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Sample records for positive psychology framework

  1. LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology: An inclusive and systemic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Daniela G; Bobele, Monte; Coppock, Jacqueline; Peña, Ezequiel

    2015-05-01

    Positive psychologists have contributed to our understandings of how positive emotions and flexible cognition enhance resiliency. However, positive psychologists' research has been slow to address the relational resources and interactions that help nonheterosexual families overcome adversity. Addressing overlooked lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) and systemic factors in positive psychology, this article draws on family resilience literature and LGBTQ literature to theorize a systemic positive psychology framework for working with nonheterosexual families. We developed the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework that integrates positive psychology's strengths-based perspective with the systemic orientation of Walsh's (1996) family resilience framework along with the cultural considerations proposed by LGBTQ family literature. We theorize that the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework takes into consideration the sociopolitical adversities impacting nonheterosexual families and sensitizes positive psychologists, including those working in organized care settings, to the systemic interactions of same-sex loving relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  3. Development of a Causal Framework linking High Perofrmance HRM Practices, Positive Psychological Capital, Creative Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vishal

    2013-01-01

    Synthesizing the ideas of high-performance Human Resource Management (HRM), positive psychological capital, and componential theory of creativity, the present study develops a multi-level causal framework linking high-performance work practices (HPWP), positive psychological capital, employee creative performance behaviors and creative performance. The paper argues that to provide a convincing explanation of the association between HRM practices and creativity, we need to improve our theoreti...

  4. Using a Positive Psychology and Family Framework to Understand Mexican American Adolescents' College-Going Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…

  5. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  6. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  7. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Positive psychology has been an influential movement within psychology in the early years of the twenty-first century. It is now timely to assess the value of its contribution to career education and guidance. This paper provides a critique of this perspective. Positive psychology can enrich approaches to career development. It can provide a…

  8. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  9. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  10. The Promise of Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychology has demonstrated its usefulness in studying and contributing to individual well being. The next big challenge for this new field is to help improving the social and cultural conditions in which people live. Three specific goals are discussed: A more complete understanding of human nature; forging a more sustainable and more fair social contract; and a rediscovery of the joys of existence. If Positive Psychology will be able to support these goals, it will become an important contributor to the evolution of human consciousness and the evolution of culture.

  11. Hearing Parents' Appraisals of Parenting a Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Child: Application of a Positive Psychology Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarkowski, Amy; Brice, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children face unique challenges and stressors, the understanding of which has been the focus of numerous studies; yet, relatively little is known about their positive experiences. Using a qualitative purposive sampling design, interviews were conducted with 11 hearing parents (8 mothers, 3 fathers)…

  12. CONTEMPLATIVE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: INTRODUCING MINDFULNESS INTO POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausiàs Cebolla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mindfulness is included in many positive psychology manuals as a “positive” technique, the implications of its use have scarcely been developed and the relationship between mindfulness and human well-being has barely been researched. Analyzing the main strengths of the two fields, the possibilities for their integration and the potential contradictions between their messages is essential in order to establish connections. Mindfulness is more than a meditation technique. It has implicit within it a set of values and ethical conditions that coincide to a great extent with the proposed assumptions from positive psychology, such as the development of kindness, compassion, and positive emotions. The aim of this paper is to present, on the one hand, the commonalities and similarities, and on the other, the differences between mindfulness and positive psychology. We also present the main studies that have investigated the role of mindfulness and contemplative practices on human well-being. Finally future research will be discussed and intervention suggested in order to bring the two proposals together.

  13. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfonso Piña López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.

  14. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical base...

  15. POSITIVE LEADERSHIP MODELS: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blanch, Francisco Gil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is twofold; firstly, we establish the theoretical boundaries of positive leadership and the reasons for its emergence. It is related to the new paradigm of positive psychology that has recently been shaping the scope of organizational knowledge. This conceptual framework has triggered the development of the various forms of positive leadership (i.e. transformational, servant, spiritual, authentic, and positive. Although the construct does not seem univocally defined, these different types of leadership overlap and share a significant affinity. Secondly, we review the empirical evidence that shows the impact of positive leadership in organizations and we highlight the positive relationship between these forms of leadership and key positive organizational variables. Lastly, we analyse future research areas in order to further develop this concept.

  16. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…

  17. Extending family nursing: concepts from positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Karen

    2010-11-01

    This article identifies the burgeoning field of positive psychology as an important extension to the knowledge base of family nursing. Representing a new emphasis from the traditional social and human sciences, which have largely focused on problem- and deficit-based approaches, positive psychology focuses on optimal functioning and is an ideal complement to the strengths-based orientation of family nursing. Domains of positive psychology are presented and exemplars of supporting research offered. Finally, suggestions are given for ways to apply concepts from positive psychology to family nursing practice, research, and education.

  18. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  19. Positive Psychology: Positive Emotions and Emotional Intelegence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...

  20. Introduction to Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Phillips, Brian; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology has received increasing attention in rehabilitation counseling research and practice. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis of personal assets and strengths, which provides a solid foundation for the integration of positive psychology into the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling. In…

  1. Positive psychological interventions aimed at enhancing psychological ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni; Stemmet, Lehan; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni

    2017-01-01

    Interventions aimed at the enhancement of positive organisational behaviours, within organisational contexts, are imperative for creating and sustaining a high-performance culture, where individual and organisational strengths are optimized and top-talent retained. Psychological ownership, one form

  2. South African universities, research and positive psychology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to highlight pioneering and fundamental contributions by South African researchers to establishing a new paradigm in psychology, namely positive psychology. The article provides an overview of the national and international historic development of this field. Current and completed South ...

  3. A Positive Psychology Intervention With Emerging Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Leontopoulou

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of a positive psychology intervention in a sample of 40 young men (35%) and women (65%) aged 18-30 years. Participants were 1st and 4th year undergraduate University students, postgraduate students and working youths. The study examined the effects of a battery of interventions commonly used in positive psychology interventions, including a video and three exercises (i.e. expressing gratitude, best possible selves, goal setting) on character strengths, hope, gra...

  4. Positive Psychology: Transforming Young Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    To reach responsible independence, young people must become invested in setting their life course. A rich history of research and practice shows that democratic group climates foster autonomy and prosocial behavior. This article explores principles and practices for creating positive peer cultures to develop strengths and help youth meet their…

  5. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical bases in which it leans on. One of these transformations arises of its encounter with the positive Psychology, of recent appearance too. The theoretical work in this field is of interest because from a classic perspec- tive, from a biological view, aging is regarded as the decline in physical and psychic strengths and, therefore, the loss of those features and positive qualities that were fundamental during the youthful and mature life. Old age would be marked by a deterioration, fragility and loss of progressive selfregulation of the individual person. This view lead to ignoring clearly positive aspects of old the age such as the gathering experience or the greater availability of free time that would allow elderly people to search for ways of personal realization, among others. Of the journey for the different concepts in those that positive psychology and gerontology go being defined a group of characteristic of what we can call the psychic aging. In the first place a change appears in the perspective about what this process implies. Aging is not seen as a relentless and universal process of decline, but rather besides a great variability, it presents different aspects in those that we see the development of potentialities and resources that were not present in other ages. 

  6. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Walking on the sunny side: what positive psychology can contribute to psychiatric rehabilitation concepts and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Galia S; Nemec, Patricia B

    2013-09-01

    This article suggests a positive psychology framework to strengthen and broaden psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery thought and practice. We inform about positive psychology concepts and measures that can be used to further knowledge, enhance practice, and guide research. Foundational concepts are drawn from the published literature. Specific positive psychology concepts and measures are highlighted: complete mental health, well being, flourishing, positive emotions, flow, self-determination, posttraumatic growth, and resilience. Employing a positive psychology framework can advance research on recovery phenomena and be used to assess rehabilitation outcomes. In addition we advocate positive psychology interventions in education and training of service providers that will enhance a positive focus and the culture of recovery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Virtue ethics, positive psychology, and a new model of science and engineering ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin

    2015-04-01

    This essay develops a new conceptual framework of science and engineering ethics education based on virtue ethics and positive psychology. Virtue ethicists and positive psychologists have argued that current rule-based moral philosophy, psychology, and education cannot effectively promote students' moral motivation for actual moral behavior and may even lead to negative outcomes, such as moral schizophrenia. They have suggested that their own theoretical framework of virtue ethics and positive psychology can contribute to the effective promotion of motivation for self-improvement by connecting the notion of morality and eudaimonic happiness. Thus this essay attempts to apply virtue ethics and positive psychology to science and engineering ethics education and to develop a new conceptual framework for more effective education. In addition to the conceptual-level work, this essay suggests two possible educational methods: moral modeling and involvement in actual moral activity in science and engineering ethics classes, based on the conceptual framework.

  9. Contextual positive psychology: Policy recommendations for implementing positive psychology into schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ciarrochi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in positive psychology, a research and intervention approach that focuses on promoting optimal functioning and well-being. Positive psychology interventions are now making their way into classrooms all over the world. However, positive psychology has been criticized for being decontextualized and coercive, and for putting an excessive emphasis on positive states, whilst failing to adequately consider negative experiences. Given this, how should policy be used to regulate and evaluate these interventions? We review evidence that suggests these criticisms may be valid, but only for those interventions that focus almost exclusively on changing the content of people’s inner experience (e.g., make it more positive and personality (improving character strength, and overemphasize the idea that inner experience causes action. We describe a contextualized form of positive psychology that not only deals with the criticisms, but also has clear policy implications for how to best implement and evaluate positive education programs so that they do not do more harm than good.

  10. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Macaskill

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) created to develop these strengths further in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care...

  11. Vantage sensitivity: a framework for individual differences in response to psychological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Bernadette; Lionetti, Francesca; Pluess, Michael

    2018-06-01

    People differ significantly in their response to psychological intervention, with some benefitting more from treatment than others. According to the recently proposed theoretical framework of vantage sensitivity, some of this variability may be due to individual differences in environmental sensitivity, the inherent ability to register, and process external stimuli. In this paper, we apply the vantage sensitivity framework to the field of psychiatry and clinical psychology, proposing that some people are more responsive to the positive effects of psychological intervention due to heightened sensitivity. After presenting theoretical frameworks related to environmental sensitivity, we review a selection of recent studies reporting individual differences in the positive response to psychological intervention. A growing number of studies report that some people benefit more from psychological intervention than others as a function of genetic, physiological, and psychological characteristics. These studies support the vantage sensitivity proposition that treatment response is influenced by factors associated with heightened sensitivity to environmental influences. More recently, studies have also shown that sensitivity can be measured with a short questionnaire which appears to predict the response to psychological intervention. Vantage sensitivity is a framework with significant relevance for our understanding of widely observed heterogeneity in treatment response. It suggests that variability in response to treatment is partly influenced by people's differing capacity for environmental sensitivity, which can be measured with a short questionnaire. Application of the vantage sensitivity framework to psychiatry and clinical psychology may improve our knowledge regarding when, how, and for whom interventions work.

  12. The added value of the positive : A literature review of positive psychology interventions in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyers, M.C.; van Woerkom, M.; Bakker, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper systematically reviews research investigating the effects of positive psychology interventions applied in the organizational context. We characterize a positive psychology intervention as any intentional activity or method that is based on (a) the cultivation of positive subjective

  13. Online Counseling: Reviewing the Literature from a Counseling Psychology Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallen, Michael J.; Vogel, David L.; Rochlen, Aaron B.; Day, Susan X.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the online-counseling literature with an emphasis on current applications and considerations for future research. It focuses on primary themes of counseling psychology including the history of process-outcome research and multiculturalism. It explores current gaps in the literature from a counseling psychology framework,…

  14. Positive Psychology in Turkey: A Review Study of Postgraduate Theses

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent Baki Telef

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the trends of postgraduate theses in psychology, psychiatry, and education related to positive psychology in Turkey. The sample consisted of 204 masters’ and doctoral theses written in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, and education in relation to positive psychology between 2005 and 2015 for which access was permitted. The “Thesis Classification Form” prepared by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The findings are presented with perce...

  15. Review of the Application of Positive Psychology to Substance Use, Addiction, and Recovery Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in positive psychology have grown exponentially over the past decade. The addictions field has experienced its own growth in a positive direction, embodied by the recovery movement. Despite parallel developments, and great momentum on both sides, there has been little crosspollination. This review introduces positive psychology and the recovery movement, describes the research on positive psychology in the addictions, and discusses future avenues of theory, research, and intervention based on a positive-psychology framework. A systematic review of positive psychology applied to substance use, addiction, and recovery found nine studies which are discussed according to the following themes: theoretical propositions, character strengths and drinking, positive psychology and recovery, positive interventions, and addiction: feeling good and feeling bad. The current scholarship is scant, but diverse, covering a wide range of populations (adults, adolescents, those in and out of treatment), topics (character strengths, recovery, positive affect), and addictive behaviors (work addiction, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use disorders). There is diversity, too, in country of origin, with work originating in the US, UK, Poland, and Spain. The rigorous application of the lens, tools, and approaches of positive psychology to addiction research generally, and to the aims of the recovery movement specifically, has potential for the development of theory and innovation in prevention and intervention. Further, because the work in positive psychology has primarily focused on microsystems, it may be primed to make contributions to the predominantly macro-systems focus of the recovery movement. PMID:22985057

  16. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  17. Toward a Framework for Translational Research in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses a translational research framework for school psychology. Translational research uses outcomes of basic and applied science to enhance the overall well-being of persons. This transdisciplinary framework connects disciplines and uses their resources, capacities, systems, and procedures to advance prevention, intervention, and…

  18. Behavioural medicine and gastrointestinal disorders: the promise of positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie

    2018-04-12

    Psychosocial risk factors linked to brain-gut dysregulation are prevalent across the spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders and are associated with poor patient outcomes. Robust and reproducible data in the areas of behavioural intervention science and the brain-gut axis have led to major advances in patient care, including the routine use of brain-gut psychotherapies to manage digestive symptoms and optimize coping. The logical next step for the emerging field of psychogastroenterology is to develop a scientific framework that enables the identification of those individual characteristics and coping styles that buffer patients against the negative psychological effects of chronic gastrointestinal disorders. A shift towards a strength-based, positive psychological science of gastrointestinal disorders could facilitate the integration of early, effective psychological care into gastroenterology practice. In this Perspective, I discuss the potential role of three human strengths with relevance to gastrointestinal health - resilience, optimism and self-regulation - and how these three constructs can be cultivated through existing or emerging brain-gut psychotherapies.

  19. Neuroscience and Positive Psychology: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Sue A.; Callaway, Yvonne L.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing research findings are pointing out that using positive psychology and wellness strategies in counseling and therapy are helpful in fostering healthy human development (Snyder & Lopez, 2001). Positive psychology is addressing the importance of positive emotions, character traits, and features of enabling institutions such as the 'good…

  20. Activities for Teaching Positive Psychology: A Guide for Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…

  1. The Positive Psychology of Interested Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jeremy P.; Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2003-01-01

    Using the experience sampling method with a diverse national sample of 1,215 high school students, identified 2 groups of adolescents, those who experience chronic interest in everyday life experiences and those who experience widespread boredom. Suggests that a generalized chronic experience of interest can be a signal of psychological health.…

  2. Psychological theory and pedagogical effectiveness: the learning promotion potential framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Peter

    2008-12-01

    After a century of educational psychology, eminent commentators are still lamenting problems besetting the appropriate relating of psychological insights to teaching design, a situation not helped by the persistence of crude assumptions concerning the nature of pedagogical effectiveness. To propose an analytical or meta-theoretical framework based on the concept of learning promotion potential (LPP) as a basis for understanding the basic relationship between psychological insights and teaching strategies, and to draw out implications for psychology-based pedagogical design, development and research. This is a theoretical and meta-theoretical paper relying mainly on conceptual analysis, though also calling on psychological theory and research. Since teaching consists essentially in activity designed to promote learning, it follows that a teaching strategy has the potential in principle to achieve particular kinds of learning gains (LPP) to the extent that it embodies or stimulates the relevant learning processes on the part of learners and enables the teacher's functions of on-line monitoring and assistance for such learning processes. Whether a teaching strategy actually does realize its LPP by way of achieving its intended learning goals depends also on the quality of its implementation, in conjunction with other factors in the situated interaction that teaching always involves. The core role of psychology is to provide well-grounded indication of the nature of such learning processes and the teaching functions that support them, rather than to directly generate particular ways of teaching. A critically eclectic stance towards potential sources of psychological insight is argued for. Applying this framework, the paper proposes five kinds of issue to be attended to in the design and evaluation of psychology-based pedagogy. Other work proposing comparable ideas is briefly reviewed, with particular attention to similarities and a key difference with the ideas of Oser

  3. Positive psychology and the training of psychologists: Students’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharina Guse

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the personal and professional impact of including positive psychology in the professional training of clinical and counselling psychologists. Motivation for the study: It is not known how students previously educated in a pathogenic paradigm experience the exposure to positive psychology, and resultant paradigm shift, as part of their professional training. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research design was implemented. Data consisted of written documents submitted by the participants and was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. Main findings: Integrating positive psychology in the professional training curriculum was valuable and enriching on both a professional and personal level. The participants reported an experience of positive emotions and increased sense of self-understanding and psychological well-being. Professionally they experienced a sense of increased self-efficacy. Practical/managerial implications: Positive psychology should be considered as part of the basic training of psychologists since it may enhance the development of trainee psychologists’ professional self, enhance aspects of psychological well-being as well as prevent stress and burnout. Contribution/value-add: This is the first South African study to explore the impact of including positive psychology principles and interventions in professional training.

  4. Positive psychology interventions in breast cancer. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas-Grau, Anna; Font, Antoni; Vives, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is an emerging area of empirical study, not only in clinical, but also in health psychology. The present systematic review aims to synthesize the evidence about the positive psychology interventions utilized in breast cancer. Relevant studies were identified via Pubmed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, CINAHL, Wiley Online Library, TDX, and DIALNET databases (up to April 2013). Only those papers focused on interventions related to positive psychology and carried out on breast cancer patients were included. Of the 7266 articles found through databases, 16 studies were finally included in this review. Five groups of therapies were found: mindfulness-based approaches, expression of positive emotions, spiritual interventions, hope therapy, and meaning-making interventions. These specific interventions promoted positive changes in breast cancer participants, such as enhanced quality of life, well-being, hope, benefit finding, or optimism. However, the disparity of the interventions and some methodological issues limit the outcomes. Some studies provided relevant evidence about the clear development of positive aspects from the breast cancer experience. Positive interventions applied to patients and survivors of breast cancer were found to be able to promote positive aspects. A global consensus of a positive therapies classification is needed to take one more step in structuring positive psychology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, situating it within the field of positive psychology. The theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn build their enduring personal resources (physical, intellectual, social, and psychological). Reviews…

  6. A Common, Conceptual Framework for Behavioral Ecology and Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W. White

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Since evolutionary psychology and behavioral ecology have much in common despite their using different objects for their study, one might expect these disciplines to share a common conceptual framework with associated definitions. Unfortunately, such agreement does not entirely exist. To address the problem, we propose a common, conceptual framework, the Adaptive Behavioral System (ABS, which organizes behavior within an evolutionary framework around an organism's life history tasks. An ABS includes strategies that use decision rules and employs tactics administered by a hypothesized construct, the Evolved Processing Unit (EPU. The ABS also includes observed or predicted behavior which can be tested experimentally – the ultimate test of construct validity. Use of the proposed framework should help the two disciplines focus on their common, core business of behavior and, ultimately, be to the benefit of both.

  7. The Humanistic Psychology-Positive Psychology Divide: Contrasts in Philosophical Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the fields of humanistic and positive psychology has been marked by continued tension and ambivalence. This tension can be traced to extensive differences in the philosophical grounding characterizing the two perspectives within psychology. These differences exist with respect to (a) ontology, including the ways in which…

  8. Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits. International Society of Sport Psychology Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    International Society of Sport Psychology clarifies the psychological benefits of physical activity, noting the positive relationship between physical activity level and mental health. Exercise can reduce anxiety, decrease depression levels, reduce neuroticism and anxiety, reduce stress, and have beneficial emotional effects for both sexes across…

  9. Positive Art Therapy: Linking Positive Psychology to Art Therapy Theory, Practice, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Rebecca A.; Chilton, Gioia

    2013-01-01

    As a growing movement in the larger field of mental health, positive psychology has much to offer the art therapy profession, which in turn is uniquely poised to contribute to the study of optimal functioning. This article discusses the relationship of positive psychology to art therapy and its capacity to mobilize client strengths, to induce…

  10. Positive Youth Psychology: Lessons from Positive Peer Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula; Brendtro, Larry K.

    2013-01-01

    Positive Peer Culture (PPC) is a strength-oriented approach developed by Vorrath and Brendtro (1985) to prevent or reverse negative peer influence by building a climate of peer concern and respect. PPC operates in a range of settings including residential treatment, alternative schools, juvenile justice, and youth leadership groups. It is an…

  11. Stress, positive psychology and the National Student Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to explore the predictive ability of sources of stress and a range of dispositional and coping behaviours on student satisfaction and motivation. Most research exploring sources of stress and coping in students construes stress as psychological distress, with little attempt to consider positive experiences of stress. A questionnaire was administered to 120 first-year UK psychology students. Questions were asked which measured sources of stress when rated as likely to contribute to...

  12. Positive psychology online: using the internet to promote flourishing on a large scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Online positive psychology enhances well-being and reduces mental health symptoms Positive psychological interventions, and online positive psychological interventions in particular, can be effective in enhancing well-being and reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms, according to the dissertation

  13. Applying psychological frameworks of behaviour change to improve healthcare worker hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigley, J A; Corace, K; Hargadon, D P; Yu, D; MacDonald, T; Fabrigar, L; Garber, G

    2015-11-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in preventing transmission of healthcare-associated infections, compliance rates are suboptimal. Hand hygiene is a complex behaviour and psychological frameworks are promising tools to influence healthcare worker (HCW) behaviour. (i) To review the effectiveness of interventions based on psychological theories of behaviour change to improve HCW hand hygiene compliance; (ii) to determine which frameworks have been used to predict HCW hand hygiene compliance. Multiple databases and reference lists of included studies were searched for studies that applied psychological theories to improve and/or predict HCW hand hygiene. All steps in selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. The search yielded 918 citations; seven met eligibility criteria. Four studies evaluated hand hygiene interventions based on psychological frameworks. Interventions were informed by goal setting, control theory, operant learning, positive reinforcement, change theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the transtheoretical model. Three predictive studies employed the theory of planned behaviour, the transtheoretical model, and the theoretical domains framework. Interventions to improve hand hygiene adherence demonstrated efficacy but studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. For many studies, it was unclear how theories of behaviour change were used to inform the interventions. Predictive studies had mixed results. Behaviour change theory is a promising tool for improving hand hygiene; however, these theories have not been extensively examined. Our review reveals a significant gap in the literature and indicates possible avenues for novel research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Personal determinants of positive states and stress in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Kozhukhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We report study results of personality characteristics as predictors of positive states (active, optimistic, emotional, subjective comfort and stress experience in adults with one higher education and ongoing training in Psychology. The respondents were 107 people aged 23 to 52 years. Diagnostic methods we used were: "SMIL" (L. Sobchik, Optimism and Activity Scale (adapted by E. Vodopyanova, C. Izard Differential Emotions Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, Subjective Comfort Scale (adapted by A. Leonova, PSM-25 Scale by Lemyr-Tessier-Fillion. The regression analysis revealed that in subjects ongoing training in Psychology, basic predictor of positive emotions and stress experience is anxiety. Cluster analysis revealed three types of subjects by their positive states experiences, which differ primarily by the level of baseline anxiety and related personality characteristics. The group of risk comprised Psychology students with a tendency to depression and negative emotions and specific personality profile.

  15. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting ...

  16. Acknowledging and Appreciating the Full Spectrum of the Human Condition: School Psychology's (Limited) Focus on Positive Psychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Huebner, E. Scott; Youssef, Al-Jameela; Conte, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    This study is a content analysis of a random selection of 20% (N = 1,168) of articles from "School Psychology Quarterly", "Psychology in the Schools", the "Journal of School Psychology", and "School Psychology Review". Across the four journals, 27% of the articles had a positive focus, and the percentage of articles focused on the positive has…

  17. Innovative Behavior and Psychological Capital: Does Positivity Make any Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomna M. Sameer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - Despite increasing importance of fostering innovation among employees, and the growing interest in Positive Organizational Behaviour (POB constructs, little empirical research has been conducted on the topic of innovation with POB. Moreover, though research proved significant relationship between positive psychological capital (PsyCap and creative performance, no studies examined PsyCap with innovative behavior. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the link between positive psychological capital and innovative behavior as well as the link between innovative behavior and job satisfaction as well as engagement. Design/methodology/approach - Using regression analyses, data were obtained from Egyptian professionals (N = 250. The survey included measures of psychological capital and innovative behavior as well as job satisfaction and engagement. Findings - Regression analyses reveal that PsyCap, with its four components of hope, optimism, resilience and efficacy, predict innovative behavior, which in turn affects satisfaction and engagement. Research implications/limitations - Limitations, contributions and recommendations for future research are noted. Results contribute to a better understanding of how psychological capital enhances Innovative behavior in the workplace, which in turns, enhances job satisfaction and engagement. Originality/value/contribution - The study is the first to examine the relationship between psychological capital and innovative behavior.(original abstract

  18. Psychological Coercion in Human Trafficking: An Application of Biderman's Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susie B; Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Eisenman, David P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined coercive conditions experienced by trafficked persons in the context of Biderman's theory of coercion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 adult women trafficked into Los Angeles County, from 10 countries, for domestic work and/or sex work. Participants described health problems they experienced in relation to their trafficking experience and their perceptions of conditions that caused health problems. Utilizing a framework analysis approach, we analyzed themes using Biderman's framework. Participants reported experiencing the range of nonphysical coercive tactics outlined by Biderman, including isolation, monopolization of perception, induced debility or exhaustion, threats, occasional indulgences, demonstration of omnipotence, degradation, and enforcement of trivial demands. Our analysis demonstrates how these coercion tactics reinforced the submission of trafficked persons to their traffickers even in the absence of physical force or restraints. Such psychological abuse creates extreme stress that can lead to acute and chronic, physical and mental health problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.

  20. The Power of Montessori's Positive Psychology in an Expanding Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Annette

    1999-01-01

    Relates Montessori theory of development with the concept of connection to the universe and natural world, noting Montessori education's role in nurturing reestablished connection with the natural world. Describes events leading to a fulfilled life as part of psychological normalization, noting the importance of identifying positive tendencies of…

  1. Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shyh Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

  2. Growth Following Adversity: Positive Psychological Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of traumatic events is well documented within the clinical psychology literature where it is recognized that people who experience traumatic events may go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. At first glance one might ask what the relevance of positive psychology is to the study of trauma. But a number of literatures and philosophies throughout human history have conveyed the idea that there is personal gain to be found in suffering. The observation that stressful and traumatic events can provoke positive psychological changes is also contained in the major religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Within existential philosophy and humanistic psychology it has also been recognized that positive changes can come about as a result of suffering. But it is only within the last decade that the topic of growth following adversity has become a focus for empirical work. In this paper I will provide an overview of the subject and the research we have conducted at the Centre for Trauma, Resilience, and Growth (CTRG.

  3. Thoughts about implementation of positive psychology in education and emerging leadership roles of counselors in the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Bozkurt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in positive psychology is rapidly expanding as the field continues to make progress in terms of scientific advancement and understanding. Its implications in different fields have remarkable outcomes to validate the theory especially in therapies, education and organizations. This paper frameworks fundamental features of positive psychology and how these features can be integrated into schools. The emerging leadership roles of the counselors as change agents is also discussed from a holistic point of view.

  4. Effect of Positive Training on Positive Psychological States (Character Strengths of Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farnam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available psychological states of female students in second and third grades of high school. The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and follow-up. The sample consisted of forty students selected randomly in two groups (twenty students in each group. To collect data, Positive Psychological State Inventory (Rajaei, Khuy Nzhad and Nesaei was used. The experimental group received ninety minute positive training sessions (for two months and the control group did not receive treatment. The results of analysis  of covariance showed that positive training had positive effects on positive psychological states (trust in God, optimism, self-efficacy, duty, sense of control, targeted, hope, satisfaction with life, meaningful life, pleasant, sociability, self-esteem and self-worth, sense of peace, gratitude, and forgiveness among adolescents  both in the post  and follow-up tests

  5. Winning the war on terror: psychology as a strategic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecroft, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    International relations is fundamentally about people. Psychology provides a wide range of tools to understand the rise of Islamic fundamentalist terrorism and offers part of the framework for its resolution. Western societies need to avoid being consumed with fear, revenge or anger which might lead to polarisation and perpetuate the cycle of violence. Understanding the enemy and the virulence of their ideas is essential to winning the hearts and minds of their potential supporters through dialogue, public diplomacy and foreign policy. The West needs to build trust, relationships, reputation and address double standards in its behaviour in order to build a global coalition of people with shared values. The concept of 'war on terror' has been damaging, not least by inhibiting western societies from the self-reflection required to overcome the challenge of terrorism.

  6. A framework for streamlining research workflow in neuroscience and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eKubilius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful accumulation of knowledge is critically dependent on the ability to verify and replicate every part of scientific conduct. However, such principles are difficult to enact when researchers continue to resort on ad hoc workflows and with poorly maintained code base. In this paper I examine the needs of neuroscience and psychology community, and introduce psychopy_ext, a unifying framework that seamlessly integrates popular experiment building, analysis and manuscript preparation tools by choosing reasonable defaults and implementing relatively rigid patterns of workflow. This structure allows for automation of multiple tasks, such as generated user interfaces, unit testing, control analyses of stimuli, single-command access to descriptive statistics, and publication quality plotting. Taken together, psychopy_ext opens an exciting possibility for faster, more robust code development and collaboration for researchers.

  7. The Role of Positive Emotion and Contributions of Positive Psychology in Depression Treatment: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska; Paes, Flavia; Pereira, Valeska; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to conduct a systematic review of the literature by checking the impact of positive emotion in the treatment of depression and on the use of strategies of positive psychology which involves positive emotion to treat and reduce symptoms of depression. For this purpose, we conducted searches in databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and PubMed and found a total of 3400 studies. After inclusion application and exclusion criteria, 28 articles remained, presented and discussed in this study. The studies have important relations between humor and positive emotion as well as a significant improvement in signs and symptoms of depression using differents strategies of positive psychology. Another relevant aspect is the preventative character of the proposed interventions by positive psychology by the fact that increase well-being and produce elements such as resilience and coping resources that reduce the recurrent relapses in the treatment of depression. The strategies of positive psychology, such as increasing positive emotions, develop personal strengths: seeking direction, meaning and engagement for the day-to-day life of the patients, appear as potentially tools for the prophylaxis and treatment of depression, helping to reduce signs and symptoms as well as for prevention of relapses. PMID:24358052

  8. Positive psychology leadership coaching experiences in a financial organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe the positive psychology leadership coaching experiences of leaders in a large financial organisation. Motivation for the study: The researcher addressed the organisation’s need to develop leadership by structuring and presenting a coaching programme. He chose positive psychology as the paradigm and experiential learning as the method to meet the organisation’s goal of enabling its leaders to take up their roles with self-awareness, internal motivation and effective interpersonal connections. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a qualitative and descriptive research design with a case study. Leaders attended ten experiential leadership-coaching sessions over three months. The sessions focused on work engagement, learned resourcefulness, sense of coherence, self-actualisation values and locus of control. The data gathering consisted of the coach’s field notes and the participants’ reflective essays, which they wrote after the last coaching session. The researcher analysed the data using discourse analysis. Main findings: The manifesting themes were the coaching context, engagement in roles, understanding role complexity, emotional self-awareness and demands, self-authorisation and inability to facilitate the growth of others. Contribution/value-add: Although intrapersonal awareness increased significantly, leaders struggled with the interpersonal complexity of the leadership role. Positive psychology leadership coaching should refine the operationalisation of interpersonal effectiveness. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should integrate the methodology of leadership coaching with leadership development interventions to expose leaders to better intrapersonal awareness and functioning.

  9. Emotional Capital Development, Positive Psychology and Mindful Teaching: Which Links?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Gendron

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The start of university life requires a period of adaptation, which can sometimes have an impact on the mental health of students. The latest results from the Observatoire National de la Vie Etudiante (OVE, 2013 show that more that 40% of university students report symptoms of psychological fragility (sleep problems, fatigue, depression, stress or loneliness, which can impact their level of wellbeing and performance. Beyond Savoirs [knowledge], Savoir Faire [knowing what to do], the role of Savoir Être [knowing how to be] referring to a set of emotional competencies, is crucial in sustaining human capital in a broad sense, personal development and health (Gendron 2004. During the Initiatives d'Excellence en Formations Innovantes (IDEFI Programme, [Initiatives of Excellence in Innovative Training] 132 first year university students of education underwent an intervention (a minimum of six workshops of four hours aimed at developing their emotional capital. Using two approaches PIA2 (European Management and Project Management Methodology and ACT Training derived from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT the objective was to develop trainees’ social and personal emotional competencies such as self-esteem, self-knowledge, empathy and conflict management. Using an interdisciplinary approach drawing on educational theory, theory of human resources and positive psychology, the results show that emotional capital, developed using positive psychology tools, can improve wellbeing and contribute to a holistic personal development.

  10. Integrating positive psychology into health-related quality of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L

    2015-07-01

    Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.

  11. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, EMOTIONAL EDUCATION AND THE HAPPY CLASSROOMS PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bisquerra Alzina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology has multiple applications. This article is focused on formal education, from the ages of 3 to 18 years. The development of well-being should be one of the aims of education, which would affect teachers, students, families and by extension society at large. This has been a clear aim for emotional education (Bisquerra, 2000, 2009, from the outset. With the emergence of positive psychology, there was a renewed effort in this direction, as a means of providing a better foundation. GROP (Grup de Recerca en Orientación Psicopedagógica [Research in Psychopedagogical Education Group] at the University of Barcelona is conducting research on this subject. The Happy Classrooms (“Aulas felices” program developed by the SATI team is the first program in Spanish aimed at working on positive education. It is designed for children and youths in pre-school, primary and secondary education. The program focuses its applications on character strengths and mindfulness. It is freely available for access and distribution. This article argues for the importance of enhancing well-being in education. Practical activities and intervention strategies are presented, with special reference to the importance of teacher training.

  12. Footsteps on the road to a positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, J E; Seligman, M E

    1999-07-01

    We have argued that psychology as a field has been preoccupied with the negative side of life and has left us with a view of human qualities that is warped and one-sided. Psychology is literally 'half-baked'. We need to bake the other half now. It is time for us to become equally concerned with the qualities and experiences that make life most worthwhile. A balance is needed between work that strives to relieve damage and work that endeavors to build strength. This balance is beautifully exemplified by Jack Rachman's work over the past 40 years. As an astute and compassionate clinician and researcher, Jack developed and evaluated effective treatments for some of the most debilitating anxiety disorders. At the same time, he was impressed by the resiliency of his clients and the courage they exhibited daily. His observations and studies of courage have helped to launch a systematic science of human strengths. They are giant footsteps on the road to a positive psychology.

  13. Yoga Enhances Positive Psychological States in Young Adult Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Bethany; Ahmed, Khalique; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2016-06-01

    Although yoga has been shown to be a viable technique for improving the performance of the mind and body, little attention has been directed to studying the relationship between yoga and the psychological states of flow and mindfulness. Musicians enrolled in a 2-month fellowship program in 2005, 2006 and 2007 were invited to participate in a yoga and meditation program. Fellows not participating in the yoga program were recruited separately as controls. All participants completed baseline and end-program questionnaires evaluating dispositional flow, mindfulness, confusion, and music performance anxiety. Compared to controls, yoga participants reported significant decreases in confusion and increases in dispositional flow. Yoga participants in the 2006 sample also reported significant increases in the mindfulness subscale of awareness. Correlational analyses revealed that increases in participants' dispositional flow and mindfulness were associated with decreases in confusion and music performance anxiety. This study demonstrates the commonalities between positive psychology and yoga, both of which are focused on enhancing human performance and promoting beneficial psychological states. The results suggest that yoga and meditation may enhance the states of flow and mindful awareness, and reduce confusion.

  14. Psychological Trauma and LGBT Caregivers: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesser, Richard S; Patel, Bina R

    2016-01-01

    LGBT adults face unique risk factors such as social isolation, discrimination, and victimization, and occasionally th ey engage in detrimental behaviors like high alcohol and drug use and risky sexual activity that negatively impacts psychological/physical health. These risks can affect their overall health and stress the relationship with an older caregiver/recipient-partner following exposure to acute medical event. The experience of an acute medical event among a LGBT caregiving partner can result in psychological trauma. In this article the authors present a conceptual framework involving stress process theory, life course theory, and family systems perspective to understand the effect of stressors on LGBT caregiving partners. Implications for social work practice include assessing, coordinating care, counseling and negotiating services at micro level, engaging family-centered approaches to support positive transition to caregiving role at mezzo level, and advocating for policy and cultural shifts to supports and diminish stigma of this group.

  15. The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: contrasts in philosophical foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between the fields of humanistic and positive psychology has been marked by continued tension and ambivalence. This tension can be traced to extensive differences in the philosophical grounding characterizing the two perspectives within psychology. These differences exist with respect to (a) ontology, including the ways in which human nature is conceptualized regarding human potentials and well-being; (b) epistemology, specifically, the choice of research strategies for the empirical study of these concepts; and (c) practical philosophy, particularly the goals and strategies adopted when conducting therapy or undertaking counseling interventions. Because of this philosophical divide, adherents of the two perspectives may best be advised to pursue separately their shared desire to understand and promote human potentials and well-being.

  16. A Shortage of Medical Residency Positions: Parallels with Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Donna; Robiner, William N; Yozwiak, John A; Brosig, Cheryl; Cubic, Barbara; Leventhal, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Physician shortages in the US are expected to intensify with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. These shortages may negatively impact access to care, quality of care, and confidence in the system's ability to adequately provide for health needs in the US. Concerns regarding physician demand underscore how critical Graduate Medical Education funding is to preparing the physician workforce. In 2014 5.6 % of US medical school seniors did not match into residency. Psychology has faced longstanding training imbalance issues with a misalignment between the number of internship positions and the number of applicants. The authors summon attention to the damaging effects a training imbalance poses to a health care profession, its trainees, and ultimately the public it serves.

  17. MYTHS OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: DECEPTIVE MANOEUVRES AND PSEUDOSCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernández-Ríos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive Psychology (PP has experienced a huge boom in the last twenty years. The aim of this study is to list a number of myths and fallacious argumentative manoeuvres which sow serious doubts about the novelty and originality of PP. The PP discourse is notably pseudoscientific and has a certain intellectual dishonesty. Additionally, PP extends knowledge through social networks, books and journals. This knowledge is alleged to be empirically evidence-based, but in fact it is sustained upon tautological statements, superficial knowledge and obvious conclusions. All of the knowledge produced by PP reveals what it is provided by common sense and traditional wisdom. In conclusion, PP is not necessary in producing this knowledge and is academically and socially irrelevant and dispensable. This paper concludes with some considerations about the uncertain future of the always controversial PP.

  18. Advancing Positive Psychology in South East Asia: the Importance of Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hashim, Intan Hashimah

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the field of positive psychology has been overwhelming. This can be observed from the number of academic conferences and journals attributed to this field. Similar patterns can be observed in Asia where more and more research are concentrating on investigating constructs deemed as important within the field of positive psychology. However, comparable to other fields within psychology, positive psychology cannot ignore the importance of culture. This is especially true in South Eas...

  19. The image of psychology programs: the value of the instrumental-symbolic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip; De Soete, Britt; Libbrecht, Nele; Schollaert, Eveline; Baligant, Dimphna

    2014-01-01

    As competition for funding and students intensifies, it becomes increasingly important for psychology programs to have an image that is attractive and makes them stand out from other programs. The current study uses the instrumental-symbolic framework from the marketing domain to determine the image of different master's programs in psychology and examines how these image dimensions relate to student attraction and competitor differentiation. The samples consist of both potential students (N = 114) and current students (N = 68) of three psychology programs at a Belgian university: industrial and organizational psychology, clinical psychology, and experimental psychology. The results demonstrate that both instrumental attributes (e.g., interpersonal activities) and symbolic trait inferences (e.g., sincerity) are key components of the image of psychology programs and predict attractiveness as well as differentiation. In addition, symbolic image dimensions seem more important for current students of psychology programs than for potential students.

  20. Big data in psychology: A framework for research advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjerid, Idris; Kelley, Ken

    2018-02-22

    The potential for big data to provide value for psychology is significant. However, the pursuit of big data remains an uncertain and risky undertaking for the average psychological researcher. In this article, we address some of this uncertainty by discussing the potential impact of big data on the type of data available for psychological research, addressing the benefits and most significant challenges that emerge from these data, and organizing a variety of research opportunities for psychology. Our article yields two central insights. First, we highlight that big data research efforts are more readily accessible than many researchers realize, particularly with the emergence of open-source research tools, digital platforms, and instrumentation. Second, we argue that opportunities for big data research are diverse and differ both in their fit for varying research goals, as well as in the challenges they bring about. Ultimately, our outlook for researchers in psychology using and benefiting from big data is cautiously optimistic. Although not all big data efforts are suited for all researchers or all areas within psychology, big data research prospects are diverse, expanding, and promising for psychology and related disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Putting the positive in health psychology: a content analysis of three journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christa K; Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L; Piontkowski, Sarah; Schaefer, Kathryn L

    2011-05-01

    This content analysis investigated the inclusion of positive psychological constructs in research published in three leading health psychology journals. A list of positive constructs relevant to health psychology was compiled and their inclusion in these journals was examined. It was found that although there has been a sharp increase in recent years, only 3 percent of all articles published (114 of 3789) included the study of overtly positive constructs. The constructs that have been most and least studied in health psychology were identified and are discussed. This analysis provides insight into the foundations of positive health psychology and identifies future directions.

  2. Can Programming Frameworks Bring Smartphones into the Mainstream of Psychological Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Piwek, Lukasz; Ellis, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones continue to provide huge potential for psychological science and the advent of novel research frameworks brings new opportunities for researchers who have previously struggled to develop smartphone applications. However, despite this renewed promise, smartphones have failed to become a standard item within psychological research. Here we consider the key issues that continue to limit smartphone adoption within psychological science and how these barriers might be diminishing in li...

  3. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    OpenAIRE

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam; mahin Fekraty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:...

