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Sample records for positive pregnancy test

  1. Letter: California's position on pregnancy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, G C

    1976-07-01

    The dangers of do-it-yourself pregnancy testing have been recognized in California resulting in the passing of legislation. Pregnancy is a c ondition which requires skill, medical assistance, and occasionally inte rvention or objective counseling. There are 4 arguments against do-it-y ourself testing: 1) it may be inaccurate or inexpertly done, 2) reagents can be hazardous to the health of users or small children, 3) it fails to save money because confirmation by health professionals is usually required, and 4) the individual may not have access to appropriate healt h care resources. California counties have been providing an increasing volume of tests that have served to encourage earlier prenatal care, earlier and safer pregnancy termination, or attendance at family planning clinics. The success of this program warrants implementation by other state governments.

  2. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-11-19

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of ..beta..-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment.

  3. Heterophilic antibodies interfering with radioimmunoassay. A false-positive pregnancy test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladutiu, A.O.; Sulewski, J.M.; Pudlak, K.A.; Stull, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    A young woman with amenorrhea had a consistently positive pregnancy test result (serum radioimmunoassay measurement of #betta#-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone). No fetal or placental tissue was found after uterine curettage and exploratory laparotomy. The false-positive pregnancy test result was due to heterophilic antibovine and antigoat antibodies in the patient's serum. These antibodies interfered with radioimmunoassays using goat antibodies. This case shows that serum heterophilic antibodies can interfere with immunoassays and result in unnecessary diagnostic procedures and/or unnecessary treatment

  4. Outcome in clients with positive pregnancy test following IVF/ICSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A retrospective analysis of the outcome of all patients who have recorded a positive pregnancy test following IVF/ICSI treatment from June 1999 to December 2002 was done. Materials and Methods: A total of 1256 treatment cycles were carried out using the long day 1 (early follicular phase) or day 21 ...

  5. Testing HIV positive in pregnancy: A phenomenological study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingen-Stallard, Andrew; Furber, Christine; Lavender, Tina

    2016-04-01

    globally women receive HIV testing in pregnancy; however, limited information is available on their experiences of this potentially life-changing event. This study aims to explore women's experiences of receiving a positive HIV test result following antenatal screening. a qualitative, phenomenological approach. two public National Health Service (NHS) hospitals and HIV support organisations. a purposive sampling strategy was used. Thirteen black African women with a positive HIV result, in England, participated. data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews. An interpretive phenomenological approach to data analysis was used. the emergent phenomenon was transition and transformation of 'being,' as women accepted HIV as part of their lives. Paired themes support the phenomenon: shock and disbelief; anger and turmoil; stigma and confidentiality issues; acceptance and resilience. Women had extreme reactions to their positive HIV diagnosis, compounded by the cultural belief that they would die. Initial disbelief of the unexpected result developed into sadness at the loss of their old self. Turmoil was evident, as women considered termination of pregnancy, self-harm and suicide. Women felt isolated from others and relationship breakdowns often occurred. Most reported the pervasiveness of stigma, and how this was managed alongside living with HIV. Coping strategies included keeping HIV 'secret' and making their child(ren) the prime focus of life. Growing resilience was apparent with time. this study gives midwives unique understanding of the complexities and major implications for women who tested positive for HIV. Women's experiences resonated with processes of bereavement, providing useful insight into a transitional and transformational period, during which appropriate support can be targeted. midwives are crucial in improving the experience of women when they test HIV positive and to do this they need to be appropriately trained. Midwives need to

  6. Positive results of serological tests for syphilis in pregnancy – diagnostic and therapeutic problems, report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Koper; Agnieszka B. Serwin; Anna Baran; Iwona Flisiak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Undiagnosed and untreated syphilis in pregnancy may result in subsequent complications: early fetal loss, stillbirth, low birth weight of infants and newborns with congenital syphilis. Objective. To analyze diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas of positive results of serological tests for syphilis (STS) in pregnancy. Case reports. We present two cases of pregnant women, hospitalized in our department due to positive results of serological tests for syphilis, pe...

  7. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  8. Positive results of serological tests for syphilis in pregnancy – diagnostic and therapeutic problems, report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Koper

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Undiagnosed and untreated syphilis in pregnancy may result in subsequent complications: early fetal loss, stillbirth, low birth weight of infants and newborns with congenital syphilis. Objective. To analyze diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas of positive results of serological tests for syphilis (STS in pregnancy. Case reports. We present two cases of pregnant women, hospitalized in our department due to positive results of serological tests for syphilis, performed during the antenatal visit. On the basis of patients' history, physical examination and STS results, early latent syphilis was diagnosed in the first patient; biological false positive reactions were considered in the second one. Both patients received procaine penicillin treatment. Conclusions. Screening for syphilis in pregnancy as a part of antenatal care and appropriate treatment with penicillin are the most effective interventions to prevent complications of syphilis in pregnancy. It is also important to adapt modern European Guidelines for management of syphilis to Polish conditions.

  9. False-positive pregnancy test after transfusion of solvent/detergent-treated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Wreford-Bush, Tim; Mills, Francesca; Davidson, Fiona; Kursten, Friedrich W; Jilma, Bernd; Birchall, Janet

    2017-12-01

    The transmission of pathogens, antibodies, and proteins is a possible consequence of blood product transfusion. A female patient had an unexpected positive serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin result, indicative of pregnancy, after she had received a transfusion with 1 unit of platelet concentrate, 4 units of red blood cells, and 4 units of pooled solvent/detergent-treated plasma (Octaplas). To investigate the possibility of passive transfusion of β-human chorionic gonadotropin from the plasma transfusion, one additional unit from the same batch was thawed and analyzed. To validate the β-human chorionic gonadotropin assay for use in solvent/detergent-treated plasma and to investigate any interference in the assay, dilution experiments were performed using the implicated plasma batch diluted with male and non-pregnant female sera. Also, plasma from a known pregnant woman was diluted with Octaplas (tested negative for β-human chorionic gonadotropin) and with a male serum to validate the assay for use in solvent/detergent-treated plasma. The implicated solvent/detergent-treated plasma had a mean β-human chorionic gonadotropin level of 91.5 mIU/mL. Results from the dilution experiments revealed an excellent correlation (r > 0.99) between β-human chorionic gonadotropin measurement in solvent/detergent-treated plasma and male serum and no over or under recovery of the expected results. Further measurements of β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels in the female recipient revealed an estimated half-life of 6 hours. This case demonstrates the importance of considering the possibility of passive transmission of analytes to a patient from the transfusion of blood products. Furthermore, the measurement of β-human chorionic gonadotropin is valid in solvent/detergent-treated plasma using a Roche Cobas analyzer. © 2017 AABB.

  10. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  11. Unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples receiving integrated HIV counseling, testing, and family planning services in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Haddad, Lisa; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users were determined via multivariate Cox modeling. The highest rates of unintended pregnancy were observed among couples requesting condoms only (26.4/100CY) or OCPs (20.7/100CY); these rates were not significantly different. OCP users accounted for 37% of the couple-years (CY) observed and 87% of unintended pregnancies. Rates of unintended pregnancy for injectable (0.7/100CY) and intrauterine device (1.6/100CY) users were significantly lower relative to condom only users. No pregnancies occurred among contraceptive implant users or after tubal ligation. Factors associated (psex without a condom. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods were effective in the context of integrated couples HIV prevention and contraceptive services. Injectable methods were also effective in this context. Given the high user failure rate of OCPs, family planning efforts should promote longer-acting methods among OCP users wishing to avoid pregnancy. Where other methods are not available or acceptable, OCP adherence counseling is needed, especially among younger and new OCP users. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00067522.

  12. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive. PMID:17273329

  13. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive.

  14. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to long-term HIV care and treatment services: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura; Grant, Alison D; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Kahawita, Tanya; Ong'ech, John O; Ross, David A

    2012-05-01

    To quantify attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services in low- or middle-income countries and to explore the reasons underlying client drop-out by synthesising current literature on this topic. A systematic search in Medline, EMBASE, Global Health and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences of literature published 2000-2010. Only studies meeting pre-defined quality criteria were included. Of 2543 articles retrieved, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen (80%) drew on data from sub-Saharan Africa. The pathway between testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV-related services is complex, and attrition was usually high. There was a failure to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among 38-88% of known-eligible women. Providing 'family-focused care', and integrating CD4 testing and HAART provision into prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services appear promising for increasing women's uptake of HIV-related services. Individual-level factors that need to be addressed include financial constraints and fear of stigma. Too few women negotiate the many steps between testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing HIV-related services for themselves. Recent efforts to stem patient drop-out, such as the MTCT-Plus Initiative, hold promise. Addressing barriers and enabling factors both within health facilities and at the levels of the individual woman, her family and society will be essential to improve the uptake of services. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to HIV care and treatment services in Kenya: a mixed methods prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    Full Text Available There has been insufficient attention to long-term care and treatment for pregnant women diagnosed with HIV.This prospective cohort study of 100 HIV-positive women recruited within pregnancy-related services in a district hospital in Kenya employed quantitative methods to assess attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services. Qualitative methods were used to explore barriers and facilitators to navigating these services. Structured questionnaires were administered to cohort participants at enrolment and 90+ days later. Participants' medical records were monitored prospectively. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a sub-set of 19 participants.Only 53/100 (53% women registered at an HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis, of whom 27/53 (51% had a CD4 count result in their file. 11/27 (41% women were eligible for immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART; only 6/11 (55% started ART during study follow-up. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with registration at the HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis were: having cared for someone with HIV (aOR:3.67(95%CI:1.22, 11.09, not having to pay for transport to the hospital (aOR:2.73(95%CI:1.09, 6.84, and having received enough information to decide to have an HIV test (aOR:3.61(95%CI:0.83, 15.71. Qualitative data revealed multiple factors underlying high patient drop-out related to women's social support networks (e.g. partner's attitude to HIV status, interactions with health workers (e.g. being given unclear/incorrect HIV-related information and health services characteristics (e.g. restricted opening hours, long waiting times.HIV testing within pregnancy-related services is an important entry point to HIV care and treatment services, but few women successfully completed the steps needed for assessment of their treatment needs within three months of diagnosis

  16. Routine Tests in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... given to prevent an Rh-negative person’s antibody response to Rh-positive blood cells. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs): Infections that are spread by sexual contact, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus infection, herpes, syphilis, and infection with human ...

  17. Study protocol for the optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial of Positive Choices: a school-based social marketing intervention to promote sexual health, prevent unintended teenage pregnancies and address health inequalities in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Ruth; Allen, Elizabeth; Campbell, Rona; Elbourne, Diana; Hadley, Alison; Lohan, Maria; Melendez-Torres, G J; Mercer, Catherine H; Morris, Steve; Young, Honor; Bonell, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (TPS), England's under-18 conception rate has fallen by 55%, but a continued focus on prevention is needed to maintain and accelerate progress. The teenage birth rate remains higher in the UK than comparable Western European countries. Previous trials indicate that school-based social marketing interventions are a promising approach to addressing teenage pregnancy and improving sexual health. Such interventions are yet to be trialled in the UK. This study aims to optimise and establish the feasibility and acceptability of one such intervention: Positive Choices. Design: Optimisation, feasibility testing and pilot cluster randomised trial.Interventions: The Positive Choices intervention comprises a student needs survey, a student/staff led School Health Promotion Council (SHPC), a classroom curriculum for year nine students covering social and emotional skills and sex education, student-led social marketing activities, parent information and a review of school sexual health services.Systematic optimisation of Positive Choices will be carried out with the National Children's Bureau Sex Education Forum (NCB SEF), one state secondary school in England and other youth and policy stakeholders.Feasibility testing will involve the same state secondary school and will assess progression criteria to advance to the pilot cluster RCT.Pilot cluster RCT with integral process evaluation will involve six different state secondary schools (four interventions and two controls) and will assess the feasibility and utility of progressing to a full effectiveness trial.The following outcome measures will be trialled as part of the pilot:Self-reported pregnancy and unintended pregnancy (initiation of pregnancy for boys) and sexually transmitted infections,Age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, use of contraception at first and last sex and non-volitional sexEducational attainmentThe feasibility of linking administrative

  18. Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Pregnancy Desires among HIV Positive Women in Sibande District in Mpumalanga, South Africa. ... Gender and Behaviour ... The objective of the study is to present findings on factors influencing pregnancy desires amongst HIV positive women that have participated in Prevention of Mother to child ...

  19. hCG Test (Pregnancy Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search hCG Pregnancy Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ...

  20. High risk pregnancy in the workplace. Influencing positive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, R B; Schmidt, J V; Cambardella, B; Browne, S E

    2000-09-01

    Childbearing employees are well served by the occupational health nurse who promotes optimal preconceptual and pregnancy health practices, uses community resources, and maintains current knowledge about high risk pregnancy prevention and care. These broad goals of care can lead to decreased absenteeism, healthier and happier employees, and more positive outcomes of pregnancy. For employees with high risk pregnancies, the role of the occupational health nurse includes, but is not limited to, facilitating awareness with the employer, making suggestions for adjusting working conditions, making frequent assessments of the employee's needs, and communicating with prenatal health care providers. Occupational health nurses should never underestimate their role and potential influence on the mother, and on her significant other, for a positive outcome of her pregnancy.

  1. The uriscreen test to detect significant asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teppa, Roberto J; Roberts, James M

    2005-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) occurs in 2-11% of pregnancies and it is a clear predisposition to the development of acute pyelonephritis, which, in turn, poses risk to mother and fetus. Treatment of bacteriuria during pregnancy reduces the incidence of pyelonephritis. Therefore, it is recommended to screen for ASB at the first prenatal visit. The gold standard for detection of bacteriuria during pregnancy is urine culture, but this test is expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. To determine the reliability of an enzymatic urine screening test (Uriscreen; Savyon Diagnostics, Ashdod, Israel) for detecting ASB in pregnancy. Catheterized urine samples were collected from 150 women who had routine prenatal screening for ASB. Patients with urinary symptoms, active vaginal bleeding, or who were previously on antibiotics therapy were excluded from the study. Sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values for the Uriscreen were estimated using urine culture as the criterion standard. Urine cultures were considered positive if they grew >10(5) colony-forming units of a single uropathogen. Twenty-eight women (18.7%) had urine culture results indicating significant bacteriuria, and 17 of these 28 specimens had positive enzyme activity. Of 122 samples with no growth, 109 had negative enzyme activity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the Uriscreen test were 60.7% (+/-18.1), 89.3% (+/-5.6), 56.6%, and 90.8%, respectively. The Uriscreen test had inadequate sensitivity for rapid screening of bacteriuria in pregnancy.

  2. Chemical Pathology Laboratory Tests in Pregnancy | Bolarin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, chemical pathology laboratory investigative test results during normal healthy pregnancy show significant differences from the normal reference intervals or ranges (i.e. non-pregnant woman's reference intervals or ranges) thereby causing misinterpretation as inappropriate or odd. This wrong interpretation of the ...

  3. Admission Test and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Akhavan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The admission test (AT has been carried out for many years, but there are still debates about the prognostic value of the test. Therefore, we aimed to examine the value of the AT in predicting the adverse outcome in neonates. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 425 pregnant women with normal vaginal delivery were studied between2009 and 2014at Vali-e-Asr Hospital. Based on the results, the women were divided into 2groups of normal and abnormal ATs. All the patients were followed up until the birth of their baby, when the status of mother and neonate was determined. The main outcomes of the study were cesarean rate, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission, fetus demise, neonatal acidosis, and Apgar score. The independent t-test, chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17. Results: Of 425 pregnant women studied, 142 (33.4% had abnormal ATs with a mean age of 29 (±4.5 years. Multivariate analysis showed that an abnormal AT was able to predict the incidence of cesarean section, intrauterine growth restriction, turned cord, and Apgar<7, but it could not predict neonatal death and hypoxia. Conclusion: The AT was shown to be a useful screening test with risk factors such as oligohydramnios, bloody amniotic fluid, meconium amniotic fluid, intrauterine growth restriction, and turned cord. Additionally, the test was also able to predict NICU admission and the need for cesarean section, but it could not predict the occurrence of neonatal death.

  4. The radioimmunoassay of a pregnancy specific-β1-glycoprotein in plasma as a pregnancy test for subfertile women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, F.; Masson, G.M.; Wood, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    A pregnancy specific-β 1 -glycoprotein (SP 1 ) radioimmunoassay was used to monitor 72 menstrual cycles of 38 apparently subfertile women who were trying to become pregnant. Blood samples were taken up to day 42 from the start of the previous menstrual cycle. Using serum SP 1 levels greater than 6 μg/l as indicative of pregnancy, 16 positive results were obtained of which 11 were later confirmed by a human chorionic gonadotrophin haemagglutination pregnancy test. Three of the five women whose pregnancies were not confirmed had a subsequent history of spontaneous abortion. (author)

  5. Ovarian pregnancy in an HIV positive patient: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian pregnancy in an HIV positive patient: Case report. A Mohammed, AG Adesiyun, AA Mayun, CA Ameh. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  6. Pregnancy, Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes in HIV Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the effect of HIV infection on some maternal outcomes is well established, for some others there is conflicting information on possible association with HIV. In this study we investigated pregnancy and neonatal outcome of HIV positive women in large HIV treatment centre over a period of 84 months. They were ...

  7. The false positive exercise test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Kohshiro; Matsuda, Yasuo; Ozaki, Masaharu; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ichiyama, Masaji; Matsuda, Masako; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1986-01-01

    Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed on 7 patients with true positive and 8 patients with false positive exercise test results. Four of 7 patients with true positive changes and 8 patients with false positive changes underwent exercise cardiac scintigraphy. Scintigrams showed perfusion defects in 4 patients with true positive outcomes, and no perfusion defect in 8 patients with false positive outcomes. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed with the same load as that without nitroglycerin. In all 7 patients with true positive exercise test results, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test was not observed in the nitroglycerin exercise test. In the false positive patients, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test remained unchanged in 7 of 8 patients receiving nitroglycerin. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin as well as exercise cardiac scintigraphy are valuable tods in differentiating false positive from true positive patients. Furthermore, these data suggest that ST segment depression in the false positive patients may not be related to myocardial ischemia. (author)

  8. Pregnancy presenting as hyperthyroidism with negative urine pregnancy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Rita; Deepak, Desh; Ghosh, Gopal Chandra; Gupta, Mamta

    2014-05-20

    A 22-year-old lactating mother presented with symptoms of uneasiness, palpitation, tachycardia and exophthalmos. She had an abdominal lump suggestive of 26 weeks uterine size but her urine pregnancy test was negative. Her thyroid profile was suggestive of hyperthyroidism. Gynaecological and ultrasonographic findings revealed a hydatidiform mole. She had a low β-human chorionic gonadotropin level that surprisingly increased after suction and evacuation. The paradoxical findings that appeared as erroneous laboratory results could be explained by the 'high-dose hook effect' after a review of literature. One week after the evacuation, the patient's thyroid profile and symptoms resolved completely without any treatment for hyperthyroidism. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Is routine pregnancy test necessary in women of reproductive age admitted to the emergency department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Ozlem; Ozdemir, Fatma; Armağan, Erol; Oner, Nuran; Sert, Pınar Çinar; Sigirli, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the necessity of pregnancy test in women of reproductive age admitted to emergency department (ED) in routine practice. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who presented to the ED between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2010 and received a pregnancy test. The median age of 1 586 patients enrolled into the study was 27 years. Of these patients, 19.55% had a positive result of pregnancy test. The most common complaint at admission was abdominal pain in 60.15% of the patients, and pregnancy test was prescribed. 15.83% of the patients with abdominal pain had a positive result of pregnancy test. Of the patients, 30.64% had nausea-vomiting at admission, and 11.52% had a positive result of pregnancy test. When other complaints were considered, the most commonly observed complaints were non-specific symptoms such as dizziness, malaise and respiratory problems. Of the patients, 70.93% were not remembering the date of last menstruation, and 9.51% showed a positive result of pregnancy test. Urinary tract infection (UTI) was commonly diagnosed with an incidence of 17.65%, which was followed by non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP) (16.77%) and gastrointestinal disorders such as gastritis and peptic ulcer (6.87%). Of the patients, 88.40% were discharged from ED, and 11.60% were hospitalized. Pregnancy test should be given to women of reproductive age as a routine practice in ED in developing countries like Turkey.

  10. Zika Virus Testing and Outcomes during Pregnancy, Florida, USA, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Colette; Starker, Rebecca; Kwal, Jaclyn; Bartlett, Michelle; Crane, Anise; Greissman, Samantha; Gunaratne, Naiomi; Lardy, Meghan; Picon, Michelle; Rodriguez, Patricia; Gonzalez, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can lead to congenital Zika syndrome. Implementation of screening programs and interpretation of test results can be particularly challenging during ongoing local mosquitoborne transmission. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 2,327 pregnant women screened for Zika virus in Miami–Dade County, Florida, USA, during 2016. Of these, 86 had laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection; we describe 2 infants with probable congenital Zika syndrome. Delays in receipt of laboratory test results (median 42 days) occurred during the first month of local transmission. Odds of screening positive for Zika virus were higher for women without health insurance or who did not speak English. Our findings indicate the increase in screening for Zika virus can overwhelm hospital and public health systems, resulting in delayed receipt of results of screening and confirmatory tests and the potential to miss cases or delay diagnoses. PMID:29260671

  11. Clinical experience from Thailand noninvasive prenatal testing as screening tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in 4736 pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manotaya, S.; Xu, H.; Uerpairojkit, B.

    2016-01-01

    -risk pregnancies, either with advanced maternal age or positive serum biochemical tests, and 1889 low-risk pregnancies without conventional indications; 99.9% (4732/4736) of the participants with a median maternal age of 35years old received reports, and 1.3% (63/4732) were classified as test positive, including...... testing (NIPT) has enabled efficient and accurate screening for T21, T18 and T13. Various professional societies suggested that NIPT could be considered as a second-tier screening test for women at high risk for aneuploidy. What does this study add? This study reports the performance of NIPT...

  12. Current problems regarding abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajn-Tatić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    the decision is exclusively brought by the pregnant woman. Critics of prenatal genetic testing claim that the woman’s autonomous choice is seriously prejudiced, as the women are pressured first with genetic testing and then with abortion, if the test is positive. However, there are views that many parents are left to bring their decisions in a vacuum because the physicians do not discuss all possible available options with them out of fear that they will be perceived as orders. Genetic counseling has an aim to facilitate informed reproductive decisions. Rigid application of policies on non-directive genetic counseling make pregnant women and families unaware of the nature and consequences of the genetic state which could affect the future child. If the real goal is an informed choice then it is the obligation of the physician-specialist to inform the parents with the facts and familiarize them with the true state. Managing pregnancies today medicalizes and pathologizes all pregnancies, and not only the risky ones. Since these techniques are becoming a routine part of medicalized pregnancy managing, pregnant women find it difficult to resist undertaking such technologies or to refuse them. Thus the question on how much these technologies offer sensible choices is imposed. Generally speaking, it is stated that women are becoming observers rather than active participants in giving birth to a new life. Attempts of legal control over a pregnant woman for the protection of "the life of the fetus" violate the woman’s human rights in democratic societies.

  13. The value of a registry negative urine pregnancy test for the prediction of a future unintended pregnancy among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina; Rottenstreich, Amihai

    2018-05-15

    Performance of urine pregnancy test in general adolescents' clinic reflects caregiver or woman's concern that there might be a pregnancy. We aimed to assess whether young-unmarried women in whom a negative urine pregnancy test was registered would be at increased risk of a future unintended pregnancy. The study cohort included consecutive women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015. The risk of unintended pregnancy was compared between women with a negative urine pregnancy test (n = 2774), the study group, and those in whom urine pregnancy test was not carried out (n = 126,659), the control group. During the study period, 2147 (1.7%) women experienced an unintended pregnancy. The risk of unintended pregnancy was significantly higher in patients in whom a past pregnancy test was negative 4.3% (n = 118), as compared with the control group 1.6% (n = 2028) (odds ratio [OR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.23-3.26). In multivariate analysis history of a negative pregnancy test results was an independent predictor for a future unintended pregnancy (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.63-2.52). A history of a negative pregnancy test among young conscripted women is a significant risk indicator for a future unintended pregnancy. Directed efforts should be made in this particular vulnerable group of patients.

  14. Pregnancy Outcomes in Booked HIV Positive Women Initiating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa which bears the highest burden of the disease. To evaluate pregnancy outcomes in booked preg-nant women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) at the University of Ilorin Teach-ing Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Nigeria; ...

  15. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  16. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  17. New methods of pregnancy testing in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, B B

    1981-05-01

    The knowledge and use of newer, more sensitive, and reliable pregnancy tests which are easily accessible and of moderate cost are the 1st steps in the early diagnosis and management of pregnancy, especially in adolescent girls. Accurate diagnosis of pregnancy soon after conception offers the option of abortion by simple, effective, and inexpensive procedures or early initiation of prenatal maternity care. Discussion focuses on the symptoms of pregnancy and the historical development and basis of pregnancy tests as well as the specific types of pregnancy tests. The most familiar sign of pregnancy is the missed period. Other symptoms that provide presumptive evidence of pregnancy include fatigue and lassitude, increased body temperature, and breast fullness or pain. Feelings of nausea, vomiting, and weight gain may appear after 2 weeks. The diagnosis of pregnancy by the detection of the human chorionic gonadotropin was initially described 53 years ago by Selmar Aschheim and Bernhardt Zondek. Improvements in the techniques for the measurement of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) have been directly related to the progress in the purification and isolation of hCG and elucidation of the amino acid sequence of the hormone-nonspecific alpha subunit and hormone-specific beta subunit of hCG. The history, physical examination, and pregnancy tests will generally provide sufficient information for a definite diagnosis of pregnancy. The presence of hCG in the urine or blood is the most accurate of all the indications of pregnancy. During the last century, 4 different techniques for the determination of hCG in blood and/or urine have been developed. These include the following and are reviewed in detail: 1) bioassays in intact laboratory animals; 2) immunologic tube or slide methods with heme- or latex-agglutination inhibition, as well as the more recently developed competitive protein binding method such as 3) radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the use of radioisotope labeled hormone

  18. Positive pregnancy outcomes in Mexican immigrants: what can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robin L

    2004-01-01

    To provide an integrated review of the literature of potential explanations for better than expected pregnancy outcomes in Mexican immigrants, focusing on socioeconomics, social support, desirability of pregnancy, nutrition, substance use, religion, acculturation, and prenatal care. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and CINAHL databases, as well as reference lists from published articles on low birth weight and prematurity in immigrants and acculturation in immigrants from January 1989 to December 2002. Search terms were Mexican immigrant women, childbearing, and pregnancy outcome, and only English-language articles were reviewed. Literature was selected from refereed publications in the areas of nursing, medicine, public health, family, and sociology. Data were extracted using keywords pertinent to pregnancy outcome in Mexican immigrants. Despite having many of the risk factors for poor pregnancy outcomes, Mexican immigrants have superior birth outcomes when compared to U.S.-born women. Social support, familism, healthy diet, limited use of cigarettes and alcohol, and religion may play a role in improved outcomes. The superior outcomes diminish with the process of acculturation as the individual adapts to her new culture. Low birth weight and prematurity are public health concerns in the United States. Through further study of the factors that lead to superior birth outcomes among Mexican immigrant women, rates of low birth weight and prematurity in the United States may be reduced.

  19. Pregnancy, Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes in HIV Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: Pregnancy, delivery, HIV, neonate, adverse outcome. Introduction. HIV-1 infection has remained a major public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting ... practice have greatly reduced both maternal deaths .... 2010 we reverted back to triple ARV .... between the two groups in the rates of obstetric.

  20. Teratology public affairs committee position paper: iodine deficiency in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obican, Sarah G; Jahnke, Gloria D; Soldin, Offie P; Scialli, Anthony R

    2012-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important nutritional deficiency, with more than 2 billion people worldwide estimated to be at risk. The developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. During pregnancy and lactation, iodine requirements increase, whether in iodine-poor or iodine-sufficient countries, making the mother and the developing fetus vulnerable. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) recommends 250 micrograms per day of iodine intake for pregnant and lactating women. The thyroid gland is able to adapt to the changes associated with pregnancy as long as sufficient iodine is present. Dietary intake is the sole source of iodine, which is essential to the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine is found in multiple dietary sources including iodized salt, dairy products, seaweed, and fish. Prenatal vitamins containing iodine are a good source of iodine, but iodine content in multivitamin supplements is highly variable. Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with cretinism. Clinical hypothyroidism has been associated with increased risk of poor perinatal outcome including prematurity, low birth weight, miscarriage, preeclampsia, fetal death, and impaired fetal neurocognitive development. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and potential fetal neurocognitive deficits, but the data are more variable than those for clinical hypothyroidism. We concur with the ATA recommendation that all pregnant and lactating women should ingest (through diet and supplements) 250 micrograms of iodine daily. To achieve this goal, we recommend that all pregnant and lactating women take daily iodine supplementation of 150 micrograms. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. What Tests Might I Need during Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the fetus is getting enough oxygen. Biophysical profile (BPP). This test, given in the third trimester of ... amniotic fluid to determine fetal well-being. The BPP includes an ultrasound test and a non-stress ...

  2. Position of the American Dietetic Association and American Society for Nutrition: obesity, reproduction, and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; King, Janet C

    2009-05-01

    Given the detrimental influence of maternal overweight and obesity on reproductive and pregnancy outcomes for the mother and child, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition that all overweight and obese women of reproductive age should receive counseling on the roles of diet and physical activity in reproductive health prior to pregnancy,during pregnancy, and in the inter conceptional period, in order to ameliorate these adverse outcomes. The effect of maternal nutritional status prior to pregnancy on reproduction and pregnancy outcomes is of great public health importance. Obesity in the United States and worldwide has grown to epidemic proportions, with an estimated 33% of US women classified as obese. This position paper has two objectives: (a) to help nutrition professionals become aware of the risks and possible complications of overweight and obesity for fertility,the course of pregnancy, birth outcomes, and short- and long-term maternal and child health outcomes;and (b) related to the commitment to research by the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition, to identify the gaps in research to improve our knowledge of the risks and complications associated with being overweight and obese before and during pregnancy.Only with an increased knowledge of these risks and complications can health care professionals develop effective strategies that can be implemented before and during pregnancy as well as during the inter conceptional period to ameliorate adverse outcomes.

  3. Teratology Public Affairs Committee position paper: maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialli, Anthony R

    2006-02-01

    Compared to normal-weight women, obese women have an increased risk of infertility and pregnancy complications. The most consistently described pregnancy complications are hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolic events, and cesarean section. Fetal and neonatal complications may include congenital malformations, macrosomia, and shoulder dystocia. The literature suggests that women with a body mass index (BMI) >or=30 have approximately double the risk of having a child with a neural tube defect (NTD) compared to normal-weight women, and the increased risk associated with higher maternal body weight does not appear to be modified by folic acid supplementation. The Public Affairs Committee of the Teratology Society supports the public health initiatives identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2004 and the research initiatives identified by the National Institutes of Health in 2004. The Public Affairs Committee recommends that clinicians counsel women about appropriate caloric intake and exercise and that health-care providers educate parents about appropriate childhood nutrition. Breast-feeding should be encouraged based on evidence of a protective effect against childhood obesity, as well as other health advantages. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Positive prenatal well-being: conceptualising and measuring mindfulness and gratitude in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Leary, Karen; Dockray, Samantha; Hammond, Sean

    2016-08-01

    Little research has examined the usefulness of positive well-being factors during pregnancy. Recent mindfulness research demonstrates that inconsistencies and the suitability of extant measures have yet to be examined in pregnancy. Effects of gratitude during pregnancy have yet to be examined despite consistently reported benefits in non-pregnant groups. The aims of this paper were to develop the Gratitude during Pregnancy (GDP) scale, validate the Mindfulness Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS) and examine the importance of gratitude and mindfulness during pregnancy. In study 1, 375 pregnant women completed gratitude and mindfulness measures. The one-factor structure of the MAAS was retained and demonstrated good reliability α = 0.88. Using exploratory factor analysis, an 18-item GDP scale was developed, demonstrating good reliability α = 0.89. The four GDP factors are as follows: general gratitude, physical changes, antenatal care and social support. In study 2, 87 pregnant women completed well-being questionnaires, including the GDP and MAAS. Gratitude correlated with positive affect, life satisfaction and pregnancy uplifts (p gratitude and provide a reliable means to measure both constructs during pregnancy.

  5. Predictors of pregnancy and changes in pregnancy incidence among HIV-positive women accessing HIV clinical care at 13 large UK clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HUNTINGTON, Susie E; THORNE, Claire; BANSI, Loveleen K; ANDERSON, Jane; NEWELL, Marie-Louise; TAYLOR, Graham P; PILLAY, Deenan; HILL, Teresa; TOOKEY, Pat A; SABIN, Caroline A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe predictors of pregnancy and changes in pregnancy incidence among HIV-positive women accessing HIV clinical care. Methods Data were obtained through the linkage of two separate studies; the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort study (UK CHIC), a cohort of adults attending 13 large HIV clinics, and the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC), a national surveillance study of HIV-positive pregnant women. Pregnancy incidence was measured using the proportion of women in UK CHIC with a pregnancy reported to NSHPC. Generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of pregnancy and assess changes in pregnancy incidence in 2000-2009. Results The number of women accessing care at UK CHIC sites increased as did the number of pregnancies (from 72 to 230). Older women were less likely to have a pregnancy (adjusted Relative Rate (aRR) 0.44 per 10 year increment in age [95% CI [0.41-0.46], ppregnancy increased over the study period (aRR 1.05 [1.03-1.07], ppregnancy rate among women accessing HIV clinical care increased in 2000-2009. HIV-positive women with, or planning, a pregnancy require a high level of care and this is likely to continue and increase as more women of older age have pregnancies. PMID:22713479

  6. Rapid radioimmunological test for HCG in normal and disturbed early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dericks-Tan, J.S.E.; Taubert, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of a rapid radioimmunological test for HCG in serum showed that this method is as suitable as conventional radioimmunoassay or receptor methods in the diagnosis of normal and disturbed early pregnancy. Using a direct immunosorbent method total time requirements for the estimation could be reduced to half a working day. Sera of 314 women with normal pregnancies showed an exponential increase of HCG concentrations in serum during the first 8 weeks and thereafter steady levels for several weeks. As the anti-HCG serum used has only a slight cross reactivity with LH, false-positive results need hardly be expected in states if high LH levels in serum (menopause, polycystic ovaries, preovulatory LH peak). HCG concentrations in serum were clearly diminished in all pregnancies ending in abortion and in nearly all extrauterine pregnancies. Repeated estimations in early pregnancy enable a diagnosis of ectopic or disturbed intrauterine pregnancy to be made before symptoms of rupture, haemorrhage and similar complications occur. (orig.) [de

  7. Positional plagiocephaly and excessive folic acid intake during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Michels (Alice); M.E.P. van den Elzen (Marijke); J.S.H. Vles (Johannes); R. van der Hulst (Rene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To assess the relationship between high intake of folic acid and positional plagiocephaly. Design: Retrospective case-control study with questionnaires administered in the clinic to biological mothers of children with positional plagiocephaly (PP group) and mothers of children

  8. [Pilot tests using molecular diagnostic assay cervicovaginal infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Montoya, J; Escudero-Gontes, S; Martínez-Huerta, N E; Ávila-Vergara, M A; Morales-Hernández, V; Canchola-Sotelo, C; Palacios-González, B; Vadillo-Ortega, F

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of cervicovaginal infections during pregnancy has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes however, the actual approach used for diagnosis is not effective. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnosis of vaginal infections in pregnant women using clinical, molecular diagnostic and traditional microbiological culture in a pilot study, to determine the prevalence and association with the development of preterm labor. We performed a nested cross-sectional study composed by 54 women in a cohort of pregnant women in Mexico City. Cervicovaginal infections were evaluated by clinical methods, microbiology culture and a commercially available molecular biology test. Prevalence of cervicovaginal infections during pregnancy was estimated between 28% and 50% according to methodologies. Considering the clinical diagnosis of preterm labor as the gold standard, all diagnostic tests were poor as predictors of preterm labor. Traditional approaches to establish the significance of cervicovaginal infection in pregnancy are exhausted, so be sought new ways to understand this complex relationship. Meanwhile it is recommended to continue to use traditional methods to identify infections during pregnancy in both knowledge of new methods aimed at understanding these relationships are sophisticated.

  9. Unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezugwu, Euzebus C; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Nkwo, Peter O; Ezegwui, Hygenius U; Akabueze, Jude C; Agu, Polycap U

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive pregnant women in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was performed of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving prenatal care at two tertiary health institutions in Enugu between March 1 and August 31, 2012. The women were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Overall, 180 HIV-positive pregnant women were recruited, 67 (37.2%) of whom declared that their pregnancy was unintended. Overall, 174 (96.7%) patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy and 99 (55.0%) had future fertility intensions. Participants with regular partners (married or cohabiting) had a significantly higher rate of unintended pregnancy than those with unstable partners (40.3%, n=64/159 vs 14.3%, n=3/21 P=0.029). Age, parity, educational level, and current treatment with antiretroviral therapy did not significantly affect the prevalence of unintended pregnancy. A substantial number of HIV-positive pregnant women declared their pregnancies to be unintended. Modern contraceptives should be made readily available and accessible to HIV-positive women to help eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and subsequent new pediatric HIV infections. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Patients: Effects on Vaginal Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vallone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high proportion of HIV-infected pregnant women present pathogenic organisms in their lower genital tract. This has been associated with the development of postpartum morbility, HIV transmission to the partner and offspring, and other gynaecological conditions, such as cervical dysplasia or cancer. Vaginal flora alterations can range from 47% in Western countries to 89% in Africa in pregnant HIV-positive patients, much higher than about 20% of the general population. Pathogen organism retrieval is high. As peripartum complications due to vaginal infections seem higher in HIV-positive patients, accurate investigation and treatment of such infections are strongly mandatory.

  11. A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChausse, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    To determine the impact of Positive Prevention PLUS, a school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention program on delaying sexual intercourse, birth control use, and pregnancy. I randomly assigned a diverse sample of ninth grade students in 21 suburban public high schools in California into treatment (n = 2483) and control (n = 1784) groups that participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Between October 2013 and May 2014, participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys regarding sexual behavior and pregnancy. Participants in the treatment group were offered Positive Prevention PLUS, an 11-lesson adolescent pregnancy prevention program. The program had statistically significant impacts on delaying sexual intercourse and increasing the use of birth control. However, I detected no program effect on pregnancy rates at 6-month follow-up. The Positive Prevention PLUS program demonstrated positive impacts on adolescent sexual behavior. This suggests that programs that focus on having students practice risk reduction skills may delay sexual activity and increase birth control use.

  12. Barriers for HIV testing during pregnancy in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Rosa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess HIV testing rate and determine risk factors for not have been tested during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, from December 2000 to February 2001. Socioeconomic, maternal and healthcare variables were obtained by means of a standardized questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were obtained in logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 1,642 mothers were interviewed. Of them, 94.3% reported being offered HIV testing before or during pregnancy or during labor; 89 mothers (5.4% were not tested or did not know if they were tested. Attending fewer than six prenatal visits, being single and younger than 18 years old were relevant barriers preventing HIV testing. There was found a relationship between maternal schooling and the category of prenatal care provider. Having low 22.20 (12.43-39.67 or high 3.38 (1.86-7.68. schooling and being cared in the private sector strongly reduced the likelihood of being HIV tested. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Health Ministry's recommendation for universal counseling and HIV testing has been successfully implemented in the public sector. In order to improve HIV testing coverage, new strategies need to target women cared in the private sector especially those of low schooling.

  13. Barriers for HIV testing during pregnancy in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Humberto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess HIV testing rate and determine risk factors for not have been tested during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, from December 2000 to February 2001. Socioeconomic, maternal and healthcare variables were obtained by means of a standardized questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were obtained in logistic regression models. RESULTS: A total of 1,642 mothers were interviewed. Of them, 94.3% reported being offered HIV testing before or during pregnancy or during labor; 89 mothers (5.4% were not tested or did not know if they were tested. Attending fewer than six prenatal visits, being single and younger than 18 years old were relevant barriers preventing HIV testing. There was found a relationship between maternal schooling and the category of prenatal care provider. Having low 22.20 (12.43-39.67 or high 3.38 (1.86-7.68. schooling and being cared in the private sector strongly reduced the likelihood of being HIV tested. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Health Ministry's recommendation for universal counseling and HIV testing has been successfully implemented in the public sector. In order to improve HIV testing coverage, new strategies need to target women cared in the private sector especially those of low schooling.

  14. Dolutegravir in pregnancy-effects on HIV-positive women and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhede, Riikka; Soeria-Atmadja, Sandra; Westling, Katarina; Pettersson, Karin; Navér, Lars

    2018-03-01

    The development of new drugs for treatment of HIV has increased the efficacy and the quality of life together with decreased unwanted side-effect for people living with HIV. The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir has in short time become part of the first-line treatment in many countries, but is not a recommended first-line drug in pregnancy. As there are few publications of dolutegravir use during pregnancy, we found it valuable to analyze the Stockholm pregnancy cohort. A retrospective analysis of all pregnant women and their infants exposed to dolutegravir at Karolinska University Hospital, 2014-August 2017. Information about maternal health, treatment, pregnancy, and child outcome were collected. Thirty-six women with singleton pregnancies were included. Four early spontaneous abortions occurred. One late termination was performed and one was lost to follow-up. Fourteen were on dolutegravir before and 22 started during pregnancy. Eighteen delivered by caesarean section, three of them because of HIV RNA > 50 copies/mL. The preeclampsia rate and the maternal liver function were normal. One infant was delivered in GW 34 on maternal indication and the rest in full term. No gross malformations were noted. All infants received antiretroviral prophylaxis and have tested negative on follow-up. No increased maternal or infant morbidity was detected in this retrospective study of dolutegravir during pregnancy. This is so far one of the largest observational studies of dolutegravir treatment during pregnancy, but the number is indeed small, and further studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy.

  15. "Hook-like effect" causes false-negative point-of-care urine pregnancy testing in emergency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Richard T; Trent, Caleb J; Bavolek, Rebecca A; Keeperman, Jacob B; Sampson, Christopher; Poirier, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency department (ED) can have important consequences. Urine human chorionic gonadotropin (uhCG) point-of-care (POC) assays are valued for rapidly detecting early pregnancy with high sensitivity. However, under certain conditions, POC uhCG tests can fail to detect pregnancy. In investigating a series of late first-trimester false-negative pregnancy tests in our ED, a novel and distinct causative phenomenon was recently elucidated in our institution. We discuss uhCG POC tests, review our false-negative rate, and describe mechanisms for false negatives and potential remedies. The false-negative POC uhCG rate is very low, but in the setting of a large volume of tests, the numbers are worth consideration. In positive uhCG POC tests, free and fixed antibodies bind hCG to form a "sandwich"; hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. When in excess, intact hCG can saturate the antibodies, preventing sandwich formation (hook effect phenomenon). Some assays may include an antibody that does not recognize certain variants present in later stages of pregnancy. When this variant is in excess, it can bind one antibody avidly and the other not at all, resulting in a false-negative test (hook-like phenomenon). In both situations, dilution is key to an accurate test. Manufacturers should consider that uhCG tests are routinely used at many stages of pregnancy. Characterizing uhCG variants recognized by their tests and eliminating lot-to-lot variability may help improve uhCG test performance. Clinicians need to be aware of and familiarize themselves with the limitations of the specific type of uhCG POC tests used in their practice, recognizing that under certain circumstances, false-negative tests can occur. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and hea...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  17. Effects of Pregnancy on the Army Physical Fitness Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usher, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual and perceived amount of time needed for the postpartum soldier to return to pre-pregnancy fitness condition as evidenced by APFT scores before and after pregnancy...

  18. Using two on-going HIV studies to obtain clinical data from before, during and after pregnancy for HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huntington Susie E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC is an observational study that collates data on HIV-positive adults accessing HIV clinical care at (currently 13 large clinics in the UK but does not collect pregnancy specific data. The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC collates data on HIV-positive women receiving antenatal care from every maternity unit in the UK and Ireland. Both studies collate pseudonymised data and neither dataset contains unique patient identifiers. A methodology was developed to find and match records for women reported to both studies thereby obtaining clinical and treatment data on pregnant HIV-positive women not available from either dataset alone. Results Women in UK CHIC receiving HIV-clinical care in 1996–2009, were found in the NSHPC dataset by initially ‘linking’ records with identical date-of-birth, linked records were then accepted as a genuine ‘match’, if they had further matching fields including CD4 test date. In total, 2063 women were found in both datasets, representing 23.1% of HIV-positive women with a pregnancy in the UK (n = 8932. Clinical data was available in UK CHIC following most pregnancies (92.0%, 2471/2685 pregnancies starting before 2009. There was bias towards matching women with repeat pregnancies (35.9% (741/2063 of women found in both datasets had a repeat pregnancy compared to 21.9% (1502/6869 of women in NSHPC only and matching women HIV diagnosed before their first reported pregnancy (54.8% (1131/2063 compared to 47.7% (3278/6869, respectively. Conclusions Through the use of demographic data and clinical dates, records from two independent studies were successfully matched, providing data not available from either study alone.

  19. Travel patterns during pregnancy: comparison between Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking and questionnaire data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Jiang, Chengsheng; Jaimes, Guillermo; Bartell, Scott; Dang, Andy; Baker, Dean; Delfino, Ralph J

    2013-10-09

    Maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposures to traffic-related air pollutants are strongly influenced by time spent near traffic. However, little is known about women's travel activities during pregnancy and whether questionnaire-based data can provide reliable information on travel patterns during pregnancy. Examine women's in-vehicle travel behavior during pregnancy and examine the difference in travel data collected by questionnaire and global positioning system (GPS) and their potential for exposure error. We measured work-related travel patterns in 56 pregnant women using a questionnaire and one-week GPS tracking three times during pregnancy (30 weeks of gestation). We compared self-reported activities with GPS-derived trip distance and duration, and examined potentially influential factors that may contribute to differences. We also described in-vehicle travel behavior by pregnancy periods and influences of demographic and personal factors on daily travel times. Finally, we estimated personal exposure to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PB-PAH) and examined the magnitude of exposure misclassification using self-reported vs. GPS travel data. Subjects overestimated both trip duration and trip distance compared to the GPS data. We observed moderately high correlations between self-reported and GPS-recorded travel distance (home to work trips: r = 0.88; work to home trips: r = 0.80). Better agreement was observed between the GPS and the self-reported travel time for home to work trips (r = 0.77) than work to home trips (r = 0.64). The subjects on average spent 69 and 93 minutes traveling in vehicles daily based on the GPS and self-reported data, respectively. Longer daily travel time was observed among participants in early pregnancy, and during certain pregnancy periods in women with higher education attainment, higher income, and no children. When comparing

  20. Repeat HIV testing during pregnancy and delivery: missed opportunities in a rural district hospital in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemelaar, Steffie; Habets, Nicole; Makukula, Ziche; van Roosmalen, Jos; van den Akker, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    To assess coverage of repeat HIV testing among women who delivered in a Zambian hospital. HIV testing of pregnant women and repeat testing every 3 months during pregnancy and breastfeeding is the recommended policy in areas of high HIV prevalence. A prospective implementation study in a second-level hospital in rural Zambia. Included were all pregnant women who delivered in hospital during May and June 2012. Data regarding antenatal visits and HIV testing were collected by two investigators using a standardised form. Of 401 women who delivered in hospital, sufficient antenatal data could be retrieved for 322 (80.3%) women. Of these 322 women, 301 (93.5%) had attended antenatal care (ANC) at least once. At the time of discharge after delivery in hospital, 171 (53.1%) had an unclear HIV status because their negative test result was more than 3 months ago or of an unknown date, or because they had not been tested at all during pregnancy or delivery. An updated HIV status was present for 151 (46.9%) women: 25 (7.8%) were HIV positive and 126 (39.1%) had tested negative within the last 3 months. In this last group, 79 (24.5%) had been tested twice or more during pregnancy. During the study period, none of the women was tested during admission for delivery. Despite high ANC coverage, opportunities for repeat HIV testing were missed in almost half of all women who delivered in this hospital in a high-prevalence HIV setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... current.html ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. (2013; Reaffirmed 2015). Committee Opinion No. 579. Definition of term pregnancy. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from ...

  2. Cooperative testing of a positive personnel identifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Grambihler, A.J.; Graham, D.K.; Bradley, R.G.

    1980-06-01

    HEDL has a requirement to ensure the identification of remote computer terminal operators on a real-time nuclear inventory data base. The integrity of this data base depends on input from authorized individuals. Thus, a key to developing such a system is the ability to positively identify people attempting access to the system. Small scale tests of the Identimat 2000T hand geometry unit with an adjusting alogrithm have suggested a promising solution. To prove operational suitability, HEDL, in cooperation with Sandia Laboratories, has designed a large scale test of the Identimat 2000T. Data gathering on error rates, reliability, maintainability, and user acceptance will determine if the Identimat 2000T is suitable for the HEDL application. If proven acceptable, use of the Identimat 2000T can be broadened to many general applications where security information, locations and systems are required

  3. [Diagnosis and monitoring of endangered early pregnancies with determination of oestrone, oestradiol 17beta, oestriol, progesterone and HPL in plasma and the pregnancy test in graduated dilutions of urine (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, J R; Negulescu, R; Dahlén, H; Musch, K

    1977-06-01

    Unconjugated oestrone (Oe1), oestradiol-17beta (Oe2), oestriol (Oe3), progesterone (P) and HPL in plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay and the immunological pregnancy-test in urine was carried out in 70 patients with normal pregnancy or imminent abortion from 4th-20th week of gestation. Oe2 and HPL showed the most pronounced rises, Oe3 increased especially after the first trimester. In cases with abortion symptoms and poor prognosis Oe2 and HPL gave the most reliable results concerning the endocrin function of early normal pregnancy. Oe1- and P-values in normal pregnancy did not differ so clearly from concentrations observed during normal menstrual cycles and were thus of less value. The pregnancy-test was positive (greater than 1000 IU/1) even in most cases of dead pregnancy and therefore not reliable. With increasing production of oestrogen precursors in the fetal adrenal cortex after the first trimester determination of Oe3 becomes more important. In cases with abortion symptoms in early pregnancy and subsequent normal development, plasma Oe2- and Oe3- values represented best criteria for a prognosis. -- For the diagnosis and control of the endangered early pregnancy we recommend, as a consequence of this study, determination of Oe2 up to the 13th week of pregnancy and thereafter Oe3 in maternal plasma.

  4. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of screening positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porcel, Jacqueline; Feigal, Christine; Poye, Laney; Postma, Ineke R.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Olowoyeye, Abiola; Tsigas, Eleni; Wilson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) encompass a spectrum of disorders that affect 6-8% of US pregnancies. We aim to determine the impact of self-reported history of HDP as a risk factor for screening positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which results from exposure to

  5. 21 CFR 862.1270 - Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system. 862.1270 Section 862.1270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Test Systems § 862.1270 Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system. (a) Identification. As estrogens...

  6. Pregnancy complications in HIV-positive women: 11-year data from the Frankfurt HIV Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitter, A; Stücker, A U; Linde, R; Königs, C; Knecht, G; Herrmann, E; Schlößer, R; Louwen, F; Haberl, A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess pregnancy complications in HIV-positive women and changes in the rates of such complications over 11 years in the Frankfurt HIV Cohort. There were 330 pregnancies in HIV-positive women between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2012. The rate of pregnancy-related complications, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pre-eclampsia and preterm delivery, the mode of delivery and obstetric history were analysed. Maternal and neonatal morbidity/mortality as well as HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) were evaluated. In our cohort, GDM was diagnosed in 38 of 330 women (11.4%). Five women (1.5%) developed pre-eclamspia or hypertension. In 16 women (4.8%), premature rupture of membranes (PROM) occurred and 46 women (13.7%) were admitted with preterm contractions. The preterm delivery rate was 36.5% (n = 122), and 26.9% of deliveries (n = 90) were between 34+0 and 36+6 weeks of gestation. Over the observation period, the percentage of women with undetectable HIV viral load (VL) increased significantly (P HIV Association.

