and depression.

  12. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  13. The reliability and validity of subjective notational analysis in comparison to global positioning system tracking to assess athlete movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğramac, Sera N; Watsford, Mark L; Murphy, Aron J

    2011-03-01

    Subjective notational analysis can be used to track players and analyse movement patterns during match-play of team sports such as futsal. The purpose of this study was to establish the validity and reliability of the Event Recorder for subjective notational analysis. A course was designed, replicating ten minutes of futsal match-play movement patterns, where ten participants undertook the course. The course allowed a comparison of data derived from subjective notational analysis, to the known distances of the course, and to GPS data. The study analysed six locomotor activity categories, focusing on total distance covered, total duration of activities and total frequency of activities. The values between the known measurements and the Event Recorder were similar, whereas the majority of significant differences were found between the Event Recorder and GPS values. The reliability of subjective notational analysis was established with all ten participants being analysed on two occasions, as well as analysing five random futsal players twice during match-play. Subjective notational analysis is a valid and reliable method of tracking player movements, and may be a preferred and more effective method than GPS, particularly for indoor sports such as futsal, and field sports where short distances and changes in direction are observed.

  14. Teaching Independent Learning Skills in the First Year: A Positive Psychology Strategy for Promoting Law Student Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Rachael; Duffy, James; Huggins, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence in Australia and overseas has established that in many university disciplines, students begin to experience elevated levels of psychological distress in their first year of study. There is now a considerable body of empirical data that establishes that this is a significant problem for law students. Psychological distress may…

  15. Positive Psychological Wellbeing Is Required for Online Self-Help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain to be Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Lamers, Sanne M A; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2016-01-01

    The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (in)effective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was (in)effective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n = 82), or one of two control conditions [web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n = 79) and Waiting List (WL; n = 77)] were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to 12 weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at 3-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments) and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment) variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life 6 months later. These results suggest that web

  16. Positive psychological wellbeing is required for online self-help Acceptance & Commitment Therapy for chronic pain to be effective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester R. Trompetter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (ineffective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT was (ineffective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n=82, or one of two control conditions (web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n=79 and waiting list (WL; n=77 were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to twelve weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at three-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life six months later. These results

  17. Effects of a Tailored Positive Psychology Intervention on Well-Being and Pain in Individuals With Chronic Pain and a Physical Disability: A Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Gertz, Kevin J; Molton, Ivan R; Terrill, Alexandra L; Bombardier, Charles H; Ehde, Dawn M; Jensen, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a computer-based positive psychology intervention in individuals with a physical disability and chronic pain. Individuals with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disease, or postpolio syndrome and chronic pain were randomly assigned to a positive psychology or a control condition. Participants in the intervention group were instructed to practice 4 personalized positive psychology exercises. Participants in the control group were instructed to write about life details for 8 weeks. Participants completed online well-being and pain-related questionnaires at baseline, posttreatment, and at the 2.5-month follow-up, and rated treatment satisfaction at posttreatment. Ninety-six participants were randomized and 68 (70%) completed follow-up assessments. Participants in the positive psychology intervention group reported significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in pain intensity, pain control, pain catastrophizing, pain interference, life satisfaction, positive affect, and depression. Improvements in life satisfaction, depression, pain intensity, pain interference, and pain control were maintained to the 2.5-month follow-up. Participants in the control group reported significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in life satisfaction, and pretreatment to follow-up improvements in pain intensity and pain control. Significant between-group differences, favoring the treatment group, emerged for pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in pain intensity and pain control. Participants were similarly satisfied with both treatments. The results support the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a computer-based positive psychology intervention for improving well-being and pain-related outcomes in individuals with physical disabilities and chronic pain, and indicate that a full trial of the intervention is warranted.

  18. Effect of Positive Psychology Elements on Job Pride and Honor with an Emphasis on Mediating Role of Communication among Faculty Members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein Kamani, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Job pride and honor is affected by various causes. Elements of positive psychology can be pointed out as one of them that in recent years has played an important role in organizational development. Hence, this study is to provide a prediction model about the impact of hope and resilience on job pride and honor with an emphasis on mediator role of…

  19. Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarab, Ghizlane; Nikolopoulou, Maria; Ahlberg, Jari; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hamburger, Hans L.; de Lange, Jan; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this randomized placebo-controlled trail was to compare the effects of an objectively titrated mandibular advancement device (MAD) with those of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and an intraoral placebo device on symptoms of psychological distress in OSA patients. In a

  20. In Search for H.E.R.O among Filipino Teachers: The Relationship of Positive Psychological Capital and Work-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganotice, Fraide A., Jr.; Yeung, Susanna S.; Beguina, Leonora A.; Villarosa, Jonalyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent positive psychology literature has consistently demonstrated the link between PsyCap (composite score of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism--HERO) and employee productivity. However, most of these studies were conducted in industrial or organizational settings and have mostly examined the independent effect of hope, efficacy,…

  1. Establishment of a mathematical model for the influence of respiratory movement upon the position of an intrahepatic space-occupying lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yonghua; Luo Limin; Li Baosheng; Yu Jinming; Liang Chaoqian; Zhao Yuehuan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent of liver lesion shifting with respiration in an attempt to establish a relevant mathematical model. Methods: We measured breathing movements with B ultrasonography in 84 primary or metastatic liver tumors and defined the relation between the lesion shifting extent with age, sex, height, weight, lesion location and size analyzed with the SPSS statistic software. Results: The Z, X and Y breathing-axis motions were 1.029±0.321 cm (range: 0.6-1.9 cm), 0.301 ± 0.131 cm (range: 0.0-0.6 cm) and 0.387±0.130 cm (range: 0.2-0.7 cm), respectively. The movement-related factor analysis revealed that age, weight and (right lobe) lesion location presented a negative relationship but height, sex and lesion size presented a positive relationship for Z, Y and X breathing-axis motions. Their mathematical regression models were established as Z = -2.660 + 2.952 H-1.539 x 10 -2 W-3.928 x 10 -3 A; Y = -0. 926 + 0. 987 H-4.992 x 10 -3 W, and X = 0.507 + 7.629 x 10 -2 S-3.686 x 10 -3 W [H : height (m), W : weight (kg) A : age (year), S : sex(M:1, F: 0)]. The liver breathing movement was verified with the model in another 11 patients and the conformation rate was up to 91%. Conclusions: The impact of breathing movement on the location of intrahepatic lesion is mainly focused on the Z-axis motion. The practical accuracy in anticipating breathing movement with the mathematical model is so justified that the use of this model be recommended in stereotactic radiotherapy

  2. Start Position Strongly Influences Fixation Patterns during Face Processing: Difficulties with Eye Movements as a Measure of Information Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizpe, Joseph; Kravitz, Dwight J.; Yovel, Galit; Baker, Chris I.

    2012-01-01

    Fixation patterns are thought to reflect cognitive processing and, thus, index the most informative stimulus features for task performance. During face recognition, initial fixations to the center of the nose have been taken to indicate this location is optimal for information extraction. However, the use of fixations as a marker for information use rests on the assumption that fixation patterns are predominantly determined by stimulus and task, despite the fact that fixations are also influenced by visuo-motor factors. Here, we tested the effect of starting position on fixation patterns during a face recognition task with upright and inverted faces. While we observed differences in fixations between upright and inverted faces, likely reflecting differences in cognitive processing, there was also a strong effect of start position. Over the first five saccades, fixation patterns across start positions were only coarsely similar, with most fixations around the eyes. Importantly, however, the precise fixation pattern was highly dependent on start position with a strong tendency toward facial features furthest from the start position. For example, the often-reported tendency toward the left over right eye was reversed for the left starting position. Further, delayed initial saccades for central versus peripheral start positions suggest greater information processing prior to the initial saccade, highlighting the experimental bias introduced by the commonly used center start position. Finally, the precise effect of face inversion on fixation patterns was also dependent on start position. These results demonstrate the importance of a non-stimulus, non-task factor in determining fixation patterns. The patterns observed likely reflect a complex combination of visuo-motor effects and simple sampling strategies as well as cognitive factors. These different factors are very difficult to tease apart and therefore great caution must be applied when interpreting absolute

  3. Alterations in the Rate of Limb Movement Using a Lower Body Positive Pressure Treadmill Do Not Influence Respiratory Rate or Phase III Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Buono; Marissa Burnsed-Torres; Bethany Hess; Kristine Lopez; Catherine Ortiz; Ariel Girodo; Karen Lolli; Brett Bloom; David Bailey; Fred W. Kolkhorst

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alterations in rate of limb movement on Phase III ventilation during exercise, independent of metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline. Subjects completed five submaximal exercise bouts on a lower body positive pressure treadmill (AlterG P 200). The percent body weight for the five exercise bouts was 100, 87, 75, 63, and 50% and each was matched for carbon dioxide production (V CO2 ). Naturally, to match the V CO2 while reducin...

  4. Who Benefits From Humor-Based Positive Psychology Interventions? The Moderating Effects of Personality Traits and Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenzohn, Sara; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2018-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of humor-based positive psychology interventions (PPIs; i.e., interventions aimed at enhancing happiness and lowering depressive symptoms) is steadily increasing. However, little is known about who benefits most from them. We aim at narrowing this gap by examining whether personality traits and sense of humor moderate the long-term effects of humor-based interventions on happiness and depressive symptoms. We conducted two placebo-controlled online-intervention studies testing for moderation effects. In Study 1 ( N = 104) we tested for moderation effects of basic personality traits (i.e., psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism) in the three funny things intervention, a humor-based PPI. In Study 2 ( N = 632) we tested for moderation effects of the sense of humor in five different humor-based interventions. Happiness and depressive symptoms were assessed before and after the intervention, as well as after 1, 3, and 6 months. In Study 2, we assessed sense of humor before and 1 month after the intervention to investigate if changes in sense of humor go along with changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. We found moderating effects only for extraversion. Extraverts benefitted more from the three funny things intervention than introverts. For neuroticism and psychoticism no moderation effects were found. For sense of humor, no moderating effects were found for the effectiveness of the five humor-based interventions tested in Study 2. However, changes in sense of humor from pretest to the 1-month follow-up predicted changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. Taking a closer look, the playful attitude- and sense of humor-subscales predicted changes in happiness and depression for up to 6 months. Overall, moderating effects for personality (i.e., extraversion) were found, but none for sense of humor at baseline. However, increases in sense of humor during and after the intervention were associated with the interventions

  5. Development experience and development prospect оf electromechanical technological complexes of movement and positioning of technic shelf development equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Е. Козярук

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From the example of active semisubmersible drilling rigs it is shown characteristics of electromechanical complexes of drill rigs and anchor position control systems on the base of controlled electric drive with directcurrent motors. It is presented suggestions which allow increasing electric power and service reliability criteria through the use of semiconductor converters supplied from power semiconductor converter with active front end in technological drilling systems, propulsion and position control systems of electromechanical systems on the base of noncontact asynchronous motors. It is outlined information about experience of using such kind of electromechanical complexes at the objects of mining industry working in difficult operating conditions. It is presented information about developing of electromechanical complexes of displacement systems, position control systems, technological and technical shelf development equipment and their characteristics. Also it is outlined structures and examples of designing modern high efficiency systems with contactless actuating motors.

  6. Retrospective evaluation of positional movements of patients with prostate cancer submitted to IGRT (radiotherapy guided by image)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, N.K.S.; Filipov, D.; Soboll, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    It is a retrospective study that analyzed positional fluctuations of 29 patients submitted to prostate radiotherapy, using IGRT. The minimum and maximum averages of the lateral, longitudinal and vertical displacements were calculated, obtaining a general average of the displacements that remained close to zero and one the most evident variation between the lateral and vertical axes

  7. Hold on, for each other: supporting partners of cancer patients via eHealth and positive psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhle, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Partners of cancer patients are an essential pillar in the cancer trajectory. The patient’s cancer can have an enormous impact on the partner’s life and (mental) health. To support them, psychological interventions are needed. However, partners of cancer patients are often extremely busy and

  8. Hold on, for each other : supporting partners of cancer patients via eHealth and positive psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhle, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Partners of cancer patients are an essential pillar in the cancer trajectory. The patient’s cancer can have an enormous impact on the partner’s life and (mental) health. To support them, psychological interventions are needed. However, partners of cancer patients are often extremely busy and

  9. Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50-79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Various positive psychology interventions have been experimentally tested, but only few studies addressed the effects of such activities in participants aged 50 and above. We tested the impact of four self-administered positive psychology interventions in an online setting (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, three funny things, and using signature strengths in a new way) on happiness and depressive symptoms in comparison with a placebo control exercise (i.e., early memories). A total of 163 females aged 50-79 tried the assigned interventions or the placebo control exercise for one week and completed measures on happiness and depressive symptoms at five times (pre- and post-test, 1, 3, and 6 months). Three out of the four interventions (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, and using signature strengths in a new way) increased happiness, whereas two interventions (three funny things and using signature strengths in a new way) led to a reduction of depressive symptoms on at one post-measure. Positive psychology interventions yield similar results for people aged 50 and above as for younger people. The dissemination of such interventions via the Internet offers a valuable opportunity for older age groups as well.