  4. Psychological experiences in South African society before the 2010 FIFA World Cup from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Koortzen

    2012-05-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to analyse and describe the psychological experiences of South Africans before the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted the study from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives. The study comprised a qualitative, explorative and social phenomenological study. The researchers conducted interviews with a wide range of their colleagues and clients. Main findings: The results seemed to indicate that South Africans had had a number of positive and negative experiences before the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Practical/managerial implications: The researchers presented the findings as a number of systems psychodynamic and positive psychology themes. Contribution/value-add: This study presents original research that contributes valuable new knowledge to the positive psychology and systems psychodynamic perspectives.

  5. Can programming frameworks bring smartphones into the mainstream of psychological science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Piwek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones continue to provide huge potential for psychological science and the advent of novel research frameworks brings new opportunities for researchers who have previously struggled to develop smartphone applications. However, despite this renewed promise, smartphones have failed to become a standard item within psychological research. Here we consider the key barriers that continue to limit smartphone adoption within psychological science and how these barriers might be diminishing in light of ResearchKit and other recent methodological developments. We conclude that while these programming frameworks are certainly a step in the right direction it remains challenging to create usable research-orientated applications with current frameworks. Smartphones may only become an asset for psychology and social science as a whole when development software that is both easy to use, secure, and becomes freely available.

  6. Can Programming Frameworks Bring Smartphones into the Mainstream of Psychological Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwek, Lukasz; Ellis, David A

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones continue to provide huge potential for psychological science and the advent of novel research frameworks brings new opportunities for researchers who have previously struggled to develop smartphone applications. However, despite this renewed promise, smartphones have failed to become a standard item within psychological research. Here we consider the key issues that continue to limit smartphone adoption within psychological science and how these barriers might be diminishing in light of ResearchKit and other recent methodological developments. We conclude that while these programming frameworks are certainly a step in the right direction it remains challenging to create usable research-orientated applications with current frameworks. Smartphones may only become an asset for psychology and social science as a whole when development software that is both easy to use and secure becomes freely available.

  7. Positive Psychology in Research with the Deaf Community: An Idea Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarkowski, Amy; Brice, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of positive psychology as an approach to studying what makes life worth living has inspired a new wave of research. Studies have focused on the prevalence and degree of positive attributes, attitudes, and characteristics in the wider population. Increasingly, lessons learned from positive psychology have been applied to understanding…

  8. Empathy for the psychological underdog: A positive psychological approach to Luke’s Gospel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Scheffler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking the lead from Wisdom of Solomon 7:20, which clearly indicates that ancient authors did engage in the specialised ‘scientific’ (although contemporary study of mental processes (διαλογισμοὺς ἀνθρώπων, it is argued that the author of Luke’s Gospel paid special attention to the alleviation of human psychological suffering. Employing an approach recently being labelled as ‘positive psychology’, attention will be paid to general affliction (e.g. Lk 4:18; 6:21, 25, old age (Lk 1:5−80; 2:25−38, grief (e.g. Lk 7:11−17 and the emphasis on mental processes in Luke’s portrayal of Jesus’ exorcisms (e.g. Lk 4:35; 6:18−19; 9:38, as well as the psychological dimension involved in other types of suffering (e.g. poverty, sickness, enmity and social ostracism. The ‘mental process’, ‘feelings’ or ‘empathy’ that motivate the alleviation of suffering (in the behaviour of Jesus and his followers will also come into focus in the discussion of the Lucan use of the terms οἰκτίρμων (Lk 6:36, ἔλεος and σπλαγχνίζομαι (e.g. Lk 10:33, 37.

  9. Asymptotics with a positive cosmological constant: I. Basic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bonga, Béatrice; Kesavan, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    The asymptotic structure of the gravitational field of isolated systems has been analyzed in great detail in the case when the cosmological constant Λ is zero. The resulting framework lies at the foundation of research in diverse areas in gravitational science. Examples include: (i) positive energy theorems in geometric analysis; (ii) the coordinate invariant characterization of gravitational waves in full, nonlinear general relativity; (iii) computations of the energy-momentum emission in gravitational collapse and binary mergers in numerical relativity and relativistic astrophysics; and (iv) constructions of asymptotic Hilbert spaces to calculate S-matrices and analyze the issue of information loss in the quantum evaporation of black holes. However, by now observations have led to a strong consensus that Λ is positive in our universe. In this paper we show that, unfortunately, the standard framework does not extend from the Λ =0 case to the Λ \\gt 0 case in a physically useful manner. In particular, we do not have positive energy theorems, nor an invariant notion of gravitational waves in the nonlinear regime, nor asymptotic Hilbert spaces in dynamical situations of semi-classical gravity. A suitable framework to address these conceptual issues of direct physical importance is developed in subsequent papers.

  10. Psychological first aid following trauma: implementation and evaluation framework for high-risk organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Lewis, Virginia; Varker, Tracey; Phelps, Andrea; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Wade, Darryl J; Ruzek, Josef I; Watson, Patricia; Bryant, Richard A; Creamer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    International clinical practice guidelines for the management of psychological trauma recommend Psychological First Aid (PFA) as an early intervention for survivors of potentially traumatic events. These recommendations are consensus-based, and there is little published evidence assessing the effectiveness of PFA. This is not surprising given the nature of the intervention and the complicating factors involved in any evaluation of PFA. There is, nevertheless, an urgent need for stronger evidence evaluating its effectiveness. The current paper posits that the implementation and evaluation of PFA within high risk organizational settings is an ideal place to start. The paper provides a framework for a phasic approach to implementing PFA within such settings and presents a model for evaluating its effectiveness using a logic- or theory-based approach which considers both pre-event and post-event factors. Phases 1 and 2 of the PFA model are pre-event actions, and phases 3 and 4 are post-event actions. It is hoped that by using the Phased PFA model and evaluation method proposed in this paper, future researchers will begin to undertake the important task of building the evidence about the most effective approach to providing PFA in high risk organizational and community disaster settings.

  11. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:In this cross sectional study 200 psychological students of Azad university (Rudehen branch selected using cluster sampling method. Then they were estimated by Bradbery and Grivers emotional intelligence questionnaire , Bamrind parenting styles and Rajayi et al positive psychological components questionnaire. Research data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, inferential statistics (multiple regression and Pierson correlation coefficient and SPSS software. Results:Among the components of emotional intelligence, the component of emotional self consciousness (β=0.464 had the greatest predictable , and reaction leadership showed no predictability in this research between parenting styles , authority parenting styles had positive significance relationship with positive psychological components. And no significant relationship was found between despot parenting styles and positive psychological components. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this research and importance of positive psychological components, it is suggested to treat the emotional intelligence from childhood and to learn it to parents and remind them the parenting way to decrease the satisfaction of individuals which leads to promotion of society mental health.

  12. Positive Psychology Factors as Predictors of Latina/o College Students' Psychological Grit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier Cavazos; Smith, Wayne D.; Whittenberg, James F.; Guardiola, Rebekah; Savage, Miranda

    2018-01-01

    Latina/o college students (N = 130) provided perceptions of psychological grit, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, life satisfaction, and mindfulness. Hope and mindfulness were significant predictors of psychological grit. A discussion regarding the importance of these findings and implications for counselors are…

  13. Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Riper, H.; Smit, F.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for

  14. Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, L.; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, G.J.; Riper, H.; Smit, H.F.E.; Bohlmeijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for

  15. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  16. How the Post-Secondary Classroom Can Benefit from Positive Psychology Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennette, Lynne N.; Myatt, Beverley

    2018-01-01

    Positive psychology is based on the notion that people are motivated to develop into their best selves and reach their maximum potential. Martin Seligman, a pioneer of positive psychology, defines it as "the scientific study of the strengths that enable individuals and communities to thrive. The field is founded on the belief that people want…

  17. Contributions of Positive Psychology to Peace: Toward Global Well-Being and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, J. Christopher; Christie, Daniel J.; White, Mathew P.; Das, Chaitali

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we analyze the relationship between positive psychology and peace psychology. We discuss how positive emotions, engagement, meaning, personal well-being, and resilience may impact peace at different levels, ranging from the personal and interpersonal to community, national, and global peace. First, we argue that an…

  18. Positive Psychology in Jewish Education: Gratitude in the School and Synagogue Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Eliezer; Schnall, David

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly growing area of study for research psychologists, and more recently for school psychologists and educators as well. Yet religious education researchers and practitioners have yet to embrace this exciting new field. The current article introduces positive psychology to clergy and educators in religious institutions.…

  19. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  20. Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: the mediating role of positive psychological capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, P.; Pereira Lopes, M.; Nascimento, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope). Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism). They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results. (Author)

  1. Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: the mediating role of positive psychological capital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, P.; Pereira Lopes, M.; Nascimento, J.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope). Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism). They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results. (Author)

  2. Authentic leadership and organizational commitment: The mediating role of positive psychological capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rego

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study analyzes the mediating role of positive psychological capital in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: This quantitative study presents a model in which were considered as variables mediating the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment, the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, hope. Findings: The results showed that positive psychological capital mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. However, they also indicate that this mediation is only made for three of the four dimensions of positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope and optimism. They also show that resilience negatively affects organizational commitment. Originality/value: The value of this study is to strengthen the interest in the study of positive psychological capital as a mediating variable and the importance of development that each of its dimensions and the impact they may have on other variables, as demonstrated by the results.

  3. Disaster Mental Health and Positive Psychology-Considering the Context of Natural and Technological Disasters: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2016-12-01

    This article serves as an introduction to the Journal of Clinical Psychology's special issue on disaster mental health and positive psychology. The special issue comprises two sections. The first section presents a series of data-driven articles and research-informed reviews examining meaning and resilience in the context of natural and technological disasters. The second section presents key topics in the area of disaster mental health, with particular relevance for positive psychology and related frameworks. The special issue is intended to bridge the gap between these two areas of applied science, with the audience being experienced clinicians or clinicians in training. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The popularisation of Positive Psychology as a defence against behavioural complexity in research and organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the systems psychodynamic nature of the manifesting defensive structures operating in Positive Psychology. Motivation for the study: The study investigated the popularity of Positive Psychology amongst academics, students and organisational consultants and the tendency to avoid the complexity of the relatedness between positive and negative as part of the human condition. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research by means of a Listening Post was used, consisting of six psychologists in their roles as lecturers and organisational consultants. Thematic analyses led to the formulation of various working hypotheses, integrated into a research hypothesis. Main findings: Four themes manifested – namely, the manifesting defence mechanisms, a reluctance to relinquish positive psychology as an object of hope, a need to guard against being too hasty in breaking down positive psychology and a need for a psychology that can engage us in a conversation about integrating the complexities of the human condition. Practical/managerial implications: The findings were linked to Deo Strümpfer’s work, indicating that Positive Psychology originated in early 20th century psychology, which is indeed not about simplification, but is imbedded in the complexity of various behavioural continua. Contribution/value-add: Academics, students and organisational consultants are encouraged to revisit Strümpfer’s work to ensure that this psychology is appreciated for its depth and quality.

  5. Quantum generalized observables framework for psychological data: a case of preference reversals in US elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikova, Polina; Haven, Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    Politics is regarded as a vital area of public choice theory, and it is strongly relying on the assumptions of voters' rationality and as such, stability of preferences. However, recent opinion polls and real election outcomes in the USA have shown that voters often engage in `ticket splitting', by exhibiting contrasting party support in Congressional and Presidential elections (cf. Khrennikova 2014 Phys. Scripta T163, 014010 (doi:10.1088/0031-8949/2014/T163/014010); Khrennikova & Haven 2016 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20150106 (doi:10.1098/rsta.2015.0106); Smith et al. 1999 Am. J. Polit. Sci. 43, 737-764 (doi:10.2307/2991833)). Such types of preference reversals cannot be mathematically captured via the formula of total probability, thus showing that voters' decision making is at variance with the classical probabilistic information processing framework. In recent work, we have shown that quantum probability describes well the violation of Bayesian rationality in statistical data of voting in US elections, through the so-called interference effects of probability amplitudes. This paper is proposing a novel generalized observables framework of voting behaviour, by using the statistical data collected and analysed in previous studies by Khrennikova (Khrennikova 2015 Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 8951, 196-209) and Khrennikova & Haven (Khrennikova & Haven 2016 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 374, 20150106 (doi:10.1098/rsta.2015.0106)). This framework aims to overcome the main problems associated with the quantum probabilistic representation of psychological data, namely the non-double stochasticity of transition probability matrices. We develop a simplified construction of generalized positive operator valued measures by formulating special non-orthonormal bases with respect to these operators. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  6. Working with LGBT Individuals: Incorporating Positive Psychology into Training and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, Megan C.; Vaughan, Michelle D.; Rodriguez, Eric M.; Shmerler, David L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how positive psychology principles can be incorporated into clinical training and practice to work with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) clients. LGBT psychology literature has all too often relied on heterosexual and cisgender reference groups as the norm with respect to psychological health, primarily framing the experiences of LGBT individuals through the lens of psychopathology. As a result, strengths that could be ascribed to the LGBT experience have been overlooked within training and practice. While positive psychology is actively being incorporated into clinical and counseling psychology curricula, broadening the paradigm to include LGBT individuals has generally not been included in the discussion. Specific recommendations for training psychologists to incorporate and foster positive social institutions, positive subjective experiences and character strengths when working with LGBT clients and celebrating their unique experiences are provided. PMID:25544947

  7. Positive Psychology in Cancer Care: Bad Science, Exaggerated Claims, and Unproven Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, James C.; Tennen, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Background Claims of positive psychology about people with cancer enjoy great popularity because they seem to offer scientific confirmation of strongly held cultural beliefs and values. Purpose Our goal is to examine critically four widely accepted claims in the positive psychology literature regarding adaptational outcomes among individuals living with cancer. Methods We examine: (1) the role of positive factors, such as a ?fighting spirit? in extending the life of persons with cancer; (2) e...

  8. Investigating positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tersia Nel

    2015-11-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether perceived positive leadership behaviour could predict psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life of employees in a chemical organisation in South Africa and whether positive leadership behaviour has an indirect effect on employees work engagement and satisfaction with life by means of psychological empowerment. Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study arose from the evident gap in academic literature as well as in terms of practical implications for the chemical industry regarding positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (n = 322. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to examine the structural relationships between the constructs. Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Positive leadership has an indirect effect on work engagement and satisfaction with life via psychological empowerment. Practical/managerial implications: This study adds to the lack of literature in terms of positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life within a chemical industry. It can also assist managers and personnel within the chemical industry to understand and perhaps further investigate relationships that exist between the above mentioned concepts. Contribution/value-add: It is recommended that leadership discussions, short training programs and individual coaching about positive leadership and particularly psychological empowerment take place.

  9. Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa: time course and mechanisms of change. Journal of Clinical consulting Psychology 2002, 20, 267-274. [44...RTO-MP-HFM-181 14 - 1 Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots...practical tool using different techniques in order to improve regulation of emotions before, during and after actions [3]. This psychological training is

  10. Creativity as an Attribute of Positive Psychology: The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect on the Creative Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Hutchison, Shannon; Snow, Lindsay; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Elliott, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology explores how optimism can lead to health, happiness, and creativity. However, questions remain as to how affective states influence creativity. Data on creative personality, optimism, pessimism, positive and negative affect, and current and usual happiness ratings were collected on 161 college students enrolled in an…

  11. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Shoshani; Michelle Slone

    2017-01-01

    Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention co...

  12. Dynamic context discrimination : psychological evidence for the Sandia Cognitive Framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Human behavior is a function of an iterative interaction between the stimulus environment and past experience. It is not simply a matter of the current stimulus environment activating the appropriate experience or rule from memory (e.g., if it is dark and I hear a strange noise outside, then I turn on the outside lights and investigate). Rather, it is a dynamic process that takes into account not only things one would generally do in a given situation, but things that have recently become known (e.g., there have recently been coyotes seen in the area and one is known to be rabid), as well as other immediate environmental characteristics (e.g., it is snowing outside, I know my dog is outside, I know the police are already outside, etc.). All of these factors combine to inform me of the most appropriate behavior for the situation. If it were the case that humans had a rule for every possible contingency, the amount of storage that would be required to enable us to fluidly deal with most situations we encounter would rapidly become biologically untenable. We can all deal with contingencies like the one above with fairly little effort, but if it isn't based on rules, what is it based on? The assertion of the Cognitive Systems program at Sandia for the past 5 years is that at the heart of this ability to effectively navigate the world is an ability to discriminate between different contexts (i.e., Dynamic Context Discrimination, or DCD). While this assertion in and of itself might not seem earthshaking, it is compelling that this ability and its components show up in a wide variety of paradigms across different subdisciplines in psychology. We begin by outlining, at a high functional level, the basic ideas of DCD. We then provide evidence from several different literatures and paradigms that support our assertion that DCD is a core aspect of cognitive functioning. Finally, we discuss DCD and the computational model that we have developed as an instantiation of DCD

  13. A three musketeering approach to pastoral care: Reflections on collaboration between pastoral care, narrative therapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred R. Brunsdon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current times of change, deconstruction and ever-growing relativisation, pastoral praxis finds itself in methodological limbo. Pastoral practitioners currently face the challenge of effectively reaching postmodern people through the pastoral process. This challenge is intensified by the innate tension between revelation and experience in pastoral theology as well as the philosophical migration from modernism to postmodernism, which necessitates an on-going rethinking of pastoral praxis. This research investigates a collaborative approach between pastoral care, narrative therapy and positive psychology as a possible method for dispensing pastoral care. A broad outline of these approaches as well as their underlying philosophical frameworks is contemplated in order to evaluate their suitability for a pastoral collaboration. Markers for a collaborative model are suggested where the narrative and positive psychology are employed as strategies in a so-called three- musketeering approach to pastoral care.

  14. Enhancing the Educational Subject: Cognitive Capitalism, Positive Psychology and Well-Being Training in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…

  15. Assessment of Positive Psychology Course According to Comments and Life Satisfaction Levels of Counselor Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Asli Uz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the "Positive Psychology" course according to comments and life satisfaction levels of counselor candidates. The course was offered in Guidance and Psychological Counseling undergraduate program as an elective course. The participants of the study were 56 senior undergraduate students attended…

  16. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS ENEMIES: A REPLY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Vázquez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology has been the subject of passionate attacks. Its novelty, its scientific scope, its intentions and even the honesty of its followers have been questioned. Furthermore, by extension, the concern of psychology on a whole with human well-being has been placed in doubt. In this review, we offer an answer to some disproportionate criticism and make an overview of the existing overwhelming evidence derived from the active, robust research agenda on positive emotions and cognitions (e.g., optimism and their relationship to health and psychological wellness. Psychology cannot ignore a growing general movement in social sciences and in political and economic discussion that places psychological well-being in the legitimate focus of attention. In this regard, positive psychology is contributing, with the best standard tools psychological research, to articulate and support a good part of the research in and promotion of those crucial issues. Finally, it is argued that, based on a true and respectful academic dialogue, psychology must inevitably and fluently integrate the focus on positive functioning for a more inclusive explanation of human nature.

  17. Developing Autonomous Learning in First Year University Students Using Perspectives from Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskill, Ann; Denovan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous learning is a commonly occurring learning outcome from university study, and it is argued that students require confidence in their own abilities to achieve this. Using approaches from positive psychology, this study aimed to develop confidence in first-year university students to facilitate autonomous learning. Psychological character…

  18. Positive Psychology in Cross-Cultural Narratives: Mexican Students Discover Themselves While Learning Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca L.; Cuéllar, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Using the principles of positive psychology and the tools of narrative research, this article focuses on the psychology of five language learners who crossed cultural and linguistic borders. All five were university students learning Chinese in Mexico, and two of them also studied Chinese in China. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze…

  19. Positive Psychology in SLA: An Agenda for Learner and Teacher Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article begins with an outline of the developments in Positive Psychology (PP) generally and specifically within SLA focusing on theoretical, empirical and practical developments. It moves on to consider PP's potential contribution to language teaching focusing on how it can help promote emotional, social and psychological wellbeing for…

  20. Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Attitudes, Behaviors, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B.; Reichard, Rebecca J.; Luthans, Fred; Mhatre, Ketan H.

    2011-01-01

    The positive core construct of psychological capital (or simply PsyCap), consisting of the psychological resources of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, has recently been demonstrated to be open to human resource development (HRD) and performance management. The research stream on PsyCap has now grown to the point that a quantitative…

  1. Positive Psychology Theory, Research, and Practice: A Primer for Rehabilitation Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Phillips, Brian; Ditchman, Nicole; Kaseroff, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is a scientific study that explores what makes life most worth living and applies psychological theory to understand the human strengths that are important for enhancing overall well-being and happiness. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis on personal strengths and the importance of enhancing what…

  2. "It's the Way That You Do It": Developing an Ethical Framework for Community Psychology Research and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    In the 50 years since the 1965 Swampscott conference, the field of community psychology has not yet developed a well-articulated ethical framework to guide research and practice. This paper reviews what constitutes an "ethical framework"; considers where the field of community psychology is at in its development of a comprehensive ethical framework; examines sources for ethical guidance (i.e., ethical principles and standards) across multiple disciplines, including psychology, evaluation, sociology, and anthropology; and recommends strategies for developing a rich written discourse on how community psychology researchers and practitioners can address ethical conflicts in our work. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  3. Systemic assessment framework of a learning organization's competitive positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissam EL Hachem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to devise an innovative feasible, replicable and comprehensive assessment framework of a learning organization's competitive positioning. Design/methodology/approach: The three characteristics listed above are approached as follows. Feasible refers to being easy and not in need of much resources (time, personnel,.... This is done through early elimination of non-important variables. Replicable is having a well structured methodology based on scientific proven methods. Following this methodology would result in good results that can be explained if needed and replicated if deemed necessary. Comprehensive translates into a holistic set of indices that measure performance as well as organizational learning. Findings and Originality/value: The three attributes (feasible, replicable and comprehensive have become crucial for ensuring any kind of added value for such a methodology that hopes to tackle the modern dynamic business environment and gaining a sustainable competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications: Such a methodology would require several full contextual applications to be able to set its final design. It entails thorough internal revision of a company's structure. Therefore a great deal of transparency and self-transcendence from the individual involved is a pre-requisite for any chance of success. Originality/value: It offers a systematic way to assess a company's performance/competitive positioning while accounting for the crucial attribute of organizational learning in its makeup.

  4. Amplition in the workplace: building a sustainable workforce through individual positive psychological interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Blanc, P.M.; Oerlemans, W.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Workforce sustainability is of vital utmost importance for the viability and competitive advantage of contemporary organizations. Therefore, and in parallel with the rise of positive organizational psychology, organizations have become increasingly interested in how to enhance their employees’

  5. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  6. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 2: A Cognitive Framework to Support HRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.

  7. Considering Positive Psychology Constructs of Life Satisfaction and School Connectedness When Assessing Symptoms Related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B. Mancil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD demonstrate significant difficulty with academic and behavioral functioning. This, in turn, can lead to lower educational attainment and vocational achievement, which has serious long-term consequences and costs to individuals and society (Barkley, 2002, 2006; Mannuzza, Klein, Bessler, Malloy, & LaPadula, 1993. Researchers from a positive psychology framework suggest that ADHD symptoms (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity alone may not fully explain academic impairment (Diener, Scollon, & Lucas, 2004. From the standpoint of positive psychology, life satisfaction and school connectedness are important constructs that examine positive life functioning; however, they have been understudied, particularly in the area of ADHD. The current study investigated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and these positive psychological constructs. Results indicate that as ADHD symptoms increase, life satisfaction decreases; however, no relationship between ADHD symptoms and school connectedness was found. Beyond our primary analysis, we examined the relationship between gender and these variables. Results suggest that gender significantly moderates the relationship between ADHD and life satisfaction, with life satisfaction ratings decreasing for males as ADHD symptoms increase, yet remaining stable for females. ADHD symptoms did not significantly predict changes in school connectedness. Furthermore, gender did not significantly moderate the relationship between school connectedness and ADHD symptoms.

  8. Positive Psychology and Disaster Mental Health: Strategies for Working with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernberg, Eric M; Hambrick, Erin P; Cho, Bridget; Hendrickson, Michelle L

    2016-12-01

    Positive psychology concepts and principles can be incorporated into preparedness, crisis response, and recovery phases of disaster mental health efforts to address the needs of children, adolescents, and families. This article articulates general developmental considerations for applying positive psychology in disaster mental health contexts and discusses how 5 essential elements of immediate and midterm mass trauma intervention identified by Hobfoll et al. (2007) may be infused in applications of positive psychology for children and adolescents. Specific strategies for working with children, adolescents, and their families in home, community, and school contexts are drawn in part from disaster mental health resources developed jointly by the National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, including the Psychological First Aid Field Operations Guide (Brymer et al., 2006), the Skills for Psychological Recovery Field Operations Guide (Berkowitz et al., 2010), and the Psychological First Aid for Schools Field Operations Manual (Brymer et al., 2012). Two case examples illustrate the use of positive psychology principles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An integral, positive psychology paradigm for global coherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article reviews research evidence in relation to psychophysiological coherence, which is characterised by a heart rhythm pattern of elevated amplitude in low frequency heart rate variability of around 0.1 Hz. This is associated with synchronisation between various physiological systems, positive emotions, athletes' ...

  10. Ten Ways to Infuse Positive Psychology in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Scott

    2012-01-01

    School professionals, including school psychologists, have often operated from a problem- or deficit-based perspective with a focus on identifying and remediating psychoeducational disorders in children and adolescents. However, positive psychologists have argued that an exclusive focus on deficits does not offer a comprehensive perspective of…

  11. Positive resources for combating job burnout among Chinese telephone operators: Resilience and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaohong; Liu, Chunqin; Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Guopeng; Kong, Linghua; Li, Ping

    2015-08-30

    Job burnout is a major concern within the service industry. However, there is a lack of research exploring positive resources for combating burnout among telephone operators. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resilience, psychological empowerment, and job burnout, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment. A cross-sectional survey of 575 telephone operators was conducted in 2 call centers in Shandong Province, China. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess job burnout symptoms, resilience, and psychological empowerment. Hierarchical linear regression was performed to analyze the degree to which resilience and psychological empowerment are associated with job burnout, and the mediating role of psychological empowerment. The results showed that resilience and psychological empowerment had significant "net effects" on job burnout, which may represent positive resources for combating job burnout. Psychological empowerment may partially mediate the relationship between resilience and job burnout. Thus, interventions focused on resilience and psychological empowerment may be useful options for managers concerned about burnout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychosocial Adaptation to Disability Within the Context of Positive Psychology: Philosophical Aspects and Historical Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Martz, Erin

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the conceptual and clinical similarities that exist between the principles of positive psychology and those underlying rehabilitation counseling and psychology, occupational rehabilitation, and those espoused by the field of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID). Three themes were selected for review. These included the historical contributions of early scholars in the area of psychosocial adaptation to CID that later were indirectly infused into mainstream positive psychology; state and trait constructs that constitute much of the infrastructure of positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID; and, finally, the philosophical congruencies between positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID. The existing literature indicates that there is a substantial philosophical and conceptual overlap between the fields of positive psychology and psychosocial adaptation to CID. Since theoreticians and researchers, from both fields, often use differing terminology and definitions to describe similar concepts, as well as seek similar research goals, it would behoove both fields to seek a closer partnership in order to establish a meaningful dialogue that focuses on human strengths and virtues in the lives of people with CID.

  13. Positive psychology in cancer care: bad science, exaggerated claims, and unproven medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C; Tennen, Howard

    2010-02-01

    Claims of positive psychology about people with cancer enjoy great popularity because they seem to offer scientific confirmation of strongly held cultural beliefs and values. Our goal is to examine critically four widely accepted claims in the positive psychology literature regarding adaptational outcomes among individuals living with cancer. We examine: (1) the role of positive factors, such as a "fighting spirit" in extending the life of persons with cancer; (2) effects of interventions cultivating positive psychological states on immune functioning and cancer progression and mortality; and evidence concerning (3) benefit finding and (4) post-traumatic growth following serious illness such as cancer and other highly threatening experiences. Claims about these areas of research routinely made in the positive psychology literature do not fit with available evidence. We note in particular the incoherence of claims about the adaptational value of benefit finding and post-traumatic growth among cancer patients, and the implausibility of claims that interventions that enhance benefit finding improve the prognosis of cancer patients by strengthening the immune system. We urge positive psychologists to rededicate themselves to a positive psychology based on scientific evidence rather than wishful thinking.

  14. Positive psychological strengths and school engagement in primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Wilkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A sizeable body of research has investigated the impact of specific character strengths or traits on significant outcomes. Some recent research is beginning to consider the effects of groups of strengths, combined as a higher order variable and termed covitality. This study investigated the combined influence of four positive character traits, gratitude, optimism, zest and persistence, upon school engagement, within a sample of 112 Australian primary school students. The combined effect of these four traits, in defining covitality as a higher or second-order factor within a path analysis, was found to predict relatively higher levels of school engagement and pro-social behaviour.

  15. Suicide Risk Assessment Training for Psychology Doctoral Programs: Core Competencies and a Framework for Training

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Robert J.; Johnson, Shara M.; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Rausch, Emilie M.; Conroy, Mary Alice

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and counseling psychology programs currently lack adequate evidence-based competency goals and training in suicide risk assessment. To begin to address this problem, this article proposes core competencies and an integrated training framework that can form the basis for training and research in this area. First, we evaluate the extent to which current training is effective in preparing trainees for suicide risk assessment. Within this discussion, sample and methodological issues are ...

  16. A conceptual framework of impression management: new insights from psychology, sociology, and critical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Niamh; Merkl-Davies, Doris M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop a conceptual framework, based on the concepts of rationality and motivation, which uses theories and empirical research from psychology/behavioural finance, sociology and critical accounting to systematise, advance and challenge research on impression management. The paper focuses on research which departs from economic concepts of impression management as opportunistic managerial discretionary disclosure behaviour resulting in reporting bias or as ‘cheap talk’. Using...

  17. Positive psychology and ideas of cultural-historical school of L.S. Vygotsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilev V.K.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article was carried out a comparative analysis between two distinctive psychology schools: the cultural-historical psychology of L.V. Vygotsky and the positive psychological school. Distinct are a number of significant similarities between their basic ideas that are valuable both for the development of human knowledge and for public practice. The authors have outlined and systematized the leading personal and intellectual qualities of the famous psychologists who have created the most promising theories in the psychological science. The category is highlighted as well as a small group of visionary psychologists who have identified the most important problems of man and psychology and have offered the best quality solutions to these problems. These are W. James, S. Freud, L. Vygotsky, E. Eriksson and A. Maslow; We’ve noticed that Vygotsky alone meets all the criteria, as if the concept of insightful psychologists was modeled over his creative work and his personality.

  18. Positive technology–A powerful partnership between positive psychology and interactive technology. A discussion of potential and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Diefenbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the umbrella term "positive computing" concepts of positive psychology are transferred to the domain of human-computer interaction (HCI. In an interdisciplinary community psychologist, computer scientists, designers and others are exploring promising ways how to utilize interactive technology to support wellbeing and human flourishing. Along with this, the recent popularity of smartphone apps aiming at the improvement of health behavior, mindfulness and positive routines, suggests the general acceptance of technology as a facilitator of personal development. Given this, there generally seems a high potential for a technology mediated trigger of positive behavior change, especially in context of positive psychology and resource oriented approaches such as solution-focused coaching. At the same time, there is still a lack of well-founded approaches to design such technology which consider its responsible role as an "interactive coach" and systematically integrate the needed expertise of different disciplines. The present article discusses the general potential and particular challenges to support the goals of positive psychology and human desire for self-improvement through interactive technology and highlights critical steps for a successful partnership between both.

  19. The Role of Wellbeing and Wellness: A Positive Psychological Model in Supporting Young People With ASCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years sport psychology expanded its applicability in a variety of fields which have helped to address some of the challenges related to high level performance and sport competition. When we talk about performance in its wider sense, sport psychology is able to help develop a better understanding on how strategies can be adopted in improving general human performance levels. This includes increasing the knowledge of key concepts such as motivation, self-confidence and resilience. Furthermore performance in its wider sense helps in the understanding of the impact of stress and arousal and how these can affect both positively and negatively performance levels including appreciating individual differences as well as dynamics between groups of individuals. In this paper performance rather than solely be related to the field of competitive or professional sport has been discussed in people with ASCs and aims to explore how by adopting a positive psychological model in the formulation of individual assessments and subsequent interventions have led to improvement in individual skills, participation, engagement and ultimately quality of life. Positive psychological principles, such as the role of wellbeing and wellness, the PERMA Model has increased our understanding of human potentials, performance and wellbeing. The aim of this paper is to present and reflect on the applicability and benefits of adopting sport psychology models, the PERMA model and positive psychological principles in special education and care settings with the presentation and discussion of their theoretical and some practical implementation in two case studies.

  20. Positive Psychology Interventions for Patients With Heart Disease: A Preliminary Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikrahan, Gholam Reza; Suarez, Laura; Asgari, Karim; Beach, Scott R; Celano, Christopher M; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Abedi, Mohammad Reza; Etesampour, Ali; Abbas, Rezaei; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychologic characteristics have been linked to superior cardiac outcomes. Accordingly, in this exploratory study, we assessed positive psychology interventions in patients who had recently undergone a procedure to treat cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 different 6-week face-to-face interventions or a wait-list control condition. We assessed intervention feasibility and compared changes in psychologic outcome measures postintervention (7wk) and at follow-up (15wk) between intervention and control participants. Across the interventions, 74% of assigned sessions were completed. When comparing outcomes between interventions and control participants (N = 55 total), there were no between-group differences post-intervention, but at follow-up intervention participants had greater improvements in happiness (β = 14.43, 95% CI: 8.66-20.2, p psychology intervention for cardiac patients. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Positive Psychology for Overcoming Symptoms of Depression: A Pilot Study Exploring the Efficacy of a Positive Psychology Self-Help Book versus a CBT Self-Help Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Katie

    2018-04-25

    Depression is an extremely common mental health disorder, with prevalence rates rising. Low-intensity interventions are frequently used to help meet the demand for treatment. Bibliotherapy, for example, is often prescribed via books on prescription schemes (for example 'Reading Well' in England) to those with mild to moderate symptomology. Bibliotherapy can effectively reduce symptoms of depression (Naylor et al., 2010). However, the majority of self-help books are based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which may not be suitable for all patients. Research supports the use of positive psychology interventions for the reduction of depression symptoms (Bolier et al., 2013) and as such self-help books from this perspective should be empirically tested. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 'Positive Psychology for Overcoming Depression' (Akhtar, 2012), a self-help book for depression that is based on the principles of positive psychology, in comparison with a CBT self-help book that is currently prescribed in England as part of the Reading Well books on prescription scheme. Participants (n = 115) who were not receiving treatment, but had symptoms of depression, read the positive psychology or the CBT self-help book for 8 weeks. Depression and well-being were measured at baseline, post-test and 1-month follow-up. Results suggest that both groups experienced a reduction in depression and an increase in well-being, with no differences noted between the two books. Future directions are discussed in terms of dissemination, to those with mild to moderate symptoms of depression, via books on prescription schemes.

  2. Predicting College Students' Positive Psychology Associated Traits with Executive Functioning Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Seth

    2016-01-01

    More research is needed that investigates how positive psychology-associated traits are predicted by neurocognitive processes. Correspondingly, the purpose of this study was to ascertain how, and to what extent, four traits, namely, grit, optimism, positive affect, and life satisfaction were predicted by the executive functioning (EF) dimensions…

  3. Positive Psychology in Cancer Care : A Story Line Resistant to Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyne, James C.; Tennen, Howard; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Aspinwall and Tedeschi (Ann Behav Med, 2010) summarize evidence they view as supporting links between positive psychological states, including sense of coherence (SOC) and optimism and health outcomes, and they refer to persistent assumptions that interfere with understanding how positive states

  4. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current

  5. A Critique of Positive Psychology--Or "The New Science of Happiness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the new science of positive psychology is founded on a whole series of fallacious arguments; these involve circular reasoning, tautology, failure to clearly define or properly apply terms, the identification of causal relations where none exist, and unjustified generalisation. Instead of demonstrating that positive attitudes…

  6. Psychological Flexibility as a Framework for Understanding and Improving Family Reintegration Following Military Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Emily K; Moyer, Danielle N; Armelie, Aaron P

    2015-10-01

    Postdeployment reintegration may present an exceptional challenge to service members and their families; yet, overcoming this challenge seems to strengthen family relationships through a shared sense of purpose. Navigating family reintegration may be an important determinant of long-term psychological well-being. If the needs of military families are to be answered effectively, it is of critical importance to identify the skills that facilitate positive reintegration following deployment. This article proposes psychological flexibility as a group of interrelated skills that could be directly intervened on to facilitate not only resilience but also positive growth and development. This paper focuses on the conceptualization of family reintegration in terms of psychological flexibility, including common deficits observed in this population and potential goals of treatment. Video Abstract. © 2014 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  7. Psychosocial Adaptation to Disability Within the Context of Positive Psychology: Findings from the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Erin; Livneh, Hanoch

    2016-03-01

    This purpose of this article is to review of the trends of research that examined positive psychology constructs in the context of adapting to chronic illness and disability (CID). This article examines the empirical findings on the relationships between six selected positive psychology-associated constructs (optimism, hope, resilience, benefit-finding, meaning-making, and post-traumatic growth) and adaptation to disability. Six positive psychology constructs were selected to represent the trends found in recent literature published on CID. The process of choosing these six variables included reviewing chapters on positive psychology and CID, reviewing the top rehabilitation journals that typically publish articles on psychosocial adaptation to CID, using search engines to find relevant journal articles published since the year 2000, and selecting the most important constructs based on the authors’ professional judgment. The available evidence supports the unique benefits of these six positive psychology constructs in predicting successful adaptation to a range of disabling conditions. Based on the available findings, the authors offer four suggestions for occupational rehabilitation researchers.

  8. Supported Decision-Making: Implications from Positive Psychology for Assessment and Intervention in Rehabilitation and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanik, Hatice; Shogren, Karrie A; Blanck, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Purpose This article reviews existing literature on positive psychology, supported decision-making (SDM), employment, and disability. It examines interventions and assessments that have been empirically evaluated for the enhancement of decision-making and overall well-being of people with disabilities. Additionally, conceptual themes present in the literature were explored. Methods A systematic review was conducted across two databases (ERIC and PsychINFO) using various combination of keywords of 'disabilit*', work rehabilitation and employment terms, positive psychology terms, and SDM components. Seven database searches were conducted with diverse combinations of keywords, which identified 1425 results in total to be screened for relevance using their titles and abstracts. Database search was supplemented with hand searches of oft-cited journals, ancestral search, and supplemental search from grey literature. Results Only four studies were identified in the literature targeting SDM and positive psychology related constructs in the employment and job development context. Results across the studies indicated small to moderate impacts of the assessment and interventions on decision-making and engagement outcomes. Conceptually there are thematic areas of potential overlap, although they are limited in the explicit integration of theory in supported decision-making, positive psychology, disability, and employment. Conclusion Results suggest a need for additional scholarship in this area that focuses on theory development and integration as well as empirical work. Such work should examine the potential utility of considering positive psychological interventions when planning for SDM in the context of career development activities to enhance positive outcomes related to decision-making, self-determination, and other positive psychological constructs.

  9. Evaluation of the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program: A Positive Psychology Intervention With Prison Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Kim H; Hall, Brittany; Hurst, Mark A; Bikos, Lynette H

    2015-08-01

    Two groups of male inmates (n = 31, n = 31) participated in the Positive Re-Entry in Corrections Program (PRCP). This positive psychology intervention focused on teaching offenders skills that facilitate re-entry into the community. Offenders participated in weekly lectures, discussions, and homework assignments focused on positive psychology principles. The two groups differed in duration of treatment (8 weeks and 12 weeks). Participants completed pre- and post-intervention measures of gratitude, hope, and life satisfaction. Using a 2 × 2 mixed design ANOVA, we hypothesized that the intervention (with two between-subjects levels of 8 and 12 weeks) and duration (with two repeated measures levels of pre and post) of treatment would moderate pre- to post-intervention change. Results indicated significant differences on pre- and post-intervention scores for both groups of offenders on all measures. The analysis did not yield statistically significant differences between groups, demonstrating no additive benefits from the inclusion of four additional sessions, thus saving time and money for correctional programming and funding. This research supports the use of positive psychology in prison interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Towards a Semiotic Information Position Framework for Network Centric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    study of anything which stands for something else [10]. Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and American logician and philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce...are considered as the founders of semiotics [10]. As a linguist, Saussure was interested in the relationships between words (or signs) and he argued...to Eco, Saussure “did not define the signified any too clearly, leaving it half way between a mental image, a concept and a psychological reality

  11. Psychological resilience, pain catastrophizing, and positive emotions: perspectives on comprehensive modeling of individual pain adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, John A; Zautra, Alex J

    2013-03-01

    Pain is a complex construct that contributes to profound physical and psychological dysfunction, particularly in individuals coping with chronic pain. The current paper builds upon previous research, describes a balanced conceptual model that integrates aspects of both psychological vulnerability and resilience to pain, and reviews protective and exacerbating psychosocial factors to the process of adaptation to chronic pain, including pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and positive psychological resources predictive of enhanced pain coping. The current paper identifies future directions for research that will further enrich the understanding of pain adaptation and espouses an approach that will enhance the ecological validity of psychological pain coping models, including introduction of advanced statistical and conceptual models that integrate behavioral, cognitive, information processing, motivational and affective theories of pain.

  12. Towards a framework for psychological resilience in children and adolescents with Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychological well-being is one of the greatest concerns in children and adolescents with Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF. Those youths are frequently exposed to stress and social inequality, and they are particularly prone to developing mental health issues which persist through adolescence and into adult life. The purpose of this article is to introduce a framework for promoting psychological resilience in children and adolescents with BIF. Three interrelated and complementary factors require professional attention and efforts to improve resilience in children with borderline intelligence: a protecting a child’s self-worth, b generating sources of social support, c training of adaptive coping skills. The significance of early diagnosis and continuous monitoring of a child’s development is also discussed. Children with BIF should be provided with internal (self-worth, coping skills and external (social support resources to enhance their resilience and ability to confront adversities, and to reduce the risk of mental health issues.

  13. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Jacki; Stoner, Charlotte R; Wenborn, Jennifer; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Orrell, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and psychometric properties of existing positive psychology measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia to determine their potential utility in research and practice. A systematic review of positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people with dementia was conducted. The databases searched were as follows: PsychINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed. Scale development papers were subject to a quality assessment to appraise psychometric properties. Twelve positive outcome measures and six validation papers of these scales were identified. The emerging constructs of self-efficacy, spirituality, resilience, rewards, gain, and meaning are in line with positive psychology theory. There are some robust positive measures in existence for family caregivers of people living with dementia. However, lack of reporting of the psychometric properties hindered the quality assessment of some outcome measures identified in this review. Future research should aim to include positive outcome measures in interventional research to facilitate a greater understanding of the positive aspects of caregiving and how these contribute to well-being.