  7. Pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive women: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Kholoud; Spence, Andrea R; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2017-03-01

    In the United States, an estimated 8500 HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) positive women gave birth in 2014. This rate appears to be increasing annually. Our objective is to examine obstetrical outcomes of pregnancy among HIV-positive women. A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2003-2011) from the United States. Pregnant HIV-positive women were identified and compared to pregnant women without HIV. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted effect of HIV status on obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. Among 7,772,999 births over the study period, 1997 were in HIV-positive women (an incidence of 25.7/100,000 births). HIV-infected patients had greater frequency of pre-existing diabetes and chronic hypertension, and use of cigarettes, drugs, and alcohol during pregnancy (p HIV-infected women had greater likelihood of antenatal complications: preterm premature rupture of membranes (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.60) and urinary tract infections (OR 3.02, 95% CI 2.40-3.81). Delivery and postpartum complications were also increased among HIV-infected women: cesarean delivery (OR 3.06, 95% CI 2.79-3.36), postpartum sepsis (OR 8.05, 95% CI 5.44-11.90), venous thromboembolism (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.46-3.33), blood transfusions (OR 3.67, 95% CI 3.01-4.49), postpartum infection (OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.37-3.80), and maternal mortality (OR 21.52, 95% CI 12.96-35.72). Neonates born to these mothers were at higher risk of prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction. Pregnancy in HIV-infected women is associated with adverse maternal and newborn complications. Pregnant HIV-positive women should be followed in high-risk healthcare centers.

  8. Pregnancy decision-making among HIV-positive women in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Bui Kim, Chi

    2011-01-01

    The global HIV epidemic confronts pregnant women with hard reproductive choices. This paper offers a theoretically innovative and ethnographically sensitive exploration of the social processes through which 20 HIV positive women living in Northern Vietnam decide whether to continue or terminate...... their pregnancies. Arguing that human agency must be seen as an outcome of intersubjective engagements in shared social worlds, this paper explores how these women came to the decisions that they had to make and shows that women's choices were configured through everyday social relations, shaped through intimate...... engagements with husbands, parents, siblings, and in-laws. Based on the findings, it is recommended that pregnancy counseling is offered not only to the woman herself, but also, if she desires, involves members of her extended family....

  9. [Experience with Pregnosticon-planotest, a 2-minute immunologic pregnancy test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancsók, M; Huber, G; Páhoki, I; Czeizel, E

    1969-08-23

    Pregnosticon-Planotest (PPT), produced by N.V. Organon, is an immunological latex-suspension pregnancy test that can be read in 2 minutes (or up to 60 minutes) and requires no special equipment such as centrifuges. Parallel pregnancy tests, using PPT and the biological Galli-Mainin Reaction (GMR) were carried out on 381 women for a total of 407 tests. The cases included 334 possible early pregnancies, 38 supected extrauterine pregnancies, and 35 suspected fetal deaths. The 2 tests agreed in 93.9% of the cases, and of 23 cases on which results differed, the PPT reading proved correct for 21 cases. Both tests gave false-negative readings for 36 early pregnancies and 1 extrauterine pregnancy. However, PPT results were correct for 80% of the extrauterine pregnancies (where production of human chorionic gonadotropin, the substance tested for, is low); the GMR was correct in 68.8% of these cases. The sensitivity of PPT was also shown in its early detection of pregnancies - 3.3-4 days earlier than with GMR. PPT is thus judged to be a sensitive, reliable, simple, and quick pregnancy test.

  10. The diagnostic accuracy of the rapid dipstick test to predict asymptomatic urinary tract infection of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigbefoh, J O; Isabu, P; Okpere, E; Abebe, J

    2008-07-01

    Untreated urinary tract infection can have devastating maternal and neonatal effects. Thus, routine screening for bacteriuria is advocated. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid dipstick test to predict urinary tract infection in pregnancy with the gold standard of urine microscopy, culture and sensitivity acting as the control. The urine dipstick test uses the leucocyte esterase, nitrite and test for protein singly and in combination. The result of the dipstick was compared with the gold standard, urine microscopy, culture and sensitivity using confidence interval for proportions. The reliability and validity of the urine dipstick was also evaluated. Overall, the urine dipstick test has a poor correlation with urine culture (p = 0.125, CI 95%). The same holds true for individual components of the dipstick test. The overall sensitivity of the urine dipstick test was poor at 2.3%. Individual sensitivity of the various components varied between 9.1% for leucocyte esterase and the nitrite test to 56.8% for leucocyte esterase alone. The other components of the dipstick test, the test of nitrite, test for protein and combination of the test (leucocyte esterase, nitrite and proteinuria) appear to decrease the sensitivity of the leucocyte esterase test alone. The ability of the urine dipstick test to correctly rule out urinary tract infection (specificity) was high. The positive predictive value for the dipstick test was high, with the leucocyte esterase test having the highest positive predictive value compared with the other components of the dipstick test. The negative predictive value (NPV) was expectedly highest for the leucocyte esterase test alone with values higher than the other components of the urine dipstick test singly and in various combinations. Compared with the other parameters of the urine dipstick test, singly and in combination, leucocyte esterase appears to be the most accurate (90.25%). The dipstick test has a

  11. Effects of Pregnancy on the Army Physical Fitness Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usher, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual and perceived amount of time needed for the postpartum soldier to return to pre-pregnancy fitness condition as evidenced by APFT scores before and after...

  12. Elevation in D-dimer concentrations is positively correlated with gestation in normal uncomplicated pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah ZA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah,1 Teddy C Adias,2 Margaret Opiah,3 Siyeoforiye P George,4 Osaro Mgbere,5 Ekere J Essien61Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; 2Bayelsa State College of Health Technology, Ogbia-Town, Nigeria; 3Department of Maternal and Child Health, Faculty of Nursing, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria; 4Postgraduate Hematology Unit, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; 5Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Houston, TX, USA; 6Institute of Community Health, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USABackground: D-dimer levels have been reported to increase progressively during pregnancy, but how this affects Nigerian women is not well known.Objective: This study aims to determine the D-dimer concentration and its relationship to other coagulation parameters among pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Method: In a cross-sectional observational study conducted in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 120 pregnant women and 60 nonpregnant controls, drawn from a tertiary health institution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were assessed, using the standard procedures, for the following parameters: D-dimer concentration, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume.Results: The median D-dimer concentration of 153.1 ng/mL in the pregnant group was found to be significantly elevated when compared with the control value of 118.5 ng/mL (t = 2.348, P = 0.021. Conversely, there was a marked depression in the platelet count among pregnant women (193.5 × 109/L when compared with 229.0 × 109/L in the control group (t = 3.424; P = 0.001. There was no statistically significant difference in the values for the prothrombin time and the activated partial thromboplastin time between pregnant and nonpregnant women. D-dimer values correlated positively and significantly with gestation (r = 0

  13. Measurement of EPF for detection of cow pregnancy using rosette inhibition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari Laleh, V; Ghaffari Laleh, R; Pirany, N; Moghadaszadeh Ahrabi, M

    2008-07-01

    Early embryonic death of calves due to sub-fertility in cows is of great economic concern to dairy industry. Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a secretory protein with pregnancy associated immunosuppressive properties. Rosette inhibition test (RIT) was used to detect EPF in inseminated dairy cows. Blood samples were collected at two intervals, 1-3 and 5-7 days after insemination from 23 inseminated and 18 non-inseminated control cows for RIT and pregnancy diagnosis performed between 42 and 45 days on palpation. The study indicates that RIT (P<0.05) has the potential to distinguish pregnant from non-pregnant dairy cows in the first week of pregnancy.

  14. The acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV Testing in pregnancy at Ilembe District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FN Dube

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study aimed to investigate the acceptability, knowledge and perceptions of pregnant women toward HIV testing in pregnancy in Ilembe District. An exploratory research design guided the study. A systematic random sampling was used to select pregnant women who were attending the ante-natal clinic for the first time in their current pregnancy.

  15. Pregnancy failure in patients with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome with conventional treatment: the influence of a triple positive antibody profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latino, J O; Udry, S; Aranda, F M; Perés Wingeyer, S D A; Fernández Romero, D S; de Larrañaga, G F

    2017-08-01

    Conventional treatment of obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome fails in approximately 20-30% of pregnant women without any clearly identified risk factor. It is important to identify risk factors that are associated with these treatment failures. This study aimed to assess the impact of risk factors on pregnancy outcomes in women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome treated with conventional treatment. We carefully retrospectively selected 106 pregnancies in women with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome treated with heparin + aspirin. Pregnancy outcomes were evaluated according to the following associated risk factors: triple positivity profile, double positivity profile, single positivity profile, history of thrombosis, autoimmune disease, more than four pregnancy losses, and high titers of anticardiolipin antibodies and/or anti-βeta-2-glycoprotein-I (aβ2GPI) antibodies. To establish the association between pregnancy outcomes and risk factors, a single binary logistic regressions analysis was performed. Risk factors associated with pregnancy loss with conventional treatment were: the presence of triple positivity (OR = 5.0, CI = 1.4-16.9, p = 0.01), high titers of aβ2GPI (OR = 4.4, CI = 1.2-16.1, p = 0.023) and a history of more than four pregnancy losses (OR = 3.5, CI = 1.2-10.0, p = 0.018). The presence of triple positivity was an independent risk factor associated with gestational complications (OR = 4.1, CI = 1.2-13.9, p = 0.02). Our findings reinforce the idea that triple positivity is a categorical risk factor for poor response to conventional treatment.

  16. The effect of air bubble position after blastocyst transfer on pregnancy rates in IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Brooke E; Lathi, Ruth B; Henne, Melinda B; Fisher, Stephanie L; Milki, Amin A

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between air bubble position after blastocyst transfer (BT) and pregnancy rates (PRs). Retrospective cohort study. University-based infertility center. Three hundred fifteen consecutive nondonor BTs by a single provider. Catheters were loaded with 25 μL of culture media, 20 μL of air, 25 μL of media containing the blastocysts, 20 μL of air, and a small amount of additional media. The distance from the air bubble to the fundus, as seen on abdominal ultrasound examination, was measured at the time of transfer. Air bubble location was categorized as 20 mm from the fundus. Clinical pregnancy rate. After controlling for age, parity, FSH and frozen transfers, and accounting for repeated cycles per patient, the PRs for both the >20-mm (38.3%) and the 10-20-mm (42.0%) from the fundus group were significantly reduced compared with the group in which the bubble was Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Abnormal hepatic function tests in pregnancy: causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemesánszky, Elemér

    2013-07-21

    The well-known normal ranges of laboratory parameters are altered due to the broad spectrum of physiological changes as well as proinflammatory and procoagulant effects of pregnancy. Hepatic disorders of any aetiology can cause potential problems during gravidity. Most frequently toxic-effects, hepatotrop viruses (such as hepatitis B and C), metabolic syndrome and diseases with autoimmune background can be observed. When dealing with "pregnancy-specific hepatic syndromes", it is very important to consider the "timing-factors" of pathologic changes and deterioration of clinical pictures as well. Due to the progress in cholestasis management, early termination of pregnancy can be avoided in many cases. As the overlap is really broad between various hepatic disorders, a multidisciplinary cooperation of different sub-disciplines is emphasized in order to achieve proper diagnosis and curative measures at early phase.

  18. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    .08 degrees, ICC = 0.91. Discussion: The present data support The Navicular Position Test as a reliable test of the navicular bone position during rest and loading measured in a simple test set-up. Conclusion: The Navicular Position Test was shown to have a high intraday-, intra- and inter-tester reliability...

  19. The utility of six over-the-counter (home) pregnancy tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2011-08-01

    The home pregnancy market is rapidly evolving. It has moved from detection of pregnancy on the day of missed menstrual bleeding, to detection claims 4 days prior. It is moving from all manual tests to digital tests, with a monitor reading the bands and informing women they are pregnant. A thorough study is needed to investigate the validity of claims and evolving usefulness of devices. Studies were proposed to examine the sensitivity and specificity of home tests and their abilities to detect pregnancy. Methods examined the abilities of tests to detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), hyperglycosylated hCG, free β-subunit, a mixture of these antigens in 40 individual early pregnancy urines. Using a mixture of hCG, hyperglycosylated hCG and free β-subunit typical for early pregnancy, the sensitivity of the First Response manual and digital tests was 5.5 mIU/mL, while the sensitivities of the EPT and ClearBlue brand manual and digital tests was 22 mIU/mL. On further evaluation, the First Response manual and digital tests both detected 97% of 120 pregnancies on the day of missed menstrual bleeding. The EPT manual and digital devices detected 54% and 67% of pregnancies, respectively, and the ClearBlue manual and digital devices detected 64% and 54% of pregnancies, respectively. First Response manual and digital claim >99% detection on the day of missed menses. The results here suggest similar sensitivity for these two tests. The EPT and ClearBlue manual and digital test make similar >99% claims, the data presented here disputes their elevated claim.

  20. Thin blue lines: product placement and the drama of pregnancy testing in British cinema and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszynko-Gryn, Jesse

    2017-09-01

    This article uses the case of pregnancy testing in Britain to investigate the process whereby new and often controversial reproductive technologies are made visible and normalized in mainstream entertainment media. It shows how in the 1980s and 1990s the then nascent product placement industry was instrumental in embedding pregnancy testing in British cinema and television's dramatic productions. In this period, the pregnancy-test close-up became a conventional trope and the thin blue lines associated with Unilever's Clearblue rose to prominence in mainstream consumer culture. This article investigates the aestheticization of pregnancy testing and shows how increasingly visible public concerns about 'schoolgirl mums', abortion and the biological clock, dramatized on the big and small screen, propelled the commercial rise of Clearblue. It argues that the Clearblue close-up ambiguously concealed as much as it revealed; abstraction, ambiguity and flexibility were its keys to success.

  1. Incidence and predictors of pregnancy among a cohort of HIV-positive women initiating antiretroviral therapy in Mbarara, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kaida

    Full Text Available Many people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa desire biological children. Implementation of HIV prevention strategies that support the reproductive goals of people living with HIV while minimizing HIV transmission risk to sexual partners and future children requires a comprehensive understanding of pregnancy in this population. We analyzed prospective cohort data to determine pregnancy incidence and predictors among HIV-positive women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART in a setting with high HIV prevalence and fertility.Participants were enrolled in the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO cohort of HIV-positive individuals initiating ART in Mbarara. Bloodwork (including CD4 cells/mm(3, HIV viral load and questionnaires (including socio-demographics, health status, sexual behavior, partner dynamics, HIV history, and self-reported pregnancy were completed at baseline and quarterly. Our analysis includes 351 HIV-positive women (18-49 years who enrolled between 2005-2011. We measured pregnancy incidence by proximal and distal time relative to ART initiation and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis (with repeated events to identify baseline and time-dependent predictors of pregnancy post-ART initiation.At baseline (pre-ART initiation, median age was 33 years [IQR: 27-37] and median prior livebirths was four [IQR: 2-6]. 38% were married with 61% reporting HIV-positive spouses. 73% of women had disclosed HIV status to a primary sexual partner. Median baseline CD4 was 137 cells/mm(3 [IQR: 81-207]. At enrolment, 9.1% (31/342 reported current pregnancy. After ART initiation, 84 women experienced 105 pregnancies over 3.8 median years of follow-up, yielding a pregnancy incidence of 9.40 per 100 WYs. Three years post-ART initiation, cumulative probability of at least one pregnancy was 28% and independently associated with younger age (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR: 0.89/year increase; 95%CI: 0.86-0.92 and HIV

  2. Incidence and Predictors of Pregnancy among a Cohort of HIV-Positive Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Mbarara, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Angela; Matthews, Lynn T.; Kanters, Steve; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Muzoora, Conrad; Mocello, A. Rain; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Hunt, Peter; Haberer, Jessica; Hogg, Robert S.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa desire biological children. Implementation of HIV prevention strategies that support the reproductive goals of people living with HIV while minimizing HIV transmission risk to sexual partners and future children requires a comprehensive understanding of pregnancy in this population. We analyzed prospective cohort data to determine pregnancy incidence and predictors among HIV-positive women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a setting with high HIV prevalence and fertility. Methods Participants were enrolled in the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) cohort of HIV-positive individuals initiating ART in Mbarara. Bloodwork (including CD4 cells/mm3, HIV viral load) and questionnaires (including socio-demographics, health status, sexual behavior, partner dynamics, HIV history, and self-reported pregnancy) were completed at baseline and quarterly. Our analysis includes 351 HIV-positive women (18–49 years) who enrolled between 2005–2011. We measured pregnancy incidence by proximal and distal time relative to ART initiation and used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis (with repeated events) to identify baseline and time-dependent predictors of pregnancy post-ART initiation. Results At baseline (pre-ART initiation), median age was 33 years [IQR: 27–37] and median prior livebirths was four [IQR: 2–6]. 38% were married with 61% reporting HIV-positive spouses. 73% of women had disclosed HIV status to a primary sexual partner. Median baseline CD4 was 137 cells/mm3 [IQR: 81–207]. At enrolment, 9.1% (31/342) reported current pregnancy. After ART initiation, 84 women experienced 105 pregnancies over 3.8 median years of follow-up, yielding a pregnancy incidence of 9.40 per 100 WYs. Three years post-ART initiation, cumulative probability of at least one pregnancy was 28% and independently associated with younger age (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR): 0.89/year increase; 95%CI: 0

  3. Effect of Pregnancy on Interferon Gamma Release Assay and Tuberculin Skin Test Detection of Latent TB Infection Among HIV-Infected Women in a High Burden Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCourse, Sylvia M; Cranmer, Lisa M; Matemo, Daniel; Kinuthia, John; Richardson, Barbra A; Horne, David J; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-05-01

    Peripartum immunologic changes may affect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) diagnostic performance among HIV-infected women. HIV-infected women were serially tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay [QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube (QFT)] in pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum in Kenya. Prevalence, sensitivity and agreement, and correlates of QFT/TST positivity were assessed. Quantitative QFT mitogen and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen (Mtb-Ag) responses were compared by peripartum stage. Incidence of test conversion at 6 weeks postpartum was evaluated in baseline TST-/QFT- women. Among 100 HIV-infected women, median age was 26 years, median CD4 was 555 cells per cubic millimeter, and 88% were on antiretrovirals. More women were QFT+ than TST+ in both pregnancy (35.4% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.001) and postpartum (29.6% vs. 14.8%, P pregnancy vs. postpartum, and specifically among persistently QFT+ women (Mtb-Ag: 3.46 vs. 4.48 IU/mL, P = 0.007). QFT indeterminate rate was higher in pregnancy (16%) compared with postpartum (0%) because of lower mitogen response. QFT identified >2-fold more women with LTBI compared with TST in pregnancy and postpartum. Lower QFT Mtb-Ag and mitogen responses in pregnancy compared with postpartum suggest that pregnancy-associated immunologic changes may influence LTBI test performance.

  4. Prenatal radiographic diagnosis of alpha-fetoprotein positive malformations in early pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probst, F.P.; Sigurd, J.

    1980-01-01

    Early diagnosis of two malformed fetuses with positive alpha-fetoprotein test of the amniotic fluid with the aid of amniography is reported. Radiographic, diagnostic and prognostic aspects are discussed. (Auth.)

  5. Modified M20 Beam Position Monitor Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koros, Jessica; Musson, John

    2017-09-01

    Beam position monitors (BPMs) are used to measure lateral beam position. Two pairs of modified wire BPMs are being evaluated for installation into the injector at Jefferson Lab (JLab). The BPMs were coated with a Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) to aid in pumping at the electron gun, as an ultra-high vacuum is required to protect the gun and to avoid scattering the beam. Beam in the injector has a large diameter, allowing extraction of second moments to give information about beam profile and emittance. The purpose of this project is to determine the effects of NEG coating on the BPMs and to calculate second moments from beam models on the Goubau Line (G-Line). Using the G-Line, scans of the BPMs were taken before and after NEG coating. Each scan produced an electrical field map, which characterizes properties of the BPM, including scale factors and coupling. Second moments were calculated using superposition of previous scan data, and verification of this method was attempted using several beam models. Results show the BPMs responded well to NEG and that measurement of second moments is possible. Once the BPMs are installed, they will enhance gun vacuum and enable monitoring of shape and trajectory of the beam as it exits the electron gun to ensure quality beam for experiments. This work is made possible through support from NSF award 1659177 to Old Dominion University.

  6. A Ten-Year Review of Antenatal Complications and Pregnancy Outcomes Among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Mark H; Caprara, Daniela; MacGillivray, S Jay; Urquia, Marcelo; Shah, Rajiv R

    2016-01-01

    To review the incidence of antenatal complications among a cohort of HIV-positive pregnant women over a 10-year period. A retrospective review was performed of all HIV-positive pregnant women receiving multidisciplinary prenatal care at an urban tertiary care centre from March 2000 to March 2010. Collected data included the presence of additional infectious or medical conditions, genetic screening information, and the presence or absence of antenatal complications. One hundred and forty-two singleton pregnancies during the study period were identified. Almost 95% of women were taking combination antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, and greater than 90% had viral loads less than 1000 copies/ml at delivery. The presence of co-infections was low. Forty-one women (29%) had other medical comorbidities. Genetic screening occurred in 104 pregnancies (73%); 4% were abnormal screens. Rates of any hypertension, gestational diabetes, and fetal growth restriction were all low. Thirty-two percent of women were colonized with group B streptococcus. This study adds strength to the argument that good outcomes can be achieved for HIV-positive pregnant women with good access to both prenatal and HIV care, and appropriate management. Women with HIV should be optimally cared for in advance of and during pregnancy in order to maximize the likelihood of good pregnancy outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Positive patch test reactions to oxidized limonene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    to oxidized R-limonene. OBJECTIVE: To study the exposure to limonene among consecutive dermatitis patients reacting to oxidized R-limonene in an international setting, and to assess the relevance of the exposure for the patients' dermatitis. METHODS: Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (containing limonene...... hydroperoxides at 0.33%) in petrolatum was tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Spain, and Sweden. A questionnaire assessing exposure to limonene-containing products was completed. RESULTS: Overall, exposure to products containing limonene was found...

  8. Integrating Pregnancy Prevention Into an HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Pediatric Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Noah J; Upadhya, Krishna K; Tawe, Marie-Sophie; Tomaszewski, Kathy; Arrington-Sanders, Renata; Marcell, Arik V

    2018-04-11

    Certified health educator (CHE)-based HIV counseling and testing typically focus on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention only. A quality improvement initiative examined integrating assessment of reproductive life plans, counseling about pregnancy prevention, and contraception referral into a CHE-based HIV testing program. Between February 2014 and January 2017, in one urban pediatric primary care clinic serving patients aged 0-25, CHEs assessed sexual history, HIV risk, short-term (i.e., the next 6-12 months) pregnancy desire, and current contraception method and satisfaction among patients aged 13-25 who had ever had vaginal sex, using a standardized questionnaire. Data were analyzed using a de-identified administrative dataset that also tracked referrals to initiate contraception and actual method initiation. Of 1,211 patients, most (96%) reported no short-term pregnancy or partner pregnancy desire. Use of less effective or no contraception, as well as method dissatisfaction, was common. A high proportion of female patients referred to new methods opted for more effective methods (62%) and initiated these methods (76%); a high proportion of male patients opted for receipt of condoms (67%). Patients reporting short-term pregnancy desire reported higher rates of previous pregnancy and STIs. Program findings highlight the potential benefit of integrating assessment for and counseling about pregnancy prevention in a CHE-based HIV testing program. This can more effectively address the needs of patients with concomitant risks of STI/HIV and unintended pregnancy, and link patients who do not desire pregnancy to more effective methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (Nf1) and Pregnancy - Case With Positive Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Astrit M. Gashi; Curr Gjocaj; Jakup Ismajli; Xhevdet Gojnovci

    2018-01-01

    Apregnancy is categorized as with high-risk when the life of the mother or the fetus becomes fragile due to various diseases. Many health problems can be manifested in women before pregnancy, during and after pregnancy. Some health problems can also begin in early adolescence with very light clinical signs, but during pregnancy because of the hormonal changes that may occur, lead to intensification of the disease. We report the management of a 26-year-old woman patient diagnosed with neurofib...

  10. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (Nf1 and Pregnancy - Case With Positive Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrit M. Gashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Apregnancy is categorized as with high-risk when the life of the mother or the fetus becomes fragile due to various diseases. Many health problems can be manifested in women before pregnancy, during and after pregnancy. Some health problems can also begin in early adolescence with very light clinical signs, but during pregnancy because of the hormonal changes that may occur, lead to intensification of the disease. We report the management of a 26-year-old woman patient diagnosed with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1, without any complications during pregnancy and childbirth.

  11. Effect of the left lateral recumbent position compared with the supine and upright positions on placental blood flow in normal late pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suonio, S; Simpanen, A L; Olkkonen, H; Haring, P

    1976-02-01

    The placental blood flow was assessed by the 99mTc accumulation method in 10 normal pregnancies in the left lateral recumbent position accomplished by a 15 degree wedge and in the supine position. The postural change caused a 17% decrease in the mean placental accumulation rate, which was not statistically significant. Ten patients were moved from the left lateral recumbent position to the upright position, which caused a statistically significant 23% decrease in the mean accumulation rate. Other haemodynamic variables studied were the maternal heart rate and the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The clinical significance of the haemodynamic changes produced by alterations in posture are briefly discussed.

  12. Young Women's Lived Experience of Participating in a Positive Youth Development Programme: The "Teens & Toddlers" Pregnancy Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Mitchell, Kirstin; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers (T&T) positive youth development (PYD) and teenage pregnancy prevention programme suggested that the intervention had minimal effectiveness partly due to its unclear theory of change. The purpose of this paper is to examine the lived experiences of young women participating in the programme to…

  13. Successful pregnancy after rituximab in a women with recurrent in vitro fertilisation failures and anti-phospholipid antibody positive.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ng, C T

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of successful pregnancy after rituximab in a patient with a history of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) failures and positive anti-cardiolipin antibody (ACA). Following a course of rituximab, her ACA became negative and she successfully conceived with IVF treatment. This is the first case in literature describing the use of rituximab therapy in this clinical scenario.

  14. Repeat HIV testing during pregnancy and delivery: missed opportunities in a rural district hospital in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemelaar, S.; Habets, N.; Makukula, Z.; van Roosmalen, J.; van den Akker, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess coverage of repeat HIV testing among women who delivered in a Zambian hospital. HIV testing of pregnant women and repeat testing every 3 months during pregnancy and breastfeeding is the recommended policy in areas of high HIV prevalence. Methods: A prospective implementation

  15. The positive and negative consequences of multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2005-09-01

    Multiple-choice tests are commonly used in educational settings but with unknown effects on students' knowledge. The authors examined the consequences of taking a multiple-choice test on a later general knowledge test in which students were warned not to guess. A large positive testing effect was obtained: Prior testing of facts aided final cued-recall performance. However, prior testing also had negative consequences. Prior reading of a greater number of multiple-choice lures decreased the positive testing effect and increased production of multiple-choice lures as incorrect answers on the final test. Multiple-choice testing may inadvertently lead to the creation of false knowledge.

  16. Fertility Preservation and Pregnancy in Women With and Without BRCA Mutation–Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A.

    2012-01-01

    Women with breast cancer face many challenges when considering fertility preservation. Delayed referral results in the limitation of fertility preservation options because most established methods, such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation, require several weeks to complete. Women with BRCA mutations, on the other hand, may be more aware of fertility issues and motivated to see fertility preservation specialists earlier. Fear of exposure to estrogen limits access to fertility preservation via embryo or oocyte cryopreservation; however, the use of aromatase inhibitors as ovarian stimulants reduces such concern. Ovarian cryopreservation can be used when there is insufficient time to perform ovarian stimulation because this technique does not require hormonal stimulation, but there are safety concerns both in women with BRCA mutations and in patients with hormone receptor–positive disease as well. There does not seem to be a proven ovarian suppression strategy to preserve fertility in women with breast cancer. Pregnancy appears to be safe for breast cancer survivors but studies specific for women with BRCA mutations are lacking. Women with BRCA mutations may elect to use preimplantation genetic diagnosis during in vitro fertilization to avoid transmitting the mutation, but there may be psychosocial difficulties in entertaining this option. Overall, the last decade has brought many options for women with breast cancer considering fertility preservation, but numerous challenges remain. The presence of BRCA mutations further contributes to these challenges. PMID:23006497

  17. Confirmation Testing of Essure Microinserts in Unintended Pregnancies Using a 10-Year Retrospective Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Darrien; Thiel, Peter; Suchet, Ian; Thiel, John

    2016-01-01

    To examine the imaging modality used in cases of Essure failures and determine the cause of the unintended pregnancies (noncompliance to follow-up recommendations, misinterpretation of the imaging test, or device failure). Retrospective, single-center interventional cohort (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Tertiary level hospital. Women who have had Essure placement and subsequent pregnancy. Coding data from the Regina General Hospital was examined for any pregnancy occurring after an Essure procedure. The hospital charts were then reviewed for data collection. A separate imaging database established over the same time frame was then reviewed to determine the imaging modality used in each case (transvaginal ultrasound [TVU], hysterosalpingogram [HSG], or none). Results of the imaging study were reviewed and the cause of the failure determined. Twenty-four pregnancies in 25 women were identified after Essure procedures from January 1, 2003 to March 31, 2013. There were 4 in vitro fertilization pregnancies and 4 pregnancies where the woman had been instructed not to rely on the devices because of incomplete placement noted at time of the procedure. Therefore, 17 unintended pregnancies occurred of a total 2080 procedures performed. Examination of the imaging studies revealed that 11 were due to patient noncompliance (either early cessation of backup contraception or failure to go for confirmatory imaging), 5 due to misinterpretation of the imaging tests (3 HSG, 2 TVU), and 1 device failure. This reveals a cumulative failure rate of 6 of 2080 or .29% over 10 years with only .04% (1/2080) being device related. Essure sterilization is an effective means of permanent contraception with a device failure rate of only .04%. Most unintended pregnancies after the Essure procedure result from a failure to comply with follow-up recommendations, and strategies to improve compliance should be emphasized. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. A simple point of care test can indicate the need for periodontal therapy to reduce the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in mothers attending antenatal clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Mervyn Sydney; Henkel, Ralf Reinhold; Africa, Charlene Wilma Joyce

    2017-12-01

    Although the association between periodontal disease (PD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes has gained recognition amongst antenatal healthcare workers, not much has changed in practice to address it. This prospective study tested the hypothesis that BANA (N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide), a diagnostic test for PD, may inform obstetricians and other antenatal healthcare practitioners, of the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in mothers attending antenatal clinics. At first visit, the presence of suspected periodontopathogens was assessed by BANA testing of dental plaque from 443 mothers attending antenatal clinics in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and an association later sought with pregnancy outcomes. The accuracy of BANA to predict adverse pregnancy outcomes was evaluated by the calculation of likelihood ratios. The study complied with the Declaration of Helsinki. Significant differences were found between pregnancy outcomes of BANA-negative and BANA-positive mothers (p periodontal therapy to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and could form part of the routine antenatal examination.

  19. Incident pregnancy and time to death or AIDS among HIV-positive women receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Westreich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of pregnancy on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the effect of incident pregnancy after HAART initiation on clinical response to HAART. METHODS: We evaluated a prospective clinical cohort of adult women initiating HAART in Johannesburg, South Africa between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2011, and followed up until an event, transfer, drop-out, or administrative end of follow-up on 30 September 2011. Women over age 45 and women who were pregnant at HAART initiation were excluded from the study. Main exposure was having experienced pregnancy after HAART initiation; main outcome was death and (separately death or new AIDS event. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence limits (CL using marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The study included 7,534 women, and 20,813 person-years of follow-up; 918 women had at least one recognized pregnancy during follow-up. For death alone, the weighted (adjusted HR was 0.84 (95% CL 0.44, 1.60. Sensitivity analyses confirmed main results, and results were similar for analysis of death or new AIDS event. Incident pregnancy was associated with a substantially reduced hazard of drop-out (HR = 0.62, 95% CL 0.51, 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: Recognized incident pregnancy after HAART initiation was not associated with increases in hazard of clinical events, but was associated with a decreased hazard of drop-out. High rates of pregnancy after initiation of HAART may point to a need to better integrate family planning services into clinical care for HIV-infected women.

  20. Low utilization of HIV testing during pregnancy: What are the barriers to HIV testing for women in rural India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gita; Dyalchand, Ashok; Khale, Manisha; Kulkarni, Gopal; Vasudevan, Shubha; Bollinger, Robert C

    2008-02-01

    Sixty percent of India's HIV cases occur in rural residents. Despite government policy to expand antenatal HIV screening and prevention of maternal-to-child transmission (PMTCT), little is known about HIV testing among rural women during pregnancy. Between January and March 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 400 recently pregnant women from rural Maharashtra was administered a questionnaire regarding HIV awareness, risk, and history of antenatal HIV testing. Thirteen women (3.3%) reported receiving antenatal HIV testing. Neither antenatal care utilization nor history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms influenced odds of receiving HIV testing. Women who did not receive HIV testing, compared with women who did, were 95% less likely to have received antenatal HIV counseling (odds ratio = 0.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.02 to 0.17) and 80% less aware of an existing HIV testing facility (odds ratio = 0.19, 95% confidence interval: 0.04 to 0.75). Despite measurable HIV prevalence, high antenatal care utilization, and STI symptom history, recently pregnant rural Indian women report low HIV testing. Barriers to HIV testing during pregnancy include lack of discussion by antenatal care providers and lack of awareness of existing testing services. Provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing during pregnancy would optimize HIV prevention for women throughout rural India.

  1. Timing of pregnancy, postpartum risk of virologic failure and loss to follow-up among HIV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoya, Dorina; Sineke, Tembeka; Brennan, Alana T; Long, Lawrence; Fox, Matthew P

    2017-07-17

    We assessed the association between the timing of pregnancy with the risk of postpartum virologic failure and loss from HIV care in South Africa. This is a retrospective cohort study of 6306 HIV-positive women aged 15-49 at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, initiated on ART between January 2004 and December 2013 in Johannesburg, South Africa. The incidence of virologic failure (two consecutive viral load measurements of >1000 copies/ml) and loss to follow-up (>3 months late for a visit) during 24 months postpartum were assessed using Cox proportional hazards modelling. The rate of postpartum virologic failure was higher following an incident pregnancy on ART [adjusted hazard ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-2.7] than among women who initiated ART during pregnancy. This difference was sustained among women with CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl at delivery (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0). Predictors of postpartum virologic failure were being viremic, longer time on ART, being 25 or less years old and low CD4 cell count and anaemia at delivery, as well as initiating ART on stavudine-containing or abacavir-containing regimen. There was no difference postpartum loss to follow-up rates between the incident pregnancies group (hazard ratio 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7-1.1) and those who initiated ART in pregnancy. The risk of virologic failure remains high among postpartum women, particularly those who conceive on ART. The results highlight the need to provide adequate support for HIV-positive women with fertility intention after ART initiation and to strengthen monitoring and retention efforts for postpartum women to sustain the benefits of ART.

  2. CLINICAL TESTS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE PELVIC GIRDLE PAIN IN PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Šćepanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PGP refers to the pain in the lumbosacral region, the sacroiliac joints and the symphysis pubis joint. The results of the high methodological quality studies indicate that the point prevalence of pregnant women suffering from PGP is about 20 %. Pregnancy-related PGP requires a comprehensive physiotherapy assessment in order to make or confirm a diagnosis, plan the treatment and evaluate the patient’s condi- tion. Physiotherapy assessment includes clinical diagnostic tests which should satisfy the criteria of safety, feasibility, reliability, sensitivity, specificity and validity. The aim of the present paper was to systematically review the literature on clinical diagnostic tests of PGP in order to determine which clinical tests meet the necessary criteria and are appropriate for clinical examination of PGP in pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: PubMed, Cinahl, Embase, Index Medicus databases and the Cochrane controlled trials reg- ister from 1980 to 2008 were searched using the key words, pregnancy/pelvic girdle pain, pregnancy/clinical tests/sacroiliac joint/symphysis pubis. Only the articles/texts in English and Slovene were reviewed unless translated abstract was available. Additional manual searches of the reference lists in books and review articles were undertaken. Along with the randomized clinical studies the literature search encompassed also the basic studies. Results: Nine studies evaluating the tests for clinical examination of the pregnancy-related PGP met the criteria for inclusion in this review. The studies evaluated and analysed six provocation tests for the sacroiliac joint, namely, the Posterior pelvic pain provocation test (P4, Patrick’s Faber test, palpation of the long dorsal ligament, compression test, separation test, Menell’s test as well as two provocation tests for the symphysis pubis joint (pain palpation and a modified Trendelenburg test and one functional

  3. Implementation of repeat HIV testing during pregnancy in southwestern Kenya: progress and missed opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anna J; Akama, Eliud; Weke, Elly; Blackburn, Justin; Owino, George; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Oyaro, Patrick; Kwena, Zachary A; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M

    2017-12-01

    Repeat HIV testing during the late antenatal period is crucial to identify and initiate treatment for pregnant women with incident HIV infection to prevent perinatal HIV transmission and keep mothers alive. In 2012, the Kenya Ministry of Health adopted international guidelines suggesting that pregnant women be offered retesting three months after an initial negative HIV test. Our objectives were to determine the current rate of antenatal repeat HIV testing; identify successes, missed opportunities and factors associated with retesting; and estimate the incidence of HIV during pregnancy. Retrospective analysis of longitudinal data was conducted for a cohort of 2145 women attending antenatal care clinic at a large district hospital in southwestern Kenya. Data were abstracted from registers for all women who attended the clinic from the years 2011 to 2014. Although 90.2% of women first came to clinic prior to their third trimester and 27.5% had at least four clinic visits, 58.0% of all women went to delivery without a retest. Missed opportunities for retesting included not returning to clinic at all, not returning when eligible, or late gestational age (>28 weeks) at first clinic visit making them ineligible for retesting (accounting for 14.2%, 26.8% and 9.6% of all clinic attendees respectively); and failure to be retested even when eligible at one or more visits (accounting for 73.2% of eligible returnees). Being unmarried and aged 20 or younger was associated with an increase in mean gestational age of first visit by 2.52 weeks (95% CI: 1.56, 3.48) and a 2.59 increased odds (95% CI: 1.90, 3.54) of failing to return to clinic, compared to those who were married and over 20 years of age. On retest, two women tested HIV positive, suggesting an incidence rate of 4.4 per 100 person-years. After adjusting for potential confounders, only later year of last menstrual period (2013 vs. 2012 and 2011) was associated with retesting. Adoption of retesting guidelines in 2012

  4. A checklist approach to caring for women seeking pregnancy testing: effects on contraceptive knowledge and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica; Papic, Melissa; Baldauf, Erin; Updike, Glenn; Schwarz, E Bimla

    2015-02-01

    To assess how a checklist reminding clinicians to deliver a bundled intervention affects contraceptive knowledge and use 3 months after women seek walk-in pregnancy testing. Pre-intervention, an inner-city family planning clinic provided unstructured care; during the intervention period, clinic staff used a checklist to ensure women received needed services. Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing who wished to avoid pregnancy for at least 6 months were asked to complete surveys about their contraceptive knowledge and use immediately after and 3-months after visiting the study clinic. To assess the significance of changes over time, we used logistic regression models. Between January 2011 and May 2013, over 1500 women sought pregnancy testing from the study clinic; 323 completed surveys (95 pre-intervention and 228 during the intervention period). With this checklist intervention, participants were more likely to receive emergency contraception (EC) (22% vs. 5%, [aOR 4.66 (1.76-12.35)], [corrected] have an intrauterine device or implant placed at the time of their clinic visit (5% vs. 0%, p=0.02), or receive a contraceptive prescription (23% vs. 10%, pcontraception and were more likely to report at 3-month follow-up a method of contraception more effective than the method they used prior to seeking pregnancy testing from the study clinic (aOR=2.02, 95% CI=1.03-3.96). The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused. [corrected]. Women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appear more likely to receive EC and to have switched to a more effective form of birth control in the 3 months following their visit when clinic staff used a 3-item checklist and provided scripted counseling. A checklist reminding clinic staff to assess pregnancy intentions, provide scripted counseling about both emergency and highly-effective reversible contraception, and offer same-day contraceptive initiation to women seeking walk-in pregnancy testing appears to increase use of

  5. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Ritmeijer, Koert; Piriou, Erwan; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals. Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367) in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526) in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively). The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  6. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Shanks

    Full Text Available Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals.Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367 in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526 in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively.The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  7. Female False Positive Exercise Stress ECG Testing - Fact Verses Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Scalia, William M; Scalia, Gregory M

    2018-03-07

    Exercise stress testing is a well validated cardiovascular investigation. Accuracy for treadmill stress electrocardiograph (ECG) testing has been documented at 60%. False positive stress ECGs (exercise ECG changes with non-obstructive disease on anatomical testing) are common, especially in women, limiting the effectiveness of the test. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of false positive stress ECG findings, referenced against stress echocardiography (SE) as a standard. Stress echocardiography was performed using the Bruce treadmill protocol. False positive stress ECG tests were defined as greater than 1mm of ST depression on ECG during exertion, without pain, with a normal SE. Potential causes for false positive tests were recorded before the test. Three thousand consecutive negative stress echocardiograms (1036 females, 34.5%) were analysed (age 59+/-14 years. False positive (F+) stress ECGs were documented in 565/3000 tests (18.8%). F+ stress ECGs were equally prevalent in females (194/1036, 18.7%) and males (371/1964, 18.9%, p=0.85 for the difference). Potential causes (hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, known coronary disease, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease) were recorded in 36/194 (18.6%) of the female F+ ECG tests and 249/371 (68.2%) of the male F+ ECG tests (preinforce the value of stress imaging, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  8. Glucose Challenge Test and Association with Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enis Özkaya

    2011-04-01

    CONCLUSION: In this study GCT results between 120-140 mg/dl were found to be risk factor for LBW after adjustment of other confounders and this value and higher values up to 160 mg/dl were positive confounders for C/S rates.

  9. Prenatal Testing for Adult-Onset Conditions: the Position of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercher, Laura; Uhlmann, Wendy R; Hoffman, Erin P; Gustafson, Shanna; Chen, Kelly M

    2016-12-01

    Advances in genetic testing and the availability of such testing in pregnancy allows prospective parents to test their future child for adult-onset conditions. This ability raises several complex ethical issues. Prospective parents have reproductive rights to obtain information about their fetus. This information may or may not alter pregnancy management. These rights can be in conflict with the rights of the future individual, who will be denied the right to elect or decline testing. This paper highlights the complexity of these issues, details discussions that went into the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) Public Policy Task Force's development of the Prenatal testing for Adult-Onset Conditions position statement adopted in November 2014, and cites relevant literature on this topic through December 2015. Issues addressed include parental rights and autonomy, rights of the future child, the right not to know, possible adverse effects on childhood and the need for genetic counseling. This paper will serve as a reference to genetic counselors and healthcare professionals when faced with this situation in clinical practice.

  10. The influence of body position on Bielschowsky's test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Souza-Dias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the veracity of Jampolsky's statement that Bielschowsky's head tilt test is inverted if performed with the patient in the upside-down position and to interpret its neuromuscular mechanism. Methods: We present a series of 10 patients selected from a referred sample who were diagnosed with superior oblique paresis. Hypertropia was measured in the primary position, with the head erect and tilted toward both shoulders with the patient in the erect, supine, and upside-down positions. The last position was achieved by hanging the patient upside-down. Results: As expected, our results showed the veracity of Jampolsky's statement. The forced head tilt difference was inverted or significantly decreased when the test was performed in the upside-down position. Moreover, in all patients, Bielschowsky's phenomenon was neutralized in the supine body position, in which hypertropia with the head erect tended to vanish. In 3 patients, it disappeared completely. Conclusions: This study showed that, in patients with superior oblique paresis, differences in the extent of hypertropia in Bielschowsky's test tended to vanish when the test was performed with the patient in the supine position and invert when it was performed with the patient in the upside-down position.

  11. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies with treatment of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) in a single center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, YueQiu; Gao, Ya; Lin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study is to report the performance of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancies after the treatment of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Method: In two years period, 565 pregnant women with ART twin pregnancies were prospectively tested by NIPT...

  12. Pregnancy, parturition, parity and position in the family. Any influence on the development of paediatric inguinal hernia/hydrocele?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irabor, D O; Ogundoyin O O; Ogunlana, D I

    2014-01-01

    To see if pre-partum factors have a relationship to the development of inguinal hernia in children. A prospective study on children with hernia. On first contact, the affected child was examined and data like the age, sex, weight, blood group, the diagnosis, side of the lesion and other co-morbid conditions was recorded. The mother filled a questionnaire about her age, parity, illness during pregnancy, her mode of delivery and the patient's position in the family. There were 104 patients from 103 mothers, their ages ranged from 13 days to 14 years with the highest incidence in the 1-4 age group. The sex ratio was overwhelmingly male (M:F ratio was 38:1). Right sided hernias were predominant. Only 7% had a family history. The peak age group of the mothers was 26-32 years and about 33% of the mothers had some illness during pregnancy. The birth positions of the patients showed that majority of them were either 1st or 2nd born children. Women of ages 26-32 likelyto have children with inguinal hernia. Malaria during pregnancy is unlikely to have a role to play. 1st and 2nd born male children have a higher chance of having inguinal hernia.

  13. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baveewo Steven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold. However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2% were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  14. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveewo, Steven; Kamya, Moses R; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Fatch, Robin; Bangsberg, David R; Coates, Thomas; Hahn, Judith A; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2012-03-19

    Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold). However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2%) were HIV negative. Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of a repeat HIV test in pregnancy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Smita; Kulkarni, Vinay; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Mahajan, Uma; Sharma, Sushma; Shirole, Devendra; Chandhiok, Nomita

    2015-06-11

    To evaluate cost-effectiveness of second HIV test in pregnancy. Current strategy of single HIV test during pregnancy in India can miss new HIV infections acquired after the first test or those HIV infections that were missed in the first test due to a false-negative HIV test. Between August 2011 and April 2013, 9097 pregnant HIV uninfected women were offered a second HIV test near term (34 weeks or beyond) or within 4 weeks of postpartum period. A decision analysis model was used to evaluate cost-effectiveness of a second HIV test in pregnant women near term. Our key outcome measures include programme cost with addition of second HIV test in pregnant women and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. We detected 4 new HIV infections in the second test. Thus HIV incidence among pregnant women was 0.12 (95% 0.032 to 0.297) per 100 person women years (PWY). Current strategy of a single HIV test is 8.2 times costlier for less QALYs gained as compared to proposed repeat HIV testing of pregnant women who test negative during the first test. Our results warrant consideration at the national level for including a second HIV test of all pregnant women in the national programme. However prior to allocation of resources for a second HIV test in pregnancy, appropriate strategies will have to be planned for improving compliance for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and reducing loss-to-follow-up of those women detected with HIV. CTRI/2013/12/004183. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, F.; Narijo, S.; Kammeruddin, K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). A total of 50 high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus were selected through outpatient department of obstetrics. Data was collected according to certain obstetric and non-obstetric risk factors for GDM as inclusion criteria through a designed proforma i.e. family history of diabetes, macrosomia (i.e, wt > 3.5 kg), abortions, grand multiparity, a sudden increase in weight (>1 kg/wk) during pregnancy, age > 35 years, early neonatal deaths/sudden IUDS, polyhydramnios, urogenital infections (vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and UTI), previous history of GDM, congenital abnormalities (with or without polyhydramnios) and multiple pregnancy. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and analyzed according to American Diabetic Association criteria, 2004. The most frequent risk factors were family history of diabetes mellitus in 1st degree relative and large for dates babies in 18 patients. Similarly, high risk factors such as history of abortions and grand multiparity were present in 16 and 14 pregnant women respectively. Least common factors, which contributed for GDM, were polyhydramnios in 4 cases and perinatal mortality (due to congenital anomalies of foetus, intrauterine deaths or neonatal deaths) seen only in 5 cases. Overall impaired oral glucose tolerance test was found in 24%. Most patients had one (17%) or two risk factors commonly (23%). Only 2% had shown five or more risk factors. Oral glucose tolerance test is a useful diagnostic tool to detect GDM in high risk pregnancies, depending upon the high frequency of number of risk factors in each individual. (author)

  17. Selenomethionine Uptake Test as a Sensitive Indicator of Placental Function in the Last Trimester of Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrow, J. S. [Medical Research Council, Department of Obstetrics, Royal Free Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1971-02-15

    During the last trimester of pregnancy the demands of the human foetus for nutrients can only just be met by the normal placenta. If the placenta is damaged or poorly developed foetal growth is impaired or, in severe cases, the baby dies. It is clinically important to detect placental failure as early as possible so that the underlying cause can be treated, or if this is not possible the baby can be delivered before term. {sup 75}Se-selenomethionine is one of the amino-acids which is taken up by the placenta from the mother's blood and actively transported against a concentration gradient to the foetus. In the selenomethionine uptake test two 3-in. diameter Nal detectors in cylindrical collimators are used; one is positioned over the mother's mediastinum and the other over her uterus. The output from each detector is fed through a pulse-height analyser to a recording ratemeter. A dose of 2 {mu}Ci of selenomethionine is given intravenously to the mother, and from the recorded count-rates during the next 15 minutes the efficiency of placental amino-acid transport can be assessed. The maximum radiation dose to the mother or foetus is 20 mrad. This test has been applied without ill effects to over 500 patients in whom there were clinical grounds for suspecting placental damage. Gross placental failure and intrauterine death were invariably associated with a very low selenomethionine-uptake over the uterus, and high uterine uptakes were always associated with good placental function. Misleading results may be obtained in cases with rhesus immunization or congenital defect in the foetus, since in such cases foetal growth failure is not due to a defect of transport in the placenta. Generally the test provides a quick, simple and reliable indication of the nutritive function of the placenta, and can be safely used to select those mothers who need particularly careful clinical management. (author)

  18. Peripheral blood TIM-3 positive NK and CD8+ T cells throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggyes, Matyas; Miko, Eva; Polgar, Beata

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM: The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is a relatively newly described group of molecules with a conserved structure and important immunological functions. Identification of Galectin-9 as a ligand for TIM-3 has established the Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway as an important...... negative regulator of Th1 immunity and tolerance induction. Data about the TIM-3/Gal-9 pathway in the pathogenesis of human diseases is emerging, but their possible role during human pregnancy is not precisely known. The aim of our study was to investigate the number, phenotype and functional activity...... of TIM-3+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells during healthy human pregnancy. METHODS OF STUDY: 57 healthy pregnant women [first trimester (n = 16); second trimester (n = 19); third trimester (n = 22)] and 30 non-pregnant controls were enrolled in the study. We measured the surface expression of TIM-3...