  10. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  11. Validity and Reliability of 10-Hz Global Positioning System to Assess In-line Movement and Change of Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Clemente, Filipe M; van der Linden, Cornelis M I; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the validity and reliability of the 10 Hz Johan GPS unit in assessing in-line movement and change of direction. The validity was tested against the criterion measure of 200 m track-and-field (track-and-field athletes, n = 8) and 20 m shuttle run endurance test (female soccer players, n = 20). Intra-unit and inter-unit reliability was tested by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV), respectively. An analysis of variance examined differences between the GPS measurement and five laps of 200 m at 15 km/h, and t -test examined differences between the GPS measurement and 20 m shuttle run endurance test. The difference between the GPS measurement and 200 m distance ranged from -0.13 ± 3.94 m (95% CI -3.42; 3.17) in the first lap to 2.13 ± 2.64 m (95% CI -0.08; 4.33) in the fifth lap. A good intra-unit reliability was observed in 200 m (ICC = 0.833, 95% CI 0.535; 0.962). Inter-unit CV ranged from 1.31% (fifth lap) to 2.20% (third lap). The difference between the GPS measurement and 20 m shuttle run endurance test ranged from 0.33 ± 4.16 m (95% CI -10.01; 10.68) in 11.5 km/h to 9.00 ± 5.30 m (95% CI 6.44; 11.56) in 8.0 km/h. A moderate intra-unit reliability was shown in the second and third stage of the 20 m shuttle run endurance test (ICC = 0.718, 95% CI 0.222;0.898) and good reliability in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth (ICC = 0.831, 95% CI -0.229;0.996). Inter-unit CV ranged from 2.08% (11.5 km/h) to 3.92% (8.5 km/h). Based on these findings, it was concluded that the 10 Hz Johan system offers an affordable valid and reliable tool for coaches and fitness trainers to monitor training and performance.

  12. Validity and Reliability of 10-Hz Global Positioning System to Assess In-line Movement and Change of Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis T. Nikolaidis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to examine the validity and reliability of the 10 Hz Johan GPS unit in assessing in-line movement and change of direction. The validity was tested against the criterion measure of 200 m track-and-field (track-and-field athletes, n = 8 and 20 m shuttle run endurance test (female soccer players, n = 20. Intra-unit and inter-unit reliability was tested by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and coefficient of variation (CV, respectively. An analysis of variance examined differences between the GPS measurement and five laps of 200 m at 15 km/h, and t-test examined differences between the GPS measurement and 20 m shuttle run endurance test. The difference between the GPS measurement and 200 m distance ranged from −0.13 ± 3.94 m (95% CI −3.42; 3.17 in the first lap to 2.13 ± 2.64 m (95% CI −0.08; 4.33 in the fifth lap. A good intra-unit reliability was observed in 200 m (ICC = 0.833, 95% CI 0.535; 0.962. Inter-unit CV ranged from 1.31% (fifth lap to 2.20% (third lap. The difference between the GPS measurement and 20 m shuttle run endurance test ranged from 0.33 ± 4.16 m (95% CI −10.01; 10.68 in 11.5 km/h to 9.00 ± 5.30 m (95% CI 6.44; 11.56 in 8.0 km/h. A moderate intra-unit reliability was shown in the second and third stage of the 20 m shuttle run endurance test (ICC = 0.718, 95% CI 0.222;0.898 and good reliability in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth (ICC = 0.831, 95% CI −0.229;0.996. Inter-unit CV ranged from 2.08% (11.5 km/h to 3.92% (8.5 km/h. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the 10 Hz Johan system offers an affordable valid and reliable tool for coaches and fitness trainers to monitor training and performance.

  13. The influence of body position on cerebrospinal fluid pressure gradient and movement in cats with normal and impaired craniospinal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarica, Marijan; Radoš, Milan; Erceg, Gorislav; Petošić, Antonio; Jurjević, Ivana; Orešković, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension.

  14. The influence of body position on cerebrospinal fluid pressure gradient and movement in cats with normal and impaired craniospinal communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Klarica

    Full Text Available Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension.

  15. Reasons for living, meaning in life, and suicide ideation: investigating the roles of key positive psychological factors in reducing suicide risk in community-residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J; Neufeld, Eva; Flett, Gordon L

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the roles of reasons for living (RFL) and meaning in life (MIL) in potentially promoting mental health and well-being and protecting against suicide ideation among community-residing older adults and to investigate the psychometric properties of the Reasons for Living Scale-Older Adult version (RFL-OA). Of 173 older adults initially recruited into a longitudinal study on late-life suicide ideation, 109 completed the RFL-OA and measures of cognitive and physical functioning and positive and negative psychological factors at a two-year follow-up assessment. We tested a model in which RFL and MIL protect against suicide ideation, controlling for demographic and clinical factors. We also assessed the psychometric properties of the RFL-OA in community-residing older adults, investigating its internal consistency and its convergent (MIL, perceived social support, and life satisfaction), divergent (loneliness, depressive symptom severity, and suicide ideation), and discriminant validity (cognitive and physical functioning). RFL-OA scores explained significant variance in suicide ideation, controlling for age, sex, depressive symptom severity, and loneliness. MIL explained significant unique variance in suicide ideation, controlling for these factors and RFL, and MIL significantly mediated the association between RFL and suicide ideation. Psychometric analyses indicated strong internal consistency (α = .94), convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity for the RFL-OA relative to positive and negative psychological factors and cognitive and physical functioning. These findings add to a growing body of literature suggesting merit in investigating positive psychological factors together with negative factors when assessing suicide risk and planning psychological services for older adults.

  16. Predictors of psychological well-being in a diverse sample of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A; Radomsky, Adam S; Otto, Michael W; Salomon, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify variables relevant to psychological well-being in HIV patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Multiple stressors accompany living with HIV while managing a HAART regimen. However, a variety of cognitive and behavioral variables can protect against or augment the deleterious effects of stress in this population. The authors hypothesized that satisfaction with social support, coping styles, and maladaptive attributions about HIV would explain more variance in psychological well-being than stressful life events per se. Participants were individuals with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy-either starting a new HAART regimen or having difficulties adhering to their current regimen. Satisfaction with social support, coping styles, and punishment beliefs about HIV were uniquely associated with depression, quality of life, and self-esteem over and above the effects of stressful life events. These results provide support for continued psychosocial interventions that target these variables among patients with HIV.

  17. Positive and negative psychological correlates, gender specific and traditional factors for first onset angina in a sample of pakistani women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, R.; Anjum, A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Methods: Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85 % of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49 % of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional

  18. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES, GENDER SPECIFIC AND TRADITIONAL FACTORS FOR FIRST ONSET ANGINA IN A SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Rafia; Anjum, Afifa

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85% of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49% of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional studies, to be tailored

  19. Alterations in the rate of limb movement using a lower body positive pressure treadmill do not influence respiratory rate or phase III ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J; Burnsed-Torres, Marissa; Hess, Bethany; Lopez, Kristine; Ortiz, Catherine; Girodo, Ariel; Lolli, Karen; Bloom, Brett; Bailey, David; Kolkhorst, Fred W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alterations in rate of limb movement on Phase III ventilation during exercise, independent of metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline. Subjects completed five submaximal exercise bouts on a lower body positive pressure treadmill (AlterG P 200). The percent body weight for the five exercise bouts was 100, 87, 75, 63, and 50% and each was matched for carbon dioxide production (V CO2 ). Naturally, to match the V CO2 while reducing the body weight up to 50% of normal required a significant increase in the treadmill speed from 3.0 ± 0.1 to 4.1 ± 0.2 mph, which resulted in a significant (P body weight) to 133 ± 6 at 4.1 mph (i.e., 50% of body weight). The most important finding was that significant increases in step frequency did not significantly alter minute ventilation or respiratory rate. Such results do not support an important role for the rate of limb movement in Phase III ventilation during submaximal exercise, when metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline are controlled.

  20. Alterations in the Rate of Limb Movement Using a Lower Body Positive Pressure Treadmill Do Not Influence Respiratory Rate or Phase III Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Buono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alterations in rate of limb movement on Phase III ventilation during exercise, independent of metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline. Subjects completed five submaximal exercise bouts on a lower body positive pressure treadmill (AlterG P 200. The percent body weight for the five exercise bouts was 100, 87, 75, 63, and 50% and each was matched for carbon dioxide production (VCO2. Naturally, to match the VCO2 while reducing the body weight up to 50% of normal required a significant increase in the treadmill speed from 3.0±0.1 to 4.1±0.2 mph, which resulted in a significant (P<0.05 increase in the mean step frequency (steps per minute from 118±10 at 3 mph (i.e., 100% of body weight to 133±6 at 4.1 mph (i.e., 50% of body weight. The most important finding was that significant increases in step frequency did not significantly alter minute ventilation or respiratory rate. Such results do not support an important role for the rate of limb movement in Phase III ventilation during submaximal exercise, when metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline are controlled.

  1. [Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in couple visiting a clinic. Couples (n=62) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data were collected from March to June 2009 using the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Marital Status Inventory, Positive Affect Inventory, and Conflict Regulation Inventory. The couples showed no significant differences in marital satisfaction, positive affect, and conflict regulation according to similarities between spouses in MBTI types. However, they showed significant differences in divorce proneness of husband according to a similarity in the Sensing/Intuition indicator. They also showed significant differences in divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation between the couples for ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) or ESTJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) types compared to other couples. When nurses counsel couples, they should understand that differences in psychological type between spouses affects their marital relationship. In addition, nurses should educate couples on the characteristics of each type according to the couple's types and help them to understand each other, especially for couples where one spouse is the ISTJ/ESTJ type. These interventions will improve marital satisfaction and prevent the divorce in these couples.

  2. The Concept of Employee Engagement: A Comprehensive Review from a Positive Organizational Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Chang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Employee engagement has been understood from various academic and practical perspectives, mainly due to its recent popularity. This study explores not only positive movements--positive psychology, positive organizational scholarship (POS), and positive organizational behavior (POB)--as a background of engagement but also the conceptualization,…

  3. Assessing worst case scenarios in movement demands derived from global positioning systems during international rugby union matches: Rolling averages versus fixed length epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel J.; Shearer, David A.; Carter, Neil; Drawer, Scott; Pollard, Ben; Bennett, Mark; Eager, Robin; Cook, Christian J.; Farrell, John; Russell, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of competitive movement demands in team sports has traditionally relied upon global positioning system (GPS) analyses presented as fixed-time epochs (e.g., 5–40 min). More recently, presenting game data as a rolling average has become prevalent due to concerns over a loss of sampling resolution associated with the windowing of data over fixed periods. Accordingly, this study compared rolling average (ROLL) and fixed-time (FIXED) epochs for quantifying the peak movement demands of international rugby union match-play as a function of playing position. Elite players from three different squads (n = 119) were monitored using 10 Hz GPS during 36 matches played in the 2014–2017 seasons. Players categorised broadly as forwards and backs, and then by positional sub-group (FR: front row, SR: second row, BR: back row, HB: half back, MF: midfield, B3: back three) were monitored during match-play for peak values of high-speed running (>5 m·s-1; HSR) and relative distance covered (m·min-1) over 60–300 s using two types of sample-epoch (ROLL, FIXED). Irrespective of the method used, as the epoch length increased, values for the intensity of running actions decreased (e.g., For the backs using the ROLL method, distance covered decreased from 177.4 ± 20.6 m·min-1 in the 60 s epoch to 107.5 ± 13.3 m·min-1 for the 300 s epoch). For the team as a whole, and irrespective of position, estimates of fixed effects indicated significant between-method differences across all time-points for both relative distance covered and HSR. Movement demands were underestimated consistently by FIXED versus ROLL with differences being most pronounced using 60 s epochs (95% CI HSR: -6.05 to -4.70 m·min-1, 95% CI distance: -18.45 to -16.43 m·min-1). For all HSR time epochs except one, all backs groups increased more (p < 0.01) from FIXED to ROLL than the forward groups. Linear mixed modelling of ROLL data highlighted that for HSR (except 60 s epoch), SR was the only group not

  4. Transitory Connections: The Reception and Rejection of Jean Piaget's Psychology in the Nursery School Movement in the 1920s and 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In 1927, nursery school educator Lucy Sprague Mitchell heralded Jean Piaget's psychology as of "outstanding interest" and wrote in "Progressive Education" that it should be of "immense service" to psychologists, teachers, and parents. In 1929, psychologist Lois Meek praised Piaget's research in the National Society for the Study of Education's…

  5. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  6. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9-12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades

  7. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9–12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aart, Ingrid; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Mombarg, Remo; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    : Many children aged 9–12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of

  8. Relations among Basic Psychological Needs, PE-Motivation and Fundamental Movement Skills in 9-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of elementary school. Therefore, more insight in…

  9. Psychology and the issues related to violence and human rights: the role and positioning of the psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mérly Luane Vargas Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of violence and human rights, although not recent, have complex determinations and conditions, so that evoke iterant discussions in the field of human sciences, as well as challenge the professionals from different areas of knowledge whose search tools and strategies to deal with the different social demands outlined from them. The objective of this paper is to discuss some concepts and issues that unfold from that, specifically with regard to the provision of scientific and professional field of psychology. Thus, some considerations about the social and conceptual definitions given to violence and human rights are made, for, from that, better situate the demand addressed to psychologist as well as to enable critical reflection on this demand and make a few observations about its answering.