  14. Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B; Luthans, Fred; Smith, Ronda M; Palmer, Noel F

    2010-01-01

    The recently recognized core construct of psychological capital or PsyCap (consisting of the positive psychological resources of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) has been demonstrated to be related to various employee attitudinal, behavioral, and performance outcomes. However, to date, the impact of this positive core construct over time and on important employee well-being outcomes has not been tested. This study meets this need by analyzing the relationship between a broad cross-section of employees' (N = 280) level of PsyCap and two measures of psychological well-being over time. The results indicated that employees' PsyCap was related to both measures of well-being and, importantly, that PsyCap explained additional variance in these well-being measures over time. The limitations, needed future research, and practical implications conclude the article.

  15. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2014-01-01

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current study we aimed to provide these insights by introducing an experimental dynamical research design. Rowing pairs had to compete against a virtual opponent on rowing ergometers, while a screen in front of the team broadcasted the ongoing race. The race was manipulated so that the team's rowing avatar gradually progressed (positive momentum) or regressed (negative momentum) in relation to the victory. The participants responded verbally to collective efficacy and task cohesion items appearing on the screen each minute. In addition, effort exertion and interpersonal coordination were continuously measured. Our results showed negative psychological changes (perceptions of collective efficacy and task cohesion) during negative team momentum, which were stronger than the positive changes during positive team momentum. Moreover, teams' exerted efforts rapidly decreased during negative momentum, whereas positive momentum accompanied a more variable and adaptive sequence of effort exertion. Finally, the interpersonal coordination was worse during negative momentum than during positive momentum. These results provide the first empirical insights into actual team momentum dynamics, and demonstrate how a dynamical research approach significantly contributes to current knowledge on psychological and behavioral processes.

  16. Positive and negative psychological impact after secondary exposure to politically motivated violence among body handlers and rehabilitation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Alkalay, Yasmin; Meiner, Zeev; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2008-12-01

    The positive and negative psychological impact of secondary exposure to politically motivated violence was examined among body handlers and hospital rehabilitation workers, 2 groups that differed in their proximity and immediacy to violent events. Survivors of politically motivated violence served as a comparison group. Body handlers experienced high levels of positive psychological impact and traumatic stress symptoms. Levels of positive psychological impact among on-scene body handlers were higher than those experienced by rehabilitation workers. Traumatic stress symptoms predicted positive psychological impact among body handlers. These findings indicate that proximity to stressors is associated with higher levels of positive and negative psychological impact. Physical proximity is a major contributory factor to both positive and negative psychological effects of secondary exposure to trauma.

  17. Teaching for Civic Engagement: Lesson Learned from Integrating Positive Psychology and Future Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeanie K.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching for civic education holds promise for assisting colleges and universities that suggest the promotion of global citizenship in their mission statements. This paper presents the study of a course where readings and activities from the literature of positive psychology were integrated with studies about current global issues and potential…

  18. The Promising but Challenging Case of Humility as a Positive Psychology Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter C.; Sandage, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    In maintaining that virtue is a legitimate concept worthy of empirical study, a strong situationist approach to the study of behavior is countered. An earlier analysis is then drawn upon to maintain that virtue has the capability of integrating several themes in positive psychology: ethics and health, embodied character, strength and resilience,…

  19. The Role of Positive Psychology in Enhancing Satisfaction, Motivation, and Productivity in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology offers scope for enhancing satisfaction, motivation, and productivity in the workplace. Wiegand and Geller (2004, this issue) point to a number of strategies to enhance individuals' success orientation and conclude their discussion with the actively caring model which appears to be a useful means of representing pivotal facets…

  20. Positive Psychology and Familial Factors as Predictors of Latina/o Students' Hope and College Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…

  1. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  2. Positive Psychological Interventions for Children: A Comparison of Gratitude and Best Possible Selves Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Rhea L.; Patterson, Meagan M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have found benefits of positive psychological interventions, such as gratitude promotion or thinking about best possible selves, for adolescents and adults. Almost no research, however, has been conducted on the efficacy of such interventions for children. The authors' primary goal was to compare the outcomes of gratitude promotion…

  3. Analyzing the Relationship between Positive Psychological Capital and Organizational Commitment of the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine the relationship between teachers' positive psychological capital levels and organisational commitment. The study was conducted as a correlational survey which is one of the quantitative methods. The sample group consists of 244 teachers selected by using random sampling method among 1270 teachers working in…

  4. Teacher Motivation, Work Satisfaction, and Positive Psychological Capital: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseu, João; Neves de Jesus, Saul; Rus, Claudia; Canavarro, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher motivation is vital for the educational system. For teachers to be motivated their work satisfaction and positive psychological capital are crucial. The state-of-the-art on teacher motivation requires a literature review regarding the studies that relate teacher motivation and the above mentioned constructs. In this paper, through…

  5. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  6. Health Care "as Usual": The Insertion of Positive Psychology in Canadian Mental Health Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhangiani, Surita Jassal; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    The recent shift to a "positive psychological" approach that emphasizes a "health model," rather than a "disease model," in mental health discourses is intended both to reduce the stigma around mental health issues and to enable people to play a role in monitoring their own mental health. As a component of a larger…

  7. Positive Psychology in Cancer Care: A Story Line Resistant to Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, James C.; Tennen, Howard; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aspinwall and Tedeschi (Ann Behav Med, 2010) summarize evidence they view as supporting links between positive psychological states, including sense of coherence (SOC) and optimism and health outcomes, and they refer to persistent assumptions that interfere with understanding how positive states predict health. Purpose We critically evaluate Aspinwall and Tedeschi?s assertions. Methods We examine evidence related to SOC and optimism in relation to physical health, and revisit propo...

  8. Internalized Transphobia, Resilience, and Mental Health: Applying the Psychological Mediation Framework to Italian Transgender Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Scandurra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC people are a highly-stigmatized population. For this reason, they might internalize society’s normative gender attitudes and develop negative mental health outcomes. As an extension of the minority stress model, the psychological mediation framework sheds light on psychological processes through which anti-transgender discrimination might affect mental health. Within this framework, the current study aimed at assessing in 149 TGNC Italian individuals the role of internalized transphobia as a mediator between anti-transgender discrimination and mental health, considering resilience as the individual-level coping mechanism buffering this relationship. The results suggest that both indicators of internalized transphobia (i.e., shame and alienation mediate the relationship between anti-transgender discrimination and depression, while only alienation mediates the relationship between anti-transgender discrimination and anxiety. Furthermore, the results suggest that the indirect relation between anti-transgender discrimination and anxiety through alienation is conditional on low and moderate levels of resilience. Findings have important implications for clinical practice and psycho-social interventions to reduce stigma and stress caused by interpersonal and individual stigma.

  9. Internalized Transphobia, Resilience, and Mental Health: Applying the Psychological Mediation Framework to Italian Transgender Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Vincenzo; Amodeo, Anna Lisa; Esposito, Concetta; Valerio, Paolo; Maldonato, Nelson Mauro; Bacchini, Dario; Vitelli, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people are a highly-stigmatized population. For this reason, they might internalize society’s normative gender attitudes and develop negative mental health outcomes. As an extension of the minority stress model, the psychological mediation framework sheds light on psychological processes through which anti-transgender discrimination might affect mental health. Within this framework, the current study aimed at assessing in 149 TGNC Italian individuals the role of internalized transphobia as a mediator between anti-transgender discrimination and mental health, considering resilience as the individual-level coping mechanism buffering this relationship. The results suggest that both indicators of internalized transphobia (i.e., shame and alienation) mediate the relationship between anti-transgender discrimination and depression, while only alienation mediates the relationship between anti-transgender discrimination and anxiety. Furthermore, the results suggest that the indirect relation between anti-transgender discrimination and anxiety through alienation is conditional on low and moderate levels of resilience. Findings have important implications for clinical practice and psycho-social interventions to reduce stigma and stress caused by interpersonal and individual stigma. PMID:29534023

  10. Psychological Resilience among Children Affected by Parental HIV/AIDS: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Sherr, Lorraine; Cluver, Lucie; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    HIV-related parental illness and death have a profound and lasting impact on a child's psychosocial wellbeing, potentially compromising the child's future. In response to a paucity of theoretical and conceptual discussions regarding the development of resilience among children affected by parental HIV, we proposed a conceptual framework of psychological resilience among children affected by HIV based on critical reviews of the existing theoretical and empirical literature. Three interactive social ecological factors were proposed to promote the resilience processes and attenuate the negative impact of parental HIV on children's psychological development. Internal assets, such as cognitive capacity, motivation to adapt, coping skills, religion/spirituality, and personality, promote resilience processes. Family resources and community resources are two critical contextual factors that facilitate resilience process. Family resources contain smooth transition, functional caregivers, attachment relationship, parenting discipline. Community resources contain teacher support, peer support, adult mentors, and effective school. The implications of the conceptual framework for future research and interventions among children affected by parental HIV were discussed.

  11. Psychological Resilience among Children Affected by Parental HIV/AIDS: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Sherr, Lorraine; Cluver, Lucie; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    HIV-related parental illness and death have a profound and lasting impact on a child's psychosocial wellbeing, potentially compromising the child's future. In response to a paucity of theoretical and conceptual discussions regarding the development of resilience among children affected by parental HIV, we proposed a conceptual framework of psychological resilience among children affected by HIV based on critical reviews of the existing theoretical and empirical literature. Three interactive social ecological factors were proposed to promote the resilience processes and attenuate the negative impact of parental HIV on children's psychological development. Internal assets, such as cognitive capacity, motivation to adapt, coping skills, religion/spirituality, and personality, promote resilience processes. Family resources and community resources are two critical contextual factors that facilitate resilience process. Family resources contain smooth transition, functional caregivers, attachment relationship, parenting discipline. Community resources contain teacher support, peer support, adult mentors, and effective school. The implications of the conceptual framework for future research and interventions among children affected by parental HIV were discussed. PMID:26716068

  12. Promoting Positive Psychology Using Social Networking Sites: A Study of New College Entrants on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Man Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential of promoting college students’ positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students’ Internet time and has the potential to assist students’ positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their strength effectively when facing objective difficulties and how this capability can be cultivated with certain approaches. A positive message delivery approach was designed for a group of new college entrants. A series of positive messages was edited by university counselors and delivered by students to their Facebook social groups. Responses from each posted positive messages were collected and analyzed by researchers. The responses indicated that: (1 relationships of individual engagement and social influence in this study can partially explain the observed student behavior; (2 using class-based social groups can promote a positive atmosphere to enhance strong-tie relationships in both the physical and virtual environments, and (3 promoting student’s positive attitudes can substantially impact adolescents’ future developments, and many positive attitudes can be cultivated by emotional events and social influence.

  13. Promoting positive psychology using social networking sites: a study of new college entrants on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Man; Lin, Yung-Hsiu; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chang, Her-Kun; Chong, Ping Pete

    2014-04-29

    This study explores the potential of promoting college students' positive psychological development using popular online social networks. Online social networks have dramatically changed the ways college students manage their social relationships. Social network activities, such as checking Facebook posts dominates students' Internet time and has the potential to assist students' positive development. Positive psychology is a scientific study of how ordinary individuals can apply their strength effectively when facing objective difficulties and how this capability can be cultivated with certain approaches. A positive message delivery approach was designed for a group of new college entrants. A series of positive messages was edited by university counselors and delivered by students to their Facebook social groups. Responses from each posted positive messages were collected and analyzed by researchers. The responses indicated that: (1) relationships of individual engagement and social influence in this study can partially explain the observed student behavior; (2) using class-based social groups can promote a positive atmosphere to enhance strong-tie relationships in both the physical and virtual environments, and (3) promoting student's positive attitudes can substantially impact adolescents' future developments, and many positive attitudes can be cultivated by emotional events and social influence.

  14. AMPLITION IN THE WORKPLACE: BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE WORKFORCE THROUGH INDIVIDUAL POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS

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    Pascale M. Le Blanc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Workforce sustainability is of vital utmost importance for the viability and competitive advantage of contemporary organizations. Therefore, and in parallel with the rise of positive organizational psychology, organizations have become increasingly interested in how to enhance their employees’ positive psychological well being. In this paper, amplition interventions – i.e. interventions aimed at enhancing positive work-related well being - are presented as a valuable tool to increase workforce sustainability. In the past decade, some work-related interventions focused on amplition have been developed and tested for their effectiveness. In this paper, we will first outline some important preconditions for successful interventions and briefly discuss the intervention process itself. Next, we will give an overview of empirical work on amplition interventions, focusing on interventions that are aimed at enhancing employee work engagement. Future research should focus on testing the effects of these type of interventions on outcomes at the team and organizational level.

  15. Being Positive. Approaching Career Design from the Perspective of Positive Psychology

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    Małgorzata Klimka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Constructing a career path based upon positive personal potential and positive individual resources is a significant factor for professional development of employees and their success on today’s labour market. A satisfying career, an inherent element of personal well-being and good life, is linked with an ability to explore and reinforce signature strengths. In order to effectively design programmes which could support young people who are preparing to enter a job market, it is essential to acquire knowledge about values and character strengths and their perceptions among young people living in Poland and abroad. The article presents comparative analysis of signature strengths perceptions among young people in different cultures and discusses the significance of the most striking differences.

  16. Positive Psychological Interventions for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Rationale, Theoretical Model, and Intervention Development

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    Jeff C. Huffman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D have suboptimal adherence to recommended diet, physical activity, and/or medication. Current approaches to improve health behaviors in T2D have been variably effective, and successful interventions are often complex and intensive. It is therefore vital to develop interventions that are simple, well-accepted, and applicable to a wide range of patients who suffer from T2D. One approach may be to boost positive psychological states, such as positive affect or optimism, as these constructs have been prospectively and independently linked to improvements in health behaviors. Positive psychology (PP interventions, which utilize systematic exercises to increase optimism, well-being, and positive affect, consistently increase positive states and are easily delivered to patients with chronic illnesses. However, to our knowledge, PP interventions have not been formally tested in T2D. In this paper, we review a theoretical model for the use of PP interventions to target health behaviors in T2D, describe the structure and content of a PP intervention for T2D patients, and describe baseline data from a single-arm proof-of-concept (N=15 intervention study in T2D patients with or without depression. We also discuss how PP interventions could be combined with motivational interviewing (MI interventions to provide a blended psychological-behavioral approach.

  17. Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sin, NL; Lyubomirsky, S

    2009-01-01

    Do positive psychology interventions - that is, treatment methods or intentional activities aimed at cultivating positive feelings, positive behaviors, or positive cognitions - enhance well-being and ameliorate depressive symptoms? A meta-analysis of 51 such interventions with 4,266 individuals was conducted to address this question and to provide practical guidance to clinicians. The results revealed that positive psychology interventions do indeed significantly enhance well-being (mean r=.2...

  18. Positive Psychological Capital and Parenting Styles among adolescents: Khasi and Non-Khasi Scenario

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    Rita Karmakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychological capital (PsyCap, an individual’s positive psychological state of development, is characterized by four components. These four components are (1 Hope (commonly associated with one’s positive expectancy towards the future, (2 Self-efficacy (confidence to put in considerable effort to succeed at challenging task, (3 Resilience (individual’s capability to successfully cope with adverse circumstances, uncertainty and conflict and (4 Optimism (a cognitive process directed at positive outcomes or expectancies of a bright and prosperous future. The sample consists of 160 Khasi (75 boys and 85 girls selected from East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya and 185 non-Khasi (100 boys and 85 girls selected from Kolkata district of West Bengal adolescents studying at high schools of East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya and Kolkata district of West Bengal. Parental Authority Questionnaire and Psychological Capital Scale were used to assess the parenting style and positive PsyCap, respectively. The results revealed that dimensions of positive PsyCap vary with respect to culture and the effect of culture is prominent among adolescent boys. Non-Khasi adolescent boys are significantly higher on positive PsyCap dimensions than their Khasi counterparts. Adolescents who perceive their parents as high on authoritarian dimension display lower level of Positive PsyCap and its dimensions while those perceive their parents as high on authoritative style score higher on Positive PsyCap and its dimensions. Implications for parental practices and positive PsyCap in families and schools are discussed.

  19. Integrating the ICF with positive psychology: Factors predicting role participation for mothers with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ruth S; Kern, Margaret L; Brusilovsky, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Being a mother has become a realizable life role for women with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying psychosocial factors that facilitate participation in important life roles-including motherhood-is essential to help women have fuller lives despite the challenge of their illness. By integrating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and a positive psychology perspective, this study examined how environmental social factors and positive personal factors contribute to daily role participation and satisfaction with parental participation. One hundred and 11 community-dwelling mothers with MS completed Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, the Short Form-36, and the Parental Participation Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses examined associations between social support and positive personal factors (environmental mastery, self-acceptance, purpose in life) with daily role participation (physical and emotional) and satisfaction with parental participation. One-way ANOVAs tested synergistic combinations of social support and positive personal factors. Social support predicted daily role participation (fewer limitations) and greater satisfaction with parental participation. Positive personal factors contributed additional unique variance. Positive personal factors and social support synergistically predicted better function and greater satisfaction than either alone. Integrating components of the ICF and positive psychology provides a useful model for understanding how mothers with MS can thrive despite challenge or impairment. Both positive personal factors and environmental social factors were important contributors to positive role functioning. Incorporating these paradigms into treatment may help mothers with MS participate more fully in meaningful life roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Do positive psychology exercises work? A replication of Seligman et al. (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongrain, Myriam; Anselmo-Matthews, Tracy

    2012-04-01

    The current work replicated a landmark study conducted by Seligman and colleagues (2005) that demonstrated the long-term benefits of positive psychology exercises (PPEs). In the original study, two exercises administered over 1 week ("Three Good Things" and "Using your Signature Strengths in a New Way") were found to have long-lasting effects on depression and happiness (Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005). These exercises were tested here using the same methodology except for improvements to the control condition, and the addition of a second "positive placebo" to isolate the common factor of accessing positive, self-relevant constructs. This component control design was meant to assess the effect of expectancies for success (expectancy control), as well the cognitive access of positive information about the self (positive placebo). Repeated measures analyses showed that the PPEs led to lasting increases in happiness, as did the positive placebo. The PPEs did not exceed the control condition in producing changes in depression over time. Brief, positive psychology interventions may boost happiness through a common factor involving the activation of positive, self-relevant information rather than through other specific mechanisms. Finally, the effects of PPEs on depression may be more modest than previously assumed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Positive Psychological Functioning: evidence for a new construct and its measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Dolores Merino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the Institute of Happiness conducted one of the most ambitious studies ever done on this subject in Spain. Many different variables were measured: socio-demographics and psychological, (the latter through new instruments and all were applied to a representative sample of 3000 participants of the Spanish population. Study 1 of this research used that database. The objective of this Study was to understand how key psychological resources are organized (Autonomy, Resilience, Self-Esteem, Purpose in life, Enjoyment, Optimism, Curiosity, Creativity, Humor, Environmental mastery and Vitality. The purpose of Study 2 was to replicate the results of Study 1 and to test the psychometrical properties of the new scales used in Study 1, but using a sample of 130 college students. This research proves that key psychological resources are interconnected, forming a second order construct we call Positive Psychological Functioning (PPF, and, it develops a new Spanish scale to assess it. This measure is formed with 11 subscales each containing three items. This scale structure allows a general and a specific assessment of PPF and, in consequence, of human psychological well-being.

  2. ENED-GEM: A Conceptual Framework Model for Psychological Enjoyment Factors and Learning Mechanisms in Educational Games about the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjællingsdal, Kristoffer S.; Klöckner, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on a thorough review of psychological literature, this article seeks to develop a model of game enjoyment and environmental learning (ENvironmental EDucational Game Enjoyment Model, ENED-GEM) and delineate psychological processes that might facilitate learning and inspire behavioral change from educational games about the environment. A critically acclaimed digital educational game about environmental issues (Fate of the World by Red Redemption/Soothsayer Games) was used as a case study. Two hundred forty-nine reviews of the game from the popular gaming and reviewing platform known as Steam were analyzed by means of a thematic content analysis in order to identify key player enjoyment factors believed to be relevant to the process of learning from games, as well as to gain an understanding of positive and negative impressions about the game’s general content. The end results of the thematic analysis were measured up to the suggested ENED-GEM framework. Initial results generally support the main elements of the ENED-GEM, and future research into the importance of these individual core factors is outlined. PMID:28701988

  3. ENED-GEM: A Conceptual Framework Model for Psychological Enjoyment Factors and Learning Mechanisms in Educational Games about the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer S. Fjællingsdal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a thorough review of psychological literature, this article seeks to develop a model of game enjoyment and environmental learning (ENvironmental EDucational Game Enjoyment Model, ENED-GEM and delineate psychological processes that might facilitate learning and inspire behavioral change from educational games about the environment. A critically acclaimed digital educational game about environmental issues (Fate of the World by Red Redemption/Soothsayer Games was used as a case study. Two hundred forty-nine reviews of the game from the popular gaming and reviewing platform known as Steam were analyzed by means of a thematic content analysis in order to identify key player enjoyment factors believed to be relevant to the process of learning from games, as well as to gain an understanding of positive and negative impressions about the game’s general content. The end results of the thematic analysis were measured up to the suggested ENED-GEM framework. Initial results generally support the main elements of the ENED-GEM, and future research into the importance of these individual core factors is outlined.

  4. ENED-GEM: A Conceptual Framework Model for Psychological Enjoyment Factors and Learning Mechanisms in Educational Games about the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjællingsdal, Kristoffer S; Klöckner, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Based on a thorough review of psychological literature, this article seeks to develop a model of game enjoyment and environmental learning (ENvironmental EDucational Game Enjoyment Model, ENED-GEM) and delineate psychological processes that might facilitate learning and inspire behavioral change from educational games about the environment. A critically acclaimed digital educational game about environmental issues (Fate of the World by Red Redemption/Soothsayer Games) was used as a case study. Two hundred forty-nine reviews of the game from the popular gaming and reviewing platform known as Steam were analyzed by means of a thematic content analysis in order to identify key player enjoyment factors believed to be relevant to the process of learning from games, as well as to gain an understanding of positive and negative impressions about the game's general content. The end results of the thematic analysis were measured up to the suggested ENED-GEM framework. Initial results generally support the main elements of the ENED-GEM, and future research into the importance of these individual core factors is outlined.

  5. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Positive Psychological Intervention for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Christina M; Millstein, Rachel A; Celano, Christopher M; Wexler, Deborah J; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychological attributes (eg, optimism) have been associated with a healthier lifestyle and superior medical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, there has been minimal study of behavioral interventions that target positive psychological constructs in this population. Accordingly, we developed a novel, telephone-based, 12-week positive psychology intervention and assessed its feasibility and short-term impact in adults with type 2 diabetes and suboptimal health behavior adherence. This was a pilot and feasibility study in adult inpatients and outpatients at an urban academic medical center recruited between December 2013 and December 2014. Adult patients with (1) type 2 diabetes (meeting American Diabetes Association criteria, eg, glycated hemoglobin A 1c [HbA 1c ] > 6.5% or fasting glucose > 126 mg/dL) and (2) suboptimal adherence (score psychology manual, completed exercises (eg, writing a gratitude letter, performing acts of kindness), and reviewed these activities by phone with a study trainer over the 12-week study period. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed via exercise completion rates and postexercise ratings of ease/utility on 0-10 Likert scales. Longer-term efficacy was explored by examining changes in psychological states and health behaviors from baseline to 12 weeks using random-effects regression models and estimates of effect size. A total of 15 participants enrolled; 12 participants provided complete baseline and follow-up data and were included in the analyses. Over 90% of these participants completed at least 2 exercises, and 75% completed a majority of the exercises. Participants rated the exercises as helpful (mean = 7.8/10) and easy to complete (mean = 7.1/10), and they reported improvements in optimism, gratitude, depression, anxiety, physical function, self-care, and health behaviors (Cohen d = 0.28-1.00). A positive psychology intervention for suboptimally adherent patients with type 2 diabetes was feasible

  6. Diabetes UK Position Statement. Competency frameworks in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, D; Deakin, T; Walsh, N; Turner, B; Lawrence, S; Priest, L; George, S; Vanterpool, G; McArdle, J; Rylance, A; Terry, G; Little, P

    2015-05-01

    The quality, skills and attitudes of staff working in the healthcare system are central to multidisciplinary learning and working, and to the delivery of the quality of care patients expect. Patients want to know that the staff supporting them have the right knowledge and attitudes to work in partnership, particularly for conditions such as diabetes where 95% of all care is delivered by the person with diabetes themselves. With the current changes in the NHS structures in England, and the potential for greater variation in the types of 'qualified provider', along with the recent scandal at Mid-Staffordshire Hospital, staff need to be shown to be competent and named/accredited or recognized as such. This will help to restore faith in an increasingly devolved delivery structure. The education and validation of competency needs to be consistently delivered and assured to ensure standards are maintained for different roles and disciplines across each UK nation. Diabetes UK recommends that all NHS organizations prioritize healthcare professional education, training and competency through the implementation of a National Diabetes Competency Framework and the phased approach to delivery to address this need. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  7. Does Employee Recognition Affect Positive Psychological Functioning and Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, M Dolores; Privado, Jesús

    2015-09-14

    Employee recognition is one of the typical characteristics of healthy organizations. The majority of research on recognition has studied the consequences of this variable on workers. But few investigations have focused on understanding what mechanisms mediate between recognition and its consequences. This work aims to understand whether the relationship between employee recognition and well-being, psychological resources mediate. To answer this question a sample of 1831 workers was used. The variables measured were: employee recognition, subjective well-being and positive psychological functioning (PPF), which consists of 11 psychological resources. In the analysis of data, structural equation models were applied. The results confirmed our hypothesis and showed that PPF mediate the relationship between recognition and well-being. The effect of recognition over PPF is two times greater (.39) with peer-recognition than with supervisor-recognition (.20), and, the effect of PPF over well-being is .59. This study highlights the importance of promoting employee recognition policies in organizations for the impact it has, not only on well-being, but also on the positive psychological functioning of the workers.

  8. Maternal Prenatal Psychological Distress and Preschool Cognitive Functioning: the Protective Role of Positive Parental Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Johnson, Katrina C

    2017-02-01

    Considerable animal research and available human studies suggest that psychological distress experienced by mothers during gestation is associated with later neurodevelopmental deficits in offspring; however, little research has examined potential protective factors that might mitigate this risk. The current study examined the impact of maternal prenatal psychological distress during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes in preschoolers (ages 2.5-5 years) and positive parenting as a potential protective factor. Mother-child dyads (N = 162, mean child age = 44 months, 49 % female) were recruited from a longitudinal cohort of women who had previously participated in a study of maternal mood disorders during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal distress was assessed with multiple measures collected throughout pregnancy. During a follow-up visit, mothers were interviewed about their psychological symptoms since the birth of the child, parenting behaviors were recorded during a parent-child interaction, and children's cognitive abilities were measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd Edition. Maternal prenatal distress significantly predicted lower general cognitive abilities; however, this relationship was strongest for children whose mothers exhibited low levels of positive engagement and not significant when mothers exhibited high levels of positive engagement. Results suggest that positive parental engagement can protect against the detrimental effects of maternal prenatal distress on preschoolers' cognitive abilities.

  9. A topographical map approach to representing treatment efficacy: a focus on positive psychology interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Lee, Josephine; Otto, Michael W

    2018-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis by Bolier et al. indicated that positive psychology interventions have overall small to moderate effects on well-being, but results were quite heterogeneous across intervention trials. Such meta-analytic research helps condense information on the efficacy of a broad psychosocial intervention by averaging across many effects; however, such global averages may provide limited navigational guidance for selecting among specific interventions. Here, we introduce a novel method for displaying qualitative and quantitative information on the efficacy of interventions using a topographical map approach. As an initial prototype for demonstrating this method, we mapped 50 positive psychology interventions targeting well-being (as captured in the Bolier et al. [2013] meta-analysis, [Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13, 83]). Each intervention domain/subdomain was mapped according to its average effect size (indexed by vertical elevation), number of studies providing effect sizes (indexed by horizontal area), and therapist/client burden (indexed by shading). The geographical placement of intervention domains/subdomains was determined by their conceptual proximity, allowing viewers to gauge the general conceptual "direction" in which promising intervention effects can be found. The resulting graphical displays revealed several prominent features of the well-being intervention "landscape," such as more strongly and uniformly positive effects of future-focused interventions (including, goal-pursuit and optimism training) compared to past/present-focused ones.

  10. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A quantitative, descriptive, transversal and correlational, research with a non-experimental design was realized, with a sample of 55 students of Intercultural Nursing. Two questionnaires were applied: the scale of Rosenberg self-esteem and happiness of Lima scale.Results: High levels of self-esteem and happiness were obtained. Through correlation of Pearson and hierarchical regression we found that self-esteem is associated in negative and positive way with certain factors of happiness; the same thing happened in the level of influence.Conclusion: In positive psychology is possible to associate variables such as self-esteem and happiness as strengths. Much more in the case of Intercultural Nursing students which have the aim to contribute to the indigenous communities development, that require nurses with favorable levels of self-esteem and the perception of subjective well-being to counteract an historical legacy of backwardness. From positive psychology is possible that this educational model will contribute to the mutual enrichment and empowerment within the work of the Intercultural Nursing.

  11. Positive psychology interventions in golf: Mindfulness versus positive self-talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Results: There was a significant multivariate effect of Time on putting test scores, F(1, 21 = 13.9, p = .001, Ƞ2 = .399. Specifically, a mean increase of 1.4 out of 10 putts over the 4-week intervention period was found, but no univariate effect of Time on distance (cm from the hole for putts missed. There was no Group or Time by Group interaction effect for either putting test variable. Furthermore, groups did not differ at baseline or post-intervention on reported handicap, KIMS, technique adherence, or rounds of golf played. Conclusions: These preliminary findings fail to support previously reported findings that mindfulness or positive self-talk have short-term effects on putting accuracy. To maximise access, the current study used a self-guided intervention, which may have accounted for the lack of improvement that may occur with one-on-one coaching.

  12. Positive cross-cultural psychology: Exploring similarity\\ud and difference in constructions and experiences of wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Lomas, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Critical theorists have accused positive psychology of paying insufficient attention to cultural variation in the way wellbeing is constructed and experienced. While there may be some\\ud merit to this claim, the field has developed a more nuanced appreciation of culture than its critics suggest. However, it could also be argued that positive psychology has not sufficiently appreciated or absorbed the wealth of literature within cross-cultural psychology pertaining to\\ud wellbeing. This paper ...

  13. The functional-cognitive framework for psychological research: Controversies and resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sean; De Houwer, Jan; Perugini, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The scientific goals, values and assumptions of functional and cognitive researchers have propelled them down two very different scientific pathways. Many have, and continue to argue, that these differences undermine any potential communication and collaboration between the two traditions. We explore a different view on this debate. Specifically, we focus on the Functional-Cognitive (FC) framework, and in particular, the idea that cognitive and functional researchers can and should interact to the benefit of both. Our article begins with a short introduction to the FC framework. We sweep aside misconceptions about the framework, present the original version as it was outlined by De Houwer (2011) and then offer our most recent thoughts on how it should be implemented. Thereafter, we reflect on its strengths and weaknesses, clarify the functional (effect-centric vs. analytic-abstractive) level and consider its many implications for cognitive research and theorising. In the final section, we briefly review the articles contained in this Special Issue. These contributions provide clear examples of the conceptual, empirical and methodological developments that can emerge when cognitive, clinical, personality and neuroscientists fully engage with the functional-cognitive perspective. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Monitoring positive mental health and its determinants in Canada: the development of the Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Orpana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Mental Health Strategy for Canada identified a need to enhance the collection of data on mental health in Canada. While surveillance systems on mental illness have been established, a data gap for monitoring positive mental health and its determinants was identified. The goal of this project was to develop a Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework, to provide a picture of the state of positive mental health and its determinants in Canada. Data from this surveillance framework will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health of Canadians. Methods: A literature review and environmental scan were conducted to provide the theoretical base for the framework, and to identify potential positive mental health outcomes and risk and protective factors. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s definition of positive mental health was adopted as the conceptual basis for the outcomes of this framework. After identifying a comprehensive list of risk and protective factors, mental health experts, other governmental partners and non-governmental stakeholders were consulted to prioritize these indicators. Subsequently, these groups were consulted to identify the most promising measurement approaches for each indicator. Results: A conceptual framework for surveillance of positive mental health and its determinants has been developed to contain 5 outcome indicators and 25 determinant indicators organized within 4 domains at the individual, family, community and societal level. This indicator framework addresses a data gap identified in Canada’s strategy for mental health and will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health status of Canadians throughout the life course.

  15. Developing an affirmative position statement on sexual and gender diversity for psychology professionals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius J. Victor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Against the background of the dominance of patriarchy and heteronormativity in Africa and the resultant stigma, discrimination and victimisation of sexually and gender-diverse people, this article reports on the development of an affirmative position statement by the Psychological Society of South Africa (PsySSA for psychology professionals working with sexually and gender-diverse people. The position statement is an attempt to contribute positively to the de-stigmatisation, amongst psychology professionals, of all people with diverse sexual and gender identities. Objective. In documenting and reflecting on the process of developing the statement — a first on the African continent — the article aims to contribute to the potential resources available to others in their work on similar projects around the world. Design. Although initially intended to be relevant to the African continent, the position statement is appropriate to the South African context specifically, but developed in consultation with a range of stakeholders, also from other African countries. Results. Concerns expressed during stakeholder consultations, and thus taken into account in the development of the statement, include relevance to other African countries, negotiating the politics of representation and language, the importance of including gender and biological variance in addition to sexuality, and the need to be sensitive to how Western influence is constructed in some African contexts. Conclusion. Other national psychology organisations stand to benefit by ‘lessons learned’ during this country-specific process with global implications, especially with respect to broadening the lens from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI to sexual and gender diversity, as well as an acknowledgement of the multiple and fluid developmental pathways around sexuality and gender, in general.

  16. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez; Gloria Esthela González Quirarte; Rosario del Carmén Realpozo Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A...

  17. Work-Family facilitation: a positive psychological perspective on role combination

    OpenAIRE

    Steenbergen, Elianne Florence van

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation provides a balanced picture of the experiences that individuals can have in the combination of their work and family roles. Extending the common focus in previous literature on experiences of role conflict (and their detrimental consequences), the present research also addresses the positive side of role combination and reveals the different ways in which work and family roles can facilitate each other (energy-based, time-based, behavioral, and psychological facilitation). T...

  18. Working in the Field of Complex Psychological Trauma: A Framework for Personal and Professional Growth, Training, and Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Anne Marie; Chouliara, Zoë; Currie, Kay

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the positive and negative impacts of working therapeutically in complex psychological trauma (CPT), particularly the field of gender-based violence (GBV) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), from the clinicians' perspective. The focus was on the prospect of positive gains and growth for therapists. Twenty-one clinicians ( n = 21; counselors/psychotherapists and psychologists) from National Health Service (NHS) specialist trauma services, a community mental health team, and specialist sexual assault counseling organization participated. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was utilized to conduct single one-off interviews and analysis. Six themes were identified: Called to the work; Connection, Separation, and Oneness; Into and out of the darkness; Chaos into meaning; Reparation not repetition; and Expansion and growth. The first "Therapist Led Framework of Growth in Trauma Work" is presented. Vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG) was a key finding, with CPT therapists experiencing a "challenge/benefit/change" growth process. Adoption of actively relational strategies to enhance clinicians' growth process through trauma work is being proposed. The benefits of conceptualizing both the positive and negative impacts of such work for supervision, training, shaping the formal curricula, service management, and continuing professional development (CPD) are being discussed. The need for good practice guidelines on self-care internationally is highlighted.

  19. Making the world a better place to live through positive psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline a theoretical and practical model for the role of positive psychology at a societal level. Although the world is facing tremendous problems in terms of lack of natural resources, poverty, pollution, conflicts and the consequences of global warming, there se......The purpose of this paper is to outline a theoretical and practical model for the role of positive psychology at a societal level. Although the world is facing tremendous problems in terms of lack of natural resources, poverty, pollution, conflicts and the consequences of global warming......, there seems to be indecision among world leaders and international organisations. This lack of action makes one wonder how we can facilitate positive psychology to become a truly influential factor in society. With emphasis on virtues and character strengths, we can help people to become aware...... of the essential human values such as hope, dignity, kindness, trust and temperance. Furthermore, the conclusions of happiness research teach us that these qualities are fundamental aspects of people’s well-being. Happiness is improved through genuine and close social relations, trust in other people...

  20. A Positive Psychology Intervention in a Hindu Community: The Pilot Study of the Hero Lab Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Siddhi; Qureshi, Adil; Galiatsatos, Panagis

    2016-12-01

    India has high rates of mental health issues among its youth and low-income communities experience a disproportionate amount of depression and suicide. Positive psychology, the act of promoting well-being, could be used as a tool to promote wellness and help improve the mental health of youth living in slum areas of India. A pilot positively psychology program, "The Hero Lab", was conducted in a migratory slum in Worli, Mumbai, with trained Hindu community leaders implementing the interventions toward at-risk Hindu youth. The curriculum's impact showed statistical improvement (p < 0.001) in happiness (General Happiness Scale from 11.24 ± 1.56 to 19.08 ± 3.32), grit (Grit Survey from 2.23 ± 0.34 to 3.24 ± 0.67), empathy (Toronto Empathy Questionnaire from 24.92 ± 3.27 to 41.96 ± 8.41), and gratitude (Gratitude Survey from 16.88 ± 3.47 to 27.98 ± 6.59). While a pilot study, the Hero Lab curriculum demonstrates that positive psychology interventions may be an important tool in improving mental health in at-risk children.

  1. Tatool: a Java-based open-source programming framework for psychological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bastian, Claudia C; Locher, André; Ruflin, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Tatool (Training and Testing Tool) was developed to assist researchers with programming training software, experiments, and questionnaires. Tatool is Java-based, and thus is a platform-independent and object-oriented framework. The architecture was designed to meet the requirements of experimental designs and provides a large number of predefined functions that are useful in psychological studies. Tatool comprises features crucial for training studies (e.g., configurable training schedules, adaptive training algorithms, and individual training statistics) and allows for running studies online via Java Web Start. The accompanying "Tatool Online" platform provides the possibility to manage studies and participants' data easily with a Web-based interface. Tatool is published open source under the GNU Lesser General Public License, and is available at www.tatool.ch.

  2. Group intervention: A way to improve working teams' positive psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Bo; Gustafsson, John-Anders; Björkdahl, Ann; Möller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychological capital is reported to have positive effects on people's well-being and attitudes to their working lives. The objective of this study was to investigate if it is possible to increase the level of positive psychological capital by two group intervention programs. The research design was a controlled study with 2 × 2 experimental groups and two control groups. Two of the experimental groups received intervention I (IG I), the other two experimental groups received intervention II (IG II). Assessments were made before and after the intervention programs, with a follow-up at six months post-intervention. Instruments measuring the fundamentals of psychological capital: self-efficacy, hope, optimism, as well as health and job satisfaction were used. The results show that it is possible to increase the level of positive emotions, self-efficacy and job satisfaction of members of a working team by using group intervention methods. The positive changes observed at the end of the program remained six months after the intervention, with the exception of job satisfaction in IG II. It seems that the intervention had a greater influence on those persons who at the start of the study reported a low level of self-enhancement. The results were more pronounced in intervention group I where reinforcement of the resources and positive aspects of the work place environment were provided. A 10-week group intervention program that focused on learned optimism proved to be successful in increasing levels of self-efficacy and job satisfaction. While improvement was maintained six months post-intervention the small sample size and the attrition rate are limitations. Results are promising and further research is warranted.

  3. Psychological resilience: an approach to the concept, theoretical framework and relation with child sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gustavo Pinto-Cortez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a serious public health problem and a violation of human rights from children and adolescents. A prolific research has been developed to determine the magnitude of the problem, psychological effects, risk factors and protective factors. In this context, resilience approach becomes important by explain the mechanisms that promote positive adaptation to adversity. In this paper, it is discussed in the first part, the analysis of the concept of resilience and its various stages of investigation over time. Finally, an integration of this model in understanding and approaching child and adolescent victimization is done.

  4. Acculturation and Psychological Adjustment of Vietnamese Refugees: An Ecological Acculturation Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Corrina D; Birman, Dina

    2015-12-01

    Acculturation to the culture of the host society as well as to one's heritage culture have been shown to impact immigrants' adjustment during the years following resettlement. While acculturation has been identified as an important factor in adjustment of Vietnamese immigrants (Birman and Tran in Am J Orthopsychiatr 78(1):109-120. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.78.1.109 , 2008), no clear pattern of findings has emerged and too few studies have employed an ecological approach. The purpose of this paper is to contextualize the study of acculturation and adjustment by taking an ecological approach to exploring these relationships across several life domains, using a bilinear scale, and examining mediators of these relationships for adult Vietnamese refugees (N = 203) in the United States. We call this approach the Ecological Acculturation Framework (EAF). Results of a structural equation model (SEM) showed that job satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between American acculturation and psychological distress, demonstrating that this relationship was specific to an occupational domain. However, while Vietnamese acculturation predicted co-ethnic social support satisfaction, it did not predict reduced psychological distress. Implications for a life domains approach, including domain specificity, are discussed.

  5. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children’s mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children’s learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.