  19. Maternal hair testing for the assessment of fetal exposure to drug of abuse during early pregnancy: Comparison with testing in placental and fetal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, M; Pichini, S; Joya, J; Pujadas, M; Sanchez, A; Vall, O; García Algar, O; Luna, A; de la Torre, R; Rotolo, M C; Pellegrini, M

    2012-05-10

    Drug use by pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy and subsequent fetal exposure during early gestation can be assessed only by repetitive/systematic maternal blood/urine analysis or segmental hair analysis. No evidence of any relationship between maternal/fetal exposure during this specific period of gestation has been demonstrated to date in a human model. To clarify drugs toxicokinetics and transplacental passage during early pregnancy, the presence of the most widely used recreational drugs of abuse and metabolites was investigated in the proximal 4cm hair segments of women undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy (n=280) during the 12th week of gestation and the results were compared to those from placenta and fetal tissue samples in order to verify whether maternal hair testing can reflect fetal exposure and, if so, to what extent. Hair, placenta and fetal remains were analyzed by validated gas chromatography mass spectrometry assays. Eighty one positive hair samples were identified: 60 were positive for cannabis (74.1%), 28 for cocaine (34.6%), 7 for opiates (8.6%), 3 for MDMA (3.7%) and 18.5% were positive for more than one drug. The positive hair test results were confirmed in placenta/fetal tissues in 10 cases out of 60 for cannabis (16. 7%); in 7 out of 28 for cocaine (25%); and none for the 6 opiates positive cases and 3 MDMA cases, respectively. Drugs/metabolites in hair of pregnant women can be used as biomarkers of past drug use (repetitive or sporadic), although the use is not always reflected in fetal/placental tissues. There are several possible hypotheses to explain the results: (1) the use occurred before the start of pregnancy, (2) past sporadic consumption which could be measured in hair but not in fetal and placental remains because of the narrow window of drug detection in placental/fetal tissues; (3) the sensitivity of the analytical methods was not high enough for the detection of the minute amount of drugs of abuse and

  20. Persistent Low Toxoplasma IgG Avidity Is Common in Pregnancy: Experience from Antenatal Testing in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Findal

    Full Text Available The parasite Toxoplasma gondii might harm the fetus if a woman is infected during pregnancy. IgG seroconversion and significant increase in IgG antibody amount in pregnancy indicates maternal infection. Presence of toxoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM, immunoglobulin G (IgG and low IgG avidity in a single serum sample indicates possible maternal infection, but positive toxoplasma IgM and low IgG avidity may persist for months and even years. We aimed to evaluate avidity development during pregnancy in a retrospective study. Serial blood samples from 176 pregnant women admitted to Oslo University Hospital 1993-2013 for amniocentesis because of suspected toxoplasma infection were included. Data were obtained from journals and laboratory records. The avidity method used was based on Platelia Toxo IgG assay. Mean maternal age at first serology was 29.9 years (SD 5.2, range 18-42. In 37 (21% women only the avidity increased from low to high in < 3 months. In 139 (79% the IgG avidity remained below the high threshold ≥ 3 months and within this group 74 (42% women had stable low IgG avidity during the observation period. Median gestational age at first test was 10.6 weeks (range 4.6-28.7. Fetal infection was detected in four children, but none among children whose mother had stable low IgG avidity. The first antenatal toxoplasma serology should ideally be collected in early pregnancy and if stable values of toxoplasma IgM and low IgG-avidity are detected in a second sample after three to four weeks, the need for amniocentesis can be questioned.

  1. Maternal salivary cortisol levels during pregnancy are positively associated with overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohwü, Lena; Henriksen, Tine B; Grønborg, Therese K; Hedegaard, Morten; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Obel, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    Animal and human studies suggest that programing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be involved in the development of obesity, but human studies of biological indicators of HPA axis activity are lacking. We studied the association between levels of the stress hormone cortisol during pregnancy and overweight offspring during childhood into adolescence. Salivary samples from 655 Danish pregnant women with singleton pregnancies (1989-1991) were collected once in the morning and once in the evening in their second and third trimester. We followed the offspring from two to 16 years of age with at least one measurement of height and weight, and classified their body mass index into overweight and normal weight. The adjusted relative difference in median salivary cortisol (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) during pregnancy (the four samples), in second and third trimester (morning and evening samples) between overweight and normal weight offspring was estimated. Furthermore, the adjusted median ratio between morning and evening maternal salivary cortisol level was estimated for normal weight and overweight children. All the analyses were stratified into the equal age groups: 2-6, 7-11, and 12-16 years. We found non-significant higher maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy in offspring that were overweight at the age of 2-6, 7-11 and 12-16 years than in normal weight peers; adjusted relative difference in median salivary cortisol 11% (95% CI: -2; 25), 6% (95% CI: -7; 20), and 9% (95% CI: -4; 24), respectively. A statistically significantly higher level of maternal cortisol was found in the second trimester in 2-6-year-old and 12-16-year-old overweight offspring; relative difference 19% (95% CI: 3; 37), and 20% (95% CI: 3; 41), respectively. The median ratio between morning and evening maternal salivary cortisol level was similar for overweight and normal weight children; e.g. at age 2-6 years in third trimester 4.31 (95% CI: 4.05; 4.60)nmol/l and 4

  2. "A private little revolution": the home pregnancy test in American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    The home pregnancy test went from novelty to norm in twenty-five years. This article explores its cultural impact in the context of the women's health movement. Though women had long made do without it, the "private little revolution," as the test was called in an early advertisement, enabled them to take control of their reproductive health care and moved the moment of discovery from the doctor's office (back) to the home. The article introduces the test, explores its acceptance by physicians and by women, looks at the marketing of the test by drug companies, and traces its use in movies, television, and novels.

  3. Relevance of positive patch-test reactions to fragrance mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Steven A; Constandt, Lieve; Tupker, Ron A; Noz, Kathy C; Lucker, Georges P H; Bruynzeel, Derk P; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise A; Kruyswijk, Mente R J; van Zuuren, Esther J; Vink, Jaqueline; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; van der Valk, Pieter G M

    2008-01-01

    Fragrances are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. We presume that the traditional fragrance mix (FM) detects 70 to 80% of fragrance-allergic patients. FM has an irritant potential. Weak positive reactions may have a greater chance of being irrelevant than strong reactions. To improve the appraisal of FM patch-test reactions, we studied the relevance of reactions of different strength. We also studied the predictive value of the following on the relevance of the initial FM patch-test results: patch-test results of a repeated FM test; results of patch tests with balsam of Peru, colophony, and ingredients of the mix; and (history of) atopic dermatitis. One hundred thirty-eight patients who had doubtful positive (?+) or positive (+ to +++) reactions were included in the study. We determined relevance by history taking, location and course of the dermatitis, and additional patch testing. Patients were retested with FM and with each ingredient separately. The relevance of reactions to FM increases with the strength of the reactions. Predictors of relevance are the results of retesting with FM, the results of tests with the ingredients, and a history and/or present symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Retesting with FM and its ingredients may add to the benefit of patch testing.

  4. Design, test, and calibration of an electrostatic beam position monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Cohen-Solal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The low beta of proton or ion beams favors an electrostatic pickup to measure the transverse beam centroid position. Often papers on beam position monitors (BPM are focused on a particular aspect of the problem; however, it is important to consider all various issues of a position measurement system. Based on our experience at the IPHI (high intensity injector proton facility at CEA-Saclay, this paper will address all aspects to design, test, and calibrate a BPM for proton linear accelerators, while emphasizing the determination of the absolute beam position. We present details of the readout electronics, and describe the calibration of the BPM using a test station. For calculation and simulation of the electrical signals we developed a Mathematica script. The error analysis presented, on the basis of six BPMs installed in the high energy section of IPHI, demonstrates the expected accuracy of the position measurement. These studies also identify the parameters that could improve the performance of the beam position control. The experience from these developments is currently being used for the BPM design and test stand dedicated to the Spiral2 accelerator at Ganil-Caen which will deliver heavy ion beams.

  5. Prevailence of Patch Test Positivity with Some Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the suitability of some chemicals to act as bases for antigens for patch tests, patch tests were performed with these agents in patients having contact dermatitis. Propylene glycol′used as such produced positive reactions in 25 (50% patients of which 12 were 2 + or more, polyethylene glycol 200 produced positive reactions in 9 (18% cases of which 4 cases were 2 + or more, a mixture of liquid paraffin and hard paraffin gave rise to positive reactions in 10 (10% cases 3 of these being 2 +, a mixture of liquid paraffin and bees wax was positive in 14 (14,Yo cases 3 of these being 2 +, yellow petrolatum was positive in 4 (8% cases, one of which was 2 +, white petrolatum was positive in S (6% cases all of these being + reactions only, and glycerol gave rise to a I + reaction in only one (2% caw. In tropical countries, water should be as base for as many antigens as possible for others, a control test with the b must be included.

  6. Design, test, and calibration of an electrostatic beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Solal, Maurice

    2010-03-01

    The low beta of proton or ion beams favors an electrostatic pickup to measure the transverse beam centroid position. Often papers on beam position monitors (BPM) are focused on a particular aspect of the problem; however, it is important to consider all various issues of a position measurement system. Based on our experience at the IPHI (high intensity injector proton) facility at CEA-Saclay, this paper will address all aspects to design, test, and calibrate a BPM for proton linear accelerators, while emphasizing the determination of the absolute beam position. We present details of the readout electronics, and describe the calibration of the BPM using a test station. For calculation and simulation of the electrical signals we developed a Mathematica script. The error analysis presented, on the basis of six BPMs installed in the high energy section of IPHI, demonstrates the expected accuracy of the position measurement. These studies also identify the parameters that could improve the performance of the beam position control. The experience from these developments is currently being used for the BPM design and test stand dedicated to the Spiral2 accelerator at Ganil-Caen which will deliver heavy ion beams.

  7. The Association Between Low 50 g Glucose Challenge Test Values and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hayan; Lee, Joonho; Lee, Byung-Wan; Kwon, Ja-Young; Kim, Young-Han

    2018-01-11

    The implications of low values on the 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) in pregnancy are not clearly defined. Few studies have evaluated the influence of maternal low GCT values on obstetrical outcomes. This study aimed to compare pregnancy outcomes between women with low 50 g GCT values and those with normal values. Women undergoing gestational diabetes mellitus screening at 24-28 weeks of gestational age between January 2010 and December 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Women with multifetal pregnancies, prepregnancy type I or II diabetes, GCT performed before 24 or after 28 weeks of gestational age, and women undergoing multiple GCTs in the same pregnancy were excluded. Low GCT values and normal GCT values were defined as ≤85 mg/dL and 86-130 mg/dL, respectively. Of 3875 screened subjects, 519 (13.4%) women were included in the low GCT group and 3356 (86.6%) in the normal GCT group. Low GCT women had a significantly higher rate of small for gestational age (SGA) infants than normal GCT women (10.8% vs. 7.9%, p = 0.02). Cesarean section and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) were less frequent in low GCT women than in normal women (32.6% vs. 42.8%, p values. Low GCT values were independently associated with an increased risk of SGA.

  8. The analysis of possibility of physical rehabilitation at pelvic presentation and wrong positions of a fetus during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brega L.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the main reasons of occurrence and correction possibility by rehabilitation means of wrong positions and pelvic presentation a fetus during pregnancy. It is resulted the analysis of publications in which modern possibilities of influence on correction of a pathological condition by means of application of means of physical rehabilitation are shined. It is established the importance of early revealing, correction and fetus fixing in head prelying prior to the beginning of patrimonial activity, feature of carrying out corrective training at pregnant women.

  9. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-09-15

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  10. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  11. Pregnancy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20201 1-800-994- ...

  12. Herbalife hepatotoxicity: Evaluation of cases with positive reexposure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-07-27

    To analyze the validity of applied test criteria and causality assessment methods in assumed Herbalife hepatotoxicity with positive reexposure tests. We searched the Medline database for suspected cases of Herbalife hepatotoxicity and retrieved 53 cases including eight cases with a positive unintentional reexposure and a high causality level for Herbalife. First, analysis of these eight cases focused on the data quality of the positive reexposure cases, requiring a baseline value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) Herbalife in these eight cases were probable (n = 1), unlikely (n = 4), and excluded (n = 3). Confounding variables included low data quality, alternative diagnoses, poor exclusion of important other causes, and comedication by drugs and herbs in 6/8 cases. More specifically, problems were evident in some cases regarding temporal association, daily doses, exact start and end dates of product use, actual data of laboratory parameters such as ALT, and exact dechallenge characteristics. Shortcomings included scattered exclusion of hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus infection with only globally presented or lacking parameters. Hepatitis E virus infection was considered in one single patient and found positive, infections by herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus were excluded in none. Only one case fulfilled positive reexposure test criteria in initially assumed Herbalife hepatotoxicity, with lower CIOMS based causality gradings for the other cases than hitherto proposed.

  13. Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy children in Maiduguri, Nigeria. MG Mustapha, AM Garba, AI Rabasa, MS Gimba. Abstract. Background. The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is highest in the developing countries of Asia and Africa, especially among children, in whom the diagnosis is challenging.

  14. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  15. Prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyun, Victoria; Brittain, Kirsty; Phillips, Tamsin K; le Roux, Stanzi; McIntyre, James A; Zerbe, Allison; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2018-04-03

    Prevention of unplanned pregnancy is a crucial aspect of preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. There are few data investigating how HIV status and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence pregnancy planning in high HIV burden settings. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Cape Town, South Africa. Cross-sectional analysis. Single primary-level antenatal care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women, booking for antenatal care from March 2013 to August 2015, were included. Unplanned pregnancy was measured at the first antenatal care visit using the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP). Analyses examined LMUP scores across four groups of participants defined by their HIV status, awareness of their HIV status prior to the current pregnancy and/or whether they were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to the current pregnancy. Among 2105 pregnant women (1512 HIV positive; 593 HIV negative), median age was 28 years, 43% were married/cohabiting and 20% were nulliparous. Levels of unplanned pregnancy were significantly higher in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women (50% vs 33%, p<0.001); and highest in women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (53%). After adjusting for age, parity and marital status, unplanned pregnancy was most common among women newly diagnosed and women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (compared with HIV-negative women, adjusted OR (aOR): 1.43; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.94 and aOR: 1.57; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.15, respectively). Increased parity and younger age (<24 years) were also associated with unplanned pregnancy (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI 1.25 to 1.60 and aOR: 1.83; 95% CI 1.23 to 2.74, respectively). We observed high levels of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive women, particularly among those not on ART, suggesting ongoing missed opportunities for improved family planning and

  16. [Characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis with positive skin prick test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Jiang, Y; Jin, Y M; Zhang, J Y; Li, Y

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To observe the clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis, and the correlations with skin prick test results. Methods: A retrospective study. Forty patients with positive skin prick test result were included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 5 groups. All dates were analyzed for the dependence, normality and homogeneity of variance. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman correlation analysis were performed accordingly. Results: Among 40 patients, 18(45.0%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 14(35.0%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 5(12.5%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 2(5.0%) had atopic keratoconjunctivits, and 1(2.5%) had giant papillary conjunctivitis. There was no significant difference in the number of symptoms and signs score among different types of allergic conjunctivitis, the score of itching and hyperemia had a positive relationship with the number of positive allergens ( r =0.74, Ptest of the allergen, the more symptoms and signs encountered in terms of severity. Conclusion: Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder, the most important clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are itching and conjunctival congestion, the main allergens are dust and pollens, patients may be sensitive to multiple allergens. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 689-693) .

  17. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... half of pregnancy. Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...

  18. HIV testing during pregnancy: use of secondary data to estimate 2006 test coverage and prevalence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Landmann Szwarcwald

    Full Text Available This paper describes a methodological proposal based on secondary data and the main results of the HIV-Sentinel Study among childbearing women, carried out in Brazil during 2006. A probabilistic sample of childbearing women was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 150 health establishments were selected, stratified by municipality size (<50,000; 50,000-399,999; 400,000+. In the second stage, 100-120 women were selected systematically. Data collection was based on HIV-test results registered in pre-natal cards and in hospital records. The analysis focused on coverage of HIV-testing during pregnancy and HIV prevalence rate. Logistic regression models were used to test inequalities in HIV-testing coverage during pregnancy by macro-region of residence, municipality size, race, educational level and age group. The study included 16,158 women. Results were consistent with previous studies based on primary data collection. Among the women receiving pre-natal care with HIV-test results registered in their pre-natal cards, HIV prevalence was 0.41%. Coverage of HIV-testing during pregnancy was 62.3% in the country as a whole, but ranged from 40.6% in the Northeast to 85.8% in the South. Significant differences according to race, educational level and municipality size were also found. The proposed methodology is low-cost, easy to apply, and permits identification of problems in routine service provision, in addition to monitoring compliance with Ministry of Health recommendations for pre-natal care.

  19. Immunoglobulin M indirect-fluorescent antibody test for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy in the avidity era: A 14-year experience at the Tuscany Reference Center for Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy, Florence, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Michele; Borchi, Beatrice; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Sterrantino, Gaetana; Brogi, Michela; Kiros, Seble Tekle; Lorini, Chiara; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Colao, Maria Grazia; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate immunoglobulin M indirect-fluorescent antibody test (IgM IFAT) for the diagnosis of acute or chronic Toxoplasma infection in pregnancy. Pregnant women with suspected acute toxoplasmosis referred to the Tuscany Reference Center for Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy during the period 1998-2012 were retrospectively enrolled. All women were tested with a panel of serological tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG avidity and IgM IFAT. On the basis of anamnestic, clinical, and serological criteria, pregnant women were classified into three groups: recently infected (RI), latently infected (LI), and doubtful latently infected (DLI). Patients classified as DLI were excluded from the analysis. The association between IgM IFAT (positive or negative) and the diagnosis of infection (acute or chronic) was assessed. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the IgM IFAT were calculated. A total of 810 pregnant women were enrolled in the study: 302 in the RI group and 508 in the LI group. Fifty-two women classified as DLI were excluded. IgM IFAT was positive in 172 out of 302 (56.9%) pregnant women in the RI group and in 29 out of 508 (5.7%) in the LI group. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IgM IFAT in predicting RI was 85.6% and 78.6%, respectively. IgM IFAT has reasonable sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing recent infection and, mostly in case of borderline avidity test, could be considered as a further aid for an accurate diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Maternal serum lead level during pregnancy is positively correlated with risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Hua; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Lu; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-known developmental toxicant. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between maternal serum Pb level and risk of preterm birth in a population-based birth cohort study. The present study analyzed a sub-study of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort that recruited 3125 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Pb level was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All subjects were classified into three groups by tertile division according to serum Pb level: Low-Pb (L-Pb, <1.18 μg/dl), Medium-Pb (M-Pb, 1.18–1.70 μg/dl), and High-Pb (H-Pb, ≥1.71 μg/dl). The rate of preterm birth was 2.8% among subjects with L-Pb, 6.1% among subjects with M-Pb, and 8.1% among subjects with H-Pb, respectively. After controlling confounding factors, the adjusted OR for preterm birth was 2.33 (95%CI: 1.49, 3.65) among subjects with M-Pb and 3.09 (95%CI: 2.01, 4.76) among subjects with H-Pb. Of interest, maternal Pb exposure in early gestational stage than in middle gestational stage was more susceptible to preterm birth. Moreover, maternal serum Pb level was only associated with increased risk of late preterm birth. The present study provides evidence that maternal serum Pb level during pregnancy is positively associated with risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population. - Highlights: • Environmental Pb exposure during pregnancy elevates risk of preterm birth. • Environmental Pb exposure during pregnancy elevates risk of moderate and late preterm birth. • Environmental Pb exposure at early or middle gestational stage elevates risk of preterm birth. - Maternal serum Pb level during pregnancy is positively associated with risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population.

  1. Expert Knowledge Influences Decision-Making for Couples Receiving Positive Prenatal Chromosomal Microarray Testing Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, M A; Werner-Lin, A; Barg, F K; Bernhardt, B A

    2017-09-01

    To assess how participants receiving abnormal prenatal genetic testing results seek information and understand the implications of results, 27 US female patients and 12 of their male partners receiving positive prenatal microarray testing results completed semi-structured phone interviews. These interviews documented participant experiences with chromosomal microarray testing, understanding of and emotional response to receiving results, factors affecting decision-making about testing and pregnancy termination, and psychosocial needs throughout the testing process. Interview data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. In the absence of certainty about the implications of results, understanding of results is shaped by biomedical expert knowledge (BEK) and cultural expert knowledge (CEK). When there is a dearth of BEK, as in the case of receiving results of uncertain significance, participants rely on CEK, including religious/spiritual beliefs, "gut instinct," embodied knowledge, and social network informants. CEK is a powerful platform to guide understanding of prenatal genetic testing results. The utility of culturally situated expert knowledge during testing uncertainty emphasizes that decision-making occurs within discourses beyond the biomedical domain. These forms of "knowing" may be integrated into clinical consideration of efficacious patient assessment and counseling.

  2. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy, poor birth outcomes and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obare Francis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the experiences of unintended pregnancies and poor birth outcomes among adolescents aged 15–19 years in the general population are well documented, there is limited understanding of the same among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional study that captured information on pregnancy histories of HIV-positive female adolescents in four regions of Kenya: Coast, Nairobi, Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Study participants were identified through HIV and AIDS programs in the four regions. Out of a total of 797 female participants, 394 had ever been pregnant with 24% of them experiencing multiple pregnancies. Analysis entails the estimation of random-effects logit models. Results Higher order pregnancies were just as likely to be unintended as lower order ones (odds ratios [OR]: 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8–2.0 while pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to be unintended compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1–0.2. Higher order pregnancies were significantly more likely to result in poor outcomes compared to lower order ones (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6–4.0. In addition, pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to result in poor outcomes compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.9. However, experiencing unintended pregnancy was not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 0.5–3.3. There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of post-partum contraceptive use by whether the pregnancy was unintended (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5–1.5. Conclusions The experience of repeat unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive female adolescents

  3. Factors associated with unintended pregnancy, poor birth outcomes and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obare, Francis; van der Kwaak, Anke; Birungi, Harriet

    2012-10-06

    Although the experiences of unintended pregnancies and poor birth outcomes among adolescents aged 15-19 years in the general population are well documented, there is limited understanding of the same among those who are living with HIV. This paper examines the factors associated with experiencing unintended pregnancies, poor birth outcomes, and post-partum contraceptive use among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya. Data are from a cross-sectional study that captured information on pregnancy histories of HIV-positive female adolescents in four regions of Kenya: Coast, Nairobi, Nyanza and Rift Valley provinces. Study participants were identified through HIV and AIDS programs in the four regions. Out of a total of 797 female participants, 394 had ever been pregnant with 24% of them experiencing multiple pregnancies. Analysis entails the estimation of random-effects logit models. Higher order pregnancies were just as likely to be unintended as lower order ones (odds ratios [OR]: 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-2.0) while pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to be unintended compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.1; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2). Higher order pregnancies were significantly more likely to result in poor outcomes compared to lower order ones (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-4.0). In addition, pregnancies occurring within marital unions were significantly less likely to result in poor outcomes compared to those occurring outside such unions (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.9). However, experiencing unintended pregnancy was not significantly associated with adverse birth outcomes (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 0.5-3.3). There was also no significant difference in the likelihood of post-partum contraceptive use by whether the pregnancy was unintended (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.5-1.5). The experience of repeat unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive female adolescents in the sample is partly due to inconsistent use of contraception to prevent

  4. Heterogeneity in testing practices for infections during pregnancy: national survey across Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi-Popp, Karoline; Kahlert, Christian; Rauch, Andri; Mosimann, Beatrice; Baud, David; Low, Nicola; Surbek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Detection and treatment of infections during pregnancy are important for both maternal and child health. The objective of this study was to describe testing practices and adherence to current national guidelines in Switzerland. We invited all registered practicing obstetricians and gynaecologists in Switzerland to complete an anonymous web-based questionnaire about strategies for testing for 14 infections during pregnancy. We conducted a descriptive analysis according to demographic characteristics. Of 1138 invited clinicians, 537 (47.2%) responded and 520 (45.6%) were eligible as they are currently caring for pregnant women. Nearly all eligible respondents tested all pregnant women for group B streptococcus (98.0%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) (96.5%) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (94.7%), in accordance with national guidelines. Although testing for toxoplasmosis is not recommended, 24.1% of respondents tested all women and 32.9% tested at the request of the patient. Hospital doctors were more likely not to test for toxoplasmosis than doctors working in private practice (odds ratio [OR] 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-6.13, p = 0.04). Only 80.4% of respondents tested all women for syphilis. There were regional differences in testing for some infections. The proportion of clinicians testing all women for HIV, HBV and syphilis was lower in Eastern Switzerland and the Zurich region (69.4% and 61.2%, respectively) than in other regions (range 77.1-88.1%, p Switzerland. More extensive national guidelines could improve consistency of testing practices.

  5. Characteristics of children with positive tuberculin skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocaoğlu, Arzu Babayiğit; Erge, Duygu Olmez; Anal, Ozden; Makay, Balahan; Uzuner, Nevin; Karaman, Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the characteristics of children with latent tuberculosis diagnosed with positive tuberculin skin test (TST) and evaluate potential risk factors in children with positive TST. Children followed with the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection were included in the study retrospectively. Demographic characteristics of patients including history of atopy, respiratory infections, family history of tuberculosis and atopy, number of BCG vaccinations, findings of physical examination and laboratory data were extracted from patient's file. Eighty-one children (51 male, 30 female) who had positive TST were retrospectively evaluated in the study. Mean age of the patients was 8.00 ± 4.00 years. Only 13 (16%) of the children had contact with a case who had active tuberculosis. It was shown that the age of the patients, number of BCG scars and BCG vaccination significantly affected TST reaction size. TST size was not affected with time passed after last dose of BCG vaccination, family history of tuberculosis, presence of TST positive case in the family, exposure to cigarette smoke, number of household family members and presence of respiratory allergic disease. The patient's age, numbers of BCG vaccination and BCG scars significantly affect TST results in childhood. This may cause difficulty in diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection and in decision of initiating prophylactic treatment. The results of this study may show that recently developed, more accurate and convenient in vitro tests that they have higher costs and require sophisticated laboratory, can be used to diagnose latent tuberculosis.

  6. Development and psychometric testing of the rural pregnancy experience scale (RPES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornelsen, Jude; Stoll, Kathrin; Grzybowski, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Rural pregnant woman who lack local access to maternity care due to their remote living circumstances may experience stress and anxiety related to pregnancy and parturition. The Rural Pregnancy Experience Scale (RPES) was designed to assess the unique worry and concerns reflective of the stress and anxiety of rural pregnant women related to pregnancy and parturition. The items of the scale were designed based on the results of a qualitative study of the experiences of pregnant rural women, thereby building a priori content validity into the measure. The relevancy content validity index (CVI) for this instrument was 1.0 and the clarity CVI was .91, as rated by maternity care specialists. A field test of the RPES with 187 pregnant rural women from British Columbia indicated that it had two factors: financial worries and worries/concerns about maternity care services, which were consistent with the conceptual base of the tool. Cronbach's alpha for the total RPES was .91; for the financial worries subscale and the worries/concerns about maternity care services subscale, alpha were .89 and .88, respectively. Construct validity was supported by significant correlations between the total scores of the RPES and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS [r =.39, p DASS supporting convergent validity (correlations ranged between .20; p < .05 and .43; p < .01). Construct validity was also supported by findings that the level of access and availability of maternity care services were significantly associated with RPES scores. It was concluded that the RPES is a reliable and valid measure of worries and concerns reflective of rural pregnant women's stress and anxiety related to pregnancy and parturition.

  7. Chorioamnionitis in pregnancy: a comparative study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative parturients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheke, Amaka N; Agaba, Patricia A; Imade, Godwin E; Silas, Olugbenga A; Ajetunmobi, Olanrewaju I; Echejoh, Godwins; Ekere, Clement; Sendht, Ayuba; Bitrus, James; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Sagay, Atiene S

    2016-03-01

    Chorioamnionitis is an important risk factor for vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS. We compared the prevalence and correlates of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women. HIV-positive and -negative parturients were interviewed, examined and had their placentas examined histologically for chorioamnionitis. Data regarding HIV were also retrieved from their hospital records. A total of 298 parturients (150 HIV positive and 148 HIV negative) were enrolled. The two groups were similar in socio-demographic and obstetric parameters except for age. The prevalence of HCA was 57.1% in HIV-positive women and 61.6% in HIV-negative women (p = 0.43). HCA staging was associated with the number of intrapartum vaginal examinations in HIV-positive subjects and nulliparity in HIV-negative subjects. The number of intrapartum vaginal examinations and coitus in the week prior to delivery significantly affected the grade of HCA in HIV-negative subjects. The prevalence of HCA in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative is high. Most variables did not affect the occurrence of HCA in both groups studied except number of intrapartum examinations, coitus in the preceding one week and nulliparity, which were related to severity of the disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnant women: cross-sectional analysis of physiological parameters throughout pregnancy and the impact of the supine position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moelker Adriaan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are physiological reasons for the effects of positioning on hemodynamic variables and cardiac dimensions related to altered intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. This problem is especially evident in pregnant women due to the additional aorto-caval compression by the enlarged uterus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of postural changes on cardiac dimensions and function during mid and late pregnancy using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Methods Healthy non-pregnant women, pregnant women at 20th week of gestation and at 32nd week of gestation without history of cardiac disease were recruited to the study and underwent CMR in supine and left lateral positions. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters and dimensions were measured and compared between both positions. Results Five non-pregnant women, 6 healthy pregnant women at mid pregnancy and 8 healthy pregnant women at late pregnancy were enrolled in the study. In the group of non-pregnant women left ventricular (LV cardiac output (CO significantly decreased by 9% (p = 0.043 and right ventricular (RV end-diastolic volume (EDV significantly increased by 5% (p = 0.043 from the supine to the left lateral position. During mid pregnancy LV ejection fraction (EF, stroke volume (SV, left atrium lateral diameter and left atrial supero-inferior diameter increased significantly from the supine position to the left lateral position: 8%, 27%, 5% and 11%, respectively (p Conclusions During pregnancy positional changes affect significantly cardiac hemodynamic parameters and dimensions. Pregnant women who need serial studies by CMR should be imaged in a consistent position. From as early as 20 weeks the left lateral position should be preferred on the supine position because it positively affects venous return, SV and CO.

  9. Beam test of the 2D position sensitive neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lichao; Chen Yuanbo; Sun Zhijia; Tang Bin; Zhou Jianrong; Qi Huirong; Liu Rongguang; Zhang Jian; Yang Guian; Xu Hong

    2014-01-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), one of the Major scientific apparatuses of the national Eleventh Five-Year Plane, is under construction and three spectrumeters will be constructed in the first phase of the project. A 2D position sensitive neutron detector has been constructed for the Multifunctional Reflect spectrumeter (MR) in Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP). The basic operation principle of the detector and the test on the residual stress diffractometer of Chinese Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is introduced in this paper. The results show that it has a good position resolution of l.18 mm (FWHM) for the neutrons of l.37 A and 2D imaging ability, which is consistent with the theory. It can satisfy the requirements of MR and lays the foundation for the construction of larger neutron detectors. (authors)

  10. Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsier, N; Wiart, J; Dahdouh, S; Angelini, E D; Bloch, I; Serrurier, A; De la Plata, J-P; Anquez, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the environmental whole-body and local exposure of a fetus in vertical position, head down or head up, in the 2100 MHz frequency band, we concluded that both whole-body and average brain exposures of the fetus decrease during the first pregnancy trimester, while they advance during the pregnancy due to the rapid weight gain of the fetus in these first stages. From the beginning of the second trimester, the whole-body and the average brain exposures are quite stable because the weight gains are quasi proportional to the absorbed power increases. The behavior of the fetus whole-body and local exposures during pregnancy for a fetus in the vertical position with the head up were found to be of a similar level, when compared to the position with the head down they were slightly higher, especially in the brain. (paper)

  11. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula.

  12. Early Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go on to have successful pregnancies. Repeated pregnancy losses are rare. Testing and evaluation can be done ... find a cause if you have several pregnancy losses. Even if no cause is found, most couples ...

  13. HIV Positive Diagnosis During Pregnancy Increases Risk of IPV Postpartum Among Women with No History of IPV in Their Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

    2017-07-24

    There has been limited study of whether and for whom physical intimate partner violence (IPV) is a consequence of an HIV-positive diagnosis. Per the diathesis stress model, the consequences of HIV infection may be worse for women with a history of IPV. We hypothesize that the positive association between HIV diagnosis in pregnancy and postpartum IPV will be exacerbated for women with a history of IPV. Data come from a prospective cohort study with 1015 participants who completed a baseline antenatal and 9-month postpartum visit. Using logistic regression analyses, we found a statistically significant interaction between HIV diagnosis, history of IPV and postpartum IPV (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.96). The findings were in the opposite direction as expected: HIV-diagnosis was not associated with IPV for women with a history of IPV (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). However, HIV-positive women without a history of IPV faced more than two times the risk of incident postpartum IPV than HIV-negative women (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). Interventions to reduce incident and ongoing IPV during the perinatal period are needed.

  14. Untangling the Relationship Between Antiretroviral Therapy Use and Incident Pregnancy: A Marginal Structural Model Analysis Using Data From 47,313 HIV-Positive Women in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elul, Batya; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K; Wu, Yingfeng; Musick, Beverly S; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Nash, Denis; Ayaya, Samuel; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Okong, Pius; Otieno, Juliana; Wabwire, Deo; Kambugu, Andrew; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T

    2016-07-01

    Scale-up of triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa has transformed the context of childbearing for HIV-positive women and may impact pregnancy incidence in HIV programs. Using observational data from 47,313 HIV-positive women enrolled at 26 HIV clinics in Kenya and Uganda between 2001 and 2009, we calculated the crude cumulative incidence of pregnancy for the pre-ART and on-ART periods. The causal effect of ART use on incident pregnancy was assessed using inverse probability weighted marginal structural models, and the relationship was further explored in multivariable Cox models. Crude cumulative pregnancy incidence at 1 year after enrollment/ART initiation was 4.0% and 3.9% during the pre-ART and on-ART periods, respectively. In marginal structural models, ART use was not significantly associated with incident pregnancy [hazard ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99 to 1.12]. Similarly, in Cox models, there was no significant relationship between ART use and incident pregnancy (cause-specific hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.05), but effect modification was observed. Specifically, women who were pregnant at enrollment and on ART had an increased risk of incident pregnancy compared to those not pregnant at enrollment and not on ART (cause-specific hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.23). In this large cohort, ART initiation was not associated with incident pregnancy in the general population of women enrolling in HIV care but rather only among those pregnant at enrollment. This finding further highlights the importance of scaling up access to lifelong treatment for pregnant women.

  15. Implementation of repeat HIV testing during pregnancy in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anna Joy; Weke, Elly; Kwena, Zachary; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Oyaro, Patrick; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M

    2016-07-11

    Repeat HIV testing in late pregnancy has the potential to decrease rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by identifying mothers who seroconvert after having tested negative for HIV in early pregnancy. Despite being national policy in Kenya, the available data suggest that implementation rates are low. We conducted 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers and managers to explore barriers and enablers to implementation of repeat HIV testing guidelines for pregnant women. Participants were from the Nyanza region of Kenya and were purposively selected to provide variation in socio-demographics and job characteristics. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed in Dedoose software using a thematic analysis approach. Four themes were identified a priori using Ferlie and Shortell's Framework for Change and additional themes were allowed to emerge from the data. Participants identified barriers and enablers at the client, provider, facility, and health system levels. Key barriers at the client level from the perspective of providers included late initial presentation to antenatal care and low proportions of women completing the recommended four antenatal visits. Barriers to offering repeat HIV testing for providers included heavy workloads, time limitations, and failing to remember to check for retest eligibility. At the facility level, inconsistent volume of clients and lack of space required for confidential HIV retesting were cited as barriers. Finally, at the health system level, there were challenges relating to the HIV test kit supply chain and the design of nationally standardized antenatal patient registers. Enablers to improving the implementation of repeat HIV testing included client dissemination of the benefits of antenatal care through word-of-mouth, provider cooperation and task shifting, and it was suggested that use of an electronic health record system could provide automatic reminders for retest eligibility. This study

  16. Going to sleep in the supine position is a modifiable risk factor for late pregnancy stillbirth; Findings from the New Zealand multicentre stillbirth case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley M E McCowan

    Full Text Available Our objective was to test the primary hypothesis that maternal non-left, in particular supine going-to-sleep position, would be a risk factor for late stillbirth (≥28 weeks of gestation.A multicentre case-control study was conducted in seven New Zealand health regions, between February 2012 and December 2015. Cases (n = 164 were women with singleton pregnancies and late stillbirth, without congenital abnormality. Controls (n = 569 were women with on-going singleton pregnancies, randomly selected and frequency matched for health region and gestation. The primary outcome was adjusted odds of late stillbirth associated with self-reported going-to-sleep position, on the last night. The last night was the night before the late stillbirth was thought to have occurred or the night before interview for controls. Going-to-sleep position on the last night was categorised as: supine, left-side, right-side, propped or restless. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for known confounders.Supine going-to-sleep position on the last night was associated with increased late stillbirth risk (adjusted odds ratios (aOR 3.67, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.74 to 7.78 with a population attributable risk of 9.4%. Other independent risk factors for late stillbirth (aOR, 95% CI were: BMI (1.04, 1.01 to 1.08 per unit, maternal age ≥40 (2.88, 1.31 to 6.32, birthweight <10th customised centile (2.76, 1.59 to 4.80, and <6 hours sleep on the last night (1.81, 1.14 to 2.88. The risk associated with supine-going-to-sleep position was greater for term (aOR 10.26, 3.00 to 35.04 than preterm stillbirths (aOR 3.12, 0.97 to 10.05.Supine going-to-sleep position is associated with a 3.7 fold increase in overall late stillbirth risk, independent of other common risk factors. A public health campaign encouraging women not to go-to-sleep supine in the third trimester has potential to reduce late stillbirth by approximately 9%.

  17. Developing and pre-testing a decision board to facilitate informed choice about delivery approach in uncomplicated pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Stephen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of caesarean sections is increasing worldwide, yet medical literature informing women with uncomplicated pregnancies about relative risks and benefits of elective caesarean section (CS compared with vaginal delivery (VD remains scarce. A decision board may address this gap, providing systematic evidence-based information so that patients can more fully understand their treatment options. The objective of our study was to design and pre-test a decision board to guide clinical discussions and enhance informed decision-making related to delivery approach (CS or VD in uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods Development of the decision board involved two preliminary studies to determine women's preferred mode of risk presentation and a systematic literature review for the most comprehensive presentation of medical risks at the time (VD and CS. Forty women were recruited to pre-test the tool. Eligible subjects were of childbearing age (18-40 years but were not pregnant in order to avoid raising the expectation among pregnant women that CS was a universally available birth option. Women selected their preferred delivery approach and completed the Decisional Conflict Scale to measure decisional uncertainty before and after reviewing the decision board. They also answered open-ended questions reflecting what they had learned, whether or not the information had helped them to choose between birth methods, and additional information that should be included. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse sample characteristics and women's choice of delivery approach pre/post decision board. Change in decisional conflict was measured using Wilcoxon's sign rank test for each of the three subscales. Results The majority of women reported that they had learned something new (n = 37, 92% and that the tool had helped them make a hypothetical choice between delivery approaches (n = 34, 85%. Women wanted more information about neonatal risks and

  18. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnant women: cross-sectional analysis of physiological parameters throughout pregnancy and the impact of the supine position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alexia; Cornette, Jerome; Johnson, Mark R; Karamermer, Yusuf; Springeling, Tirza; Opic, Petra; Moelker, Adriaan; Krestin, Gabriel P; Steegers, Eric; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien; van Geuns, Robert-Jan M

    2011-06-27

    There are physiological reasons for the effects of positioning on hemodynamic variables and cardiac dimensions related to altered intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. This problem is especially evident in pregnant women due to the additional aorto-caval compression by the enlarged uterus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of postural changes on cardiac dimensions and function during mid and late pregnancy using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Healthy non-pregnant women, pregnant women at 20th week of gestation and at 32nd week of gestation without history of cardiac disease were recruited to the study and underwent CMR in supine and left lateral positions. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters and dimensions were measured and compared between both positions. Five non-pregnant women, 6 healthy pregnant women at mid pregnancy and 8 healthy pregnant women at late pregnancy were enrolled in the study. In the group of non-pregnant women left ventricular (LV) cardiac output (CO) significantly decreased by 9% (p=0.043) and right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (EDV) significantly increased by 5% (p=0.043) from the supine to the left lateral position. During mid pregnancy LV ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), left atrium lateral diameter and left atrial supero-inferior diameter increased significantly from the supine position to the left lateral position: 8%, 27%, 5% and 11%, respectively (ppregnancy a significant increment of LV EF, EDV, SV and CO was observed in the left lateral position: 11%, 21%, 35% and 24% (ppregnancy positional changes affect significantly cardiac hemodynamic parameters and dimensions. Pregnant women who need serial studies by CMR should be imaged in a consistent position. From as early as 20 weeks the left lateral position should be preferred on the supine position because it positively affects venous return, SV and CO.

  19. 10 CFR 707.7 - Random drug testing requirements and identification of testing designated positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contractor, to have the potential to significantly affect the environment, public health and safety, or... evidence of the use of illegal drugs of employees in testing designated positions identified in this... section shall provide for random tests at a rate equal to 30 percent of the total number of employees in...

  20. [Pilot testing of an internet based pregnancy planning study "Snart-gravid.dk"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2011-01-01

    Before launching a new study pilot testing is often recommended, however, it is seldom described in depth. Here, we report extensively on a pilot study using the internet as a new method for recruitment and data collection in a prospective cohort study of women planning a pregnancy.We aimed to enroll 2500 participants in six months and attained more than 75 % after 12 months follow up. To test data completeness and validity we randomized participants to fill either a long or a short version of the baseline questionnaire and compared self reported data with registry based data.We succeeded in enrolling 2288 participants, and participation rate was 82 % after 12 months. We found high correlations (0.96) for self-reported vs. registry based data and no difference in participation rate or data completeness according to questionnaire length. Overall, the internet based methods seem promising and we plan to launch the full study.

  1. Social support among HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescents in Umlazi, South Africa: changes in family and partner relationships during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2015-05-17

    Pregnancy is common among adolescents in South Africa, yet the social experiences of adolescents during the pregnancy and postpartum period remain understudied in this context. We aimed to explore how adolescent women's discovery and disclosure of both their pregnancy and HIV status affected their relationships with family members and sexual partners, with a particular focus on whether and how support changed throughout this time period. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 15 HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescent women who were either pregnant or had delivered in the last 18 months from one urban clinic in Umlazi, South Africa. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded for analysis. Young women described stress and instability in their relationships with family and partners during pregnancy and the postpartum period, though prior to and during HIV-status disclosure women generally experienced less stress than in disclosing their pregnancy to family members and partners. After a destabilizing period immediately following pregnancy disclosure, families became and remained the primary source of material and emotional support for the young women. Women discussed heightened closeness with their partners during pregnancy, but few women had close relationships with their partners postpartum. Support experiences did not differ by HIV status. Programs should be aware of the relative importance of pregnancy-related concerns over HIV-related concerns in this population of young women. Engaging family members is critical in ensuring social support for this population of young pregnant women, and in encouraging timely initiation of antenatal care.

  2. Predictors for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with positive Dix–Hallpike test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazutaka Noda, Masatomi Ikusaka, Yoshiyuki Ohira, Toshihiko Takada, Tomoko TsukamotoDepartment of General Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, JapanObjective: Patient medical history is important for making a diagnosis of causes of dizziness, but there have been no studies on the diagnostic value of individual items in the history. This study was performed to identify and validate useful questions for suspecting a diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV.Methods: Construction and validation of a disease prediction model was performed at the outpatient clinic in the Department of General Medicine of Chiba University Hospital. Patients with dizziness were enrolled (145 patients for construction of the disease prediction model and 61 patients for its validation. This study targeted BPPV of the posterior semicircular canals only with a positive Dix–Hallpike test (DHT + BPPV to avoid diagnostic ambiguity. Binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the items that were useful for diagnosis or exclusion of DHT + BPPV.Results: Twelve patients from the derivation set and six patients from the validation set had DHT + BPPV. Binomial logistic regression analysis selected a "duration of dizziness ≤15 seconds" and "onset when turning over in bed" as independent predictors of DHT + BPPV with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 4.36 (1.18–16.19 and 10.17 (2.49–41.63, respectively. Affirmative answers to both questions yielded a likelihood ratio of 6.81 (5.11–9.10 for diagnosis of DHT + BPPV, while negative answers to both had a likelihood ratio of 0.19 (0.08–0.47.Conclusion: A "duration of dizziness ≤15 seconds" and "onset when turning over in bed" were the two most important questions among various historical features of BPPV.Keywords: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, likelihood ratio, diagnosis, screening, prediction rules

  3. The demand for pregnancy testing: The Aschheim–Zondek reaction, diagnostic versatility, and laboratory services in 1930s Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszynko-Gryn, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The Aschheim–Zondek reaction is generally regarded as the first reliable hormone test for pregnancy and as a major product of the ‘heroic age’ of reproductive endocrinology. Invented in Berlin in the late 1920s, by the mid 1930s a diagnostic laboratory in Edinburgh was performing thousands of tests every year for doctors around Britain. In her classic history of antenatal care, sociologist Ann Oakley claimed that the Aschheim–Zondek test launched a ‘modern era’ of obstetric knowledge, which asserted its superiority over that of pregnant women. This article reconsiders Oakley’s claim by examining how pregnancy testing worked in practice. It explains the British adoption of the test in terms less of the medicalisation of pregnancy than of clinicians’ increasing general reliance on laboratory services for differential diagnosis. Crucially, the Aschheim–Zondek reaction was a test not directly for the fetus, but for placental tissue. It was used, less as a yes-or-no test for ordinary pregnancy, than as a versatile diagnostic tool for the early detection of malignant tumours and hormonal deficiencies believed to cause miscarriage. This test was as much a product of oncology and the little-explored world of laboratory services as of reproductive medicine. PMID:24388014

  4. Beam position determination for the Test Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Test Storage Ring (TSR) for heavy ions, currently under design and construction at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, requires an extensive beam diagnostics system in order to enable it to operate without friction. This thesis concerns the beam position determination sub-system of this diagnostics system which is intended to determine the beam center of gravity of a bunched beam inside the cross section of the beam tube in a non-destructive manner. An electrostatic pickup is used to sense the location of the beam; the mode of operation of this device will be explained in detail. The signals go to a preamplifier from where they are then sent via a multiplex system to the measuring unit. This point also represents the interface to the computer system that controls the TSR. The prototype developed here was tested with the aid of a particle beam, as well as with other measurement methods. Resolutions of better than 1 mm about the center have been measured. In order to achieve or even improve such resolutions later in actual operation, it is possible to determine the properties of the preamplifiers with the aid of calibration signals and to take these into account in the course of the signal evaluation in the computer. The differences between the individual electrodes of a given pickup must also be compensated. These procedures and their associated electronic circuits are also described in this paper

  5. Positive patch test reactions to oxidized limonene: exposure and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne D; Garcia-Bravo, Begoña; Gimenez Arnau, Ana; Goh, Chee-Leok; Nixon, Rosemary; White, Ian R

    2014-11-01

    R-Limonene is a common fragrance terpene found in domestic and industrial products. R-Limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. In a recent multicentre study, 5.2% (range 2.3-12.1%) of 2900 patients showed a positive patch test reaction to oxidized R-limonene. To study the exposure to limonene among consecutive dermatitis patients reacting to oxidized R-limonene in an international setting, and to assess the relevance of the exposure for the patients' dermatitis. Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (containing limonene hydroperoxides at 0.33%) in petrolatum was tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Australia, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Singapore, Spain, and Sweden. A questionnaire assessing exposure to limonene-containing products was completed. Overall, exposure to products containing limonene was found and assessed as being probably relevant for the patients' dermatitis in 36% of the limonene-allergic patients. In Barcelona and Copenhagen, > 70% of the patients were judged to have had an exposure to limonene assessed as relevant. Oxidized R-limonene is a common fragrance allergen, and limonene was frequently found in the labelling on the patients' products, and assessed as relevant for the patients' dermatitis. A large number of domestic and occupational sources for contact with R-limonene were identified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Internal Impingement of the Shoulder: A Risk of False Positive Test Outcomes in External Impingement Tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Leschinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. External impingement tests are considered as being particularly reliable for identifying subacromial and coracoid shoulder impingement mechanisms. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if these tests are likely to provoke an internal shoulder impingement mechanism which, in cases of a pathologic condition, can lead to a positive test result. Method. In 37 subjects, the mechanical contact between the glenoid rim and the rotator cuff (RC was measured quantitatively and qualitatively in external impingement test positions using an open MRI system. Results. Mechanical contact of the supraspinatus with the posterosuperior glenoid was present in 30 subjects in the Neer test. In the Hawkins test, the subscapularis was in contact with the anterosuperior glenoid in 33 subjects and the supraspinatus in 18. In the horizontal impingement test, anterosuperior contact of the supraspinatus with the glenoid was identified in 35 subjects. Conclusion. The Neer, Hawkins, and horizontal impingement tests are likely to provoke the mechanism of an internal shoulder impingement. A posterosuperior internal impingement mechanism is being provoked predominately in the Neer test. The Hawkins test narrows the distance between the insertions of the subscapularis and supraspinatus and the anterosuperior labrum, which leads to an anterosuperior impingement mechanism.

  7. Insufficient vitamin D supplement use during pregnancy and early childhood : a risk factor for positional skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weernink, M.G.; Wijk, R.M. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Lanting, C.I.; Grant, C.C.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is associated with disturbed skeletal homeostasis during infancy. Our aim was to investigate the influence of adherence to recommendations for vitamin D supplement intake of 10 μg per day (400 IU) during pregnancy (mother) and in the first months of life

  8. Insufficient vitamin D supplement use during pregnancy and early childhood: a risk factor for positional skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weernink, Marieke Geertruida Maria; van Wijk, Renske; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Lanting, Caren I.; Grant, Cameron C.; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is associated with disturbed skeletal homeostasis during infancy. Our aim was to investigate the influence of adherence to recommendations for vitamin D supplement intake of 10 μg per day (400 IU) during pregnancy (mother) and in the first months of life

  9. Insufficient vitamin D supplement use during pregnancy and early childhood: a risk factor for positional skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weernink, M.G.; Wijk, R.M. van; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; Lanting, C.I.; Grant, C.C.; van Vlimmeren, L.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy is associated with disturbed skeletal homeostasis during infancy. Our aim was to investigate the influence of adherence to recommendations for vitamin D supplement intake of 10 mug per day (400 IU) during pregnancy (mother) and in the first months of life

  10. Cost-effectiveness of quantitative hepatitis B virus surface antigen testing in pregnancy in predicting vertical transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Kochaksaraei, Golasa; Congly, Stephen E; Matwiy, Trudy; Castillo, Eliana; Martin, Steven R; Charlton, Carmen L; Coffin, Carla S

    2016-11-01

    Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) can occur despite immunoprophylaxis in mothers with high HBV DNA levels (>5-7 log 10 IU/ml). Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) testing could be used as a surrogate marker to identify high viral load carriers, but there is limited data in pregnancy. We conducted a prospective observational study to determine the cost-effectiveness and utility of qHBsAg as a valid surrogate marker of HBV DNA. Pregnant patients with chronic hepatitis B were recruited from a tertiary referral centre. HBV DNA levels and qHBsAg were assessed in the second to third trimester. Statistical analysis was performed by Spearman's rank correlation and student's t-test. The cost-effectiveness of qHBsAg as compared to HBV DNA testing was calculated. Ninety nine women with 103 pregnancies, median age 32 years, 65% Asian, 23% African and 12% other [Hispanic, Caucasian] were enrolled. Overall, 23% (23/99) were HBV e Ag (HBeAg)-positive. A significant correlation between qHBsAg and HBV DNA levels was noted in HBeAg-positive patients (r = 0.79, P < 0.05) but not in HBeAg-negative patients (r = 0.17, P = 0.06). In receiver operating characteristic analysis, the optimal qHBsAg cut-off values for predicting maternal viraemia associated with immunoprophylaxis failure (i.e., HBV DNA ≥7 log 10 IU/ml) was 4.3 log 10 IU/ml (accuracy 98.7%, sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 94.4%) (95% CI, 97-100%, P < 0.05). Use of HBV DNA as compared to qHBsAg costs approximately $20 000 more per infection prevented. In resource poor regions, qHBsAg could be used as a more cost-effective marker for high maternal viraemia, and indicate when anti-HBV nucleos/tide analogue therapy should be used to prevent HBV immunoprophylaxis failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Splenic rupture masquerading ruptured ectopic pregnancy | Kigbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classical triad of presentation of delayed menses, irregular vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain may not be encountered at all! Overwhelming features of abdominal pain, amenorrhea, pallor, abdominal tenderness, shifting dullness with positive pregnancy test gave a clinical diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

  12. Maternal DHA Status during Pregnancy Has a Positive Impact on Infant Problem Solving: A Norwegian Prospective Observation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Markhus, Maria Wik; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Frøyland, Livar; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Kjellevold, Marian

    2018-04-24

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n -3) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for normal brain growth and cognitive development. Seafood and dietary supplements are the primary dietary sources of DHA. This study addresses the associations between DHA status in pregnant women and healthy, term-born infant problem-solving skills assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. The fatty acid status of maternal red blood cells (RBCs) was assessed in the 28th week of gestation and at three months postpartum. The infants’ fatty acid status (RBC) was assessed at three, six, and twelve months, and problem-solving skills were assessed at six and twelve months. Maternal DHA status in pregnancy was found to be positively associated with infants’ problem-solving skills at 12 months. This association remained significant even after controlling for the level of maternal education, a surrogate for socio-economic status. The infants’ DHA status at three months was associated with the infants’ problem solving at 12 months. The results accentuate the importance for pregnant and lactating women to have a satisfactory DHA status from dietary intake of seafood or other sources rich in DHA.