  10. What leads some people to think they are HIV-positive before knowing their diagnosis? A systematic review of psychological and behavioural correlates of HIV-risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael; Baker, Laura L E; Pady, Kirsten; Jones, Bethanie; Wroe, Abigail L

    2016-08-01

    Current HIV-risk perception refers to the extent to which individuals think they might be HIV-positive. This belief, distinct from the perceived risk about being infected with HIV in the future, is likely to have a range of important consequences. These consequences may include both psychological effects (e.g., impacts on well-being) and behavioural effects (e.g., HIV testing uptake). Given these possible outcomes, and the suggested importance of risk perception in health behaviour models, understanding the behavioural and psychological antecedents of current HIV-risk perception is crucial. This systematic review investigates the relationship between behavioural and psychological factors and current HIV-risk perception (in individuals who are unaware of their actual HIV status). Eight studies were eligible for inclusion in the review (five quantitative and three qualitative studies). Drug risk behaviour and sexual risk behaviour (both self and partner) were often associated with current HIV-risk perception, although other studies failed to show a relationship between one's own sexual risk behaviour and risk perception. Psychological factors were only rarely assessed in relation to current HIV-risk perception. Where these variables were included, there was evidence that experiencing symptoms perceived to be consistent with HIV and prompts to test were associated with increased current HIV-risk perception. These findings are consistent with the Common-Sense Model (CSM) of illness representation and self-regulation. Methodological quality criteria were rarely met for the included studies. In addition, it was often difficult to ascertain whether potentially includable studies were eligible due to imprecise definitions of HIV-risk perception. Research and practice implications are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of risk appraisals as a potential mediator of the relationship between HIV-risk behaviour, symptoms and current HIV-risk perception.

  11. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  12. Can Fundamental Movement Skill Mastery Be Increased via a Six Week Physical Activity Intervention to Have Positive Effects on Physical Activity and Physical Self-Perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Bryant

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research has suggested a positive relationship between fundamental movement skills (FMS mastery and physical activity (PA level. Research conducted on interventions to improve FMS mastery is equivocal and further research is needed. Methods: An intervention group of 82 children (35 boys and 47 girls and a control group of 83 children (42 boys and 41 girls were recruited from Years 4 and 5 (mean age ± SD = 8.3 ± 0.4 years of two schools in Central England. The intervention included a combination of circuits and dancing to music. Pre and post intervention tests were conducted. Tests included: subjective assessment of eight FMS; objective measurement of two FMS; four day pedometer step count recording; height and mass for Body Mass Index (BMI; and the completion of Harter et al.’s (1982 self-perception questionnaire. Results: Following a two (pre to post by two (intervention and control group mixed-model ANOVA it was highlighted that the intervention group improved mastery in all eight FMS, and increased both daily steps and physical self-perception. Conclusions: It can be concluded that focussing one Physical Education (PE lesson per week on the development of FMS has had a positive benefit on FMS, PA level and physical self-perception for the children in this study.

  13. Data from Paper “False-Positive Psychology: Undisclosed Flexibility in Data Collection and Analysis Allows Presenting Anything as Significant”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Simmons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The data includes measures collected for the two experiments reported in “False-Positive Psychology” [1] where listening to a randomly assigned song made people feel younger (Study 1 or actually be younger (Study 2. These data are useful because they illustrate inflations of false positive rates due to flexibility in data collection, analysis, and reporting of results. Data are useful for educational purposes.

  14. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  15. Hearing Parents' Appraisals of Parenting a Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Child: Application of a Positive Psychology Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarkowski, Amy; Brice, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children face unique challenges and stressors, the understanding of which has been the focus of numerous studies; yet, relatively little is known about their positive experiences. Using a qualitative purposive sampling design, interviews were conducted with 11 hearing parents (8 mothers, 3 fathers)…

  16. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  17. Birthing positions during second stage of labor and long-term psychological outcomes in low-risk women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, A. de; Rijnders, M.E.B.; Diem, M.T. van; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the long-term influence of birthing positions during the second stage of labor, as well as other factors, on birth satisfaction, self-esteem (based on the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale [RSE]) and emotional well-being (based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS]). STUDY

  18. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  19. Discursive psychology, rhetoric and the issue of agency

    OpenAIRE

    Billig, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen the growth of a movement which has aimed to re-orientate the discipline of psychology around the study of discourse. Generally known as discursive psychology, this movement has had a large effect on social psychology, particularly in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Scandinavia and South America. Its effect in the United States has been less marked. Discursive psychology is part of the general movement of critical psychology, which has been reacting against mainst...

  20. Critical psychology: A geography of intellectual engagement and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Critical psychology has become a generative and international movement in the last 5 decades, with self-identifying critical psychologists emerging from around the globe with publications and contributions, both theoretical and practical, in many areas of psychology. This article provides an overview of current trends in critical psychology and elucidates historical sources and theoretical tenets. Presented are the relationship between individual subjectivity and society, the role of power in the discipline, the problem of subjectification, the importance of reflexivity and intersubjectivity in the context of research practices, methodologies of change for different contexts, and the ethical-political positions from which critical psychologists operate. Challenges to critical psychology, which include engagements with indigenous psychologies, new forms of internationalization, and advancing transdisciplinary work, are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Reforming the minimum wage: Toward a psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The field of psychology has periodically used its professional and scholarly platform to encourage national policy reform that promotes the public interest. In this article, the movement to raise the federal minimum wage is presented as an issue meriting attention from the psychological profession. Psychological support for minimum wage reform derives from health disparities research that supports the causal linkages between poverty and diminished physical and emotional well-being. Furthermore, psychological scholarship relevant to the social exclusion of low-income people not only suggests additional benefits of financially inclusive policymaking, it also indicates some of the attitudinal barriers that could potentially hinder it. Although the national living wage debate obviously extends beyond psychological parameters, psychologists are well-positioned to evaluate and contribute to it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Development and Two-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of a Training Workshop for the Large Preventive Positive Psychology Happy Family Kitchen Project in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Y Lai

    Full Text Available Evidence-based practice and capacity-building approaches are essential for large-scale health promotion interventions. However, there are few models in the literature to guide and evaluate training of social service workers in community settings. This paper presents the development and evaluation of the "train-the-trainer" workshop (TTT for the first large scale, community-based, family intervention projects, entitled "Happy Family Kitchen Project" (HFK under the FAMILY project, a Hong Kong Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society. The workshop aimed to enhance social workers' competence and performance in applying positive psychology constructs in their family interventions under HFK to improve family well-being of the community they served. The two-day TTT was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team in partnership with community agencies to 50 social workers (64% women. It focused on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude, and practice of five specific positive psychology themes, which were the basis for the subsequent development of the 23 family interventions for 1419 participants. Acceptability and applicability were enhanced by completing a needs assessment prior to the training. The TTT was evaluated by trainees' reactions to the training content and design, changes in learners (trainees and benefits to the service organizations. Focus group interviews to evaluate the workshop at three months after the training, and questionnaire survey at pre-training, immediately after, six months, one year and two years after training were conducted. There were statistically significant increases with large to moderate effect size in perceived knowledge, self-efficacy and practice after training, which sustained to 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, there were statistically significant improvements in family communication and well-being of the participants in the HFK interventions they implemented after training. This paper offers a

  3. Development and Two-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of a Training Workshop for the Large Preventive Positive Psychology Happy Family Kitchen Project in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Agnes Y; Mui, Moses W; Wan, Alice; Stewart, Sunita M; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based practice and capacity-building approaches are essential for large-scale health promotion interventions. However, there are few models in the literature to guide and evaluate training of social service workers in community settings. This paper presents the development and evaluation of the "train-the-trainer" workshop (TTT) for the first large scale, community-based, family intervention projects, entitled "Happy Family Kitchen Project" (HFK) under the FAMILY project, a Hong Kong Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society. The workshop aimed to enhance social workers' competence and performance in applying positive psychology constructs in their family interventions under HFK to improve family well-being of the community they served. The two-day TTT was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team in partnership with community agencies to 50 social workers (64% women). It focused on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude, and practice of five specific positive psychology themes, which were the basis for the subsequent development of the 23 family interventions for 1419 participants. Acceptability and applicability were enhanced by completing a needs assessment prior to the training. The TTT was evaluated by trainees' reactions to the training content and design, changes in learners (trainees) and benefits to the service organizations. Focus group interviews to evaluate the workshop at three months after the training, and questionnaire survey at pre-training, immediately after, six months, one year and two years after training were conducted. There were statistically significant increases with large to moderate effect size in perceived knowledge, self-efficacy and practice after training, which sustained to 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, there were statistically significant improvements in family communication and well-being of the participants in the HFK interventions they implemented after training. This paper offers a practical example

  4. A positive psychological intervention using virtual reality for patients with advanced cancer in a hospital setting: a pilot study to assess feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M; Espinoza, Macarena; García-Palacios, Azucena; Cervera, José M; Esquerdo, Gaspar; Barrajón, Enrique; Botella, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This study presents data on the feasibility and possible benefits of a psychological intervention that uses virtual reality to induce positive emotions on adult hospitalized patients with metastatic cancer. The patient's satisfaction and perceived utility was also examined. The sample was composed of 19 patients (53 % men, aged from 29 to 85 years old; x = 60.9; standard deviation = 14.54). The intervention consisted of four 30-min sessions during 1 week in which patients navigated through virtual environments designed to induce joy or relaxation. Mood was assessed before and after each session using the Visual Analog Scale. Patient satisfaction was assessed after each session and at the end of the intervention. Qualitative data were also collected with open-ended questions. There were no major difficulties with the use of devices, and any difficulties that did arise were solved through practice. There were adequate levels of pleasantness and perceived utility of the proposed intervention. The main perceived benefits were distraction, entertainment, and promotion of relaxation states. Regarding mood changes, an increase in positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions were also detected. The intervention was positively assessed and rated as minimally uncomfortable. Future actions are discussed as well as the need to implement brief interventions that take into account the patients' medical state and physical discomfort level, especially with those in the advanced stages of disease.

  5. Mixed-methods quantitative-qualitative study of 29 nonagenarians and centenarians in rural Southern Italy: focus on positive psychological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scelzo, Anna; Di Somma, Salvatore; Antonini, Paola; Montross, Lori P; Schork, Nicholas; Brenner, David; Jeste, Dilip V

    2018-01-01

    This was a study of positive psychological traits in a group of rural Italians aged 90 to 101 years, and their children or other family members. Mixed-methods quantitative (standardized rating scales) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) study. Study participants' homes in nine villages in the Cilento region of southern Italy. Twenty-nine nonagenarians and centenarians and 51 family members aged 51-75 years, selected by their general practitioners as a part of a larger study called CIAO (Cilento Initiative on Aging Outcomes). We used published rating scales of mental and physical well-being, resilience, optimism, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. Qualitative interviews gathered personal narratives of the oldest-old individuals, including migrations, traumatic events, and beliefs. Family members described their impressions about the personality traits of their older relative. Participants age ≥90 years had worse physical health but better mental well-being than their younger family members. Mental well-being correlated negatively with levels of depression and anxiety in both the groups. The main themes that emerged from qualitative interviews included positivity (resilience and optimism), working hard, and bond with family and religion, as described in previously published studies of the oldest old, but also a need for control and love of the land, which appeared to be unique features of this rural population. Exceptional longevity was characterized by a balance between acceptance of and grit to overcome adversities along with a positive attitude and close ties to family, religion, and land, providing purpose in life.