  6. Applying the Nominal Response Model within a Longitudinal Framework to Construct the Positive Family Relationships Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kathleen Suzanne Johnson; Parral, Skye N.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Ibrahim, Sirena M.; Delany, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A psychometric analysis was conducted using the nominal response model under the item response theory framework to construct the Positive Family Relationships scale. Using data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, this scale was constructed within a long-term longitudinal framework spanning middle childhood through adolescence. Items tapping…

  7. Safe, Positive and Queering Moments in Teaching Education and Schooling: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tara; Russell, Vanessa; Daley, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces a conceptual framework for thinking about the development of anti-homophobia education in teacher education and schooling contexts. We bring the safe, positive, and queering moments framework to bear on three distinct anti-homophobia education practices: coming out stories, homophobic name-calling analysis, and Pride Week…

  8. Comparing the acceptability of a positive psychology intervention versus a cognitive behavioural therapy for clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gomez, Irene; Chaves, Covadonga; Hervas, Gonzalo; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2017-09-01

    There is growing evidence on the efficacy of positive psychology interventions (PPI) to treat clinical disorders. However, very few studies have addressed their acceptability. The present study aimed to analyse 2 key components of acceptability (i.e., client satisfaction and adherence to treatment) of a new PPI programme, the Integrative Positive Psychological Intervention for Depression (IPPI-D), in comparison to a standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme in the treatment of clinical depression. One hundred twenty-eight women with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia were allocated to a 10-session IPPI-D or CBT group intervention condition. Results showed that both interventions were highly acceptable for participants. Attendance rates were high, and there were no significant differences between conditions. However, the IPPI-D condition showed significantly higher client satisfaction than the CBT condition. Moreover, acceptability did not differ based on participants' severity of symptoms, regardless of condition. These findings encourage further investigations of the applicability of PPI in clinical settings in order to broaden the range of acceptable and suitable therapies for depressed patients. Key Practitioner Message This study sheds light on the client satisfaction and adherence to a positive intervention. For participants, positive psychology interventions (PPI) may be more satisfactory than CBT as PPI are framed within a positive mental health model and, consequently, may reduce the risk of stigmatization Because acceptability of treatments and preferences may affect the efficacy of treatments, this study provides an excellent opportunity to offer professionals more therapeutic options to tailor treatments to clients' needs and expectations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Negative cognitive errors and positive illusions for negative divorce events: predictors of children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relations among negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, actual divorce events, and psychological adjustment in 38 8- to 12-year-old children whose parents had divorced within the previous 2 years. Children's scores on a scale of negative cognitive errors (catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and personalizing) correlated significantly with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and self-esteem, and with maternal reports of behavior problems. Children's scores on a scale measuring positive illusions (high self-regard, illusion of personal control, and optimism for the future) correlated significantly with less self-reported aggression. Both appraisal types accounted for variance in some measures of symptomatology beyond that explained by actual events. There was no significant association between children's negative cognitive errors and positive illusions. The implications of these results for theories of negative cognitive errors and of positive illusions, as well as for future research, are discussed.

  10. Positive psychological interventions for people with epilepsy: An assessment on factors related to intervention participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Siew-Tim; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Tang, Venus; Low, Wah-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Positive psychological interventions (PPI) are increasingly employed as a coping strategy with physical and mental conditions, including neurological diseases. Its effectiveness on improving wellbeing in people with epilepsy (PWE) has been shown in a few studies. This study aimed to explore factors related to participants' willingness to engage in psychological interventions from the perspective of patients with epilepsy. Participants answered a needs assessment questionnaire eliciting information about their illness perception (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief-IPQ)), emotions (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), willingness to participate in psychological interventions, preferences in types of PPI and intervention designs, as well as barriers in seeking mental health services. A total of 154 patients with epilepsy participated, with a mean age of 37.3years (range 16-86years). Most patients had focal epilepsy (68.2%), and drug-resistant (59.1%). Majority (71.4%) of them indicated a strong willingness to participate in PPI. Out of nine types of PPI, character strengths, mindfulness-based and expressive-based interventions were highly preferred. Those with negative illness perception (p=0.001), anxiety (p=0.004), and being unemployed (p=0.048) were more willing to participate in PPI. Most participants preferred group rather than individual session, and a shorter duration (30min) was favored by most. This study captured the self-report willingness to participate in psychological interventions. Findings suggested that psychological interventions delivered in short-group session were highly preferred. Future study is required to determine the feasibility of such design for patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychiatric framing affects positive but not negative schizotypy scores in psychology and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christine; Schofield, Kerry; Leonards, Ute; Wilson, Marc S; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2018-08-01

    When testing risk for psychosis, we regularly rely on self-report questionnaires. Yet, the more that people know about this condition, the more they might respond defensively, in particular with regard to the more salient positive symptom dimension. In two studies, we investigated whether framing provided by questionnaire instructions might modulate responses on self-reported positive and negative schizotypy. The O-LIFE (UK study) or SPQ (New Zealand study) questionnaire was framed in either a "psychiatric", "creativity", or "personality" (NZ only) context. We tested psychology students (without taught knowledge about psychosis) and medical students (with taught knowledge about psychosis; UK only). We observed framing effects in psychology students in both studies: positive schizotypy scores were lower after the psychiatric compared to the creativity instruction. However, schizotypy scores did not differ between the creativity and personality framing conditions, suggesting that the low scores with psychiatric framing reflect defensive responding. The same framing effect was also observed in medical students, despite their lower positive schizotypy scores overall. Negative schizotypy scores were not affected by framing in either study. These results highlight the need to reduce response biases when studying schizotypy, because these might blur schizotypy-behaviour relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and positive psychological intervention (PPI) on female offenders with psychological distress in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Vivian W M; Chan, Calais K Y

    2018-04-01

    Despite rapid growth in the female prison population, there is little research on effectiveness of psychological interventions for them. To test the hypotheses that (1) each of two psychological interventions administered separately - cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or positive psychology intervention (PPI) - would be more effective than 'treatment-as-usual' alone in reducing psychological distress and enhancing psychological well-being; (2) outcomes would differ according to intervention; and (3) combining the interventions would be more effective than delivering either alone. We recruited 40 women in a special Hong Kong prison unit for female offenders with psychological distress. Half of them received eight sessions of CBT followed by eight sessions of PPI; the other half received the same interventions in the reverse order. We recruited another 35 women who received only 'treatment as usual' (TAU) in the same unit. We used various clinical scales to assess the women's psychological distress or well-being before and after the interventions or at similar time points for the comparison women. All intervention group women showed a significant reduction in psychological distress and enhancement in psychological well-being after each intervention alone compared to the TAU women. There were no significant differences between CBT and PPI in this respect. Receiving both treatments, however, did yield significantly more improvement than either intervention alone in reducing depressive thoughts and enhancing global judgement of life satisfaction, self-perceived strengths and hopeful thinking style. Our findings provide preliminary empirical support for the effectiveness of psychological interventions with psychologically distressed women in prison. It would be important now to conduct a full, randomised trial to determine optimal length and combinations of treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Developing an integrated framework of problem-based learning and coaching psychology for medical education: a participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Li, Huiping; Pang, Weiguo; Liang, Shuo; Su, Yiliang

    2016-01-05

    Medical schools have been making efforts to develop their own problem-based learning (PBL) approaches based on their educational conditions, human resources and existing curriculum structures. This study aimed to explore a new framework by integrating the essential features of PBL and coaching psychology applicable to the undergraduate medical education context. A participatory research design was employed. Four educational psychology researchers, eight undergraduate medical school students and two accredited PBL tutors participated in a four-month research programme. Data were collected through participatory observation, focus groups, semi-structured interviews, workshop documents and feedback surveys and then subjected to thematic content analysis. The triangulation of sources and member checking were used to ensure the credibility and trustworthiness of the research process. Five themes emerged from the analysis: current experience of PBL curriculum; the roles of and relationships between tutors and students; student group dynamics; development of self-directed learning; and coaching in PBL facilitation. On the basis of this empirical data, a systematic model of PBL and coaching psychology was developed. The findings highlighted that coaching psychology could be incorporated into the facilitation system in PBL. The integrated framework of PBL and coaching psychology in undergraduate medical education has the potential to promote the development of the learning goals of cultivating clinical reasoning ability, lifelong learning capacities and medical humanity. Challenges, benefits and future directions for implementing the framework are discussed in this paper.

  14. Inverting the pyramid of needs: Positive psychology's new order for labor success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanas, Edgar; Sánchez-González, José-Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Positive psychologists claim to have demonstrated a causal relationship between happiness and life success, with the former accounting for why people usually end up better off in life than others, especially at workplace. In this paper we will analyse the role that happiness-based repertoires and techniques provided by positive psychologists are playing in the current labor sphere. Positive psychologists’ repertoires and techniques do not only meet the emerging demands derived from the changes in the notions of “work” and “worker” in the last decades, but also introduce a whole new logic in the construction of professional workers’ subjectivity, according to which happiness becomes a necessary psychological state that workers must first achieve and develop in order to attain job success at work. This emerging logic does not only circumscribe to the labor sphere, but also reflects a broader cultural and economic phenomenon.

  15. CONTRIBUTIONS FROM POSITIVE ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY TO DEVELOP HEALTHY AND RESILIENT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Salanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current paper is to show the main results obtained by the WANT Research team on the HERO Model (HEalthy & Resilient Organizations to conceptualize, evaluate and intervene in the development of healthy and positive people, groups and organizations. First, we present the theoretical model, methodology and tools to evaluate HEROs. These tools are collectively administered and applied to different stakeholders in the organization: interviews with CEOs, and questionnaires aimed at employees distributed in natural groups, supervisors and clients. Secondly, we present the main results obtained from the application of the HERO methodology in different socio-economic contexts. The last part of the paper is dedicated to highlighting the different options of positive interventions, as well as recent experiences in the HERO intervention carried out by WANT based on Positive Organizational Psychology.

  16. Exploring the use of positive psychology interventions in brain injury survivors with challenging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewes, H E; Walker, V; O'Neill, B

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of conducting two positive psychology interventions to improve mood and self-concept with survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI), within a neuro-rehabilitation hospital. Ten patients with brain injury were randomly allocated to an intervention and control group. The efficacy of the first intervention, 'three positive things in life' was measured via Seligman's Authentic Happiness Index (AHI), at base-line, directly following the intervention and at the end of the 12-week group programme. The second intervention, the 'Value in Action (VIA) signature strengths intervention' was measured by the Head Injury Semantic Differential Scale (HISDS) at baseline and at the end of the group. Compared to baseline and control group scores, the AHI index showed an increase in the intervention group's happiness following the intervention and at the end of the 12-week programme, albeit the latter increase was non-significant. The HISDS showed non-significant improvement in self-concept and reduction in polarization of the self in the present, future and past in the second intervention. Anecdotal evidence revealed a clear improved mood following the interventions. This study shows promising results for the effectiveness of Positive Psychology interventions and methods to improve feasibility when applying this treatment within a hospital setting.

  17. A Positive Psychological Intervention to Promote Well-Being in a Multicultural School Setting in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Dimitropoulou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to examine the effectiveness of a Positive Psychology Intervention in enhancing well-being in a multicultural school setting. 121 5th and 6th grade primary school male and female students participated in the study. 57.9% were native Greeks and 42.1% were migrant children. 81 students were allocated to the positive intervention group, while 40 students partook in a control group with no positive orientation. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire battery a day prior to the interventions and also fifteen days later. Results indicated that only the positive intervention was effective in enhancing positive emotional experiences, optimism and self-efficacy in peer interactions two weeks after its implementation. The results were mostly undifferentiated for gender, migrant and socioeconomic status as far as positive emotions are concerned, while the patterns of influence of demographic variables on the efficacy of the intervention concerning the participants’ benefits in optimism and self-efficacy are discussed. The PPI group, as opposed to the control group, evaluated the intervention as particularly helpful with respect to all well-being variables, an effect maintained two weeks after the intervention. This positive intervention appears appropriate as a universal mental health promotion vehicle, especially within a demanding multicultural classroom context.

  18. Investigation of basic notions of positive psychology with an aid of Experience Sampling Method (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levit L.Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two investigations of the main concepts of the contemporary positive psychology (eudaimonia, hedonism, the flow, happiness and unhappiness with the help of ESM. The studies were built upon Person-Oriented Conception of Happiness (POCH elaborated by the author. The results indicate that the flow can be accompanied by the rise of the other «components of happiness» belonging to other theories. The study of the situations, that were associated with «unhappiness», showed that most of them belong to maintenance activities of the individual.

  19. Integrating Positive and Clinical Psychology: Viewing Human Functioning as Continua from Positive to Negative Can Benefit Clinical Assessment, Interventions and Understandings of Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J; Wood, AM

    2017-01-01

    In this review we argue in favour of further integration between the disciplines of positive and clinical psychology. We argue that most of the constructs studied by both positive and clinical psychology exist on continua ranging from positive to negative (e.g., gratitude to ingratitude, anxiety to calmness) and so it is meaningless to speak of one or other field studying the “positive” or the “negative”. However, we highlight historical and cultural factors which have led positive and clinic...

  20. [The psychological security in the framework of the system of factors responsible for the effectiveness of spa and health resort-based rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyanskaya, T M; Tylets, V G

    The present work was designed to address the problem of ensuring the psychological security in the framework of organization of the rehabilitative treatment based at the spa and health resort facilities. We undertook the questionnaire study for which 650 subjects were recruited among those attending spa and health resort facilities of the cities of Essentuki and Kislovodsk. The participants were asked to estimate the level of their personal security and the quality of the provided means for the rehabilitative treatment and general health improvement. It was found that as many as 43% of the respondents reported the moderate level of psychological security whereas about 30% of them estimated the level of their psychological security as low. Overall, the attitude toward the available means for health improvement and rehabilitation proved extremely variable. The factorial analysis has demonstrated the highly subjective opinions of the responders as regards the provided services categorized in terms of therapeutic (mineral water, preformed physical factors, peloid and dietary therapy), health improvement (herbal medicine, therapeutic physical training, therapy, bioclimatic therapy), and recreational (animation, excursion and touristic activities) factors. The value of these factors was perceived differently by the vacationers with different feelings of psychological security. Those reporting the high level of psychological security demonstrated the positive attitude toward all factors and circumstances available for the general improvement of the health status whereas the holidaymakers reporting the moderate level of personal psychological security exhibited the non-equivalent attitude toward the provided services; namely, they highly estimated the available therapeutic factors but either underestimated the value of the constituent components of the health improving and recreational factors or demonstrated the very selective attitude toward their assessment. Generally

  1. Cultural Psychology of Differences and EMS; a New Theoretical Framework for Understanding and Reconstructing Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2017-09-01

    In this paper I introduce the outlines of our new type of theoretical framework named 'Cultural psychology of Differences' for understanding cultural others and dialogically reconstructing interactions among cultural others. In order to understand cultural others, it is necessary for us to reconstruct a new concept which enables us to analyze dynamic generation processes of culture. We propose the concept of Expanded Mediational Structure, EMS, as an elementary unit for understanding human social interactions. EMS is composed of subjects who interacts each other using objects of some kind as mediators, and a normative mediator, NM, which mediates their interactions. It is necessary to generate, share and adjust a NM to keep social interactions stable, and culture will appear when interaction malfunction is attributed to a gaps of NMs. The concept of EMS helps us to understand how culture is functionally substantialized in the plane of collective (or communal) intersubjectivity and how cultural conflicts develop and intensify. Focusing on the generation process of culture through interactions provides us with another option to understand cultural others through dialogical interactions with them.

  2. The psychological and social impact of female genital mutilation: A holistic conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Glover

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current research aimed to gain an understanding of women’s experiences of FGM to develop an evidence based holistic conceptual framework for professionals dealing with the impact of FGM and responses required for survivors and their children. Method: Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative semi-structured interviews were carried out with 20 women survivors of FGM. Results: Participant’s related culture, religion, role of men, lack of education, female identity and deception as the major factors influencing their understanding and the impact of FGM. Their experiences of FGM, as well as being influenced by their conceptualisation of the practice, led to effects on their emotional life, relationships, identity, and physical body. The fear resulting from FGM that women described affected their ability to enhance their resilience. All the core categories of emotional, relational, identity, and physical impact, as well as resilience, were further influenced by the key stages of womanhood; including menstruation, marriage and childbirth. Women voiced their views that all the above issues were compounded by their needs not being met and the lack of meaningful and effective service responses. Conclusions: There are complex systems and relationships that influence the psychological and social impact of FGM. These have core implications for clinical and policy in relation to maternity and healthcare services.

  3. A positive psychology to cope with radicalisation and terrorism? A case study of the speech by Barack Obama at Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Moyano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the September 11 terrorist attacks, coping with radicalisation and jihadist terrorism has been at the forefront of the domestic and foreign policy agendas in Western societies. During this time, the influence that political leaders can exert in their interaction with institutions, citizens, and terrorist organizations has been demonstrated. We present a case study of the speech by Barak Obama on June 4, 2009 at the University of Cairo (“A New Beginning”. Its content and internal structure is analysed using the classification of virtues and strengths defined by Peterson and Seligman (2004 as a theoretical and conceptual reference within the framework of positive psychology. This speech marked a turning point in the relationship between the USA and the Arab-Muslim world and could be considered to be a genuine exercise in positive communication. Its implications are yet to be determined, because it continues to exert an influence on the Obama administration’s domestic and foreign policy. In a globalized and networking world in which risks and adversities require innovative responses, more than ever we suggest that social communication capable of promoting virtues and strengths associated with optimism, hope, confidence, strength, or vitality is needed more than ever.

  4. The Status of Positive Psychology Strengths within the Romanian School in the Digital Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Pânişoară

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the possible correlations between the strengths that are taught in school and those which are necessary for reaching personal success. In order to test the extent to which these strengths correlate, we applied a psychological-assessment tool composed of 24 strengths with a Likert-type response scale. The subjects selected for this research were 100 teachers from Romania, both male and female. The results were processed in SPSS Statistics, where we also calculated Pearson's correlation coefficient. After analyzing the descriptive statistics and the correlation coefficient we noticed that the "Vitality" strength showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the two groups, therefore it is not taught in school but it is considered important for achieving personal success. The "Citizenship" strength showed a statistically significant positive correlation, being concurrently promoted in school and important in achieving success.The neuro-linguistic reprogramming of a young individual will need a considerable effort, first of all as regards being aware of the values which render his well-being, and secondly as regards his orientation towards these values, which as it seems he was not at all oriented to. The new student profile of today’s society, also known as the digital native, needs to assimilate a full set of positive psychology values in order to create a complete model of success for nowadays’ world.

  5. The concept of spirituality and its relation to religion in positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fernandes Marques

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical study that aims to provide a review of current scientific studies on the concept of spirituality and proposes some issues for future research. The article brings a literature review on the subject, including several areas of positive psychology. Articles and books in Portuguese, Spanish and English were examined  and held a computerized search in the SciELO (www.scielo.br and electronic Indexer Google Scholar, and the references of materials examined. The descriptors were: conceit, espirit, religion, and their counterparts in Spanish and English. The purpose of this review is outline some definitions to set limits and help in conducting research when the researcher should choose constructs and measurement instruments. Comment some classical authors such as Wundt, Maslow and James. After there is a difference about religion and spirituality, discussing their similarities and antagonisms that are mentioned in the reviewed literature and how the concept of spirituality appears in Positive Psychology

  6. From authentic happiness to well-being: the flourishing of Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Scorsolini-Comin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to present paradigm shifts from the authentic happiness theory (2002 to the well-being theory (2011, both developed in Positive Psychology by Martin Seligman. The well-being theory adds fulfillment and interpersonal relationships to the elements already included in the first theory (positive emotions, engagement and meaning, highlighting that well-being does not depend only on individual aspects but on issues related to context and interpersonal relationships. Whereas authentic happiness seeks life satisfaction, well-being aspires to flourishing - a more complex and dynamic construct. Well-being theory opens the possibility of developing public policies related to promotion of quality of life without ruling out the need for constant review of such approach.

  7. Giant negative linear compression positively coupled to massive thermal expansion in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weizhao; Katrusiak, Andrzej

    2014-07-04

    Materials with negative linear compressibility are sought for various technological applications. Such effects were reported mainly in framework materials. When heated, they typically contract in the same direction of negative linear compression. Here we show that this common inverse relationship rule does not apply to a three-dimensional metal-organic framework crystal, [Ag(ethylenediamine)]NO3. In this material, the direction of the largest intrinsic negative linear compression yet observed in metal-organic frameworks coincides with the strongest positive thermal expansion. In the perpendicular direction, the large linear negative thermal expansion and the strongest crystal compressibility are collinear. This seemingly irrational positive relationship of temperature and pressure effects is explained and the mechanism of coupling of compressibility with expansivity is presented. The positive coupling between compression and thermal expansion in this material enhances its piezo-mechanical response in adiabatic process, which may be used for designing new artificial composites and ultrasensitive measuring devices.

  8. The Role of Reactance and Positive Emotions in Persuasive Health Messages: Refining the Theory of Psychological Reactance and the Politeness Theory and Testing the Theories of Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunsoon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand research on persuasion 1) by examining psychological reactance as a function of threats to positive identity above and beyond threats to freedom and 2) by examining the role of positive emotions. An online survey recruited 478 students from undergraduate courses at several universities in the U.S. The study…

  9. Disseminating Self-Help: Positive Psychology Exercises in an Online Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Acacia C

    2012-01-01

    Background The recent growth of positive psychology has led to a proliferation in exercises to increase positive thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. Preliminary evidence suggests that these exercises hold promise as an approach for reducing depressive symptoms. These exercises are typically researched in isolation as single exercises. The current study examined the acceptability of several multi-exercise packages using online dissemination. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate methods of dissemination that could increase the acceptability and effectiveness of positive psychology exercises. To achieve this goal, we compared the use of positive psychology exercises when delivered in packages of 2, 4, or 6 exercises. Methods Self-help–seeking participants enrolled in this study by visiting an online research portal. Consenting participants were randomly assigned to receive 2, 4, or 6 positive psychology exercises (or assessments only) over a 6-week period. These exercises drew from the content of group positive psychotherapy. Participants visited an automated website that distributed exercise instructions, provided email reminders, and contained the baseline and follow-up assessments. Following each exercise, participants rated their enjoyment of the exercise, answered how often they had used each technique, and completed outcome measures. Results In total, 1364 individuals consented to participate. Attrition rates across the 2-, 4-, and 6-exercise conditions were similar at 55.5% (181/326), 55.8% (203/364), and 52.7% (168/319) respectively but were significantly greater than the attrition rate of 42.5% (151/355) for the control condition (χ2 3 = 16.40, P < .001). Participants in the 6-exercise condition were significant more likely than participants in the 4-exercise condition to use both the third (F 1,312 = 5.61, P = .02) and fourth (F 1,313 = 6.03, P = .02) exercises. For 5 of the 6 exercises, enjoyment was related to continued use of the

  10. Effectiveness of a positive psychology intervention combined with cognitive behavioral therapy in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario-Josefa Marrero

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and implement a positive intervention combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy to enhance subjective and psychological well-being and other positive functioning constructs in a convenience sample. Participants analysed were 48 university students (mean age 22.25, 25 assigned nonrandomized to intervention condition and 23 to no-treatment waiting-list control condition. All participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention to test the treatment program effectiveness. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs, controlling baseline differences between the two groups, indicated that the intervention group reported greater social support after the intervention period than the waiting-list control group. Within-group differences were found for happiness, selfacceptance, positive relations with others, optimism, and self-esteem in the intervention group; these differences did not appear in the waiting-list control group. These findings suggest the limited capacity of this intervention program for improving well-being through positive activities combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Future research should analyse what kind of activities could be more effective in promoting well-being depending on the characteristics of participants.

  11. The intersectionality framework and identity intersections in the Journal of Counseling Psychology and The Counseling Psychologist: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Richard Q; Welch, Jamie C; Kaya, Aylin E; Yeung, Jeffrey G; Obana, Chynna; Sharma, Rajni; Vernay, Collin N; Yee, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    The framework of intersectionality is a powerful analytical tool for making sense of how interlocking systems of privilege and oppression are experienced by individuals and groups. Despite the long history of the concept, intersectionality has only recently gained attention in psychology. We conducted a content analysis to assess counseling psychology's engagement with an intersectional perspective. All articles published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology (n = 4,800) and The Counseling Psychologist (n = 1,915) from their first issues until July 2016 were reviewed to identify conceptual and empirical work focused on intersectionality. A total of 40 articles were identified and examined for themes. Limitations and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Positive change following adversity and psychological adjustment over time in abused foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Christine E; Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Parker, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Many foster youth experience maltreatment in their family-of-origin and additional maltreatment while in foster care. Not surprisingly, rates of depression are higher in foster youth than the general population, and peak during ages 17-19 during the stressful transition into adulthood. However, no known studies have reported on whether foster youth perceive positive changes following such adversity, and whether positive change facilitates psychological adjustment over time. The current study examined components of positive change (i.e., compassion for others and self-efficacy) with depression severity from age 17 to 18 as youth prepared to exit foster care. Participants were youth from the Mental Health Service Use of Youth Leaving Foster Care study who endorsed child maltreatment. Components of positive change and severity of abuse were measured initially. Depression was measured initially and every three months over the following year. Latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the course of depression as a function of initial levels of positive change and severity of abuse. Results revealed that decreases in depression followed an inverse quadratic function in which the steepest declines occurred in the first three months and leveled off after that. Severity of abuse was positively correlated with higher initial levels of depression and negatively correlated with decreases in depression. Greater self-efficacy was negatively associated with initial levels of depression and predicted decreases in depression over the year, whereas compassion for others was neither associated with initial depression nor changes in depression. Implications for intervention, theory, and research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling the Relationship between Trauma and Psychological Distress among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumsey, Ayesha Delany; Joseph, Nataria T; Myers, Hector F; Ullman, Jodie B; Wyatt, Gail E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and psychosocial resources (i.e., social support, self-esteem and optimism). Structural equation modeling confirmed that cumulative trauma exposure is positively associated with greater psychological distress, and that this association is partially mediated through impaired psychosocial resources. However, although cumulative trauma was associated with greater problematic substance use, substance use did not mediate the relationship between trauma and psychological distress.

  14. The Role of Positive Psychological Capital and the Family Function in Prediction of Happiness in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F rashidi kochi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the role of positive psychological capital and family functioning in predicting happiness among adolescence. Correlational research method was recruited to analyze the data. The sample comprised of 290 high Scholl students that selected by the convenience sampling method. In this research Snyder’s hope, Nezami and Colleagues self-efficacy, Scheier and Carver's optimism, McMaster's family functioning and Connor and Davidson's Resiliency and Oxford happiness questionnaire used to collect data. Pearson correlation and stepwise regression were used to analyze data. The finding showed that there was a significant positive relationship between family function components and positive psychological capital with happiness. The results of stepwise regression showed that roles, Resiliency, self-efficacy, optimism and emotion expression had significant and important role in predicting happiness. Totally, explained 35% of the variance happiness. In conclusion, these findings indicate the importance roles of family and positive psychological capital in adolescence's happiness.

  15. Psychological Distress in Jordanian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Positive Reappraisal Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad; Ahmad, Muayyad

    2017-02-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently report poor psychological well-being. Positive reappraisal coping (PRC) is a coping strategy which offers a protective effect from anxiety and depression. However, the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD has yet to be established. This study examines the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents of children with ASD. In this descriptive correlational study, 104 parents of children with ASD completed measures of psychological distress and PRC. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between PRC and the psychological distress in parents after controlling the influence of parental age and gender. The PRC was associated with the psychological distress in parents above and beyond the variance accounted for by parental age and gender. After controlling for parental age and gender, PRC had significant negative correlation with the levels of anxiety, stress, and depression in parents (Anxiety: β=-0.36, p<0.001; Stress: β=-0.21, p=0.03; Depression: β=- 0.37, p<0.001). Using positive reappraisal coping strategy may help to reduce psychological distress in parents of children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of a web-based positive psychology intervention on prenatal well-being : A case series study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corno, Giulia; Etchemendy, Ernestina; Espinoza, Macarena; Herrero, Rocío; Molinari, Guadelupe; Carrillo, Alba; Drossaert, Constance; Baños, Rosa Maria

    Background Detrimental effects of women’s negative feelings during pregnancy have been extensively examined and documented, but research on the influence of positive feelings and protective factors on their prenatal mental health is scarce. Evidence from the positive psychology field has shown that

  17. Modeling the Relationship Between Trauma and Psychological Distress Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women

    OpenAIRE

    Delany-Brumsey, A; Joseph, NT; Myers, HF; Ullman, JB; Wyatt, GE

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and ...

  18. Revising Psychology Misconceptions by Integrating a Refutation-Style Text Framework into Poster Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassonde, Karla A.; Kolquist, Molly; Vergin, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Refutation-style texts have been considered a viable strategy for changing psychological misconceptions. The current study aims to integrate refutation-style texts into a classroom-based method of learning. Psychology students were administered a true/false misconception survey and then viewed several refutation-style poster presentations…

  19. Positive technology: a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Cipresso, Pietro; Serino, Silvia; Campanaro, Danilo Marco; Pallavicini, Federica; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    We describe the main features and preliminary evaluation of Positive Technology, a free mobile platform for the self-management of psychological stress (http://positiveapp.info/). The mobile platform features three main components: (i) guided relaxation, which provides the user with the opportunity of browsing a gallery of relaxation music and video-narrative resources for reducing stress; (ii) 3D biofeedback, which helps the user learning to control his/her responses, by visualizing variations of heart rate in an engaging 3D environment; (iii) stress tracking, by the recording of heart rate and self-reports. We evaluated the Positive Technology app in an online trial involving 32 participants, out of which 7 used the application in combination with the wrist sensor. Overall, feedback from users was satisfactory and the analysis of data collected online indicated the capability of the app for reducing perceived stress levels. A future goal is to improve the usability of the application and include more advanced stress monitoring features, based on the analysis of heart rate variability indexes.

  20. An explanatory framework of teachers' perceptions of a positive mealtime environment in a preschool setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Satoko C; Gray, Samuel A; Goodell, L Suzanne

    2015-07-01

    Attending a preschool center may help preschoolers with growth and development that encourage a healthy lifestyle, including sound eating behaviors. Providing a positive mealtime environment (PME) may be one of the keys to fostering a child's healthy eating habits in the classroom. However, a specific definition of a PME, the components of a PME, or directions on how to create one have not been established. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore Head Start teachers' perceptions related to a PME and create a conceptual framework representing these perceptions. To achieve this purpose, researchers conducted 65 in-depth phone interviews with Head Start teachers around the US. Applying principles of grounded theory, researchers developed a conceptual framework depicting teachers' perceptions of PME, consisting of five key components: (1) the people (i.e., teachers, kitchen staff, parent volunteers, and children), (2) positive emotional tone (e.g., relaxed and happy), (3) rules, expectations, and routines (e.g., family-style mealtime), (4) operations of a PME (i.e., eating, socialization, and learning), and (5) both short- and long-term outcomes of a PME. With this PME framework, researchers may be able to enhance the effectiveness of nutrition interventions related to a PME, focusing on the factors in the conceptual framework as well as barriers associated with achieving these factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Is there a place for psychology in the framework of rational choice theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss psychological aspect of rational choice theory. The standard version of rational choice rests on a kind of psychology, since it operates with mental states. In standard davidsonian version it is claimed that we explain rational actions by stating proper desires and beliefs that caused the action. We will explore two challenges to the standard version that might be called cultural and naturalistic versions of rational choice. Satz and Ferejohn (1994 challenged standard version by stating that we can provide rational-choice explanations without relying too much on psychological assumptions. They argued in favor of moderate externalism, which should replace thin desire-belief model with thick structuralist conception. According to their model moderate externalism is compatible with realism about psychological states, while at the same time those states need not figure in the best rational choice explanations of actions. The focus of rational choice explanations therefore shifts to non-individual and non-psychological entities, such as firms in explaining economic behavior, parties in explaining functioning of democracy, etc. Although there is a place for psychological states within a moderate externalism, those states are not causally relevant. On Pettit’s account desires and beliefs figure in rational choice explanations merely as “standby causes”. They explain resilience of certain behavior, not its actual cause. Quite contrary to standard rational choice theory, the programming model (Pettit, 2002 defines the neurophysiological level as more basic in explaining behavior. This means that higher-level psychological states are causally relevant for certain behavior only if certain lower-level neurophysiological producer obtains. In this paper standard rational choice theory will be defended against culturalist and naturalist criticism.

  2. Narrating spiritual well-being in relationship to positive psychology and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Rooyen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Constructed as new and located in the discourse of positive psychology, “spiritual well-being” is a signifier with a (hisstory in which one possible reading is highlighted in this postmodern (deconstructive narrative. The construction of “spiritual + well-being” could be narrated as a secularisation of the religious by positivist psy-complex knowledges, where spiritual well-being is reconstructed as a measurable outcome. Or it could be nar-rated as a “spiritualisation” of the psy-complex by religious knowledges, with measurable well-being becoming dependent on the pursuit of the postmodern, multiple-storied spiritual/ religious features. As the psy-complex has followed medicine from a focus on pathology to a focus on holistic wellness, it has found itself in the religious realm which it has simultaneously centred and marginalised. Additionally, as the psy-complex has moved from measuring illness to measuring wellness, it could be described as having constructed new categories of non-well-being or ill-being.

  3. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marketing analysis of a positive technology app for the self-management of psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Brenda K; Boyd, Chelsie; Sulea, Camelia; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The INTERSTRESS project developed a completely new concept in the treatment of psychological stress: Interreality, a concept that combines cognitive behavioral therapy with a hybrid, closed-loop empowering experience bridging real and virtual worlds. This model provides the opportunity for individual citizens to become active participants in their own health and well-being. This article contains the results of the Marketing Trial and analysis of the opinions of individual consumers/end users of the INTERSTRESS product. The specific objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and user acceptance of a novel mobile-based relaxation training tool in combination with biofeedback exercises and wearable biosensors. Relaxation was aided through immersion in a mobile virtual scenario (a virtual island) featuring pre-recorded audio narratives guiding a series of relaxation exercises. During biofeedback exercises, a wearable biosensor system provided data which directly modified the virtual reality experience in real-time. Thirty-six participants evaluated the product and overall feedback from users was positive, with some variation seen based on participant gender. A larger market study is now underway to understand if there are cultural variations in acceptability of the device.

  5. [The positive psychological impact of rich childbirth experiences on child-rearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kenji; Noguchi, Makiko; Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological implications of emotionally enriching childbirth experiences for problems such as awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress among women after childbirth. All women who gave birth at five study centers (four birthing homes and one maternity hospital) during May 2002 and August 2003 were asked to participate in the cohort study. All 2314 women were approached and 1004 eligible women agreed to take part. Analyses were conducted using a baseline survey and four follow-up surveys conducted at 4 months, 9 months, 2 and a half years, and 3 years after childbirth. The questionnaire included four scales to evaluate the subjects' childbirth experiences, awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress and difficulties. Data were collected via structured interviews and transcription from medical records. Bivariate and multivariate analysis indicated that women who had good childbirth experiences had positive feelings concerning motherhood and parenting stress and anxiety were lower. Bivariate analysis also indicated that childbirth experience had an inverse relationship with postnatal depression. This study revealed that having good childbirth experiences inhibits negative awareness of motherhood and abusive behavior towards children. These results show that it is important for mothers to be provided with appropriate care during pregnancy and labor for preventing child abuse and parenting stress and anxiety. More research is needed to identify the determinants of childbirth

  6. Warrior Resilience Training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.

  7. Interrelation and independence of positive and negative psychological constructs in predicting general treatment adherence in coronary artery patients - Results from the THORESCI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfort, Eveline; Denollet, Johan; Widdershoven, Jos; Kupper, Nina

    2016-09-01

    In cardiac patients, positive psychological factors have been associated with improved medical and psychological outcomes. The current study examined the interrelation between and independence of multiple positive and negative psychological constructs. Furthermore, the potential added predictive value of positive psychological functioning regarding the prediction of patients' treatment adherence and participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) was investigated. 409 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients were included (mean age = 65.6 ± 9.5; 78% male). Self-report questionnaires were administered one month post-PCI. Positive psychological constructs included positive affect (GMS) and optimism (LOT-R); negative constructs were depression (PHQ-9, BDI), anxiety (GAD-7) and negative affect (GMS). Six months post-PCI self-reported general adherence (MOS) and CR participation were determined. Factor Analysis (Oblimin rotation) revealed two components (r = − 0.56), reflecting positive and negative psychological constructs. Linear regression analyses showed that in unadjusted analyses both optimism and positive affect were associated with better general treatment adherence at six months (p psychological constructs (i.e. optimism) may be of incremental value to negative psychological constructs in predicting patients' treatment adherence. A more complete view of a patients' psychological functioning will open new avenues for treatment. Additional research is needed to investigate the relationship between positive psychological factors and other cardiac outcomes, such as cardiac events and mortality.

  8. Design thinking in positive psychology : The development of a product-service combination that stimulates happiness-enhancing activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, H.P.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration of how knowledge drawn from the positive psychology domain can be used to design products and services that contribute to the happiness of the users. Two distinctions are proposed to structure initiatives in well-being driven design: activity- versus product-focus,

  9. Corporal punishment and long-term behavior problems: the moderating role of positive parenting and psychological aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Straus, Murray A; Carrobles, José Antonio; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J; Almendros, Carmen

    2010-11-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine the prevalence of corporal punishment (CP) of children in Spain; (b) to analyze the extent to which CP is used in combination with psychological aggression and positive parenting among Spanish parents; and (c) to investigate whether the relation between CP and behavior problems is moderated by a positive parenting context in which CP may be used, and by the co-occurrence of psychological aggression. The sample comprised 1,071 Spanish university students (74.8% female; 25.2% male). Findings indicate a high prevalence of CP of Spanish students, revealing that significantly more mothers than fathers used CP. Furthermore, more CP is related to more use of psychological aggression and less of positive parenting. Regression analyses revealed that CP was associated with an increased probability of antisocial traits and behaviors regardless of whether there was positive parenting and psychological aggression. These results highlight that, though many Spanish parents use CP as a disciplinary strategy, it appears to be related to negative outcomes for children regardless the parental context in which it is used.

  10. The Pedagogical Benefits of Enacting Positive Psychology Practices through a Student-Faculty Partnership Approach to Academic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Sather, Alison; Schlosser, Joel Alden; Sweeney, Abigail; Peterson, Laurel M.; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright; Colón García, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Academic development that supports the enactment of positive psychology practices through student-faculty pedagogical partnership can increase faculty confidence and capacity in their first year in a new institution. When student partners practice affirmation and encouragement of strengths-based growth, processes of faculty acclimation and…

  11. The Effect of Positive or Negative Frame on the Choices of Students in School Psychology and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagley, N. S.; Miller, Paul M.; Jones, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    Doctoral students (N=109) in school psychology and educational administration responded to five decision problems whose outcomes were framed either positively as gains or negatively as losses. Frame and profession significantly affected the number of risky choices. Educational administration students made more risky choices than school psychology…

  12. Mirror neurons, procedural learning, and the positive new experience: a developmental systems self psychology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, N S; Gales, M; Shane, E; Shane, M

    2000-01-01

    In summary, we are impressed with the existence of a mirror neuron system in the prefrontal cortex that serves as part of a complex neural network, including afferent and efferent connections to the limbic system, in particular the amygdala, in addition to the premotor and motor cortex. We think it is possible to arrive at an integration that postulates the mirror neuron system and its many types of associated multimodal neurons as contributing significantly to implicit procedural learning, a process that underlies a range of complex nonconscious, unconscious, preconscious and conscious cognitive activities, from playing musical instruments to character formation and traumatic configurations. This type of brain circuitry may establish an external coherence with developmental systems self psychology which implies that positive new experience is meliorative and that the intentional revival of old-old traumatic relational configurations might enhance maladaptive procedural patterns that would lead to the opposite of the intended beneficial change. When analysts revive traumatic transference patterns for the purpose of clarification and interpretation, they may fail to appreciate that such traumatic transference patterns make interpretation ineffective because, as we have stated above, the patient lacks self-reflection under such traumatic conditions. The continued plasticity and immediacy of the mirror neuron system can contribute to positive new experiences that promote the formation of new, adaptive, implicit-procedural patterns. Perhaps this broadened repertoire in the patient of ways of understanding interrelational events through the psychoanalytic process allows the less adaptive patterns ultimately to become vestigial and the newer, more adaptive patterns to emerge as dominant. Finally, as we have stated, we believe that the intentional transferential revival of trauma (i.e., the old-old relational configuration) may not contribute to therapeutic benefit. In

  13. How Does Sexual Minority Stigma "Get under the Skin"? A Psychological Mediation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared with heterosexuals. The field has identified 2 distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present article is to develop a…

  14. Development of a novel positive psychology-based intervention for couples post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Reblin, Maija; MacKenzie, Justin J; Cardell, Beth; Einerson, Jackie; Berg, Cynthia A; Majersik, Jennifer J; Richards, Lorie

    2018-02-01

    Stroke provides challenges for survivors and partner caregivers. Stroke survivors and caregivers are interconnected in their emotional health, including depression, a common stroke sequelae. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of a dyadic positive psychology-based intervention (PPI) for couples coping poststroke. Community-dwelling couples consisted of 1 partner who had a stroke ≥6 months ago and a cohabiting partner caregiver. One or both partner(s) had to report depressive symptoms. The PPI consisted of 1 brief face-to-face training session and an 8-week self-administered intervention in which participants were instructed to engage in at least 2 activities alone and 2 together each week. Two dyads were randomly assigned to a waitlist control to test feasibility of this process. Baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up assessments and post-program feedback were obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze sample characteristics, recruitment and retention rates, adherence, key pre- and postintervention outcomes, and satisfaction with the intervention. Eleven of 20 couples responding to recruitment letters were enrolled in the study. Ten of 11 dyads completed the program. All participants engaged in activities for at least 6 of 8 weeks. Feedback data indicated participant satisfaction with the intervention, and key outcome measures demonstrated adequate variability. The self-administered dyadic PPI is feasible for implementation with couples poststroke. The PPI represents a first step in a novel dyadic approach in this population. Recruitment, enrollment and attrition rates, and feedback will be used to inform a larger randomized trial. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Spin crossover-induced colossal positive and negative thermal expansion in a nanoporous coordination framework material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Benjamin R; Goux-Capes, Laurence; Price, David J; Chastanet, Guillaume; Létard, Jean-François; Kepert, Cameron J

    2017-10-20

    External control over the mechanical function of materials is paramount in the development of nanoscale machines. Yet, exploiting changes in atomic behaviour to produce controlled scalable motion is a formidable challenge. Here, we present an ultra-flexible coordination framework material in which a cooperative electronic transition induces an extreme abrupt change in the crystal lattice conformation. This arises due to a change in the preferred coordination character of Fe(II) sites at different spin states, generating scissor-type flexing of the crystal lattice. Diluting the framework with transition-inactive Ni(II) sites disrupts long-range communication of spin state through the lattice, producing a more gradual transition and continuous lattice movement, thus generating colossal positive and negative linear thermal expansion behaviour, with coefficients of thermal expansion an order of magnitude greater than previously reported. This study has wider implications in the development of advanced responsive structures, demonstrating electronic control over mechanical motion.