  13. Maternal DHA Status during Pregnancy Has a Positive Impact on Infant Problem Solving: A Norwegian Prospective Observation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Cecilie Braarud

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3 is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid necessary for normal brain growth and cognitive development. Seafood and dietary supplements are the primary dietary sources of DHA. This study addresses the associations between DHA status in pregnant women and healthy, term-born infant problem-solving skills assessed using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. The fatty acid status of maternal red blood cells (RBCs was assessed in the 28th week of gestation and at three months postpartum. The infants’ fatty acid status (RBC was assessed at three, six, and twelve months, and problem-solving skills were assessed at six and twelve months. Maternal DHA status in pregnancy was found to be positively associated with infants’ problem-solving skills at 12 months. This association remained significant even after controlling for the level of maternal education, a surrogate for socio-economic status. The infants’ DHA status at three months was associated with the infants’ problem solving at 12 months. The results accentuate the importance for pregnant and lactating women to have a satisfactory DHA status from dietary intake of seafood or other sources rich in DHA.

  14. False-positive head-impulse test in cerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia eKremmyda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this study was to compare the findings of the bedside head impulse test (HIT, passive head rotation gain, and caloric irrigation in patients with cerebellar ataxia (CA. In 16 patients with CA and bilaterally pathological bedside HIT, VOR gains were measured during HIT and passive head rotation by scleral search coil technique. Eight of the patients had pathologically reduced caloric responsiveness, while the other eight had normal caloric responses. Those with normal calorics showed a slightly reduced HIT gain (mean±SD: 0.73±0.15. In those with pathological calorics, gains 80ms and 100 ms after the HIT as well as the passive rotation VOR gains were significantly lower. The corrective saccade after head turn occurred earlier in patients with pathological calorics (111±62 ms after onset of the HIT than in those with normal calorics. (191±17 ms, p=0.0064 We indentified two groups of patients with CA: those with an isolated moderate HIT deficit only, probably due to floccular dysfunction, and those with combined HIT, passive rotation and caloric deficit, probably due to a peripheral vestibular deficit. From a clinical point of view, these results show that the bedside HIT alone can be false positive for establishing a diagnosis of a bilateral peripheral vestibular deficit in patients with CA.

  15. 'False-positive' and 'false-negative' test results in clinical urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2009-08-01

    The terms 'false-positive' and 'false-negative' are widely used in discussions of urine drug test (UDT) results. These terms are inadequate because they are used in different ways by physicians and laboratory professionals and they are too narrow to encompass the larger universe of potentially misleading, inappropriate and unexpected drug test results. This larger universe, while not solely comprised of technically 'true' or 'false' positive or negative test results, presents comparable interpretive challenges with corresponding clinical implications. In this review, we propose the terms 'potentially inappropriate' positive or negative test results in reference to UDT results that are ambiguous or unexpected and subject to misinterpretation. Causes of potentially inappropriate positive UDT results include in vivo metabolic conversions of a drug, exposure to nonillicit sources of a drug and laboratory error. Causes of potentially inappropriate negative UDT results include limited assay specificity, absence of drug in the urine, presence of drug in the urine, but below established assay cutoff, specimen manipulation and laboratory error. Clinical UDT interpretation is a complicated task requiring knowledge of recent prescription, over-the-counter and herbal drug administration, drug metabolism and analytical sensitivities and specificities.

  16. Women’s Attitudes towards the Option to Choose between Karyotyping and Rapid Targeted Testing during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique J. A. Kooper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Pregnant women, referred because of an increased risk of fetal Down syndrome, who underwent an invasive prenatal procedure were offered a choice between karyotyping and rapid targeted testing. This study aims to assess women’s attitudes and experiences towards what option to choose. Methods. A retrospective multicentre survey (2008–2010 was conducted among 1370 women. General questions were asked about decision making issues, followed by personal questions about their experiences in choice making, test preference, influence of others, and possible regrets. Results. In total, 90.1% of the respondents (N=825 indicated that pregnant women are able to choose, although 33.1% stated that the choice can best be made by a professional. 18.4% indicated that making a choice places a burden on women. In 96.4%, respondents preferred to have the option to choose again in case of a next pregnancy, whereas 2.7% preferred the choice to be made by a professional. Regret was indicated by 1.2%. Decision making was influenced by others in 64.9%. A slightly higher preference for karyotyping was indicated by 52.7% of the respondents. Conclusions. Positive attitudes and experiences were expressed towards the option to choose. Respondents took decisions freely, although sometimes influenced by a partner or a professional, to follow their individual perspectives.

  17. Pregnancy intent among a sample of recently diagnosed HIV-positive women and men practicing unprotected sex in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E; Exner, Theresa M; Cooper, Diane; Bai, Dan; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Hoffman, Susie; Myer, Landon; Moodley, Jennifer; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Constant, Debbie; Jennings, Karen; Zweigenthal, Virginia; Stein, Zena A

    2014-12-01

    Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for HIV-positive women and men often neglect their fertility desires. We examined factors associated with pregnancy intent among recently diagnosed HIV-positive women (N = 106) and men (N = 91) who reported inconsistent condom use and were enrolled in an SRH intervention conducted in public sector HIV care clinics in Cape Town. Participants were recruited when receiving their first CD4 results at the clinic. All reported unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Logistic regression identified predictors of pregnancy intent for the total sample and by gender. About three fifths of men and one fifth of women reported intent to conceive in the next 6 months. In the full-sample multiple regression analysis, men [adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 6.62)] and those whose main partner shared intent to conceive (AOR = 3.80) had significantly higher odds of pregnancy intent; those with more years of education (AOR = 0.81) and more biological children (AOR = 0.62) had lower odds of intending pregnancy. In gender-specific analyses, partner sharing pregnancy intent was positively associated with intent among both men (AOR = 3.53) and women (AOR = 13.24). Among men, odds were lower among those having more biological children (AOR = 0.71) and those unemployed (AOR = 0.30). Among women, relying on hormonal contraception was negatively associated with intent (AOR = 0.08), and main partner knowing her HIV status (AOR = 5.80) was positively associated with intent to conceive. Findings underscore the importance of providing integrated SRH services, and we discuss implications for clinical practice and care.

  18. Messages that increase women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two appeals. The primary aim was to determine the effectiveness of these concepts in increasing women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. Methods Women of childbearing age and pregnant women residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in a computer-based questionnaire where they viewed either a control or one of the three experimental concepts. Following exposure, participants’ intentions to abstain from and reduce alcohol intake during pregnancy were measured. Other measures assessed included perceived main message, message diagnostics, and potential to promote defensive responses or unintended consequences. Results The concepts containing a threat appeal were significantly more effective at increasing women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy than the self-efficacy message and the control. The concept that combined threat and self-efficacy is recommended for development as part of a mass-media campaign as it has good persuasive potential, provides a balance of positive and negative emotional responses, and is unlikely to result in defensive or unintended consequences. Conclusions This study provides important insights into the components that enhance the persuasiveness and effectiveness of messages aimed at preventing prenatal alcohol exposure. The recommended concept has good potential for use in a future campaign aimed at promoting women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:24410764

  19. Messages that increase women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kathryn E; Donovan, Robert J; Bower, Carol; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Payne, Janet M; D'Antoine, Heather; Bartu, Anne E

    2014-01-13

    Public awareness-raising campaigns targeting alcohol use during pregnancy are an important part of preventing prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Despite this, there is little evidence on what specific elements contribute to campaign message effectiveness. This research evaluated three different advertising concepts addressing alcohol and pregnancy: a threat appeal, a positive appeal promoting a self-efficacy message, and a concept that combined the two appeals. The primary aim was to determine the effectiveness of these concepts in increasing women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy. Women of childbearing age and pregnant women residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in a computer-based questionnaire where they viewed either a control or one of the three experimental concepts. Following exposure, participants' intentions to abstain from and reduce alcohol intake during pregnancy were measured. Other measures assessed included perceived main message, message diagnostics, and potential to promote defensive responses or unintended consequences. The concepts containing a threat appeal were significantly more effective at increasing women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy than the self-efficacy message and the control. The concept that combined threat and self-efficacy is recommended for development as part of a mass-media campaign as it has good persuasive potential, provides a balance of positive and negative emotional responses, and is unlikely to result in defensive or unintended consequences. This study provides important insights into the components that enhance the persuasiveness and effectiveness of messages aimed at preventing prenatal alcohol exposure. The recommended concept has good potential for use in a future campaign aimed at promoting women's intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy.

  20. Impact of iodized oil injection during pregnancy on thyroid function tests of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadat, N.; Sheikholeslam, R.; Azizi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that injection of iodized oil in pregnant women can be used as a prophylactic strategy for iodine deficiency disorders and may improve the growth indices of their offspring. Since administration of pharmacological doses of iodine may lead occasionally to large goiter and rarely to hypothyroidism, in the present study the thyroid function tests of neonates and infants born to women who had received 480 mg iodized oil intramuscularly during pregnancy were assessed and compared to those of a control group. Off 277 cord blood samples obtained from Mazandaran and Khohkiluyeh-Boyerahmad provinces, 125 made up the case (injected) and 152 the control (non-injected) group. Of 1026 blood samples of the neonates and infants from Mazandaran province. 544 made up the case and 482 the control group. Serum T 4 , T 3 and TSH concentrations were measured with RIA kits. in the cord blood samples, mean serum T 4 in cases who had received iodized oil was lower than that of the control group:140± 32 vs. 149± 33 nmol/L, respectively; p 3 and TSH were not however different. In the neonates and infants, T 4 and T 3 concentrations were significantly higher in the case than control group:178± 40 vs. 168± and 3.5±0,02 nmol/L, respectively, both p 3 and decreased TSH were seen in infants of mothers who were injected in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Injection of iodized oil in pregnant women does not cause hypothyroidism in the offsprings, however it does cause a transient increase in serum thyroid hormones and a decrease in TSH concentrations

  1. The power of extraverts: testing positive and negative mood regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervas

    Full Text Available Extraversion is a personality trait which has been systematically related to positive affect and well-being. One of the mechanisms that may account for these positive outcomes is the ability to regulate the responses to positive, as well as negative, moods. Prior research has found that extraverts' higher positive mood maintenance could explain their higher levels of positive affect. However, research exploring differences between extraverts and introverts in negative mood regulation has yielded mixed results. The aim of the current study was explore the role of different facets of mood regulation displayed by extraverts, ambiverts, and introverts. After been exposed to a sad vs. happy mood induction, participants underwent a mood regulation task. Extraverts and ambiverts exhibited higher positive mood regulation than introverts, but similar mood repair. Thus, this research highlights the importance of positive mood regulation in the psychological functioning of extraverts, and opens new conceptualizations for developing interventions for introverts to improve their positive mood regulation and, hence, overall positive affect and well-being.

  2. An Economic Analysis of Cell-Free DNA Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in the US General Pregnancy Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Benn

    Full Text Available Analyze the economic value of replacing conventional fetal aneuploidy screening approaches with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT in the general pregnancy population.Using decision-analysis modeling, we compared conventional screening to NIPT with cell-free DNA (cfDNA analysis in the annual US pregnancy population. Sensitivity and specificity for fetal aneuploidies, trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and monosomy X, were estimated using published data and modeling of both first- and second trimester screening. Costs were assigned for each prenatal test component and for an affected birth. The overall cost to the healthcare system considered screening costs, the number of aneuploid cases detected, invasive procedures performed, procedure-related euploid losses, and affected pregnancies averted. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of variation in parameters. Costs were reported in 2014 US Dollars.Replacing conventional screening with NIPT would reduce healthcare costs if it can be provided for $744 or less in the general pregnancy population. The most influential variables were timing of screening entry, screening costs, and pregnancy termination rates. Of the 13,176 affected pregnancies undergoing screening, NIPT detected 96.5% (12,717/13,176 of cases, compared with 85.9% (11,314/13,176 by conventional approaches. NIPT reduced invasive procedures by 60.0%, with NIPT and conventional methods resulting in 24,596 and 61,430 invasive procedures, respectively. The number of procedure-related euploid fetal losses was reduced by 73.5% (194/264 in the general screening population.Based on our analysis, universal application of NIPT would increase fetal aneuploidy detection rates and can be economically justified. Offering this testing to all pregnant women is associated with substantial prenatal healthcare benefits.

  3. Psychometric Properties of Brief Screening Tests for Alcohol Use Disorders during Pregnancy in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mariana Beatriz; Lichtenberger, Aldana; Conde, Karina; Cremonte, Mariana

    2017-07-01

    Background  Considering the physical, mental and behavioral problems related to fetal alcohol exposure, prenatal clinical guides suggest a brief evaluation of alcohol consumption during pregnancy to detect alcohol intake and to adjust interventions, if required. Even if any alcohol use should be considered risky during pregnancy, identifying women with alcohol use disorders is important because they could need a more specific intervention than simple advice to abstain. Most screening tests have been developed and validated in male populations and focused on the long-term consequences of heavy alcohol use, so they might be inappropriate to assess consumption in pregnant women. Objective  To analyze the internal reliability and validity of the alcohol screening instruments Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C), Tolerance, Worried, Eye-Opener, Amnesia and Cut-Down (TWEAK), Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen - Quantity Frequency (RAPS-QF) and Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut-Down and Eye-Opener (T-ACE) to identify alcohol use disorders in pregnant women. Methods  A total of 641 puerperal women were personally interviewed during the 48 hours after delivery. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the sensitivity and specificity of each instrument using different cut-off points were analyzed. Results  All instruments showed areas under the ROC curves above 0.80. Larger areas were found for the TWEAK and the AUDIT. The TWEAK, the T-ACE and the AUDIT-C showed higher sensitivity, while the AUDIT and the RAPS-QF showed higher specificity. Reliability (internal consistency) was low for all instruments, improving when optimal cut-off points were used, especially for the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C and the RAPS-QF. Conclusions  In other cultural contexts, studies have concluded that T-ACE and TWEAK are the best instruments to assess pregnant women. In contrast, our results evidenced the low

  4. Pre-operative testing for pregnancy in Dublin day surgery units.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wong, L F A

    2013-06-01

    The safety of anaesthetic agents in early pregnancy cannot be guaranteed. Certain types of surgery, particularly gynaecological, may also be dangerous. It is therefore important to ensure that, female patients are not inadvertently pregnant when undergoing elective surgery. Different hospitals have different policies and guidelines in place to determine female patients\\' pregnancy status prior to elective surgery.

  5. Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommending an HIV regimen. Testing for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Coinfection with another STD can cause HIV infection to advance faster and increase the risk of HIV transmission to a sexual partner. STD testing makes it possible to detect ...

  6. A retrospective cohort analysis comparing pregnancy rates among HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATEL, Rena C.; ONONO, Maricianah; GANDHI, Monica; BLAT, Cinthia; HAGEY, Jill; SHADE, Starley B.; VITTINGHOFF, Eric; BUKUSI, Elizabeth A.; NEWMANN, Sara J.; COHEN, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Given recent concerns of efavirenz reducing the efficacy of contraceptive implants, we sought to determine if pregnancy rates differ among HIV-positive women using various contraceptive methods and efavirenz- or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-positive women aged 15–45 years enrolled in HIV care facilities in western Kenya from January 2011 to December 2013. Pregnancy was diagnosed clinically and the primary exposure was a combination of contraceptive method and ART regimen. We used Poisson models, adjusting for repeated measures, as well as demographic, behavioral and clinical factors, to compare pregnancy rates among women on different contraceptive/ART combinations. Findings 24,560 women contributed 37,635 years of follow-up with 3,337 incident pregnancies. Among women using implants, adjusted pregnancy incidence for nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART users were 1·1 (95% CI 0·72–1·5) and 3·3 (95% CI 1·8–4·8) per 100 women-years (w-y), respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 3·0, 95% CI 1·3–4·6). Among women using depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), adjusted pregnancy incidence for nevirapine- and efavirenz-based ART users were 4·5 (95% CI 3·7–5·2) and 5·4 (95% CI 4·0–6·8) per 100 w-y, respectively (aIRR 1·2, 95% CI 0·91–1·5). Women using other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods, experienced 3·1–4·1 higher rates of pregnancy than women using implants, with 1·6–2·8 higher rates specifically among women using efavirenz-based ART. Interpretation While HIV-positive women using implants on efavirenz-based ART faced three times higher risk of contraceptive failure than those on nevirapine-based ART, these women still experienced lower contraceptive failure rates than women on all other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods

  7. Pregnancy rates in HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rena C; Onono, Maricianah; Gandhi, Monica; Blat, Cinthia; Hagey, Jill; Shade, Starley B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Newmann, Sara J; Cohen, Craig R

    2015-11-01

    Concerns have been raised about efavirenz reducing the effectiveness of contraceptive implants. We aimed to establish whether pregnancy rates differ between HIV-positive women who use various contraceptive methods and either efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. We did this retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive women aged 15-45 years enrolled in 19 HIV care facilities supported by Family AIDS Care and Education Services in western Kenya between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013. Our primary outcome was incident pregnancy diagnosed clinically. The primary exposure was a combination of contraceptive method and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based ART regimen. We used Poisson models, adjusting for repeated measures, and demographic, behavioural, and clinical factors, to compare pregnancy rates among women receiving different contraceptive and ART combinations. 24,560 women contributed 37,635 years of follow-up with 3337 incident pregnancies. In women using implants, adjusted pregnancy incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.72-1.5) for nevirapine-based ART users and 3.3 per 100 person-years (1.8-4.8) for efavirenz-based ART users (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-4.6). In women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, adjusted pregnancy incidence was 4.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 3.7-5.2) for nevirapine-based ART users and 5.4 per 100 person-years (4.0-6.8) for efavirenz-based ART users (adjusted IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.91-1.5). Women using other contraceptive methods, except for intrauterine devices and permanent methods, had 3.1-4.1 higher rates of pregnancy than did those using implants, with 1.6-2.8 higher rates in women using efavirenz-based ART. Although HIV-positive women using implants and efavirenz-based ART had a three-times higher risk of contraceptive failure than did those using nevirapine-based ART, these women still had lower contraceptive failure rates than did those receiving all other

  8. Utilization of fetal fibronectin testing and pregnancy outcomes among women with symptoms of preterm labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackwell SC

    2017-10-01

    .7%.Conclusion: The utilization of fFN testing is 12%. The majority of pregnant patients triaged through the ELD with symptomatic PTL do not receive an fFN test. As part of PTL evaluation, fFN testing may identify women at increased risk for preterm delivery and help determine appropriate patient management. Keywords: preterm labor, pregnancy, emergency department, fetal fibronectin testing 

  9. Determinants and Experiences of Repeat Pregnancy among HIV-Positive Kenyan Women--A Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Akelo

    Full Text Available To identify factors associated with repeat pregnancy subsequent to an index pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLWH in western Kenya who were enrolled in a 24-month phase-II clinical trial of triple-ART prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and to contextualize social and cultural influences on WLWH's reproductive decision making.A mixed-methods approach was used to examine repeat pregnancy within a 24 month period after birth. Counselor-administered questionnaires were collected from 500 WLWH. Forty women (22 with a repeat pregnancy; 18 with no repeat pregnancy were purposively selected for a qualitative interview (QI. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for quantitative data. Thematic coding and saliency analysis were undertaken for qualitative data.Eighty-eight (17.6% women had a repeat pregnancy. Median maternal age was 23 years (range 15-43 years and median gestational age at enrollment was 34 weeks. In multiple logistic regression analyses, living in the same compound with a husband (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.33; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.14, 4.75 was associated with increased odds of repeat pregnancy (p ≤ 0.05. Being in the 30-43 age group (AOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.87, having talked to a partner about family planning (FP use (AOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.98, and prior usage of FP (AOR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.82 were associated with a decrease in odds of repeat pregnancy. QI findings centered on concerns about modern contraception methods (side effects and views that they 'ruined the womb' and a desire to have the right number of children. Religious leaders, family, and the broader community were viewed as reinforcing cultural expectations for married women to have children. Repeat pregnancy was commonly attributed to contraception failure or to lack of knowledge about post-delivery fertility.In addition to cultural context, reproductive health programs for WLWH may need to

  10. THE CURRENT PRACTICES FOR TESTING FOR HYPERGLYCAEMIA IN PREGNANCY (HIP IN THE MEDICAL COLLEGE INSTITUTIONS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Divakar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to determine the current practices in the medical college institutions pan India for testing for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy (HIP to detect gestational diabetes and highlight areas that need additional attention in order to ensure adherence to current national guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS Questionnaires were used to obtain information regarding the testing strategy for hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. The questionnaires were filled out by the teaching faculty of the OB/GYN departments of 47 medical college institutions in India. The perceptions regarding the prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy in India and the needs for capacity building were assessed. RESULTS Forty seven respondents answered the questionnaires. The majority of respondents (95.83% reported that all pregnant women were offered (universal testing for hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and 37.5% reported that women were screened both in early and midtrimester of pregnancy. Most reported that testing for HIP took place once at booking, irrespective of the gestational age (39.58%. Thirty three (70.21% respondents reported using the single-step nonfasting method to diagnose hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, 21.28% of respondents reported using a glucometer to determine the concentration of blood glucose in plasma, while 68.08% reported using a lab analyser. The instructions for the testing were offered by consultants and postgraduates in a vast majority of cases (87.5%. The staff communicated with the women in a significantly less number of cases (12.5%. 65.96% of respondents felt that all women readily agreed to follow this advice. The majority of respondents (89.35% reported having noticed an increase in the number of women with hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, 91% of all the respondents felt there was a need to train medical personnel to test and manage hyperglycaemia. CONCLUSION Our study confirms the continued wide variability in testing for HIP in India with

  11. Prevalence of positive tuberculin skin test and associated factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different from one derived from mixture analysis [46.3%(95% Bayesian credibility interval 36.5%-55.8%)]. Positive ... Health Organization (WHO) report of the World's top. 22 high ..... World re- port 2009. WHO/HTM/TB/2009.411. Geneva: World.

  12. Evaluation of liver function tests of HIV positive patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver enzymes-alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase (AST, ALT and ALP), bilirubin and serum proteins were determined using standard laboratory methods and these parameters were used to evaluate the liver function of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive patients receiving ...

  13. A fast numerical test of multivariate polynomial positiveness with applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Augusta, Petr; Augustová, Petra

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2018), s. 289-303 ISSN 0023-5954 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stability * multidimensional systems * positive polynomials * fast Fourier transforms * numerical algorithm Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory OBOR OECD: Automation and control systems Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2016 https://www.kybernetika.cz/content/2018/2/289/paper.pdf

  14. Relevance of positive patch-test reactions to fragrance mix.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devos, S.A.; Constandt, L.; Tupker, R.A.; Noz, K.C.; Lucker, G.P.H.; Bruynzeel, D.P.; Schuttelaar, M.L.; Kruyswijk, M.R.; Zuuren, E.J. van; Vink, J.; Coenraads, P.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Valk, P.G.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrances are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. We presume that the traditional fragrance mix (FM) detects 70 to 80% of fragrance-allergic patients. FM has an irritant potential. Weak positive reactions may have a greater chance of being irrelevant than strong

  15. Relevance of positive patch-test reactions to fragrance mix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devos, S.A.; Constandt, L.; Tupker, R.A.; Noz, K.C.; Lucker, G.P.H.; Bruynzeel, D.P.; Schuttelaar, M.L.A.; Kruyswijk, M.R.J.; van Zuuren, E.J.; Vink, J.; Coenraads, P.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; van der Valk, P.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragrances are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis. We presume that the traditional fragrance mix (FM) detects 70 to 80% of fragrance-allergic patients. FM has an irritant potential. Weak positive reactions may have a greater chance of being irrelevant than strong

  16. Thyroid Function Test in Thyroid Diseases and Pregnancy - The diagnostic value of free thyroxine by RIA -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M. H.; Yoon, H. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Lee, J. C.; Chung, S. I.; Cho, B. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the measurement of free thyroxine(FT4) by radioimmunoassay, we measured free T 4 and T 4 , T 3 , T 3 RU, TSH and TBG serum levels by radioimmunoassay in 18 healthy persons and 52 patients with various thyroid diseases and 11 normal pregnant women. The results are as follows. 1) In 19 cases of overt hyperthyroidism, T 3 , free T 4 and FTI, T 4 /TBG ratio reflect hyperfunction in all cases. T 4 is increased in 94%(18/19) and TBG and TSH are decreased in 79%(15/19). 2) In 8 patients with overt hypothyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T 4 and FTI is decreased in all cases. T 4 is decreased in 87.5%(7/8), T 3 is decreased in 75%(6/8) and T 4 /TBG ratio is decreased in 62.5%(5/8). 3) In 5 patients who are clinically in euthyroid state after treatment of hyperthyroidism, T , 4 free T 4 , FTI and TSH are in the normal range in all cases and T 3 is normal in 60%(3/5) and slightly increased in 40%(2/5). 4) In 10 patients who showed clinically borderline hypothyroidism after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH is increased in all cases and free T 4 and FTI are decreased in all cases, but T 4 and T 3 , T 4 /TBG ratio are in the normal limit in all cases. So after treatment of hyperthyroidism, TSH, free T 4 or FTI are recommended as optimal function test. 5) In normal pregnancy, free T 4 , FTI and T 4 /TBG ratio reflect normal function, but the other parameters unreliable due to the influence of increased TBG. Also TBG and TSH level in pregnancy is increased significantly compared with normal healthy control group. 6) The coefficients of correlation between T 4 and FTI were 0.862(p 4 and T 4 /TBG ratio. In most patients, diagnostic value of free T 4 was comparable and even superior to FTI, so free T 4 measurement can be used routinely with thyrotropin assay in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism or with T 3 for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.

  17. [Evaluation of performance and false positivity of Mediace RPR test that uses a chemistry autoanalyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jaekwang; Ko, Hak Hyun; Yun, Yeomin; Choi, Young Sook; Lee, Sang Gon; Shin, Sue; Han, Kyou Sup; Song, Eun Young

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the performance and false positive rate of Mediace RPR test (Sekisui, Japan), a newly introduced nontreponemal test using a chemistry autoanalyzer. The sensitivity of Mediace RPR test was analyzed using sera from 50 patients with syphilis in different stages (8 primary, 7 secondary, and 35 latent), 14 sera positive with fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) IgM, and 74 sera positive with conventional rapid plasma regain (RPR) card test (Asan, Korea) and also positive with Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) test or FTA-ABS IgG test. The specificity was analyzed on 108 healthy blood donors. We also performed RPR card test on 302 sera that had been tested positive with Mediace RPR test and also performed TPHA or FTA-ABS IgG test to analyze the false positive rate of Mediace RPR test. A cutoff value of 0.5 R.U. (RPR unit) was used for Mediace RPR test. Mediace RPR test on syphilitic sera of different stages (primary, secondary, and latent stages) and FTA-ABS IgM positive sera showed a sensitivity of 100%, 100%, 82.9% and 100%, respectively. Among the 74 sera positive with conventional RPR card test and TPHA or FTA-ABS IgG test, 55 were positive with Mediace test. The specificity of Mediace RPR test on blood donors was 97.2%. Among the 302 sera positive with Mediace RPR test, 137 sera (45.4%) were negative by RPR card and TPHA/FTA-ABS IgG tests. Although the sensitivities of Mediace RPR were good for primary and secondary syphilis, due to its high negative rate of Mediace RPR over the conventional RPR positive samples, further studies are necessary whether it can replace conventional nontreponemal test for screening purpose. Moreover, in view of the high false positive rate, positive results by Mediace RPR test should be confirmed with treponemal tests.

  18. Assessment of Doppler velocimetry versus nonstress test in antepartum surveillance of high risk pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Nishi Choudhury; Barun Kumar Sharma; Bikram Kishor Kanungo; Ruby Yadav; Hafizur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Background: High risk pregnancies increase the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality; and there is a need for appropriate investigation which can diagnose it early and predicts the morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of Doppler velocimetry studies and NST in predicting fetal compromise in utero and compare their ability in predicting the perinatal outcome in cases of high risk pregnancies. Methods: It was a prospective cross-sectional ho...

  19. [The diagnostic value of human chorionic gonadotrophin ratio compared to single measurements of S-human chorionic gonadotrophin on the outcome of pregnancy of unknown location].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Huda Galib; Lyngsø, Julie; Bor, Pinar

    2014-10-13

    Pregnancy of unknown location is defined by a positive pregnancy test, without visualizing of the intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy by transvaginal sonography. We present the advantages of using human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) ratio instead of single measurements of S-hCG for predicting the outcomes of pregnancies of unknown location.

  20. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  1. Physical activity during pregnancy and the role of theory in promoting positive behavior change: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L. Thompson

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This systematic review synthesized the literature on theoretical constructs related to PA during pregnancy. Interpersonal, community, and societal levels remain understudied. Future research should employ theory-driven multi-level determinants of PA to reflect the interacting factors influencing PA during this critical period in the life course.

  2. Predictors for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo with positive Dix?Hallpike test

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Kazutaka; Ikusaka, Masatomi; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Takada, Toshihiko; Tsukamoto, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    Kazutaka Noda, Masatomi Ikusaka, Yoshiyuki Ohira, Toshihiko Takada, Tomoko TsukamotoDepartment of General Medicine, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba, JapanObjective: Patient medical history is important for making a diagnosis of causes of dizziness, but there have been no studies on the diagnostic value of individual items in the history. This study was performed to identify and validate useful questions for suspecting a diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).Methods: Constr...

  3. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive test results in screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Risør, Louise Madeleine; Thorsted, Brian Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Screening for disease in healthy people inevitably leads to some false-positive tests in disease-free individuals. Normally, women with false-positive screening tests for breast cancer are referred back to routine screening. However, the long-term outcome for women with false-positive tests...

  4. Improving global estimates of syphilis in pregnancy by diagnostic test type: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, D Cal; Lin, Carol; Newman, Lori; Wijesooriya, N Saman; Kamb, Mary

    2015-06-01

    "Probable active syphilis," is defined as seroreactivity in both non-treponemal and treponemal tests. A correction factor of 65%, namely the proportion of pregnant women reactive in one syphilis test type that were likely reactive in the second, was applied to reported syphilis seropositivity data reported to WHO for global estimates of syphilis during pregnancy. To identify more accurate correction factors based on test type reported. Medline search using: "Syphilis [Mesh] and Pregnancy [Mesh]," "Syphilis [Mesh] and Prenatal Diagnosis [Mesh]," and "Syphilis [Mesh] and Antenatal [Keyword]. Eligible studies must have reported results for pregnant or puerperal women for both non-treponemal and treponemal serology. We manually calculated the crude percent estimates of subjects with both reactive treponemal and reactive non-treponemal tests among subjects with reactive treponemal and among subjects with reactive non-treponemal tests. We summarized the percent estimates using random effects models. Countries reporting both reactive non-treponemal and reactive treponemal testing required no correction factor. Countries reporting non-treponemal testing or treponemal testing alone required a correction factor of 52.2% and 53.6%, respectively. Countries not reporting test type required a correction factor of 68.6%. Future estimates should adjust reported maternal syphilis seropositivity by test type to ensure accuracy. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. High pregnancy intentions and missed opportunities for patient-provider communication about fertility in a South African cohort of HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Mehta, Shruti H; Taha, Taha E; Rees, Helen V; Venter, Francois; Black, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    High fertility intentions amongst HIV-positive women have been reported elsewhere. Less is known about how clinical and HIV treatment characteristics correlate with fertility intentions. We use cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective cohort study to assess pregnancy intentions and patient-provider communication around fertility. Non-pregnant, HIV-positive women aged 18-35 on ART were recruited through convenience sampling at Johannesburg antiretroviral (ART) treatment facilities. Among the 850 women in this analysis, those on efavirenz had similar fertility intentions over the next year as women on nevirapine-based regimens (33% vs. 38%). In multivariate analysis, recent ART initiation was associated with higher current fertility intentions; there was no association with CD4 cell count. Forty-one percent of women had communicated with providers about future pregnancy options. Women on ART may choose to conceive at times that are sub-optimal for maternal, child and partner health outcomes and should be routinely counseled around safer pregnancy options.

  6. The effect of dislike of school on risk of teenage pregnancy: testing of hypotheses using longitudinal data from a randomised trial of sex education

    OpenAIRE

    Bonell, C; Allen, E; Strange, V; Copas, A; Oakley, A; Stephenson, J; Johnson, A

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To examine whether attitude to school is associated with subsequent risk of teenage pregnancy. To test two hypotheses that attitude to school is linked to pregnancy via pathways involving young people having "alternative" expectations or deficits in sexual health knowledge and confidence.

  7. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    Lower limb injuries are a large problem in athletes. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the relationship between alignment of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) of the foot and development of such injuries. A reliable and valid test to quantify foot type is needed to be able to investiga...

  8. Is a positive intracutaneous test induced by penicillin mediated by histamine?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line K; Falkencrone, Sidsel; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic workup of penicillin allergy comprises skin testing with penicillins, and patients are deemed allergic if skin test is positive. However, the literature suggests that skin test-positive patients may be challenge-negative, indicating that the skin test may be falsely positive....... Objective: To investigate real-time histamine release from a positive intracutaneous test induced by penicillin in patients with positive and negative challenges to penicillin. Methods: Skin microdialysis was performed in 21 penicillin-allergic patients with positive skin test, 13 non-allergic volunteers...... serving as negative controls, and 7 grass pollen-allergic patients serving as positive controls. Histamine was measured by microdialysis after skin test with penicillin/grass/NaCl. Penicillin challenge was subsequently performed in 12 of the patients. Results: Only 10/21 patients (47.6%) were skin test...

  9. Inventions leading to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry--from the modern pregnancy test to the sandwich assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide, Leif

    2005-01-01

    The universities are encouraged by the government nowadays to stimulate innovations and also to provide the proper machinery for assisting the protection and commercialisation of innovations. A better understanding of the innovation process may help to create an atmosphere suitable for inventions at the university. Examples can be taken from successful innovations previously made at the university. During the 1960's I made a series of inventions, which ultimately led to the development of the diagnostic test kit industry. The first, which I made as an undergraduate, was a simple and reliable test kit for diagnosis of pregnancy. This was followed by the solid phase radioimmunoassay and a solid phase assay for vitamin B12; next, the dual specific non-competitive sandwich assay and the in-vitro test for diagnosis of allergy, called RAST (Radioallergosorbent test). Organon in Holland with the pregnancy test kit, and Pharmacia in Sweden with test kits for radioimmunoassay, became pioneers among the diagnostic test kit industries. Pharmacia Diagnostics later became one of the leading diagnostic test kit companies in the world and has continued to be so in the field of allergy diagnosis. Each one of these inventions started with a few unique observations leading to a technical development. The pregnancy test as well as the allergy test emerged from the development of assay methods with unique qualities with the subsequent search for appropriate applications. The foreseeing of a commercial value on a future market was a very important step. This was followed by the search for a suitable industry interested to exploit the invention with its new business opportunity i.e. apply for a patent, produce and market the products, which in my case consisted of the necessary reagents and equipments for particular diagnostic tests. Finally, an agreement had to be settled between the entrepreneur and the inventors. This report describes these inventions and particularly discusses some

  10. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  11. United States position paper on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Johnson, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    The first Specialists' Meeting on sodium fire technology sponsored by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was held in Richland, Washington in 1972. The group concluded that the state-of-technology at that time was inadequate to support the growing LMFBR industry. During the second IWGFR Specialists' Meeting on sodium fires, held in Cadarache, France in 1978, a large quantity of technical information was exchanged and areas were identified where additional work was needed. Advances in several important areas of sodium fire technology have been made in the United States since that time, including improved computer codes, design of a sodium fire protection system for the CRBRP, measurement of water release from heated concrete, and testing and modeling of the sodium-concrete reaction. Research in the U.S. related to sodium fire technology is performed chiefly at the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International (including Atomics International), the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The work at the first two laboratories is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, while that at the latter is sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Various aspects of sodium fire related work is also performed at several other laboratories. The current status of sodium fire technology in the U.S. is summarized in this report

  12. Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz Akhtar; Gad, Nanette; Koren, Gideon

    2014-04-01

    Question Congenital toxoplasmosis is a dangerous fetal infection. Why is routine screening for Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy not available for most Canadians? Answer Low prevalence of the infection, high cost associated with testing, low sensitivity of screening tests, false-positive test results, and limitations of treatment effectiveness are all cited as reasons for not routinely screening for T gondii infection in Canada. Currently, screening for the detection of T gondii is only performed in Nunavik and other parts of northern Quebec owing to the high prevalence of infection in this region. Congenital toxoplasmosis causes neurologic or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies.

  13. Live birth pregnancy outcome after first in vitro fertilization treatment in a patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and isolated high positive IgA anti-β2glycoprotein I antibodies: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva Hristina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available IgA anti-β2glycoprotein I antibodies (IgA-anti-β2GPI seems to be the most prevalent isotype in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE with a significant association to thrombotic events. Both SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS can be associated with implantation failure, fetal loss and obstetric complications. Recent reports highlight the clinical value of IgA-anti-β2GPI determination in supporting in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment and IVF pregnancy outcomes. We report a 36-year-old female diagnosed with SLE, endometriosis and unexplained infertility. Conventional APS markers were consistently negative: anti-cardiolipin (aCL and anti-β2GPI: IgG/IgM. She was then tested with reports of repeatedly high IgA-anti-β2GPI and tested positive from 2014 after IgA (aCL; anti-β2GPI were established in our APS diagnostic panel. She underwent successful first IVF procedure with a 30 week live birth pregnancy outcome. During the follow up no lupus flare, thrombosis or ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were registered. Serum IgA anti-β2GPI and anti-dsDNA levels declined statistically significant during the second and third trimester. Titres of IgA-anti-β2GPI remained lower postpartum as well. This case highlights the clinical importance of IgA-anti-β2GPI testing for family planning, assisted reproduction and pregnancy in women with SLE and/or APS.

  14. Messages on pregnancy and family planning that providers give women living with HIV in the context of a Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention intervention in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilliard S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starr Hilliard, Sarah A Gutin, Carol Dawson Rose Department of Community Health Systems, School of Nursing, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: Family planning is an important HIV prevention tool for women living with HIV (WLHIV. In Mozambique, the prevalence of HIV among women of reproductive age is 13.1% and the average fertility rate is high. However, family planning and reproductive health for WLHIV are under-addressed in Mozambique. This study explores provider descriptions of reproductive health messages in order to identify possible barriers and facilitators to successfully addressing family planning and pregnancy concerns of WLHIV. Methods: In 2006, a Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention program was introduced in Mozambique focused on training health care providers to work with patients to reduce their transmission risks. Providers received training on multiple components, including family planning and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 providers who participated in the training in five rural clinics in three provinces. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analysis showed that providers' clinical messages on family planning, pregnancy, and PMTCT for WLHIV could be arranged along a continuum. Provider statements ranged from saying that WLHIV should not become pregnant and condoms are the only valid form of family planning for WLHIV, to suggesting that WLHIV can have safe pregnancies. Conclusion: These data indicate that many providers continue to believe that WLHIV should not have children and this represents a challenge for integrating family planning into the care of WLHIV. Also, not offering WLHIV a full selection of family planning methods severely limits their ability to protect themselves from unintended pregnancies and to fully exercise their reproductive rights. Responding to the reproductive health

  15. Prenatal care in a specialized diabetes in pregnancy program improves compliance with postpartum testing in GDM women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Terri; Ghaffari, Neda; Bastek, Jamie; Durnwald, Celeste

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate whether prenatal care in a specialized diabetes in pregnancy program (DMC) improves compliance with completion of the 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (2HrOGTT) in GDM women. A retrospective cohort study of GDM women delivering in a university health system between January 2011 and March 2014 was performed. Women were divided into two groups: those receiving care in prenatal clinics over an 18-month period prior to the establishment of the diabetes in pregnancy clinic (pre-DMC) and those receiving prenatal care in a specialized diabetes in pregnancy clinic (post-DMC). The primary outcome was completion of the 2HrOGTT postpartum. Clinical characteristics associated with 2HrOGTT completion were evaluated. Time trend analysis was performed to evaluate month to month variation in 2HrOGTT compliance for secular trends. A total of 292 women were analyzed, 147 post-DMC and 118 pre-DMC. The 2HrOGTT was ordered more frequently in the post-DMC compared to pre-DMC (90.0 versus 53.0%, p prenatal care post-DMC were 2.98 times more likely to complete the 2HrOGTT compared to those receiving care pre-DMC (OR 2.98 [1.34, 6.62], p = 0.007). Providers were 5.9 times more likely to order the recommended testing for GDM women who attended the postpartum visit in the post-DMC period. GDM women who receive prenatal care in a specialized diabetes in pregnancy program are more likely to complete the 2HrOGTT in the postpartum period.

  16. Effect of the supine position on uterine and umbilical blood flow during the third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies in multiparous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffa, A J; Gull, I; Amster, R; Lessing, J B; Wolman, I

    2001-01-01

    We established the effects of the supine position on umbilical blood flow when measured during the third trimester in 30 multiparous, normotensive patients. Blood flow in the umbilical and uterine arteries and blood pressure in the brachial and popliteal arteries were blindly taken by two different observers: first in the lateral and 5 min later in the supine position. There was a significant difference in mean blood pressure between the two postures. However, there was no statistical difference in the pulse pressure or in systolic/diastolic ratio in the umbilical and uterine arteries between the two positions. Postural changes in normotensive multiparous patients do not affect uterine and umbilical blood flow during the third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…

  18. Asthma in pregnancy: association between the Asthma Control Test and the Global Initiative for Asthma classification and comparisons with spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Georgia Véras; Leite, Débora F B; Rizzo, José A; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a possible association between the assessment of clinical asthma control using the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) classification and to perform comparisons with values of spirometry. Through this cross-sectional study, 103 pregnant women with asthma were assessed in the period from October 2010 to October 2013 in the asthma pregnancy clinic at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Pernambuco. Questionnaires concerning the level of asthma control were administered using the Global Initiative for Asthma classification, the Asthma Control Test validated for asthmatic expectant mothers and spirometry; all three methods of assessing asthma control were performed during the same visit between the twenty-first and twenty-seventh weeks of pregnancy. There was a significant association between clinical asthma control assessment using the Asthma Control Test and the Global Initiative for Asthma classification (pspirometry. This study shows that both the Global Initiative for Asthma classification and the Asthma Control Test can be used for asthmatic expectant mothers to assess the clinical control of asthma, especially at the end of the second trimester, which is assumed to be the period of worsening asthma exacerbations during pregnancy. We highlight the importance of the Asthma Control Test as a subjective instrument with easy application, easy interpretation and good reproducibility that does not require spirometry to assess the level of asthma control and can be used in the primary care of asthmatic expectant mothers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The problem of false-positive human papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been extensively studied in randomized controlled trials of primary cervical screening. Based on encouraging results concerning its high detection rates and a high negative predictive value for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV testing...... will probably replace cytology in future primary cervical screening. However, HPV testing is associated with more frequent false-positive tests compared to cytology. False-positive tests are defined as positive screening tests which are not subsequently confirmed with high-grade CIN. Several authors have...

  20. Pregnancy and pregnancy outcome in hepatitis C type 1b.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jabeen, T

    2012-02-03

    A large cohort of rhesus-negative women in Ireland were inadvertently infected with hepatitis C virus following exposure to contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin in 1977-8. This major iatrogenic episode was discovered in 1994. We studied 36 women who had been infected after their first pregnancy, and compared them to an age- and parity-matched control group of rhesus-positive women. The presence of hepatitis C antibody was confirmed in all 36 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by recombinant immunoblot assay, while 26 (72%) of the cohort were HCV-RNA-positive (type 1b) on PCR testing. In the 20 years post-infection, all members of the study group had at least one pregnancy, and mean parity was 3.5. They had a total of 100 pregnancies and 85 of these went to term. There were four premature births, one being a twin pregnancy, and 11 spontaneous miscarriages. One miscarriage occurred in the pregnancy following HCV infection. There were two neonatal deaths due to severe congenital abnormalities in the PCR-positive women. Of the children born to HCV-RNA positive mothers, only one (2.3%) tested positive for the virus. Significant portal fibrosis on liver biopsy was confined to HCV-RNA-positive mothers apart from one single exception in the antibody-positive HCV-RNA-negative group. Comparison with the control group showed no increase in spontaneous miscarriage rate, and no significant difference in obstetric complications; birth weights were similar for the two groups.

  1. Testing for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: key concepts to deal with an emerging epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppes, Catherine; Rac, Martha; Dunn, James; Versalovic, James; Murray, Kristy O; Suter, Melissa A; Sanz Cortes, Magda; Espinoza, Jimmy; Seferovic, Maxim D; Lee, Wesley; Hotez, Peter; Mastrobattista, Joan; Clark, Steven L; Belfort, Michael A; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne (Aedes genus) arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Following epidemics in Micronesia and French Polynesia during the past decade, more recent Zika virus infection outbreaks were first reported in South America as early as May 2013 and spread to now 50 countries throughout the Americas. Although no other flavivirus has previously been known to cause major fetal malformations following perinatal infection, reports of a causal link between Zika virus and microcephaly, brain and ocular malformations, and fetal loss emerged from hard-hit regions of Brazil by October 2015. Among the minority of infected women with symptoms, clinical manifestations of Zika virus infection may include fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and maculopapular rash; however, only 1 of every 4-5 people who are infected have any symptoms. Thus, clinical symptom reporting is an ineffective screening tool for the relative risk assessment of Zika virus infection in the majority of patients. As previously occurred with other largely asymptomatic viral infections posing perinatal transmission risk (such as HIV or cytomegalovirus), we must develop and implement rapid, sensitive, and specific screening and diagnostic testing for both viral detection and estimation of timing of exposure. Unfortunately, despite an unprecedented surge in attempts to rapidly advance perinatal clinical testing for a previously obscure arbovirus, there are several ongoing hindrances to molecular- and sonographic-based screening and diagnosis of congenital Zika virus infection. These include the following: (1) difficulty in estimating the timing of exposure for women living in endemic areas and thus limited interpretability of immunoglobulin M serologies; (2) cross-reaction of immunoglobulin serologies with other endemic flaviruses, such as dengue; (3) persistent viremia and viruria in pregnancy weeks to months after primary exposure; and (4) fetal brain malformations and anomalies

  2. Autoimmune hepatitis vs. pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a disease of unknown etiology. In pregnancy, it may have mild clinical course as well as can lead to liver failure, or exacerbation of clinical symptoms. In pregnant women the severity of symptoms is often observed between the second and third trimester, and in the puerperium. The disease is marked by enhanced activity of Th lymphocytes, which hepatocytes recognize as foreign antigens. This results in interleukin production activating B lymphocytes, and the production of specific antibodies attacking and destroying the hepatocytes. Case report A 35-year old patient, CII PII, 7 Hbd, with autoimmune hepatitis reported for a check-up. Her first pregnancy was 18 years ago, without history of underlying disease, carried to term without complications. The woman gave birth to a baby-son weighing 3,280g, 10 points Apgar. The delivery was spontaneous and uneventful. The patient got pregnant after an 18-year break. When she twice-tested positively for pregnancy, the treatment with azathioprine was switched to prednisolone. Over the pregnancy the patient was hospitalized 4 times, in 25, 29, 35, and 37 week of gestation due to a threat of preterm delivery, and pregnancy-related cholestasis associated with AIH. In 37 week of gestation, delivery was induced, and she gave birth to a healthy male, weighing 2,650 g, body height of 49 cm, 10 points Apgar scale. The liver function improved and stabilized after the delivery. Treatment with prednisolone has been continued, and the patient’s condition is still controlled. Pregnant patients with autoimmune hepatitis often experience exacerbation of the disease, especially in the third trimester, and in the postpartum period. This case shows that with proper care it is possible to continue and terminate pregnancy safely for the mother and her newly born baby.

  3. Usefulness of exercise ECG test with nitroglycerin and exercise cardiac scintigraphy in patients with false positive exercise ECG test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Kohshiro

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of exercise (Ex) ECG test with sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) and Ex cardiac scintigraphy in differentiating false positive responses from true positive responses of Ex ECG test. We examined 7 pts (age : 46+-7 years) with true positive Ex ECG test (TP) and 8 pts (age : 55+-10 years) with false positive Ex ECG test (FP). TP had significant coronary artery disease and FP did not. Ex test was done by multistage ergometer test. In 5 pts of TP and all pts of FP, Ex cardiac scintigraphy was performed. In TP, Ex cardiac scintigraphy revealed reversible perfusion deficit, but not in FP. NTG was administered 3 minutes before Ex test was started. Ex test with NTG was terminated at the same load as Ex test without NTG. Pressure-rate products at the end point of Ex test did not show significant difference between Ex test without NTG and that with NTG (TP: 203x10 2 , 213x10 2 , FP: 196x10 2 , 206x10 2 , respectively). In 7 pts of FP, ST depression in Ex test without NTG was not improved in Ex test with NTG. On the other hand, in all pts of TP, ST depression seen in Ex test without NTG, was not observed in Ex test with NTG. It may be concluded that Ex cardiac scintigraphy is diagnostic for differentiation of false positive responses from true positive responses of Ex ECG test, as well as Ex ECG test with NTG is. (author)

  4. Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies: A report of two cases | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies are rare occurrences. Two recently managed cases are discussed. The first was a single, sexually active 23-year-old nullipara with family history of twinning who presented with eight weeks amenorrhea, positive pregnancy test, lower abdominal discomfort and other clinical and ultrasound ...

  5. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Skov, Per Stahl; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. To investigate the clinical relevance of a positive ST result and positive s-IgE and to study the reproducibility of ST and s-IgE. A sample of convenience of 25 patients with positive penicillin ST results, antipenicillin s-IgE results, or both was challenged with their culprit penicillin. Further 19 patients were not challenged, but deemed allergic on the basis of a recent anaphylactic reaction or delayed reactions to skin testing. Another sample of convenience of 18 patients, 17 overlapping with the 25 challenged, with initial skin testing and s-IgE (median, 25; range, 3-121), months earlier (T -1 ), was repeat skin tested and had s-IgE measured (T 0 ), and then skin tested and had s-IgE measured 4 weeks later (T 1 ). Only 9 (36%) of 25 were challenge positive. There was an increased probability of being penicillin allergic if both ST result and s-IgE were positive at T 0 . Positive ST result or positive s-IgE alone did not predict penicillin allergy. Among the 18 patients repeatedly tested, 46.2% (12 of 25) of positive ST results at T -1 were reproducibly positive at T 0 . For s-IgE, 54.2% (14 of 24) positive measurements were still positive at T 0 and 7 converted to positive at T 1 . The best predictor for a clinically significant (IgE-mediated) penicillin allergy is a combination of a positive case history with simultaneous positive ST result and s-IgE or a positive challenge result. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Patients with an Apparent False Positive Stool DNA Test: The Role of Repeat Stool DNA Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory S; Markowitz, Sanford D; Chen, Zhengyi; Tuck, Missy; Willis, Joseph E; Berger, Barry M; Brenner, Dean E; Li, Li

    2018-03-07

    There is uncertainty as to the appropriate follow-up of patients who test positive on multimarker stool DNA (sDNA) testing and have a colonoscopy without neoplasia. To determine the prevalence of missed colonic or occult upper gastrointestinal neoplasia in patients with an apparent false positive sDNA. We prospectively identified 30 patients who tested positive with a commercially available sDNA followed by colonoscopy without neoplastic lesions. Patients were invited to undergo repeat sDNA at 11-29 months after the initial test followed by repeat colonoscopy and upper endoscopy. We determined the presence of neoplastic lesions on repeat evaluation stratified by results of repeat sDNA. Twelve patients were restudied. Seven patients had a negative second sDNA test and a normal second colonoscopy and upper endoscopy. In contrast, 5 of 12 subjects had a persistently positive second sDNA test, and 3 had positive findings, including a 3-cm sessile transverse colon adenoma with high-grade dysplasia, a 2-cm right colon sessile serrated adenoma with dysplasia, and a nonadvanced colon adenoma (p = 0.045). These corresponded to a positive predictive value of 0.60 (95% CI 0.17-1.00) and a negative predictive value of 1.00 (95% CI 1.00-1.00) for the second sDNA test. In addition, the medical records of all 30 subjects with apparent false positive testing were reviewed and no documented cases of malignant tumors were recorded. Repeat positive sDNA testing may identify a subset of patients with missed or occult colorectal neoplasia after negative colonoscopy for an initially positive sDNA. High-quality colonoscopy with careful attention to the right colon in patients with positive sDNA is critically important and may avoid false negative colonoscopy.