  6. The French ecological movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansen, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr

  7. The influence of psychological variables on health-related quality of life among HIV-positive individuals with a history of intravenous drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaros, Christina; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bullis, Jacqueline R; Markowitz, Sarah M; Safren, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous drug use (IDU) remains a prominent pathway of HIV transmission in the United States, though little is known about modifiable factors influencing quality of life among IDUs. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of psychological variables (e.g., depression and anxiety) on health-related quality of life among HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU who were enrolled in outpatient treatment for opioid dependence. 108 HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU and participating in current outpatient treatment for opiate dependence who were screened for participation in a depression and adherence study reported sociodemographic data, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; Multidimensional Health Assessment using the ACTG-SF 21). Multiple regression models controlling for disease stage and background characteristics identified significant negative relationships between General Health Perception and Functioning without Pain for anxiety and depression, and between Role Functioning and Physical Functioning for anxiety. CD4 cell count was significantly related to Physical Functioning only. Results indicate that distress (both depression and anxiety) contribute significantly to variation in HRQoL over and above the effects of disease variables. Effective depression and anxiety treatment may result in improved overall functioning.

  8. Movement - uncoordinated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.

  9. Slope movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    2009-01-01

    On this poster some reasons of slope movements on the territory of the Slovak Republic are presented. Slope movements induced deterioration of land and forests, endangering of towns villages, and communications as well as hydro-engineering structures. Methods of preventing and stabilisation of slope movements are presented.

  10. Language Affirmation and Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Nicholas V.

    2008-01-01

    The author shares his experience as a professor teaching effective interpersonal relationships for the power of language or voice affirmation. When he was teaching a class that included students whose first language was Spanish, French, or Creole, the author requested his student to speak in native language during a presentation on the topic of…

  11. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  12. Sensor Fusion of Position- and Micro-Sensors (MEMS) integrated in a Wireless Sensor Network for movement detection in landslide areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhardt, Christian; Fernández-Steeger, Tomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring systems in landslide areas are important elements of effective Early Warning structures. Data acquisition and retrieval allows the detection of movement processes and thus is essential to generate warnings in time. Apart from the precise measurement, the reliability of data is fundamental, because outliers can trigger false alarms and leads to the loss of acceptance of such systems. For the monitoring of mass movements and their risk it is important to know, if there is movement, how fast it is and how trustworthy is the information. The joint project "Sensorbased landslide early warning system" (SLEWS) deals with these questions, and tries to improve data quality and to reduce false alarm rates, due to the combination of sensor date (sensor fusion). The project concentrates on the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides by using various low-cost sensors, integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). The network consists of numerous connection points (nodes) that transfer data directly or over other nodes (Multi-Hop) in real-time to a data collection point (gateway). From there all the data packages are transmitted to a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) for further processing, analyzing and visualizing with respect to end-user specifications. The ad-hoc characteristic of the network allows the autonomous crosslinking of the nodes according to existing connections and communication strength. Due to the independent finding of new or more stable connections (self healing) a breakdown of the whole system is avoided. The bidirectional data stream enables the receiving of data from the network but also allows the transfer of commands and pointed requests into the WSN. For the detection of surface deformations in landslide areas small low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) and positionsensors from the automobile industries, different industrial applications and from other measurement

  13. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Investigation of Positional Differences in Fitness of Male University Ice Hockey Players and the Frequency, Time Spent and Heart Rate of Movement Patterns during Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Men’s university ice hockey has received little scientific attention over the past 30 years, a time in which the traits of the players and the demands of the game have evolved.  Objectives: This study compared the physiological characteristics of university ice hockey players and examined the frequency and duration of the different movement patterns and heart rate (HR responses during competition. Methods: Twenty male ice hockey players from the same team ( age ± SD = 22±2 years underwent a fitness evaluation and were filmed and HR monitored during regular season games. Results: Forwards and defense had similar fitness and only differed on % fatigue index and peak heart during on-ice sprinting (P<0.05. Defense stood, glided and skated backwards more than forwards and forwards skated at a moderate intensity and glided forward more than defense (P<0.05. All players spent the majority of game time gliding forward (60% of the time followed by skating forward at a moderate intensity (17% and standing with little movement (9%. Average HR during the game reached 96 and 92 % and peak HR was 100 and 96 % of maximum in forwards and defense, respectively. Conclusions: Male university hockey players present with a high level of physical fitness in a variety of categories with few differences between forwards and defense. Movement patterns during games suggest that players are performing low to moderate intensity on-ice activities the majority of the time. Paradoxically, HR continues to climb to near maximum during on ice shifts.

  15. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  16. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de

  17. Analysis of movements recorded in 104 patients with prostate and estimation of the margins by positioning our patient population; Analisis de los desplazamientos registrados en 104 pacientes de prostata y estimacion de los margenes por poscionamiento para nuestra poblacion de pacientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejar Navarro, M. J.; Gomez Martin, C.; Maravilla Limorte, M.; Alonso Iracheta, L.; Rot Sanjuan, M. J.; Colmenares Fernandez, R.; Capuz Suarez, B.; Moris Pablos, R.

    2011-07-01

    Analysis of movements recorded in 104 patients with prostate and estimation of the margins by positioning our patient population The image guided (IGRT) allows to know the magnitude of uncertainty in the position for a given patient population. The objectives of this work are the statistical analysis of the movements recorded by a volumetric imaging in 104 patients with prostate and estimation of margins due to uncertainty in the positioning for this patient population.

  18. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  20. Impacto de un programa de psicología positiva en sintomatologia depresiva y satisfaccion vital en adultos mayores Effects of a positive psychology program in depressive symptoms and life satisfaction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cuadra-Peralta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación estudia la efectividad de talleres basados en Psicología Positiva en adultos mayores, mediante el análisis de las variaciones pre-post del niveles de Satisfacción Vital y Sintomatología Depresiva. Se conformó tres grupos: el primero, un grupo cuasi experimental, basado en Psicología Positiva; el segundo, un grupo cuasi control activo, basado en actividades recreativas; y el tercero, un grupo cuasi control inactivo, sin intervención. Se utilizó la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica de Yesavage y Escala de Satisfacción Vital de Diener. Los resultados indican que sólo el grupo con taller basado en Psicología Positiva disminuye significativamente su Sintomatología Depresiva y aumenta significativamente sus niveles de Satisfacción Vital, luego de la intervención. Estos resultados se discuten a la luz de las investigaciones actuales en Psicología Positiva.This research examines the effectiveness of workshops based on positive psychology for the elderly by analyzing pre-post changes in levels of life satisfaction and depressive symptomatology. Three groups were formed: the first, a quasi-experimental group based on positive psychology; the second, a quasi-active control group based on recreational activities; and the third, a quasi-inactive control group without intervention. The instruments used were: Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale of Diener. Results indicated that only the group that attended positive psychology-based workshops significantly decreased depressive symptoms and significantly increased their levels of life satisfaction after the intervention. These results are discussed in the light of current researches in positive psychology.

  1. Development of Foundational Movement Skills: A Conceptual Model for Physical Activity Across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Morgan, Philip J; Barnett, Lisa M; Stodden, David F; Lubans, David R

    2018-03-09

    Evidence supports a positive association between competence in fundamental movement skills (e.g., kicking, jumping) and physical activity in young people. Whilst important, fundamental movement skills do not reflect the broad diversity of skills utilized in physical activity pursuits across the lifespan. Debate surrounds the question of what are the most salient skills to be learned which facilitate physical activity participation across the lifespan. In this paper, it is proposed that the term 'fundamental movement skills' be replaced with 'foundational movement skills'. The term 'foundational movement skills' better reflects the broad range of movement forms that increase in complexity and specificity and can be applied in a variety of settings. Thus, 'foundational movement skills' includes both traditionally conceptualized 'fundamental' movement skills and other skills (e.g., bodyweight squat, cycling, swimming strokes) that support physical activity engagement across the lifespan. A proposed conceptual model outlines how foundational movement skill competency can provide a direct or indirect pathway, via specialized movement skills, to a lifetime of physical activity. Foundational movement skill development is hypothesized to vary according to culture and/or geographical location. Further, skill development may be hindered or enhanced by physical (i.e., fitness, weight status) and psychological (i.e., perceived competence, self-efficacy) attributes. This conceptual model may advance the application of motor development principles within the public health domain. Additionally, it promotes the continued development of human movement in the context of how it leads to skillful performance and how movement skill development supports and maintains a lifetime of physical activity engagement.

  2. Does a Well-Informed Employee Have a More Positive Attitude Toward Change? The Mediating Role of Psychological Contract Fulfillment, Trust, and Perceived Need for Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Sjoerd; Schalk, René; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment, trust, and perceived need for change in the relationship between change information and employee attitude toward organizational change. As one of the first studies in organizational change research, attitude toward change

  3. Acceptability of Global Positioning System technology to survey injecting drug users' movements and social interactions: a pilot study from San Francisco, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzazadeh, A; Grasso, M; Johnson, K; Briceno, A; Navadeh, S; McFarland, W; Page, K

    2014-01-01

    Despite potential applications for improving health services using GPS technology, little is known about ethical concerns, acceptability, and logistical barriers for their use, particularly among marginalized groups. We garnered the insights of people who inject drug (PWID) in San Francisco on these topics. PWID were enrolled through street-outreach (n=20) and an ongoing study (n=4) for 4 focus group discussions. Participants also completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic characteristics and their numbers and types of interactions with other PWID. Median age was 30.5 years, majorities were male (83.3%) and white (68.2%). Most interacted with other PWID for eating meals and purchasing drugs over the last week; fewer reported interactions such as sexual contact, drug treatment, or work. Participants identified several concerns about carrying GPS devices, including what authorities might do with the data, that other PWID and dealers may suspect them as informants, and adherence to carrying and use. Most felt concerns were surmountable with detailed informed consent on the purpose of the study and practical ways to carry, charge, and hide devices. PWID felt data collection on their movements and social interactions with other PWID using GPS can be acceptable with addressing specific concerns. The technology is now in hand to greatly expand the ability to monitor health conditions with respect to the environment and improve the location of prevention, care, and treatment facilities to serve hard to reach, mobile, and hidden populations.

  4. Fifteen to Twenty Seconds of Eye Movements Have No Effect on Believability of Positive Personal Verbal Statements : Results From a Working Memory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijssen, S.J.M.A.; van den Hout, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    According to working memory theory, a task that taxes working memory during simultaneous focus on a memory will tend to reduce memory vividness and emotional intensity. Results have been found for both negative and positive memories. Some studies have shown the necessity of modality-specific tasks,

  5. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...

  7. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  8. Rogerian Psychology and "Non-Directive" Counselling in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quicke, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the prevalence of the nondirective approach in the school counseling movement and analyzes its psychological rationale and practical implications, centering on the psychological concepts of Carl R. Rogers. (MF)

  9. Happy Family Kitchen II: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a community-based positive psychology family intervention for subjective happiness and health-related quality of life in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Henry C Y; Mui, Moses; Wan, Alice; Ng, Yin-Lam; Stewart, Sunita M; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2016-07-29

    Most positive psychology interventions conducted in the West have been focused on the individual. Family relationships are highly valued in the Chinese collectivist culture, and it is of interest to know whether family-focused interventions can improve the well-being of Chinese people. We have previously reported the effectiveness of a positive psychology family intervention in terms of family well-being. Based on the data derived from the Happy Family Kitchen II project, this paper examines the effectiveness of a community-based positive psychology family intervention on subjective happiness and health-related quality of life. Thirty-one social service units and schools organized intervention programs for 2070 participants in Hong Kong. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, participants were randomly assigned on the basis of computer-generated numbers into the intervention group or the control group. The intervention programs emphasized one of five positive psychology themes: joy, gratitude, flow, savoring, and listening. The control group engaged in activities unrelated to the intervention, such as arts and crafts workshops. Subjective happiness and mental and physical quality of life were assessed at baseline and at 4 weeks and 12 weeks postintervention. Data of 1261 participants were analyzed. The results showed that the intervention was more effective than the control condition in improving subjective happiness, with a small effect size, at 12 weeks postintervention (β = .15, p = .020, Cohen's d = .16). However, there were no improvements in mental and physical quality of life in the intervention group compared with the control group at 4 weeks (β = .39, p = .494, d = .05; β = -.10, p = 1.000, d = -.01, respectively) and 12 weeks postintervention (β = .71, p = .233, d = .08; β = -.05, p = 1.000, d = -.01, respectively). Furthermore, the booster session was no more effective than the tea

  10. Toward a better understanding of what makes positive psychology interventions work: predicting happiness and depression from the person × intervention fit in a follow-up after 3.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Wellenzohn, Sara; Gander, Fabian; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-03-01

    Robust evidence exists that positive psychology interventions are effective in enhancing well-being and ameliorating depression. Comparatively little is known about the conditions under which they work best. Models describing characteristics that impact the effectiveness of positive interventions typically contain features of the person, of the activity, and the fit between the two. This study focuses on indicators of the person × intervention fit in predicting happiness and depressive symptoms 3.5 years after completion of the intervention. A sample of 165 women completed measures for happiness and depressive symptoms before and about 3.5 years after completion of a positive intervention (random assignment to one out of nine interventions, which were aggregated for the analyses). Four fit indicators were assessed: Preference; continued practice; effort; and early reactivity. Three out of four person × intervention fit indicators were positively related to happiness or negatively related to depression when controlled for the pretest scores. Together, they explained 6 per cent of the variance in happiness, and 10 per cent of the variance of depressive symptoms. Most tested indicators of a person × intervention fit are robust predictors of happiness and depressive symptoms-even after 3.5 years. They might serve for an early estimation of the effectiveness of a positive intervention. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. Society for Health Psychology (APA Division 38) and Society of Behavioral Medicine joint position statement on the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Wilson, Dawn K; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2017-06-01

    Beginning in January 2018, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) plans to cover the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), also referred to as Medicare DPP. The American Psychological Association Society for Health Psychology (SfHP) and the Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) reviewed the proposed plan. SfHP and SBM are in support of the CMS decision to cover DPP for Medicare beneficiaries but have a significant concern that aspects of the proposal will limit the public health impact. Concerns include the emphasis on weight outcomes to determine continued coverage and the lack of details regarding requirements for coaches. SfHP and SBM are in strong support of modifications to the proposal that would remove the minimum weight loss stipulation to determine coverage and to specify type and qualifications of "coaches."