  16. Specialty satisfaction, positive psychological capital, and nursing professional values in nursing students: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Chung Hee; Park, Ju Young

    2017-10-01

    Ideally, college majors should be chosen to achieve self-realization and correspond to self-concept. However, some students select a major based on extrinsic factors, rather than aptitude or interests, because of a lack of employment opportunities. If they have negative college experiences with an unsatisfactory major, they might not engage fully in their occupation following graduation. This study aimed to identify factors affecting specialty satisfaction in preclinical practice nursing-college students. A cross-sectional descriptive survey. A nonprobability convenience sample of 312 nursing-college students at colleges in Deajeon City, South Korea. The survey questionnaire was distributed to those who agreed to participate. Freshmen and sophomore nursing students (n=312). Participants were 312 students at colleges in Deajeon City. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data, which were analyzed using SPSS/WIN. Positive psychological capital and nursing professional values were positively correlated with specialty satisfaction. Significant predictors for specialty satisfaction included hope and optimism (as components of positive psychological capital), the roles of nursing service and originality of nursing (as nursing professional values), and aptitude/interests and job value (as motives for selecting a major). The findings suggested that nursing students' specialty satisfaction was partially linked to positive psychological capital and professional values. Therefore, the promotion of positive factors should be useful in enhancing specialty satisfaction in preclinical-practice nursing-college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A computational framework for investigating the positional stability of aortic endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Anamika; Xiao, Nan; Gong, Xiao-Yan; Zarins, Christopher K; Figueroa, C Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (Greenhalgh in N Engl J Med 362(20):1863-1871, 2010) techniques have revolutionized the treatment of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm disease, greatly reducing the perioperative mortality and morbidity associated with open surgical repair techniques. However, EVAR is not free of important complications such as late device migration, endoleak formation and fracture of device components that may result in adverse events such as aneurysm enlargement, need for long-term imaging surveillance and secondary interventions or even death. These complications result from the device inability to withstand the hemodynamics of blood flow and to keep its originally intended post-operative position over time. Understanding the in vivo biomechanical working environment experienced by endografts is a critical factor in improving their long-term performance. To date, no study has investigated the mechanics of contact between device and aorta in a three-dimensional setting. In this work, we developed a comprehensive Computational Solid Mechanics and Computational Fluid Dynamics framework to investigate the mechanics of endograft positional stability. The main building blocks of this framework are: (1) Three-dimensional non-planar aortic and stent-graft geometrical models, (2) Realistic multi-material constitutive laws for aorta, stent, and graft, (3) Physiological values for blood flow and pressure, and (4) Frictional model to describe the contact between the endograft and the aorta. We introduce a new metric for numerical quantification of the positional stability of the endograft. Lastly, in the results section, we test the framework by investigating the impact of several factors that are clinically known to affect endograft stability.

  18. Approach, ability, aftermath: a psychological process framework of unethical behavior at work

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Celia; Gino, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Many of the scandalous organizational practices to have come to light in the last decade—rigging LIBOR, misselling payment protection insurance, rampant Wall Street insider trading, large-scale bribery of foreign officials, and the packaging and sale of toxic securities to naı¨ve investors—require ethically problematic judgments and behaviors. However, dominant models of workplace unethical behavior fail to account for what we have learned from moral psychology and cognitive neuroscience in t...

  19. Psychological distress after employment transitions: the role of subjective financial position as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Claudia; Benzeval, Michaela; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    To explore the extent to which the mental health effects of transitions into unemployment, or other forms of non-employment, and vice versa, are mediated by financial changes. Longitudinal analysis of the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2000. There were 89,264 person-years of observation from 14,686 individuals aged > or =16 years. Main outcome measure was psychological distress measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Transitions to unemployment were associated with increased risk of psychological distress for men (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.50 to 3.98)) and for women (OR 2.60 (95% CI 1.97 to 3.43)). Women who left work to look after the family were also more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 1.72 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.05)). A reduced risk of psychological distress was seen for transitions from unemployment to paid employment for men (OR 0.52 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.68)) and for women (OR 0.68 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.40)). Financial difficulty partially mediated these relationships: men who became unemployed and were worse off financially were more likely to experience psychological distress (OR 4.19 (95% CI 3.20 to 5.50)) than men who were not (OR 1.48 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.33)). Conversely, the beneficial health effect for people who left unemployment and became employed was confined to those who were better off financially (OR 0.34 (0.25 to 0.48) for men). Changes in employment status have both direct and indirect effects, through changes in financial circumstances, on subsequent psychological distress. The results support the view that the direction of causation runs from employment transitions to financial difficulties and psychological distress.

  20. Identifying and Cultivating Leadership Potential in School Psychology: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Kristine M.

    2014-01-01

    Though National Association of School Psychologists standards acknowledge the urgent need for leadership skills among school psychologists and loosely define a leadership agenda, a cogent model for the training and practice of this skill set has not yet been explicated. The formulation of a preliminary conceptual framework is a particularly…

  1. Effect of repetitive yogic squats with specific hand position (Thoppukaranam on selective attention and psychological states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Chandrasekeran

    2014-01-01

    Results: There was a significant improvement in all measures of the d2 test of attention (TN, E, TN-E, E%, and concentration performance and state mindfulness after Thoppukaranam. Further state anxiety reduced significantly after the experimental session. Conclusions: These findings indicate Thoppukaranam results in enhancement of cognitive functioning and psychological states.

  2. The school psychologist's role in implementing the principles of positive psychology in the development of the school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Slavica B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian school system is currently undergoing a transformation process, dealing with important issues of interest to society as a whole. One of the possible directions of this transformation is the development of a positive school as an institution in which value is placed not only on achievement but also on the wellbeing of all parties. This paper considers to what extent the professional potential of school psychologists could be utilized in this process. The analysis presented here aims to reassess the possibilities of applying the principles of positive psychology to defining and implementing the role of school psychologists, and to put forward along these lines certain suggestions for their practical work. For this purpose, we have reviewed the theoretical foundations of positive education and related research findings, analysed regulations and research findings regarding the work of school psychologists in Serbian schools, and discussed prospects for their further engagement from the standpoint of contemporary theories of organizational changes and development. The possibilities for creating a positive school have been corroborated through numerous studies. According to Serbian school regulations, the school psychologist is expected to be engaged in improving all aspects of work in a school, as well as relationships between all participants in that process. Research findings on building a positive school provide a stimulus, while the position of the school psychologist provides the basis for his or her engagement in the process of transforming Serbian schools into positive schools. The conclusion is that school psychologists could contribute to the development of the school as a positive institution provided their professional role is redefined in accordance with the principles of positive psychology.

  3. Positive psychology, a science of strengths and virtues : beyond pathology and medication

    OpenAIRE

    Marujo, Helena Águeda

    2011-01-01

    Revista de psicologia da criança e do adolescente. - ISSN 1647-4120. - N. 3 (2011). - p. 127-145. Social sciences in general, and psychology in particular, have mainly approached children and adolescents through a focus on deviation from normality and of incidence of pathology. Even preventive approaches involve the expectation of potential illness. Taking into consideration that the choice for following this trend was based on a good intention of understanding and ending human suffering t...

  4. Effect of repetitive yogic squats with specific hand position (Thoppukaranam) on selective attention and psychological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekeran, Angelica; Rajesh, Sasidharan K; Srinivasan, Tm

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effect of Thoppukaranam is limited despite it being practiced as a form of worship to the elephant-headed deity Lord Ganapati and punishment in schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Thoppukaranam on selective attention and psychological states in a sample of young adults. A randomized self-as-control within subjects design was employed. Thirty undergraduate students (4 females and 26 males) from a residential Yoga University in Southern India were recruited for this study (group mean age ± standard deviation, 20.17 ± 2.92). The d2 test, State Anxiety Inventory-Short Form and State Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (SMAAS) were used to measure cognitive performance and psychological states. Assessments were made in three sessions: Baseline, control (squats), and experimental (Thoppukaranam) on 3 separate days. Data were analyzed using one-way repeated measures analyses of variance between three sessions, that is, baseline, squat, and Thoppukaranam. There was a significant improvement in all measures of the d2 test of attention (TN, E, TN-E, E%, and concentration performance) and state mindfulness after Thoppukaranam. Further state anxiety reduced significantly after the experimental session. These findings indicate Thoppukaranam results in enhancement of cognitive functioning and psychological states.

  5. The position of the cancer patient undergoing radiotherapy -psychological and physical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischenschlager, O.; Hohenberg, G.; Handl-Zeller, L.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the psychological strains experienced by patients undergoing radiotherapy, as well as their somatic complaints and the possible connection between these two aspects. The sample consisted of 87 cancer patients, 64 female, 23 male. We used two standardized clinical instruments, one Zerssen's list of somatic complaints ('Beschwerdeliste' in German) and Zerssen's questionnaire of wellbeing ('Befindlichkeitsskala' in German). These two research instruments were implemented four times: at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of radiation, and three month afterwards. Results: Both the psychological state of well-being and somatic complaints remained at approximately the same level during the whole course of therapy. The state of well-being increased significantly after therapy, which is indicated by the decrease in the number of psychological impairments, whereas the score for somatic complaints remained the same. We observed a general tendency on the part of the patients to play down their situation. Sex differences were not observed. The discussion of the results includes their implication on the doctor-patient relationship. (Author)

  6. Enhancing evidence-based coaching through the development of a coaching psychology competency framework : focus on the coaching relationship.

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to facilitate the development of evidence-based coaching through investigating a competency framework for Coaching Psychologists to enhance the coaching relationship towards a positive outcome. Coaching has been extensively applied to organisational and leadership development programmes in the past few decades. However, coaching is not an accredited profession because it is a cross-disciplinary methodology. There are still some gaps in the existing coaching r...

  7. Caregiving burden and psychological distress in Chinese spousal caregivers: gender difference in the moderating role of positive aspects of caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Ng, Ting Kin; Zhuang, Xiao Yu

    2018-05-21

    This study endeavors to advance the current literature by examining the gender differences in the caregiving experiences and the stress-buffering role of positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) among Chinese spousal caregivers of frail elders in Hong Kong. Forty-nine husband caregivers and 121 wife caregivers of frail elders in Hong Kong (N = 170) responded to the Positive Aspects of Caregiving (PAC) scale, the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21), and demographic questions. These spousal caregivers were diverse in age, and their care receivers were diverse in terms of age and health condition. As predicted, there were significant gender differences in the moderating effects of PAC on the relationships of caregiving burden to depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress. While PAC significantly buffered the effects of caregiving burden on depression, anxiety, and overall psychological distress for wife caregivers, the moderating effects of PAC were not significant for husband caregivers. Unexpectedly, wife caregivers reported lower PAC, higher caregiving burden, and higher psychological distress. As these findings suggest that PAC is lower but more beneficial for Chinese wife caregivers than Chinese husband caregivers, helping professionals are recommended to use strengths-based interventions that target PAC when working with Chinese wife caregivers.

  8. Masculine body ideologies as a non-gynocentric framework for the psychological study of the male body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmann, Amir; Kaplan, Danny

    2014-09-01

    Psychological research of the body disproportionately centers on body-appearance concerns. Grounded in women's experience of objectification, it neglects much of men's bodily experience. To address this we introduce Masculine Body Ideologies (MBI), a set of belief systems that prescribe how men should engage with their bodies. Three MBI ideal-types are identified and situated within broader masculinity ideologies: unattended, functional body ideology associated with traditional masculinity rooted in modern industrial society; metrosexual body ideology associated with post-industrial, consumer masculinity and reemploying signifiers of body functionality to form an objectified body esthetics; and holistic body ideology emphasizing inner-harmony, authenticity and expressivity, manifesting post-industrial trends of self-aware masculinity. As a normative framework, MBI underscores how similar body practices may be motivated by different body concerns associated with alternative body ideologies. This framework can clarify conceptual and empirical inconsistencies in studies of male body-appearance concerns and inform emerging research and mental-health considerations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deciding to adopt revised and new psychological and neuropsychological tests: an inter-organizational position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Shane S; Sweet, Jerry J; Bianchini, Kevin J; Johnson-Greene, Doug; Dean, Pamela M; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2018-04-01

    Neuropsychological tests undergo periodic revision intended to improve psychometric properties, normative data, relevance of stimuli, and ease of administration. In addition, new tests are developed to evaluate psychological and neuropsychological constructs, often purporting to improve evaluation effectiveness. However, there is limited professional guidance to neuropsychologists concerning the decision to adopt a revised version of a test and/or replace an older test with a new test purporting to measure the same or overlapping constructs. This paper describes ethical and professional issues related to the selection and use of older versus newer psychological and neuropsychological tests, with the goal of promoting appropriate test selection and evidence-based decision making. Ethical and professional issues were reviewed and considered. The availability of a newer version of a test does not necessarily render obsolete prior versions of the test for purposes that are empirically supported, nor should continued empirically supported use of a prior version of a test be considered unethical practice. Until a revised or new test has published evidence of improved ability to help clinicians to make diagnostic determinations, facilitate treatment, and/or assess change over time, the choice to delay adoption of revised or new tests may be viewed as reasonable and appropriate. Recommendations are offered to facilitate decisions about the adoption of revised and new tests. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of individual neuropsychologists to determine which tests best meet their patients' needs, and to be able to support their decisions with empirical evidence and sound clinical judgment.

  10. Assessing teachers' positive psychological functioning at work: Development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L; Long, Anna C J; Cook, Clayton R

    2015-06-01

    This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (TSWQ) with 2 samples of educators-a general sample of 185 elementary and middle school teachers, and a target sample of 21 elementary school teachers experiencing classroom management challenges. The TSWQ is an 8-item self-report instrument for assessing teachers' subjective wellbeing, which is operationalized via subscales measuring school connectedness and teaching efficacy. The conceptualization and development processes underlying the TSWQ are described, and results from a series of preliminary psychometric and exploratory analyses are reported to establish initial construct validity. Findings indicated that the TSWQ was characterized by 2 conceptually sound latent factors, that both subscales and the composite scale demonstrated strong internal consistency, and that all scales demonstrated convergent validity with self-reported school supports and divergent validity with self-reported stress and emotional burnout. Furthermore, results indicated that TSWQ scores did not differ according to teachers' school level (i.e., elementary vs. middle), but that they did differ according to unique school environment (e.g., 1 middle school vs. another middle school) and teacher stressors (i.e., general teachers vs. teachers experiencing classroom management challenges). Results also indicated that, for teachers experiencing classroom challenges, the TSWQ had strong short-term predictive validity for psychological distress, accounting for approximately half of the variance in teacher stress and emotional burnout. Implications for theory, research, and the practice of school psychology are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A cross-sectional examination of psychological distress, positive mental health and their predictors in medical students in their clinical clerkships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge van Dijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called ‘positive mental health’. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Methods Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF, dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors. Results Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89% completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were ‘acting with awareness’ (negative and ‘worrying’ (positive. Strongest predictors of positive mental health were ‘problem avoidance’ (negative and ‘emotional irresponsibility’ (negative. Conclusions The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support

  12. A cross-sectional examination of psychological distress, positive mental health and their predictors in medical students in their clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Inge; Lucassen, Peter L B J; van Weel, Chris; Speckens, Anne E M

    2017-11-17

    Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called 'positive mental health'. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory), positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF), dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory) and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables) and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors). Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89%) completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were 'acting with awareness' (negative) and 'worrying' (positive). Strongest predictors of positive mental health were 'problem avoidance' (negative) and 'emotional irresponsibility' (negative). The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support conclusions of previous research that psychological distress and positive mental

  13. Long-Term Positive and Negative Psychological Late Effects for Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Lisa; Cernvall, Martin; Grönqvist, Helena; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Increasing survival rates in childhood cancer have yielded a growing population of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). This systematic review compiles the literature on positive and negative long-term psychological late effects for parents of CCSs, reported at least five years after the child's diagnosis and/or two years after the end of the child's treatment. Systematic searches were made in the databases CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Fifteen studies, published between 1988 and 2010, from 12 projects were included. Thirteen studies used quantitative methodology, one quantitative and qualitative methodology, and one qualitative methodology. A total of 1045 parents participated in the reviewed studies. Mean scores were within normal ranges for general psychological distress, coping, and family functioning. However, a substantial subgroup reported a clinical level of general psychological distress, and 21–44% reported a severe level of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Worry, disease-related thoughts and feelings, marital strains, as well as posttraumatic growth was reported. Several factors were associated with the long-term late effects, such as parents' maladaptive coping during earlier stages of the childs disease trajectory and children's current poor adjustment. Quality assessments of reviewed studies and clinical implications of findings are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. PMID:25058607

  14. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Bakke Finne

    Full Text Available Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2 were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect

  15. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit) effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2) were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect. Furthermore, both

  16. Do positive psychological characteristics modify associations of physical performance with functional decline and institutionalization? Findings from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, R.; Huisman, M.; Kuh, D; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether 3 positive psychological characteristics, related to sense of control, modify the associations of physical performance levels with subsequent functional decline and institutionalization. Method. One thousand five hundred and thirty-two men and women participating

  17. Psychological effects of false-positive results in expanded newborn screening in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Tu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: As more families participate expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders in China, the overall number of false positives increases. Our goal was to assess the potential impact on parental stress, perceptions of the child's health, and family relationships. METHODS: Parents of 49 infants with false-positive screening results for metabolic disorders in the expanded newborn screening panel were compared with parents of 42 children with normal screening results. Parents first completed structured interview using likert scales, closed and open questions. Parents also completed the parenting stress index. RESULTS: A total of 88 mothers and 41 fathers were interviewed. More mothers in the false-positive group reported that their children required extra parental care (21%, compared with 5% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. 39% of mothers in the false-positive group reported that they worry about their child's future development, compared with 10% of mothers in the normal-screened group (P<0.001. Fathers in the false-positive group did not differ from fathers in the normal-screened group in reporting worry about their child's extra care requirements, and their child's future development. Children with false-positive results compared with children with normal results were triple as likely to experience hospitalization (27%vs 9%, respectively; P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The results showing false-positive screening results may affect parental stress and the parent-child relationship. Parental stress and anxiety can be reduced with improved education and communication to parents about false-positive results.

  18. Effects of Positive Psychology Interventions on Risk Biomarkers in Coronary Patients: A Randomized, Wait-List Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikrahan, Gholam Reza; Laferton, Johannes A C; Asgari, Karim; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Abedi, Mohammad Reza; Etesampour, Ali; Rezaei, Abbas; Suarez, Laura; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    Among cardiac patients, positive psychologic factors are consistently linked with superior clinical outcomes and improvement in key markers of inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning. Further, positive psychology interventions (PPI) have effectively increased psychologic well-being in a wide variety of populations. However, there has been minimal study of PPIs in cardiac patients, and no prior study has evaluated their effect on key prognostic biomarkers of cardiac outcome. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of 3 distinct PPIs on risk biomarkers in cardiac patients. In an exploratory trial, 69 patients with recent coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous intervention were randomized to (1) one of three 6-week in-person PPIs (based on the work of Seligman, Lyubomirsky, or Fordyce) or (2) a wait-list control group. Risk biomarkers were assessed at baseline, postintervention (7 weeks), and at 15-week follow-up. Between-group differences in change from baseline biomarker levels were examined via random effects models. Compared with the control group, participants randomized to the Seligman (B = -2.06; p = 0.02) and Fordyce PPI (B = -1.54; p = 0.04) had significantly lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels at 7 weeks. Further, the Lyubomirsky PPI (B = -245.86; p = 0.04) was associated with a significantly lower cortisol awakening response at 7 weeks when compared with control participants. There were no other significant between-group differences. Despite being an exploratory pilot study with multiple between-group comparisons, this initial trial offers the first suggestion that PPIs might be effective in reducing risk biomarkers in high-risk cardiac patients. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50–79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Proyer, Rene T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Various positive psychology interventions have been experimentally tested, but only few studies addressed the effects of such activities in participants aged 50 and above. Method: We tested the impact of four self-administered positive psychology interventions in an online setting (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, three funny things, and using signature strengths in a new way) on happiness and depressive symptoms in comparison with a placebo control exercise (i.e., ear...

  20. Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Self-Help Intervention: Study Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossaert, Constance HC; Pieterse, Marcel E; Walburg, Jan A; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2015-01-01

    Background Positive psychology interventions have been found to enhance well-being and decrease clinical symptomatology. However, it is still unknown how flourishing can also be increased. Although multicomponent interventions seem to be necessary for this purpose, different formats can be used. A cost-effective approach could be a positive psychology-based self-help book with tailored email support to reach large target groups and to prevent dropout. Objective This study will evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive multicomponent self-help intervention with or without email support on well-being and flourishing, and will seek to determine the working mechanisms underlying the intervention. Methods In this 3-armed, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 396 participants with low or moderate levels of well-being and without clinical symptomatology will be randomly assigned to (1) a self-help book condition with weekly email support, (2) a self-help book condition without email support but with a weekly information email, or (3) a waiting list control condition. Online measurements will be assessed at baseline, at post-test (3 months after baseline), and at 6 and 12 months after baseline. Results The primary outcomes are well-being and flourishing (ie, high levels of well-being). Secondary outcomes are the well-being components included in the intervention: positive emotion, use of strengths, optimism, self-compassion, resilience, and positive relations. Other measures include depressive and anxiety symptoms, personality traits, direct medical and non-medical costs, life-events, and client satisfaction. Conclusions This study will add knowledge to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent positive psychology intervention. We will also explore who can benefit most from this intervention. If the intervention is found to be effective, our results will be especially relevant for public mental health services, governments, and primary care. Trial

  1. Narrative perspective shift at retrieval: The psychological-distance-mediated-effect on emotional intensity of positive and negative autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuan; Tse, Chi-Shing

    2016-10-01

    The present study manipulated participants' narrative perspectives (1st-personal pronoun "I" and 3rd-personal pronoun "He/She") to vary their field and observer visual perspectives that they took to retrieve autobiographical events and examine how the shifts in narrative perspective could influence the self-rated emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Results showed that when narrative perspectives effectively shifted participants' visual perspectives from field to observer, they felt attenuated emotional intensities of positive and negative autobiographical memories. However, this did not occur when narrative perspectives effectively shifted the visual perspectives from observer to field. Multiple mediator models further showed that the changes in psychological distance and imagery vividness (a distance-related construct) of autobiographical memory mediated the relationship between the narrative perspective shift from the 1st- to 3rd-person and the reduction in the intensities of negative and positive emotion. This provides support for the role of psychological distancing in reducing the emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive emotions: A psychological tool for promoting resilience process in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this theoretical work is to assess the relation between the capacity to experiment positive emotions and the process of resilience throughout childhood. Our interest arises from two research works being carried out in the province of Mendoza, in Argentina (INCIHUSA-CRICYT-CONICET, directed by Dr Mirta Ison. One the so called “Assessment of resilience in childhood maltreatment”, and the other “ Positive emotions as psycological tools for fostering mental health throughout childhood within vulnerable social contexts”. Resilience is always associated to risky or vulnerable social situations. Positive emotions constitute a resource favorable to the development of resilience. This working hypothesis is based on previous studies which hold that positive emotions favor creative thinking for the solution of interpersonal problems, promote cognitive flexibility, reduce risks at decision making, promote replies to generosity and altruism, increase intelectual resources and counteract depressive tendencies among others. Other authors support the fact that the features a resilient child holds are closely connected to cognitive flexibility, to creative capacity, to the capacity for solving interpersonal problems, to self esteem and attachment links among others. Thus, positive emotions are believed to be one of the psycological resources and tools needed for the development of resilience throughout childhood. 

  3. Parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness: role of socioeconomic position, psychological well-being and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcikova, Z; Madarasova Geckova, A; Orosova, O; van Dijk, J P; Reijneveld, S A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. We obtained data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%). Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the last 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced, their socioeconomic position (education of parents, family affluence), the composition of the household (one or two parents/step-parents), social support from the family and their own well-being. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks, as well as high socioeconomic position, low social support from the family and high depression/anxiety. The effect of divorce on drunkenness decreased only slightly after adding social support into the model. Our findings indicate that parental divorce has a persistent influence on risk behavior independent of the influence of socioeconomic position and well-being. Parental divorce may increase the likelihood of drunkenness more than other factors such as low parental support and poor socioeconomic position. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Positive correlation of employment and psychological well-being for veterans with major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, David J; Wendel, Christopher S; Skeps, Raymond; Rawl, Susan M; Grant, Marcia; Schmidt, C Max; Ko, Clifford Y; Krouse, Robert S

    2010-11-01

    Intestinal stomas (ostomies) have been associated negatively with multiple aspects of health-related quality of life. This article examines the relationship between employment status and psychological well-being (PWB) in veterans who underwent major bowel procedures with or without ostomy. Veterans from 3 Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers were surveyed using the City of Hope ostomy-specific questionnaire and the Short Form 36 item Veteran's version (SF-36V). Response rate was 48% (511 of 1,063). Employment and PWB relationship was assessed using multiple regression with age, income, SF-36V physical component summary (PCS), and employment status as independent variables. Employed veterans reported higher PWB compared with unemployed veterans (P = .003). Full-time workers also reported higher PWB than part-time or unemployed workers (P = .001). Ostomy was not an independent predictor of PWB. Employment among veterans after major abdominal surgery may have intrinsic value for PWB. Patients should be encouraged to return to work, or do volunteer work after recovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Improving job satisfaction of Chinese doctors: the positive effects of perceived organizational support and psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J; Sun, W; Wang, Y; Yang, X; Wang, L

    2013-10-01

    The huge population basic and the transformational changes to healthcare system in China have gained wide public attention in recent years. Along with these issues is a growing literature about doctor's job satisfaction; however, more is known about its negative related factors. Thus, this study was an attempt to assess the level of job satisfaction among Chinese doctors and to explore factors that enhance their job satisfaction. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of September/October 2010. A questionnaire containing job satisfaction assessed by Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), demographic characteristics, work conditions, psychological capital (PsyCap) and perceived organizational support (POS) was distributed to 1300 registered doctors in Liaoning province. A total of 984 respondents became our subjects (effective response rate 75.7%). Hierarchical regression was performed to explore the factors associated with satisfaction. The average MSQ score was 65.86 (level ranking for MSQ, 20-100) in our study population. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that POS (β = 0.412, P work environment and developing doctors' PsyCap should be considered by health administrators in order to promote job satisfaction among Chinese doctors. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing a mediation framework for the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among sexual minority individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Deitz, Cori

    2015-04-01

    Perceived discrimination is a risk factor for mental health problems among sexual minority individuals. An increasing number of research studies have investigated the mechanisms through which stigma-related stressors such as perceived discrimination are linked with adverse mental health outcomes for sexual minority populations. The integrative mediation framework proposed by Hatzenbuehler (2009) underscores the importance of identifying mediators in the association between stigma-related stressors and mental health outcomes. This study tested 3 mediators--expectations of rejection, anger rumination, and self-compassion--in the perceived discrimination-distress link. Moreover, it examined associations among these mediators. A nationwide sample of 265 sexual minorities responded to an online survey. Structural equation modeling results supported the mediator roles of expectations of rejection, anger rumination, and self-compassion. More specifically, perceived discrimination was associated with expectations of rejection, which, in turn, was associated with increased anger rumination and less self-compassion, resulting in greater psychological distress. The findings suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention with sexual minority individuals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Unequally distributed psychological assets: are there social disparities in optimism, life satisfaction, and positive affect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K; Chen, Ying; Williams, David R; Ryff, Carol; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns. Participants from the Midlife in the United States study self-reported their optimism, satisfaction, positive affect, and socioeconomic status (gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupational class and prestige, income). Social disparities in optimism were evident. Optimistic individuals tended to be white and highly educated, had an educated parent, belonged to higher occupational classes with more prestige, and had higher incomes. Findings were generally similar for satisfaction, but not positive affect. Greater optimism and satisfaction were also associated with educational achievement across generations. Optimism and life satisfaction are consistently linked with socioeconomic advantage and may be one conduit by which social disparities influence health.

  8. Parental Divorce and Adolescent Drunkenness : Role of Socioeconomic Position, Psychological Well-Being and Social Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomcikova, Z.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness in the last 4 weeks and the contribution of socioeconomic position, family structure, social support from family and well-being to this association. Methods: We

  9. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stansfeld, J.; Stoner, C.R.; Wenborn, J.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Moniz-Cook, E.; Orrell, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and

  10. The impact of mindfulness-based interventions on symptom burden, positive psychological outcomes, and biomarkers in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouleau CR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Codie R Rouleau,1 Sheila N Garland,2 Linda E Carlson3 1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Research on the use of mindfulness-based stress reduction and related mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs in cancer care has proliferated over the past decade. MBIs have aimed to facilitate physical and emotional adjustment to life with cancer through the cultivation and practice of mindfulness (ie, purposeful, nonjudgmental, moment-to-moment awareness. This descriptive review highlights three categories of outcomes that have been evaluated in MBI research with cancer patients – namely, symptom reduction, positive psychological growth, and biological outcomes. We also examine the clinical relevance of each targeted outcome, while describing recently published original studies to highlight novel applications of MBIs tailored to individuals with cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that participation in a MBI contributes to reductions in psychological distress, sleep disturbance, and fatigue, and promotes personal growth in areas such as quality of life and spirituality. MBIs may also influence markers of immune function, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation, and autonomic nervous system activity, though it remains unclear whether these biological changes translate to clinically important health benefits. We conclude by discussing methodological limitations of the extant literature, and implications of matching MBIs to the needs and preferences of cancer patients. Overall, the growing popularity of MBIs in cancer care must be balanced against scientific evidence for their impact on specific clinical outcomes. Keywords: mindfulness-based intervention

  11. Linguistic positivity in historical texts reflects dynamic environmental and psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Rumen; Hoover, Joe; Dehghani, Morteza; Axelrod, Robert

    2016-12-06

    People use more positive words than negative words. Referred to as "linguistic positivity bias" (LPB), this effect has been found across cultures and languages, prompting the conclusion that it is a panhuman tendency. However, although multiple competing explanations of LPB have been proposed, there is still no consensus on what mechanism(s) generate LPB or even on whether it is driven primarily by universal cognitive features or by environmental factors. In this work we propose that LPB has remained unresolved because previous research has neglected an essential dimension of language: time. In four studies conducted with two independent, time-stamped text corpora (Google books Ngrams and the New York Times), we found that LPB in American English has decreased during the last two centuries. We also observed dynamic fluctuations in LPB that were predicted by changes in objective environment, i.e., war and economic hardships, and by changes in national subjective happiness. In addition to providing evidence that LPB is a dynamic phenomenon, these results suggest that cognitive mechanisms alone cannot account for the observed dynamic fluctuations in LPB. At the least, LPB likely arises from multiple interacting mechanisms involving subjective, objective, and societal factors. In addition to having theoretical significance, our results demonstrate the value of newly available data sources in addressing long-standing scientific questions.

  12. Television viewing, psychological positive health, health complaints and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.

  13. Human Nature, Flourishing, and Happiness: Toward a Synthesis of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. Younkins

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a skeleton of a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It is an exploratory attempt to construct an understanding from various disciplines and to integrate them into a clear, consistent, coherent, and systematic whole. Holding that there are essential interconnections among objective ideas, the article specifically emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated into a paradigm of human flourishing and happiness based on the nature of man and the world. Such a paradigm will help people to understand the world and to survive and flourish in it. It is hoped that the paradigm will grow and evolve as scholars engage, question, critique, interpret, and extend its ideas. Our goal is to have a paradigm that accords with reality and there is always more to learn from reality.

  14. Educator Toolkits on Second Victim Syndrome, Mindfulness and Meditation, and Positive Psychology: The 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Smart

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus of attention for the medical education community. Methods: As part of the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit in Las Vegas, Nevada, resident participants from 31 programs collaborated in the Educator Toolkit workgroup. Over a seven-month period leading up to the summit, this workgroup convened virtually in the Wellness Think Tank, an online resident community, to perform a literature review and draft curricular plans on three core wellness topics. These topics were second victim syndrome, mindfulness and meditation, and positive psychology. At the live summit event, the workgroup expanded to include residents outside the Wellness Think Tank to obtain a broader consensus of the evidence-based toolkits for these three topics. Results: Three educator toolkits were developed. The second victim syndrome toolkit has four modules, each with a pre-reading material and a leader (educator guide. In the mindfulness and meditation toolkit, there are three modules with a leader guide in addition to a longitudinal, guided meditation plan. The positive psychology toolkit has two modules, each with a leader guide and a PowerPoint slide set. These toolkits provide educators the necessary resources, reading materials, and lesson plans to implement didactic sessions in their residency curriculum. Conclusion: Residents from across the world collaborated and convened to reach a consensus on high-yield—and potentially high-impact—lesson plans that programs can use to promote and improve resident wellness. These lesson plans may stand alone or be incorporated into a larger wellness curriculum.

  15. Educator Toolkits on Second Victim Syndrome, Mindfulness and Meditation, and Positive Psychology: The 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Arlene S; Smart, Jon; Zdradzinski, Michael; Roth, Sarah; Gende, Alecia; Conroy, Kylie; Battaglioli, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus of attention for the medical education community. As part of the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit in Las Vegas, Nevada, resident participants from 31 programs collaborated in the Educator Toolkit workgroup. Over a seven-month period leading up to the summit, this workgroup convened virtually in the Wellness Think Tank, an online resident community, to perform a literature review and draft curricular plans on three core wellness topics. These topics were second victim syndrome, mindfulness and meditation, and positive psychology. At the live summit event, the workgroup expanded to include residents outside the Wellness Think Tank to obtain a broader consensus of the evidence-based toolkits for these three topics. Three educator toolkits were developed. The second victim syndrome toolkit has four modules, each with a pre-reading material and a leader (educator) guide. In the mindfulness and meditation toolkit, there are three modules with a leader guide in addition to a longitudinal, guided meditation plan. The positive psychology toolkit has two modules, each with a leader guide and a PowerPoint slide set. These toolkits provide educators the necessary resources, reading materials, and lesson plans to implement didactic sessions in their residency curriculum. Residents from across the world collaborated and convened to reach a consensus on high-yield-and potentially high-impact-lesson plans that programs can use to promote and improve resident wellness. These lesson plans may stand alone or be incorporated into a larger wellness curriculum.

  16. Psychosocial framework for understanding psychological distress among survivors of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack: beyond traumatic experiences and emergency medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacquleen; Jaswal, Surinder

    2014-06-01

    The field of "Public Health in Disasters and Complex Emergencies" is replete with either epidemiological studies or studies in the area of hospital preparedness and emergency care. The field is dominated by hospital-based or emergency phase-related literature, with very little attention on long-term health and mental health consequences. The social science, or the public mental health perspective, too, is largely missing. It is in this context that the case report of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack survivors is presented to bring forth the multi-dimensional and dynamic long-term impacts, and their consequences for psychological well-being, two years after the incident. Based on literature, the report formulates a theoretical framework through which the lived experiences of the survivors is analyzed and understood from a social science perspective. This report is an outcome of the ongoing work with the survivors over a period of two years. A mixed methodology was used. It quantitatively captures the experience of 231 families following the attack, and also uses a self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ), SRQ20, to understand the psychological distress. In-depth qualitative case studies constructed from the process records and in-depth interviews focus on lived experiences of the survivors and explain the patterns emerging from the quantitative analysis. This report outlines the basic profile of the survivors, the immediate consequences of the attack, the support received, psychological consequences, and the key factors contributing to psychological distress. Through analysis of the key factors and the processes emerging from the lived experiences that explain the progression of vulnerability to psychological distress, this report puts forth a psychosocial framework for understanding psychological distress among survivors of the November 26, 2008 Mumbai terror attack.

  17. Positive results of clinical educational support in situations of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Education is a complex process that involves the individual in the course of his entire life and leads to the maturation and the overall development of his personality. The educational process involves the complete growth of each and completes the infinite possibilities that every child has potential since birth. Education also is a necessity for the human being, as only adequate environmental stimulation causes the mental processes to begin. In fact, the higher intellectual functions, such as language, thought, memory, emerge only from social and educational experiences of the child. The educational surgery creates experiences and learning that allow the person to change by improving the efficiency of synaptic connections. Clinical pedagogy has developed in Italy in the last decades of the twentieth century with the aim of research and experimenting educational purposes suitable for different situations in order to provide each subject with appropriate development opportunities. Clinical pedagogical support is offered in the form of artistic or bodily activities and represents for the individual a positive environment that allows the development of different brain areas and the potential inherent in them. The various methods are suitable for any situation of existential discomfort, which are understood as moments of personal growth.

  18. Possible mechanisms in a multicomponent email guided positive psychology intervention to improve mental well-being, anxiety and depression : A multiple mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Walburg, Jan A.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of several multicomponent positive psychology interventions (PPIs) have been demonstrated, but little is known about its possible mechanisms of change. We examined (1) the efficacy of an email guided self-help PPI on six core well-being processes (positive emotion, use of strengths,

  19. Global Positioning System Technology (GPS for Psychological Research: A Test of Convergent and Nomological Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eWolf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the convergent and nomological validity of a GPS-based measure of daily activity, operationalized as Number of Places Visited (NPV. Relations among the GPS-based measure and two self-report measures of NPV, as well as relations among NPV and two factors made up of self-reported individual differences were examined. The first factor was composed of variables related to an Active Lifestyle (AL (e.g. positive affect, extraversion… and the second factor was composed of variables related to a Sedentary Lifestyle (SL (e.g. depression, neuroticism…. NPV was measured over a four-day period. This timeframe was made up of two week and two weekend days. A bi-variate analysis established one level of convergent validity and a Split-Plot GLM examined convergent validity, nomological validity, and alternative hypotheses related to constraints on activity throughout the week simultaneously. The first analysis revealed significant correlations among NPV measures- weekday, weekend, and the entire four day blocks, supporting the convergent validity of the Diary-, Google Maps-, and GPS-NPV measures. Results from the second analysis, indicating non-significant mean differences in NPV regardless of method, also support this conclusion. We also found that AL is a statistically significant predictor of NPV no matter how NPV was measured. We did not find a statically significant relation among NPV and SL. These results permit us to infer that the GPS-based NPV measure has convergent and nomological validity.

  20. Domestic work and psychological distress--what is the importance of relative socioeconomic position and gender inequality in the couple relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Harryson

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position.In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men. The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis.Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position ('having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position' and 'having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position' were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having 'less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship' and 'more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship'. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men.This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings.

  1. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  2. Smiling Instead of Smoking: Development of a Positive Psychology Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for Non-daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, Lourah; Schick, Melissa; Kelly, John F

    2017-10-01

    The usefulness of mobile technology in supporting smoking cessation has been demonstrated, but little is known about how smartphone apps could best be leveraged. The purpose of this paper is to describe the program of research that led to the creation of a smoking cessation app for non-daily smokers, so as to stimulate further ideas to create "smart" smartphone apps to support health behavior change. Literature reviews to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed app, content analyses of existing apps, and smoking cessation sessions with non-daily smokers (n = 38) to inform the design of the app. The literature reviews showed that (1) smoking cessation apps are sought after by smokers, (2) positive affect plays an important role in smoking cessation, (3) short, self-administered exercises consistently bring about enduring positive affect enhancements, and (4) low treatment-seeking rates of non-daily smokers despite high motivation to quit indicate a need for novel smoking cessation support. Directed content analyses of existing apps indicated that tailoring, two-way interactions, and proactive features are under-utilized in existing apps, despite the popularity of such features. Conventional content analyses of audio-recorded session tapes suggested that difficulty in quitting was generally linked to specific, readily identifiable occasions, and that social support was considered important but not consistently sought out. The "Smiling Instead of Smoking" (SIS) app is an Android app that is designed to act as a behavioral, in-the-pocket coach to enhance quitting success in non-daily smokers. It provides proactive, tailored behavioral coaching, interactive tools (e.g., enlisting social support), daily positive psychology exercises, and smoking self-monitoring.

  3. Cash on Demand: A Framework for Managing a Cash Liquidity Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, John H.

    1995-01-01

    A well-run college or university will seek to accumulate and maintain an appropriate cash reserve or liquidity position. A rigorous analytic process for estimating the size and cost of a liquidity position, based on judgments about the institution's operating risks and opportunities, is outlined. (MSE)

  4. Training in positivity for stroke? A qualitative study of acceptability of use of Positive Mental Training (PosMT) as a tool to assist stroke survivors with post-stroke psychological problems and in coping with rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavaddat, Nahal; Ross, Sheila; Dobbin, Alastair; Williams, Kate; Graffy, Jonathan; Mant, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Post-stroke psychological problems predict poor recovery, while positive affect enables patients to focus on rehabilitation and may improve functional outcomes. Positive Mental Training (PosMT), a guided self-help audio shows promise as a tool in promoting positivity, optimism and resilience. To assess acceptability of training in positivity with PosMT for prevention and management of post-stroke psychological problems and to help with coping with rehabilitation. A modified PosMT tool consisted of 12 audio tracks each lasting 18 minutes, one listened to every day for a week. Survivors and carers were asked to listen for 4 weeks, but could volunteer to listen for more. Interviews took place about experiences of the tool after 4 and 12 weeks. 10 stroke survivors and 5 carers from Stroke Support Groups in the UK. Three stroke survivors did not engage with the tool. The remainder reported positive physical and psychological benefits including improved relaxation, better sleep and reduced anxiety after four weeks. Survivors who completed the programme gained a positive outlook on the future, increased motivation, confidence and ability to cope with rehabilitation. No adverse effects were reported. The PosMT shows potential as a tool for coping with rehabilitation and overcoming post-stroke psychological problems including anxiety and depression.