  7. Design, building and test of one prototype and four final position sensor assemblies: Hall effect position sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This report covers the development of a three channel Hall effect position sensing system for the commutation of a three phase dc torquer motor. The effort consisted of the evaluation, modification and re-packaging of a commercial position sensor and the design of a target configuration unique to this application. The resulting design meets the contract requirements and, furthermore, the test results indicate not only the practicality and versatility of the design, but also that there may be higher limits of resolution and accuracy achievable.

  8. For Men: A Positive Zika Virus Test, What Does It Mean for Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    CDC’s Response to Zika FOR MEN: A POSITIVE ZIKA VIRUS TEST What does it mean for me? You’ ... Zika test result, which means that you have Zika virus. Zika is spread through mosquito bites and through ...

  9. Are women positive for the One Step but negative for the Two Step screening tests for gestational diabetes at higher risk for adverse outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissutti, Claudia; Khalifeh, Adeeb; Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if women meeting criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by the One Step test as per International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria but not by other less strict criteria have adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with GDM-negative controls. The primary outcome was the incidence of macrosomia, defined as birthweight > 4000 g. Electronic databases were searched from their inception until May 2017. All studies identifying pregnant women negative at the Two Step test, but positive at the One Step test for IADPSG criteria were included. We excluded studies that randomized women to the One Step vs. the Two Step tests; studies that compared different criteria within the same screening method; randomized studies comparing treatments for GDM; and studies comparing incidence of GDM in women doing the One Step test vs. the Two Step test. Eight retrospective cohort studies, including 29 983 women, were included. Five study groups and four control groups were identified. The heterogeneity between the studies was high. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and large for gestational age, as well as in some analyses cesarean delivery, macrosomia and preterm birth, were significantly more frequent, and small for gestational age in some analyses significantly less frequent, in women GDM-positive by the One Step, but not the Two Step. Women meeting criteria for GDM by IADPSG criteria but not by other less strict criteria have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and large for gestational age, compared with GDM-negative controls. Based on these findings, and evidence from other studies that treatment decreases these adverse outcomes, we suggest screening for GDM using the One Step IADPSG criteria. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Missed Opportunities: barriers to HIV testing during pregnancy from a population based cohort study in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin C Larsson

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess population-level HIV-testing uptake among pregnant women, key for access to prevention-of mother to child transmission (PMTCT services, and to identify risk factors for not being HIV tested,The study was conducted May 2008-May 2010 in the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS, Eastern Uganda, during regular surveillance of 68,000 individuals. All women identified to be pregnant May-July 2008 (n=881 were interviewed about pregnancy-related issues and linked to the HDSS database for socio-demographic data. Women were followed-up via antenatal care (ANC register reviews at the health facilities to collect data related to ANC services received, including HIV testing. Adjusted relative risk (aRR, and 95% confidence intervals (CI for not being HIV tested were calculated using multivariable binomial regression among the 544 women who remained after record review.Despite high ANC attendance (96%, the coverage of HIV testing was 64%. Only 6% of pregnant women who sought ANC at a facility without HIV testing services were referred for testing and only 20% received counseling regarding HIV. At ANC facilities with HIV testing services, 85% were tested. Only 4% of the women tested had been couple tested for HIV. Living more than three kilometers away from a health facility with HIV testing services was associated with not being tested both among the poorest (aRR,CI; 1.44,1.02-2.04 and the least poor women (aRR,CI;1.72,1.12-2.63.The lack of on site HIV testing services and distant ANC facilities lead to missed opportunities for PMTCT, especially for the poorest women. Referral systems for HIV testing need to be improved and testing should be expanded to lower level health facilities. This is in order to ensure that the policy of HIV testing during pregnancy is implemented more effectively and that testing is accessible for all.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis and mortality impact estimation of scaling-up pregnancy test kits in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Robert J; Audibert, Martine; Comfort, Alison B

    2017-07-01

    Cost-effective, innovative approaches are needed to accelerate progress towards ending preventable infant, child and maternal mortality. To inform policy decisions, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of adding urine pregnancy test kits to the maternal and reproductive services package offered at the community level in Madagascar, Ethiopia and Malawi. We used a decision tree model to compare the intervention with the status quo for each country. We also completed single factor sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations with 10 000 iterations to generate the probability distribution of the estimates and uncertainty limits. Among a hypothetical cohort of 100 000 women of reproductive age, we estimate that over a 1-year period, the intervention would save 26, 35 and 48 lives in Madagascar, Ethiopia, and Malawi, respectively. The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) for the cost per life saved varies by country: $2311 [95% Uncertainty Interval (UI): $1699; $3454] in Madagascar; $2969 [UI: $2260; $5041] in Ethiopia and $1228 [UI: $918; $1777] in Malawi. This equates to an average cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted of $36.28, $47.95 and $21.92, respectively. Based on WHO criteria and a comparison with other maternal, newborn, and child health interventions, we conclude that the addition of urine pregnancy tests to an existing community health worker maternal and reproductive services package is highly cost-effective in all three countries. To optimize uptake of family planning and antenatal care services and, in turn, accelerate the reduction of mortality and DALYs, decision makers and program planners should consider adding urine pregnancy tests to the community-level package of services. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Clinical and Ultrasonic Study of Clinically Suspected Ectopic Pregnancy: Laying Emphasis on 15 proven Ectopic Pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Ho; Chung, Yung Sun [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Ectopic preganacies are unsuccessful pregnancies that result from implantation of fertilized ovum occurring in an aberrant area. Aside from an emergency case, the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is very difficult particularly in a case with insidious onset and mild clinical manifestations. Early diagnosis not only reduces the danger, but also simplifies the management of ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasonography has been an indispensable diagnostic tool in Obstetrics and Gynecology. In the authors' experience, clinical suspected ectopic pregnancy was one of the common indications for performing ultrasonography. Since Kobayashi at al. reported the appearances of ectopic pregnancy utilizing bistable B-scan ultrasonography, the ultrasonic findings of ectopic pregnancy have been reported by many authors. But, its accuracy and reliability in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy are still open to controversy. The authors studied 65 cases of clinically suspected ectopic pregnancy with Picker 80 L gray scale ultrasonography from Aug. 1982 to June. 1983. There were 29 confirmed cases, of which 15 were proved to have ectopic pregnancy and 14 were proved to have diseases other than ectopic pregnancy by surgical and histopathological study or by laparoscopy and follow up study. 29 confirmed cases were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Among 15 ectopic pregnancies, there were 12 ampullary pregnancies, 2 isthmic pregnancies and 1 interstitial pregnancy. Among 14 cases of no ectopic pregnancy, there were 5 intrauterine pregnancies, 3 myoma uteri, 2 P.I.D., and 1 case of dermoid cyst, cystic teratoma, H-mole and tubal hematoma due to previous tuball ligation, respectively. 2. The age distribution of ectopic pregnancy was from 22 to 41 years. The common clinical manifestations of ectopic pregnancy were lower abdominal pain (73.3%), vaginal spotting or bleeding (73.3%) and amenorrhea (66.7%). 3. Positive result of urine immunologic pregnancy test was 28.6% in ectopic

  13. The Clinical and Ultrasonic Study of Clinically Suspected Ectopic Pregnancy: Laying Emphasis on 15 proven Ectopic Pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Ho; Chung, Yung Sun

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic preganacies are unsuccessful pregnancies that result from implantation of fertilized ovum occurring in an aberrant area. Aside from an emergency case, the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is very difficult particularly in a case with insidious onset and mild clinical manifestations. Early diagnosis not only reduces the danger, but also simplifies the management of ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasonography has been an indispensable diagnostic tool in Obstetrics and Gynecology. In the authors' experience, clinical suspected ectopic pregnancy was one of the common indications for performing ultrasonography. Since Kobayashi at al. reported the appearances of ectopic pregnancy utilizing bistable B-scan ultrasonography, the ultrasonic findings of ectopic pregnancy have been reported by many authors. But, its accuracy and reliability in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy are still open to controversy. The authors studied 65 cases of clinically suspected ectopic pregnancy with Picker 80 L gray scale ultrasonography from Aug. 1982 to June. 1983. There were 29 confirmed cases, of which 15 were proved to have ectopic pregnancy and 14 were proved to have diseases other than ectopic pregnancy by surgical and histopathological study or by laparoscopy and follow up study. 29 confirmed cases were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Among 15 ectopic pregnancies, there were 12 ampullary pregnancies, 2 isthmic pregnancies and 1 interstitial pregnancy. Among 14 cases of no ectopic pregnancy, there were 5 intrauterine pregnancies, 3 myoma uteri, 2 P.I.D., and 1 case of dermoid cyst, cystic teratoma, H-mole and tubal hematoma due to previous tuball ligation, respectively. 2. The age distribution of ectopic pregnancy was from 22 to 41 years. The common clinical manifestations of ectopic pregnancy were lower abdominal pain (73.3%), vaginal spotting or bleeding (73.3%) and amenorrhea (66.7%). 3. Positive result of urine immunologic pregnancy test was 28.6% in ectopic pregnancy

  14. Psychosomatic disorders of gravida status: false and denied pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, William D; Nicolson, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    The authors review the literature on two dramatic psychosomatic disorders of reproduction and offer a potential classification of pregnancy denial. Information on false and denied pregnancies is summarized by comparing the descriptions, differential diagnoses, epidemiology, patient characteristics, psychological factors, abdominal tone, and neuroendocrinology. Pregnancy denial's association with neonaticide is reviewed. False and denied pregnancies have fooled women, families, and doctors for centuries as the body obscures her true condition. Improvements in pregnancy testing have decreased reports of false pregnancy. However, recent data suggests 1/475 pregnancies are denied to 20 weeks, and 1/2455 may go undiagnosed to delivery. Factors that may contribute to the unconscious deception include abdominal muscle tone, persistent corpus luteum function, and reduced availability of biogenic amines in false pregnancy, and posture, fetal position, and corpus luteum insufficiency in denied pregnancy. For each condition, there are multiple reports in which the body reveals her true pregnancy status as soon as the woman is convinced of her diagnosis. Forensic literature on denied pregnancy focused on the woman's rejection of motherhood, while psychiatric studies have revealed that trauma and dissociation drive her denial. False pregnancy has firm grounding as a classic psychosomatic disorder. Pregnancy denial's association with neonaticide has led to misleading forensic data, which obscures the central role of trauma and dissociation. A reappraisal of pregnancy denial confirms it as the somatic inverse of false pregnancy. With that perspective, clinicians can help women understand their pregnancy status to avoid unexpected deliveries with tragic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2008-01-01

    women experiencing a negative screening test, regardless of whether the false positive statement was given following assessment or following surgery. The benign to malignant biopsy ratio, comparing the type B false positives to the true positives, was by the fifth round well below the desirable level...

  16. MR features of ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Ken; Togashi, Kaori; Koyama, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP), in which a fertilized ovum implants outside the uterine cavity, is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the first trimester. EP is usually suspected by a positive pregnancy test and an empty uterus on transvaginal sonography (TVS). Although TVS is the initial modality of choice, it may occasionally fail to demonstrate the implantation site. When TVS findings are indeterminate, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide better delineation of the focus of EP owing to its excellent tissue contrast. The key MRI features of EP include gestational sac (GS)-like structures that typically appear as a cystic sac-like structure, frequently associated with surrounding acute hematoma of distinct low intensity on T2-weighted images. In tubal pregnancy, an enhanced tubal wall on postcontrast images may be another diagnostic finding. Ruptured EP is inevitably associated with acute hematoma outside these structures. In intrauterine EP, recognition of the relationship between GS-like structure and the myometrium can aid in differentiating from normal pregnancy. Diagnostic pitfalls include heterotopic pregnancy, decidual changes in endometrial cyst and theca lutein cysts mimicking GS-like structures. Knowledge of a spectrum of clinical and MRI features of EP is essential for establishing an accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate management. (orig.)

  17. Lassa hemorrhagic fever in a late term pregnancy from northern sierra leone with a positive maternal outcome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangura James J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lassa fever (LF is a devastating viral disease prevalent in West Africa. Efforts to take on this public health crisis have been hindered by lack of infrastructure and rapid field deployable diagnosis in areas where the disease is prevalent. Recent capacity building at the Kenema Government Hospital Lassa Fever Ward (KGH LFW in Sierra Leone has lead to a major turning point in the diagnosis, treatment and study of LF. Herein we present the first comprehensive rapid diagnosis and real time characterization of an acute hemorrhagic LF case at KGH LFW. This case report focuses on a third trimester pregnant Sierra Leonean woman from the historically non-endemic Northern district of Tonkolili who survived the illness despite fetal demise. Employed in this study were newly developed recombinant LASV Antigen Rapid Test cassettes and dipstick lateral flow immunoassays (LFI that enabled the diagnosis of LF within twenty minutes of sample collection. Deregulation of overall homeostasis, significant hepatic and renal system involvement, and immunity profiles were extensively characterized during the course of hospitalization. Rapid diagnosis, prompt treatment with a full course of intravenous (IV ribavirin, IV fluids management, and real time monitoring of clinical parameters resulted in a positive maternal outcome despite admission to the LFW seven days post onset of symptoms, fetal demise, and a natural still birth delivery. These studies solidify the growing rapid diagnostic, treatment, and surveillance capabilities at the KGH LF Laboratory, and the potential to significantly improve the current high mortality rate caused by LF. As a result of the growing capacity, we were also able to isolate Lassa virus (LASV RNA from the patient and perform Sanger sequencing where we found significant genetic divergence from commonly circulating Sierra Leonean strains, showing potential for the discovery of a newly emerged LASV strain with expanded geographic

  18. An international network (PlaNet) to evaluate a human placental testing platform for chemicals safety testing in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brownbill, Paul; Chernyavsky, Igor; Bottalico, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The human placenta is a critical life-support system that nourishes and protects a rapidly growing fetus; a unique organ, species specific in structure and function. We consider the pressing challenge of providing additional advice on the safety of prescription medicines and environmental exposures...... placental function in pregnancy-related pathologies and influx/efflux transporter polymorphisms are a few caveats that could be addressed by HPTSs, not the specific focus of current mammalian reproductive toxicology systems. An international consortium, “PlaNet”, will bridge academia, industry...

  19. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks of pregnancy Ovarian cysts Anemia Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) Causes A molar pregnancy is caused by an ... have this complication than a partial molar pregnancy. Prevention If you've had a molar pregnancy, talk ...

  20. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe A Teasdale

    Full Text Available Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI is high among pregnant women in certain settings. We estimated STI incidence and compared STI risk in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data came from the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA study conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe 2003-2006. Women aged 18-50 years with at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of enrollment were included. Follow-up visits included laboratory testing for pregnancy, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV, as well as self-report of hormonal contraceptive (HC use, sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices. All visits were classified according to pregnancy status. Incidence of each STI was calculated using follow-up time. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted using pregnancy as a time-varying exposure and sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices as time-varying covariates. Among 4,549 women, 766 (16.8% had a positive pregnancy test. Median follow-up time was 18 months [IQR: 12-24]. The overall incidence rate of chlamydia was 6.7 per 100 person years (py and 9.9/100py during pregnancy; gonorrhea incidence was 2.7/100py and 4.9/100py during pregnancy; trichomoniasis incidence was 7.1/100py overall and 9.2/100py during pregnancy. Overall HIV incidence was 3.9/100py and 3.8/100py during pregnancy. In crude models, pregnancy increased risk for chlamydia (hazard ratio (HR 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.2, however there was no increased risk of any measured STI in adjusted models. STI Incidence was high during pregnancy however pregnancy did not increase STI risk after adjustment for sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to help pregnant women avoid STIs.

  1. Pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive women in Ukraine, 2000-12 (European Collaborative Study in EuroCoord): an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagkeris, Emmanouil; Malyuta, Ruslan; Volokha, Alla; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Bailey, Heather; Townsend, Claire L; Thorne, Claire

    2015-09-01

    Women living with HIV are potentially at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, due to a range of factors, including immunosuppression, use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and injecting drug use. Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ukraine have declined to around 2-4%, but little is known about other pregnancy outcomes in this setting. We used data from an observational prospective cohort study to assess pregnancy outcomes among HIV-positive women in Ukraine. The European Collaborative Study (ECS) in EuroCoord is a continuing cohort study, established in Ukraine in 2000. Eligible women are those with a diagnosis of HIV infection before or during pregnancy (including intrapartum) who deliver liveborn babies at seven sites. Maternal sociodemographic, HIV-related, and delivery (mother and infant) data were collected with study-specific questionnaires. We used Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with preterm delivery (before 37 weeks' gestation) and small weight for gestational age (less than the tenth percentile of weight for gestational age), based on complete cases. Between January, 2000, and July, 2012, data were collected on 8884 HIV-positive mother and liveborn infant pairs. Median maternal age was 26·5 years (IQR 23·1-30·3). 832 (11%) women had WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV and 1474 (17%) had a history of injecting drug use. 7348 (83%) had received antenatal ART. Among 7435 for whom ART type was available, 4396 (50%) had received zidovudine monotherapy and 2949 (33%) combination ART. Preterm delivery was seen in 780 (9%, 95% CI 8-9) of 8860 births overall and in 77 (9%, 7-11) of 889 babies with small size for gestational age. Factors associated with preterm delivery were history of injecting drug use (adjusted risk ratio 1·64, 95% CI 1·38-1·95), no ART (2·94, 2·43-3·57 vs zidovudine monotherapy), antenatal combination ART (1·40, 1·14-1·73 vs zidovudine monotherapy), WHO stage 4 HIV (2·42, 1·71-3·41 vs

  2. Consequences of missed opportunities for HIV testing during pregnancy and delayed diagnosis for Mexican women, children and male partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamil Kendall

    Full Text Available HIV testing during pregnancy permits prevention of vertical (mother-to-child transmission and provides an opportunity for women living with HIV to access treatment for their own health. In 2001, Mexico's National HIV Action Plan committed to universal offer of HIV testing to pregnant women, but in 2011, only 45.6% of women who attended antenatal care (ANC were tested for HIV. The study objective was to document the consequences of missed opportunities for HIV testing and counseling during pregnancy and late HIV diagnosis for Mexican women living with HIV and their families.Semi-structured-interviews with 55 women living with HIV who had had a pregnancy since 2001 were completed between 2009 and 2011. Interviews were analyzed thematically using a priori and inductive codes.Consistent with national statistics, less than half of the women living with HIV (42% were offered HIV testing and counseling during ANC. When not diagnosed during ANC, women had multiple contacts with the health-care system due to their own and other family members' AIDS-related complications before being diagnosed. Missed opportunities for HIV testing and counseling during antenatal care and health-care providers failure to recognize AIDS-related complications resulted in pediatric HIV infections, AIDS-related deaths of children and male partners, and HIV disease progression among women and other family members. In contrast, HIV diagnosis permitted timely access to interventions to prevent vertical HIV transmission and long-term care and treatment for women living with HIV.Omissions of the offer of HIV testing and counseling in ANC and health-care providers' failure to recognize AIDS-related complications had negative health, economic and emotional consequences. Scaling-up provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling within and beyond antenatal care and pre-service and in-service trainings on HIV and AIDS for health-care providers can hasten timely HIV diagnosis and

  3. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  4. Histamine release positive test associates with disease remission in chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, A; Yacoub, M R; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    the correlations between HR test results and demographic features, quality of life, disease activity, clinical course, and autologous serum and plasma skin tests (ASST and APST). Results. All patients with positive HR test (9/9, 100%) had a more severe disease activity at onset (urticaria activity score, UAS > 2......Summary: Background. Histamine release (HR) test has previously been shown to predict the presence of endogenous histamine-releasing factors in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Objectives and methods. Twenty CSU patients unresponsive to antihistamine treatment were enrolled in order to evaluate...... with a positive HR test had a significant reduction of disease activity (p = 0.003) whereas patients with a negative HR test did not (p > 0.05), leading to disease remission and antihistamine treatment withdrawal in 67% (6/9) of positive HR test patients versus 18% (2/11) of negative HR test patients (p = 0...

  5. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R.; Stoop, Esther M.; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is

  6. Liver disease in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel M Lee; Carla W Brady

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy.

  7. Late diagnosis of positive HIV serology in pregnancy incidentally discovered by the widespread appearance of Kaposi's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, D B; Itoua, C; Angoi, V; Gbary, E; Nguessan, K L P; Iloki, H; Boni, S

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) found in a pregnant woman. On discovery, the condition had spread throughout her body as is characteristic in some cases of individuals with HIV-positive serology. She was unaware of her HIV positive status. Her HIV infection had been diagnosed at the same time as KS at her last prenatal consultation. The newborn was delivered by an uncomplicated cesarean section. Appropriate treatment and multidisciplinary management after childbirth resulted in complete remission.

  8. Association between positive patch tests to epoxy resin and fragrance mix I ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer; Vølund, Aage

    2009-01-01

    and possibly reproduce this association with the use of TRUE((R)) test data and supplementary tests with fragrance mix ingredients from the Department of Dermatology, Odense University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six thousand one hundred and fifteen consecutive eczema patients tested from 1995 to 2007......BACKGROUND: Both epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and fragrance mix I are included in the European baseline series of contact allergens. A significant association between positive reactions to epoxy resin and fragrance mix has been reported by others. OBJECTIVE: To investigate...... were included, and test results from all patients tested with fragrance mix ingredients were analysed. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-five (2.4%) were positive to epoxy resin and 282 (4.6%) were positive to fragrance mix I. Nineteen were positive to both giving an odds ratio of 3.3, which...

  9. Reliability of rapid diagnostic tests in diagnosing pregnancy-associated malaria in north-eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minja, Daniel T.; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Oesterholt, Mayke

    2012-01-01

    dehydrogenase (pLDH) based RDTs (Parascreen™) or HRP-2 only (Paracheck Pf® and ParaHIT®f), microscopy and nested Plasmodium species diagnostic PCR. Results: From a cohort of 924 pregnant women who completed the follow up, complete RDT and microscopy data was available for 5,555 blood samples and of these 442...... (RDTs) could be an ideal diagnostic complement to microscopy, due to their ease of use and adequate sensitivity in detecting even sub-microscopic infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is even more sensitive, but it is mainly used for research purposes. The accuracy and reliability of RDTs...... in diagnosing PAM was evaluated using microscopy and PCR. Methods: A cohort of pregnant women in north-eastern Tanzania was followed throughout pregnancy for detection of plasmodial infection using venous and placental blood samples evaluated by histidine rich protein 2 (HRP-2) and parasite lactate...

  10. Using ELISPOT to expose false positive skin test conversion in tuberculosis contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Hill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeat tuberculin skin tests may be false positive due to boosting of waned immunity to past mycobacterial exposure. We evaluated whether an ELISPOT test could identify tuberculosis (TB contacts with boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure.We conducted tuberculin and ELISPOT tests in 1665 TB contacts: 799 were tuberculin test negative and were offered a repeat test after three months. Those with tuberculin test conversion had an ELISPOT, chest X-ray and sputum analysis if appropriate. We compared converters with non-converters, assessed the probability of each of four combinations of ELISPOT results over the two time points and estimated boosting with adjustment for ELISPOT sensitivity and specificity. 704 (72% contacts had a repeat tuberculin test; 176 (25% had test conversion, which increased with exposure to a case (p = 0.002, increasing age (p = 0.0006 and BCG scar (p = 0.06. 114 tuberculin test converters had ELISPOT results: 16(14% were recruitment positive/follow-up positive, 9 (8% positive/negative, 34 (30% negative/positive, and 55 (48% were negative/negative. There was a significant non-linear effect of age for ELISPOT results in skin test converters (p = 0.038. Estimates of boosting ranged from 32%-41% of skin test converters with increasing age. Three converters were diagnosed with TB, two had ELISPOT results: both were positive, including one at recruitment.We estimate that approximately one third of tuberculin skin test conversion in Gambian TB case contacts is due to boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether ELISPOT can reliably identify case contacts with tuberculin test conversion that would benefit most from prophylactic treatment.

  11. Perineal injuries and birth positions among 2992 women with a low risk pregnancy who opted for a homebirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edqvist, Malin; Blix, Ellen; Hegaard, Hanne K

    2016-01-01

    at home and to compare the prevalence of perineal injuries, SPT and episiotomy in different birth positions in four Nordic countries. METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort study of planned home births in four Nordic countries. To assess medical outcomes a questionnaire completed after birth...... by the attending midwife was used. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred ninety-two women with planned home births, who birthed spontaneously at home or after transfer to hospital, between 2008 and 2013 were included.......26-1.79). Flexible sacrum positions were associated with fewer episiotomies (OR 0.20; CI 95 % 0.10-0.54). CONCLUSION: A low prevalence of SPT and episiotomy was found among women opting for a home birth in four Nordic countries. Women used a variety of birth positions and a majority gave birth in flexible sacrum...

  12. Pregnancy does not affect HIV incidence test results obtained using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay or an antibody avidity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Laeyendecker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate incidence estimates are needed for surveillance of the HIV epidemic. HIV surveillance occurs at maternal-child health clinics, but it is not known if pregnancy affects HIV incidence testing.We used the BED capture immunoassay (BED and an antibody avidity assay to test longitudinal samples from 51 HIV-infected Ugandan women infected with subtype A, C, D and intersubtype recombinant HIV who were enrolled in the HIVNET 012 trial (37 baseline samples collected near the time of delivery and 135 follow-up samples collected 3, 4 or 5 years later. Nineteen of 51 women were also pregnant at the time of one or more of the follow-up visits. The BED assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The avidity assay was performed using a Genetic Systems HIV-1/HIV-2 + O EIA using 0.1M diethylamine as the chaotropic agent.During the HIVNET 012 follow-up study, there was no difference in normalized optical density values (OD-n obtained with the BED assay or in the avidity test results (% when women were pregnant (n = 20 results compared to those obtained when women were not pregnant (n = 115; for BED: p = 0.9, generalized estimating equations model; for avidity: p = 0.7, Wilcoxon rank sum. In addition, BED and avidity results were almost exactly the same in longitudinal samples from the 18 women who were pregnant at only one study visit during the follow-up study (p = 0.6, paired t-test.These results from 51 Ugandan women suggest that any changes in the antibody response to HIV infection that occur during pregnancy are not sufficient to alter results obtained with the BED and avidity assays. Confirmation with larger studies and with other HIV subtypes is needed.

  13. Preliminary performance test of control rod position indicator for ballscrew type CEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Hu, H.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, J. I.

    2003-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of the information on control rod position are very important to the reactor safety and the design of the core protection system. A survey on the RSPT(Reed Switch Position Transmitter) type control rod position indication system and its actual implementation in the exiting nuclear power plants in Korea was performed first. The prototype of control rod position indicator having the high performance for the ballscrew type CEDM was developed on the basis of RSPT technology identified through the survey. The characteristics of control rod position indicator was defined and documented through design procedure and preliminary performance test

  14. Clostridium difficile Testing Algorithm: Is There a Difference in Patients Who Test Positive by Enzyme Immunoassay vs. Those Who Only Test Positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Methodology?

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Jonathan; Odili, Ogheneruona; Craver, Mary Ashleigh; Mayen, Anthony; Purrman, Kyle; Rahman, Asem; Sang, Charlie Joseph; Cook, Paul P

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Testing for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) commonly involves checking for the presence of toxins A and B by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or nucleic acid amplification (NAA). The former is very specific, but not very sensitive. The latter is very sensitive. Beginning in 2011, our hospital incorporated an algorithm that involved testing liquid stool specimens for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin by EIA. For discrepant results, the stool specimen was tested for the ...

  15. Helminths and skewed cytokine profiles increase tuberculin skin test positivity in Warao Amerindians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L. M.; Hermans, P. W. M.; Warris, A.; de Groot, R.; Maes, M.; Villalba, J. A.; del Nogal, B.; van den Hof, S.; Mughini Gras, L.; van Soolingen, D.; Pinelli, E.; de Waard, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The immune regulatory mechanisms involved in the acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children are largely unknown. We investigated the influence of parasitic infections, malnutrition and plasma cytokine profiles on tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in Warao Amerindians in

  16. Vertical jumping tests in volleyball: reliability, validity, and playing-position specifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Hadzic, Vedran; Uljevic, Ognjen; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2012-06-01

    Vertical jumping is known to be important in volleyball, and jumping performance tests are frequently studied for their reliability and validity. However, most studies concerning jumping in volleyball have dealt with standard rather than sport-specific jumping procedures and tests. The aims of this study, therefore, were (a) to determine the reliability and factorial validity of 2 volleyball-specific jumping tests, the block jump (BJ) test and the attack jump (AJ) test, relative to 2 frequently used and systematically validated jumping tests, the countermovement jump test and the squat jump test and (b) to establish volleyball position-specific differences in the jumping tests and simple anthropometric indices (body height [BH], body weight, and body mass index [BMI]). The BJ was performed from a defensive volleyball position, with the hands positioned in front of the chest. During an AJ, the players used a 2- to 3-step approach and performed a drop jump with an arm swing followed by a quick vertical jump. A total of 95 high-level volleyball players (all men) participated in this study. The reliability of the jumping tests ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 for Cronbach's alpha coefficients, from 0.93 to 0.97 for interitem correlation coefficients and from 2.1 to 2.8 for coefficients of variation. The highest reliability was found for the specific jumping tests. The factor analysis extracted one significant component, and all of the tests were highly intercorrelated. The analysis of variance with post hoc analysis showed significant differences between 5 playing positions in some of the jumping tests. In general, receivers had a greater jumping capacity, followed by libero players. The differences in jumping capacities should be emphasized vis-a-vis differences in the anthropometric measures of players, where middle hitters had higher BH and body weight, followed by opposite hitters and receivers, with no differences in the BMI between positions.

  17. A CLASS OF DISTRIBUTION-FREE TESTS FOR INDEPENDENCE AGAINST POSITIVE QUADRANT DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar V Pandit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A class of distribution-free tests based on convex combination of two U-statistics is considered for testing independence against positive quadrant dependence. The class of tests proposed by Kochar and Gupta (1987 and Kendall’s test are members of the proposed class. The performance of the proposed class is evaluated in terms of Pitman asymptotic relative efficiency for Block- Basu (1974 model and Woodworth family of distributions. It has been observed that some members of the class perform better than the existing tests in the literature.  Unbiasedness and consistency of the proposed class of tests have been established.

  18. Trends in cytogenetic testing and identification of chromosomal abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects, metropolitan Atlanta, 1968-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jodi M; Crider, Krista S; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Cragan, Janet D; Olney, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the use of cytogenetic testing and identification of chromosomal abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects. Utilizing data from 1968 to 2005 from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, we analyzed trends in the frequency and timing (prenatal or postnatal) of cytogenetic testing and the prevalence of recognized chromosome abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects (n = 51,424). Cytogenetic testing of pregnancies and children with birth defects increased from 7.2% in 1968 to 25.0% in 2005, as did the identification of chromosomal abnormalities (2.2% in 1968 to 6.8% in 2005). The use of prenatal cytogenetic testing decreased from 1996 to 2005 among women aged ≥35 years. Identification of chromosomal abnormalities in pregnancies and children with birth defects increased from 1968 to 2005, possibly due to increased testing, improved diagnostic techniques, or increasing maternal age. The decline in prenatal cytogenetic testing observed among mothers aged ≥35 years may be related to the availability of improved prenatal screening techniques, resulting in a reduction in the utilization of invasive diagnostic tests. Published 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. The champagne toast position isolates the supraspinatus better than the Jobe test: an electromyographic study of shoulder physical examination tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Peter N; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Kupfer, Noam; Wimmer, Markus A; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A; Nicholson, Gregory P

    2016-02-01

    While Jobe's test is widely used, it does not isolate supraspinatus activity. Our purpose was to examine the electromyographic (EMG) activity within the supraspinatus and deltoid with resisted abduction to determine the shoulder position that best isolates the activity of the supraspinatus. We performed EMG analysis of the supraspinatus, anterior head of the deltoid, and middle head of the deltoid in 10 normal volunteers. We measured EMG activity during resisted shoulder abduction in the scapular plane to both manual resistance and a standardized load in varying degrees of abduction and rotation. To determine which position best isolates supraspinatus activity, the ratio of supraspinatus to deltoid activity (S:D) was calculated for each position. Results were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction. The posterior deltoid was excluded as it serves mostly to extend and externally rotate. Our study confirmed Jobe's findings of maximal supraspinatus activity at 90° of abduction. However, decreasing abduction significantly increased S:D for both resisted manual testing and testing against a standardized load (P = .002 and .001, respectively). The greatest S:D ratio (4.6 ± 3.4 for standardized load testing) was seen at the "champagne toast" position, i.e., 30° of abduction, mild external rotation, 30° of flexion, and 90° of elbow flexion. The smallest ratio (0.8 ± 0.6) was seen at Jobe's position. Testing of abduction strength in the champagne toast position, i.e., 30° of abduction, mild external rotation, and 30° of flexion, better isolates the activity of the supraspinatus from the deltoid than Jobe's "empty can" position. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence Based Medicine; Positive and Negative Likelihood Ratios of Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baratloo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the previous two parts of educational manuscript series in Emergency, we explained some screening characteristics of diagnostic tests including accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. In the 3rd  part we aimed to explain positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR as one of the most reliable performance measures of a diagnostic test. To better understand this characteristic of a test, it is first necessary to fully understand the concept of sensitivity and specificity. So we strongly advise you to review the 1st part of this series again. In short, the likelihood ratios are about the percentage of people with and without a disease but having the same test result. The prevalence of a disease can directly influence screening characteristics of a diagnostic test, especially its sensitivity and specificity. Trying to eliminate this effect, LR was developed. Pre-test probability of a disease multiplied by positive or negative LR can estimate post-test probability. Therefore, LR is the most important characteristic of a test to rule out or rule in a diagnosis. A positive likelihood ratio > 1 means higher probability of the disease to be present in a patient with a positive test. The further from 1, either higher or lower, the stronger the evidence to rule in or rule out the disease, respectively. It is obvious that tests with LR close to one are less practical. On the other hand, LR further from one will have more value for application in medicine. Usually tests with 0.1 < LR > 10 are considered suitable for implication in routine practice.

  1. Positive Skin Test or Specific IgE to Penicillin Does Not Reliably Predict Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tannert, Line Kring; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: According to guidelines, patients are diagnosed with penicillin allergy if skin test (ST) result or specific IgE (s-IgE) to penicillin is positive. However, the true sensitivity and specificity of these tests are presently not known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical relevance...... of a positive ST result and positive s-IgE and to study the reproducibility of ST and s-IgE. METHODS: A sample of convenience of 25 patients with positive penicillin ST results, antipenicillin s-IgE results, or both was challenged with their culprit penicillin. Further 19 patients were not challenged......-IgE measured (T0), and then skin tested and had s-IgE measured 4 weeks later (T1). RESULTS: Only 9 (36%) of 25 were challenge positive. There was an increased probability of being penicillin allergic if both ST result and s-IgE were positive at T0. Positive ST result or positive s-IgE alone did not predict...

  2. Increased risk of breast cancer in women with false-positive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Kuchiki, Megumi; Vejborg, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    of misclassification, i.e. women who were actually false-negatives instead of false-positives. METHOD: We used data from the Copenhagen Mammography Screening Programme, Denmark. The study population was the 295 women, out of 4743 recalled women from a total of 58,003 participants, with a false-positive test during...... the women with misclassified tests had been excluded, there was an excess risk of breast cancer of 27% (RR=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.46) among the women with a false-positive test compared to women with only negative tests. Women with a false-positive test determined at assessment had...... an excess risk of 27%, while false-positives determined at surgery had an excess risk of 30%. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the increased risk is not explained only by misclassification. The excess risk remains for false-positives determined at assessment as well as at surgery, which favours some...

  3. HRP2 and pLDH-Based Rapid Diagnostic Tests, Expert Microscopy, and PCR for Detection of Malaria Infection during Pregnancy and at Delivery in Areas of Varied Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Study in Burkina Faso and Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kyabayinze

    Full Text Available Intermittent screening and treatment (IST of malaria during pregnancy has been proposed as an alternative to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp, where IPTp is failing due to drug resistance. However, the antenatal parasitaemias are frequently very low, and the most appropriate screening test for IST has not been defined.We conducted a multi-center prospective study of 990 HIV-uninfected women attending ANC in two different malaria transmission settings at Tororo District Hospital, eastern Uganda and Colsama Health Center in western Burkina Faso. Women were enrolled in the study in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and followed to delivery, generating 2,597 blood samples for analysis. Screening tests included rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2 and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH and microscopy, compared to nPCR as a reference standard. At enrolment, the proportion of pregnant women who were positive for P. falciparum by HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT, microscopy and PCR was 38%, 29%, 36% and 44% in Uganda and 21%, 16%, 15% and 35% in Burkina Faso, respectively. All test positivity rates declined during follow-up. In comparison to PCR, the sensitivity of the HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT and microscopy was 75.7%, 60.1% and 69.7% in Uganda, 55.8%, 42.6% and 55.8% in Burkina Faso respectively for all antenatal visits. Specificity was greater than 96% for all three tests. Comparison of accuracy using generalized estimating equation revealed that the HRP2- detecting RDT was the most accurate test in both settings.The study suggests that HRP2-based RDTs are the most appropriate point-of-care test currently available for use during pregnancy especially for symptomatic women, but will still miss some PCR-positive women. The clinical significance of these very low density infections needs to be better defined.

  4. Studies on the prevalence of leishmanin skin test positivity in the Baringo District, Rift Valley, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, K. U.; Kurtzhals, J. A.; Kager, P. A.; Gachihi, G. S.; Gramiccia, M.; Kagai, J. M.; Sherwood, J. A.; Muller, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    The leishmanin skin test (LST) was applied in 26 clusters of an average of 97 individuals in Baringo District, Kenya. These clusters were centered around recent cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Of 2,411 individuals tested, 254 (10.5%, 155 males and 99 females) had a positive reaction. Among

  5. Latent tuberculosis in HIV positive, diagnosed by the M. tuberculosis specific interferon-gamma test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Inger; Ruhwald, Morten; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) is a minor problem in Denmark, severe and complicated cases occur in HIV positive. Since the new M. tuberculosis specific test for latent TB, the QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube test (QFT-IT) became available the patients in our clinic have been screened for the presence of latent...

  6. Latent tuberculosis in HIV positive, diagnosed by the M. tuberculosis specific interferon-gamma test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Inger; Ruhwald, Morten; Lundgren, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although tuberculosis (TB) is a minor problem in Denmark, severe and complicated cases occur in HIV positive. Since the new M. tuberculosis specific test for latent TB, the QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube test (QFT-IT) became available the patients in our clinic have been screened...

  7. Group Systematic Desensitization Versus Covert Positive Reinforcement in the Reduction of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Marion P.; Galassi, John P.

    1974-01-01

    The study compared modified versions of systematic desensitization and covert positive reinforcement to a no-treatment control condition in the reduction of test anxiety. On an anagrams performance test, the covert reinforcement and control groups were superior to the desensitization group. (Author)

  8. Poor Positive Predictive Value of Lyme Disease Serologic Testing in an Area of Low Disease Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, Paul M; Branda, John A; Boggan, Joel C; Chudgar, Saumil M; Wilson, Elizabeth A; Ruffin, Felicia; Fowler, Vance; Auwaerter, Paul G; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2015-11-01

    Lyme disease is diagnosed by 2-tiered serologic testing in patients with a compatible clinical illness, but the significance of positive test results in low-prevalence regions has not been investigated. We reviewed the medical records of patients who tested positive for Lyme disease with standardized 2-tiered serologic testing between 2005 and 2010 at a single hospital system in a region with little endemic Lyme disease. Based on clinical findings, we calculated the positive predictive value of Lyme disease serology. Next, we reviewed the outcome of serologic testing in patients with select clinical syndromes compatible with disseminated Lyme disease (arthritis, cranial neuropathy, or meningitis). During the 6-year study period 4723 patients were tested for Lyme disease, but only 76 (1.6%) had positive results by established laboratory criteria. Among 70 seropositive patients whose medical records were available for review, 12 (17%; 95% confidence interval, 9%-28%) were found to have Lyme disease (6 with documented travel to endemic regions). During the same time period, 297 patients with a clinical illness compatible with disseminated Lyme disease underwent 2-tiered serologic testing. Six of them (2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.7%-4.3%) were seropositive, 3 with documented travel and 1 who had an alternative diagnosis that explained the clinical findings. In this low-prevalence cohort, fewer than 20% of positive Lyme disease tests are obtained from patients with clinically likely Lyme disease. Positive Lyme disease test results may have little diagnostic value in this setting. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Non-invasive Pregnancy Diagnosis from Urine by the Cuboni Reaction and the Barium Chloride Test in Donkeys (Equus asinus) and Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubátová, A; Fedorova, T; Skálová, I; Hyniová, L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate two chemical tests for non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis from urine, the Cuboni reaction and the barium chloride test, in donkeys (Equus asinus) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The research was carried out from April 2013 to September 2014. Urine samples were collected on five private Czech farms from 18 jennies and 12 alpaca females. Urine was collected non-invasively into plastic cups fastened on a telescopic rod, at 6-9 week intervals. In total, 60 and 54 urine samples from alpacas and jennies, respectively, were collected. The Cuboni reaction was performed by the State Veterinary Institute Prague. The barium chloride test was done with 5 ml of urine mixed together with 5 ml of 1% barium chloride solution. Results of the Cuboni reaction were strongly influenced by the reproductive status of jennies; the test was 100% successful throughout the second half of pregnancy. However, no relationship was found between the real reproductive status of alpaca females and results of the Cuboni reaction. It was concluded that the barium chloride test is not suitable for pregnancy diagnosis either in donkeys, due to significant influence of season on the results, or in alpacas, because no relationship between results of the test and the reproductive status of alpaca females was found. In conclusion, the Cuboni reaction has potential to become a standard pregnancy diagnostic method in donkeys.

  10. A prospective study of the psychosocial impact of a positive Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Stoner, Bradley P; Zaidi, Akbar A; Buckel, Christina; Tran, Molly; Leichliter, Jami S; Berman, Stuart M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2011-11-01

    Few data exist on potential harms of chlamydia screening. We assessed the psychosocial impact of receiving a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result. We prospectively studied women ≥16 years of age undergoing chlamydia testing in 2 Midwestern family planning clinics. We surveyed women at baseline and about 1 month after receiving test results, using 9 validated psychosocial scales/subscales and chlamydia-specific questions. Changes in scale scores were calculated for each woman. Mean percent changes in scores for chlamydia-positive and -negative women were compared using a t test. We enrolled 1807 women (response rate, 84%). Of the 1688 women with test results, 149 (8.8%) tested positive. At follow-up, chlamydia-positive women (n = 71) had a 75% increase in anxiety about sexual aspects of their life on the Multidimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire (P < 0.001), significantly greater than the 26% increase among 280 randomly selected chlamydia-negative women (P = 0.02). There were no differences for the other 8 scales/subscales, including general measures of anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Chlamydia-positive women were more likely than chlamydia-negative women to be "concerned about chlamydia" (80% vs. 40%, P < 0.001) and to report breaking up with a main partner (33% vs. 11%, P < 0.001) at follow-up. Women testing positive reported a range of chlamydia-specific concerns. Chlamydia-positive women had significant increases in anxiety about sex and concern about chlamydia, but did not have marked changes in more general measures of psychosocial well-being about 1 month after diagnosis. Chlamydia diagnoses were associated with some disruption of relationships with main partners. Chlamydia-specific concerns may guide counseling messages to minimize psychosocial impact.

  11. Detection test of wireless network signal strength and GPS positioning signal in underground pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Yunwei; Chen, Ling

    2018-03-01

    In order to solve the problem of selecting positioning technology for inspection robot in underground pipeline environment, the wireless network signal strength and GPS positioning signal testing are carried out in the actual underground pipeline environment. Firstly, the strength variation of the 3G wireless network signal and Wi-Fi wireless signal provided by China Telecom and China Unicom ground base stations are tested, and the attenuation law of these wireless signals along the pipeline is analyzed quantitatively and described. Then, the receiving data of the GPS satellite signal in the pipeline are tested, and the attenuation of GPS satellite signal under underground pipeline is analyzed. The testing results may be reference for other related research which need to consider positioning in pipeline.

  12. Maternal characteristics during pregnancy and risk factors for positive HIV RNA at delivery: a single-cohort observational study (Brescia, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoni Michele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detectable HIV RNA in mothers at delivery is an important risk factor for HIV transmission to newborns. Our hypothesis was that, in migrant women, the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery is greater owing to late HIV diagnosis. Therefore, we examined pregnant women by regional provenance and measured variables that could be associated with detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Methods A observational retrospective study was conducted from January 1999 to May 2008. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses (generalized linear models were used, with detectable HIV RNA at delivery as dependent variable. Results The overall population comprised 154 women (46.8% migrants. Presentation was later in migrant women than Italians, as assessed by CD4-T-cell count at first contact (mean 417/mm3 versus 545/mm3, respectively; p = 0.003. Likewise, HIV diagnosis was made before pregnancy and HAART was already prescribed at the time of pregnancy in more Italians (91% and 75%, respectively than migrants (61% and 42.8%, respectively. A subgroup of women with available HIV RNA close to term (i.e., ≤30 days before labour was studied for risk factors of detectable HIV RNA (≥50 copies/ml at delivery. Among 93 women, 25 (26.9% had detectable HIV RNA. A trend toward an association between non-Italian nationality and detectable HIV RNA at delivery was demonstrated by univariate analysis (relative risk, RR = 1.86; p = 0.099. However, by multivariable regression analysis, the following factors appeared to be more important: lack of stable (i.e., ≥14 days antiretroviral therapy at the time of HIV RNA testing (RR = 4.3; p 3, RR = 0.94; p = 0.038. Conclusions These results reinforce the importance of extensive screening for HIV infection, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy and stricter monitoring of pregnant women to reduce the risk of detectable HIV RNA at delivery. Public health interventions should be particularly targeted to migrant

  13. Anxiety in voluntary HIV-antibody testing in pregnancy and its implications for preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldspang, A; Hedegaard, M

    1991-06-01

    During a three-month period in 1989, 820 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, were offered a HIV-antibody test and asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire about attitudes to HIV-antibody testing; 779 (95.0%) agreed to do so. One hundred and fifty-six women (20.0% of the participants) had been tested on a previous occasion, and 629 (80.7%) accepted the present offer to be tested. The most prevalent reasons to decline testing were indifference to the epidemic (45.3% of those declining), refusal of (further) blood testing (34.7%) and fear of being infected (16.7%). Women who consented to be tested most often expressed fear of being infected (21.8%). Fear of registration worried less than 5% of study group members; only 1% declined to be tested because of such worry. The pattern of worries expressed by the pregnant women is interpreted as one of anxiety and, in part at least, perplexity as concerns how to take rational consequences of public messages about the HIV epidemic. It is suggested that future surveillance be based primarily on voluntary testing and, whenever needed and possible, supplied with anonymous unlinked testing of existing blood samples from groups and persons declining to be tested. Such surveillance strategies should be supported in individual patient contacts and public health educational campaigns underscoring the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV and the need for repeated HIV-antibody testing of selected groups and individuals.

  14. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy...... was unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  15. Inter-pregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Abstract Background: Both short and long inter-pregnancy intervals have been associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. More so, short inter- pregnancy interval among HIV- positive women implies higher birth rate and subsequently a higher number of neonates exposed to HIV and potentially at.

  16. [Sexuality and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueiro, E; Gayoso, P; Perdiz, C; Doval, J L

    1998-10-15

    We intend to describe the sexual behaviour of pregnancies women. Family Planning Center Nóvoa Santos, of Galician Health Service (SERGAS), of Ourense (SPAIN). 206 pregnancies women that are attended in a obstetric psychoprophylaxis's programme, during two years (January/93-January/95). We analysed the social economic, of reproduction, of medical attention and psycho-sexual variables. We use the PRESTA and SPSS statistics programmes. The average age is 28 years old, is married, has elementary studies and this is the first pregnancy. Her pregnancy is desire and normally developed. Her sexual desire and intercourse frequency is the same (1-2 per week); the intercourse is pleasant and the more habitual position is she over. Some times, the couple has relations without coitus and she practises the masturbation, and she enjoy of this practice. The pregnancies women have different sexual behaviours. They are satisfied with all them. The health' professional should favour the complete enjoy of the sexuality during the pregnancy.

  17. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  18. The APS x-ray undulator photon beam position monitor and tests at CHESS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Rodricks, B.; Barraza, J.; Sanchez, T.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The advent of third generation synchrotron radiation sources, like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide significant increases in brilliance over existing synchrotron sources. The APS x-ray undulators will increase the brilliance in the 3-40 KeV range by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the design of the photon beam position monitor is a challenging engineering task. The beam position monitors must withstand the high thermal load, be able to achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while maintaining their stability, and be compatible with both undulators and wigglers. A preliminary APS prototype photon beam position monitor consisting of a CVD-diamond-based, tungsten-coated blade was tested on the APS/CHESS undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Radiation Source (CHESS) and on the NSLS X-13 undulator beamline. Results from these tests, as well as the design of this prototype APS photon beam position monitor, will be discussed in this paper

  19. The APS X-ray undulator photon beam position monitor and tests at CHESS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Rodricks, B.; Barraza, J.; Sanchez, T.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The advent of thirs generation synchrotron sources, like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide significant increases in brilliance over existing synchrotron sources. The APS X-ray undulators will increase the brilliance in the 3-40 keV range by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the design of the photon beam position monitor is a challenging engineering task. The beam position monitors must withstand the high thermal load, be able to achieve submicron spatial resolution while maintaining their stability, and be compatible with both undulators and wigglers. A preliminary APS prototype photon beam position monitor consisting of a CVD-diamond-based, tungsten-coated blade was tested on the APS/CHESS undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Radiation Source (CHESS) and on the NSLS X-13 undulator beamline. Results from these tests, as well as the design of this prototype APS photon beam position monitor, will be discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  20. Update on Valvular Heart Disease in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Lucy M; Tsiaras, Sarah V

    2017-09-01

    Valvular heart disease in women of childbearing age poses an increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and management in pregnancy can be challenging. Ideally, patients with suspected valvular disease should have preconception counseling by a multidisciplinary team including cardiologists with expertise in pregnancy and a maternal-fetal medicine specialist. Preconception planning should include a cardiac assessment of maternal risk, determination of frequency of surveillance, and a cardiovascular management plan during delivery. Women with valvular heart disease should be followed closely by a cardiologist and monitored for signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure and arrhythmias. In general, stenotic lesions may become more symptomatic in pregnancy, whereas regurgitant lesions are generally well tolerated. Left-sided valvular lesions have higher complication rates than right-sided lesions. For patients with asymptomatic valvular stenosis, medical management during pregnancy may include beta blockade and/or diuretics. Exercise stress testing prior to pregnancy in sedentary patients can be helpful to unmask symptoms and determine functional capacity. Patients with symptomatic, severe left-sided valvular obstruction have a high maternal risk of cardiovascular events during pregnancy, and percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty or surgery is recommended prior to pregnancy. The type of prosthetic valve (mechanical vs bioprosthetic) should be selected after a careful discussion with the patient. Invasive procedures are generally reserved for when medical management fails. The second trimester may be the optimal time for intervention as fetal organogenesis is complete and the cardiac positioning has not been affected by the gravid uterus.