  12. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  13. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  14. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  15. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  16. The Assessment of Eating Behaviour in Children Who Are Obese: A Psychological Approach. A Position Paper from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Caroline; O'Malley, Grace; Weghuber, Daniel; Vania, Andrea; Erhardt, Éva; Nowicka, Paulina; Mazur, Artur; Frelut, Marie Laure; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model) are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research. PMID:24820848

  17. Functional jerks, tics, and paroxysmal movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreissen, Y. E. M.; Cath, D C; Tijssen, M A J; Hallet, Mark; Stone, Jon; Carson, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal

  18. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  20. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  1. Leftist Movements, Gender, and the Argentinean Textile Industry. The Position of the Communist and Socialist Parties vis-à-vis the Claims of Female Workers, 1936-1946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Norando

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the incorporation of gender demands into the claims of female textile workers in Argentina, as well as the positions assumed in that respect by the Socialist Party and the Communist Party, through the analysis of three case studies: two textile worker strikes and the claim for the reform of the Maternity Insurance Law. The objective is to study the relationships of these parties with the claims of female workers from a perspective that links gender and class relations, on the basis of both worker and State sources. One of the fundamental conclusions of this study is that the Socialist and Communist Parties played an active role in transforming those claims into concrete realizations.

  2. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  4. State anxiety, psychological stress and positive well-being responses to yoga and aerobic exercise in people with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Knapen, Jan; Wampers, Martien; Demunter, Hella; Deckx, Seppe; Maurissen, Katrien; Probst, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Worsening of schizophrenia symptoms is related to stress and anxiety. People with schizophrenia often experience difficulties in coping with stress and possess a limited repertoire of coping strategies. A randomised comparative trial was undertaken in patients with schizophrenia to evaluate changes in state anxiety, psychological stress and subjective well-being after single sessions of yoga and aerobic exercise compared with a control condition. Forty participants performed a single 30-min yoga session, 20-min of aerobic exercise on a bicycle ergometre at self-selected intensity and a 20-min no exercise control condition in random order. After single sessions of yoga and aerobic exercise individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder showed significantly decreased state anxiety (p stress (p exercise control condition. Effect sizes ranged from 0.82 for psychological stress after aerobic exercise to 1.01 for state anxiety after yoga. The magnitude of the changes did not differ significantly between yoga and aerobic exercise. People with schizophrenia and physiotherapists can choose either yoga or aerobic exercise in reducing acute stress and anxiety taking into account the personal preference of each individual.

  5. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  6. Social networks: a new source of psychological stress or a way to enhance self-esteem? Negative and positive implications in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; Liccardi, G; Pellegrino, F; D'Amato, M; Sofia, M

    2012-01-01

    The Internet and, in particular, social networks are an increasingly important part of daily life for both adolescents and adults who maintain a virtual relationship with others sharing interests and goals. Very often, they disclose more about themselves online than they do in person. However, cyberbullying and cyberostracism can be problematic for adolescents and sensitive individuals, who might be negatively affected by social networks. Some studies have shown an increased risk of depression, whereas others suggest beneficial effects through enhanced communication, social connection, and self-esteem. Bronchial asthma is an increasingly frequent disease in the industrialized world, and psychological implications play a role in increasing or in reducing its severity. One year after the case report of an asthma exacerbation that may have been triggered by Facebook, it seems reasonable to analyze the effects of social networks on bronchial asthma.

  7. Intrinsic religiousness and spirituality as predictors of mental health and positive psychological functioning in Latter-Day Saint adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Peter W; Allen, G E Kawika; Fischer, Lane; Richards, P Scott; Morgan, David T; Potts, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships between religiousness and spirituality and various indicators of mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in three separate samples of college students. A total of 898 students at Brigham Young University participated in the three studies. The students ranged in age from 17 to 26 years old, with the average age of 20.9 across all three samples. Our results indicate that intrinsic religiousness, spiritual maturity, and self-transcendence were significantly predictive of better mental health and positive functioning, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness, and higher levels of global self-esteem, identity integration, moral self-approval, and meaning in life. Intrinsic religiousness was not predictive of shame, perfectionism, and eating disorder symptoms. These findings are consistent with many prior studies that have found religiousness and spirituality to be positively associated with better mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in adolescents and young adults.

  8. Evolution in the office: how evolutionary psychology can increase employee health, happiness, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Carey J; Danner, Kimberly M

    2012-12-20

    We review the empirical literature that has implemented aspects of our ancestral environment into the workplace and discuss the positive influence these factors have had on employees' physical and psychological health. We focus upon several components of our ancestral environment, including sunlight, greenery, sleep, physical movement, and social interaction with fellow humans as well as animals (specifically, dogs). Employers who are willing to adopt an evolutionary psychological approach to organizing their workplaces may drastically improve their workers' overall physical and psychological health as well as their overall productivity. This will, in turn, decrease employer costs related to medical care, absenteeism, and lack of productivity. Suggestions regarding how to implement these evolutionary psychological methods to the workplace are also discussed.

  9. Evolution in the Office: How Evolutionary Psychology Can Increase Employee Health, Happiness, and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the empirical literature that has implemented aspects of our ancestral environment into the workplace and discuss the positive influence these factors have had on employees' physical and psychological health. We focus upon several components of our ancestral environment, including sunlight, greenery, sleep, physical movement, and social interaction with fellow humans as well as animals (specifically, dogs. Employers who are willing to adopt an evolutionary psychological approach to organizing their workplaces may drastically improve their workers' overall physical and psychological health as well as their overall productivity. This will, in turn, decrease employer costs related to medical care, absenteeism, and lack of productivity. Suggestions regarding how to implement these evolutionary psychological methods to the workplace are also discussed.

  10. Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationships to self-reports of neurotic and acting out behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J T; Helmreich, R L; Holahan, C K

    1979-10-01

    Negatively valued masculinity (M-) and femininity (F-) personality scales were developed to supplement the positively valued Masculinity (M+) and Femininity (F+) scales of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence & Helmreich). M- consisted of traits that had been judged to be (a) more typical of males than females, (b) undesirable in both sexes, and (c ) agentic or instrumental in content. Two F- scales were developed, both containing stereotypically feminine, undesirable traits, one set of traits referring to communionlike characteristics (Fc-) and the other to verbal passive-aggressive qualities (FVA-). Significant sex differences in the predicted direction were found on all scales. In both sexes, low and typically nonsignificant correlations were found between parallel positive and negative scales, but highly significant negative correlations were found between positive and negative cross-sex scales. These findings provide additional evidence for the multidimentionslity of masculinity and femininity. Scores on a self-esteem measure were positively correlated with M+ and F+, uncorrelated with M-, and negatively correlated with the F- scales. Different patterns of scores were associated with two types of problem behaviors. In both sexes, neuroticism was most highly correlated (in a negative direction) with M+, and acting out behavoir was most strongly correlated (in a positive direction) with M-. The next highest correlation in both instances was with FVA-.

  11. Bio-Psycho-Spiritual Modeling in Drug Dependents and Compiling of Intervention Program for Promotion of Resiliency Based on Cognitive Narratology and Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezat ollah Kordmirza Nikoozadeh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the past few decades, the concentration of researches on drug abuse and drugs dependency have shift from risk factor to protective factors. In the past two decades, the concept of resiliency was increasingly considered by developmental psychology. The concentration shifted from risk to resiliency originates from disadvantage in emphasizing on identification of risk factors. Method: Target population was all volunteer addicts who referred to clinics in Tehran city. The group selected based on random cluster sampling. In total 319 persons (male composed of two groups, dependent to drug (150 persons and independent to drug (169 persons were participated in research and in general, 108 questionnaires of non-addicts and 126 of addicts were analyzed. In order to determine the fit model based on assumed variables in the research, by utilizing LISREL softwar99e, initially the relation between primary fundamental variables and final endogenous variables were reviewed. In continuation, the - relations between intermediary and endogenous variables were determined. Results: The results showed the fitting of predicted model of resiliency. Conclusion: In this research the program based on bio-psycho-spiritual model for instructional intervention in order to enhance of resiliency of addict people provided.

  12. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds Across Group Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar eTuncgenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.

  13. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  14. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  15. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  16. The effectiveness of the training of the positive psychology on the growth of devotion and trust to the life in the normal women of bafq city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan ZareeiMahmoodAbadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was the considering of the impression of the positive couple-therapy on the increasing the life expectancy and marriage closeness of the normal women in Bafq. The way & kind of the quasi-experimental was pre-test –post-test with the group of control. The sample included thirty (30 people that were chosen to target . & were put on the two groups of experiment &control to random .each two groups on the level pre-test completed the life expectancy questionnaire of the Schneider and marriage closeness of the walker & tompson .Then, for the experiment al group is done eight session for two hours . About positive teaching. And finally, After execution, each two questionnaire was done by groups of experiment & control as post-test. For analysis of test data , was used the way of analysis statistical of covariance it showed that positive is effective on the increasing al life expectancy and marriage closeness. : Positive teaching , life expectancy , marriage closeness ,women.

  17. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  18. Radical psychology institutionalized: a history of the Journal Psychologie & Maatschappij [psychology & society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, R; Jansz, J

    2000-01-01

    Starting out as a newsletter for radical psychologists, the Dutch journal Psychologie & Maatschappij (Psychology & Society) moved in the past decade toward the theoretical mainstream within psychology. In this paper, the major changes in the journal are described and analyzed, as well as the features that did not change: an emphasis on theory and history, an interdisciplinary approach, and an emphasis on discussion. The main transformations were from psychology as instrumental toward the goals of the progressive movement in the Netherlands, then to extreme criticism of all scientific and professional psychological activities, and finally to adherence to the most advanced approaches within academic psychology. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  20. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  1. Temporomandibular joint movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Itou, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ishii, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ten temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 5 healthy volunteers and 19 TMJs of internal derangements in 16 patients with splint therapy were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted images were obtained only in the closed mouth position, and gradient recalled acquisition in steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in active opening and closing phases, allowing a pseudodynamic display of TMJ movement. All patients received protrusive splint treatment. The usefulness of MR imaging to assess the efficacy of splint therapy was evaluated. Corrected disk position with the splint in place was clearly demonstrated in 9 TMJs, corresponding with elimination of reciprocal clicking. Ten other TMJs of anterior disk displacement without reduction showed uncorrected disk position by the splint. This information could confirm the therapeutic efficacy, or suggest other treatment alternatives. GRASS MR imaging can provide accurate and physiologic information about disk function in initial and follow-up assessment of protrusive splint therapy. (orig.)