  5. Teaching Independent Learning Skills in the First Year: A Positive Psychology Strategy for Promoting Law Student Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Rachael; Duffy, James; Huggins, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Empirical evidence in Australia and overseas has established that in many university disciplines, students begin to experience elevated levels of psychological distress in their first year of study. There is now a considerable body of empirical data that establishes that this is a significant problem for law students. Psychological distress may…

  6. Positive Psychological Wellbeing Is Required for Online Self-Help Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Chronic Pain to be Effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Lamers, Sanne M A; Schreurs, Karlein M G

    2016-01-01

    The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (in)effective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) was (in)effective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n = 82), or one of two control conditions [web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n = 79) and Waiting List (WL; n = 77)] were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to 12 weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at 3-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments) and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment) variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life 6 months later. These results suggest that web

  7. Positive psychological wellbeing is required for online self-help Acceptance & Commitment Therapy for chronic pain to be effective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester R. Trompetter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The web-based delivery of psychosocial interventions is a promising treatment modality for people suffering from chronic pain, and other forms of physical and mental illness. Despite the promising findings of first studies, patients may vary in the benefits they draw from self-managing a full-blown web-based psychosocial treatment. We lack knowledge on moderators and predictors of change during web-based interventions that explain for whom web-based interventions are especially (ineffective. In this study, we primarily explored for which chronic pain patients web-based Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT was (ineffective during a large three-armed randomized controlled trial. Besides standard demographic, physical and psychosocial factors we focused on positive mental health. Data from 238 heterogeneously diagnosed chronic pain sufferers from the general Dutch population following either web-based ACT (n=82, or one of two control conditions (web-based Expressive Writing (EW; n=79 and waiting list (WL; n=77 were analysed. ACT and EW both consisted of nine modules and lasted nine to twelve weeks. Exploratory linear regression analyses were performed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Pain interference at three-month follow-up was predicted from baseline moderator (characteristics that influence the outcome of specific treatments in comparison to other treatments and predictor (characteristics that influence outcome regardless of treatment variables. The results showed that none of the demographic or physical characteristics moderated ACT treatment changes compared to both control conditions. The only significant moderator of change compared to both EW and WL was baseline psychological wellbeing, and pain intensity was a moderator of change compared to EW. Furthermore, higher pain interference, depression and anxiety, and also lower levels of emotional well-being predicted higher pain interference in daily life six months later. These results

  8. Does Ethical Theory Have a Place in Post-Kohlbergian Moral Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Philosophers tend to assume that theoretical frameworks in psychology suffer from conceptual confusion and that any influence that philosophy might have on psychology should be positive. Going against this grain, Dan Lapsley and Darcia Narvaez attribute the Kohlbergian paradigm's current state of marginalization within psychology to Lawrence…

  9. Effects of a Tailored Positive Psychology Intervention on Well-Being and Pain in Individuals With Chronic Pain and a Physical Disability: A Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rachel; Gertz, Kevin J; Molton, Ivan R; Terrill, Alexandra L; Bombardier, Charles H; Ehde, Dawn M; Jensen, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a computer-based positive psychology intervention in individuals with a physical disability and chronic pain. Individuals with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disease, or postpolio syndrome and chronic pain were randomly assigned to a positive psychology or a control condition. Participants in the intervention group were instructed to practice 4 personalized positive psychology exercises. Participants in the control group were instructed to write about life details for 8 weeks. Participants completed online well-being and pain-related questionnaires at baseline, posttreatment, and at the 2.5-month follow-up, and rated treatment satisfaction at posttreatment. Ninety-six participants were randomized and 68 (70%) completed follow-up assessments. Participants in the positive psychology intervention group reported significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in pain intensity, pain control, pain catastrophizing, pain interference, life satisfaction, positive affect, and depression. Improvements in life satisfaction, depression, pain intensity, pain interference, and pain control were maintained to the 2.5-month follow-up. Participants in the control group reported significant pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in life satisfaction, and pretreatment to follow-up improvements in pain intensity and pain control. Significant between-group differences, favoring the treatment group, emerged for pretreatment to posttreatment improvements in pain intensity and pain control. Participants were similarly satisfied with both treatments. The results support the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a computer-based positive psychology intervention for improving well-being and pain-related outcomes in individuals with physical disabilities and chronic pain, and indicate that a full trial of the intervention is warranted.

  10. Effect of Positive Psychology Elements on Job Pride and Honor with an Emphasis on Mediating Role of Communication among Faculty Members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein Kamani, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Job pride and honor is affected by various causes. Elements of positive psychology can be pointed out as one of them that in recent years has played an important role in organizational development. Hence, this study is to provide a prediction model about the impact of hope and resilience on job pride and honor with an emphasis on mediator role of…

  11. Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on psychological distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarab, Ghizlane; Nikolopoulou, Maria; Ahlberg, Jari; Heymans, Martijn W.; Hamburger, Hans L.; de Lange, Jan; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this randomized placebo-controlled trail was to compare the effects of an objectively titrated mandibular advancement device (MAD) with those of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and an intraoral placebo device on symptoms of psychological distress in OSA patients. In a

  12. In Search for H.E.R.O among Filipino Teachers: The Relationship of Positive Psychological Capital and Work-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganotice, Fraide A., Jr.; Yeung, Susanna S.; Beguina, Leonora A.; Villarosa, Jonalyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent positive psychology literature has consistently demonstrated the link between PsyCap (composite score of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism--HERO) and employee productivity. However, most of these studies were conducted in industrial or organizational settings and have mostly examined the independent effect of hope, efficacy,…

  13. A Lexical Framework for Semantic Annotation of Positive and Negative Regulation Relations in Biomedical Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Lassen, Tine

    presented here, we analyze 6 frequently used verbs denoting the regulation relations regulates, positively regulates and negatively regulates through corpus analysis, and propose a formal representation of the acquired knowledge as domain speci¯c semantic frames. The acquired knowledge patterns can thus...

  14. Beating the Odds: Applying the Positive Deviance Framework to Address the Academic Underachievement of Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized the theory of positive deviance to explore the challenges and success factors for foster youth who have attained a postsecondary education. To accomplish this, twelve interviews were conducted. Six interviews were conducted with college-going foster youth and six adults who served as mentors for the foster youth participants…

  15. Formal Epistemology and New Paradigm Psychology of Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, Niki; Douven, Igor

    This position paper advocates combining formal epistemology and the new paradigm psychology of reasoning in the studies of conditionals and reasoning with uncertainty. The new paradigm psychology of reasoning is characterized by the use of probability theory as a rationality framework instead of

  16. The effect of positioning cations on acidity and stability of the framework structure of Y zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changshun; Zhang, Junji; Dong, Lihui; Huang, Meina; Bin Li; Jin, Guangzhou; Gao, Junbin; Zhang, Feiyue; Fan, Minguang; Zhang, Luoming; Gong, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    The investigation on the modification of NaY zeolite on LaHY and AEHY (AE refers Ca and Sr and the molar ratio of Ca and Sr is 1:1) zeolites was proformed by XRD, N2-physisorption (BET), XRF, XPS, NH3-TPD, Py-IR, hydrothermal stability, and catalytic cracking test. These results indicate that HY zeolite with ultra low content Na can be obtained from NaY zeolite through four exchange four calcination method. The positioning capability of La3+ in sodalite cage is much better than that of AE2+ and about 12 La3+ can be well coordinated in sodalite cages of one unit cell of Y zeolite. Appropriate acid amount and strength favor the formation of propylene and La3+ is more suitable for the catalytic cracking of cyclohexane than that of AE2+. Our results not only elaborate the variation of the strong and weak acid sites as well as the Brönsted and Lewis acid sites with the change of exchanged ion content but also explore the influence of hydrothermal aging of LaHY and AEHY zeolites and find the optimum ion exchange content for the most reserved acid sites. At last, the coordination state and stabilization of ion exchanged Y zeolites were discussed in detail. PMID:26987306

  17. Who Benefits From Humor-Based Positive Psychology Interventions? The Moderating Effects of Personality Traits and Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenzohn, Sara; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2018-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of humor-based positive psychology interventions (PPIs; i.e., interventions aimed at enhancing happiness and lowering depressive symptoms) is steadily increasing. However, little is known about who benefits most from them. We aim at narrowing this gap by examining whether personality traits and sense of humor moderate the long-term effects of humor-based interventions on happiness and depressive symptoms. We conducted two placebo-controlled online-intervention studies testing for moderation effects. In Study 1 ( N = 104) we tested for moderation effects of basic personality traits (i.e., psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism) in the three funny things intervention, a humor-based PPI. In Study 2 ( N = 632) we tested for moderation effects of the sense of humor in five different humor-based interventions. Happiness and depressive symptoms were assessed before and after the intervention, as well as after 1, 3, and 6 months. In Study 2, we assessed sense of humor before and 1 month after the intervention to investigate if changes in sense of humor go along with changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. We found moderating effects only for extraversion. Extraverts benefitted more from the three funny things intervention than introverts. For neuroticism and psychoticism no moderation effects were found. For sense of humor, no moderating effects were found for the effectiveness of the five humor-based interventions tested in Study 2. However, changes in sense of humor from pretest to the 1-month follow-up predicted changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. Taking a closer look, the playful attitude- and sense of humor-subscales predicted changes in happiness and depression for up to 6 months. Overall, moderating effects for personality (i.e., extraversion) were found, but none for sense of humor at baseline. However, increases in sense of humor during and after the intervention were associated with the interventions

  18. The Political Psychology in the Transatlantic Perspective – A Strategy Framework for Eastern Europe: the Case of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Veljanovska Blazhevska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Each nation tends to rationalize the situation, the past – the present and the future – in order to ensure normal living conditions and possible welfare. However, some internally and externally created policies aim to focus or defocus the public’s attention in order to distort the real picture. In political psychology, lies and intrigues are often associated with political effects. All these additional attributes guide the policy into the desired direction. The situation in Ukraine is a real example of a kind of "psychological warfare" of citizens caused as a result of claims made by the neighbouring Russian Federation, political steps and tactics of the European Union and the NATO Alliance. In order to prevent future negative development in this field, there is a need to create a common security strategy for Eastern Europe, as a result of the creation of successful Trans-Atlantic relations and good-neighbourly relations with the Russian Federation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the need for encouraging the creation of a rational attitude of the nations in order to strive for the improvement of the region in which they are located. The theory of public choice is applied as a basis of encouraging a better future in public policies and strategies in a country/region. Political psychology is the main thread utilised to disclose the real picture of relations in Ukraine, and the final results need to be used in the area of ​​creating a new security strategy for Eastern Europe. This work includes empirical research conducted within the Republic of Macedonia. The same applies to the theoretical frame of the paper.

  19. The Nature and Nurture of Giftedness: A New Framework for Understanding Gifted Education. Education & Psychology of the Gifted Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, David Yun

    2010-01-01

    With unprecedented scope and vision, Dr. Dai systematically redefines giftedness and proposes a new framework for the field of gifted education. He identifies nine essential tensions, revolving around three core questions: What do we know about the respective roles of natural ability, environment and experiences, and personal effort in talent…

  20. Hold on, for each other: supporting partners of cancer patients via eHealth and positive psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhle, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Partners of cancer patients are an essential pillar in the cancer trajectory. The patient’s cancer can have an enormous impact on the partner’s life and (mental) health. To support them, psychological interventions are needed. However, partners of cancer patients are often extremely busy and

  1. Hold on, for each other : supporting partners of cancer patients via eHealth and positive psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhle, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Partners of cancer patients are an essential pillar in the cancer trajectory. The patient’s cancer can have an enormous impact on the partner’s life and (mental) health. To support them, psychological interventions are needed. However, partners of cancer patients are often extremely busy and

  2. Positive psychology interventions in people aged 50-79 years: long-term effects of placebo-controlled online interventions on well-being and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Various positive psychology interventions have been experimentally tested, but only few studies addressed the effects of such activities in participants aged 50 and above. We tested the impact of four self-administered positive psychology interventions in an online setting (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, three funny things, and using signature strengths in a new way) on happiness and depressive symptoms in comparison with a placebo control exercise (i.e., early memories). A total of 163 females aged 50-79 tried the assigned interventions or the placebo control exercise for one week and completed measures on happiness and depressive symptoms at five times (pre- and post-test, 1, 3, and 6 months). Three out of the four interventions (i.e., gratitude visit, three good things, and using signature strengths in a new way) increased happiness, whereas two interventions (three funny things and using signature strengths in a new way) led to a reduction of depressive symptoms on at one post-measure. Positive psychology interventions yield similar results for people aged 50 and above as for younger people. The dissemination of such interventions via the Internet offers a valuable opportunity for older age groups as well.

  3. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  4. Reasons for living, meaning in life, and suicide ideation: investigating the roles of key positive psychological factors in reducing suicide risk in community-residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, Marnin J; Neufeld, Eva; Flett, Gordon L

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the roles of reasons for living (RFL) and meaning in life (MIL) in potentially promoting mental health and well-being and protecting against suicide ideation among community-residing older adults and to investigate the psychometric properties of the Reasons for Living Scale-Older Adult version (RFL-OA). Of 173 older adults initially recruited into a longitudinal study on late-life suicide ideation, 109 completed the RFL-OA and measures of cognitive and physical functioning and positive and negative psychological factors at a two-year follow-up assessment. We tested a model in which RFL and MIL protect against suicide ideation, controlling for demographic and clinical factors. We also assessed the psychometric properties of the RFL-OA in community-residing older adults, investigating its internal consistency and its convergent (MIL, perceived social support, and life satisfaction), divergent (loneliness, depressive symptom severity, and suicide ideation), and discriminant validity (cognitive and physical functioning). RFL-OA scores explained significant variance in suicide ideation, controlling for age, sex, depressive symptom severity, and loneliness. MIL explained significant unique variance in suicide ideation, controlling for these factors and RFL, and MIL significantly mediated the association between RFL and suicide ideation. Psychometric analyses indicated strong internal consistency (α = .94), convergent, divergent, and discriminant validity for the RFL-OA relative to positive and negative psychological factors and cognitive and physical functioning. These findings add to a growing body of literature suggesting merit in investigating positive psychological factors together with negative factors when assessing suicide risk and planning psychological services for older adults.

  5. Predictors of psychological well-being in a diverse sample of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A; Radomsky, Adam S; Otto, Michael W; Salomon, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify variables relevant to psychological well-being in HIV patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Multiple stressors accompany living with HIV while managing a HAART regimen. However, a variety of cognitive and behavioral variables can protect against or augment the deleterious effects of stress in this population. The authors hypothesized that satisfaction with social support, coping styles, and maladaptive attributions about HIV would explain more variance in psychological well-being than stressful life events per se. Participants were individuals with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy-either starting a new HAART regimen or having difficulties adhering to their current regimen. Satisfaction with social support, coping styles, and punishment beliefs about HIV were uniquely associated with depression, quality of life, and self-esteem over and above the effects of stressful life events. These results provide support for continued psychosocial interventions that target these variables among patients with HIV.

  6. Positive and negative psychological correlates, gender specific and traditional factors for first onset angina in a sample of pakistani women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiq, R.; Anjum, A.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Methods: Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85 % of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49 % of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional

  7. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES, GENDER SPECIFIC AND TRADITIONAL FACTORS FOR FIRST ONSET ANGINA IN A SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Rafia; Anjum, Afifa

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) occurs to a greater extent in developed than developing countries like Pakistan. Our understanding of risk factors leading to this disease in women, are largely derived from studies carried out on samples obtained from developed countries. Since prevalence of CHD in Pakistan is growing, it seems pertinent to infer risk and protective factors prevalent within the Pakistani women. This case control study investigated the role of psychological, traditional and gender specific risk and protective factors for Angina in a sample of Pakistani women aged between 35-65 years. Female patients admitted with first episode of Angina fulfilling the study inclusion/exclusion criteria were recruited within the first three days of stay in the hospital. One control per case matched on age was recruited. Translated versions of standardized tools: Life Orientation Test (LOT), The Hope Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) were used to measure the psychological variables. Information on medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, family history of IHD, presence and absence of menopause and use of oral contraceptive pills was obtained from the participants. Body Mass Index for cases and controls was calculated separately with the help of height and weight recorded for the participants. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that depression, anxiety and stress are risk factors, were as optimism and hope are protective predictors of Angina. 64% and 85% of variance in Angina were attributed to psychological factors. Menopause, diabetes and hypertension are significantly associated with the risk of Angina, explaining 37% and 49% of variance in Angina. The study provides evidence for implementation of gender specific risk assessment and preventive strategies for Angina. The study gives directions for large scale prospective, epidemiological, longitudinal as well as interventional studies, to be tailored

  8. a Uav Based 3-D Positioning Framework for Detecting Locations of Buried Persons in Collapsed Disaster Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Kim, C.; Lee, W.

    2016-06-01

    Regarding spatial location positioning, indoor location positioning theories based on wireless communication techniques such as Wi-Fi, beacon, UWB and Bluetooth has widely been developing across the world. These techniques are mainly focusing on spatial location detection of customers using fixed wireless APs and unique Tags in the indoor environment. Besides, since existing detection equipment and techniques using ultrasound or sound etc. to detect buried persons and identify survival status for them cause 2nd damages on the collapsed debris for rescuers. In addition, it might take time to check the buried persons. However, the collapsed disaster sites should consider both outdoor and indoor environments because empty spaces under collapsed debris exists. In order to detect buried persons from the empty spaces, we should collect wireless signals with Wi-Fi from their mobile phone. Basically, the Wi-Fi signal measure 2-D location. However, since the buried persons have Z value with burial depth, we also should collect barometer sensor data from their mobile phones in order to measure Z values according to weather conditions. Specially, for quick accessibility to the disaster area, a drone (UAV; Unmanned Arial Vehicle) system, which is equipped with a wireless detection module, was introduced. Using these framework, this study aims to provide the rescuers with effective rescue information by calculating 3-D location for buried persons based on the wireless and barometer sensor fusion.

  9. A UAV BASED 3-D POSITIONING FRAMEWORK FOR DETECTING LOCATIONS OF BURIED PERSONS IN COLLAPSED DISASTER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding spatial location positioning, indoor location positioning theories based on wireless communication techniques such as Wi-Fi, beacon, UWB and Bluetooth has widely been developing across the world. These techniques are mainly focusing on spatial location detection of customers using fixed wireless APs and unique Tags in the indoor environment. Besides, since existing detection equipment and techniques using ultrasound or sound etc. to detect buried persons and identify survival status for them cause 2nd damages on the collapsed debris for rescuers. In addition, it might take time to check the buried persons. However, the collapsed disaster sites should consider both outdoor and indoor environments because empty spaces under collapsed debris exists. In order to detect buried persons from the empty spaces, we should collect wireless signals with Wi-Fi from their mobile phone. Basically, the Wi-Fi signal measure 2-D location. However, since the buried persons have Z value with burial depth, we also should collect barometer sensor data from their mobile phones in order to measure Z values according to weather conditions. Specially, for quick accessibility to the disaster area, a drone (UAV; Unmanned Arial Vehicle system, which is equipped with a wireless detection module, was introduced. Using these framework, this study aims to provide the rescuers with effective rescue information by calculating 3-D location for buried persons based on the wireless and barometer sensor fusion.

  10. [Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in couple visiting a clinic. Couples (n=62) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data were collected from March to June 2009 using the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Marital Status Inventory, Positive Affect Inventory, and Conflict Regulation Inventory. The couples showed no significant differences in marital satisfaction, positive affect, and conflict regulation according to similarities between spouses in MBTI types. However, they showed significant differences in divorce proneness of husband according to a similarity in the Sensing/Intuition indicator. They also showed significant differences in divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation between the couples for ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) or ESTJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) types compared to other couples. When nurses counsel couples, they should understand that differences in psychological type between spouses affects their marital relationship. In addition, nurses should educate couples on the characteristics of each type according to the couple's types and help them to understand each other, especially for couples where one spouse is the ISTJ/ESTJ type. These interventions will improve marital satisfaction and prevent the divorce in these couples.

  11. Establishing a pragmatic framework to optimise health outcomes in heart failure and multimorbidity (ARISE-HF): A multidisciplinary position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Simon; Riegel, Barbara; Boyd, Cynthia; Ahamed, Yasmin; Thompson, David R; Burrell, Louise M; Carrington, Melinda J; Coats, Andrew; Granger, Bradi B; Hides, Julie; Weintraub, William S; Moser, Debra K; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; McDermott, Cressida J; Keates, Ashley K; Rich, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    Multimorbidity in heart failure (HF), defined as HF of any aetiology and multiple concurrent conditions that require active management, represents an emerging problem within the ageing HF patient population worldwide. To inform this position paper, we performed: 1) an initial review of the literature identifying the ten most common conditions, other than hypertension and ischaemic heart disease, complicating the management of HF (anaemia, arrhythmias, cognitive dysfunction, depression, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders, renal dysfunction, respiratory disease, sleep disorders and thyroid disease) and then 2) a review of the published literature describing the association between HF with each of the ten conditions. From these data we describe a clinical framework, comprising five key steps, to potentially improve historically poor health outcomes in this patient population. We identified five key steps (ARISE-HF) that could potentially improve clinical outcomes if applied in a systematic manner: 1) Acknowledge multimorbidity as a clinical syndrome that is associated with poor health outcomes, 2) Routinely profile (using a standardised protocol - adapted to the local health care system) all patients hospitalised with HF to determine the extent of concurrent multimorbidity, 3) Identify individualised priorities and person-centred goals based on the extent and nature of multimorbidity, 4) Support individualised, home-based, multidisciplinary, case management to supplement standard HF management, and 5) Evaluate health outcomes well beyond acute hospitalisation and encompass all-cause events and a person-centred perspective in affected individuals. We propose ARISE-HF as a framework for improving typically poor health outcomes in those affected by multimorbidity in HF. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Operationalizing and Measuring (a Kind of Free Will (and Responsibility. Towards a New Framework for Psychology, Ethics, and Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lavazza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is usually defined by three conditions: (1 the ability to do otherwise; (2 control of one’s own choices; (3 responsiveness to reasons. The compatibility of free will with determinism lies at the heart of the philosophical debate at the metaphysical level. This debate, while being increasingly refined, has not yet reached a conclusion. Recently, neuroscience and empirical psychology have tried to settle the problem of free will with a series of experiments that go in the direction of so-called illusionism: free will as the conscious control of our behavior cannot exist, being a mere illusion. But even in this case, the experimental results are challenged at various levels. Considering that in most moral and legal systems, the subject’s liability derives from their freedom, the usefulness of preserving the concept of freedom – which incidentally responds to a very strong commonsensical intuition – suggests the need for an operational solution. This could be done by resorting to the concepts of capacity and cognitive control, which are measured by a set of well-established neuropsychological tests. Our preliminary proposal is to create an index, the first step towards a specific quantification and measurement of free will, to be used especially in ethical and legal contexts. Theoretical premises, practical difficulties and objections to this approach are also discussed and addressed.

  13. Positional isomerism-driven two 3D pillar-layered metal-organic frameworks: Syntheses, topological structures and photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yayong; Zhao, Siwei; Ma, Haoran; Han, Yi; Liu, Kang; Wang, Lei, E-mail: inorchemwl@126.com

    2016-06-15

    Two novel three-dimensional (3D) pillar-layered metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely [Zn{sub 2}(μ{sub 2}-OH)(boaba)(1,4-bmimb)]{sub n} (1) and {[Zn_5K_2(μ_2-H_2O)_2(boaba)_4(1,2-bmimb)_2(H_2O)_2]·H_2O}{sub n} (2), were prepared by hydrothermal reactions (H{sub 3}boaba=3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid; 1,4-bmimb=1,4-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene; 1,2-bmimb =1,2-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene). Notably, 1 exhibits a (3,5)-connected binodal (6{sup 3})(6{sup 9}·8)-gra net with binuclear [Zn{sub 2}(μ{sub 2}-OH)(COO)]{sup 2+} clusters, while 2 shows a novel (4,4,5,9)-connected 4-nodal net constructed from the unique Zn(II)-K(I) heterometal rod-like substructures. The results indicate that the disposition of the 2-methylimidazolyl groups of bis(imidazole) ligands have a significant effect on structural diversity. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Two novel 3D pillar-layered metal-organic coordination networks with aromatic multicarboxylate anion and bis(imidazole) ligands have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • It is rarely reported that metal-organic frameworks prepared with 3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid. • Two metal-organic frameworks based on positional isomeric ligands were synthesized and structurally characterized. • Compond 1 displays unique (3,5)-connected binodal gra topology. • Compound 2 exhibits (4,4,5,9)-connected 4-nodal topology based on the Zn(II)-K(I) heterometal rod-like substructures. • The photoluminescence properties of compound 1 and 2 have been investigated.

  14. Tobacco control and the World Trade Organization: mapping member states' positions after the framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Callard, Cynthia D

    2016-11-01

    To note the frequency of discussions and disputes about tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization (WTO) before and after the coming into force of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). To review trends or patterns in the positions taken by members of the WTO with respect to tobacco control measures. To discuss possible explanations for these observed trends/patterns. We gathered data on tobacco-related disputes in the WTO since its establishment in 1995 and its forerunner, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), prior-FCTC and post-FCTC. We also looked at debates on tobacco control measures within the WTO more broadly. To this end, we classified and coded the positions of WTO member states during discussions on tobacco control and the FCTC, from 1995 until 2013, within the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Council. There is a growing interest within the WTO for tobacco-related issues and opposition to tobacco control measures is moving away from high-income countries towards low(er) income countries. The growing prominence of tobacco issues in the WTO can be attributed at least in part to the fact that during the past decade tobacco firms have been marginalised from the domestic policy-making process in many countries, which has forced them to look for other ways and forums to influence decision-making. Furthermore, the finding that almost all recent opposition within the WTO to stronger tobacco regulations came from developing countries is consistent with a relative shift of transnational tobacco companies' lobbying efforts from developed to developing countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Psychology and the issues related to violence and human rights: the role and positioning of the psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mérly Luane Vargas Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of violence and human rights, although not recent, have complex determinations and conditions, so that evoke iterant discussions in the field of human sciences, as well as challenge the professionals from different areas of knowledge whose search tools and strategies to deal with the different social demands outlined from them. The objective of this paper is to discuss some concepts and issues that unfold from that, specifically with regard to the provision of scientific and professional field of psychology. Thus, some considerations about the social and conceptual definitions given to violence and human rights are made, for, from that, better situate the demand addressed to psychologist as well as to enable critical reflection on this demand and make a few observations about its answering.

  16. What leads some people to think they are HIV-positive before knowing their diagnosis? A systematic review of psychological and behavioural correlates of HIV-risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael; Baker, Laura L E; Pady, Kirsten; Jones, Bethanie; Wroe, Abigail L

    2016-08-01

    Current HIV-risk perception refers to the extent to which individuals think they might be HIV-positive. This belief, distinct from the perceived risk about being infected with HIV in the future, is likely to have a range of important consequences. These consequences may include both psychological effects (e.g., impacts on well-being) and behavioural effects (e.g., HIV testing uptake). Given these possible outcomes, and the suggested importance of risk perception in health behaviour models, understanding the behavioural and psychological antecedents of current HIV-risk perception is crucial. This systematic review investigates the relationship between behavioural and psychological factors and current HIV-risk perception (in individuals who are unaware of their actual HIV status). Eight studies were eligible for inclusion in the review (five quantitative and three qualitative studies). Drug risk behaviour and sexual risk behaviour (both self and partner) were often associated with current HIV-risk perception, although other studies failed to show a relationship between one's own sexual risk behaviour and risk perception. Psychological factors were only rarely assessed in relation to current HIV-risk perception. Where these variables were included, there was evidence that experiencing symptoms perceived to be consistent with HIV and prompts to test were associated with increased current HIV-risk perception. These findings are consistent with the Common-Sense Model (CSM) of illness representation and self-regulation. Methodological quality criteria were rarely met for the included studies. In addition, it was often difficult to ascertain whether potentially includable studies were eligible due to imprecise definitions of HIV-risk perception. Research and practice implications are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of risk appraisals as a potential mediator of the relationship between HIV-risk behaviour, symptoms and current HIV-risk perception.

  17. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  18. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  19. Data from Paper “False-Positive Psychology: Undisclosed Flexibility in Data Collection and Analysis Allows Presenting Anything as Significant”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Simmons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The data includes measures collected for the two experiments reported in “False-Positive Psychology” [1] where listening to a randomly assigned song made people feel younger (Study 1 or actually be younger (Study 2. These data are useful because they illustrate inflations of false positive rates due to flexibility in data collection, analysis, and reporting of results. Data are useful for educational purposes.

  20. Impact of personality influencers on psychological paradigms: An empirical-discourse of big five framework and impulsive buying behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shakeel Ahmad Sofi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to examine the effect of intrinsic attributes on impulsive buying behaviour among young consumers. Both exploratory and descriptive designs were employed to study the problem in holistic manner. Based on certain parameters, a sample size of 638 was chosen randomly and the study was conducted through a valid and reliable instrument.After employing Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis on select consumers under the study, results showed that Personality significantly shapes impulsive buying predispositions. In the current study, some of the select personality attributes comprising of Expressive Propensity, Pleasure Seeking Propensity and Sociableness have been found to have positive effect on impulsiveness while as other factors viz. Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness and Conserving Propensity have negative effect on the impulsive buying tendencies. These findings are paramount both from the perspective of consumer welfare advocates and corporates and could largely support them in their respective endeavours. JEL classification: L67, L68, M00, M30, Keywords: Personality, Impetuous influence, Impulsive buying, Multi group analysis

  1. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  2. Birthing positions during second stage of labor and long-term psychological outcomes in low-risk women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, A. de; Rijnders, M.E.B.; Diem, M.T. van; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the long-term influence of birthing positions during the second stage of labor, as well as other factors, on birth satisfaction, self-esteem (based on the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale [RSE]) and emotional well-being (based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS]). STUDY

  3. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  4. Development and Two-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of a Training Workshop for the Large Preventive Positive Psychology Happy Family Kitchen Project in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Y Lai

    Full Text Available Evidence-based practice and capacity-building approaches are essential for large-scale health promotion interventions. However, there are few models in the literature to guide and evaluate training of social service workers in community settings. This paper presents the development and evaluation of the "train-the-trainer" workshop (TTT for the first large scale, community-based, family intervention projects, entitled "Happy Family Kitchen Project" (HFK under the FAMILY project, a Hong Kong Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society. The workshop aimed to enhance social workers' competence and performance in applying positive psychology constructs in their family interventions under HFK to improve family well-being of the community they served. The two-day TTT was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team in partnership with community agencies to 50 social workers (64% women. It focused on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude, and practice of five specific positive psychology themes, which were the basis for the subsequent development of the 23 family interventions for 1419 participants. Acceptability and applicability were enhanced by completing a needs assessment prior to the training. The TTT was evaluated by trainees' reactions to the training content and design, changes in learners (trainees and benefits to the service organizations. Focus group interviews to evaluate the workshop at three months after the training, and questionnaire survey at pre-training, immediately after, six months, one year and two years after training were conducted. There were statistically significant increases with large to moderate effect size in perceived knowledge, self-efficacy and practice after training, which sustained to 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, there were statistically significant improvements in family communication and well-being of the participants in the HFK interventions they implemented after training. This paper offers a

  5. Development and Two-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of a Training Workshop for the Large Preventive Positive Psychology Happy Family Kitchen Project in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Agnes Y; Mui, Moses W; Wan, Alice; Stewart, Sunita M; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based practice and capacity-building approaches are essential for large-scale health promotion interventions. However, there are few models in the literature to guide and evaluate training of social service workers in community settings. This paper presents the development and evaluation of the "train-the-trainer" workshop (TTT) for the first large scale, community-based, family intervention projects, entitled "Happy Family Kitchen Project" (HFK) under the FAMILY project, a Hong Kong Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society. The workshop aimed to enhance social workers' competence and performance in applying positive psychology constructs in their family interventions under HFK to improve family well-being of the community they served. The two-day TTT was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team in partnership with community agencies to 50 social workers (64% women). It focused on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude, and practice of five specific positive psychology themes, which were the basis for the subsequent development of the 23 family interventions for 1419 participants. Acceptability and applicability were enhanced by completing a needs assessment prior to the training. The TTT was evaluated by trainees' reactions to the training content and design, changes in learners (trainees) and benefits to the service organizations. Focus group interviews to evaluate the workshop at three months after the training, and questionnaire survey at pre-training, immediately after, six months, one year and two years after training were conducted. There were statistically significant increases with large to moderate effect size in perceived knowledge, self-efficacy and practice after training, which sustained to 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, there were statistically significant improvements in family communication and well-being of the participants in the HFK interventions they implemented after training. This paper offers a practical example

  6. A positive psychological intervention using virtual reality for patients with advanced cancer in a hospital setting: a pilot study to assess feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M; Espinoza, Macarena; García-Palacios, Azucena; Cervera, José M; Esquerdo, Gaspar; Barrajón, Enrique; Botella, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This study presents data on the feasibility and possible benefits of a psychological intervention that uses virtual reality to induce positive emotions on adult hospitalized patients with metastatic cancer. The patient's satisfaction and perceived utility was also examined. The sample was composed of 19 patients (53 % men, aged from 29 to 85 years old; x = 60.9; standard deviation = 14.54). The intervention consisted of four 30-min sessions during 1 week in which patients navigated through virtual environments designed to induce joy or relaxation. Mood was assessed before and after each session using the Visual Analog Scale. Patient satisfaction was assessed after each session and at the end of the intervention. Qualitative data were also collected with open-ended questions. There were no major difficulties with the use of devices, and any difficulties that did arise were solved through practice. There were adequate levels of pleasantness and perceived utility of the proposed intervention. The main perceived benefits were distraction, entertainment, and promotion of relaxation states. Regarding mood changes, an increase in positive emotions and a decrease in negative emotions were also detected. The intervention was positively assessed and rated as minimally uncomfortable. Future actions are discussed as well as the need to implement brief interventions that take into account the patients' medical state and physical discomfort level, especially with those in the advanced stages of disease.

  7. Mixed-methods quantitative-qualitative study of 29 nonagenarians and centenarians in rural Southern Italy: focus on positive psychological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scelzo, Anna; Di Somma, Salvatore; Antonini, Paola; Montross, Lori P; Schork, Nicholas; Brenner, David; Jeste, Dilip V

    2018-01-01

    This was a study of positive psychological traits in a group of rural Italians aged 90 to 101 years, and their children or other family members. Mixed-methods quantitative (standardized rating scales) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) study. Study participants' homes in nine villages in the Cilento region of southern Italy. Twenty-nine nonagenarians and centenarians and 51 family members aged 51-75 years, selected by their general practitioners as a part of a larger study called CIAO (Cilento Initiative on Aging Outcomes). We used published rating scales of mental and physical well-being, resilience, optimism, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. Qualitative interviews gathered personal narratives of the oldest-old individuals, including migrations, traumatic events, and beliefs. Family members described their impressions about the personality traits of their older relative. Participants age ≥90 years had worse physical health but better mental well-being than their younger family members. Mental well-being correlated negatively with levels of depression and anxiety in both the groups. The main themes that emerged from qualitative interviews included positivity (resilience and optimism), working hard, and bond with family and religion, as described in previously published studies of the oldest old, but also a need for control and love of the land, which appeared to be unique features of this rural population. Exceptional longevity was characterized by a balance between acceptance of and grit to overcome adversities along with a positive attitude and close ties to family, religion, and land, providing purpose in life.

  8. Barriers and enablers to the delivery of psychological care in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China: a qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Anna; Yang, Hui; Thomas, Shane A; Searle, Kendall; Browning, Colette

    2016-03-29

    China has the largest number of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases globally and individuals with T2DM have an increased risk of developing mental health disorders and functional problems. Despite guidelines recommending that psychological care be delivered in conjunction with standard T2DM care; psychological care is not routinely delivered in China. Community Health Centre (CHC) doctors play a key role in the management of patients with T2DM in China. Understanding the behavioural determinants of CHC doctors in the implementation of psychological care recommendations allows for the design of targeted and culturally appropriate interventions. As such, this study aimed to examine barriers and enablers to the delivery of psychological care to patients with T2DM from the perspective of CHC doctors in China. Two focus groups were conducted with 23 CHC doctors from Shenzhen, China. The discussion guide applied the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) that examines current practice and identifies key barriers and enablers perceived to influence practice. Focus groups were conducted with an interpreter, and were digitally recorded and transcribed. Two researchers independently coded transcripts into pre-defined themes using deductive thematic analysis. Barriers and enablers perceived by doctors as being relevant to the delivery of psychological care for patients with T2DM were primarily categorised within eight TDF domains. Key barriers included: CHC doctors' knowledge and skills; time constraints; and absence of financial incentives. Other barriers included: societal perception that treating psychological aspects of health is less important than physical health; lack of opinion leaders; doctors' intentional disregard of psychological care; and doubts regarding the efficacy of psychological care. In contrast, perceived enablers included: training of CHC doctors in psychological skills; identification of afternoon/evening clinic times when recommendations could be

  9. Advancing the Psychology of Entrepreneurship: A Review of the Psychological Literature and an Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); U. Stephan (Ute)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis article provides a narrative review of psychology of entrepreneurship research published in leading psychology journals, based on which we develop an organising framework for future psychological contributions to this field. Furthermore, we introduce the manuscripts collected in

  10. Prayer as coping: a psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Murray

    2008-01-01

    Engaging in prayer and holding positive attitudes toward religion are empirically associated with personal wellbeing, health, and the relief of distress. This paper starts with those findings and builds on the Jamesian concept of prayer as "inward communication or conversation with a power recognized as divine." Within this framework, the paper employs selected, well recognized psychological constructs to offer a theoretical explanation of how and why prayer contributes to the relief of distress, and to the health and psychological wellbeing of the person who engages in prayer.

  11. Resolving the Framework Position of Organic Structure-Directing Agents in Hierarchical Zeolites via Polarized Stimulated Raman Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Guillaume; Steele, Julian A; Gerber, Iann C; Jolibois, F; Puech, P; Muraoka, Koki; Keoh, Sye Hoe; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Okubo, Tatsuya; Roeffaers, Maarten B J

    2018-04-05

    The direct synthesis of hierarchically intergrown silicalite-1 can be achieved using a specific diquaternary ammonium agent. However, the location of these molecules in the zeolite framework, which is critical to understand the formation of the material, remains unclear. Where traditional characterization tools have previously failed, herein we use polarized stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to resolve molecular organization inside few-micron-sized crystals. Through a combination of experiment and first-principles calculations, our investigation reveals the preferential location of the templating agent inside the linear pores of the MFI framework. Besides illustrating the attractiveness of SRS microscopy in the field of material science to study and spatially resolve local molecular distribution as well as orientation, these results can be exploited in the design of new templating agents for the preparation of hierarchical zeolites.

  12. The constitutional framework for regulation of the position of the Roma community in the Republic of Slovenia:

    OpenAIRE

    Zagorc, Saša

    2007-01-01

    In the first part, author questions the need to regulate the matters regarding the Roma Community in the highest legal act, as it was done in the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia. He believes that the introduction of the collective rights in the Constitution may result as inappropriate in thelong-term. The second part deals with normative analysis of the status of Roma in Slovenia, in which the constitutional framework for protection of the national communities mentioned in the Consti...

  13. The influence of psychological variables on health-related quality of life among HIV-positive individuals with a history of intravenous drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaros, Christina; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bullis, Jacqueline R; Markowitz, Sarah M; Safren, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous drug use (IDU) remains a prominent pathway of HIV transmission in the United States, though little is known about modifiable factors influencing quality of life among IDUs. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of psychological variables (e.g., depression and anxiety) on health-related quality of life among HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU who were enrolled in outpatient treatment for opioid dependence. 108 HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU and participating in current outpatient treatment for opiate dependence who were screened for participation in a depression and adherence study reported sociodemographic data, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; Multidimensional Health Assessment using the ACTG-SF 21). Multiple regression models controlling for disease stage and background characteristics identified significant negative relationships between General Health Perception and Functioning without Pain for anxiety and depression, and between Role Functioning and Physical Functioning for anxiety. CD4 cell count was significantly related to Physical Functioning only. Results indicate that distress (both depression and anxiety) contribute significantly to variation in HRQoL over and above the effects of disease variables. Effective depression and anxiety treatment may result in improved overall functioning.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF SCREW TYPE, ALLOY AND CYLINDER POSITION ON THE MARGINAL FIT OF IMPLANT FRAMEWORKS BEFORE AND AFTER LASER WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Castilio, Daniela; Pedreira, Ana Paula Ribeiro do Vale; Rossetti, Paulo Henrique Orlato; Rossetti, Leylha Maria Nunes; Bonachela, Wellington Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Misfit at the abutment-prosthetic cylinder interface can cause loss of preload, leading to loosening or fracture of gold and titanium screws. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of screw type, alloy, and cylinder position on marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding. METHODS: After Estheticone-like abutments were screwed to the implants, thirty plastic prosthetic cylinders were mounted and waxed-up to fifteen cylindrical bars. Each specimen had three interconnected p...

  15. Multi-class geospatial object detection based on a position-sensitive balancing framework for high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yanfei; Han, Xiaobing; Zhang, Liangpei

    2018-04-01

    Multi-class geospatial object detection from high spatial resolution (HSR) remote sensing imagery is attracting increasing attention in a wide range of object-related civil and engineering applications. However, the distribution of objects in HSR remote sensing imagery is location-variable and complicated, and how to accurately detect the objects in HSR remote sensing imagery is a critical problem. Due to the powerful feature extraction and representation capability of deep learning, the deep learning based region proposal generation and object detection integrated framework has greatly promoted the performance of multi-class geospatial object detection for HSR remote sensing imagery. However, due to the translation caused by the convolution operation in the convolutional neural network (CNN), although the performance of the classification stage is seldom influenced, the localization accuracies of the predicted bounding boxes in the detection stage are easily influenced. The dilemma between translation-invariance in the classification stage and translation-variance in the object detection stage has not been addressed for HSR remote sensing imagery, and causes position accuracy problems for multi-class geospatial object detection with region proposal generation and object detection. In order to further improve the performance of the region proposal generation and object detection integrated framework for HSR remote sensing imagery object detection, a position-sensitive balancing (PSB) framework is proposed in this paper for multi-class geospatial object detection from HSR remote sensing imagery. The proposed PSB framework takes full advantage of the fully convolutional network (FCN), on the basis of a residual network, and adopts the PSB framework to solve the dilemma between translation-invariance in the classification stage and translation-variance in the object detection stage. In addition, a pre-training mechanism is utilized to accelerate the training procedure

  16. Language Affirmation and Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Nicholas V.

    2008-01-01

    The author shares his experience as a professor teaching effective interpersonal relationships for the power of language or voice affirmation. When he was teaching a class that included students whose first language was Spanish, French, or Creole, the author requested his student to speak in native language during a presentation on the topic of…

  17. Evaluation of a Staff Training Programme using Positive Psychology coaching with film and theatre elements in care homes: views and attitudes of residents, staff and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Azucena; Wenborn, Jennifer; Ledgerd, Ritchard; Orrell, Martin

    2017-03-01

    There is a recognised need to improve staff training in care homes. The aim of this study was to conduct a qualitative evaluation of the Ladder to the Moon Culture Change Studio Engagement Programme (CCSEP), a staff training programme aimed at enhancing staff-resident communication. Focus groups were conducted with residents able to provide consent; staff and relatives and managers were interviewed in two care homes. A theoretical framework was developed to interpret the impact of CCSEP using Framework Analysis. Residents noted that the programme appeared to result in staff interacting more with them, as well as enjoying working together as a team. Staff reported an improved sense of teamwork, developing more positive attitudes towards residents, as well as their concerns about using theatrical techniques in the care setting. Relatives identified care home organisational aspects as being barriers to implementation, and some regarded CCSEP simply as 'entertainment' rather than 'creative care'. This study provides an insight into the potential of this staff training programme to improve staff-resident interactions. However, participants' varying views of CCSEP highlight the need to brief staff, residents and relatives before implementation so as to enable full understanding of the aim. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Intersectionality research in counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, Patrick R; Santos, Carlos E; Moradi, Bonnie

    2017-10-01

    This article introduces the special section on intersectionality research in counseling psychology. Across the 4 manuscripts that constitute this special section, a clear theme emerges: a need to return to the roots and politics of intersectionality. Importantly, the 2 empirical articles in this special section (Jerald, Cole, Ward, & Avery, 2017; Lewis, Williams, Peppers, & Gadson, 2017) are studies of Black women's experiences: a return, so to speak, to the subject positions and social locations from which intersectionality emanates. Shin et al. (2017) explore why this focus on Black feminist thought and social justice is so important by highlighting the persistent weaknesses in how much research published in leading counseling psychology journals has tended to use intersectionality as a way to talk about multiple identities, rather than as a framework for critiquing systemic, intersecting forms of oppression and privilege. Shin and colleagues also point to the possibilities intersectionality affords us when scholars realize the transformative potential of this critical framework. Answers to this call for transformative practices are foregrounded in Moradi and Grzanka's (2017) contribution, which surveys the interdisciplinary literature on intersectionality and presents a series of guidelines for using intersectionality responsibly. We close with a discussion of issues concerning the applications of intersectionality to counseling psychology research that spans beyond the contributions of each manuscript in this special section. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Selectively catalytic activity of metal–organic frameworks depending on the N-position within the pyridine ring of their building blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Haitao, E-mail: xuhaitao@ecust.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Gou, Yongxia; Ye, Jing; Xu, Zhen-liang [School of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Zixuan [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Iron metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) [Fe(L){sub 2}(SCN){sub 2}]{sub ∝} (L1: 4-bpdh=2,5-bis(4-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene for 1Fe; and L2: 3-bpdh=2,5-bis(3-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene for 2Fe) were assembled in a MeOH–H{sub 2}O solvent system. 1Fe exhibits a two-dimensional extended-grid network, whereas 2Fe exhibits a stair-like double-chain; the N-position within the pyridine ring of the complexes was observed to regulate the MOF structure as layers or chains. Furthermore, selectively catalytic activity was observed for the layered MOF but not the chain-structured MOF; micro/nanoparticles of the layered MOF were therefore investigated for new potential applications of micro/nano MOFs. - Graphical abstract: Iron metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) [Fe(L){sub 2}(SCN){sub 2}]{sub ∝} (L1: 4-bpdh=2,5-bis(4-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene for 1Fe; and L2: 3-bpdh=2,5-bis(3-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene for 2Fe) were assembled in a MeOH–H{sub 2}O solvent system. The N-position within the pyridine ring of the complexes was observed to regulate the MOF structure as layers or chains. Selectively catalytic activity was observed for the layered MOF but not the chain-structured MOF. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structure of metal–organic framework [Fe(L){sub 2}(SCN){sub 2}]{sub ∝}. • Selectively catalytic activity depending on the N-position within the pyridine ring. • The degradation and conversion of methyl orange.