  1. Adolescent Pregnancy Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nathalie; O'Driscoll, Teresa; Becker, Gisela; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2015-08-01

    care providers should be sensitive to the unique developmental needs of adolescents through all stages of pregnancy and during intrapartum and postpartum care. (III-B) 3. Adolescents have high-risk pregnancies and should be managed accordingly within programs that have the capacity to manage their care. The unique physical risks of adolescent pregnancy should be recognized and the care provided must address these. (II-1A) 4. Fathers and partners should be included as much as possible in pregnancy care and prenatal/infant care education. (III-B) 5. A first-trimester ultrasound is recommended not only for the usual reasons for properly dating the pregnancy, but also for assessing the increased risks of preterm birth. (I-A) 6. Counselling about all available pregnancy outcome options (abortion, adoption, and parenting) should be provided to any adolescent with a confirmed intrauterine gestation. (III-A) 7. Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI) (II-2A) and bacterial vaginosis (III-B) should be performed routinely upon presentation for pregnancy care and again in the third trimester; STI testing should also be performed postpartum and when needed symptomatically. a. Because pregnant adolescents are inherently at increased risk for preterm labour, preterm birth, and preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes, screening and management of bacterial vaginosis is recommended. (III-B) b. After treatment for a positive test, a test of cure is needed 3 to 4 weeks after completion of treatment. Refer partner for screening and treatment. Take the opportunity to discuss condom use. (III-A) 8. Routine and repeated screening for alcohol use, substance abuse, and violence in pregnancy is recommended because of their increased rates in this population. (II-2A) 9. Routine and repeated screening for and treatment of mood disorders in pregnancy is recommended because of their increased rates in this population. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale administered in each trimester

  2. Skin irritability to sodium lauryl sulfate is associated with increased positive patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitulla, J; Brasch, J; Löffler, H; Schnuch, A; Geier, J; Uter, W

    2014-07-01

    As previous observations have indicated an inter-relationship between irritant and allergic skin reactions we analysed data of synchronous allergen and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) patch tests in terms of a relationship between SLS responsiveness and allergic patch test reactions. To analyse differences in terms of allergen-specific and overall reaction profiles between patients with vs. those without an irritant reaction to SLS. Clinical data of 26 879 patients patch tested from 2008 to 2011 by members of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology were analysed. After descriptive analyses, including the MOAHLFA index, the positivity ratio and the reaction index, a negative binomial hurdle model was adopted to investigate the correlation between SLS reactivity and positive patch test reactions. Men, patients aged ≥ 40 years and patients with an occupational dermatitis background were over-represented in the SLS-reactive group. Patients with an irritant reaction to SLS showed a higher proportion of weak positive reactions, as well as more questionable and irritant reactions to contact allergens than patients not reactive to SLS. The risk of an additional positive patch test reaction increased by 22% for SLS-reactive patients compared with those who were SLS negative. The marked association between SLS reactivity and the number of positive reactions in patch test patients may be due to nonspecific increased skin reactivity at the moment of patch testing only. However, increased SLS reactivity could also be due to longer-lasting enhanced skin irritability, which may have promoted (poly-)sensitization. Further studies, for example with longitudinal data on patients repeatedly patch tested with SLS and contact allergens, are necessary. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Pregnancy Intentions and Teenage Pregnancy Among Latinas: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. METHODS Prospective, time-varying data from 2001–2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low sexual relationship power with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. PMID:20887287

  4. Pregnancy intentions and teenage pregnancy among Latinas: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S; Hubbard, Alan E; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2010-09-01

    The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. Prospective, time-varying data from 2001-2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low power in a sexual relationship with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  5. Tests of crossed-wire position sensitive photomultipliers for scintillating fiber particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdrisat, C.F.; Koechner, D.; Majewski, S.; Pourang, R.; Wilson, C.D.; Zorn, C.

    1995-01-01

    Several applications of two Hamamatsu position sensitive photomultiplier tubes to the detection of high energy particles with scintillating fibers are discussed. The PMTs are of the multiwire anode grid design, type R2486 and R4135. These tubes were tested with both single samples and arrays of 2 and 3 mm diameter scintillating fibers. Measurements of position resolution of the PMTs using either the charge digitization or the delay line readout techniques were made. The results indicate an intrinsic inability of the technique to reconstruct the actual position of a fiber on the photocathode when its location falls halfway between two grid wires. A way to overcome this limit is suggested. (orig.)

  6. 241-AN-A valve pit manifold valves and position indication acceptance test procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDYKE, D.W.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the method used to test design criteria for gear actuated ball valves installed in 241-AN-A Valve Pit located at 200E Tank Farms. The purpose of this procedure is to demonstrate the following: Equipment is properly installed, labeled, and documented on As-Built drawings; New Manifold Valves in the 241-AN-A Valve Pit are fully operable using the handwheel of the valve operators; New valve position indicators on the valve operators will show correct valve positions; New valve position switches will function properly; and New valve locking devices function properly.

  7. The prevalence of skin-test-positive allergic rhinitis in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Jørgensen, T; Nielsen, N H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is disputed whether increases in self-reported respiratory allergy represent a true increase or merely increased recognition. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of skin-prick-test (SPT)-positive allergic rhinitis had increased in an adult general population in Copenhagen...... (participation rate 74.6%) and 482 (participation rate 53.4%) subjects were examined in 1990 and 1998, respectively. Diagnoses of SPT-positive allergic rhinitis were based on a history of nasal symptoms on exposure to allergens and SPT positivity to allergens. RESULTS: The prevalence of a diagnosis of SPT...

  8. Test measurement of a new TESLA cavity beam position monitor at the ELBE linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, V.; Schreiber, H.J.; Evtushenko, P.; Schurig, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new type of a cavity BPM proposed for beam position determination along the TESLA linac was tested at the accelerator ELBE in Rossendorf / Dresden. Measurements using an improved BPM (large and stable cross-talk isolation, significantly less energy dissipation, a novel LO signal generation) were performed in single- and multi-bunch regimes. Agreement with expectations was found. The low bunch charge available allowed for preliminary measurements on sensitivity and position resolution, which extrapolated to TESLA would ful l the demands for precise bunch-to-bunch position determination. Possible improvements, in particular on the signal processing scheme, are also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Genetic Testing and Post-Testing Decision Making among BRCA-Positive Mutation Women: A Psychosocial Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; An, Chen

    2016-10-01

    Through an analysis of an online survey of women who tested positive for the BRCA genetic mutation for breast cancer, this research uses a social constructionist and feminist standpoint lens to understand the decision-making process that leads BRCA-positive women to choose genetic testing. Additionally, this research examines how they socially construct and understand their risk for developing breast cancer, as well as which treatment options they undergo post-testing. BRCA-positive women re-frame their statistical medical risk for developing cancer and their post-testing treatment choices through a broad psychosocial context of engagement that also includes their social networks. Important psychosocial factors drive women's medical decisions, such as individual feelings of guilt and vulnerability, and the degree of perceived social support. Women who felt guilty and fearful that they might pass the BRCA gene to their children were more likely to undergo risk reducing surgery. Women with at least one daughter and women without children were more inclined toward the risk reducing surgery compared to those with only sons. These psychosocial factors and social network engagements serve as a "nexus of decision making" that does not, for the most part, mirror the medical assessments of statistical odds for hereditary cancer development, nor the specific treatment protocols outlined by the medical establishment.

  10. Positive hepatitis B surface antigen tests due to recent vaccination: a persistent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysgaard Carolyn D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a common cause of viral hepatitis with significant health complications including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Assays for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg are the most frequently used tests to detect HBV infection. Vaccination for HBV can produce transiently detectable levels of HBsAg in patients. However, the time course and duration of this effect is unclear. The objective of this retrospective study was to clarify the frequency and duration of transient HBsAg positivity following vaccination against HBV. Methods The electronic medical record at an academic tertiary care medical center was searched to identify all orders for HBsAg within a 17 month time period. Detailed chart review was performed to identify all patients who were administered HBV vaccine within 180 days prior to HBsAg testing and also to ascertain likely cause of weakly positive (grayzone results. Results During the 17 month study period, 11,719 HBsAg tests were ordered on 9,930 patients. There were 34 tests performed on 34 patients who received HBV vaccine 14 days or less prior to HBsAg testing. Of these 34 patients, 11 had grayzone results for HBsAg that could be attributed to recent vaccination. Ten of the 11 patients were renal dialysis patients who were receiving HBsAg testing as part of routine and ongoing monitoring. Beyond 14 days, there were no reactive or grayzone HBsAg tests that could be attributed to recent HBV vaccination. HBsAg results reached a peak COI two to three days following vaccination before decaying. Further analysis of all the grayzone results within the 17 month study period (43 results out of 11,719 tests revealed that only 4 of 43 were the result of true HBV infection as verified by confirmatory testing. Conclusions Our study confirms that transient HBsAg positivity can occur in patients following HBV vaccination. The results suggest this positivity is unlikely to persist beyond 14 days

  11. Microbiological evaluation of milk samples positive to California Mastitis Test in dairy buffalo cows (Buballus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Sturion

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the microbiological status of CMT positive samples, 734 apparently health mammary quarters from buffalo cows were submitted to physical evaluation, strip cup test and CMT. After milk samples inoculation in 10% ovine blood agar base media and in MacConkey agar and incubation under aerobic condition for 72 hours at 37oC, identification was proceeded. According to CMT, 227 quarters (30,93% were positive, among them 73 (32,16% presented 1+ reaction, 53 (23,35% were 2+ and 101 (44,49% were 3+. Microbiological exams of such samples were positive in 147 (64,76% out of 227 CMT positive samples and among the remaining 72 (31,72% were negative and 8 (3,52 were contaminated. In the 147 microbiological positive samples 204 bacteria were found in pure or associated growth and the most frequent agents were: Corynebacterium sp (59,25%; Staphylococcus sp (17,65% among which 86,11% were coagulase negative and 13,89% were coagulase positive; and Micrococcus sp (6,37%. The results revealed that, excluding the eight contaminated samples, 147 (67,12% quarters out of 219 CMT positive could be considered as bacteria-carrier and that even in a smaller percentage false-positive results can cause problems in a sanitary program for mastitis control in dairy buffalo cows.

  12. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sojeong, E-mail: sojung8681@postech.ac.kr; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-11

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  13. [The exploration on optimization of two alternatives between roll test and Dix-Hallpike test in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, R; Chen, T S; Wang, W; Xu, K X; Li, S S; Wen, C; Liu, Q; Lin, P

    2017-06-07

    Objective: To analyze the objective characteristics of roll test and Dix-Hallpike test in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(BPPV)patients, discussing the premier solution of positional test. Methods: A total of 230 patients with BPPV, whereas 170 posterior semicircular canal canalithiasis (PSC-Can) BPPV and 60 horizontal semicircular canal canalithiasis (HSC-Can) BPPV were involved respectively. The induced nystagmus in roll test and Dix-Hallpike test was recorded by video nystagmuo graph (VNG), and the direction, intensity and time characteristics of nystagmus were compared in various BPPV.SPSS19.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Vertically upward nystagmus was induced by hanging in 170 PSC-Can Dix-Hallpike test, and the nystagmus reversed and turned weaker when the subjects came to sit. The intensity of nystagmus at turning to lesion side by hanging and sitting were (30.3±14.1)°/s and (12.6±7.5)°/s respectively, the difference was statistically significant ( t =20.153, P <0.05). However, no nystagmus was induced in PSC-Can roll test. Horizontal nystagmus in the same direction with turning was induced in 60 HSC-Can roll test. The intensity of nystagmus at turning to lesion side and normal side was (42.0±18.0)°/s and (20.3±8.7)°/s respectively, the difference was statistically significant ( t =12.731, P <0.05). Furthermore, horizontal nystagmus in the same direction with turning was induced in 57 HSC-Can Dix-Hallpike. The coherence was 95% with the results of roll test. Conclusions: Dix-Hallpike test can not only be used to diagnose PSC-Can, but also induce nystagmus in HSC-Can effectively. Whereas the roll test only show significance in diagnosing HSC-Can. To avoid uncomfortable stimulation to patients as much as possible, we suggest to use Dix-Hallpike test at first, and to judge whether using roll test based on the result of the horizontal nystagmus.

  14. Retention of children under 18 months testing HIV positive in care in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retention of children under 18 months testing HIV positive in care in Swaziland: a retrospective study. ... children within the first two months of life and linking them into care. However, as time progresses the retention of children in care declines. Innovative strategies need to be developed to enhance patient retention.

  15. Hydroxychloroquine-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis with positive patch-testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Ons; Kastalli, Sarrah; Sahnoun, Rym; Lakhoua, Ghozlane

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a severe cutaneous adverse reaction, mostly induced by drugs. Hydroxychloroquine have been rarely reported in literature as a causative drug of this reaction. We report a case of AGEP induced by hydroxychloroquine with systemic involvement and confirmed by positive patch testing.

  16. 16 CFR 1203.15 - Positional stability test (roll-off resistance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Positional stability test (roll-off resistance). 1203.15 Section 1203.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... over the helmet along the midsagittal plane and attaching the hook over the edge of the helmet as shown...

  17. Test-retest reliability of joint position and kinesthetic sense in the elbow of healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B.; Lund, Hans Aage; Hansen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Proprioception is an important effect measure in neuromuscular function training in physiotherapy. Reliability studies of methods for measuring proprioception are few on joint position sense (JPS) and threshold to detection of a passive movement (TDPM) on the elbow. The aim was to study test-rete...

  18. Hemorrhoids detected at colonoscopy: an infrequent cause of false-positive fecal immunochemical test results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turenhout, S.T. van; Oort, F.A.; Terhaar sive Droste, J.S.; Coupe, V.M.; Hulst, R.W. van der; Loffeld, R.J.; Scholten, P.; Depla, A.C.; Bouman, A.A.; Meijer, G.A.; Mulder, C.J.; Rossum, L.G.M. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer screening by fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) is hampered by frequent false-positive (FP) results and thereby the risk of complications and strain on colonoscopy capacity. Hemorrhoids might be a plausible cause of FP results. OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of

  19. Control rod position and temperature coefficients in HTTR power-rise tests. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Nozomu; Nojiri, Naoki; Takada, Eiji; Saito, Kenji; Kobayashi, Shoichi; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Kokusen, Sigeru

    2001-03-01

    Power-rise tests of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have been carried out aiming to achieve 100% power. So far, 50% of power operation and many tests have been carried out. In the HTTR, temperature change in core is so large to achieve the outlet coolant temperature of 950degC. To improve the calculation accuracy of the HTTR reactor physics characteristics, control rod positions at criticality and temperature coefficients were measured at each step to achieve 50% power level. The calculations were carried out using Monte Carlo code and diffusion theory with temperature distributions in the core obtained by reciprocal calculation of thermo-hydraulic code and diffusion theory. Control rod positions and temperature coefficients were calculated by diffusion theory and Monte Carlo method. The test results were compared to calculation results. The control rod positions at criticality showed good agreement with calculation results by Monte Carlo method with error of 50 mm. The control position at criticality at 100% was predicted around 2900mm. Temperature coefficients showed good agreement with calculation results by diffusion theory. The improvement of calculation will be carried out comparing the measured results up to 100% power level. (author)

  20. Testing Theoretical Relationships: Factors Influencing Positive Health Practices (PHP) in Filipino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia; Mahat, Ganga; Atkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine variables influencing the positive health practices (PHP) of Filipino college students to gain a better understanding of health practices in this ethnic/racial group. Cross-sectional study tested theoretical relationships postulated among (a) PHP, (b) social support (SS), (c) optimism, and (d) acculturation. Participants: A…

  1. [Mes differ by positioning: empirical testing of decentralized dynamics of the self].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Shinichi

    2013-10-01

    The present study empirically tested the conceptualization of the decentralized dynamics of the self proposed by Hermans & Kempen (1993), which they developed theoretically and from clinical cases, not from large samples of empirical data. They posited that worldviews and images of the self could vary by positioning even in the same individual, and denied that the ego was an omniscient entity that knew and controlled all aspects of the self (centralized ego). Study 1 tested their conceptualization empirically with 47 university students in an experimental group and 17 as a control group. The results showed that the scores on the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and images of the Mes in the experimental group significantly varied by positioning, but those in the control group did not. Similar results were found in Study 2 with a sample of 120 university students. These results empirically supported the conceptualization of the decentralized dynamics of the self.

  2. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positivity Predictors of the Pneumococcal Urinary Antigen Test in Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos, Luis; Zalacain, Rafael; Menéndez, Rosario; Reyes, Soledad; Capelastegui, Alberto; Cillóniz, Catia; Rajas, Olga; Borderías, Luis; Martín-Villasclaras, Juan J; Bello, Salvador; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Rello, Jordi; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Gabarrús, Albert; Musher, Daniel M; Torres, Antoni

    2015-10-01

    Detection of the C-polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine by an immune-chromatographic test is increasingly used to evaluate patients with community-acquired pneumonia. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of this test in the largest series of cases to date and used logistic regression models to determine predictors of positivity in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational study of 4,374 patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. The urinary antigen test was done in 3,874 cases. Pneumococcal infection was diagnosed in 916 cases (21%); 653 (71%) of these cases were diagnosed exclusively by the urinary antigen test. Sensitivity and specificity were 60 and 99.7%, respectively. Predictors of urinary antigen positivity were female sex; heart rate≥125 bpm, systolic blood pressureantibiotic treatment; pleuritic chest pain; chills; pleural effusion; and blood urea nitrogen≥30 mg/dl. With at least six of all these predictors present, the probability of positivity was 52%. With only one factor present, the probability was only 12%. The urinary antigen test is a method with good sensitivity and excellent specificity in diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia, and its use greatly increased the recognition of community-acquired pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae. With a specificity of 99.7%, this test could be used to direct simplified antibiotic therapy, thereby avoiding excess costs and risk for bacterial resistance that result from broad-spectrum antibiotics. We also identified predictors of positivity that could increase suspicion for pneumococcal infection or avoid the unnecessary use of this test.

  3. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are positive... from the animals positive to an official Johne's disease test to the healthy animals in the vehicle. ...

  4. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals for slaughter. Domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test may be moved interstate...

  5. Simulation of Model Force-Loading with Changing Its Position in the Wind Tunnel Test Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When planning and implementing an aerodynamic experiment, model sizes and its position in the test section of the wind tunnel (WT play very important role. The paper focuses on the value variations of the aerodynamic characteristics of a model through changing its position in the WT test section and on the attenuation of the velocity field disturbance in front of the model. Flow around aerodynamic model profile in the open test section of the low-speed WT T-500 is simulated at BMSTU Department SM3. The problem is solved in a two-dimensional case using the ANSYS Fluent package. The mathematical model of flow is based on the Reynolds equations closed by the SST turbulence model. The paper also presents the results of the experiment. Experiments conducted in WT T-500 well correlate with the calculated data and show the optimal position in the middle of the test section when conducting the weighing and drainage experiments. Disturbance of tunnel dynamic pressure (velocity head and flow upwash around the model profile and circular cylinder in the WT test section is analyzed. It was found that flow upstream from the front stagnation point on the body weakly depends on the Reynolds number and obtained results can be used to assess the level of disturbances in the flow around a model by incompressible airflow.

  6. Positive cell-free fetal DNA testing for trisomy 13 reveals confined placental mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, April L; Drendel, Holli M; Verbrugge, Jennifer L; Reese, Angela M; Schumacher, Katherine L; Griffith, Christopher B; Weaver, David D; Abernathy, Mary P; Litton, Christian G; Vance, Gail H

    2013-09-01

    We report on a case in which cell-free fetal DNA was positive for trisomy 13 most likely due to confined placental mosaicism. Cell-free fetal DNA testing analyzes DNA derived from placental trophoblast cells and can lead to incorrect results that are not representative of the fetus. We sought to confirm commercial cell-free fetal DNA testing results by chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. These results were followed up by postnatal chromosome analysis of cord blood and placental tissue. First-trimester cell-free fetal DNA test results were positive for trisomy 13. Cytogenetic analysis of chorionic villus sampling yielded a mosaic karyotype of 47,XY,+13[10]/46,XY[12]. G-banded analysis of amniotic fluid was normal, 46,XY. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of cord blood was normal. Karyotyping of tissues from four quadrants of the placenta demonstrated mosaicism for trisomy 13 in two of the quadrants and a normal karyotype in the other two. Our case illustrates several important aspects of this new testing methodology: that cell-free fetal DNA may not be representative of the fetal karyotype; that follow-up with diagnostic testing of chorionic villus sampling and/or amniotic fluid for abnormal test results should be performed; and that pretest counseling regarding the full benefits, limitations, and possible testing outcomes of cell-free fetal DNA screening is important.

  7. Feedback enhances the positive effects and reduces the negative effects of multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew C; Roediger, Henry L

    2008-04-01

    Multiple-choice tests are used frequently in higher education without much consideration of the impact this form of assessment has on learning. Multiple-choice testing enhances retention of the material tested (the testing effect); however, unlike other tests, multiple-choice can also be detrimental because it exposes students to misinformation in the form of lures. The selection of lures can lead students to acquire false knowledge (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). The present research investigated whether feedback could be used to boost the positive effects and reduce the negative effects of multiple-choice testing. Subjects studied passages and then received a multiple-choice test with immediate feedback, delayed feedback, or no feedback. In comparison with the no-feedback condition, both immediate and delayed feedback increased the proportion of correct responses and reduced the proportion of intrusions (i.e., lure responses from the initial multiple-choice test) on a delayed cued recall test. Educators should provide feedback when using multiple-choice tests.

  8. Primary care visit use after positive fecal immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Jensen, Christopher D; Zhao, Wei K; Neugut, Alfred I; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Tiro, Jasmin A; Kushi, Lawrence H; Corley, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    For some patients, positive cancer screening test results can be a stressful experience that can affect future screening compliance and increase the use of health care services unrelated to medically indicated follow-up. Among 483,216 individuals aged 50 to 75 years who completed a fecal immunochemical test to screen for colorectal cancer at a large integrated health care setting between 2007 and 2011, the authors evaluated whether a positive test was associated with a net change in outpatient primary care visit use within the year after screening. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between test result group and net changes in primary care visits after fecal immunochemical testing. In the year after the fecal immunochemical test, use increased by 0.60 clinic visits for patients with true-positive results. The absolute change in visits was largest (3.00) among individuals with positive test results who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, but significant small increases also were found for patients treated with polypectomy and who had no neoplasia (0.36) and those with a normal examination and no polypectomy performed (0.17). Groups of patients who demonstrated an increase in net visit use compared with the true-negative group included patients with true-positive results (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.54-1.66), and positive groups with a colorectal cancer diagnosis (OR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.12-8.44), polypectomy/no neoplasia (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.27-1.48), and normal examination/no polypectomy (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.30). Given the large size of outreach programs, these small changes can cumulatively generate thousands of excess visits and have a substantial impact on total health care use. Therefore, these changes should be included in colorectal cancer screening cost models and their causes investigated further. Cancer 2017;123:3744-3753. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. [An attempt to construct a Japanese version of the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Shunsuke; Okubo, Nobutoshi; Kobayashi, Mai; Sato, Shigetaka; Kitamura, Hideya

    2014-08-01

    The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) is an instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect. A Japanese version of the IPANAT was developed and its reliability and validity were examined. In Study 1, factor analysis identified two independent factors that could be interpreted as implicit positive and negative affect, which corresponded to the original version. The Japanese IPANAT also had sufficient internal consistency and acceptable test-retest reliability. In Study 2, we demonstrated that the Japanese IPANAT was associated with explicit state affect (e.g., PANAS), extraversion, and neuroticism, which indicated its adequate construct validity. In Study 3, we examined the extent to which the Japanese IPANAT was sensitive to changes in affect by assessing a set of IPANAT items after the presentation of positive, negative, or neutral photographs. The results indicated that the Japanese IPANAT was sufficiently sensitive to changes in affect resulting from affective stimuli. Taken together, these studies suggest that the Japanese version of the IPANAT is a useful instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect.

  10. Design, Development and Testing of a Semicircular Type Capacitive Angular Position Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil GAURAV

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A low cost semicircular type capacitive angular position sensor has been designed, developed and tested. It is made of two semicircular parallel plates where one plate is fixed and another plate is connected with the rotor whose angular position is to be measured. When the angular position of the rotor changes with respect to the fixed plate, the overlapping area between the two plates of the capacitor is varied causing a change in capacitance value. Capacitance variation obtained due to the change in angular position is in the nano farad range. For signal conditioning, series R-L-C resonating circuit instead of conventional bridge circuit has been used to convert the sensor capacitance variation in to voltage. Experimental result shows that the capacitance for change in angular position 0º-180º increases linearly and for 180º-360º it decreases linearly. To get a linearly increasing response of same slope for the full scale of 0º-360º, a suitable linearising circuit has been designed, developed and tested. Sensor output along with the signal conditioning shows good linearity and repeatability.

  11. Congenital bladder exstrophy associated with Duogynon hormonal pregnancy tests-signal for teratogenicity or consumer report bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümmler, Gregor; Rißmann, Anke; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2014-06-01

    A combination of ethinylestradiol and 10mg norethisterone under the brand names of Duogynon (Germany) or Primodos (UK) was used as a pregnancy test until the 1970s. Until very recently there was continuing public concern about the safety of these drugs and legal proceedings were instituted against the medicinal authorization holder. Given the lack of epidemiological studies focusing on Duogynon/Primodos, the present study evaluates 296 consumer reports of the German Duogynon database and compares the reported birth defects with data from a population based birth registry. The most striking result is an increase of bladder exstrophy (OR=37.27; 95%-CI 14.56-95.28). Neural tube defects (OR=2.99; 95%-CI 1.85-4.84) and renal agenesis (OR=2.53; 95%-CI 1.17-5.45) were also significantly increased. Bladder exstrophy may be a yet undetected teratogenic effect of Duogynon, but may also represent a reporting bias. The present study highlights the difficulties of evaluating consumer reports which may be influenced by public media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Motor and memory testing of long-lived pregnancy-associated plasma protein--a knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Emily J; Grell, Jacquelyn A; West, Sally A; Conover, Cheryl A

    2014-12-01

    Mice deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), an IGF binding protein protease, have been shown to be resistant to experimentally induced atherosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy, and, in the laboratory environment, live 30-40% longer than wild-type littermates in association with delayed incidence and occurrence of age-related neoplasms and degenerative diseases. PAPP-A is highly expressed in the cerebellum and hippocampus of the mouse brain. Therefore, the studies presented here were aimed at determining motor behavior, learning and retention in PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates with age. Balance and coordination were assessed using an accelerating rotarod; learning and memory were assessed in a Stone T-maze. Time on the rotarod decreased with age but there was no significant difference between PAPP-A KO and WT mice at any of the testing ages. Latency to reach the goal box and number of errors committed in the Stone T-maze did not change with age and there were no significant differences between PAPP-A KO and WT mice. Lack of PAPP-A in mice did not impact central regulation of coordination, learning or memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Guo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, En-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  14. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  15. PCR-based verification of positive rapid diagnostic tests for intestinal protozoa infections with variable test band intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sören L; Müller, Ivan; Mertens, Pascal; Herrmann, Mathias; Zondie, Leyli; Beyleveld, Lindsey; Gerber, Markus; du Randt, Rosa; Pühse, Uwe; Walter, Cheryl; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections. In a longitudinal study conducted in poor neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, a total of 1428 stool samples from two cohorts of schoolchildren were examined on the spot for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis using an RDT (Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip; Coris BioConcept). Overall, 121 samples were positive for G. intestinalis and the RDT suggested presence of cryptosporidiosis in 22 samples. After a storage period of 9-10 months in cohort 1 and 2-3 months in cohort 2, samples were subjected to multiplex PCR (BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel, Becton Dickinson). Ninety-three percent (112/121) of RDT-positive samples for G. intestinalis were confirmed by PCR, with a correlation between RDT test band intensity and quantitative pathogen load present in the sample. For Cryptosporidium spp., all positive RDTs had faintly visible lines and these were negative on PCR. The performance of the BD Max™ PCR was nearly identical in both cohorts, despite the prolonged storage at disrupted cold chain conditions in cohort 1. The Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip warrants further validation in communities with a high incidence of diarrhoea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal serum placental growth hormone, but not human placental lactogen or insulin growth factor-1, is positively associated with fetal growth in the first half of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N G; Juul, A; Christiansen, M

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy.......To investigate if maternal levels of human placental lactogen (hPL), placental growth hormone (PGH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with growth rate of the biparietal diameter (BPD) in the first half of pregnancy....

  17. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  18. Tilt angles and positive response of head-up tilt test in children with orthostatic intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Wang, Yuli; Ochs, Todd; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at examining three tilt angle-based positive responses and the time to positive response in a head-up tilt test for children with orthostatic intolerance, and the psychological fear experienced at the three angles during head-up tilt test. A total of 174 children, including 76 boys and 98 girls, aged from 4 to 18 years old (mean 11.3±2.8 years old), with unexplained syncope, were randomly divided into three groups, to undergo head-up tilt test at the angles of 60°, 70° and 80°, respectively. The diagnostic rates and times were analysed, and Wong-Baker face pain rating scale was used to access the children's psychological fear. There were no significant differences in diagnostic rates of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test (p>0.05). There was a significant difference, however, in the psychological fear at different tilt angles utilising the Kruskal-Wallis test (χ2=36.398, ptest (ptest for vasovagal syncope or for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Hence, it is suggested that a tilt angle of 60° and head-up tilt test time of 45 minutes should be suitable for children with vasovagal syncope.

  19. Risks of Using Bedside Tests to Verify Nasogastric Tube Position in Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Ni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric (NG tubes are commonly used for enteral feeding. Complications of feeding tube misplacement include malnutrition, pulmonary aspiration, and even death. We built a Bayesian network (BN to analyse the risks associated with available bedside tests to verify tube position. Evidence on test validity (sensitivity and specificity was retrieved from a systematic review. Likelihood ratios were used to select the best tests for detecting tubes misplaced in the lung or oesophagus. Five bedside tests were analysed including magnetic guidance, aspirate pH, auscultation, aspirate appearance, and capnography/colourimetry. Among these, auscultation and appearance are non-diagnostic towards lung or oesophagus placements. Capnography/ colourimetry can confirm but cannot rule out lung placement. Magnetic guidance can rule out both lung and oesophageal placement. However, as a relatively new technology, further validation studies are needed. The pH test with a cut-off at 5.5 or lower can rule out lung intubation. Lowering the cut-off to 4 not only minimises oesophageal intubation but also provides extra safety as the sensitivity of pH measurement is reduced by feeding, antacid medication, or the use of less accurate pH paper. BN is an effective tool for representing and analysing multi-layered uncertainties in test validity and reliability for the verification of NG tube position. Aspirate pH with a cut-off of 4 is the safest bedside method to minimise lung and oesophageal misplacement.

  20. Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings

  1. Longitudinal investigation on learned helplessness tested under negative and positive reinforcement involving stimulus control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Emileane C; Hunziker, Maria Helena

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated whether (a) animals demonstrating the learned helplessness effect during an escape contingency also show learning deficits under positive reinforcement contingencies involving stimulus control and (b) the exposure to positive reinforcement contingencies eliminates the learned helplessness effect under an escape contingency. Rats were initially exposed to controllable (C), uncontrollable (U) or no (N) shocks. After 24h, they were exposed to 60 escapable shocks delivered in a shuttlebox. In the following phase, we selected from each group the four subjects that presented the most typical group pattern: no escape learning (learned helplessness effect) in Group U and escape learning in Groups C and N. All subjects were then exposed to two phases, the (1) positive reinforcement for lever pressing under a multiple FR/Extinction schedule and (2) a re-test under negative reinforcement (escape). A fourth group (n=4) was exposed only to the positive reinforcement sessions. All subjects showed discrimination learning under multiple schedule. In the escape re-test, the learned helplessness effect was maintained for three of the animals in Group U. These results suggest that the learned helplessness effect did not extend to discriminative behavior that is positively reinforced and that the learned helplessness effect did not revert for most subjects after exposure to positive reinforcement. We discuss some theoretical implications as related to learned helplessness as an effect restricted to aversive contingencies and to the absence of reversion after positive reinforcement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Buffer substitution in malaria rapid diagnostic tests causes false-positive results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Ende Jef

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are kits that generally include 20 to 25 test strips or cassettes, but only a single buffer vial. In field settings, laboratory staff occasionally uses saline, distilled water (liquids for parenteral drugs dilution or tap water as substitutes for the RDT kit's buffer to compensate for the loss of a diluent bottle. The present study assessed the effect of buffer substitution on the RDT results. Methods Twenty-seven RDT brands were run with EDTA-blood samples of five malaria-free subjects, who were negative for rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies. Saline, distilled water and tap water were used as substitute liquids. RDTs were also run with distilled water, without adding blood. Results were compared to those obtained with the RDT kit's buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Results Only eight cassettes (in four RDT brands showed no control line and were considered invalid. Visible test lines occurred for at least one malaria-free sample and one of the substitutes in 20/27 (74% RDT brands (saline: n = 16; distilled water: n = 17; and tap water: n = 20, and in 15 RDTs which were run with distilled water only. They occurred for all Plasmodium antigens and RDT formats (two-, three- and four-band RDTs. Clearance of the background of the strip was excellent except for saline. The aspects (colour, intensity and crispness of the control and the false-positive test lines were similar to those obtained with the RDT kits' buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Conclusion Replacement of the RDT kit's dedicated buffer by saline, distilled water and tap water can cause false-positive test results.

  3. A re-assessment of biochemical marker distributions in T21 affected and unaffected twin pregnancies in the first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helen Nordahl; Ball, Susan; Wright, Dave

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the difference between levels of the two biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and maternal serum free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) in twin pregnancies relative to singleton pregnancies and establish an improved screening procedure...... of the biochemical markers were calculated. Detection rates and false-positive rates were estimated for screening tests incorporating nuchal translucency and maternal age, with and without biochemistry. RESULTS: Medians for the two biochemical markers for monochorionic and dichorionic twins in unaffected pregnancies......-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities in twins to a level comparable with that in singleton pregnancies....

  4. Ectopic pregnancy: current clinical trends, a fifteen year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, L R

    1981-09-01

    This paper reviews the clinical recognition, diagnosis, and management of ectopic pregnancy at the Queen of Angels Hospital for the past 15 years. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy to deliveries is 1:195. Pain is the cardinal symptom of ectopic pregnancy, and amenorrhea of some degree was present in all cases. Pelvic inflammatory disease is a factor in the development of tubal pregnancy in some women. A careful history and thorough physical examination are important in making a careful diagnosis. The only laboratory procedures which are of any value are the blood type and the Rh determination. While examination of endometrial tissue obtained by biopsy or curettage has proved useful in ectopic pregnancy diagnosis, it is not totally decisive. Culdocentesis has proved to be the diagnostic procedure of the greatest value in recognizing intraperitoneal hemorrhage and it increases the correct preoperative diagnosis from 65-70% to 95%. Laparoscopy is useful when the physician is in doubt about the nature of the problem and it has produced an increase in the number of ectopic pregnancies diagnosed. Ultrasound is another useful tool in confirming a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy; its accuracy ranges from 70-92%. A newly developed pregnancy test is more sensitive than conventional pregnancy tests and would be positive for pregnancy. Women who have had a previous ectopic pregnancy have a higher subsequent incidence of persistent infertility, recurrent ectopic pregnancy, and pregnancy wastage; the risk of another ectopic pregnancy increases 30-50 fold. While extopic pregnancy does recur, it is true that about 1/3 of those women do have successful pregnancies. Where previous induced abortion has occurred, there is a 10-fold increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. Women who become pregnant accidentally with an IUD in place have a greater likelihood of experiencing an extrauterine pregnancy. Abdominal pregnancy is often encountered as an aborting ectopic pregnancy during the 1st

  5. Comparison of CO breath testing and women's self-reporting of smoking behaviour for identifying smoking during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Deborah

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare services often use a carbon monoxide (CO breath test to validate self-reported smoking and to assess reductions in smoking habit. A cut-off level of ≥ 8 parts per million (p.p.m. is used to identify smoking. This cut-off requires further validation in pregnant women. Methods Data on self-reported smoking were assessed in conjunction with breath CO levels. Subjects in the study were 2548 women attending antenatal booking during 12 months. Results 546/2584 (21.4% women self-reported as current smokers. A cut-off of 8 ppm identified only 325/546 self-reported smokers (sensitivity 59.4%. 27/2002 self-reported non-smokers had levels greater than 8 ppm (specificity 98.7%. Sensitivity and specificity analysis revealed that CO cut-off levels of 2 or 3 p.p.m. resulted in the best sensitivity and specificity for discriminating apparent smokers and non-smokers. A cut-off of 2 p.p.m. would have identified 468/546 of self-reported smokers (sensitivity 86%. 206/2002 self-reported non-smokers had levels > 2 ppm (specificity 90 %. If all these women were 'true' smokers, the real prevalence of smoking in pregnancy was 26.5% (752/2548 and 27% of true smokers provided false answers to the self-reported question at maternity booking. Conclusion At 8 ppm, many smokers are missed and there may be gross underestimating of levels of smoking in a pregnant population. Results emphasise the need to support a lower cut-off level for the breath CO test closer to 2 or 3 p.p.m. These cut-offs may be more appropriate in the antenatal clinic setting, and are in line with recent recommendations in the non-pregnant population.

  6. Risk factor screening to identify women requiring oral glucose tolerance testing to diagnose gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis and analysis of two pregnancy cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Farrar

    Full Text Available Easily identifiable risk factors including: obesity and ethnicity at high risk of diabetes are commonly used to indicate which women should be offered the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to diagnose gestational diabetes (GDM. Evidence regarding these risk factors is limited however. We conducted a systematic review (SR and meta-analysis and individual participant data (IPD analysis to evaluate the performance of risk factors in identifying women with GDM.We searched MEDLINE, Medline in Process, Embase, Maternity and Infant Care and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to August 2016 and conducted additional reference checking. We included observational, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies reporting the performance characteristics of risk factors used to identify women at high risk of GDM. We had access to IPD from the Born in Bradford and Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy cohorts, all pregnant women in the two cohorts with data on risk factors and OGTT results were included.Twenty nine published studies with 211,698 women for the SR and a further 14,103 women from two birth cohorts (Born in Bradford and the Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy study for the IPD analysis were included. Six studies assessed the screening performance of guidelines; six examined combinations of risk factors; eight evaluated the number of risk factors and nine examined prediction models or scores. Meta-analysis using data from published studies suggests that irrespective of the method used, risk factors do not identify women with GDM well. Using IPD and combining risk factors to produce the highest sensitivities, results in low specificities (and so higher false positives. Strategies that use the risk factors of age (>25 or >30 and BMI (>25 or 30 perform as well as other strategies with additional risk factors included.Risk factor screening methods are poor predictors of which pregnant women will be diagnosed with GDM. A simple

  7. Development of a superconducting position sensor for the Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Odile Helene

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) is a joint NASA/ESA mission that proposes to measure the differential acceleration of two cylindrical test masses orbiting the earth in a drag-free satellite to a precision of 10-18 g. Such an experiment would conceptually reproduce Galileo's tower of Pisa experiment with a much longer time of fall and greatly reduced disturbances. The superconducting test masses are constrained in all degrees of freedom except their axial direction (the sensitive axis) using superconducting bearings. The STEP accelerometer measures the differential position of the masses in their sensitive direction using superconducting inductive pickup coils coupled to an extremely sensitive magnetometer called a DC-SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device). Position sensor development involves the design, manufacture and calibration of pickup coils that will meet the acceleration sensitivity requirement. Acceleration sensitivity depends on both the displacement sensitivity and stiffness of the position sensor. The stiffness must kept small while maintaining stability of the accelerometer. Using a model for the inductance of the pickup coils versus displacement of the test masses, a computer simulation calculates the sensitivity and stiffness of the accelerometer in its axial direction. This simulation produced a design of pickup coils for the four STEP accelerometers. Manufacture of the pickup coils involves standard photolithography techniques modified for superconducting thin-films. A single-turn pickup coil was manufactured and produced a successful superconducting coil using thin-film Niobium. A low-temperature apparatus was developed with a precision position sensor to measure the displacement of a superconducting plate (acting as a mock test mass) facing the coil. The position sensor was designed to detect five degrees of freedom so that coupling could be taken into account when measuring the translation of the plate

  8. Characterization of human organ donors testing positive for type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, A; Granstam, A; Ingvast, S; Härkönen, T; Knip, M; Korsgren, O; Skog, O

    2015-01-01

    In this study we aim to describe the characteristics of non-diabetic organ donors with circulating diabetes-associated autoantibodies collected within the Nordic Network for Islet Transplantation. One thousand and thirty organ donors have been screened in Uppsala for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and islet antigen-2 (IA-2A). The 32 non-diabetic donors that tested positive for GADA (3·3% of all non-diabetic donors) were studied in more detail, together with 32 matched controls. Mean age among the autoantibody-positive donors was 52·6 (range 21–74), family history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) was unknown, and no donor was genetically predisposed for T1D regarding the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) locus. Subjects were analysed for islet cell antibodies (ICA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and zinc transporter 8 antibodies (ZnT8A), and pancreas morphology and clinical data were examined. Eight non-diabetic donors tested positive for two antibodies and one donor tested positive for four antibodies. No insulitis or other signs of a diabetic process were found in any of the donors. While inflammatory cells were present in all donors, subjects with high GADA titres had significantly higher CD45 cell numbers in exocrine tissue than controls. The extent of fibrosis was more pronounced in autoantibody-positive donors, even in subjects with lower GADA titres. Notably, it is possible that events not related directly to T1D (e.g. subclinical pancreatitis) may induce autoantibodies in some cases. PMID:26313035

  9. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the mesentery associated with high fever and positive Widal test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouairy, Camil J.; Bechara, Elie A.; Ghabril, Ramy H.; Gebran, Sleiman J.

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is associated in 15-30% of cases with systemic symptomatology , such as prolonged fever, weight loss, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) , anemia, thrombocytosis and leukocytosis. We report the case of a 4-year-old Lebanese boy who presented with high-grade fever of long duration and a single (unpaired) positive Widal agglutination test. Blood culture was negative. A diagnosis of typhoid fever was made. An abdominal (mesenteric) IMT was incidentally discovered, 30 days after the fever had appeared. After surgery, the fever disappeared immediately, and the ESR returned. We strongly favor the possibility of a false positive Widal test, due to polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins, which often occurs in IMT. We also think that IMT might be a mimicker of typhoid fever, both clinically and serologically. Physicians, especially pediatricians practicing in endemic areas, should probably be aware of this mimicry. (author)

  10. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the mesentery associated with high fever and positive Widal test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouairy, Camil J [Dept. of Pathology, Saint George Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon); Bechara, Elie A; Ghabril, Ramy H [Dept. of Pediatrics, Saint George Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon); Gebran, Sleiman J [Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, AlHada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-07-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is associated in 15-30% of cases with systemic symptomatology , such as prolonged fever, weight loss, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) , anemia, thrombocytosis and leukocytosis. We report the case of a 4-year-old Lebanese boy who presented with high-grade fever of long duration and a single (unpaired) positive Widal agglutination test. Blood culture was negative. A diagnosis of typhoid fever was made. An abdominal (mesenteric) IMT was incidentally discovered, 30 days after the fever had appeared. After surgery, the fever disappeared immediately, and the ESR returned. We strongly favor the possibility of a false positive Widal test, due to polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins, which often occurs in IMT. We also think that IMT might be a mimicker of typhoid fever, both clinically and serologically. Physicians, especially pediatricians practicing in endemic areas, should probably be aware of this mimicry. (author)

  11. Center not liable for defamation from false-positive hepatitis test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-18

    The Nebraska Court of Appeals ruled that [name removed] does not have a cause of action against the Lincoln Plasma Center in Lincoln, NE. The center blacklisted him as a carrier of hepatitis B virus; subsequent tests proved [name removed] was uninfected. [Name removed], a paid plasma donator, was placed on an ineligible list after he tested positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen. [Name removed] sued, alleging that Lincoln defamed him by publishing false information to blood banks about his eligibility to donate. The Court of Appeals upheld a trial court's directed verdict because there was no evidence that the plasma center acted in malice.

  12. A comparative study of the typhidot (Dot-EIA) and Widal tests in blood culture positive cases of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoharo, Haji Khan

    2011-07-01

    Seventy-six blood culture positive typhoid cases and forty-eight controls were studied. The typhidot test was positive in 74 (97.36%) cases, with a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 96%, 89.5%, and 95%, respectively, compared to the Widal test which was positive in 56 (73.68%) cases with a sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 72%, 87%, and 87%, respectively (P = 0.001). In the control group, seven (14.5%) cases tested positive for the Widal test and two (4.16%) for the typhidot (P = 0.001), yielding the sensitivity and specificity for the Widal test and the typhidot test of 63% and 83%, and 85% and 97%, respectively. We conclude that the Dot-EIA (enzyme immunoassay; typhidot) is a more sensitive and specific test which is easy to perform and more reliable compared to the Widal test and that it is useful in early therapy.

  13. [The early pregnancy factor (EPF) as an early marker of disorders in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, W; Römer, T; Zeenni, L; Loh, M

    1995-01-01

    The early pregnancy factor (EPF) seems to be very helpful in clinical applications such as early detection of pregnancy, differential diagnosis of failure of fertilization or implementation and prognosis of a fertilized ovum. Our purpose was to investigate the diagnostic value of single and serial measurement of EPF, especially in the differential diagnosis of abortion and extrauterine pregnancy. Women with a history of 6-16 weeks amenorrhoea with/without vaginal bleeding were included in the prospective study. The EPF-test system was carried out by means of the rosette inhibition method. EPF proved to be always positive in normal pregnant women and always negative in nonpregnant controls. In case of threatened abortion the prognosis was good, when the EPF values were positive, and poor when they became negative. Patients suffering from spontaneous and missed abortion mostly showed negative EPF-values. This was also true in ectopic pregnancies. The sensitivity and specificity of EPF-test system were 83%. The positive predictive value was observed to be 54% and the negative predictive value 95%. The EPF as an early embryonic signal may be a suitable parameter for the clinical use detecting pregnancy disturbances very early.

  14. Correlation between pregnancy outcomes and hormone levels in early pregnancy of women with threatened abortion and subchorionic hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hua Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the correlation between pregnancy outcomes and hormone levels in early pregnancy of women with threatened abortion and subchorionic hematoma. Methods: Three groups of subjects (48 cases each were selected including the group of healthy pregnant women (Group C, and the two groups of subchorionic hematoma diagnosed via B-ultrasound examination with and without (Groups A and B positive symptoms of threatened abortion such as abdominal pain, colporrhagia etc. Chemiluminescence analysis was applied to determine serum progesterone and HCG levels of all three groups, and investigate the correlation between variations of such levels and pregnancy outcomes. Results: Statistical significance existed in the differences between serum progesterone and HCG levels of the three groups at 12, 28 and 37 weeks of gestation. In early pregnancy, serum progesterone and β-HCG levels were lower in Group A than Groups B and C, and lower in Group B than Group C. In the second trimester, the serum β-HCG level was higher, while the progesterone level lower in Group A than Groups B and C; the serum β-HCG level higher, while the progesterone level lower in Group B than Group C. And the comparative results in late pregnancy were the same as those of the second trimester. The premature birth rate, abortion rate, fetal death rate were the highest, and the full time delivery rate was the lowest in Group A among all the three groups. Adverse pregnancy outcomes of women with threatened abortion and subchorionic hematoma were closely related to serum progesterone and HCG levels in early gestation. Conclusion: Serum progesterone and HCG levels in early pregnancy of women with threatened abortion and subchorionic hematoma are positively correlated with pregnancy outcomes; the lower such levels of the two early indicators, the higher the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, tests of early pregnancy serum progesterone and HCG levels can be

  15. Yersinia enterocolitica: an unlikely cause of positive brucellosis tests in greater yellowstone ecosystem bison (Bison bison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Wade; Edwards, William H; Dauwalter, Stacey; Almendra, Claudia; Kardos, Martin D; Lowell, Jennifer L; Wallen, Rick; Cain, Steven L; Holben, William E; Luikart, Gordon

    2012-07-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 has identical O-antigens to those of Brucella abortus and has apparently caused false-positive reactions in numerous brucellosis serologic tests in elk (Cervus canadensis) from southwest Montana. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was occurring in brucellosis antibody-positive bison (Bison bison) using Y. enterocolitica culturing techniques and multiplex PCR of four diagnostic loci. Feces from 53 Yellowstone bison culled from the population and 113 free-roaming bison from throughout the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) were tested. Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 was not detected in any of 53 the bison samples collected at slaughter facilities or in any of the 113 fecal samples from free-ranging bison. One other Y. enterocolitica serotype was isolated; however, it is not known to cause cross-reaction on B. abortus serologic assays because it lacks the perosamine synthetase gene and thus the O-antigens. These findings suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:9 cross-reactivity with B. abortus antigens is unlikely to have been a cause of false-positive serology tests in GYE bison and that Y. enterocolitica prevalence was low in bison in the GYE during this study.

  16. Positive affect and physical activity: Testing effects on goal setting, activation, prioritisation, and attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David S; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-02-01

    The present research tested whether incidental positive affect promotes pursuit of physical activity goals. Four key features of goal pursuit were examined - setting physical activity goals (Study 1), goal activation (Study 2), and goal prioritization and goal attainment (Study 3). Participants (N s = 80, 81, and 59, in Studies 1-3, respectively) were randomized to positive affect (joy, hope) or neutral affect (control) conditions in each study. Questionnaire measures of goal level, goal commitment, and means selection (Study 1); a lexical decision task indexed goal activation (Study 2), a choice task captured goal prioritization and MET minutes quantified goal attainment (Study 3). Study 1 showed that positive affect led to a greater number of intended physical activities, and that joy engendered greater willingness to try activities. In Study 2, a positive affect induction led to heightened activation of the physical activity goal compared to the control condition. The joy induction in Study 3 led to greater physical activity, and a trend towards greater goal prioritization. These findings suggest that positive affect enhances the pursuit of physical activity goals. Implications for health behavior theories and interventions are outlined.