  2. Associations of ikigai as a positive psychological factor with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese people: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Yaegashi, Yumi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-07-01

    To determine whether presence of ikigai as a positive psychological factor is associated with decreased risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men and women. From 1988 to 1990, a total of 30,155 men and 43,117 women aged 40 to 79 years completed a lifestyle questionnaire including a question about ikigai. Mortality follow-up was available for a mean of 12.5 years and was classified as having occurred in the first 5 years or the subsequent follow-up period. Associations between ikigai and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were assessed using a Cox's regression model. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for age, body mass index, drinking and smoking status, physical activity, sleep duration, education, occupation, marital status, perceived mental stress, and medical history. During the follow-up period, 10,021 deaths were recorded. Men and women with ikigai had decreased risks of mortality from all causes in the long-term follow-up period; multivariate HRs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were 0.85 (0.80-0.90) for men and 0.93 (0.86-1.00) for women. The risk of cardiovascular mortality was reduced in men with ikigai; the multivariate HR (95% CI) was 0.86 (0.76-0.97). Furthermore, men and women with ikigai had a decreased risk for mortality from external causes; multivariate HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (0.59-0.93) for men and 0.67 (0.51-0.88) for women. The findings suggest that a positive psychological factor such as ikigai is associated with longevity among Japanese people.

  3. Queer signs: The women of the British projective test movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    As queer history is often hidden, historians must look for "signs" that hint at queer lives and experiences. When psychologists use projective tests, the search for queer signs has historically been more literal, and this was especially true in the homophobic practices of Psychology in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, I respond to Elizabeth Scarborough's call for more analytic history about the lesser known women in Psychology's history. By focusing on British projective research conducted by lesbian psychologist June Hopkins, I shift perspective and consider, not those who were tested (which has been historically more common), but those who did the testing, and position them as potential queer subjects. After briefly outlining why the projective test movement is ripe for such analysis and the kinds of queer signs that were identified using the Rorschach ink blot test in the mid-twentieth century, I then present June Hopkins' (1969, 1970) research on the "lesbian personality." This work forms a framework upon which I then consider the lives of Margaret Lowenfeld, Ann Kaldegg, and Effie Lillian Hutton, all of whom were involved in the British projective test movement a generation prior to Hopkins. By adopting Hopkins' research to frame their lives, I present the possibility of this ambiguous history being distinctly queer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Desenvolvimento bem-sucedido com esclerose múltipla: um ensaio em psicologia positiva Successful development with multiple sclerosis: an essay in positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Geraldi Haase

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A natureza crônica e progressivamente incapacitante de muitas enfermidades neurológicas, tais como a esclerose múltipla, constitui um desafio para a reabilitação. Uma abordagem que objetive apenas a restituição funcional corre o risco de fracassar, impondo uma carga de sofrimento adicional ao portador. As abordagens compensatórias têm se demonstrado eficazes no intuito de capacitar os portadores de doenças crônicas a enfrentar suas dificuldades cotidianas a curto-prazo e planejar o seu curso de vida a longo-prazo, aumentando assim o senso de controle e autonomia e melhorando a qualidade de vida. A abordagem compensatória impõe o estabelecimento de uma agenda positiva. Neste ensaio nós estabelecemos um paralelo entre a adaptação psicossocial à esclerose múltipla e os processos observados no desenvolvimento psicológico adulto. São notadas tanto semelhanças quanto diferenças. Algumas possibilidades são exploradas, que os modelos derivados do estudo do desenvolvimento bem-sucedido na idade adulta e velhice oferecem para o estabelecimento de uma agenda positiva para os portadores de esclerose múltipla.The chronic and progressively incapacitating nature of many neurological illnesses, such as multiple sclerosis, poses major challenges to the rehabilitative efforts. Approaches based solely on the pursuit of functional restitution incur the risk of failure and additional distress to the sufferers. Compensatory approaches have been consistently shown effective in the empowerment of individuals both to cope with daily life in the short run and to plan their life courses in the long run, thus regaining control and autonomy and improving well being. Compensation requires the establishment of a positive agenda. In this essay we establish a parallel between the processes of psychosocial adaptation to multiple sclerosis and normal adult development. Both similarities and differences are noted. We try to explore some perspectives derived

  5. Promoting Translational Research Among Movement Science, Occupational Science, and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainburg, Robert L; Liew, Sook-Lei; Frey, Scott H; Clark, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Integration of research in the fields of neural control of movement and biomechanics (collectively referred to as movement science) with the field of human occupation directly benefits both areas of study. Specifically, incorporating many of the quantitative scientific methods and analyses employed in movement science can help accelerate the development of rehabilitation-relevant research in occupational therapy (OT) and occupational science (OS). Reciprocally, OT and OS, which focus on the performance of everyday activities (occupations) to promote health and well-being, provide theoretical frameworks to guide research on the performance of actions in the context of social, psychological, and environmental factors. Given both fields' mutual interest in the study of movement as it relates to health and disease, the authors posit that combining OS and OT theories and principles with the theories and methods in movement science may lead to new, impactful, and clinically relevant knowledge. The first step is to ensure that individuals with OS or OT backgrounds are academically prepared to pursue advanced study in movement science. In this article, the authors propose 2 strategies to address this need.

  6. Evaluation of a Staff Training Programme using Positive Psychology coaching with film and theatre elements in care homes: views and attitudes of residents, staff and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Azucena; Wenborn, Jennifer; Ledgerd, Ritchard; Orrell, Martin

    2017-03-01

    There is a recognised need to improve staff training in care homes. The aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative evaluation of the Ladder to the Moon Culture Change Studio Engagement Programme (CCSEP), a staff training programme aimed at enhancing staff-resident communication. Focus groups were conducted with residents able to provide consent; staff and relatives and managers were interviewed in two care homes. A theoretical framework was developed to interpret the impact of CCSEP using Framework Analysis. Residents noted that the programme appeared to result in staff interacting more with them, as well as enjoying working together as a team. Staff reported an improved sense of teamwork, developing more positive attitudes towards residents, as well as their concerns about using theatrical techniques in the care setting. Relatives identified care home organisational aspects as being barriers to implementation, and some regarded CCSEP simply as 'entertainment' rather than 'creative care'. This study provides an insight into the potential of this staff training programme to improve staff-resident interactions. However, participants' varying views of CCSEP highlight the need to brief staff, residents and relatives before implementation so as to enable full understanding of the aim. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Religiousness, Race, and Psychological Well-Being: Exploring Social Psychological Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Bruce; Crocker, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    Examined predictions (n=125) that the relationship between religious belief and psychological well-being should be more positive among black than white individuals, and the relationship should be mediated by social psychological aspects of religion with positive implications for well-being. Religious belief salience and psychological well-being…

  8. Narrative health psychology: Once more unto the breach: editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sools, Anna Maria; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what

  9. Functional Movement Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Patient Organizations International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Psychogenic movement is an unwanted muscle movement such ...

  10. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Positive Psychiatry: Its Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Palmer, Barton W.; Rettew, David C.; Boardman, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit non-clinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (e.g., well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom - including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry Interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine, rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall healthcare of the population. PMID:26132670

  13. An evaluation of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale: A preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene van Wyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The positive organisational behaviour movement emphasises the advantages of psychological strengths in business. The psychological virtues of positive emotional experiences can potentially promote human strengths to the advantages of business functioning and the management of work conditions. This is supported by Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory that emphasises the broadening of reactive thought patterns through experiences of positive emotions. Research purpose: A preliminary psychometric evaluation of a positive measurement of dimensions of emotional experiences in the workplace, by rephrasing the Kiefer and Barclay Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale. Motivation for the study: This quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis investigates the factorial structure and reliability of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale, a positive rephrased version of the Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale. Research approach, design and method: This Exploratory Factor Analysis indicates an acceptable three-factor model for the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale. These three factors are: (1 psychological recurrent positive state, (2 social connectedness and (3 physical refreshed energy, with strong Cronbach’s alphas of 0.91, 0.91 and 0.94, respectively. Main findings: The three-factor model of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a valid measure in support of Fredrickson’s theory of social, physical and psychological endured personal resources that build positive emotions. Practical/Managerial implications: Knowledge gained on positive versus negative emotional experiences could be applied by management to promote endured personal resources that strengthen positive emotional experiences. Contribution/value-add: The contribution of this rephrased Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a reliable measure of assessment of the social, physical and endured psychological and personal resources identified in Fredrickson

  14. Measuring psychological ownership : A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; Olckers, C.; van Zyl, L.; van der Vaart, L.

    2017-01-01

    In the fields of psychology and management, psychological ownership has been identified as an important positive psychological predictor of workplace motives, attitudes and behaviours. Given its importance, the highly respected authors Avey, Avolio, Crossley, and Luthans (J Organ Behav 30:173-191,

  15. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  16. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  17. Noun Phrase Structure and Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten

    2011-01-01

    /solch to follow the article. We discuss two possible syntactic derivations, predicate raising (e.g. Corver 1998, Bennis, Corver & den Dikken 1998) and XP movement from an attributive adjective position within the nominal (e.g. Matushansky 2002). The analysis links up with the morphological agreement facts...

  18. Psychological and Personality Profiles of Political Extremists

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Meysam; Weber, Ingmar; Cioffi-Revilla, Claudio; Fortunato, Santo; Macy, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Global recruitment into radical Islamic movements has spurred renewed interest in the appeal of political extremism. Is the appeal a rational response to material conditions or is it the expression of psychological and personality disorders associated with aggressive behavior, intolerance, conspiratorial imagination, and paranoia? Empirical answers using surveys have been limited by lack of access to extremist groups, while field studies have lacked psychological measures and failed to compar...

  19. Psychology between science and profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychology is powerful science, with great knowledge deposited for understanding the individual (his development and pathological outcomes, behavior and predicting behavior in different situations, groups, historical flows and historical characters, cultural and civilisation changes, artistic and other creations. Psychology, as it becomes to the science of soul, has covered all areas of human spirit. Discreprancy between potential and power of psychology and her use (in the work of psychologists author connects for positioning and realisation of psychology in university teachings. Whit the help of psychology we can, not just successes in life but we can also understand life itself. But, how many psychologists can contribute to that? Why is that so?.

  20. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  1. Best research practices in psychology: Illustrating epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Eli J; Eastwick, Paul W; Reis, Harry T

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, a robust movement has emerged within psychology to increase the evidentiary value of our science. This movement, which has analogs throughout the empirical sciences, is broad and diverse, but its primary emphasis has been on the reduction of statistical false positives. The present article addresses epistemological and pragmatic issues that we, as a field, must consider as we seek to maximize the scientific value of this movement. Regarding epistemology, this article contrasts the false-positives-reduction (FPR) approach with an alternative, the error balance (EB) approach, which argues that any serious consideration of optimal scientific practice must contend simultaneously with both false-positive and false-negative errors. Regarding pragmatics, the movement has devoted a great deal of attention to issues that frequently arise in laboratory experiments and one-shot survey studies, but it has devoted less attention to issues that frequently arise in intensive and/or longitudinal studies. We illustrate these epistemological and pragmatic considerations with the case of relationship science, one of the many research domains that frequently employ intensive and/or longitudinal methods. Specifically, we examine 6 research prescriptions that can help to reduce false-positive rates: preregistration, prepublication sharing of materials, postpublication sharing of data, close replication, avoiding piecemeal publication, and increasing sample size. For each, we offer concrete guidance not only regarding how researchers can improve their research practices and balance the risk of false-positive and false-negative errors, but also how the movement can capitalize upon insights from research practices within relationship science to make the movement stronger and more inclusive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Undisciplined beginnings, academic success, and discursive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Michael

    2012-09-01

    This paper reflects on the conditions under which Discourse and social psychology, Common knowledge, and the author's Arguing and thinking were written. These books, which were independently conceived, were not specifically written as contributions to 'discursive psychology', for discursive psychology did not exist at that time. Their authors were rejecting conventional approaches to doing psychological research. The paper discusses what it takes for a new academic movement, such as discursive psychology, to be successfully established in the current climate of 'academic capitalism'. Two requirements are particularly mentioned: the necessity for a label and the necessity for adherents to be recruited. Of the three books, only Discourse and social psychology was outwardly recruiting its readers to a new way of doing social psychology. Arguing and thinking, with its celebration of ancient rhetoric, was much more ambiguous in its aims. It was turning away from present usefulness towards the past. By claiming to be 'an antiquarian psychologist' the author was rejecting disciplinary thinking. The paper also considers the intellectual costs of establishing a new specialism or sub-discipline. The 'first generation' may have freedom, but success can bring about a narrowing of perspectives and the development of orthodoxies for subsequent academic generations. This applies as much to the development of experimental social psychology as to discursive psychology. These processes are particular enhanced in the present socio-economic situation of contemporary universities, which make it more difficult for young academics to become, in the words of William James, 'undisciplinables'. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing(EMDR to Reduce the Severity of Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Stuttering With Psychological Origin(Case Study in Child with Four Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Hashemian Moghadam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The present research aimed to measure the effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR on reducing the severity of symptoms of post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and Stuttering in a four-year-old child post-traumatic stress disorder in children is one of the disorders relating to trauma and stressful factors, also, stutterring or word fluency disorder is a nerve growth disorder. Materials and Methods: This research design was conducted as a case study with a multiple baseline design. Participant in this research was a four-year- old child with Diagnostic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychogenic Stuttering. He had been placed under the intervention with EMDR at Shahid Birjand Counseling Center. The instruments used for this research included demographic researcher-made questionnaire, the third edition of stuttering severity test, the scale of parents’ report of post-traumatic Symptoms and child’s report of posttraumatic Symptoms. Data analysis was done through graphic and descriptive analysis. The data was collected as base line and during the treatment as well as after the treatment and follow-up (in terms of 3 and 24 months. Results: Means percentage improvement (MPI to reducing the severity of post-traumatic symptoms was achieved as %74.66 and it was %56.06 for reduction of the severity of stuttering and they continued to maintain in the follow-up period. Conclusion: Results showed that EMDR method had affected on reduction of the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and stuttering intensity.