  20. Selectively catalytic activity of metal–organic frameworks depending on the N-position within the pyridine ring of their building blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haitao; Gou, Yongxia; Ye, Jing; Xu, Zhen-liang; Wang, Zixuan

    2016-01-01

    Iron metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) [Fe(L) 2 (SCN) 2 ] ∝ (L1: 4-bpdh=2,5-bis(4-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene for 1Fe; and L2: 3-bpdh=2,5-bis(3-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene for 2Fe) were assembled in a MeOH–H 2 O solvent system. 1Fe exhibits a two-dimensional extended-grid network, whereas 2Fe exhibits a stair-like double-chain; the N-position within the pyridine ring of the complexes was observed to regulate the MOF structure as layers or chains. Furthermore, selectively catalytic activity was observed for the layered MOF but not the chain-structured MOF; micro/nanoparticles of the layered MOF were therefore investigated for new potential applications of micro/nano MOFs. - Graphical abstract: Iron metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) [Fe(L) 2 (SCN) 2 ] ∝ (L1: 4-bpdh=2,5-bis(4-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene for 1Fe; and L2: 3-bpdh=2,5-bis(3-pyridyl)-3,4-diaza-2,4-hexadiene for 2Fe) were assembled in a MeOH–H 2 O solvent system. The N-position within the pyridine ring of the complexes was observed to regulate the MOF structure as layers or chains. Selectively catalytic activity was observed for the layered MOF but not the chain-structured MOF. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structure of metal–organic framework [Fe(L) 2 (SCN) 2 ] ∝ . • Selectively catalytic activity depending on the N-position within the pyridine ring. • The degradation and conversion of methyl orange.

  1. Is evolutionary psychology a metatheory for psychology? A discussion of four major issues in psychology from an evolutionary developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheoretical framework for psychology. We argue that evolutionary psychology should be expanded if it is to offer new insights regarding the major issues in psychology. Evolutionary developmental biology can provide valuable new insights into issues

  2. Psychological jurisprudence as an interdisciplinary science and the area of psychological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozdnyakov V. M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article convincingly demonstrates that Russia is increasingly began to publish monographs lawyers on key legal and psychological phenomena, and in dissertations in the formulation of the provisions on the protection of delatsya criticism of "Westernization" of the state legislation and upheld psychologicaland position. At the same time, critically, it is noted that in the field of legal ideology and policies, and in making innovations in the law still, as in Soviet period, dominated by legal dogma, and psychological realities are taken into account in fragments. The reason for this state of Affairs is that still within the framework of University training and further education of local lawyers, in contrast to international practice, insufficient attention is paid to the development of psychological culture, but in the end no full-fledged dialogue between lawyers and psychologists. Taking into account possibilities of integrative methodology justified the subject of psychological law as an interdisciplinary science and the field of psychological practice focused on the identification of regularities and mechanisms of development of legal awareness and legal existence of various actors in the legal activity aimed at the development of psychologically informed interventions for the improvement of legal ideology and politics, systems of law-making, law enforcement and crime prevention, psycho-technical methods and techniques in activities of law enforcement officials. For constructive development of psychological jurisprudence identified the key areas of research and nodal practicerelevant problems.

  3. Class Position and Musical Tastes: A Sing-Off between the Cultural Omnivorism and Bourdieusian Homology Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2015-05-01

    The longstanding debate between the homology and omnivorism approaches to the class bases of cultural tastes and practices rages on in cultural sociology. The homology thesis claims that class positions throughout the class hierarchy are accompanied by specified cultural tastes and specialized modes of appreciating them while the cultural omnivorism thesis contends that elites are (increasingly) characterized by a breadth of cultural tastes of any and all kinds. This study tests the applicability of these theses to musical tastes in Canada through the application of multiple correspondence analysis, latent class analysis, and logistic regression modeling to original telephone survey data (n = 1,595) from Toronto and Vancouver. I find that musical omnivorism, an appreciation for diverse musical styles, is not dispersed along class lines. Instead I find a homology between class position and musical tastes that designates blues, choral, classical, jazz, musical theater, opera, pop, reggae, rock, and world/international as relatively highbrow and country, disco, easy listening, golden oldies, heavy metal, and rap as relatively lowbrow. Of the highbrow tastes, all but jazz are disliked by lower class people, and of the lowbrow tastes, country, easy listening, and golden oldies are concurrently disliked by higher class people. Consistent with the homology thesis, it appears that class position is aligned with specific musical likes and dislikes. Le vieux débat entre les approches de l'homologie et de l'omnivorisme aux bases des classes des goûts et des pratiques culturels fait rage dans la sociologie culturelle. La thèse de l'homologie prétend que les positions des classes à travers la hiérarchie des classes sont accompagnées par des goûts culturels spécifiés et des modes spécialisés permettant leur appréciation. La thèse de l'omnivorisme culturel, en revanche, soutient que les élites sont (de plus en plus) caractérisées par un éventail de go

  4. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  5. Thinking Psychology Today

    OpenAIRE

    ÁNGELA MARÍA ROBLEDO-GÓMEZ

    2008-01-01

    The inauguration text of the V Congress of Psychology at the Javeriana University, “Thinking the Present: Psychology, Criticism, and Globalization Times”, is presented. This event took place in April, 2008, in Bogotá, Colombia. These thoughts invite to see Psychology in the present, and to ask oneself about the forms of life that we are built of and that go through subjectivities in today’s World, within the framework of the Economical, Cultural, Social and Political conditions of our countri...

  6. The influence of screw type, alloy and cylinder position on the marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilio, Daniela; Pedreira, Ana Paula Ribeiro do Vale; Rossetti, Paulo Henrique Orlato; Rossetti, Leylha Maria Nunes; Bonachela, Wellington Cardoso

    2006-04-01

    Misfit at the abutment-prosthetic cylinder interface can cause loss of preload, leading to loosening or fracture of gold and titanium screws. To evaluate the influence of screw type, alloy, and cylinder position on marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding. After Estheticone-like abutments were screwed to the implants, thirty plastic prosthetic cylinders were mounted and waxed-up to fifteen cylindrical bars. Each specimen had three interconnected prosthetic components. Five specimens were one-piece cast in titanium and five in cobalt-chromium alloy. On each specimen, tests were conducted with hexagonal titanium and slotted gold screws separately, performing a total of thirty tested screws. Measurements at the interfaces were performed using an optical microscope with 5mm accuracy. After sectioning, specimens were laser welded and new measurements were obtained. Data were submitted to a four-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons test (alpha=0.05). Slotted and hexagonal screws did not present significant differences regarding to the fit of cylinders cast in titanium, either in one-piece casting framework or after laser welding. When slotted and hexagonal screws were tested on the cobalt-chromium specimens, statistically significant differences were found for the one-piece casting condition, with the slotted screws presenting better fit (24.13 microm) than the hexagonal screws (27.93 microm). Besides, no statistically significant differences were found after laser welding. 1) The use of different metal alloys do exert influence on the marginal fit, 2) The slotted and hexagonal screws play the exclusive role of fixing the prosthesis, and did not improve the fit of cylinders, and 3) cylinder position did not affect marginal fit values.

  7. Impacto de un programa de psicología positiva en sintomatologia depresiva y satisfaccion vital en adultos mayores Effects of a positive psychology program in depressive symptoms and life satisfaction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cuadra-Peralta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación estudia la efectividad de talleres basados en Psicología Positiva en adultos mayores, mediante el análisis de las variaciones pre-post del niveles de Satisfacción Vital y Sintomatología Depresiva. Se conformó tres grupos: el primero, un grupo cuasi experimental, basado en Psicología Positiva; el segundo, un grupo cuasi control activo, basado en actividades recreativas; y el tercero, un grupo cuasi control inactivo, sin intervención. Se utilizó la Escala de Depresión Geriátrica de Yesavage y Escala de Satisfacción Vital de Diener. Los resultados indican que sólo el grupo con taller basado en Psicología Positiva disminuye significativamente su Sintomatología Depresiva y aumenta significativamente sus niveles de Satisfacción Vital, luego de la intervención. Estos resultados se discuten a la luz de las investigaciones actuales en Psicología Positiva.This research examines the effectiveness of workshops based on positive psychology for the elderly by analyzing pre-post changes in levels of life satisfaction and depressive symptomatology. Three groups were formed: the first, a quasi-experimental group based on positive psychology; the second, a quasi-active control group based on recreational activities; and the third, a quasi-inactive control group without intervention. The instruments used were: Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale and Life Satisfaction Scale of Diener. Results indicated that only the group that attended positive psychology-based workshops significantly decreased depressive symptoms and significantly increased their levels of life satisfaction after the intervention. These results are discussed in the light of current researches in positive psychology.

  8. Does a Well-Informed Employee Have a More Positive Attitude Toward Change? The Mediating Role of Psychological Contract Fulfillment, Trust, and Perceived Need for Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Sjoerd; Schalk, René; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment, trust, and perceived need for change in the relationship between change information and employee attitude toward organizational change. As one of the first studies in organizational change research, attitude toward change

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Psychology: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavas, Ante

    2016-01-01

    The author reviews the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature that includes the individual level of analysis (referred to as micro CSR in the article) based on 166 articles, book chapters, and books. A framework is provided that integrates organizational psychology and CSR, with the purpose of highlighting synergies in order to advance scholarship and practice in both fields. The review is structured so that first, a brief overview is provided. Second, the literatures on organizational psychology and CSR are integrated. Third, gaps are outlined illuminating opportunities for future research. Finally, a research agenda is put forward that goes beyond addressing gaps and focuses on how organizational psychology and CSR can be partners in helping move both fields forward-specifically, through a humanistic research agenda rooted in positive psychology.

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Psychology: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavas, Ante

    2016-01-01

    The author reviews the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature that includes the individual level of analysis (referred to as micro CSR in the article) based on 166 articles, book chapters, and books. A framework is provided that integrates organizational psychology and CSR, with the purpose of highlighting synergies in order to advance scholarship and practice in both fields. The review is structured so that first, a brief overview is provided. Second, the literatures on organizational psychology and CSR are integrated. Third, gaps are outlined illuminating opportunities for future research. Finally, a research agenda is put forward that goes beyond addressing gaps and focuses on how organizational psychology and CSR can be partners in helping move both fields forward—specifically, through a humanistic research agenda rooted in positive psychology. PMID:26909055

  11. Happy Family Kitchen II: a cluster randomized controlled trial of a community-based positive psychology family intervention for subjective happiness and health-related quality of life in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Henry C Y; Mui, Moses; Wan, Alice; Ng, Yin-Lam; Stewart, Sunita M; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2016-07-29

    Most positive psychology interventions conducted in the West have been focused on the individual. Family relationships are highly valued in the Chinese collectivist culture, and it is of interest to know whether family-focused interventions can improve the well-being of Chinese people. We have previously reported the effectiveness of a positive psychology family intervention in terms of family well-being. Based on the data derived from the Happy Family Kitchen II project, this paper examines the effectiveness of a community-based positive psychology family intervention on subjective happiness and health-related quality of life. Thirty-one social service units and schools organized intervention programs for 2070 participants in Hong Kong. In a cluster randomized controlled trial, participants were randomly assigned on the basis of computer-generated numbers into the intervention group or the control group. The intervention programs emphasized one of five positive psychology themes: joy, gratitude, flow, savoring, and listening. The control group engaged in activities unrelated to the intervention, such as arts and crafts workshops. Subjective happiness and mental and physical quality of life were assessed at baseline and at 4 weeks and 12 weeks postintervention. Data of 1261 participants were analyzed. The results showed that the intervention was more effective than the control condition in improving subjective happiness, with a small effect size, at 12 weeks postintervention (β = .15, p = .020, Cohen's d = .16). However, there were no improvements in mental and physical quality of life in the intervention group compared with the control group at 4 weeks (β = .39, p = .494, d = .05; β = -.10, p = 1.000, d = -.01, respectively) and 12 weeks postintervention (β = .71, p = .233, d = .08; β = -.05, p = 1.000, d = -.01, respectively). Furthermore, the booster session was no more effective than the tea

  12. Toward a better understanding of what makes positive psychology interventions work: predicting happiness and depression from the person × intervention fit in a follow-up after 3.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Wellenzohn, Sara; Gander, Fabian; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-03-01

    Robust evidence exists that positive psychology interventions are effective in enhancing well-being and ameliorating depression. Comparatively little is known about the conditions under which they work best. Models describing characteristics that impact the effectiveness of positive interventions typically contain features of the person, of the activity, and the fit between the two. This study focuses on indicators of the person × intervention fit in predicting happiness and depressive symptoms 3.5 years after completion of the intervention. A sample of 165 women completed measures for happiness and depressive symptoms before and about 3.5 years after completion of a positive intervention (random assignment to one out of nine interventions, which were aggregated for the analyses). Four fit indicators were assessed: Preference; continued practice; effort; and early reactivity. Three out of four person × intervention fit indicators were positively related to happiness or negatively related to depression when controlled for the pretest scores. Together, they explained 6 per cent of the variance in happiness, and 10 per cent of the variance of depressive symptoms. Most tested indicators of a person × intervention fit are robust predictors of happiness and depressive symptoms-even after 3.5 years. They might serve for an early estimation of the effectiveness of a positive intervention. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. Society for Health Psychology (APA Division 38) and Society of Behavioral Medicine joint position statement on the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Wilson, Dawn K; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2017-06-01

    Beginning in January 2018, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) plans to cover the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), also referred to as Medicare DPP. The American Psychological Association Society for Health Psychology (SfHP) and the Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) reviewed the proposed plan. SfHP and SBM are in support of the CMS decision to cover DPP for Medicare beneficiaries but have a significant concern that aspects of the proposal will limit the public health impact. Concerns include the emphasis on weight outcomes to determine continued coverage and the lack of details regarding requirements for coaches. SfHP and SBM are in strong support of modifications to the proposal that would remove the minimum weight loss stipulation to determine coverage and to specify type and qualifications of "coaches."

  14. The Assessment of Eating Behaviour in Children Who Are Obese: A Psychological Approach. A Position Paper from the European Childhood Obesity Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Caroline; O'Malley, Grace; Weghuber, Daniel; Vania, Andrea; Erhardt, Éva; Nowicka, Paulina; Mazur, Artur; Frelut, Marie Laure; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper introduces health professionals to the different psychological models thought to influence eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are obese and to propose a method of assessing these behaviours in practice. Methods Clinical researchers from the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) adopted an evidence-based approach to examine the literature concerning the assessment of eating behaviour in children who are obese. Studies published in English were filtered out of the medical and psychological literature from 1960 to the present, and the resulting bibliography was searched for relevant articles. Key themes from the current evidence were compiled and classified according to the underpinning psychological models. Based on the current evidence and the authors' combined clinical experience, a three-staged approach to assessment was agreed by consensus. Results Valid and reliable tools for assessing and monitoring each of the three identified models (Dietary Restraint Theory, Emotional Eating and the Diathesis-Stress Model) are suggested for use in clinical practice, and the ECOG three-staged approach to assessing eating behaviours in the absence of hunger is described. Conclusions This paper presents practical guidance on how to assess eating behaviour in the absence of hunger in children who are clinically obese and suggests a focus for future research. PMID:24820848

  15. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  17. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  18. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  19. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  1. State anxiety, psychological stress and positive well-being responses to yoga and aerobic exercise in people with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Hert, Marc; Knapen, Jan; Wampers, Martien; Demunter, Hella; Deckx, Seppe; Maurissen, Katrien; Probst, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Worsening of schizophrenia symptoms is related to stress and anxiety. People with schizophrenia often experience difficulties in coping with stress and possess a limited repertoire of coping strategies. A randomised comparative trial was undertaken in patients with schizophrenia to evaluate changes in state anxiety, psychological stress and subjective well-being after single sessions of yoga and aerobic exercise compared with a control condition. Forty participants performed a single 30-min yoga session, 20-min of aerobic exercise on a bicycle ergometre at self-selected intensity and a 20-min no exercise control condition in random order. After single sessions of yoga and aerobic exercise individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder showed significantly decreased state anxiety (p stress (p exercise control condition. Effect sizes ranged from 0.82 for psychological stress after aerobic exercise to 1.01 for state anxiety after yoga. The magnitude of the changes did not differ significantly between yoga and aerobic exercise. People with schizophrenia and physiotherapists can choose either yoga or aerobic exercise in reducing acute stress and anxiety taking into account the personal preference of each individual.

  2. Start making sense: Art informing health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Ad A; Hughes, Brian M; Murray, Michael; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the arts may be useful in health care and in the training of health care professionals. Four art genres - novels, films, paintings and music - are examined for their potential contribution to enhancing patient health and/or making better health care providers. Based on a narrative literature review, we examine the effects of passive (e.g. reading, watching, viewing and listening) and active (e.g. writing, producing, painting and performing) exposure to the four art genres, by both patients and health care providers. Overall, an emerging body of empirical evidence indicates positive effects on psychological and physiological outcome measures in patients and some benefits to medical training. Expressive writing/emotional disclosure, psychoneuroimmunology, Theory of Mind and the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation are considered as possible theoretical frameworks to help incorporate art genres as sources of inspiration for the further development of health psychology research and clinical applications.

  3. Start making sense: Art informing health psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brian M; Murray, Michael; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the arts may be useful in health care and in the training of health care professionals. Four art genres – novels, films, paintings and music – are examined for their potential contribution to enhancing patient health and/or making better health care providers. Based on a narrative literature review, we examine the effects of passive (e.g. reading, watching, viewing and listening) and active (e.g. writing, producing, painting and performing) exposure to the four art genres, by both patients and health care providers. Overall, an emerging body of empirical evidence indicates positive effects on psychological and physiological outcome measures in patients and some benefits to medical training. Expressive writing/emotional disclosure, psychoneuroimmunology, Theory of Mind and the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation are considered as possible theoretical frameworks to help incorporate art genres as sources of inspiration for the further development of health psychology research and clinical applications. PMID:29552350

  4. Understanding the mind from an evolutionary perspective: an overview of evolutionary psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K; Liddle, James R

    2014-05-01

    The theory of evolution by natural selection provides the only scientific explanation for the existence of complex adaptations. The design features of the brain, like any organ, are the result of selection pressures operating over deep time. Evolutionary psychology posits that the human brain comprises a multitude of evolved psychological mechanisms, adaptations to specific and recurrent problems of survival and reproduction faced over human evolutionary history. Although some mistakenly view evolutionary psychology as promoting genetic determinism, evolutionary psychologists appreciate and emphasize the interactions between genes and environments. This approach to psychology has led to a richer understanding of a variety of psychological phenomena, and has provided a powerful foundation for generating novel hypotheses. Critics argue that evolutionary psychologists resort to storytelling, but as with any branch of science, empirical testing is a vital component of the field, with hypotheses standing or falling with the weight of the evidence. Evolutionary psychology is uniquely suited to provide a unifying theoretical framework for the disparate subdisciplines of psychology. An evolutionary perspective has provided insights into several subdisciplines of psychology, while simultaneously demonstrating the arbitrary nature of dividing psychological science into such subdisciplines. Evolutionary psychologists have amassed a substantial empirical and theoretical literature, but as a relatively new approach to psychology, many questions remain, with several promising directions for future research. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Social networks: a new source of psychological stress or a way to enhance self-esteem? Negative and positive implications in bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; Liccardi, G; Pellegrino, F; D'Amato, M; Sofia, M

    2012-01-01

    The Internet and, in particular, social networks are an increasingly important part of daily life for both adolescents and adults who maintain a virtual relationship with others sharing interests and goals. Very often, they disclose more about themselves online than they do in person. However, cyberbullying and cyberostracism can be problematic for adolescents and sensitive individuals, who might be negatively affected by social networks. Some studies have shown an increased risk of depression, whereas others suggest beneficial effects through enhanced communication, social connection, and self-esteem. Bronchial asthma is an increasingly frequent disease in the industrialized world, and psychological implications play a role in increasing or in reducing its severity. One year after the case report of an asthma exacerbation that may have been triggered by Facebook, it seems reasonable to analyze the effects of social networks on bronchial asthma.

  6. Intrinsic religiousness and spirituality as predictors of mental health and positive psychological functioning in Latter-Day Saint adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Peter W; Allen, G E Kawika; Fischer, Lane; Richards, P Scott; Morgan, David T; Potts, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships between religiousness and spirituality and various indicators of mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in three separate samples of college students. A total of 898 students at Brigham Young University participated in the three studies. The students ranged in age from 17 to 26 years old, with the average age of 20.9 across all three samples. Our results indicate that intrinsic religiousness, spiritual maturity, and self-transcendence were significantly predictive of better mental health and positive functioning, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness, and higher levels of global self-esteem, identity integration, moral self-approval, and meaning in life. Intrinsic religiousness was not predictive of shame, perfectionism, and eating disorder symptoms. These findings are consistent with many prior studies that have found religiousness and spirituality to be positively associated with better mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in adolescents and young adults.

  7. Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationships to self-reports of neurotic and acting out behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J T; Helmreich, R L; Holahan, C K

    1979-10-01

    Negatively valued masculinity (M-) and femininity (F-) personality scales were developed to supplement the positively valued Masculinity (M+) and Femininity (F+) scales of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence & Helmreich). M- consisted of traits that had been judged to be (a) more typical of males than females, (b) undesirable in both sexes, and (c ) agentic or instrumental in content. Two F- scales were developed, both containing stereotypically feminine, undesirable traits, one set of traits referring to communionlike characteristics (Fc-) and the other to verbal passive-aggressive qualities (FVA-). Significant sex differences in the predicted direction were found on all scales. In both sexes, low and typically nonsignificant correlations were found between parallel positive and negative scales, but highly significant negative correlations were found between positive and negative cross-sex scales. These findings provide additional evidence for the multidimentionslity of masculinity and femininity. Scores on a self-esteem measure were positively correlated with M+ and F+, uncorrelated with M-, and negatively correlated with the F- scales. Different patterns of scores were associated with two types of problem behaviors. In both sexes, neuroticism was most highly correlated (in a negative direction) with M+, and acting out behavoir was most strongly correlated (in a positive direction) with M-. The next highest correlation in both instances was with FVA-.

  8. Credentialing high school psychology teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kenneth A

    2014-09-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Bio-Psycho-Spiritual Modeling in Drug Dependents and Compiling of Intervention Program for Promotion of Resiliency Based on Cognitive Narratology and Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezat ollah Kordmirza Nikoozadeh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the past few decades, the concentration of researches on drug abuse and drugs dependency have shift from risk factor to protective factors. In the past two decades, the concept of resiliency was increasingly considered by developmental psychology. The concentration shifted from risk to resiliency originates from disadvantage in emphasizing on identification of risk factors. Method: Target population was all volunteer addicts who referred to clinics in Tehran city. The group selected based on random cluster sampling. In total 319 persons (male composed of two groups, dependent to drug (150 persons and independent to drug (169 persons were participated in research and in general, 108 questionnaires of non-addicts and 126 of addicts were analyzed. In order to determine the fit model based on assumed variables in the research, by utilizing LISREL softwar99e, initially the relation between primary fundamental variables and final endogenous variables were reviewed. In continuation, the - relations between intermediary and endogenous variables were determined. Results: The results showed the fitting of predicted model of resiliency. Conclusion: In this research the program based on bio-psycho-spiritual model for instructional intervention in order to enhance of resiliency of addict people provided.

  10. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  11. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  12. Beyond happiness: Building a science of discrete positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Michelle N; Campos, Belinda; Oveis, Christopher; Hertenstein, Matthew J; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana; Keltner, Dacher

    2017-10-01

    While trait positive emotionality and state positive-valence affect have long been the subject of intense study, the importance of differentiating among several "discrete" positive emotions has only recently begun to receive serious attention. In this article, we synthesize existing literature on positive emotion differentiation, proposing that the positive emotions are best described as branches of a "family tree" emerging from a common ancestor mediating adaptive management of fitness-critical resources (e.g., food). Examples are presented of research indicating the importance of differentiating several positive emotion constructs. We then offer a new theoretical framework, built upon a foundation of phylogenetic, neuroscience, and behavioral evidence, that accounts for core features as well as mechanisms for differentiation. We propose several directions for future research suggested by this framework and develop implications for the application of positive emotion research to translational issues in clinical psychology and the science of behavior change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The effectiveness of the training of the positive psychology on the growth of devotion and trust to the life in the normal women of bafq city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan ZareeiMahmoodAbadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was the considering of the impression of the positive couple-therapy on the increasing the life expectancy and marriage closeness of the normal women in Bafq. The way & kind of the quasi-experimental was pre-test –post-test with the group of control. The sample included thirty (30 people that were chosen to target . & were put on the two groups of experiment &control to random .each two groups on the level pre-test completed the life expectancy questionnaire of the Schneider and marriage closeness of the walker & tompson .Then, for the experiment al group is done eight session for two hours . About positive teaching. And finally, After execution, each two questionnaire was done by groups of experiment & control as post-test. For analysis of test data , was used the way of analysis statistical of covariance it showed that positive is effective on the increasing al life expectancy and marriage closeness. : Positive teaching , life expectancy , marriage closeness ,women.

  14. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  15. Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Duncan, Charles Randy; DesRoches, Andrea; Bendig, Melissa; Steeves, Megan; Turner, Holly; Quaife, Terra; McCann, Chuck; Enns, Brett

    2013-10-22

    Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory' outcomes of our team's program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services' Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk' student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program's goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS's work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. With improved understanding of the OWS's goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program's universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS's definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk' student population. It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of

  16. Guidelines for Education and Training at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Levels in Consulting Psychology/Organizational Consulting Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of these "Guidelines for Education and Training at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Levels in Consulting Psychology/Organizational Consulting Psychology" is to provide a common framework for use in the development, evaluation, and review of education and training in consulting psychology/organizational consulting psychology (CP/OCP). The…

  17. Antecedents of perceived coach autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors: coach psychological need satisfaction and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.

  18. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  19. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  20. Associations of ikigai as a positive psychological factor with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese people: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Kozo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Ohsawa, Masaki; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Yaegashi, Yumi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2009-07-01

    To determine whether presence of ikigai as a positive psychological factor is associated with decreased risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men and women. From 1988 to 1990, a total of 30,155 men and 43,117 women aged 40 to 79 years completed a lifestyle questionnaire including a question about ikigai. Mortality follow-up was available for a mean of 12.5 years and was classified as having occurred in the first 5 years or the subsequent follow-up period. Associations between ikigai and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were assessed using a Cox's regression model. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) were adjusted for age, body mass index, drinking and smoking status, physical activity, sleep duration, education, occupation, marital status, perceived mental stress, and medical history. During the follow-up period, 10,021 deaths were recorded. Men and women with ikigai had decreased risks of mortality from all causes in the long-term follow-up period; multivariate HRs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were 0.85 (0.80-0.90) for men and 0.93 (0.86-1.00) for women. The risk of cardiovascular mortality was reduced in men with ikigai; the multivariate HR (95% CI) was 0.86 (0.76-0.97). Furthermore, men and women with ikigai had a decreased risk for mortality from external causes; multivariate HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (0.59-0.93) for men and 0.67 (0.51-0.88) for women. The findings suggest that a positive psychological factor such as ikigai is associated with longevity among Japanese people.

  1. Desenvolvimento bem-sucedido com esclerose múltipla: um ensaio em psicologia positiva Successful development with multiple sclerosis: an essay in positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Geraldi Haase

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A natureza crônica e progressivamente incapacitante de muitas enfermidades neurológicas, tais como a esclerose múltipla, constitui um desafio para a reabilitação. Uma abordagem que objetive apenas a restituição funcional corre o risco de fracassar, impondo uma carga de sofrimento adicional ao portador. As abordagens compensatórias têm se demonstrado eficazes no intuito de capacitar os portadores de doenças crônicas a enfrentar suas dificuldades cotidianas a curto-prazo e planejar o seu curso de vida a longo-prazo, aumentando assim o senso de controle e autonomia e melhorando a qualidade de vida. A abordagem compensatória impõe o estabelecimento de uma agenda positiva. Neste ensaio nós estabelecemos um paralelo entre a adaptação psicossocial à esclerose múltipla e os processos observados no desenvolvimento psicológico adulto. São notadas tanto semelhanças quanto diferenças. Algumas possibilidades são exploradas, que os modelos derivados do estudo do desenvolvimento bem-sucedido na idade adulta e velhice oferecem para o estabelecimento de uma agenda positiva para os portadores de esclerose múltipla.The chronic and progressively incapacitating nature of many neurological illnesses, such as multiple sclerosis, poses major challenges to the rehabilitative efforts. Approaches based solely on the pursuit of functional restitution incur the risk of failure and additional distress to the sufferers. Compensatory approaches have been consistently shown effective in the empowerment of individuals both to cope with daily life in the short run and to plan their life courses in the long run, thus regaining control and autonomy and improving well being. Compensation requires the establishment of a positive agenda. In this essay we establish a parallel between the processes of psychosocial adaptation to multiple sclerosis and normal adult development. Both similarities and differences are noted. We try to explore some perspectives derived

  2. Religiousness, Race, and Psychological Well-Being: Exploring Social Psychological Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Bruce; Crocker, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    Examined predictions (n=125) that the relationship between religious belief and psychological well-being should be more positive among black than white individuals, and the relationship should be mediated by social psychological aspects of religion with positive implications for well-being. Religious belief salience and psychological well-being…

  3. Narrative health psychology: Once more unto the breach: editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sools, Anna Maria; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what

  4. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Resources, stressors and psychological distress among older adults in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Scant information exists on the complex interaction between resources and stressors and their subsequent influence on the psychological distress of older adults in India. Within the framework of resource theory, the present study examined the various pathways through which resources and stressors influence psychological distress by testing four models - the independence model, the stress-suppression model, the counteractive model and the resource-deterioration model. The independence model posits that resources and stressors have a direct relationship with psychological distress. The stress-suppression model hypothesizes that stressors mediate the influence of resources on psychological distress. The counteractive model postulates that stressors mobilize resources, which in turn influence psychological distress. The resource-deterioration model states that stressors deplete resources and subsequently exacerbate distress. In the present study, resources include social support, religiosity and mastery; stressors include life events, abuse and health problems. Psychological distress was measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale and Geriatric Depression Scale. Interviews were conducted among 400 adults aged 65 years and above, randomly selected from the electoral list of urban Chennai, India. The battery of instruments was translated into Tamil (local language) by back-translation. Structural Equation Modeling was conducted to test the three models. The results supported the stress-suppressor model. Resources had an indirect, negative relationship with psychological distress, and stressors had a direct, positive effect on distress. As such there is a need to identify and strengthen the resources available to older adults in India.

  6. The role of psychological ownership in retaining talent: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Olckers

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Managing psychological ownership can have positive attitudinal and behavioural effects, promote organisational effectiveness and support talent retention.Research purpose: This paper seeks to explore and describe psychological ownership, distinguish it from other work-related attitudes and clarify the role that psychological ownership can play in retaining talent.Motivation for the study: Previous studies of human resource practices and organisational characteristics that affect organisational commitment and the retention of talent have reported that absent variables could be responsible for varied results. Psychological ownership could be one of them.Research design, approach and method: Based on a systematic review of the literature published over the last 20 years, the authors synthesised various research perspectives into a framework of psychological ownership and its links to retaining talent.Main findings: The authors found that psychological ownership was a comprehensive multidimensional construct. It is distinct from other work-related attitudes and seems capable of enabling organisations to retain the talents of skilled employees.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations can benefit from psychological ownership because it leads employees to feel responsible towards targets (like organisations and to show stewardship. It can help organisations to retain talent and influence the intentions of skilled employees to remain with their organisations.Contribution/value-add: Psychological ownership, as an integrated multidimensional construct, has expanded the existing theory about the organisational commitment and work-related attitudes that organisations need to retain talent in the 21st century.

  7. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  8. Measuring psychological ownership : A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; Olckers, C.; van Zyl, L.; van der Vaart, L.

    2017-01-01

    In the fields of psychology and management, psychological ownership has been identified as an important positive psychological predictor of workplace motives, attitudes and behaviours. Given its importance, the highly respected authors Avey, Avolio, Crossley, and Luthans (J Organ Behav 30:173-191,

  9. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; Weel, Bas ter

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research.

  10. The Psychology of Education: Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, W. Ray

    2009-01-01

    Psychology has been closely involved with educational research, policy and practice since its emergence as a scientific discipline in the late 19th century but it has occupied a less certain place in recent years. This paper describes aspects of the organisational framework of psychology as a discipline and draws upon Research Assessment Exercise…

  11. Informing Educational Psychology Training with Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article was to describe students' experiences of community engagement in an Educational Psychology practicum in order to inform relevant educational psychology training literature with experiences of students' community engagement. Experiential learning served as our theoretical framework and we ...

  12. The rise of a science in the early twentieth century: the forgotten voice of Gualtiero Sarfatti and the first "social psychology" volumes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensales, Gilda; Dal Secco, Alessandra

    2014-02-01

    Establishing social psychology as a distinct field of study has been the object of heated debate over the first decades of the 20th century. Entrenched in different theoretical traditions, such as philosophy, sociology, psychology, and criminology, the development of the conceptual boundaries of social psychology as an autonomous science was the result of a historic effort. Resulting from a negotiation process between competing stances, some voices relevant to the identity construction of social psychology have been lost over time. Within the framework of a "polycentric" historical perspective valorizing local histories, the present study aims to scrutinize those early voices, which were later marginalized. To this scope, we conducted a narrative analysis on the first volumes explicitly naming social psychology in their titles and identified the main themes, conceptual frameworks, and scientific advancements. The analysis illustrates the work of Gualtiero Sarfatti and articulates his forgotten contribution to drawing social psychology as a distinct discipline, built on the scientific method and positioned within the psychological sociocentric tradition. Our analysis reveals the leading role of Sarfatti in the disciplinary foundation of social psychology as a psychological science based on the concept of social psyche. Yet despite the fact his contribution was influential in the scholarly community of his time, our work highlights how his voice vanished from the subsequent disciplinary developments to date, and suggests some explanations behind this neglect.

  13. The role of gender affirmation in psychological well-being among transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Tiffany R; Gamarel, Kristi E; Kahler, Christopher W; Iwamoto, Mariko; Operario, Don; Nemoto, Tooru

    2016-09-01

    High prevalence of psychological distress, including greater depression, lower self-esteem, and suicidal ideation, has been documented across numerous samples of transgender women and has been attributed to high rates of discrimination and violence. According to the gender affirmation framework (Sevelius, 2013), access to sources of gender-affirmative support can offset such negative psychological effects of social oppression. However, critical questions remain unanswered in regards to how and which aspects of gender affirmation are related to psychological well-being. The aims of this study were to investigate the associations between three discrete areas of gender affirmation (psychological, medical, and social) and participants' reports of psychological well-being. A community sample of 573 transgender women with a history of sex work completed a one-time self-report survey that assessed demographic characteristics, gender affirmation, and mental health outcomes. In multivariate models, we found that social, psychological, and medical gender affirmation were significant predictors of lower depression and higher self-esteem while no domains of affirmation were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Findings support the need for accessible and affordable transitioning resources for transgender women in order to promote better quality of life among an already vulnerable population. As the gender affirmation framework posits, the personal experience of feeling affirmed as a transgender person results from individuals' subjective perceptions of need along multiple dimensions of gender affirmation. Personalized assessment of gender affirmation may thus be a useful component of counseling and service provision for transgender women.

  14. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  15. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  16. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Between history and cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Innis’ and Brinkmann’s papers (this issue) tackle two key aspects in cultural psychology: the mediating role played by the different systems of meanings throughout history in making sense of the world, and the normative role of those systems, including psychology itself. This paper offers...... a reflection on these two issues. It begins by highlighting the contribution of psychology and history, as emerging disciplines in the 19th Century, to the creation of a normative framework for the subject of modernity according to the needs of modern nation states. It also alludes to both disciplines’ common...... accounts. Drawing on this assumption, it is discussed how past events are constructed, thus bringing mediation and meaning-making to the fore. Special attention is paid to narratives as symbolic meaning-making tools. We will conclude by discussing usage of the past and the role that cultural psychology can...

  18. Anthropological aspects of health psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Shuvalov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a theoretical study carried out in the framework of the research project «Determinants of psychological health of the modern person». The issue of psychological health is considered in the context of the anthropological crisis that affects public body and causes a decrease in synergetic social life. On the level of specific manifestations, it is associated with damage to the spiritual and moral sphere, distortion of personal way of life and interpersonal relationships, which leads to a general decline in viability. A growing number of people, whose subjective state can be described as mentally fit, but personally sick is identified. Secondary symptoms of such conditions are depression, aggression, dependent behaviour. However, their essential characteristics are not captured by the existing social psychological, psychological pedagogical and medical psychological concepts and also do not fit the typical description of psychological emotional and/or behavioural disorders. The author adheres to the hypothesis that these states have specific spiritual and psychological conditions and symptoms that deserve scientific analysis and philosophical reflection. The leitmotif of the paper is the issue of mental health in its scientific and philosophical sense. Representation of health from the standpoint of modern humanitarian knowledge and traditional spiritual culture are generalized. The theory of general psychological health is developed. The main approaches to the problem of psychological health are presented. Comparative analysis of the humanistic and anthropological models of mental health is shown. Correspondence between the anthropological conditions and criteria of mental health concepts of the modern national educational ideal is presented. Educational activity is described as anthropological practice aimed at acquiring by a child the wide range of values as a person. As such, it is the most conducive to

  19. The Mediational Role of Psychological Basic Needs in the Relation Between Conception of God and Psychological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Barberis, Nadia; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-02-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between conception of God and psychological outcomes in a self-determination theory (SDT) framework. The aim of this study was to examine the role of basic psychological needs as a mediator of the association between conception of God and psychological outcomes. In a sample of 210 religious young adults, we found that the concept of a controlling God was positively associated with feelings of need frustration and depression, whilst the concept of an autonomy-supporting God was positively associated with feelings of need satisfaction and vitality. In turn, need satisfaction promoted feelings of vitality, whereas need frustration led to feelings of depression. The satisfaction of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between autonomy-supporting God and vitality, whilst the frustration of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between controlling God and depression. These findings are discussed in terms of SDT. We also discuss how future research may further increase our understanding of the dynamics involved in concepts of God and psychological outcomes.

  20. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  1. Measuring individual disaster recovery: a socioecological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David M; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Walsh, Lauren; Culp, Derrin

    2010-09-01

    Disaster recovery is a complex phenomenon. Too often, recovery is measured in singular fashion, such as quantifying rebuilt infrastructure or lifelines, without taking in to account the affected population's individual and community recovery. A comprehensive framework is needed that encompasses a much broader and far-reaching construct with multiple underlying dimensions and numerous causal pathways; without the consideration of a comprehensive framework that investigates relationships between these factors, an accurate measurement of recovery may not be valid. This study proposes a model that encapsulates these ideas into a single framework, the Socio-Ecological Model of Recovery. Using confirmatory factor analysis, an operational measure of recovery was developed and validated using the five measures of housing stability, economic stability, physical health, mental health, and social role adaptation. The data were drawn from a sample of displaced households following Hurricane Katrina. Measures of psychological strength, risk, disaster exposure, neighborhood contextual effects, and formal and informal help were modeled to examine their direct and indirect effects on recovery using a structural equation model. All five elements of the recovery measure were positively correlated with a latent measure of recovery, although mental health and social role adaptation displayed the strongest associations. An individual's psychological strength had the greatest association with positive recovery, followed by having a household income greater than $20,000 and having informal social support. Those factors most strongly associated with an absence of recovery included the time displaced since the hurricane, being disabled, and living in a community with substantial social disorder. The socio-ecological framework provides a robust means for measuring recovery, and for testing those factors associated with the presence or absence of recovery.