  17. Teenage pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or family member, your partner, or your labor coach with you. Stay Healthy During Your Pregnancy You ... Pregnancy Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  18. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  19. Impact of relative position vehicle-wind blower in a roller test bench under climatic chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Yáñez, P.; Armas, O.; Martínez-Martínez, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Air simulation model was developed for a vehicle test bench under climatic chamber. • Good accuracy between experimental data and simulated values were obtained. • Wind blower-vehicle relative position alters external cooling of after-treatment devices. • Vehicle emission certification can be affected by wind blower-vehicle relative position. - Abstract: In terms of energy efficiency and exhaust emissions control, an appropriate design of cooling systems of climatic chambers destined to vehicle certification and/or perform scientific research is becoming increasingly important. European vehicle emissions certification (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) establishes the position of the wind-simulation blower at 200 mm above floor level. This height is fixed and kept constant independently of the vehicle tested. The position of the blower with respect to the vehicle can modify the external forced convection under the car, where after-treatment devices are located. Consequently, the performance of such devices could be modified and emission results during the certification cycle could be non-representative of real-world driving conditions. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different wind blower-vehicle relative heights on the air velocity and temperature profiles under the car by means of a simple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. A steady state three-dimensional CFD model was developed and applied to the estimation of the air velocity and temperature profiles inside of a climatic chamber equipped with a vehicle roller (chassis dyno) test bench. The simulations reproduce one steady-state condition from NEDC, specifically the EU17 mode (120 km/h, maximum velocity during the cycle). The cool air propelling temperature was 20 °C (minimum temperature in the NEDC range). Simulations were performed employing the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the realizable k-ε model to provide closure. Air velocity and

  20. Can ultrasound of plantar plate have normal appearance with a positive drawer test?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Affiliated Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), São Paulo (Brazil); Mann, Tania Szejnfeld [Medical Assistant of Medicine and Surgery of the Foot and Ankle Group, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Puchnick, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.ddi@epm.br [Professor and Coordinator of Educational and Research Support, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Tertulino, Franklin de Freitas [Postgraduate Physician, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Cannato, Camila Testoni [Resident Physician, Department of Surgery, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Nery, Caio [Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa [Associate Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •We evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound to identify and measure the plantar plate. •We correlate ultrasound findings with those of physical examination and MRI. •Ultrasound and MRI measures of plantar plate were positively correlated. •Ultrasound is efficient in identifying and measuring plantar plate. •Ultrasound may complement physical examination. •Young asymptomatic subjects can present a grade I positive drawer test. -- Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reliability of ultrasound (US) examination in the identification and measurement of the metatarsophalangeal plantar plate (MTP-PP) in asymptomatic subjects and (2) to establish the correlation of US findings with those of physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), once it is an important tool in the evaluation of the instability syndrome of the second and third rays. Materials and Methods: US examinations of the second and third MTP-PPs were performed in eight asymptomatic volunteers, totaling 32 MTP joints, by three examiners with different levels of experience in musculoskeletal US. Plantar plate dimensions, integrity and echogenicity, the presence of ruptures, and confidence level in terms of structure identification were determined using conventional US. Vascular flow was assessed using power Doppler. US data were correlated with data from physical examination and MRI. Results: MTP-PPs were ultrasonographically identified in 100% of cases, always showing homogeneous hyperechoic features and no detectable vascular flow on power Doppler, with 100% certainty in identification for all examiners. There was excellent US inter-observer agreement for longitudinal measures of second and third toe MTP-PPs and for transverse measures of the second toe MTP-PP. The MTP drawer test was positive for grade 1 MTP instability in 34.4% of joints with normal US results. Transverse MTP-PP measures were significantly higher in individuals with positive

  1. Testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata com o evoluir da idade Positive skin test and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliação da positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata em crianças com asma brônquica e/ou rinite alérgica em diferentes faixas etárias. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: foi observada a positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata, por testes de puntura, frente a diferentes alérgenos de mesma procedência: poeira total e Dermatophagóides sp, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae e Blomia tropicalis, Penicillium sp, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergillus fumigatus, grama bermuda, capim de pasto, epitélio de cão, epitélio de gato, penas, Blatella germanica, lã. Foram selecionadas 713 crianças divididas em grupos conforme a faixa etária: grupo I (6 a 11 meses, II (1 a 3 anos e 11 meses, III (4 a 8 anos e 11 meses e IV (9 a 15 anos. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o cálculo do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: o total de diferenças significativas entre os vários grupos foi: I e II = 5; II e III = 5; II e IV = 5; III e IV = 6; I e III = 10 e I e IV = 10 CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que a positividade ao teste de hipersensibilidade imediata foi maior com o evoluir da idade, havendo positividade já aos doze meses de vida, sendo esta positividade significativamente maior a partir de quatro anos de idade.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: we observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool. We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11

  2. Ambivalence and pregnancy: adolescents' attitudes, contraceptive use and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Hannah; Martin, Anne; Bearman, Peter S

    2004-01-01

    It is often argued that adolescents who become pregnant do not sufficiently appreciate the negative consequences, and that prevention programs should target participants' attitudes toward pregnancy. Data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine whether 15-19-year-old females' attitudes toward pregnancy influence their contraceptive consistency and their risk of pregnancy. Characteristics and attitudes associated with pregnancy and contraceptive use were assessed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Twenty percent of female adolescents were defined as having antipregnancy attitudes, 8% as having propregnancy attitudes and 14% as being ambivalent toward pregnancy; the remainder were considered to have mainstream attitudes. Among sexually experienced adolescents, having an attitude toward pregnancy was not associated with risk of pregnancy. However, those who were ambivalent about pregnancy had reduced odds of using contraceptives consistently and inconsistently rather than not practicing contraception at all (odds ratios, 0.5 and 0.4, respectively). Antipregnancy respondents did not differ from proprepregancy respondents in terms of their contraceptive consistency. However, having a positive attitude toward contraception was associated with increased likelihood of inconsistent and consistent contraceptive use compared with nonuse (1.6 and 2.1, respectively). Programs designed to prevent pregnancy need to give young women information about pregnancy and opportunities to discuss the topic so that they form opinions. Furthermore, programs should emphasize positive attitudes toward contraception, because effective contraceptive use is shaped by such attitudes and is strongly associated with reduction of pregnancy risk.

  3. Research on Automatic Positioning System of Ultrasonic Testing of Wind Turbine Blade Flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Long, S. G.; Cai, M.; Cai, M.; Wang, X.; Chen, X. Y.; Bu, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasonic testing technology has been used essentially in non-destructive testing of wind turbine blades. However, it is fact that the ultrasonic flaw detection method has inefficiently employed in recent years. This is because the testing result will illustrate a small deviation due to the artificial, environmental and technical factors. Therefore, it is an urgent technical demand for engineers to test the various flaws efficiently and quickly. An automatic positioning system has been designed in this paper to record the moving coordinates and the target distance in real time. Simultaneously, it could launch and acquire the sonic wave automatically. The ADNS-3080 optoelectronic chip is manufactured by Agilent Technologies Inc, which is also utilized in the system. With the combination of the chip, the power conversion module and the USB transmission module, the collected data can be transmitted from the upper monitor to the hardware that could process and control the data through software programming. An experiment has been designed to prove the reliability of automotive positioning system. The result has been validated by comparing the result collected form LABVIEW and actual plots on Perspex plane, it concludes that the system possesses high accuracy and magnificent meanings in practical engineering.

  4. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by blood loss) lower back pain What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized ... protect against sexually transmitted infections (STDs) that can cause PID. If ... about the pregnancy being ectopic, talk to your doctor — it's important ...

  5. Pregnancy & Motherhood >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking when pregnant; Pregnancy and smoking; Smoking during pregnancy; Pregnant women smoking; Smoking when pregnant effects; Pregnancy and smoking effects; Pregnant quit smoking; Pregnant stop smoking; How to quit smoking when pregnant; Smoking and fertility; Smoking and infertility; Mom smoking; Smoking around children; Second hand smoke and children

  6. Evaluation of a Positive Youth Development Program Based on the Repertory Grid Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The repertory grid test, based on personal construct psychology, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in Hong Kong. One hundred and four program participants (n=104 were randomly invited to complete a repertory grid based on personal construct theory in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative data for measuring self-identity changes after joining the program. Findings generally showed that the participants perceived that they understood themselves better and had stronger resilience after joining the program. Participants also saw themselves as closer to their ideal selves and other positive role figures (but farther away from a loser after joining the program. This study provides additional support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. in the Chinese context. This study also shows that the repertory grid test is a useful evaluation method to measure self-identity changes in participants in positive youth development programs.

  7. Monitoring the electron beam position at the TESLA test facility free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamps, T

    2000-06-14

    The operation of a free electron laser working in the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission mode (SASE FEL) requires the electron trajectory to be aligned with very high precision in overlap with the photon beam. In order to ensure this overlap, one module of the SASE FEL undulator at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) is equipped with a new type of waveguide beam position monitor (BPM). Four waveguides are arranged symmetrically around the beam pipe, each channel couples through a small slot to the electromagnetic beam field. The induced signal depends on the beam intensity and on the transverse beam position in terms of beam-to-slot distance. With four slot--waveguide combinations a linear position sensitive signal can be achieved, which is independent of the beam intensity. The signals transduced by the slots are transferred by ridged waveguides through an impedance matching stage into a narrowband receiver tuned to 12 GHz. The present thesis describes design, tests, and implementation of this new type of BPM. (orig.)

  8. "Men don't think that far" - Interviewing men in Sweden about chlamydia and HIV testing during pregnancy from a discursive masculinities construction perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Monica; Boman, Jens; Essén, Birgitta

    2017-06-01

    We used qualitative research design to discursively explore expectant fathers' perceptions of chlamydia and HIV, and their masculinity constructions about testing, and explored how they talked about their potential resistance towards testing and their pre-test emotions. Twenty men were offered chlamydia and HIV testing at the beginning of their partner's pregnancy. Those who agreed to be tested were interviewed in-depth; those who declined testing were also interviewed. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The analysis was inspired by discourse analysis on masculinity. Three discursive themes: Men prefer to suppress their vulnerability to STIs, Body and biology differ between men and women and Men have mixed emotions around STI testing underscore the informants' conversations and sometimes conflicting thoughts about STI testing. The majority of men talked about pregnancy as a feminine territory, raised uncertainties about men's roles in the transmission of STIs, and talked about women's and men's essentially different bodies and biology, where few men realised that they could infect both their partner and the unborn child. This knowledge gap that men have must become apparent to healthcare providers, and policy makers must give men equal access to the reproductive arena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Application of injection test in confirming the ideal position of esophageal balloon catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han; Xu, Ming; Yang, Yanlin; He, Xuan; Zhou, Jianxin

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and feasibility of injection test which is used to locate esophageal balloon catheter. A prospective study was conducted. The patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) admitted to general intensive care unit (ICU) of Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from May 2015 and March 2017 were enrolled. The commercially available esophageal balloon catheter was modified to perform injection test. The catheter was withdrawn step by step and the injection test was repeated until the presence disturbance wave presented, which indicated that the balloon had just entered the esophagus. The position where disturbance wave appears was named 0 cm. End-expiratory occlusions were performed at the positions of +15, +10, +5, 0, -5, -10 and -15 cm, respectively, and the changes of esophageal pressure (Pes) and airway pressures (Paw) were measured in the spontaneous breathing and passive ventilation, and the ratio between the changes (ΔPes/ΔPaw) was calculated. A total of 20 patients were enrolled, of which 15 patients finished both the spontaneous and the passive ventilation parts, and 2 patients finished only the spontaneous part and 3 patients finished only passive part. (1) Disturbance waves could be induced by injection test in all patients. The average depth of disturbance wave in spontaneous breathing was deeper than that in passive ventilation (cm: 42.4±3.8 vs. 41.8±3.3), but there was no significant difference between the two ventilation settings (P = 0.132). No adverse events occurred during the study period. (2) Pes increased with the stepwise withdraw of esophageal catheter, reached the maximal value at +5 cm, and then decreased when the catheter was further withdrawn, no matter in the spontaneous or the passive ventilation. In spontaneous breathing, the ΔPes/ΔPaw was within the ideal range (0.8-1.2) at the positions of 0, -5 and -10 cm. The ΔPes/ΔPaw was closest to unity at the positions of 0 cm (0

  10. Flight-Test Evaluation of Kinematic Precise Point Positioning of Small UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason N. Gross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS flight data collected onboard a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV is conducted in order to demonstrate that postprocessed kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP solutions with precisions approximately 6 cm 3D Residual Sum of Squares (RSOS can be obtained on SUAVs that have short duration flights with limited observational periods (i.e., only ~≤5 minutes of data. This is a significant result for the UAV flight testing community because an important and relevant benefit of the PPP technique over traditional Differential GPS (DGPS techniques, such as Real-Time Kinematic (RTK, is that there is no requirement for maintaining a short baseline separation to a differential GNSS reference station. Because SUAVs are an attractive platform for applications such as aerial surveying, precision agriculture, and remote sensing, this paper offers an experimental evaluation of kinematic PPP estimation strategies using SUAV platform data. In particular, an analysis is presented in which the position solutions that are obtained from postprocessing recorded UAV flight data with various PPP software and strategies are compared to solutions that were obtained using traditional double-differenced ambiguity fixed carrier-phase Differential GPS (CP-DGPS. This offers valuable insight to assist designers of SUAV navigation systems whose applications require precise positioning.

  11. Yoga and positive body image: A test of the Embodiment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlo, Leeann; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to test the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image (Menzel & Levine, 2011) within the context of yoga. Participants were 193 yoga practitioners (124 Iyengar, 69 Bikram) and 127 university students (non-yoga participants) from Adelaide, South Australia. Participants completed questionnaire measures of positive body image, embodiment, self-objectification, and desire for thinness. Results showed yoga practitioners scored higher on positive body image and embodiment, and lower on self-objectification than non-yoga participants. In support of the embodiment model, the relationship between yoga participation and positive body image was serially mediated by embodiment and reduced self-objectification. Although Bikram practitioners endorsed appearance-related reasons for participating in yoga more than Iyengar practitioners, there were no significant differences between Iyengar and Bikram yoga practitioners on body image variables. It was concluded that yoga is an embodying activity that can provide women with the opportunity to cultivate a favourable relationship with their body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal liver function tests occur in 3-5% of pregnancies, with many potential causes, including coincidental liver disease (most commonly viral hepatitis or gallstones and underlying chronic liver disease. Pruritus in pregnancy is common, affecting 23% of pregnancies, of which a small proportion will have obstetric cholestasis. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a cholestatic disorder characterized by pruritus with onset in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, elevated serum aminotransferases and bile acid levels, and spontaneous relief of signs and symptoms within two to three weeks after delivery. ICP is observed in 0.4-1% of pregnancies in most areas of Central and Western Europe and North America. Genetic and hormonal factors, but also environmental factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of ICP. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery (19­60%, meconium staining of amniotic fluid (27%, fetal bradycardia (14%, fetal distress (22-41%, and fetal loss (0.4-4.1%, particularly when associated with fasting serum bile acid levels >40 μmol/L. Important ICP-induced changes in serum profiles of amidated bile acids were observed, involving both a marked increase in cholic acid concentration and a shift towards a higher proportion of taurine-conjugated species. Ursodeoxycholic acid (10-20 mg/kg/d is today regarded as the first line treatment for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Delivery has been recommended in the 37-38th week when lung maturity has been established.

  13. Single-gene testing combined with single nucleotide polymorphism microarray preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy: a novel approach in optimizing pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezina, Paul R; Benner, Andrew; Rechitsky, Svetlana; Kuliev, Anver; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Pauling, Dana; Kearns, William G

    2011-04-01

    To describe a method of amplifying DNA from blastocyst trophectoderm cells (two or three cells) and simultaneously performing 23-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and single-gene preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Case report. IVF clinic and preimplantation genetic diagnostic centers. A 36-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 1011, and her husband who both were carriers of GM(1) gangliosidosis. The couple wished to proceed with microarray analysis for aneuploidy detection coupled with DNA sequencing for GM(1) gangliosidosis. An IVF cycle was performed. Ten blastocyst-stage embryos underwent trophectoderm biopsy. Twenty-three-chromosome microarray analysis for aneuploidy and specific DNA sequencing for GM(1) gangliosidosis mutations were performed. Viable pregnancy. After testing, elective single embryo transfer was performed followed by an intrauterine pregnancy with documented fetal cardiac activity by ultrasound. Twenty-three-chromosome microarray analysis for aneuploidy detection and single-gene evaluation via specific DNA sequencing and linkage analysis are used for preimplantation diagnosis for single-gene disorders and aneuploidy. Because of the minimal amount of genetic material obtained from the day 3 to 5 embryos (up to 6 pg), these modalities have been used in isolation of each other. The use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy coupled with testing for single-gene disorders via trophectoderm biopsy is a novel approach to maximize pregnancy outcomes. Although further investigation is warranted, preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy and single-gene testing seem destined to be used increasingly to optimize ultimate pregnancy success. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pregnancy wastage among HIV infected women in a high HIV prevalence district of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halli, Shiva S; Khan, C G Hussain; Shah, Iqbal; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2015-07-02

    Bagalkot district in Karnataka state is one of the highest HIV prevalence districts in India. A large proportion of the girls also marry at early age in the district and negative pregnancy outcomes among the HIV positive women likely to have large pregnancy wastages. Therefore, this study examined the pregnancy wastages and the associated factors among HIV positive women in a high prevalent district in India. We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted recently among randomly selected currently married HIV positive women, 15-29 years of age, in one of the high HIV prevalence districts in India. The study used the experience of reported pregnancy wastage as an outcome variable, and both bi-variate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to understand the factors associated with the pregnancy wastage among HIV infected women. Overall, 17% of the respondents reported pregnancy wastage, of which 81% were due to spontaneous abortions. Respondents who became pregnant since testing HIV positive reported significantly higher level of pregnancy wastage as compared to those were pregnant before they were tested for HIV. (AOR = 1.9; p = 0.00). While a positive association between duration of marriage and pregnancy wastage was noticed (AOR = 7.4; p = 0.01), there was a negative association between number of living children and pregnancy wastage (AOR = 0.24; p = 0.00). Living in a joint family was associated with increased reporting of pregnancy wastage as compared to those living in nuclear families (AOR = 1.7; p = 0.03). HIV prevention and care programs need to consider the reproductive health needs of HIV infected married women as a priority area since large proportion of these women reported negative pregnancy outcomes. There is also a need to explore ways to raise the age at marriage in order to stop women getting married before the legal age at marriage.

  15. Etiology and Incidence of positive Microbiological tests in the Department of Pneumology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Mazzone

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The support of microbiological diagnosis for the management of the lower respiratory tract infections is of great utility. It is known, however, that for a correct therapeutic approach is essential to obtain clinical data and images diagnostic. Sometimes, in fact, to important clinical symptoms can coincide with microbiological results little worth, or the isolation from a sputum of certain bacteria, can be an expression of colonization or trivial contamination.The objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of bacterial species responsible for respiratory tract infections, through direct (culture and indirect (serology methods. Between October 2007 - October 2008, 192 sputum cultures were examined, from the Department of Pneumology and out-patients.The isolation of bacterial strains was performed by seeding samples on the following media (Dasit: Columbia blood Agar (A. CNA, mannitol salt A., Wurtz lactose A., Sabouraud A., enriched chocolate A. + bacitracin. For serological tests, immunoassays in microplates (Vircell were used. The data show that of 192 samples deriving from Department of Pneumology, 41 (22% were positive, while among the out-patient samples, the percentage of positive cultures was 41% (20 positives on the total of 49 samples.The bacteria more frequently isolated in the department of Pneumology, was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n.8 while in out-patients was Escherichia coli (n.8. Serological tests resulted positive for anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies in 3 cases, and for anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae in one case, compared to 53 negative samples. The findings that over 75% of cultures have demonstrated negative results, is suggestive of an origin non-bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract.Among the bacterial isolates are predominant “opportunistic bacteria” (46% presumably responsible of nosocomial infections, while in the out-patients are Enterobacteriaceae the prevalent microrganisms isolated.

  16. [Necessity of repeated roll test in horizontal semicircular canalithasis positioned diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H H; Zhao, Y; Chen, T S; Xu, K X; Wang, W; Liu, Q; Wen, C; Li, S S; Li, X J; Han, X; Lin, P

    2016-04-07

    To investigate the influence of repeated roll test in horizontal semicircular canalithasis(HSC-Can) positioned diagnosis, so as to investigate the cecessity of repeated roll test. The patients with a chief complaint of positional vertigo accepted two consecutive cycles roll test, the evoked nystagmus characteristics of each cycle recorded by video-nystagmuograph(VNG), whose direction, intensity, time and other parameters characteristics were analyzed in 51 HSC-Can. Horizontal nystagmus in the same direction with turning were induced in HSC-Can roll test. In 51 HSC-Can, roll test cycle 1 and cycle 2 induced nystagmus same strength side in 26 cases(51.0%), of which 19 cases with stronger nystagmus intensity in cycle 2, another 7 cases were weaker; the opposite strength side of the two loops induced nystagmus, and cycle 1 evoked nystagmus intensity were weaker than cycle 2, based on cycle 2 results determined HSC-Can affected side in 25 cases (49.0%). Lesion and normal side in cycle 1 induced nystagmus duration (x±s, the same below) were (13.4±11.5)s and (14.1±9.9)s, respectively intensity (18.1±22.4)°/s and (13.0±12.0)°/s; as in cycle 2 induced nystagmus duration was (20.7±10.2)s and (18.0±12.0)s, strength respectively(40.4±28.0)°/s and (15.6 ±11.2)°/s. Cycle 2 ipsilateral rotor position evoked nystagmus showed longer duration and stronger intensity than cycle 1. Between two cycle induced ipsilateral nystagmus duration, intensity differences were statistically significant (t values were -4.233 and -5.154, P=0.000). 51 HSC-Can patients, 44 patients selected repositioning maneuver, after 1-2 times of maneuver, 41 cases (93.2%) showed complete resolution of symptoms, all cases's symptoms were improved; other 7 patients selected medication only. The proposed suspicious HSC-Can patients should receive at least two cycles roll test, and mainly in the second cycle could determine the location of the responsible semicircular canals.

  17. A New Position Measurement System Using a Motion-Capture Camera for Wind Tunnel Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousok Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind tunnel test, and the applicability of the system was tested. A motion-capture system (MCS could output 3D coordinates using two-dimensional image coordinates obtained from the camera. Furthermore, this remote sensing system had some flexibility regarding lab installation because of its ability to measure at relatively long distances from the target structures. In this study, we performed wind tunnel tests on a pylon specimen and compared the measured responses of the MCS with the displacements measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS. The results of the comparison revealed that the time-history displacement measurements from the MCS slightly exceeded those of the LDS. In addition, we confirmed the measuring reliability of the MCS by identifying the dynamic properties (natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape of the test specimen using system identification methods (frequency domain decomposition, FDD. By comparing the mode shape obtained using the aforementioned methods with that obtained using the LDS, we also confirmed that the MCS could construct a more accurate mode shape (bending-deflection mode shape with the 3D measurements.

  18. The London Position Statement of the World Congress of Gastroenterology on Biological Therapy for IBD with the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation: pregnancy and pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Uma; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Hyams, Jeffrey S; Steinwurz, Flavio; Nuti, F; Travis, Simon P L; Sandborn, William J; Colombel, Jean-Frederio

    2011-02-01

    Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have similar rates of fertility to the general population, but have an increased rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes compared with the general population, which may be worsened by disease activity. Infertility is increased in those undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in pregnancy is considered to be low risk and compatible with use during conception in men and women and during pregnancy in at least the first two trimesters. Infliximab (IFX) and certolizumab pegol are also compatible with breastfeeding, but safety data for adalimumab (ADA) are awaited. The safety of natalizumab during pregnancy is unknown. For children with Crohn's disease (CD), IFX is effective at inducing and maintaining remission. Episodic therapy is not as effective as scheduled infusions. Disease duration in children does not appear to affect the efficacy of IFX. IFX promotes growth in prepubertal and early pubertal Crohn's patients. It is also effective for the treatment of extraintestinal manifestations. ADA is effective for children with active CD and for maintaining remission, even if they have lost response to IFX, although there are fewer data. Vaccination of infants exposed to biological therapy in utero should be given at standard schedules during the first 6 months of life, except for live-virus vaccines such as rotavirus. Inactivated vaccines may be safely administered to children with IBD, even when immunocompromised.

  19. Pregnancy Anxiety and Prenatal Cortisol Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Glynn, Laura M.; Hobel, Calvin J.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 to 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094

  20. Prevention of Hypoxemia During Apnea Testing: A Comparison of Oxygen Insufflation And Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Andreas H; Couillard, Philippe; Bader, Ryan; Dhillon, Peter; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Doig, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Apnea testing is an essential step in the clinical diagnosis of brain death. Current international guidelines recommend placement of an oxygen (O 2 ) insufflation catheter into the endotracheal tube to prevent hypoxemia, but use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) valve may be more effective at limiting arterial partial pressure of O 2 (PO 2 ) reduction. We performed a multicenter study assessing consecutive apnea tests in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in two cities utilizing differing protocols. In one city, O 2 catheters are placed and arterial blood gases (ABGs) performed at intervals determined by the attending physician. In the other city, a resuscitation bag with CPAP valve is attached to the endotracheal tube, and ABGs performed every 3-5 min. We assessed arterial PO 2 , partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 ), pH, and blood pressure at the beginning and termination of each apnea test. Thirty-six apnea tests were performed using an O 2 catheter and 50 with a CPAP valve. One test per group was aborted because of physiological instability. There were no significant differences in the degree of PO 2 reduction (-59 vs. -32 mmHg, p = 0.72), rate of PCO 2 rise (3.2 vs. 3.9 mmHg per min, p = 0.22), or pH decline (-0.02 vs. -0.03 per min, p = 0.06). Performance of ABGs at regular intervals was associated with shorter test duration (10 vs. 7 min, p pressure decline (p = 0.006). Both methods of O 2 supplementation are associated with similar changes in arterial PO 2 and PCO 2 . Performance of ABGs at regular intervals shortens apnea test duration and may avoid excessive pH reduction and consequent hemodynamic effects.

  1. Research of built-in self test technology on cable-free self-positioning seismograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaizhu, Z.; Lin, J.; Chen, Z.; Zhang, L.; Yang, H.; Zheng, F.

    2011-12-01

    Cable-free self-positioning seismograph is the key instrument and equipment required for deep seismic exploration in China. In order to measure the performance of seismic data acquisition systems whether meet exploration requirements , to ensure the accuracy of seismic data, and to ensure equipment reliability and stability, a built-in self test solution of the cable-free self-positioning seismic recorder is provided. Within a 24-bits Σ-Δ DAC, the seismograph can produce sine, step, pulse and other high-precision analog test signal, with dynamic range of 120dB or more, through the FPGA to control the analog multiplexer switching the input signal acquisition channels, and start the 24-bit Σ-Δ ADC in the instrument internal simultaneously to acquisition the test signal data, carries on the fast Fournier transformation by instrument internal CPU, to achieve the instrument of analysis and calculation of performance indicators, including: the equivalent noise and drift, common mode rejection ratio (CMRR), crosstalk, harmonic distortion, dynamic range, channel response consistency, detector impulse response , etc. A lot of testing experiments about the various parameters were performed and studied currently. By setting different sampling rate (1Hz, 5Hz, ..., 4kHz), each of the measurement system noise level was measured, and the maximum noise is about 0.5μV; the crosstalk between channels was tested using the 31.25Hz sine wave, the result is more than-120dB with sampling rate of 1kHz; the harmonic distortion was measured by adding the high-precision sine wave signals of different frequencies, such as 500Hz, 250 Hz, 125 Hz, 62.5 Hz, 31.25 Hz, 15.625 Hz, 7.812 Hz, 3.90625Hz, etc. the calculated results is in-118dB or more. The experimental results show that, the parameters of the cable-free self-positioning of the seismic recorder meet the technical requirements for the deep exploration, compared to the corresponding parameters with the 428XL seismograph of the French

  2. Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestman, Jorge H

    2012-10-01

    Successful outcome in pregnancy hyperthyroidism depends on the cause, interpretation of laboratory tests, and careful use of antithyroid drug (ATD) therapy. Planning of a pregnancy in a woman with active or past history of Graves' hyperthyroidism is mandatory in order to avoid complications. Fetal health may be affected by three factors: poor control of maternal hyperthyroidism, titer of maternal TRAb, and inappropriate use of ATD. Careful assessment of thyroid function through pregnancy and evaluation of fetal development by ultrasonography is the cornerstone for a successful outcome. In a subgroup of women previously treated with ablation therapy, those whose serum TSRAb titers remained elevated, are at risk of having a fetus/neonate with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Use of ATD during lactation is well tolerated, if recommended guidelines are followed. Women during their childbearing age with active Graves' hyperthyroidism should plan their pregnancy. Causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy include Graves' disease or autonomous adenoma, and transient gestational thyrotoxicosis as a consequence of excessive production of human chroionic gonadotropin by the placenta. Careful interpretation of thyroid function tests and frequent adjustment of ATD is of utmost importance in the outcome of pregnancy. Graves' hyperthyroidism may relapse early in pregnancy or at the end of the first year postpartum.

  3. Twelve-year retrospective review of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzerd, Emilie; Schreuder, Henk W R; Vleugels, Michel P H; Veersema, Sebastiaan

    2016-04-01

    To identify factors contributing to the occurrence of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands. Even though Essure is a permanent method of contraception, unintended pregnancies have been reported. Retrospective case series analysis. Not applicable. Thirty-five pregnancies were reported in the Netherlands after Essure sterilization from 2002 through 2014 out of 27,346 placements. Data regarding Essure placement procedure, confirmation tests, and pregnancy outcome of the reported cases were obtained and analyzed to identify a possible cause of failure. Four causes of failure were identified: perforation (n = 10), expulsion (n = 7), unilateral placement (n = 7), and luteal pregnancy (n = 2). The occurrence of most pregnancies was related to physician noncompliance (n = 14). The other cases were associated with patient noncompliance (n = 5) or misinterpretation of the confirmation test (n = 9). Most pregnancies occurred within the first 24 months after the 3-month confirmation test (n = 23). The results of this study show that the incidence of pregnancies after Essure sterilization is low. Most pregnancies were related to incorrect positioning of a device or unilateral placement, and seem therefore preventable. Unilateral placement without prior history of salpingectomy should always be considered as unsuccessful sterilization. Furthermore, interpretation of the confirmation tests should be done by trained physicians, and with caution. We want to emphasize the importance of strictly adhering to placement and follow-up protocols. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Doctor, what does my positive test mean? From Bayesian textbook tasks to personalized risk communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka eNavarrete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research on Bayesian reasoning aims to answer theoretical questions about the extent to which people are able to update their beliefs according to the Bayes Theorem (Baratgin & Politzer, 2006; Barbey & Sloman, 2007; Gigerenzer & Hoffrage, 1995 about the evolutionary nature of Bayesian inference (Brase, 2002, 2007; Gigerenzer & Hoffrage, 1995, or about the role of cognitive abilities in Bayesian inference (Johnson & Tubau, 2013; Lesage, Navarrete, & De Neys, 2013; Sirota, Juanchich, & Hagmayer, 2014. Few studies aim to answer practical, mainly health-related questions, such as, questions such as ‘What does it mean to have a positive test in a context of cancer screening?’ or ‘What is the best way to communicate a medical test result so a patient will understand it?. This type of research aims to translate the empirical finding into effective ways of providing risk information. In addition, the applied research often adopts the paradigms and methods of the theoretically-motivated research. But sometimes it works the other way around, and the theoretical research borrows the importance of the practical question in the medical context. The study of Bayesian reasoning is relevant to risk communication in that,, to be as useful as possible, applied research should employ specifically tailored methods and contexts specific to the recipients of the risk information. In this paper, we concentrate on the communication of the result of medical tests and outline the epidemiological and test parameters that affect the predictive power of a test – whether it is correct or not. Building on this, we draw up recommendations for better practice to convey the results of medical tests that could inform health policy makers (e.g. what are the drawbacks of mass screenings?, be used by health practitioners and, in turn, help patients to make better and more informed decisions.

  5. Stillbirth in diabetic pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Damm, Peter; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2011-01-01

    , but more than 50% of stillbirths are unexplained. Majority of stillbirths are characterised by suboptimal glycaemic control during pregnancy. Foetal hypoxia and cardiac dysfunction secondary to poor glycaemic control are probably the most important pathogenic factors in stillbirths among pregnant diabetic...... women. There is thus a need for new strategies for improving glycaemic control to near-normal levels throughout pregnancy and for preventing and treating hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Antenatal surveillance tests including ultrasound examinations of the foetal growth rate, kick counting and non...

  6. Coffee and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer

    Background: Coffee consumption in Denmark is high also among pregnant women and it is presumably their main source of caffeine intake. Coffee or caffeine intake during pregnancy has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and reduced fetal growth. However...... a review of the literature indicates that further studies are needed to test the hypothesis of an effect of coffee or caffeine on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.The aim of the thesis was to study the relation between coffee and the risk of fetal death and the relation between caffeine intake...

  7. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  8. Thyroid diseases and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases and diabetes mellitus are the most common endocrine diseases during pregnancy. Internal Medicine doctors could be involved in the management of pregnant women affected by thyroid diseases, in particular if an Endocrine Unit lacks in the hospital; it is mandatory that they have the skills to cope with these diseases. METHODS In this work authors describe the most common thyroid abnormalities that can occur during pregnancy: hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical, hyperthyroidism (clinical and sub-clinical, autoimmune thyroiditis (in particular the so called post-partum thyroiditis, nodular diseases and cancer. They discuss moreover the peculiar pathophysiologic mechanisms by which these diseases appear, the diagnostic tools and the therapies, according to their own experience and the more recent international guidelines. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS It is important to evaluate thyroid function tests before and during pregnancy, at 16th and 28th gestational week; it is mandatory to cure also the “sub-clinical” hypothyroidism during pregnancy, when TSH level are higher than 5 μIU/mL; the optimal dose of levo-thyroxine during pregnancy is, average, 30-50% higher than that used before pregnancy; it is not correct to treat mild or sub-clinical hyperthyroidism; propylthyouracil is the best drug to treat hyperthyroidism during pregnancy; the post-partum thyroiditis is generally transient, so that a careful monitoring of thyroid function is advisable, in particular after 9-12 months of therapy; thyroid cancer, if discovered during pregnancy, generally has no negative effects on the outcome of the pregnancy; it would be better to treat surgically thyroid cancer during the last trimester of the pregnancy.

  9. Optimal timing of periodontal disease treatment for prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes: before or during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Goldenberg, Robert L; Offenbacher, Steven; Qian, Xu

    2011-08-01

    Several large randomized controlled clinical trials failed to find that standard periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduces the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (eg, preterm birth and low birthweight). However, treating periodontal disease during pregnancy may be too late to reduce the inflammation that is related to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, periodontal treatment during pregnancy can cause bacteremia, which itself may initiate the pathway leading to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Finally, the periodontal treatments provided during pregnancy are not always effective in preventing the progression of periodontal disease during pregnancy. Pregnancy may not be an appropriate period for periodontal intervention(s). We hypothesize that periodontal treatment before pregnancy may reduce the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to test if treating periodontal disease in the prepregnancy period reduces the rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A new rapid method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnini, Simona; Brucculeri, Veronica; Morici, Paola; Ghelardi, Emilia; Florio, Walter; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-08-12

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections can lead to prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy. To shorten species identification, in this study bacteria were recovered from monomicrobial blood cultures by serum separator tubes and spotted onto the target plate for direct MALDI-TOF MS identification. Proper antibiotics were selected for direct AST based on species identification. In order to obtain rapid AST results, bacteria were recovered from positive blood cultures by two different protocols: by serum separator tubes (further referred to as PR1), or after a short-term subculture in liquid medium (further referred to as PR2). The results were compared with those obtained by the method currently used in our laboratory consisting in identification by MALDI-TOF and AST by Vitek 2 or Sensititre on isolated colonies. The direct MALDI-TOF method concordantly identified with the current method 97.5 % of the Gram-negative bacteria and 96.1 % of the Gram-positive cocci contained in monomicrobial blood cultures. The direct AST by PR1 and PR2 for all isolate/antimicrobial agent combinations was concordant/correct with the current method for 87.8 and 90.5 % of Gram-negative bacteria and for 93.1 and 93.8 % of Gram-positive cocci, respectively. In particular, 100 % categorical agreement was found with levofloxacin for Enterobacteriaceae by both PR1 and PR2, and 99.0 and 100 % categorical agreement was observed with linezolid for Gram-positive cocci by PR1 and PR2, respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between PR1 and PR2 for Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci. This newly described method seems promising for providing accurate AST results. Most importantly, these results would be available in a few hours from blood culture positivity, which would help clinicians to promptly confirm or streamline an effective antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream

  11. POSTURAL SHOCK IN PREGNANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Ralph L.; Knauer, John; Larson, Roger K.

    1955-01-01

    Signs and symptoms of shock may be produced in some patients in late pregnancy by putting them in the dorsal recumbent posture. Change from this position will relieve the condition. The features of the supine hypotensive syndrome can be duplicated by applying pressure to the abdomen with the patient in a lateral position. The postural variations of venous pressure, blood pressure, and pulse appear to be due to obstruction of venous return from the lower portion of the body caused by the large uterus of late pregnancy compressing the vena cava. When shock is observed in a woman in late pregnancy, she should be turned to a lateral position before more active measures of treatment are begun. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:14351983

  12. Antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity is a risk factor for positive allergy skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagau, Natalia; Gherman, Nadia; Cocis, Mihaela; Petrisor, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Skin tests for neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are not currently recommended for the general population undergoing general anaesthesia. In a previous study we have reported a high incidence of positive allergy tests for NMBAs in patients with a positive history of non-anaesthetic drug allergy, a larger prospective study being needed to confirm those preliminary results. The objective of this study was to compare the skin tests results for patients with a positive history of antibiotic-induced immediate type hypersensitivity reactions to those of controls without drug allergies. Ninety eight patients with previous antibiotic hypersensitivity and 72 controls were prospectively included. Skin tests were performed for atracurium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and suxamethonium. We found 65 positive skin tests from the 392 tests performed in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity (1 6.58%) and 23 positive skin tests from the 288 performed in controls (7.98%), the two incidences showing significant statistical difference (p = 0.0011). The relative risk for having a positive skin test for NMBAs for patients versus controls was 1.77 (1.15-2.76). For atracurium, skin tests were more often positive in patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity versus controls (p = 0.02). For pancuronium, rocuronium and suxamethonium the statistical difference was not attained (p-values 0.08 for pancuronium, 0.23 for rocuronium, and 0.26 for suxamethonium). Patients with a positive history of antibiotic hypersensitivity seem to have a higher incidence of positive skin tests for NMBAs. They might represent a group at higher risk for developing intraoperative anaphylaxis compared to the general population. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. First operational tests of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Pardo, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status and first operational experience with the positive-ion injector for ATLAS. The new injector consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform, followed by a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. In Phase I of this project, the ECR source, voltage platform, bunching system, beam-transport system, and a 3-MV injector linac were completed and tested in early 1989 by a successful acceleration of an 40 Ar 12+ beam. Most of the new system operated as planned, and the longitudinal emittance of the 36-MeV beam out of the injector was measured to be only 5 π keV-ns, much smaller than the emittance for the present tandem injector. When completed in 1990, the final injector linac will be enlarged to 12 MV, enough to allow the original ATLAS linac to accelerate uranium ions up to 8 MeV/u. 8 refs., 2 figs

  14. Study on energy and position resolution of MWPC for the Beijing e/π test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ji; Chen Ziyu; Ye Yunxiu; Cui Xiangzong; Li Jiacai

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the research on the energy and position resolution of the MWPC used in the e/π Test Beam on BEPC (Beijing Electron Positron Collider), which localizes the particles of e/π by the readout method of gravity center of the induced charges on the cathode strips. The spatial resolution of about 0.24 mm and energy resolution of 17% for 5.9 keV γ photons are attained at the 3700 V anode voltage. For the 1.1 GeV electrons, the spatial resolution of 0.3 mm is obtained. The contributions of various factors to energy resolution are analysed. It is found that energy resolution is changed with the anode voltage and there exists a least energy resolution. The reasons for these are discussed. (authors)

  15. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2 is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1  μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  16. Some tests of wet tropospheric calibration for the CASA Uno Global Positioning System experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, T. H.; Wolf, S. Kornreich

    1990-01-01

    Wet tropospheric path delay can be a major error source for Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic experiments. Strategies for minimizing this error are investigted using data from CASA Uno, the first major GPS experiment in Central and South America, where wet path delays may be both high and variable. Wet path delay calibration using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and residual delay estimation is compared with strategies where the entire wet path delay is estimated stochastically without prior calibration, using data from a 270-km test baseline in Costa Rica. Both approaches yield centimeter-level baseline repeatability and similar tropospheric estimates, suggesting that WVR calibration is not critical for obtaining high precision results with GPS in the CASA region.

  17. Cavity beam position monitor system for the Accelerator Test Facility 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. I.; Ainsworth, R.; Aryshev, A.; Boogert, S. T.; Boorman, G.; Frisch, J.; Heo, A.; Honda, Y.; Hwang, W. H.; Huang, J. Y.; Kim, E.-S.; Kim, S. H.; Lyapin, A.; Naito, T.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Mellor, R. E.; Molloy, S.; Nelson, J.; Park, S. J.; Park, Y. J.; Ross, M.; Shin, S.; Swinson, C.; Smith, T.; Terunuma, N.; Tauchi, T.; Urakawa, J.; White, G. R.

    2012-04-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) is a scaled demonstrator system for final focus beam lines of linear high energy colliders. This paper describes the high resolution cavity beam position monitor (BPM) system, which is a part of the ATF2 diagnostics. Two types of cavity BPMs are used, C-band operating at 6.423 GHz, and S-band at 2.888 GHz with an increased beam aperture. The cavities, electronics, and digital processing are described. The resolution of the C-band system with attenuators was determined to be approximately 250 nm and 1μm for the S-band system. Without attenuation the best recorded C-band cavity resolution was 27 nm.

  18. Are Hemorrhoids Associated with False-Positive Fecal Immunochemical Test Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong; Jung, Yoon Suk

    2017-01-01

    False-positive (FP) results of fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) conducted in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening could lead to performing unnecessary colonoscopies. Hemorrhoids are a possible cause of FP FIT results; however, studies on this topic are extremely rare. We investigated whether hemorrhoids are associated with FP FIT results. A retrospective study was conducted at a university hospital in Korea from June 2013 to May 2015. Of the 34547 individuals who underwent FITs, 3946 aged ≥50 years who underwent colonoscopies were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with FP FIT results. Among 3946 participants, 704 (17.8%) showed positive FIT results and 1303 (33.0%) had hemorrhoids. Of the 704 participants with positive FIT results, 165 had advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN) and 539 had no ACRN (FP results). Of the 1303 participants with hemorrhoids, 291 showed FP results, of whom 81 showed FP results because of hemorrhoids only. Participants with hemorrhoids had a higher rate of FP results than those without hemorrhoids (291/1176, 24.7% vs. 248/2361, 10.5%; phemorrhoids as the only abnormality had a higher rate of FP results than those experiencing no such abnormalities (81/531, 15.3% vs. 38/1173, 3.2%; phemorrhoids was identified as an independent predictor of FP results (adjusted odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 2.24-3.40; pHemorrhoids are significantly associated with FP FIT results. Their presence seemed to be a non-negligible contributor of FP results in FIT-based CRC screening programs.

  19. Permanent pacemaker implantation in octogenarians with unexplained syncope and positive electrophysiologic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Georgios; Kossyvakis, Charalampos; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiachris, Dimitrios; Doudoumis, Konstantinos; Mavri, Maria; Vrachatis, Dimitrios; Letsas, Konstantinos; Efremidis, Michael; Katsivas, Apostolos; Lekakis, John; Deftereos, Spyridon

    2017-05-01

    Syncope is a common problem in the elderly, and a permanent pacemaker is a therapeutic option when a bradycardic etiology is revealed. However, the benefit of pacing when no association of symptoms to bradycardia has been shown is not clear, especially in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pacing on syncope-free mortality in patients aged 80 years or older with unexplained syncope and "positive" invasive electrophysiologic testing (EPT). This was an observational study. A positive EPT for the purposes of this study was defined by at least 1 of the following: a corrected sinus node recovery time of >525 ms, a basic HV interval of >55 ms, detection of infra-Hisian block, or appearance of second-degree atrioventricular block on atrial decremental pacing at a paced cycle length of >400 ms. Among the 2435 screened patients, 228 eligible patients were identified, 145 of whom were implanted with a pacemaker. Kaplan-Meier analysis determined that time to event (syncope or death) was 50.1 months (95% confidence interval 45.4-54.8 months) with a pacemaker vs 37.8 months (95% confidence interval 31.3-44.4 months) without a pacemaker (log-rank test, P = .001). The 4-year time-dependent estimate of the rate of syncope was 12% vs 44% (P pacemaker implantation was independently associated with longer syncope-free survival. Significant differences were also shown in the individual components of the primary outcome measure (syncope and death from any cause). Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. False-positive results after environmental pinworm PCR testing due to Rhabditid nematodes in Corncob bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-11-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and -negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding.

  1. Postoperative Spondylodiscitis and Epidural Abscess Becoming Visible on Magnetic Resonance Imaging before Positive Laboratory Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysin Pourbagher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Post operative disc space infection is relatively uncommon. The incidence of postoperative disc space infection is 0.21%-3.6% in association with all vertebral surgical procedures. Surgery causes a variety of neuroendocrine and metabolic responses which generally results in immunosupression. Clinical results of immunosupression include delayed wound healing and septic complications. In this article, we report magnetic resonance imaging findings of a case with spondylodiscitis and spinal epidural abscess in which the imaging findings were apparent before the infection and inflammation related laboratory findings laboratory findings become positive. She has a history of surgery due to lumbar herniated disc a month. She was complaining of back and left leg pain. We performed contrast-enhanced MR imaging. MR imaging showed post operative changes at level L5 and S1. There was contrast enhancement at the level of the surgical gap in the posterior paravertebral muscles. MR imaging may help to differentiate postoperative spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess from early postoperative changes even before the laboratory tests appearing positive. In our case, surgery induced immunosupression may cause the infection and inflammation related laboratory findings being within normal limits at the beginning. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 97-101

  2. ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON DIFFERENT POSITIONS, USING THE CONCONI TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Requirements and needs of properly programmed training process, especially in the pre-season, look for a precise definition of the functional parameters of all the players. The level of anaerobic threshold, as well as research on the same, may be a good indicator of proper dosage of loading. The aim of the research is to determine the differences in running speed and heart rate at the level of anaerobic threshold in relation to the position of the player. Methods: Age of the respondents in this study included boys from 14 to 16 years of age (60 football players. The sample of respondents was divided according to playing position, as follows: center-backs (12 players, wing-backs (15 players, midfielders (14 players, forwarders (13 players and goalkeepers (6 goalkeepers. An estimation of maximum heart rate and anaerobic threshold was performed using the Conconi test – (Conconi et al. 1996. Prior to testing players had ten minutes to warm up and after a few minutes of rest the testing began. Players started with jogging test (10 km/h and after every 200 m running speed was increased by 0.5 km/h. Within certain sections the load is constant which is achieved by increasing speed after each 200 m, and then maintaining that speed until the end of the section. After processing the results within the particular software (“Polar Precision Performance SW” the values needed for this research were collected. Multivariate methods MANOVA and discriminant analysis will be applied in the paper. Regarding the univariate procedures, ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. The descriptive parameters, mean value, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as the measures of asymmetry, kurtosis as the measure of flatness and the value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, shall be presented. Results: By using the multivariate analysis of variance and based on the

  3. Scheduled Intermittent Screening with Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine versus Intermittent Preventive Therapy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Malaria in Pregnancy in Malawi: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwayiwawo Madanitsa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, most plasmodium infections during pregnancy remain asymptomatic, yet are associated with maternal anemia and low birthweight. WHO recommends intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP. However, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP efficacy is threatened by high-level parasite resistance. We conducted a trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of scheduled intermittent screening with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and treatment of RDT-positive women with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP as an alternative strategy to IPTp-SP.This was an open-label, two-arm individually randomized superiority trial among HIV-seronegative women at three sites in Malawi with high SP resistance. The intervention consisted of three or four scheduled visits in the second and third trimester, 4 to 6 wk apart. Women in the IPTp-SP arm received SP at each visit. Women in the intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy with DP (ISTp-DP arm were screened for malaria at every visit and treated with DP if RDT-positive. The primary outcomes were adverse live birth outcome (composite of small for gestational age, low birthweight [<2,500 g], or preterm birth [<37 wk] in paucigravidae (first or second pregnancy and maternal or placental plasmodium infection at delivery in multigravidae (third pregnancy or higher. Analysis was by intention to treat. Between 21 July 2011 and 18 March 2013, 1,873 women were recruited (1,155 paucigravidae and 718 multigravidae. The prevalence of adverse live birth outcome was similar in the ISTp-DP (29.9% and IPTp-SP (28.8% arms (risk difference = 1.08% [95% CI -3.25% to 5.41%]; all women: relative risk [RR] = 1.04 [95% CI 0.90-1.20], p = 0.625; paucigravidae: RR = 1.10 [95% CI 0.92-1.31], p = 0.282; multigravidae: RR = 0.92 [95% CI 0.71-1.20], p = 0.543. The prevalence of malaria at delivery was higher in the ISTp-DP arm (48.7% versus 40.8%; risk difference = 7.85%, [95% CI 3

  4. Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 21-year-old female presented with sudden onset suprapubic abdominal pain associated with dysuria. The patient also experienced near syncope during bowel movements three times three days ago without falling or losing consciousness. She denied fever, nausea, and vomiting. She stated that she was five weeks pregnant by last menstrual period. She had an ultrasound a few weeks before that showed no intrauterine pregnancy, but she had not followed up for additional testing. Significant findings: The patient’s serum beta-hCG was 5,637 mIU/mL. The transvaginal ultrasound showed an empty uterus with free fluid posteriorly in the pelvis and Pouch of Douglas (00:00. A 4.5 cm heterogeneous mass was visible in the left adnexa concerning for an ectopic pregnancy (00:10. Discussion: Ectopic pregnancies are a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as decreased fertility.1,2 Differentiating between an ectopic pregnancy and a normal early pregnancy may be difficult, since ultrasound and quantitative beta-hCG may show inconclusive results.3,4 Patients who have used fertility treatment may further complicate the picture because they are at risk for heterotypic pregnancies.5 Ectopic pregnancies most commonly implant in the fallopian tube, but may alternatively implant in the ovary, cervix, abdomen, or uterine cornua.4 Ultrasonography may show an empty uterus, adnexal mass, pelvic free fluid, or an extra-uterine gestational sac, yolk sac, and/or embryo.6 Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy include surgery or methotrexate.2,4 Some patients may be candidates for close outpatient surveillance if the diagnosis is unclear or in very limited cases for early, non-ruptured ectopic pregnancies.2,4

  5. Prognosis of patients with positive exercise test and normal myocardial perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Bae, J. H.; Ahn, B. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Exercise SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging(Ex-MPI) is regarded as a predictive technique particularly in patients with coronary artery disease(CAD) capable of performing exercise testing. In clinical practice, we encounter equivocal situations of discordant findings between exercise ECG and MPI. We evaluated the prognosis of subjects with positive ECG and normal MPI findings, and predictive factors for cardiac events. 2571 Ex-MPI studies were reviewed over a period of 3 years. Subjects were followed for more than 2 years(24-56 months, mean 35{+-}10months) for cardiac events after study. The cardiac events were defined as hard events(cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction(MI)) and soft events(aggravation of CAD necessitating revascularization, congestive heart failure necessitating hospital admission). We evaluated age, sex, typical angina pain, rest ECG, hypertension, diabetes mellitus(DM), serum levels of cholesterol and LDL, smoking history, history of cerebrovascular disease(CVD) and peripheral artery disease(PAD), and rest left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) as clinical variables. Of 83 subjects with positive ECG and normal MPS findings, 6 were considered as false negative results confirmed with coronary angiography. There were 77 patients (mean age 52{+-}10 years, 39 males) with positive ECG and normal MPI results. During the follow-up period, of 77 there were 3 cardiac events (annual rate 1.9%), no cardiac death, 2 nonfatal MIs (annual rate 1.3%) and 1 soft event (annual rate 0.6%). 2/39 males(5.1%), and 1/38 females(2.6%) had cardiac events. All cardiac events were observed within 2 years. 1-year cardiac event rate was 0.6% and 2-year cardiac event rate was 1.9%. Among clinical factors, male sex, typical chest pain and smoking history at the time of MPI were predictive of cardiac events. Patients with positive ECG and negative EX-MPI results have low risk for cardiac events. Nevertheless, the cardiac events cannot be excluded totally in some

  6. Prognosis of patients with positive exercise test and normal myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, J. H.; Jeong, S. Y.; Bae, J. H.; Ahn, B. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B

    2004-01-01

    Exercise SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging(Ex-MPI) is regarded as a predictive technique particularly in patients with coronary artery disease(CAD) capable of performing exercise testing. In clinical practice, we encounter equivocal situations of discordant findings between exercise ECG and MPI. We evaluated the prognosis of subjects with positive ECG and normal MPI findings, and predictive factors for cardiac events. 2571 Ex-MPI studies were reviewed over a period of 3 years. Subjects were followed for more than 2 years(24-56 months, mean 35±10months) for cardiac events after study. The cardiac events were defined as hard events(cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction(MI)) and soft events(aggravation of CAD necessitating revascularization, congestive heart failure necessitating hospital admission). We evaluated age, sex, typical angina pain, rest ECG, hypertension, diabetes mellitus(DM), serum levels of cholesterol and LDL, smoking history, history of cerebrovascular disease(CVD) and peripheral artery disease(PAD), and rest left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) as clinical variables. Of 83 subjects with positive ECG and normal MPS findings, 6 were considered as false negative results confirmed with coronary angiography. There were 77 patients (mean age 52±10 years, 39 males) with positive ECG and normal MPI results. During the follow-up period, of 77 there were 3 cardiac events (annual rate 1.9%), no cardiac death, 2 nonfatal MIs (annual rate 1.3%) and 1 soft event (annual rate 0.6%). 2/39 males(5.1%), and 1/38 females(2.6%) had cardiac events. All cardiac events were observed within 2 years. 1-year cardiac event rate was 0.6% and 2-year cardiac event rate was 1.9%. Among clinical factors, male sex, typical chest pain and smoking history at the time of MPI were predictive of cardiac events. Patients with positive ECG and negative EX-MPI results have low risk for cardiac events. Nevertheless, the cardiac events cannot be excluded totally in some

  7. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  8. Twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....