  4. Vinte anos do MST: a psicologia nesta história Veinte años de lo movimiento de los trabajadores rurales sin tierra: la psicología en esta historia Landless peasants’ movement after twenty years: psychology and the movement’s history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Domingues

    2007-12-01

    resultados y conclusiones de las pesquisas. Se destaca la necesidad de estudios sobre la infancia, desterritorialización y sufrimiento psíquico y salud mental en el campo.The Landless Peasants’ Movement (MST in Brazil commemorated twenty years in 2004. Throughout its lifetime, it has aroused the interest of researchers hailing from different areas, mainly from those involved in Education and Sociology. Few researches on the movement are extant within Psychology. The mapping of general scientific production on the Movement and an analysis of the specific production within Psychology are the objects of current research. An online search was undertaken at the CAPES data bank with regard to the 1987-2004. All abstracts were printed and classified. Whereas the abstracts revealed the theses and dissertations developed in postgraduate programs for Master’s degree in Psychology, the dissertations were read to identify pre-oriented subject matter in the researches, their main results and their conclusions. The need for further studies concerning childhood, de-territorialization, psychic suffering and mental health conditions in the rural area is emphasized.

  5. Autonomous teamwork and psychological well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Seinen, B.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Few studies investigated the assumed positive effects of autonomous groups on individual psychological well-being. In the present study we investigated the hypotheses that (1) group autonomy is positively related to psychological well-being, (2) this relationship is mediated by individual autonomy,

  6. Martial arts and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J R

    1988-12-01

    The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.

  7. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed. (paper)

  8. Disordered Eating-Related Cognition and Psychological Flexibility as Predictors of Psychological Health among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…

  9. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  10. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  11. Parametric HMMs for Movement Recognition and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    , we develop an exemplar-based parametric hidden Markov model (PHMM) that allows to represent movements of a particular type. Since we use model interpolation to reduce the necessary amount of training data, we had to develop a method to setup local models in a synchronized way. In our experiments we......A common problem in human movement recognition is the recognition of movements of a particular type (semantic). E.g., grasping movements have a particular semantic (grasping) but the actual movements usually have very different appearances due to, e.g., different grasping directions. In this paper...... to recover the movement type, and, e.g., the object position a human is pointing at. Our experiments show the flexibility of the PHMMs in terms of the amount of training data and its robustness in terms of noisy observation data. In addition, we compare our PHMM to an other kind of PHMM, which has been...

  12. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  13. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  14. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...

  15. Independence of Movement Preparation and Movement Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Adrian M; Pakpoor, Jina; Krakauer, John W

    2016-03-09

    Initiating a movement in response to a visual stimulus takes significantly longer than might be expected on the basis of neural transmission delays, but it is unclear why. In a visually guided reaching task, we forced human participants to move at lower-than-normal reaction times to test whether normal reaction times are strictly necessary for accurate movement. We found that participants were, in fact, capable of moving accurately ∼80 ms earlier than their reaction times would suggest. Reaction times thus include a seemingly unnecessary delay that accounts for approximately one-third of their duration. Close examination of participants' behavior in conventional reaction-time conditions revealed that they generated occasional, spontaneous errors in trials in which their reaction time was unusually short. The pattern of these errors could be well accounted for by a simple model in which the timing of movement initiation is independent of the timing of movement preparation. This independence provides an explanation for why reaction times are usually so sluggish: delaying the mean time of movement initiation relative to preparation reduces the risk that a movement will be initiated before it has been appropriately prepared. Our results suggest that preparation and initiation of movement are mechanistically independent and may have a distinct neural basis. The results also demonstrate that, even in strongly stimulus-driven tasks, presentation of a stimulus does not directly trigger a movement. Rather, the stimulus appears to trigger an internal decision whether to make a movement, reflecting a volitional rather than reactive mode of control. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363007-10$15.00/0.

  16. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  17. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  18. A POSITIVE SOCIALIZATION MODEL FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS: COMPREHENSIVE AND INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES. Part 2. Russian experience in social-psychological support of children with asd and their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina A. Nesterova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The second part of the article aims to analyze domestic experience in support of children with autism; to show the complex model of support of positive socialization of children with ASD and severe defects; to justify the necessity of creating a scientifically validated complex model of support of children with ASD. Methods. The methods involve theoretical analysis and summarization of scientific and methodical publications on the issue of socialization of children with ASD; modeling method. Results. Scientific approaches to socialization and social integration of children with ASD are analyzed, summarized and systematized. The most efficient empirically validated methods and techniques that may be included in the process of social-psychological support of children with ASD and their families are indentified. Regional experience of the Russian Federation in solving the issue of socialization of children with ASD and their families is uncovered, the most effective programs and developments of domestic specialists are highlighted. The model of support of the positive socialization of children with ASD is developed and validated. Scientific novelty. The proposed model is developed on the basis of the principles of multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity in the process of interaction between specialists of support, aimed at solving socialization problems of children with ASD and their families. The model incorporates such basic conditions of positive socialization of a child with ASD as: a state of mental health of a child; creation of conditions for successful process of socialization of a child, in particular, for the formation of basic social skills; provision of close interaction of children, psychologists, teachers, parents, social partners; monitoring of dynamics of total indicators of social competence and development of children. Practical significance. The model is supposed to be the basis while creating support for

  19. Relações entre bem-estar subjetivo e satisfação conjugal na abordagem da psicologia positiva Relations between subjective well-being and marital satisfaction on the approach of positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Scorsolini-Comin

    2011-01-01

    Psychology. It attests that people who experience positive emotions tend to engage themselves in more satisfying relationships.

  20. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement......-based interaction we will briefly introduce and discuss how learning, mapping and multi-user interaction are important when designing movement based interaction....

  1. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  2. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  3. [Studies on the standardization of parameters for jaw movement analysis--6 degree-of-freedom jaw movements analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hisahiro; Bando, Eiichi; Abe, Susumu

    2008-07-01

    To establish standardized evaluating methods for jaw movements analysis. In this paper, we investigated evaluating parameters for 6 degree-of-freedom jaw movements data. Recorded data of jaw border movements from 20 male adults were employed as basic samples. The main parameters were as follows: 1. The displacement of an intercondylar midpoint: the length of a straight line between 2 positions of this point, the intercuspal position and other jaw position. 2. The angle of intercondylar axes: the angle between 2 position of the intercondylar axis, the intercuspal position and other jaw position. 3. The angle of incisal-condylar planes: the angle between 2 position of the plane, the intercuspal position and other jaw position (this plane was defined with the incisal point and condylar points of both sides 4. The mandibular motion range index: quantitative values calculated with 2 of 3 parameters described above. The mandibular motion range index showed a close correlation with respective projected areas of the incisal paths, with the projected area of sagittal border movements on the sagittal plane r = 0.82 (p movements on the frontal plane: left lateral border movements r = 0.92 (p movements r = 0.84 (p movements data and relative relationship between the intercuspal position and other jaw position. They were independent of reference coordinate systems and could measure jaw movement quantitatively.

  4. Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W; Richards, William A; Richards, Brian D; Jesse, Robert; MacLean, Katherine A; Barrett, Frederick S; Cosimano, Mary P; Klinedinst, Maggie A

    2018-01-01

    Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences with participant-attributed increases in well-being. However, little research has examined enduring changes in traits. This study administered psilocybin to participants who undertook a program of meditation/spiritual practices. Healthy participants were randomized to three groups (25 each): (1) very low-dose (1 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2) with moderate-level ("standard") support for spiritual-practice (LD-SS); (2) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with standard support (HD-SS); and (3) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with high support for spiritual practice (HD-HS). Psilocybin was administered double-blind and instructions to participants/staff minimized expectancy confounds. Psilocybin was administered 1 and 2 months after spiritual-practice initiation. Outcomes at 6 months included rates of spiritual practice and persisting effects of psilocybin. Compared with low-dose, high-dose psilocybin produced greater acute and persisting effects. At 6 months, compared with LD-SS, both high-dose groups showed large significant positive changes on longitudinal measures of interpersonal closeness, gratitude, life meaning/purpose, forgiveness, death transcendence, daily spiritual experiences, religious faith and coping, and community observer ratings. Determinants of enduring effects were psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience and rates of meditation/spiritual practices. Psilocybin can occasion enduring trait-level increases in prosocial attitudes/behaviors and in healthy psychological functioning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00802282.

  5. Integration of basic controversies in cross-cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses controversies in the field of cross-cultural psychology, including cultural psychology, with a view to possible integration.1 It briefly describes the indigenisation movement as a reaction against Western scientific ethnocentrism and mentions two methodological topics, that

  6. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  7. Critical Contributions of Piaget to Humanistic Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Russell N.

    Humanistic psychologists now embrace many of the same principles which served as the basis for Piaget's theory. These same theories were described earlier by John Locke and Immanuel Kant, and were the basis of the new "Humanism" movement in Germany in the 18th century. If one considers humanistic psychology as a kind of culmination of…

  8. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  9. Exoskeleton for assisting human movement

    OpenAIRE

    García Armada, Elena; Cestari, Manuel; Sanz Merodio, Daniel; Carrillo, Xavier Alberto

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to an exoskeleton for assisting human movement, which can be fitted to the user in terms of dimensions, tension and ranges of joint motion, either manually or automatically. Said exoskeleton can be fitted to the user in the anteroposterior direction in the sagittal plane, with the user in a horizontal or sitting position, without requiring a functional transfer. The exoskeleton has a modular design which is compatible with human biomechanics and reproduces a natural...

  10. Fetal Eye Movements on Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C.; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Methods Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17–40 GW, three age groups [17–23 GW, 24–32 GW, 33–40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. Results In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3–45%. Conclusions In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations. PMID:24194885

  11. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitek, Ramona; Kasprian, Gregor; Lindner, Christian; Stuhr, Fritz; Weber, Michael; Schöpf, Veronika; Brugger, Peter C; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Furtner, Julia; Bettelheim, Dieter; Seidl, Rainer; Prayer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]). Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981): Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%). Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03), Type Ia (p = 0.031), and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033). Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.

  12. The nature of delusion: psychologically explicable? psychologically inexplicable? philosophically explicable? Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, J; Musalek, M

    2016-03-01

    The first part of this article dealt with the extant formulations of delusion, psychiatric and psychological, suggestions which, respectively, regard delusion as psychologically inexplicable or explicable. All this was subjected to critique. This second part puts forward informed philosophical thesis whereby delusion can be explained within the philosophical movement known as phenomenology and, in particular, Max Scheler's version of this. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. [Dance/movement therapy in oncological rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Elana G; Helmes, Almut; Weis, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Dance/movement therapy may be defined as a psychosocial and body-oriented art therapy, which uses dance for the expression of emotional and cognitive issues. Dance/movement therapy is an important intervention for cancer patients to enhance coping strategies. There are only few studies investigating dance therapy with cancer patients. The present study investigates effects of dance/movement therapy (n = 115) in the setting of inpatient rehabilitation based on a pre-post design with a control group as well as a follow-up 3 months later. Standardized questionnaires measuring quality of life, anxiety and depression, and self-concept (EORTC QLQ-C30, HADS, FSKN) were used. In addition, at the end of the inpatient rehabilitation program subjective expectations of the dance/movement therapy and the patients' subjective evaluation of the benefits of the intervention were measured by a new developed questionnaire. As process factors of dance/movement therapy, expression of emotions, enhancement of self-esteem, development of the personality, vitality, getting inner balance, and getting in touch with the body have been identified. In terms of quality of life and psychological well-being, the results showed significant improvements with medium to large effect sizes. Even though those effects may not be attributed to the intervention alone, the analysis of the data and the patients' subjective statements help to reveal therapeutic factors and process characteristics of dance/movement therapy within inpatient rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Seymour Sarason Remembered: "Plus ça change…", "Psychology Misdirected", and "Community Psychology and the Anarchist Insight".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The intellectual legacy of Seymour Sarason continues to serve as a critical resource for the field of community psychology. The present paper draws on one of Sarason's favorite aphorisms and two of his seminal writings to suggest the relevance of ideas articulated 35-40 years ago for the current time. Each in their own way highlights the importance of unearthing and interrogating core assumptions underlying our research and our efforts to make a positive difference. The aphorism reminds us that the rhetoric of change is far easier to articulate than to enact and all too often ignores or disguises issues of power among actors. The "misdirection" of Psychology reflected his assertion that the asocial, acultural, and ahistorical nature of American Psychology reflected American culture more generally and ill prepared it to understand and engage in social change, particularly with respect to educational reform. The "anarchist insight" articulated his belief in interrogating the implications of the increasingly interdependent relationship of science and the state for the autonomy of scientists and scientific inquiry. The evidence-based practice movement is offered as an example of the current day relevance of the aphorism and core insights of these two papers. The paper concludes with a plea to rekindle the discussion and continued examination of Sarason's paradigmatic insights for the intellectual and social development of the field.