  2. Psychology between science and profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychology is powerful science, with great knowledge deposited for understanding the individual (his development and pathological outcomes, behavior and predicting behavior in different situations, groups, historical flows and historical characters, cultural and civilisation changes, artistic and other creations. Psychology, as it becomes to the science of soul, has covered all areas of human spirit. Discreprancy between potential and power of psychology and her use (in the work of psychologists author connects for positioning and realisation of psychology in university teachings. Whit the help of psychology we can, not just successes in life but we can also understand life itself. But, how many psychologists can contribute to that? Why is that so?.

  3. Positive organisation:  the role of leader behaviour in work engagement and retention

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Fallen; Stander, Marius W.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: The positive organisation creates a framework in which its elements can be investigated in relation to the retention of talent. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate if leader empowering behaviour can positively impact on role clarity, psychological empowerment and work engagement, with the final outcome being the retention of talent. Motivation for the study: In the ever changing work environment organisations place great emphasis on their human ...

  4. Genome-wide SNP identification by high-throughput sequencing and selective mapping allows sequence assembly positioning using a framework genetic linkage map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiangming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the position and order of contigs and scaffolds from a genome assembly within an organism's genome remains a technical challenge in a majority of sequencing projects. In order to exploit contemporary technologies for DNA sequencing, we developed a strategy for whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism sequencing allowing the positioning of sequence contigs onto a linkage map using the bin mapping method. Results The strategy was tested on a draft genome of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab, and further validated using sequence contigs derived from the diploid plant genome Fragaria vesca. Using our novel method we were able to anchor 70% and 92% of sequences assemblies for V. inaequalis and F. vesca, respectively, to genetic linkage maps. Conclusions We demonstrated the utility of this approach by accurately determining the bin map positions of the majority of the large sequence contigs from each genome sequence and validated our method by mapping single sequence repeat markers derived from sequence contigs on a full mapping population.

  5. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  6. Enriching Careers and Lives: Introducing a Positive, Holistic, and Narrative Career Counseling Method that Bridges Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikic, Jelena; Franklin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    CareerCycles (CC) career counseling framework and method of practice integrates and builds on aspects of positive psychology. Through its holistic and narrative approach, the CC method seeks to collaboratively identify and understand clients' career and life stories. It focuses on their strengths, desires, preferences, assets, future…

  7. Maternal Psychological Control, Use of Supportive Parenting, and Childhood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.

  8. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  9. Autonomous teamwork and psychological well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van H.; Rutte, C.G.; Seinen, B.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Few studies investigated the assumed positive effects of autonomous groups on individual psychological well-being. In the present study we investigated the hypotheses that (1) group autonomy is positively related to psychological well-being, (2) this relationship is mediated by individual autonomy,

  10. Martial arts and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J R

    1988-12-01

    The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.

  11. Applying quantum principles to psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R; Wang, Zheng; Khrennikov, Andrei; Basieva, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This article starts out with a detailed example illustrating the utility of applying quantum probability to psychology. Then it describes several alternative mathematical methods for mapping fundamental quantum concepts (such as state preparation, measurement, state evolution) to fundamental psychological concepts (such as stimulus, response, information processing). For state preparation, we consider both pure states and densities with mixtures. For measurement, we consider projective measurements and positive operator valued measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of each method with respect to applications in psychology are discussed. (paper)

  12. Disordered Eating-Related Cognition and Psychological Flexibility as Predictors of Psychological Health among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.; Wendell, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated the relation among disordered eating-related cognition, psychological flexibility, and poor psychological outcomes among a nonclinical college sample. As predicted, conviction of disordered eating-related cognitions was positively associated with general psychological ill-health and emotional distress…

  13. Psychological skills training to support diabetes self-management: Qualitative assessment of nurses' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Helen; Garrett, Christopher; Amiel, Stephanie A; Ismail, Khalida; Winkley, Kirsty

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for the efficacy of psychological skills training as a method of supporting patients' self-management is growing, but there is a shortage of mental health providers with specialist diabetes knowledge to deliver them. Primary care nurses are now increasingly expected to learn and use these techniques. This study explores nurse experience of training in six psychological skills to support patients' self-management of type 2 diabetes. Semi-structured interviews elicited themes relating to nurses' experiences of participating in a trial of a psychological intervention, the Diabetes-6 study (D-6). Nurses were employed in GP surgeries in 5 South London boroughs. Thematic framework analysis was used to compare and contrast themes across participants. Nine nurses delivering the intervention (n=11), and 7 from the control intervention (n=12, no psychological element) were interviewed. Three key themes were identified: (i) positive and negative impact of D6 on nurses' practice: positives included patient empowerment; negatives included patients' capacity to engage; (ii) professional boundaries including concerns about over-stepping role as a nurse and (iii) concerns about degree of support from physicians at participating practices in integrating psychological and diabetes care. Primary care nurses report that psychological skills training can have a positive impact on patient care. Significant role adjustment is required, which may be aided by additional support from the practice team. Qualitative evaluation of effectiveness of psychological interventions may reveal processes that hinder or contribute to efficacy and translation. Appropriate support is necessary for primary care nurses to deliver psychological therapies with confidence. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Framework for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning is to provide a "strategic framework" for the future. In this article, the author considers the key components that will make up the framework. These are: (1) a statement of vision and values; (2) a stock-take of the current position; (3) an "investment…

  15. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  16. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  17. A POSITIVE SOCIALIZATION MODEL FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS: COMPREHENSIVE AND INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES. Part 2. Russian experience in social-psychological support of children with asd and their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina A. Nesterova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The second part of the article aims to analyze domestic experience in support of children with autism; to show the complex model of support of positive socialization of children with ASD and severe defects; to justify the necessity of creating a scientifically validated complex model of support of children with ASD. Methods. The methods involve theoretical analysis and summarization of scientific and methodical publications on the issue of socialization of children with ASD; modeling method. Results. Scientific approaches to socialization and social integration of children with ASD are analyzed, summarized and systematized. The most efficient empirically validated methods and techniques that may be included in the process of social-psychological support of children with ASD and their families are indentified. Regional experience of the Russian Federation in solving the issue of socialization of children with ASD and their families is uncovered, the most effective programs and developments of domestic specialists are highlighted. The model of support of the positive socialization of children with ASD is developed and validated. Scientific novelty. The proposed model is developed on the basis of the principles of multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity in the process of interaction between specialists of support, aimed at solving socialization problems of children with ASD and their families. The model incorporates such basic conditions of positive socialization of a child with ASD as: a state of mental health of a child; creation of conditions for successful process of socialization of a child, in particular, for the formation of basic social skills; provision of close interaction of children, psychologists, teachers, parents, social partners; monitoring of dynamics of total indicators of social competence and development of children. Practical significance. The model is supposed to be the basis while creating support for

  18. Relações entre bem-estar subjetivo e satisfação conjugal na abordagem da psicologia positiva Relations between subjective well-being and marital satisfaction on the approach of positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Scorsolini-Comin

    2011-01-01

    Psychology. It attests that people who experience positive emotions tend to engage themselves in more satisfying relationships.

  19. Evidence-Based Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts). This article outlines the central elements of evidence-based psychological assessment (EBPA), using the American Psychological Association's tripartite definition of EBPP as integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences. After discussing strategies for conceptualizing and operationalizing evidence-based testing and evidence-based assessment, 6 core skills and 3 meta-skills that underlie proficiency in psychological assessment are described. The integration of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is discussed in terms of the complex interaction of patient and assessor identities and values throughout the assessment process. A preliminary framework for implementing EBPA is offered, and avenues for continued refinement and growth are described.

  20. Gestalt psychology: the forgotten paradigm in abnormal psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Uhlhaas, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Gestalt views of psychopathology are almost completely ignored in mainstream psychology and psychiatry. However, a review of available evidence indicates a remarkable consistency between these views and current data from experimental psychopathology and cognitive neuroscience. This consistency is especially pronounced in the area of schizophrenia. In addition, there is a convergence of cognitive and neurobiological evidence regarding the validity of early Gestalt views of both normal brain-behavior relationships and disordered ones, as in schizophrenia. This article reviews some contributions of Gestalt psychology regarding schizophrenia and examines these views in light of more recent findings from cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychopathology. We conclude that Gestalt theory is a viable theoretical framework from which to understand schizophrenia. Specifically, it appears that a breakdown of Gestalt organizational processes may characterize both the cognitive and the brain processes in schizophrenia.

  1. Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W; Richards, William A; Richards, Brian D; Jesse, Robert; MacLean, Katherine A; Barrett, Frederick S; Cosimano, Mary P; Klinedinst, Maggie A

    2018-01-01

    Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences with participant-attributed increases in well-being. However, little research has examined enduring changes in traits. This study administered psilocybin to participants who undertook a program of meditation/spiritual practices. Healthy participants were randomized to three groups (25 each): (1) very low-dose (1 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2) with moderate-level ("standard") support for spiritual-practice (LD-SS); (2) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70 kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with standard support (HD-SS); and (3) high-dose (20 and 30 mg/70kg on sessions 1 and 2, respectively) with high support for spiritual practice (HD-HS). Psilocybin was administered double-blind and instructions to participants/staff minimized expectancy confounds. Psilocybin was administered 1 and 2 months after spiritual-practice initiation. Outcomes at 6 months included rates of spiritual practice and persisting effects of psilocybin. Compared with low-dose, high-dose psilocybin produced greater acute and persisting effects. At 6 months, compared with LD-SS, both high-dose groups showed large significant positive changes on longitudinal measures of interpersonal closeness, gratitude, life meaning/purpose, forgiveness, death transcendence, daily spiritual experiences, religious faith and coping, and community observer ratings. Determinants of enduring effects were psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience and rates of meditation/spiritual practices. Psilocybin can occasion enduring trait-level increases in prosocial attitudes/behaviors and in healthy psychological functioning. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00802282.

  2. Systems of psychology as epistemology of psychology: technical supplies and conceptual bases for psychology education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriel Fierro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resuming the framework outlined in a previous analysis, the present work describes a proposal for teaching systems of psychology based on parameters of meta-theoretical analysis and specific meta-scientific models, with the aim of relocating psychological systems’ courses in systematology of psychology as a component of the epistemology of psychology. Three central issues for systematology in psychologists’ education are described: the importance of working with primary sources through specific pedagogical resources with the aim of developing scientific competences and attitudes, the need to have one (or several sets of fixed parameters to comparatively analyze theoretical systems, and the problems, criteria and options available when contextualizing such comparative meta-theoretical analysis in comprehensive meta-scientific models which belong to the philosophy of science and of psychology. We conclude on the need to transcend the teaching of systematology as a verbal enunciation of concepts proposed by 'great authors', and on certain risks and limitations regarding the teaching of psychological systems conceived as an epistemological exercise.

  3. [Position Paper of The AG Digital Health DNVF on Digital Health Applications: Framework Conditions For Use in Health Care, Structural Development and Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, Horst Christian; Kramer, Ursula; Müller, Hardy; Griemmert, Maria; Noelle, Guido; Schrappe, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    The term "digital health" is currently the most comprehensive term that includes all information and communication technologies in healthcare, including e-health, mobile health, telemedicine, big data, health apps and others. Digital health can be seen as a good example of the use of the concept and methodology of health services research in the interaction between complex interventions and complex contexts. The position paper deals with 1) digital health as the subject of health services research; 2) digital health as a methodological and ethical challenge for health services research. The often-postulated benefits of digital health interventions should be demonstrated with good studies. First systematic evaluations of apps for "treatment support" show that risks are higher than benefits. The need for a rigorous proof applies even more to big data-assisted interventions that support decision-making in the treatment process with the support of artificial intelligence. Of course, from the point of view of health services research, it is worth participating as much as possible in data access available through digital health and "big data". However, there is the risk that a noncritical application of digital health and big data will lead to a return to a linear understanding of biomedical research, which, at best, accepts complex conditions assuming multivariate models but does not take complex facts into account. It is not just a matter of scientific ethical requirements in health services care research, for instance, better research instead of unnecessary research ("reducing waste"), but it is primarily a matter of anticipating the social consequences (system level) of scientific analysis and evaluation. This is both a challenge and an attractive option for health services research to present itself as a mature and responsible scientific discipline. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Second Version of Google Glass as a Wearable Socio-Affective Aid: Positive School Desirability, High Usability, and Theoretical Framework in a Sample of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ned T; Keshav, Neha U; Salisbury, Joseph P; Vahabzadeh, Arshya

    2018-01-04

    home and school settings. Encouragingly, most caregivers noted a very positive response. There were no behavioral, developmental, or social- or stigma-related concerns during or after the session. Smartglasses may be a useful future technology for children with ASD and are readily accepted for use by children with ASD and their caregivers. ©Ned T Sahin, Neha U Keshav, Joseph P Salisbury, Arshya Vahabzadeh. Originally published in JMIR Human Factors (http://humanfactors.jmir.org), 04.01.2018.

  5. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  6. Coaches' interpersonal style, basic psychological needs and the well- and ill-being of young soccer players: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Isabel; González, Lorena; Fabra, Priscila; Castillo, Isabel; Mercé, Juan; Duda, Joan L

    2012-01-01

    This study entailed a longitudinal test of basic psychological needs theory, a sub-theory in the self-determination framework (Deci & Ryan, 2000), in young soccer players. We examined whether changes in soccer players' perceptions of the coaches' interpersonal style (autonomy supportive and controlling) predicted changes in the players' need satisfaction/need thwarting, and in turn, variability in their reported subjective vitality and burnout over the course of a season. Young male soccer players (M = 12.58 ± 0.54 years) completed a questionnaire at two time points in the season [n(T1) = 725; n(T2) = 597]. Changes in the players' perceptions of an autonomy supportive environment significantly predicted changes in psychological need satisfaction (positively) and in psychological need thwarting (negatively). Changes in psychological need satisfaction positively predicted changes in subjective vitality and negatively related to cross-time variation in global burnout scores. In contrast, changes in the players' perceptions of a controlling coach-created environment were positively associated with changes in psychological need thwarting that corresponded to increases in player burnout. Finally, results provided support for the assumed mediational roles of psychological need satisfaction and need thwarting in the social environment to well- and ill-being relationships.

  7. Understanding the psychological impact of unconventional gas developments in affected communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Po-Hsin; Lyons, Kevin D.; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Grimstad, Sidsel

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of unconventional gas developments has created widespread community concerns in many parts of the world. This study adds to the literature on the psychological impact of related developments by drawing upon Conservation of Resources (COR) theory and the concept of place attachment. In providing a holistic framework, it examines community residents’ appraisals of and emotional responses to impacts of an unconventional gas development, and establishes heterogeneity in these appraisals and responses among residents. The findings show that perceived negative impact on resources that encompass personal and communal resources due to the development contributes to negative emotions that can lead to deteriorated psychological well-being. Conversely, perceived positive impact on resources is conducive to positive emotions that in turn can foster residents’ psychological well-being. The findings further reveal that perceived impact on place attachment partially mediates the relationship between perceived impact on resources and negative emotions. Importantly, these effects differ in strength for residents characterized by different ages, lengths of residence, and distances of their properties from the development. Implications for how this framework can be applied to minimize unwanted impacts and be incorporated into social license that goes beyond the current model of community consultation are discussed. - Highlights: • The psychological impact of a gas project in a rural community is examined. • A sense of perceived loss to personal and communal resources is revealed. • Loss to resources leads to negative emotions mediated by loss to place attachment. • Heterogeneity in perceived impacts and emotional responses is evident.

  8. Professional psychology in Germany, National Socialism, and the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönpflug, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    Hundreds of positions for psychologists were established after the National Socialists seized power in 1933. It has accordingly been asserted that professional psychology in Germany experienced significant growth during the National Socialist period. An analysis of archival materials and of a recent collection of biographies indicates otherwise, however. German psychology, in fact, declined because of systematic persecution and a surge of emigration, a deficit that subsequent cohorts were barely able to make up until 1945. The new positions for psychologists were mainly in the military testing service, and could only be filled after manpower was shifted from the civilian to the military sector. In 1941, the Ministry of Science and Education released regulations for an innovative practice-oriented national curriculum for psychology. The move was in line with Nazi policy, but it was initiated by a group of protagonists from psychology under the aegis of the German Psychological Association, not the National Socialist German Workers Party, the government, or the military. The present article elaborates how the conception of practice-oriented, state-approved studies was part of the traditional German dual system of academic and professional qualification, and thus actually predated 1933. The new curriculum was largely not implemented because of the exigencies of the war. However, as a regulatory framework it marked a turning point in the merging of academic and professional psychology in Germany. The relationship between academic and professional psychology is also discussed, along with the role of German psychology vis-à-vis National Socialism and the German military. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Psychological First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Forbes, David

    2014-01-01

    Psychological first aid (PFA) has become the flagship early intervention for disaster survivors, with recent adaptations for disaster responders, in the post-9/11 era. PFA is broadly endorsed by expert consensus and integrated into guidelines for mental health and psychosocial support in disasters and extreme events. PFA frameworks are proliferating, with increasing numbers of models developed for delivery by a range of providers for use with an expanding array of target populations. Despite popularity and promotion there remains a dearth of evidence for effectiveness and recent independent reviews of PFA have highlighted this important gap. This commentary juxtaposes the current propagation of PFA against the compelling need to produce evidence for effectiveness and suggests a series of actions to prioritize and expedite real-time, real-event field evaluation of PFA. PMID:28228996

  10. Forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, acculturative stress, and psychological distress among Chinese international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Heppner, Puncky Paul; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Ku, Tsun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Based on Berry's (1997) theoretical framework for acculturation, our goal in this study was to examine whether the use of a culturally relevant coping strategy (i.e., forbearance coping, a predictor) would be associated with a lower level of psychological distress (a psychological outcome), for whom (i.e., those with weaker vs. stronger identification with heritage culture, a moderator), and under what situations (i.e., lower vs. higher acculturative stress, a moderator). A total of 188 Chinese international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression indicated a significant 3-way interaction of forbearance coping, identification with heritage culture, and acculturative stress on psychological distress. For those with a weaker identification with their heritage culture, when acculturative stress was higher, the use of forbearance coping was positively associated with psychological distress. However, this was not the case when acculturative stress was lower. In other words, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress when acculturative stress was lower. Moreover, for those with a stronger cultural heritage identification, the use of forbearance coping was not significantly associated with psychological distress regardless of whether acculturative stress was high or low. Future research and implications are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. PHP frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Srša, Aljaž

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents one of the four most popular PHP web frameworks: Laravel, Symfony, CodeIgniter and CakePHP. These frameworks are compared with each other according to the four criteria, which can help with the selection of a framework. These criteria are size of the community, quality of official support, comprehensibility of framework’s documentation and implementation of functionalities in individual frameworks, which are automatic code generation, routing, object-relational mapping and...

  12. Psychology and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)

  13. The relationships between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate, team commitment and intention to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. Munyaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment in a manufacturing organisation could have a significant impact on employee intention to quit. Research purpose: To determine the relationship between five positive organisational behaviour variables (authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment and their ultimate influence on an individual’s intention to quit. Thus, it is preceded by the determination of the structural invariance of the measurement instruments when applied to a South African sample. Justification for the study: The study sought to fill the gap in the literature in relation to understanding the effect of the relationship between psychological capital, authentic leadership, psychological climate and team commitment on the behaviour of employees in a manufacturing organisation and how this influences their decision to quit. Such a study has not previously been conducted in the South African manufacturing sector. Research design, approach and method: Utilising a non-experimental correlational approach, a self-administered composite questionnaire consisting of five psychological scales was distributed to 204 employees in the junior to senior management level at a global tyre manufacturing organisation in South Africa. Multivariate data analysis included the structural equation modelling. Main findings: There is a significantly strong positive relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment. Authentic leadership has a significant influence on psychological capital and psychological climate. This results in a positive impact on organisational commitment, leading to employees’ intention to quit. Practical/managerial implications: Manufacturing organisations need to develop and implement collaborative leadership intervention strategies aimed at improving

  14. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  15. Simple Unawareness in Dynamic Psychological Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Søren; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Building on Battigalli and Dufwenberg (2009)’s framework of dynamic psychological games and the progress in the modeling of dynamic unawareness by Heifetz, Meier, and Schipper (2013a) we model and analyze the impact of asymmetric awareness in the strategic interaction of players motivated...... by reciprocity and guilt. Specifically we characterize extensive-form games with psychological payoffs and simple unawareness, define extensive-form rationalizability and, using this, show that unawareness has a pervasive impact on the strategic interaction of psychologically motivated players. Intuitively...

  16. Adlerian psychology as an intuitive operant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, A B

    1985-01-01

    Traditional accounts of the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler tend to sentimentalize his system and obscure its functional flavor. Six basic Adlerian positions on human behavior, including Rudolf Dreikurs' "four goals of misbehavior," are interpreted as a primitive statement of operant principles. Applied techniques long used by Individual Psychology practitioners strongly resemble interventions that applied behavior analysts have developed by more systematic means.

  17. Jazzing up the Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2010-01-01

    Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…

  18. Sport Psychology: some new proposals being developed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ortin-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This introduction should serve as a framework for the following monograph. While it is true that other authors have examined the discipline of sport psychology, the majority of them have done so from a very generalist perspective. For possibly the first time, there has been an attempt to rely on specialists who, from a very precise proposal, have offered us unique approaches with a wide scientific foundation applied to this area of study. A theoretical framework that adequately delimits the structure of this proposal regarding sport psychology is presented.

  19. Social Change: Toward an Informed and Critical Understanding of Social Justice and the Capabilities Approach in Community Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Felix; MacLeod, Tim; Loomis, Colleen

    2016-03-01

    Community psychology has long been concerned with social justice. However, deployments of this term are often vague and undertheorized. To address this weakness in the field's knowledge body we explored John Rawls's theory of social justice and Amartya Sen's economic theory of the capabilities approach and evaluated each for its applicability to community psychology theory, research, and action. Our unpacking of the philosophical and political underpinnings of Rawlsian theory of social justice resulted in identifying characteristics that limit the theory's utility in community psychology, particularly in its implications for action. Our analysis of the capability approach proposed by Amartya Sen revealed a framework that operationalizes social justice in both research and action, and we elaborate on this point. Going beyond benefits to community psychology in adopting the capabilities approach, we posit a bi-directional relationship and discuss how community psychology might also contribute to the capabilities approach. We conclude by suggesting that community psychology could benefit from a manifesto or proclamation that provides a historical background of social justice and critiques the focus on the economic, sociological, and philosophical theories that inform present-day conceptualizations (and lack thereof) of social justice for community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  20. The Psychology of Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Marino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cows (Bos taurus are consumed worldwide as beef and veal, kept as dairy product producers, employed as draft animals in labor, and are used for a long list of other products, including leather and manure. But despite global reliance on cows for thousands of years, most people’s perception of them is as plodding herd animals with little individual personality and very simple social relationships or preferences. Yet, a review of the scientific literature on cow behavior points to more complex cognitive, emotional and social characteristics. Moreover, when cow behavior is addressed, it is almost entirely done within the framework of and applied to their use as food commodities. Therefore, there is relatively little attention to the study of cow intelligence, personality and sociality at a basic comparative level. In this review, we examine the current state of scientific knowledge about cows within an objective comparative framework, describing their cognitive, emotional, and social characteristics. Our aim is to provide a more veridical and objective current summary of cow psychology on its own terms and in ways which will facilitate better-informed comparisons with other animals. Moreover, an understanding of the capabilities and characteristics of domestic cows will, it is hoped, advance our understanding of who they are as individuals.

  1. The current status of diabetes professional educational standards and competencies in the UK--a position statement from the Diabetes UK Healthcare Professional Education Competency Framework Task and Finish Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, N; George, S; Priest, L; Deakin, T; Vanterpool, G; Karet, B; Simmons, D

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes is a significant health concern, both in the UK and globally. Management can be complex, often requiring high levels of knowledge and skills in order to provide high-quality and safe care. The provision of good, safe, quality care lies within the foundations of healthcare education, continuing professional development and evidence-based practice, which are inseparable and part of a continuum during the career of any health professional. Sound education provides the launch pad for effective clinical management and positive patient experiences. This position paper reviews and discusses work undertaken by a Working Group under the auspices of Diabetes UK with the remit of considering all health professional educational issues for people delivering care to people with diabetes. This work has scoped the availability of education for those within the healthcare system who may directly or indirectly encounter people with diabetes and reviews alignment to existing competency frameworks within the UK's National Health Service. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  2. Alternative Frameworks for the Study of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Ivana

    1979-01-01

    Two frameworks for the study of man are discussed. The Cartesian model views man as a physical object. A dialectic framework, with the emphasis on the self, grew out of nineteenth century romanticism and reflects the theories of Hegel. Both models have had an effect on social psychology and the study of interpersonal communication. (BH)

  3. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  4. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  6. The Psychology of Conspiracy Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Karen M; Sutton, Robbie M; Cichocka, Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    What psychological factors drive the popularity of conspiracy theories , which explain important events as secret plots by powerful and malevolent groups? What are the psychological consequences of adopting these theories? We review the current research and find that it answers the first of these questions more thoroughly than the second. Belief in conspiracy theories appears to be driven by motives that can be characterized as epistemic (understanding one's environment), existential (being safe and in control of one's environment), and social (maintaining a positive image of the self and the social group). However, little research has investigated the consequences of conspiracy belief, and to date, this research does not indicate that conspiracy belief fulfills people's motivations. Instead, for many people, conspiracy belief may be more appealing than satisfying. Further research is needed to determine for whom, and under what conditions, conspiracy theories may satisfy key psychological motives.

  7. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  8. Coaching Psychology: An Approach to Practice for Educational Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Coaching psychology is a distinct sub-discipline of academic and applied psychology that focuses on the enhancement of performance, development and well-being in the broader population. Applied in educational contexts, the practice of coaching psychology has the potential to have a positive impact by supporting children and adults to achieve…

  9. Internships in School Psychology: Selection and Accreditation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilin, W. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral students in school psychology often report unique issues and challenges when seeking a doctoral internship. The number and range of accredited internship positions available to School Psychology (SP) students in the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) Match is quite limited, and they often obtain…

  10. Psychological Inflexibility and Child Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ellin; Verboon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Psychological flexibility is the main outcome of acceptance commitment therapy. Insight into the usefulness of measuring psychological flexibility is an important step to enable studies on the effectiveness of acceptance commitment therapy in middle-aged children (8-10 years). For this purpose, we examined the factor structure, the construct validity and the reliability of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth taps psychological inflexibility (the opposite of psychological flexibility) in children and adolescents. Although the questionnaire has been extensively validated in older children, this is not the case for middle-aged children. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth contains 17 items and is constituted of the subscales cognitive fusion, experiential avoidance and behavioral ineffectiveness. A shortened 8-item version also exists, the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth-8, which does not distinguish between these subscales. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis. Additionally, we assessed the relationship between psychological flexibility and child anxiety. Children, aged 8-10 years, were recruited via regular primary schools. Of the 459 approached children, 267 (58 %) parents signed informed consents for their children (Age: M  = 9.18; SD  = .79; Sex: n boys  = 137, 51 %). Children completed the questionnaires during regular classes. In this sample, the 17-item version of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth was less appropriate for measuring psychological inflexibility than the 8-item version. Furthermore, we found a significant positive relationship between psychological inflexibility and child anxiety. We argue that acceptance commitment therapy would be an interesting candidate for intervening early on in dysfunctional child anxiety, as acceptance commitment therapy's cognitive elements require cognitive skills that children are likely to

  11. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  12. A comprehensive, multi-level investigation of the implementation of a novel digital substance misuse intervention, Breaking Free Online: conceptualising implementation processes within services using the MRC framework and health psychology theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Dugdale

    2015-08-01

    Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with staff, peer mentors and service users to investigate initial diffusion and subsequent normalisation of BFO within CRI, and the impact of BFO on peer mentors’ own substance misuse recovery journeys. Thematic analyses were conducted, and models derived from health psychology and implementation science used to conceptualise implementation processes from an organisational level. Further analyses using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA expanded investigation down to the level of individual people within CRI, and the role of peer mentors delivering the programme within the organisation. Results: ‘Diffusion of innovation theory’ conceptualised initial implementation and diffusion of BFO throughout CRI. Although there were perceived barriers to implementation, such as lack of IT equipment, anxieties around staff and service user IT skills and the impact on staff’s professional roles, intentions to continue using BFO were reported. Analyses investigating continued implementation processes of the programme used ‘normalisation process theory’ to demonstrate how a process of normalisation of the programme is underway following initial diffusion. Findings suggested that staff were beginning to take greater ‘ownership’ of BFO since it was initially introduced into the organisation, and that the programme was influencing changes to work-role responsibilities in delivering BFO. Data using the ‘trans-theoretical model’ also indicated that peer mentors benefited from implementing BFO to support others and assist their own recovery maintenance. Conclusion: Whilst the principal focus must always be on establishing clinical effectiveness when developing and evaluating complex behaviour change interventions, such as digital interventions, implementation process analysis is also key. This analysis is important in order for interventions to be translated into real-world outcomes, as without

  13. How Developments in Psychology and Technology Challenge Validity Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Validity is the sine qua non of properties of educational assessment. While a theory of validity and a practical framework for validation has emerged over the past decades, most of the discussion has addressed familiar forms of assessment and psychological framings. Advances in digital technologies and in cognitive and social psychology have…

  14. Informing Educational Psychology Training with Students' Community Engagement Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersohn, Liesel; Bender, C. J. Gerda; Carvalho-Malekane, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe students' experiences of community engagement in an Educational Psychology practicum in order to inform relevant educational psychology training literature with experiences of students' community engagement. Experiential learning served as our theoretical framework and we employed an instrumental case…

  15. Psychological Universals: What Are They and How Can We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norenzayan, Ara; Heine, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    Psychological universals, or core mental attributes shared by humans everywhere, are a foundational postulate of psychology, yet explicit analysis of how to identify such universals is lacking. This article offers a conceptual and methodological framework to guide the investigation of genuine universals through empirical analysis of psychological…

  16. The Basic Concepts of Contemporary Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, V. V.

    1988-01-01

    Presents chapter one of V. V. Davydov's 1986 monograph, "Problems of Developmental Teaching." Examines the dialectical-materialist sources of the psychological concept of activity; and activity, the mind, and consciousness. Building from Lev S. Vygotsky's work and within a Marxist-Leninist framework, explores relationships among…

  17. The Category of Alienation in Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osin, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the explanatory possibilities and limitations of the concept of alienation within the framework of educational psychology studies. Research into various phenomena associated with alienation (frustration and burnout, extrinsic motivation, cynicism, etc.) is often limited by the ontological realm of the individual, whereas the…

  18. [Psychological aspects of immunotherapies in the treatment of malignant melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Péter; Pánczél, Gitta; Melegh, Krisztina; Balatoni, Tímea; Pörneczy, Edit; Lõrincz, Lenke; Czirbesz, Kata; Gorka, Eszter; Liszkay, Gabriella

    2016-03-02

    Psychological problems may arise in connection with oncomedical treatments in three ways: 1. acute and/or 2. chronic ways, as well as 3. co-morbid psychiatric diseases that already exist must also be taken into account. Immunotherapies have the most common and also clinically relevant psychological side effects. Fatigue, anhedonia, social isolation, psychomotor slowness is reported during treatment. Anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab) immunotherapy can present one of the most modern opportunities for adequate treatment for patients having distant metastasis or unresectable tumour. In relation to immunotherapies, acute psychological side effects (acute stress) emerging during treatments develop in a way that can mostly be linked to environmental factors, e.g. notification of diagnosis, hospitalisation, progression, deterioration in quality of life, imminent dates of control. Crisis is a temporary and threatening condition that endangers psychological balance. In such conditions, enhanced psychological vulnerability must be taken into account and doctors play a key role in the rapid recognition of the condition. Chronic psychological problems, which may arise from the depressogenic effect of the applied treatment or originated from a pre-melanoma psychiatric condition, may exceed the diagnostic and psychotherapeutic competences of a clinical psychologist. Even in case of a well-defined depressogenic biological mechanism such as the activation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine pathway, positive environmental effects can reduce symptoms and thus increase compliance. Side effects can be treated successfully using psychotherapeutic methods and/or psychiatric medicines. The application of routinely used complex psychosocial screening packages can provide the easiest method to identify worsening psychological condition during immunotherapy and give rapid feedback to the oncologist and the patient. Team work is of particular importance in a situation like this as it requires

  19. An Empirical Assessment of REBT Models of Psychopathology and Psychological Health in the Prediction of Anxiety and Depression Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Horea-Radu; Hyland, Philip; Vallières, Frédérique; David, Daniel Ovidiu

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity of two models which integrate the cognitive (satisfaction with life) and affective (symptoms of anxiety and depression) aspects of subjective well-being within the framework of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) theory; specifically REBT's theory of psychopathology and theory of psychological health. 397 Irish and Northern Irish undergraduate students completed measures of rational/irrational beliefs, satisfaction with life, and anxiety/depression symptoms. Structural equation modelling techniques were used in order to test our hypothesis within a cross-sectional design. REBT's theory of psychopathology (χ2 = 373.78, d.f. = 163, p psychological health (χ2 = 371.89, d.f. = 181, p psychological health model explained 33% of variance. This study provides important findings linking the fields of clinical and positive psychology within a comprehensible framework for both researchers and clinicians. Findings are discussed in relation to the possibility of more effective interventions, incorporating and targeting not only negative outcomes, but also positive concepts within the same model.

  20. Modeling Psychological Attributes in Psychology – An Epistemological Discussion: Network Analysis vs. Latent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Hervé; Falissard, Bruno; Kop, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Network Analysis is considered as a new method that challenges Latent Variable models in inferring psychological attributes. With Network Analysis, psychological attributes are derived from a complex system of components without the need to call on any latent variables. But the ontological status of psychological attributes is not adequately defined with Network Analysis, because a psychological attribute is both a complex system and a property emerging from this complex system. The aim of this article is to reappraise the legitimacy of latent variable models by engaging in an ontological and epistemological discussion on psychological attributes. Psychological attributes relate to the mental equilibrium of individuals embedded in their social interactions, as robust attractors within complex dynamic processes with emergent properties, distinct from physical entities located in precise areas of the brain. Latent variables thus possess legitimacy, because the emergent properties can be conceptualized and analyzed on the sole basis of their manifestations, without exploring the upstream complex system. However, in opposition with the usual Latent Variable models, this article is in favor of the integration of a dynamic system of manifestations. Latent Variables models and Network Analysis thus appear as complementary approaches. New approaches combining Latent Network Models and Network Residuals are certainly a promising new way to infer psychological attributes, placing psychological attributes in an inter-subjective dynamic approach. Pragmatism-realism appears as the epistemological framework required if we are to use latent variables as representations of psychological attributes. PMID:28572780

  1. Entrepreneurial Psychological Capital: A Different Way of Understanding Entrepreneurial Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Pease, Peter; Cunningham, James

    2016-01-01

    The development of a model of entrepreneurial psychological capital will provide both an advance in the theoretical understanding of entrepreneurship, and has practical implications for policy makers and those who design entrepreneurship education. Derived from the positive psychological capital model, first developed by Luthans et al. (2007), in the organisational context, this new model of entrepreneurial psychological capital will also draw on the existing entrepreneurship psychology liter...

  2. Work-related psychological health among clergywomen in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Powell, Ruth, Ph.D.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the classic model of balanced affect, the Francis Burnout Inventory conceptualises good work-related psychological health among clergy in terms of negative affect being balanced by positive affect. This paper sets out to explore the relationship between work-related psychological health and psychological type (as assessed by the Francis Psychological-Type Scales) among a sample of 212 Australian clergywomen who completed the National Church Life Survey Form L in 2006. The data supp...

  3. Decolonizing Liberation: Toward a Transnational Feminist Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Kurtiş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages the theme of “decolonizing psychological science” in the context of a perspective on psychological theory and research—namely, feminist psychology—that shares an emphasis on broad liberation. Although conceived as a universal theory and practice of liberation, scholars across diverse sites have suggested that feminism—perhaps especially as it manifests in psychological science—is not always compatible with and at times is even contradictory to global struggles for decolonization. The liberatory impulse of feminist psychology falls short of its potential not only because of its grounding in neocolonial legacies of hegemonic feminisms, but also because of its complicity with neocolonial tendencies of hegemonic psychological science. In response to these concerns, we draw upon on perspectives of transnational feminisms and cultural psychology as tools to decolonize (feminist psychology. We then propose the possibility of a (transnational feminist psychology that takes the epistemological position of people in various marginalized majority-world settings as a resource to rethink conventional scientific wisdom and liberate “liberation”. Rather than freeing some women to better participate in global domination, a transnational feminist psychology illuminates sustainable ways of being that are consistent with broader liberation of humanity in general.

  4. Mental toughness in sport: motivational antecedents and associations with performance and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John W; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Mallett, Cliff J; Mallet, Cliff J

    2014-06-01

    We argue that basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) offers impetus to the value of mental toughness as a mechanism for optimizing human functioning. We hypothesized that psychological needs satisfaction (thwarting) would be associated with higher (lower) levels of mental toughness, positive affect, and performance and lower (higher) levels of negative affect. We also expected that mental toughness would be associated with higher levels of positive affect and performance and lower levels of negative affect. Further, we predicted that coaching environments would be related to mental toughness indirectly through psychological needs and that psychological needs would indirectly relate with performance and affect through mental toughness. Adolescent cross-country runners (136 male and 85 female, M(age) = 14.36) completed questionnaires pertaining to BPNT variables, mental toughness, and affect. Race times were also collected. Our findings supported our hypotheses. We concluded that BPNT is generative in understanding some of the antecedents and consequences of mental toughness and is a novel framework useful for understanding mental toughness.

  5. Basic psychological need satisfaction in leisure activities and adolescents' life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G; Birkeland, Marianne S; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-12-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents' satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life satisfaction. The aim was to identify the extent to which satisfaction of the three needs explained the relationship between participation in leisure activities and life satisfaction. These proposed mechanisms were based on previous empirical work and the theoretical frameworks of self-determination theory, and were tested in a nationally representative sample of Norwegian adolescents (N = 3,273) aged 15 and 16 years (51.8 % boys). The structural equation analysis showed that competence and relatedness satisfaction fully mediated the association between participation in activities and life satisfaction. Autonomy satisfaction had a direct positive effect on life satisfaction but did not show any mediation effect. The positive processes of psychological need satisfaction, and especially the need for competence and relatedness, experienced in the leisure activity domain thus seem to be beneficial for adolescents' well-being. These findings add to previous research investigating the positive impact of need satisfaction in other important domains in the lives of children and adolescents.

  6. Hypnagogic Exploration: Sleep Positions and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, George; Bohn, Sarah Ann

    1980-01-01

    Sleep positions, particularly the full fetal position, appear to be related to California Psychological Inventory (CPI) variables of sociability, sense of well being, achievement by conformance, femininity, and social maturity. (Author)

  7. Psychosocial safety climate as a lead indicator of workplace bullying and harassment, job resources, psychological health and employee engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rebecca; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is defined as shared perceptions of organizational policies, practices and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety, that stem largely from management practices. PSC theory extends the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework and proposes that organizational level PSC determines work conditions and subsequently, psychological health problems and work engagement. Our sample was derived from the Australian Workplace Barometer project and comprised 30 organizations, and 220 employees. As expected, hierarchical linear modeling showed that organizational PSC was negatively associated with workplace bullying and harassment (demands) and in turn psychological health problems (health impairment path). PSC was also positively associated with work rewards (resources) and in turn work engagement (motivational path). Accordingly, we found that PSC triggered both the health impairment and motivational pathways, thus justifying extending the JD-R model in a multilevel way. Further we found that PSC, as an organization-based resource, moderated the positive relationship between bullying/harassment and psychological health problems, and the negative relationship between bullying/harassment and engagement. The findings provide evidence for a multilevel model of PSC as a lead indicator of workplace psychosocial hazards (high demands, low resources), psychological health and employee engagement, and as a potential moderator of psychosocial hazard effects. PSC is therefore an efficient target for primary and secondary intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334 ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  9. Teachers and Psychological Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    The importance of the written psychological report is explored, and, in particular, its relationship to teachers' needs and requirements is discussed. Additionally, the characteristics of a "good" psychological report are listed, and teachers are advised to use these criteria in evaluating the psychological reports they are receiving. (Author)

  10. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  11. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  12. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  13. Methodical basis of social and psychological rehabilitation of the population affected by the catastrophe at Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranskaya, E.I.

    2009-01-01

    For creating common with the Russian side approaches to social and psychological rehabilitation and adaptation of the population within the framework of the Common activity programme the formation of information base of techniques of social and psychological (authors)

  14. Gender Trouble in Psychology Theorizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Azerêdo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to understand the ‘trouble’ that theorizing gender implies given the complexity of this concept, which necessarily means to meet with difference and the need to position oneself in this encounter, and, before that, the tendency of the Academy and Psychology to domesticate and discipline the concept. The literary narrative is proposed as one possible “therapy” for this situation.

  15. Using thematic analysis in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, V.; Clarke, V.

    2006-01-01

    Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely-acknowledged, yet widely-used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically-flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different epistemological and ontological positions. We then provide clear guidelines to those w...

  16. The argument from moral psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Milevski, Voin

    2015-01-01

    The argument from moral psychology is one of the strongest arguments that non-cognitivists use against cognitivism-the metaethical position according to which our moral judgements express beliefs. According to this argument, once we put together the Humean theory of motivation and motivational internalism, we yield the conclusion that cognitivism cannot represent the correct view about the semantic function of moral discourse. I will first attempt to show that a neurological syndrome, called ...

  17. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  18. Empowering Students through Service-Learning in a Community Psychology Course: A Case in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin; Ng, Eddie; Chan, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    This article chronicles a service-learning (SL) subject on community psychology in Hong Kong (n = 26) and elaborates on how students experience concepts, frameworks, and values in community psychology and put them into practice at servicelearning settings. Upon acquiring basic concepts in community psychology, including sense of community,…

  19. Guidelines for Preparing High School Psychology Teachers: Course-Based and Standards-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is one of the most popular elective high school courses. The high school psychology course provides the foundation for students to benefit from psychological perspectives on personal and contemporary issues and learn the rules of evidence and theoretical frameworks of the discipline. The guidelines presented here constitute the second…

  20. Bridging the Dialectic: Diversity, Psychological Sense of Community, and Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Anne E

    2017-06-01

    Although, there are many times when P/SOC and diversity appear in opposition, I argue that this conflict is not inherent to the concepts or their joint value, but to social contexts in which they are enacted in real life. The primary values of community psychology-building and supporting positive communities, social change, and social justice within a framework that recognizes the centrality of diversity, culture, inclusion, power, and privilege-actually bind diversity and community together. Thus, we can bridge this seeming dialectic through deeper reflection about the real and intended meaning, operationalization, and application of these two terms, and a reliance on the central values of our field. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.