  15. Sonification of Arm Movements in Stroke Rehabilitation – A Novel Approach in Neurologic Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Daniel S.; Rohde, Sönke; Nikmaram, Nikou; Brückner, Hans-Peter; Großbach, Michael; Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart O.

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor impairments are common after stroke, but efficient and motivating therapies for these impairments are scarce. We present an innovative musical sonification therapy, especially designed to retrain patients’ gross motor functions. Sonification should motivate patients and provide additional sensory input informing about relative limb position. Twenty-five stroke patients were included in a clinical pre–post study and took part in the sonification training. The patients’ upper extremity functions, their psychological states, and their arm movement smoothness were assessed pre and post training. Patients were randomly assigned to either of two groups. Both groups received an average of 10 days (M = 9.88; SD = 2.03; 30 min/day) of musical sonification therapy [music group (MG)] or a sham sonification movement training [control group (CG)], respectively. The only difference between the two protocols was that in the CG no sound was played back during training. In the beginning, patients explored the acoustic effects of their arm movements in space. At the end of the training, the patients played simple melodies by coordinated arm movements. The 15 patients in the MG showed significantly reduced joint pain (F = 19.96, p therapy. Taken together, musical sonification may be a promising therapy for motor impairments after stroke, but further research is required since estimated effect sizes point to moderate treatment outcomes. PMID:27445970

  16. Sonification of Arm Movements in Stroke Rehabilitation - A Novel Approach in Neurologic Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Daniel S; Rohde, Sönke; Nikmaram, Nikou; Brückner, Hans-Peter; Großbach, Michael; Rollnik, Jens D; Altenmüller, Eckart O

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor impairments are common after stroke, but efficient and motivating therapies for these impairments are scarce. We present an innovative musical sonification therapy, especially designed to retrain patients' gross motor functions. Sonification should motivate patients and provide additional sensory input informing about relative limb position. Twenty-five stroke patients were included in a clinical pre-post study and took part in the sonification training. The patients' upper extremity functions, their psychological states, and their arm movement smoothness were assessed pre and post training. Patients were randomly assigned to either of two groups. Both groups received an average of 10 days (M = 9.88; SD = 2.03; 30 min/day) of musical sonification therapy [music group (MG)] or a sham sonification movement training [control group (CG)], respectively. The only difference between the two protocols was that in the CG no sound was played back during training. In the beginning, patients explored the acoustic effects of their arm movements in space. At the end of the training, the patients played simple melodies by coordinated arm movements. The 15 patients in the MG showed significantly reduced joint pain (F = 19.96, p musical sonification may be a promising therapy for motor impairments after stroke, but further research is required since estimated effect sizes point to moderate treatment outcomes.

  17. Psychology and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)

  18. Movement monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)

  19. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  1. The relationships between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate, team commitment and intention to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. Munyaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment in a manufacturing organisation could have a significant impact on employee intention to quit. Research purpose: To determine the relationship between five positive organisational behaviour variables (authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment and their ultimate influence on an individual’s intention to quit. Thus, it is preceded by the determination of the structural invariance of the measurement instruments when applied to a South African sample. Justification for the study: The study sought to fill the gap in the literature in relation to understanding the effect of the relationship between psychological capital, authentic leadership, psychological climate and team commitment on the behaviour of employees in a manufacturing organisation and how this influences their decision to quit. Such a study has not previously been conducted in the South African manufacturing sector. Research design, approach and method: Utilising a non-experimental correlational approach, a self-administered composite questionnaire consisting of five psychological scales was distributed to 204 employees in the junior to senior management level at a global tyre manufacturing organisation in South Africa. Multivariate data analysis included the structural equation modelling. Main findings: There is a significantly strong positive relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment. Authentic leadership has a significant influence on psychological capital and psychological climate. This results in a positive impact on organisational commitment, leading to employees’ intention to quit. Practical/managerial implications: Manufacturing organisations need to develop and implement collaborative leadership intervention strategies aimed at improving

  2. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  3. Citizen weeks or the psychologizing of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo-Narciandi, José Carlos; Castro-Tejerina, Jorge

    2013-02-01

    Arland Deyett Weeks (1871-1936) was an American educator and social reformer who published The Psychology of Citizenship in 1917 with the intention of compiling the psychological, psychobiological, and psychosocial knowledge needed for governing modern democratic Western industrialized societies, as well as offering suggestions for intervention and social reform in the educational, legal, and occupational domains. His point of view can be placed within the progressive social and intellectual movement that characterized the policies of the United States in the first decade of the 20th century. His sociopolitical ideas were fed by transcendental and pragmatic sources, especially with respect to the way of dealing with tension between the individual and the collective. Modern psychological techniques (occupational, educational, legal psychology, etc.) nourished his reform program. In this article, we contextualize Weeks's book within these ideas and show its historical significance in the sociocultural and intellectual context that gave it meaning.

  4. Adlerian psychology as an intuitive operant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, A B

    1985-01-01

    Traditional accounts of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler tend to sentimentalize his system and obscure its functional flavor. Six basic Adlerian positions on human behavior, including Rudolf Dreikurs' "four goals of misbehavior," are interpreted as a primitive statement of operant principles. Applied techniques long used by Individual Psychology practitioners strongly resemble interventions that applied behavior analysts have developed by more systematic means.

  5. Jazzing up the Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2010-01-01

    Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…

  6. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  7. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  8. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  9. Effect of forest canopy on GPS-based movement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. DeCesare; John R. Squires; Jay A. Kolbe

    2005-01-01

    The advancing role of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in ecology has made studies of animal movement possible for larger and more vagile species. A simple field test revealed that lengths of GPS-based movement data were strongly biased (Pof forest canopy. Global Positioning System error added an average of 27.5% additional...

  10. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  11. Parametric Hidden Markov Models for Recognition and Synthesis of Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Dennis; Krüger, Volker; Grest, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In humanoid robotics, the recognition and synthesis of parametric movements plays an extraordinary role for robot human interaction. Such a parametric movement is a movement of a particular type (semantic), for example, similar pointing movements performed at different table-top positions....... For understanding the whole meaning of a movement of a human, the recognition of its type, likewise its parameterization are important. Only both together convey the whole meaning. Vice versa, for mimicry, the synthesis of movements for the motor control of a robot needs to be parameterized, e.g., by the relative...... the applicability for online recognition based on very noisy 3D tracking data. The use of a parametric representation of movements is shown in a robot demo, where a robot removes objects from a table as demonstrated by an advisor. The synthesis for motor control is performed for arbitrary table-top positions....

  12. Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Baskara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islamic puritanism movements are the movements compelling to return to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, as the pure teachings of Islam and abandon even abolish other teachings outside the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The movements of Islamic puritanism can be considered as transnational movements because they spread their teachings and ideologies, create organizations, networks, and provide financial supports across nations. This paper describes Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia and their transnational connections. Some Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia can be considered as part of Islamic transnational movements, in which most of the movements are centered in the Middle East. In Indonesia, Islamic puritanism movements firstly appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, called Padri movement in West Sumatra. It was then continued to the emergence of Islamic organizations in the twentieth century. Recently, Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia mostly take form as Salafism-Wahabism movements.

  13. Black Lives Matter: A Call to Action for Counseling Psychology Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Candice; Mosley, Della; Falconer, Jameca; Faloughi, Reuben; Singh, Anneliese; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Cokley, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Police brutality and widespread systemic racism represent historical and current sources of trauma in Black communities. Both the Black Lives Matter movement and counseling psychology propose to confront these realities at multiple levels. Black Lives Matter seeks to increase awareness about systemic racism and promote resilience among Black people. Counseling psychology states values of multiculturalism, social justice, and advocacy. Executive leadership in counseling psychology may seek to promote racial justice, yet struggle with how to participate in Black Lives Matter movements and address racial discrimination within larger systems spontaneously and consistently. However, counseling psychology trainees and professionals are actively involved in the Black Lives Matter movement, leading the way forward. Through the framework of spontaneity in social movements, this manuscript highlights what counseling psychologists are currently contributing to Black Lives Matter and makes recommendations that build on the opportunity counseling psychologists have for further involvement in the movement.

  14. The Irish Women's Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...

  15. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  16. Acting without seeing: eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. Here, we review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movement. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological Perception of Space and Time in the Historical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Minyar-Beloruchev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to psychological aspects and psychological perception of spatial and temporal dimensions of the historical process. Space and time do not exist separately, they are closely interconnected: everything that happens in history has certain spatial and temporal position. From historical perspective spatial characteristics of a particular territory are twofold: territory’s psychical position remains unperturbed, while its political status and national affiliation are revised in the course of time. Territories vary in their value: the most valuable objects of physical environment such as sea-coasts, courses and estuaries of rivers, mineral deposits, industrial regions, etc. serve as objects of contention on the international arena, while areas that do not possess such characteristics can be of no interest to international actors. Historical time does not necessarily coincide with chronological time. For example, according to Eric Hobsbawm, the so-called long Nineteenth Century lasted from 1789 to 1914, while the short Twentieth Century lasted only from 1914 to 1991. Psychological time should also be taken into account – perception of relation between past, present, and future developments, as well as perception of chronological intervals within which certain historical developments take place. Time sets chronological framework for the historical process, it can be both cyclical and linear at the same time. Progress in transportation and communication leads to the situation where linear characteristics of space and time remain the same, while space compresses and time accelerates: movement of physical objects and information transfer take less and less time. Such process was ushered in during the Nineteenth Century (Transportation and Communication Revolutions and it accelerated in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries. Present wars can last only months and days, not years; negotiations are conducted directly by chief

  18. The relationship between change and religious movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Suolinna

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Change constitutes different things for the groups, as the position of one group may improve, but that of another deteriorate. Social change is a consequence of how the different groups act, and their actions again depend on their social and economic interests. In other words, there are groups in society (social classes, professional groups, the agrarian population, industrial workers, which come more or less openly in conflict with each other when looking after their interests. Thus this way of thinking is based on a conflict model. One sees social change as a consequence of people trying to protect their social and economic interests. Viewed this way even religious organizations and movements are involved in protecting the interests of social groups. However, the interesting point in this connection is that religious movements differ from political movements and groups, as the religious movements express the social interests of a group more indirectly than the political movements. The religious movements gather people from similar living conditions, and so to speak, prepare them for political work. They defend and justify the way of living of a group, and thus give ideological material for political groupings. They may also form coalitions with political groups and parties. The author analyzes Laestadianism from this point of view. Before going into the connection between religious dynamics and social change it is necessary to present a few general features of Laestadianism as a religious movement of the peasant population.

  19. The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen M; Sutton, Robbie M; Cichocka, Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    What psychological factors drive the popularity of conspiracy theories , which explain important events as secret plots by powerful and malevolent groups? What are the psychological consequences of adopting these theories? We review the current research and find that it answers the first of these questions more thoroughly than the second. Belief in conspiracy theories appears to be driven by motives that can be characterized as epistemic (understanding one's environment), existential (being safe and in control of one's environment), and social (maintaining a positive image of the self and the social group). However, little research has investigated the consequences of conspiracy belief, and to date, this research does not indicate that conspiracy belief fulfills people's motivations. Instead, for many people, conspiracy belief may be more appealing than satisfying. Further research is needed to determine for whom, and under what conditions, conspiracy theories may satisfy key psychological motives.

  20. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de