  9. Postmenopausal pregnancy? Evaluation of elevated hCG in a 59-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, Mary Margaret; Bryan, Teresa

    2017-06-05

    Slightly elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can be a normal finding in postmenopausal women. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman with a history of abnormal uterine bleeding who presented with a concern for pregnancy after developing nausea and vomiting a few weeks after unprotected intercourse. Although pregnancy was extremely unlikely, hCG was obtained in order to reassure the patient since she reported that her mother conceived at the age of 60. Serum hCG was positive, prompting concern for malignancy versus pregnancy. Stable serum hCG levels, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone and negative transvaginal ultrasound ruled out both malignancy and pregnancy. Positive serum pregnancy test and hCG elevation was attributed to normal postmenopausal state. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Pregnancy Outcomes After Maternal Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - U.S. Territories, January 1, 2016-April 25, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Rice, Marion E; Galang, Romeo R; Fulton, Anna C; VanMaldeghem, Kelley; Prado, Miguel Valencia; Ellis, Esther; Anesi, Magele Scott; Simeone, Regina M; Petersen, Emily E; Ellington, Sascha R; Jones, Abbey M; Williams, Tonya; Reagan-Steiner, Sarah; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Deseda, Carmen C; Beron, Andrew; Tufa, Aifili John; Rosinger, Asher; Roth, Nicole M; Green, Caitlin; Martin, Stacey; Lopez, Camille Delgado; deWilde, Leah; Goodwin, Mary; Pagano, H Pamela; Mai, Cara T; Gould, Carolyn; Zaki, Sherif; Ferrer, Leishla Nieves; Davis, Michelle S; Lathrop, Eva; Polen, Kara; Cragan, Janet D; Reynolds, Megan; Newsome, Kimberly B; Huertas, Mariam Marcano; Bhatangar, Julu; Quiñones, Alma Martinez; Nahabedian, John F; Adams, Laura; Sharp, Tyler M; Hancock, W Thane; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Moore, Cynthia A; Jamieson, Denise J; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L; Garstang, Helentina; Kambui, Afeke; Masao, Carolee; Honein, Margaret A; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2017-06-16

    Pregnant women living in or traveling to areas with local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission are at risk for Zika virus infection, which can lead to severe fetal and infant brain abnormalities and microcephaly (1). In February 2016, CDC recommended 1) routine testing for Zika virus infection of asymptomatic pregnant women living in areas with ongoing local Zika virus transmission at the first prenatal care visit, 2) retesting during the second trimester for women who initially test negative, and 3) testing of pregnant women with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (e.g., fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) at any time during pregnancy (2). To collect information about pregnant women with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection* and outcomes in their fetuses and infants, CDC established pregnancy and infant registries (3). During January 1, 2016-April 25, 2017, U.S. territories † with local transmission of Zika virus reported 2,549 completed pregnancies § (live births and pregnancy losses at any gestational age) with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection; 5% of fetuses or infants resulting from these pregnancies had birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection ¶ (4,5). Among completed pregnancies with positive nucleic acid tests confirming Zika infection identified in the first, second, and third trimesters, the percentage of fetuses or infants with possible Zika-associated birth defects was 8%, 5%, and 4%, respectively. Among liveborn infants, 59% had Zika laboratory testing results reported to the pregnancy and infant registries. Identification and follow-up of infants born to women with laboratory evidence of recent possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy permits timely and appropriate clinical intervention services (6).

  11. HIV-Positive Women Taking Lifelong Antiretroviral Therapy Report Better Adherence Than Women Taking Short-Course Prophylaxis During and After Pregnancy Under PMTCT Program Option A in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampanda, Karen M; Abuogi, Lisa L; Ahmed, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    HIV-positive women's adherence to antiretrovirals is critical for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We aimed to establish if mothers taking triple lifelong antiretroviral therapy report higher adherence compared to mothers taking short-course prophylaxis under Option A in Lusaka, Zambia. In this clinic-based cross-sectional study, we interviewed 320 HIV-positive mothers at a large public health facility in Lusaka in 2014. Participants reported adherence using a visual analog scale. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the adjusted odds of adherence by mother's prescribed regimen. Women taking lifelong triple antiretroviral therapy report higher adjusted odds of adherence during pregnancy, postpartum, and to giving the infant prophylaxis compared to women to women taking short-course prophylaxis. Women on lifelong therapy may have better adherence compared to women on short course prophylaxis because they knew their positive status for longer or were symptomatic with HIV-related disease. The lifelong therapy regimen may be easier for women to follow, particularly because they are required to give the infant prophylaxis for a shorter duration of time. Our results indicate that lifelong triple antiretroviral therapy has the potential to promote better drug adherence during and after pregnancy among women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to short-course antiretroviral regimens.

  12. Control parameters of the martian dune field positions at planetary scale: tests by the MCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    allemand, pascal

    2016-04-01

    The surface of Mars is occupied by more than 500 dunes fields mainly located inside impact craters of the south hemisphere and near the north polar cap. The questions of the activity of martian dunes and of the localization of the martian dune fields are not completely solved. It has been demonstrated recently by image observation and image correlation that some of these dune fields are clearly active. The sand flux of one of them has been even estimated. But there is no global view of the degree of activity of each the dune fields. (2)The topography of impact craters in which dune fields are localized is an important factor of their position. But there is no consensus of the effect of global atmospheric circulation on dune field localization. These two questions are addressed using the results of Mars Climate Database 5.2 (MCD) (Millour, 2015; Forget et al., 1999). The wind fields of the MCD have been first validated against the observations made on active dune fields. Using a classical transport law, the Drift Potential (DP) and the Relative Drift Potential (RDP) have been computed for each dune fields. A good correlation exists between the position of dune fields and specific values of these two parameters. The activity of each dune field is estimated from these parameters and tested on some examples by image observations. Finally a map of sand flow has been computed at the scale of the planet. This map shows that sand and dust is trapped in specific regions. These regions correspond to the area of dune field concentration.

  13. Pregnancy alters the circulating B cell compartment in atopic asthmatic women, and transitional B cells are positively associated with the development of allergy manifestations in their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catarina; Lima, Jorge; Nunes, Glória; Borrego, Luís Miguel

    2016-12-01

    Maternal atopy is a risk factor for allergy. B cells are poorly studied in reproduction and atopy. We aimed to assess how pregnancy affects B cells in atopic women and whether B cells relate to allergic manifestations in offspring. Women with and without atopic asthma, pregnant and non-pregnant were enrolled for the study, and circulating B cells were evaluated by flow cytometry, using CD19, CD27, CD38, IgD, and IgM. Compared to healthy non-pregnant, atopic asthmatic non-pregnant (ANP) women presented increased B cell counts, enlarged memory subsets, less transitional cells, and plasmablasts. Atopic asthmatic pregnant (AP) and healthy pregnant (HP) women showed similarities: reduced B cell counts and percentages, fewer memory cells, especially switched, and higher plasmablast percentages. Transitional B cell percentages were increased in AP women with allergic manifestations in their progeny. Atopic asthmatic non-pregnant women have a distinctive B cell compartment. B cells change in pregnancy, similarly in AP and HP women. The recognition that AP women with allergy in their progeny have a typical immune profile may help, in the future, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid the manifestation of allergic diseases in their newborns. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sexual activity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staruch, Monika; Kucharczyk, Aleksandra; Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Szymusik, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is usually associated with significant regression in genito-genital intercourse frequency, sexual desire and satisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine women's sexual habits during the third trimester of gestation and to compare their sexual activity before the current pregnancy and during previous pregnancies in case of multiparas. The study material consisted of women in the third trimester of pregnancy, recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw between January 2013 and February 2014, who filled out a self-prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: demographic data, sexual activity prior to current pregnancy and during gestation, including sexual positions and sources of knowledge regarding the subject. The survey involved 25 questions and was distributed among 220 patients, out of which 165 were returned and 149 properly filled out and analyzed. The average age of the respondents was 29.6 ± 4.85 years; the majority (78.8%) were in an uncomplicated pregnancy. The decrease in sexual activity was evident in all age groups--the majority usually had sex 1 to 3 times a month in contrast to 1-2 times a week prior to conceiving. Sexual activity decreased significantly with increasing age. The main reasons for abandoning sexual activity included: decreased libido (35.5%), the doctor's suggestion (29%) and fears concerning child's health (29%). During pregnancy the frequency of vaginal intercourse significantly decreased (100% prior to vs. 86.6% during pregnancy; p < 0.001); as did oral sex (44.3% vs. 29.5%; p = 0.043) and anal sex (12% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02). 54% of the respondents declared reduced satisfaction with sexual life during pregnancy in comparison with the previous period; almost half (43.5%) felt less attractive while pregnant. The same claim was related to libido--it decreased in 58.8% of respondents. Multiparas tended to have sexual

  15. Testing of a novel pin array guide for accurate three-dimensional glenoid component positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gregory S; Stevens, Nicole M; Armstrong, April D

    2015-12-01

    A substantial challenge in total shoulder replacement is accurate positioning and alignment of the glenoid component. This challenge arises from limited intraoperative exposure and complex arthritic-driven deformity. We describe a novel pin array guide and method for patient-specific guiding of the glenoid central drill hole. We also experimentally tested the hypothesis that this method would reduce errors in version and inclination compared with 2 traditional methods. Polymer models of glenoids were created from computed tomography scans from 9 arthritic patients. Each 3-dimensional (3D) printed scapula was shrouded to simulate the operative situation. Three different methods for central drill alignment were tested, all with the target orientation of 5° retroversion and 0° inclination: no assistance, assistance by preoperative 3D imaging, and assistance by the pin array guide. Version and inclination errors of the drill line were compared. Version errors using the pin array guide (3° ± 2°) were significantly lower than version errors associated with no assistance (9° ± 7°) and preoperative 3D imaging (8° ± 6°). Inclination errors were also significantly lower using the pin array guide compared with no assistance. The new pin array guide substantially reduced errors in orientation of the central drill line. The guide method is patient specific but does not require rapid prototyping and instead uses adjustments to an array of pins based on automated software calculations. This method may ultimately provide a cost-effective solution enabling surgeons to obtain accurate orientation of the glenoid. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography and Contrast Sensitivity Test for Observing Fundus Changes of Patients With Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixue; Zou, Yuanyuan; Li, Wenying; Wang, Xueyan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Wenying

    2015-11-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the fundus changes of patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome (PIHS) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology and contrast sensitivity (CS) tests.Ninety-eight patients with PIHS underwent routine eye examinations including vision correction, fundus examination, OCT, and CS tests. The CS test was performed at low, medium, and high frequency, respectively. Moreover, the difference in CS tests between 2 groups was analyzed by independent-samples T test. The Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test and linear regression model were used to detect the correlation of OCT with CS, respectively. Meanwhile Satterthwaite approximate T test was adopted for pairwise comparisons after nonparametric analysis of variance.The OCT test revealed that 56.76% of the examined eyes showed shallow retinal detachment in the macula lutea and around the optic disk. The differences in CS at each spatial frequency between the case and control group were statistically significant (P tests might be valuable methods in observing fundus changes for PIHS patients.

  17. Stability Tests of Positive Fractional Continuous-time Linear Systems with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kaczorek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of positive fractional continuous-time linear systems with many delays are established. It is shown that: 1 the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional system is independent of their delays, 2 the checking of the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional systems with delays can be reduced to checking of the asymptotic stability of positive standard linear systems without delays.

  18. POIS, a Low Cost Tilt and Position Sensor: Design and First Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Artese

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated sensor for the measurement and monitoring of position and inclination, characterized by low cost, small size and low weight, has been designed, realized and calibrated at the Geomatics Lab of the University of Calabria. The design of the prototype, devoted to the monitoring of landslides and structures, was aiming at realizing a fully automated monitoring instrument, able to send the data acquired periodically or upon request by a control center through a bidirectional transmission protocol. The sensor can be released with different accuracy and range of measurement, by choosing bubble vials with different characteristics. The instrument is provided with a computer, which can be programmed so as to independently perform the processing of the data collected by a single sensor or a by a sensor network, and to transmit, consequently, alert signals if the thresholds determined by the monitoring center are exceeded. The bidirectional transmission also allows the users to vary the set of the monitoring parameters (time of acquisition, duration of satellite acquisitions, thresholds for the observed data. In the paper, hardware and software of the sensor are described, along with the calibration, the results of laboratory tests and of the first in field acquisitions.

  19. Instilling positive beliefs about disabilities: pilot testing a novel experiential learning activity for rehabilitation students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Arielle M; Pitonyak, Jennifer S; Nelson, Ian K; Matsuda, Patricia N; Kartin, Deborah; Molton, Ivan R

    2018-05-01

    To develop and test a novel impairment simulation activity to teach beginning rehabilitation students how people adapt to physical impairments. Masters of Occupational Therapy students (n = 14) and Doctor of Physical Therapy students (n = 18) completed the study during the first month of their program. Students were randomized to the experimental or control learning activity. Experimental students learned to perform simple tasks while simulating paraplegia and hemiplegia. Control students viewed videos of others completing tasks with these impairments. Before and after the learning activities, all students estimated average self-perceived health, life satisfaction, and depression ratings among people with paraplegia and hemiplegia. Experimental students increased their estimates of self-perceived health, and decreased their estimates of depression rates, among people with paraplegia and hemiplegia after the learning activity. The control activity had no effect on these estimates. Impairment simulation can be an effective way to teach rehabilitation students about the adaptations that people make to physical impairments. Positive impairment simulations should allow students to experience success in completing activities of daily living with impairments. Impairment simulation is complementary to other pedagogical methods, such as simulated clinical encounters using standardized patients. Implication of Rehabilitation It is important for rehabilitation students to learn how people live well with disabilities. Impairment simulations can improve students' assessments of quality of life with disabilities. To be beneficial, impairment simulations must include guided exposure to effective methods for completing daily tasks with disabilities.

  20. First operational tests of the positive-ion injector for ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Benaroya, R.; Billquist, P.J.; Clifft, B.E.; Markovich, P.; Munson, F.H. Jr.; Nixon, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the status and first operational experience with the positive-ion injector for ATLAS. The new injector consists of an ECR ion source on a 350-kV platform, followed by a superconducting injector linac of a new kind. In Phase I of this project, the ECR source, voltage platform, bunching system, beam-transport system, and a 3-MV injector linac were completed and tested in early 1989 by a successful acceleration of an /sup 40/Ar/sup 12 +/ beam. Most of the new system operated as planned, and the longitudinal emittance of the 36-MeV beam out of the injector was measured to be only 5 ..pi.. keV-ns, much smaller than the emittance for the present tandem injector. When completed in 1990, the final injector linac will be enlarged to 12 MV, enough to allow the original ATLAS linac to accelerate uranium ions up to 8 MeV/u. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Single test isolated lupus anticoagulant positivity is associated with increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, S A; Nybo, M; Laustrup, H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single positive test for lupus anticoagulant (LA) is associated with levels of inflammatory markers and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, independent of autoimmune disease, thrombophilia and occurrence of other antiphospholipid antibodies. METHODS: In a ...

  2. Anti-D administration in pregnancy for preventing Rhesus alloimmunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Rosemary D; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa

    2015-09-03

    -D during pregnancy were shown to be less likely to register a positive Kleihauer test (which detects fetal cells in maternal blood) in pregnancy (at 32 to 25 weeks) (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.88; 1884 women; GRADE: low quality evidence) and at the birth of a Rh-positive infant (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.79; 1189 women; GRADE: low quality evidence). No clear differences were seen for neonatal jaundice (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.30; 1882 infants; GRADE: very low quality evidence). Neither of the trials reported on adverse effects associated with anti-D treatment. Existing studies do not provide conclusive evidence that the use of anti-D during pregnancy benefits either mother or baby in terms of incidence of Rhesus D alloimmunisation during the pregnancy or postpartum, or the incidence of neonatal morbidity (jaundice) (low to very low quality evidence). However women receiving anti-D may be less likely to register a positive Kleihauer test in pregnancy and at the birth of a Rh-positive infant (low quality evidence). Fewer women who receive anti-D during pregnancy may have Rhesus D antibodies in a subsequent pregnancy, with benefits for the baby, however this needs to be tested in studies of robust design.

  3. Phytoestrogens in Human Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jarrell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The hormonal milieu associated with pregnancy has become a focus of interest owing to potential links with the developmental origins of health and disease. Phytoestrogens are hormonally active plant-derived chemicals that may have an impact on human reproductive processes. However, developmental exposure to phytoestrogens has not been well characterized and thus our objective was to quantify phytoestrogen exposure during pregnancy and lactation. Methods. Women in the second trimester of pregnancy entered the study during counseling for prenatal genetic information. Women who had an indication for a genetic amniocentesis on the basis of late maternal age were approached for inclusion. They completed an environmental questionnaire; a sample of amniotic fluid was collected for karyotype, blood was collected from women during pregnancy and at birth, from the umbilical cord and breast milk. Samples were tested for the presence of daidzein and genistein by GC Mass Spectroscopy. Findings. Phytoestrogens are commonly found in pregnant women’s serum and amniotic fluid during pregnancy. There is a sex difference in the concentrations with higher levels in amniotic fluid containing female fetuses. This difference was not present in maternal serum. Soy ingestion increases amniotic fluid phytoestrogen concentrations in female and male fetuses. The presence and concentrations of phytoestrogens did not differ in relation to common pregnancy complications or preexisting infertility.

  4. Specificity and false positive rates of the Test of Memory Malingering, Rey 15-item Test, and Rey Word Recognition Test among forensic inpatients with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christopher M; Glassmire, David M; Zanolini, Shanna Jordan; Wolf, Amanda

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the specificity and false positive (FP) rates of the Rey 15-Item Test (FIT), Word Recognition Test (WRT), and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in a sample of 21 forensic inpatients with mild intellectual disability (ID). The FIT demonstrated an FP rate of 23.8% with the standard quantitative cutoff score. Certain qualitative error types on the FIT showed promise and had low FP rates. The WRT obtained an FP rate of 0.0% with previously reported cutoff scores. Finally, the TOMM demonstrated low FP rates of 4.8% and 0.0% on Trial 2 and the Retention Trial, respectively, when applying the standard cutoff score. FP rates are reported for a range of cutoff scores and compared with published research on individuals diagnosed with ID. Results indicated that although the quantitative variables on the FIT had unacceptably high FP rates, the TOMM and WRT had low FP rates, increasing the confidence clinicians can place in scores reflecting poor effort on these measures during ID evaluations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Vertical Transmission of Hypopituitarism: Critical Importance of Appropriate Interpretation of Thyroid Function Tests and Levothyroxine Therapy During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Christopher J.; Radovick, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Background Typically, newborns with congenital hypothyroidism are asymptomatic at birth, having been exposed to euthyroid mothers. However, hypopituitarism may be associated with central hypothyroidism, preserved fertility, and autosomal dominant inheritance, requiring increased attention to thyroid management during pregnancy. Patient Findings A woman with a history of growth hormone deficiency and central hypothyroidism gave birth to a term male neonate appropriate for gestational age. Due to low thyrotropin (TSH) in the second trimester, the levothyroxine dose was decreased by the obstetrician, and free T4 was low throughout the latter half of pregnancy. The neonatal laboratory evaluation showed central hypothyroidism with a low T4 of 2.1 μg/dL (4.5–11.5) and an inappropriately normal TSH of 0.98 uIU/mL (0.5–4.5); undetectable growth hormone, IGF-I, and IGFBP3; a normal cortisol level; and a normal gonadotropin surge. After initiation of levothyroxine in the first week, both tone and feeding tolerance improved. However, the patient was found to have hearing loss, gross motor delay, and speech delay. Summary In this report, we review a case of vertical transmission of a dominant negative POU1F1 mutation in which fetal abnormalities due to the hypothyroxinemic state during gestation may have been exacerbated by a decrease in the mother's levothyroxine dose based on a low TSH in early gestation. Both mother and fetus were unable to synthesize sufficient thyroid hormone, which may be responsible for the patient's clinical presentation. Conclusion This case underscores several important points in the management of women with hypopituitarism. First, it is important that patients and clinicians are both aware of the differences in etiology, as well as appropriate screening and treatment, of primary versus central hypothyroidism. Second, it is necessary to monitor the thyroid hormone status closely during pregnancy to prevent fetal sequelae of maternal

  6. Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... data. Highlights of some of our research follow Obesity In the United States, obesity during pregnancy is ... trial among adults with glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Results identified intervention strategies that reduced the ...

  7. Pregnancy care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have few or mild symptoms during pregnancy. Many women work their full term and travel while they are pregnant. Others may have to cut back on their hours or stop working. Some women require bed rest ...

  8. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the baby, making plans for relatives or an adoptive family to raise the baby, or terminating the pregnancy. ... The decision to place a baby with an adoptive family is legal and binding. However, most states do ...

  9. Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Savasci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a common worldwide parasitic infection that caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The clinical progress is generally asymptomatic in patient with normal immune system, on the other hand severe clinical presentations seen in patients with immune deficiency or pregnancy. Congenital toxoplasmosis can emerge due to contamination during pregnancy but 6-8 weeks prior to pregnancy are also at risk. Infants with toxoplasmosis have some clinical semptoms such as chorioretinitis, epilepsia, hypotonia, psychomotor disorders, mental retardation, encephalitis, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications, hepatosplenomegaly. Early diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent treatment. may prevent malformations. Toxoplasmosis diagnosis during pregnancy is mostly based on IgM and IgG antibody screening tests. While IgM indicates the acute infection, it disappears in early period and can be detected in low consantrations through long ages. Therefore IgG avidity test takes more place in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. High avidity levels indicate acquired infection prior than 16 weeks, so that it is recommended to perform the test in the first trimester. Low IgG avidity level may indicate a newly onset infection. Amniotic fluid T.gondii PCR, anomaly screening with ultrasonography, Toxoplasma gondii cyst dying with Wright-Giemsa dye in plasental and fetal tissue are the other diagnostic tools can be performed during pregnancy. Avidity test methods during the 16 weeks of pregnancy reduce repeating serum analysis, amniotic fluid PCR reguirement, unnecessary antibiotic treatments and noncompulsory abortus. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 767-772

  10. Interventions for tubal ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajenius, P. J.; Mol, B. W.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Ankum, W. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy can now often be made by non-invasive methods due to sensitive pregnancy tests (in urine and serum) and high resolution transvaginal sonography, which have been integrated in diagnostic algorithms. These algorithms, in combination with the increased

  11. Attitudes Towards Prenatal Genetic Counseling, Prenatal Genetic Testing, and Termination of Pregnancy among Southeast and East Asian Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ginger J; Cameron, Carrie A; Czerwinski, Jennifer L; Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Peterson, Susan K; Noblin, Sarah Jane

    2017-10-01

    Recognizing the heterogeneity of the Asian population with regards to acculturation, education, health awareness, and cultural values is vital for tailoring culturally sensitive and appropriate care. Prior studies show that cultural values influence perceptions of genetics within Asian populations. The reputation of the family unit factors into decisions such as pregnancy termination and disclosure of family medical history, and the nondirective model of American genetic counseling may conflict with the historical Asian model of paternalistic health care. Previous studies also provide conflicting evidence regarding correlations between education, acculturation, age, and awareness and perceptions of genetic testing. The aims of this study were to describe attitudes towards prenatal genetics among Southeast and East Asian women living in the United States for varying amounts of time and to explore sociocultural factors influencing those attitudes. Twenty-three Asian women who were members of Asian cultural organizations in the United States were interviewed via telephone about their attitudes towards prenatal genetic counseling, prenatal genetic testing, and termination of pregnancy. Responses were transcribed and coded for common themes using a thematic analysis approach. Four major themes emerged. In general, participants: (1) had diverse expectations for genetic counselors; (2) tended to weigh risks and benefits with regards to genetic testing decisions; (3) had mixed views on termination for lethal and non-lethal genetic conditions; and (4) identified cultural factors which influenced testing and termination such as lack of available resources, societal shame and stigma, and family pressure. These findings may allow prenatal genetic counselors to gain a richer, more nuanced understanding of their Asian patients and to offer culturally tailored prenatal genetic counseling.

  12. Accuracy rate of pregnancy detection in dairy cow by measuring the early pregnancy factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mosaferi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy factor (EPF a protein with immunosuppressive properties can be detected in the serum of most domestic animals at early pregnancy. In this study, pregnancy detection in 41 dairy cows following artificial insemination was evaluated by detecting EPF in blood serum using the rosette inhibition test (RIT. The amount of EPF activity 1-3 and 4-7 days after artificial insemination of cows was measured by RIT. Pregnancies were confirmed 45-60 days after insemination by rectal palpation. The results indicated that sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of this technique in detecting pregnancy 1-3 days following insemination was 88.88,  66.66,  72.72,  85.71  and  77.77 percent  respectively and RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were seen in pregnant and non-pregnant animals at this period. The value of the above parameters were 91,  83.83,  83.33,  91  and  87 percent  respectively  4-7  days  after insemination and also RIT titers of above 8 and below 4 were achieved in pregnant and non pregnant cows during this period. The results of this study indicated that there are significant differences in RIT titers between pregnant and non-pregnant cows 1-3 and 4-7 days following artificial insemination (P

  13. Measuring use of positive thinking skills: psychometric testing of a new scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2013-09-01

    Positive thinking interventions improve adaptive functioning and quality of life in many populations. However, no direct measure of positive thinking skills taught during intervention exists. This psychometric study of a convenience sample of 109 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) caregivers examined a new eight-item Positive Thinking Skills Scale (PTSS), which measures the frequency of use of positive thinking skills. The PTSS was found to be internally consistent (α = .90). Construct validity was supported by significant correlations (p thinking skills could provide direction for future intervention.

  14. Testing and testing positive: childhood adversities and later life HIV status among Kenyan women and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Raimer-Goodman, Lauren; Chen, Catherine X; Grouls, Astrid; Gitari, Stanley; Keiser, Philip H

    2017-12-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are a critical feature of lifelong health. No research assesses whether childhood adversities predict HIV-testing behaviors, and little research analyzes childhood adversities and later life HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. We use regression models with cross-sectional data from a representative sample (n = 1974) to analyze whether adverse childhood experiences, separately or as cumulative exposures, predict reports of later life HIV testing and testing HIV+ among semi-rural Kenyan women and their partners. No significant correlation was observed between thirteen cumulative childhood adversities and reporting prior HIV testing for respondent or partner. Separately, childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect predicted lower odds of reporting having previously been tested for HIV. Witnessing household violence during one's childhood predicted significantly higher odds of reporting HIV+. Sexual abuse predicted higher odds of reporting a partner tested HIV+. Preventing sexual abuse and household violence may improve HIV testing and test outcomes among Kenyan women. More research is required to understand pathways between adverse childhood experiences and partner selection within Kenya and sub-Saharan Africa, and data presented here suggest understanding pathways may help improve HIV outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Dealing with a positive result: routine HIV testing of pregnant women in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhoff, P.; Hardon, A.P.; Nguyen, T.A.; Pham, N.Y.; Wright, P.

    2008-01-01

    HIV testing is an essential component of PMTCT. It can be offered to pregnant women through different testing models, ranging from voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) to routine and mandatory testing. This study was conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, where HIV-prevalence is low among the general

  16. The impact of induced positive mood on symptomatic behaviour in eating disorders. An experimental, AB/BA crossover design testing a multimodal presentation during a test-meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Valentina; Esposito, Mirko; Clarke, Ariana; Schifano, Sylvia; Treasure, Janet

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the impact of a multimodal positive mood vodcast including pleasant images, background uplifting music and a script designed to elicit positive mood on eating disorders-related symptoms in participants suffering from an Eating Disorder (ED) and healthy controls (HCs). Forty-two women with an ED (Anorexia Nervosa [AN]: N = 19; Bulimia Nervosa [BN]: N = 23) and 36 HCs were included in an AB/BA cross-over design which compared the use of a positive mood induction procedure ("positive mood vodcast") with a control condition (i.e. blue static background, neutral music, and script describing objective facts) during a test-meal. Self-report measures and behavioural tasks were completed before and after the test-meal. The positive mood vodcast was associated with greater consumption of the test meal in the AN group; reduced vigilance to food stimuli and lower anxiety in the BN sample; and no significant changes in the HC group. The use of a positive mood vodcast was associated with some beneficial effects in the context of an experimental test-meal in participants with an ED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  18. Report of a Case of Primary Abdominal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Beigi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancy (EP is a potentially life-threatening condition in which the embryo implants outside the uterine endometrial cavity. Abdominal pregnancy is an atypical site wherein the product of conception lies totally outside the reproductive tract. Primary abdominal pregnancy is a very rare condition with a high mortality rate. Diagnosis is often late or misdiagnosed. The aim of introducing this case report is to present a new case of early primary abdominal pregnancy. Despite regular menstrual bleeding and contraception with IUD (intrauterine device, this pregnancy occurred in a 24-year old woman. Emergency laparotomy was performed because of abdominal pain, unstable condition and positive urine pregnancy test. It revealed more than 1500 ml of blood in the abdominal cavity. The uterus, both fallopian tubes and ovaries were completely intact. A 3X4 cm mass lateral to the left utersacral ligament was observed and resected. Since IUD strings could not be identified, endometrial currettage was performed and then the IUD was removed. Histological report of the mass and tissue of uterine cavity was placental villi and secretory endometrium, respectively, which according to Studdifords criteria is a new case of early primary abdominal pregnancy. To reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, early recognition of ectopic pregnancy is critical. According to review of the literature and the case report, a high index of suspicion is vital for the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy because the signs and symptoms of EP overlap with many surgical and gynecologic conditions. With early diagnosis of EP, we can suggest many therapeutic options and also retain fertility (if desired by patient, while minimizing disease and treatment-related morbidity.

  19. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Ding, W.L.; Huang, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand

  20. Reactivation of tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment in a patient with a positive QuantiFERON-RD1 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Munk, Martin E; Andersen, Ase Bengaard

    2004-01-01

    A patient with polymyositis developed tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment. Tuberculin Skin Test and chest X-ray failed to demonstrate latent tuberculosis, whereas a blood sample that was tested with a modified QuantiFERON-TB-assay, using the recombinant ESAT-6 and CFP-10, was positive...

  1. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Roellig

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL, and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent "head to head" re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA. Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US.

  2. False-positive result when a diphenylcarbazide spot test is used on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reveko, Valeriia; Lampert, Felix; Din, Rameez Ud

    2018-01-01

    chromium passivation on zinc; however, subsequent analysis by XPS could not confirm the presence of chromium in a hexavalent state. Conclusions Unintended oxidation of DPC induced by atmospheric corrosion is suggested as a possible reason for the false-positive reaction of the DPC test on a trivalent......A colorimetric 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC)-based spot test can be used to identify hexavalent chromium on various metallic and leather surfaces. DPC testing on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces has unexpectedly given positive results in some cases, apparently indicating the presence...... of hexavalent chromium; however, the presence of hexavalent chromium has never been confirmed with more sensitive and accurate test methods. Objectives To examine the presence of hexavalent chromium on trivalent chromium-passivated zinc surfaces with a DPC-based spot test. Methods A colorimetric DPC spot test...

  3. Brand positioning strategies : an expiremental test ot two types of benefit differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hem, Alexander Farestvedt; Teslo, Per Christian Strand

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine associative- and instrumental benefit differentiation based on secondary associations as part of brand positioning. The field of brand positioning has been subject to extensive research, however, differentiation based on secondary associations and differences between instrumental- and associative benefit differentiation has received less attention. Instrumental benefit differentiation relates to benefits that are linked directly to product performance, ...

  4. Deciding to adopt revised and new psychological and neuropsychological tests: an inter-organizational position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Shane S; Sweet, Jerry J; Bianchini, Kevin J; Johnson-Greene, Doug; Dean, Pamela M; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2018-04-01

    Neuropsychological tests undergo periodic revision intended to improve psychometric properties, normative data, relevance of stimuli, and ease of administration. In addition, new tests are developed to evaluate psychological and neuropsychological constructs, often purporting to improve evaluation effectiveness. However, there is limited professional guidance to neuropsychologists concerning the decision to adopt a revised version of a test and/or replace an older test with a new test purporting to measure the same or overlapping constructs. This paper describes ethical and professional issues related to the selection and use of older versus newer psychological and neuropsychological tests, with the goal of promoting appropriate test selection and evidence-based decision making. Ethical and professional issues were reviewed and considered. The availability of a newer version of a test does not necessarily render obsolete prior versions of the test for purposes that are empirically supported, nor should continued empirically supported use of a prior version of a test be considered unethical practice. Until a revised or new test has published evidence of improved ability to help clinicians to make diagnostic determinations, facilitate treatment, and/or assess change over time, the choice to delay adoption of revised or new tests may be viewed as reasonable and appropriate. Recommendations are offered to facilitate decisions about the adoption of revised and new tests. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of individual neuropsychologists to determine which tests best meet their patients' needs, and to be able to support their decisions with empirical evidence and sound clinical judgment.

  5. Pregnancy and Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Karen; Hunt, Beverley J

    2016-10-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is classified as the association of thrombotic events and/or obstetric morbidity in patients persistently positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). APS is also the most frequently acquired risk factor for a treatable cause of recurrent pregnancy loss and increases the risk of conditions associated with ischemic placental dysfunction, such as stillbirth, intrauterine death, preeclampsia, premature birth, and fetal growth restriction. The use of low-dose aspirin and heparin has improved the pregnancy outcome in obstetric APS and approximately 70% of pregnant women with APS will deliver a viable live infant. However, current management does not prevent all maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications of APS and the current treatment fails in 20 to 30% of APS pregnancies, raising the need to explore other treatments to improve obstetrical outcome. Two clinical studies of retrospective design have suggested that the immunomodulator hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may play a role in the prevention of pregnancy complications in women with aPL and APS. The randomized controlled multicenter trial of hydroxychloroquine versus placebo during pregnancy in women with antiphospholipid antibodies (HYPATIA) of HCQ versus placebo will provide scientific evidence on the use of HCQ in pregnant women with aPL. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Loratadine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loratadine more frequently during pregnancy. Can taking loratadine cause other pregnancy problems? Loratadine is not expected to cause other pregnancy problems. A study of 161 women taking loratadine ...

  7. Serial Learning Process: Test of Chaining, Position, and Dual-Process Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurintano, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The chaining, position, and dual-process hypotheses of serial learning (SL) as well as serial recall, reordering, and relearning of paired-associate learning were examined to establish learning patterns. Results provide evidence for dual-process hypothesis. (DS)

  8. EAACI position paper for practical patch testing in allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis Miguel; Oranje, Arnold P

    2015-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children appears to be on the increase, and contact sensitization may already begin in infancy. The diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires a careful evaluation of a patient's clinical history, physical examination, and skin testing. Patch testing is the gold standard diagnostic test. Based on consensus, the EAACI Task Force on Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Children produced this document to provide details on clinical aspects, the standardization of patch test methodology, and suggestions for future research in the field. We provide a baseline list of test allergens to be tested in children with suspected ACD. Additional tests should be performed only on specific indications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Clinical Significance of Detection of Serum TBA and ALP in Diagnosis of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Chuanzheng; Zhu Haibo; Deng jianping

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the clinical value of serum total bile acid (TBA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in diagnosis of intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), the serum levels of TBA, ALP and cholyglycine (CG) in 47 cases with intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy and 60 normal pregnant women were tested by biochemistry analysis and radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the serum levels of TBA and ALP in patients with intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy were significantly higher than that of normal pregnancy women. There was a positively correlation between TBA and ALP with CG. The combined determination of serum TBA and ALP could be useful in the diagnosis of intahrpatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Automatic biochemistry analysis of TBA and ALP is more simple and rapid than CG detected by radioimmunoassay,and it is suitable for clinical laboratory application. (authors)

  10. Effectiveness of the Positioning Statement: Experimental Test on Brand Awareness in Competitive Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barreiros Porto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Good positioning statements have an effect on consumer brand awareness. However, the competitive context formed by the novelty of the category and the brand market structure may hinder the assimilation of positioning and its association with the pre-existing image. This study assesses the effectiveness of positioning statements in the generation of brand awareness, considering its competitive context. Using an experimental design, with a group of control, the exposure of brands and their competitive contexts were manipulated and the positioning statement remained constant for a sample of consumers. The results show the positioning statement had an effect on both assimilation of the message and valence of image association, which adds awareness for the brand, but only for the traditional category. The effectiveness on the message assimilation occurred within the weak brand and within the less known median brand. For the image valence, it occurred only between the weak brand and the strong one from the traditional category. These findings are distinct among consumer segments. The research brings up a classic theme, but presents a new methodological approach to measure the effectiveness of brand positioning.

  11. Teste triplo biofísico: um novo parâmetro ultra-sonográfico para prognóstico em gestações iniciais Biophysical triple test: a new ultrasonographic parameter for prognostic evaluation in early pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim R. M. Coelho

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: atrasos no desenvolvimento do saco gestacional (SG, no tamanho do botão embrionário (CCN, assim como freqüências cardíacas embrionárias (FCE baixas podem ser considerados fatores de mau prognóstico na evolução da gestação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização destes 3 parâmetros em conjunto, o que denominamos Teste Triplo Biofísico (TTB. Metodo: foram avaliadas 35 gestações únicas provenientes de fertilização assistida por injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozóide (ICSI. Todos os exames de ultra-som foram realizados por um único examinador, após 4-5 semanas da transferência de embriões (6-7 semanas de gestação, com equipamento modelo Synergy da Diasonics, sonda transvaginal de 7,0 MHz. O SG foi medido em seu maior diâmetro transverso, o CCN foi medido no sentido sagital e a FCE pelo modo B-M e Doppler. Na análise estatística foi utilizado o teste de Fisher. Resultados: considerou-se como parâmetros alterados : SG Purpose: it has been demonstrated that delays in gestational sac development, in crown-rump length and low embryonic heart rate could be indicators of poor pregnancy outcome. The purpose was to evaluate the use of these three parameters together, which we named Biophysical Triple Test (BTT. Method: thirty-five singleton pregnancies following IVF treatment with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI were studied. All ultrasonographic scans were performed by the same examiner, 4-5 weeks after embryo transference (6-7 week gestation, using a Diasonics equipment, model Synergy, with a 7.0-MHz transvaginal transducer. The gestational sac (GS was measured at the longest transverse diameter; the crown-rump length (CRL was measured at the sagittal plan and the embryonic heart rate (EHR was calculated from frozen B and M-mode and Doppler. The statistical test used was Fisher's test. Results: the following parameters were considered abnormal: GS < 15.4 mm, CRL < 3.9 mm, EHR < 100

  12. Is self-assessment of medical abortion using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test combined with a checklist and phone text messages feasible in South African primary healthcare settings? A randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Constant

    Full Text Available To evaluate feasibility of self-assessment of medical abortion outcome using a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test, checklist and text messages. The study assessed whether accurate self-assessment required a demonstration of the low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test or if verbal instructions suffice.This non-inferiority trial enrolled 525 adult women from six public sector abortion clinics. Eligible women were undergoing medical abortion at gestations within 63 days. Consenting women completed a baseline interview, received standard care with mifepristone and home-administration of misoprostol. All were given a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test and checklist for use 14 days later, sent text reminders, and asked to attend in-clinic follow-up after two weeks. Women were randomly assigned 1:1 to an instruction-only group (n = 262; issued with pre-scripted instructions on the low-sensitivity pregnancy test, or a demonstration group (n = 263; performed practice tests guided by lay health workers. The primary outcome was accurate self-assessment of incomplete abortion, defined as needing additional misoprostol or vacuum aspiration. Analysis was by intention to treat and a non-inferiority margin was set to six percentage points. Women's acceptability of their abortion procedure and preferences for follow-up were also assessed.Follow-up was 81% for abortion outcome, confirmed in-clinic at two weeks or self-reported within six months. Non-inferiority of instruction-only to a demonstration was inconclusive for accurate self-assessment (risk difference for instruction-only -demonstration: -2.5%; 95%CI: -9% to 4%. Comparing instruction-only to demonstration groups, 99% and 100% found the pregnancy test easy to do; and 91% and 93% respectively chose the pregnancy test, checklist and text messages for abortion outcome assessment in the future.Routine self-assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test, checklist and text messages is feasible and

  13. Is self-assessment of medical abortion using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test combined with a checklist and phone text messages feasible in South African primary healthcare settings? A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Deborah; Harries, Jane; Daskilewicz, Kristen; Myer, Landon; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate feasibility of self-assessment of medical abortion outcome using a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test, checklist and text messages. The study assessed whether accurate self-assessment required a demonstration of the low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test or if verbal instructions suffice. This non-inferiority trial enrolled 525 adult women from six public sector abortion clinics. Eligible women were undergoing medical abortion at gestations within 63 days. Consenting women completed a baseline interview, received standard care with mifepristone and home-administration of misoprostol. All were given a low-sensitivity urine pregnancy test and checklist for use 14 days later, sent text reminders, and asked to attend in-clinic follow-up after two weeks. Women were randomly assigned 1:1 to an instruction-only group (n = 262; issued with pre-scripted instructions on the low-sensitivity pregnancy test), or a demonstration group (n = 263; performed practice tests guided by lay health workers). The primary outcome was accurate self-assessment of incomplete abortion, defined as needing additional misoprostol or vacuum aspiration. Analysis was by intention to treat and a non-inferiority margin was set to six percentage points. Women's acceptability of their abortion procedure and preferences for follow-up were also assessed. Follow-up was 81% for abortion outcome, confirmed in-clinic at two weeks or self-reported within six months. Non-inferiority of instruction-only to a demonstration was inconclusive for accurate self-assessment (risk difference for instruction-only -demonstration: -2.5%; 95%CI: -9% to 4%). Comparing instruction-only to demonstration groups, 99% and 100% found the pregnancy test easy to do; and 91% and 93% respectively chose the pregnancy test, checklist and text messages for abortion outcome assessment in the future. Routine self-assessment using a low-sensitivity pregnancy test, checklist and text messages is feasible and preferred by women

  14. Pregnancy and Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Karen; Hunt, Beverley J

    2016-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is classified as the association of thrombotic events and/or obstetric morbidity in patients persistently positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). APS is also the most frequently acquired risk factor for a treatable cause of recurrent pregnancy loss and incr......Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is classified as the association of thrombotic events and/or obstetric morbidity in patients persistently positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). APS is also the most frequently acquired risk factor for a treatable cause of recurrent pregnancy loss...... and increases the risk of conditions associated with ischemic placental dysfunction, such as stillbirth, intrauterine death, preeclampsia, premature birth, and fetal growth restriction. The use of low-dose aspirin and heparin has improved the pregnancy outcome in obstetric APS and approximately 70% of pregnant...... women with APS will deliver a viable live infant. However, current management does not prevent all maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications of APS and the current treatment fails in 20 to 30% of APS pregnancies, raising the need to explore other treatments to improve obstetrical outcome. Two clinical...

  15. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A; Mehta, C Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R; Golub, Elizabeth T; Fischl, Margaret A; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-02-20

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9-27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0-19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant.

  16. Pilates and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Adi

    2005-05-01

    Pregnancy is associated with a number of musculoskeletal problems. It is important to educate all mothers, as well as those involved in ante- and postnatal care with advice on bras and exercises that are safe in pregnancy (in particular pelvic floor exercises). There is not much that can be done to alter the inevitable physiological and hormonal changes of pregnancy. However, by strengthening the core stabilising muscles around the pelvis and spine, and improving the breathing pattern, it is hoped that one can optimise the body for the challenges it may face. Pilates is based on the principle that a central core is developed and then movements are introduced to challenge this core stability. This philosophy is clearly applicable in pregnancy--a significant test both mentally and physically on the mother's body. By maximising the mother's core stability before and during pregnancy, it should be possible to limit any potential harm. Returning to exercise soon after the birth is important for the mother's physical and mental wellbeing--she looks after her baby's body for nine months, who cares for hers?

  17. A test of positive affect induction for countering self-control depletion in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J

    2012-03-01

    The self-control strength model posits that exerting self-control on one task, such as resisting temptations, will deplete self-control and impair subsequent self-regulatory performance, such as controlling smoking. The current study examined interventions designed to replenish depleted self-control strength to prevent tobacco use by inducing positive affect. In a 2 × 2 design, 200 participants were randomized to either (1) resist eating from a plate of desserts (high temptation) or from a plate of raw vegetables (low temptation) and then (2) undergo a positive or neutral affect induction. Two inductions were compared (video vs. writing technique). Participants were then given a 10-min recess. Whether or not participants smoked during the recess, assessed by self-report and biochemical verification, served as the primary dependent variable. The interaction between depletion and exposure group was significant, Wald's χ² = 9.66, df = 3, p desserts, 65.5% to 85% smoked if they were in the neutral video or writing conditions versus 10.5% in the positive affect video group. Positive affect elicited with a video was able to counteract the detrimental effects of self-control depletion on smoking behavior, while writing exercises were associated with smoking. Implications for tobacco cessation intervention are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Tuberculin Skin Test result and interferon gamma response to human PPD in BCG scar positive and negative children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyahfar, Shirin; Karimi, Abdollah; Fahimzad, Alireza; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) result and interferon gamma response to human PPD (purified protein derivative), in scar positive and scar negative BCG-vaccinated children. Between August 2007 and May 2008 a total of 236 children aged 1-168 months (mean 21 months) admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Each patient was examined for BCG vaccine scar and tested with TST and human PPD-based Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA). Two hundred and twenty one cases out of 236 (44% female, 1-168 months, mean age 21 months) were scar positive of whom 95% TST result was negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 110 (49.8%), negative in 85 (38.4 %) and indeterminate in 26 (11.8%) of scar positive patients. Fifteen children (40% female, 1-156 months; mean age 42 months) were scar negative. All the scar negative cases were TST negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 10 (66.7%), negative in 4 (26.7%) and indeterminate in 1 (6.7%) of scar negative patients. Immune responsiveness to human PPD antigens in scar positive and negative children may not correspond with results of the Tuberculin Skin Test. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pregnancy after Essure placement: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, A Whitney; Burgis, Judith T; Bacon, Janice L; Risinger, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    To report two cases of pregnancy after placement of Essure micro-inserts. Case report. University-based Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Patient 1, a 38-year-old woman, presented with a positive pregnancy test 7 months after Essure hysteroscopic sterilization. Patient 2, a 35-year-old female, became pregnant approximately 1 year after undergoing the Essure procedure. Patient 1 received obstetric ultrasounds, a prophylactic cerclage, a cesarean section, and a tubal ligation. Patient 2 underwent a postprocedure hysterosalpingogram, an obstetric ultrasound, pregnancy termination, diagnostic pelvic ultrasound, and a hysterectomy. Documentation of normal progress of pregnancy after Essure placement. Patient 1 carried an uncomplicated pregnancy to term with an Essure micro-insert in place. Patient 2 became pregnant despite an hysterosalpingogram showing tubal occlusion and was ultimately found to have a micro-insert perforating the uterine wall. The presence of Essure micro-inserts in the fallopian tubes do not appear to interfere with implantation and pregnancy. Uterine perforation by an Essure micro-insert in proximity to the tubal ostia may mimic proper micro-insert placement and bilateral tubal occlusion on both hysterosalpingogram and saline infusion sonography.

  20. ST-Segment Depression in Hyperventilation Indicates a False Positive Exercise Test in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Michaelides

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP is a known cause for false positive exercise test (ET. The purpose of this study was to establish additional electrocardiographic criteria to distinguish the false positive exercise results in patients with MVP. Methods. We studied 218 consecutive patients ( years, 103 males with MVP (according to echocardiographic study, and positive treadmill ET was performed due to multiple cardiovascular risk factors or angina-like symptoms. A coronary angiography was performed to detect coronary artery disease (CAD. Results. From 218 patients, 90 (group A presented with normal coronary arteries according to the angiography (false positive ET while the rest 128 (group B presented with CAD. ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase was present in 54 patients of group A (60% while only in 14 patients of group B (11%, . Conclusions. Presence of ST-segment depression in hyperventilation phase favors a false positive ET in patients with MVP.

  1. Management of blood donors and blood donations from individuals found to have a positive direct antiglobulin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Judith L

    2012-04-01

    The medical literature is replete with articles addressing the diagnosis and management of patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). However, there is scant information addressing the management of blood donors and blood donations found to have a positive DAT. Practices vary considerably between countries and blood suppliers within countries, and there is no standardized approach to the management of these blood donors or the blood products prepared from their donations. Recent evidence from Israel suggests that the finding of a positive DAT in a blood donor may not be as benign as previously thought. Therefore, it may be prudent for blood collection agencies to periodically reexamine their approach to the management of blood donors with a positive DAT and their donations. This article reviews the available literature and explores options for the management of DAT-positive blood donors and their blood donations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  3. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  4. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, July 2017 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  5. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  6. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ... Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ...

  7. Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy has sub items, Reproductive Health & Teen Pregnancy Contraceptive Use STDs Teen Pregnancy & Childbearing Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Trends Negative Impacts Strategies & Approaches for Prevention Engaging Adolescent Males in Prevention Tips for Parents of Teens ...

  8. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum ... Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum ...

  9. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  10. Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Rheumatic Disease Pregnancy & Rheumatic Disease Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Diseases with the potential to affect ... control. What are the effects of pregnancy on rheumatic disease? The effects of pregnancy on rheumatic diseases vary ...

  11. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  12. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back Pain During ... FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during pregnancy? How ...

  13. Caffeine in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Nutrition, weight & fitness > Caffeine in pregnancy Caffeine in pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  14. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  15. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  16. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  17. Vaccinations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  18. Radiation and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  19. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  20. Mercury and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  1. Pregnancy week by week

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  2. Cystic Fibrosis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  3. Pregnancy After Age 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  4. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  5. Your Checkup Before Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  6. Syphilis in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  7. Pregnancy Complications: HELLP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  8. Common Discomforts of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  10. Getting Ready for Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  11. Listeria and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Listeria and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Listeria and Pregnancy ... Pregnancy PFS013, January 2017 PDF Format Listeria and Pregnancy Fact Sheets Food Poisoning in Pregnant Women The ...

  12. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Incomplete follow-up of positive HPV tests: overview of randomised controlled trials on primary cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, M; Lynge, E

    2010-01-01

    with follow-up in HPV-positive women and relative >/=CIN3 detection was 0.48 (P=0.33).Conclusion:There is at present scant evidence to support the view that the measured sensitivity of HPV screening is a simple reflection of compliance with follow-up. Adjustment of measured cervical intraepithelial neoplasia......Background:It has been suggested that adjustment for incomplete compliance with follow-up in women with positive human papillomavirus (HPV) tests would be appropriate for estimating the true sensitivity of cervical screening with HPV testing. We assessed the compliance and its impact on >/=CIN3...

  14. EAACI Position Paper for practical patch testing in Allergic Contact Dermatitis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2015-01-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children appears to be on the increase, and contact sensitization may already begin in infancy. The diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires a careful evaluation of a patient's clinical history, physical examination and skin testing. Patch testing is the gold...

  15. Negativity bias and task motivation: testing the effectiveness of positively versus negatively framed incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kelly; Dhar, Ravi

    2013-12-01

    People are frequently challenged by goals that demand effort and persistence. As a consequence, philosophers, psychologists, economists, and others have studied the factors that enhance task motivation. Using a sample of undergraduate students and a sample of working adults, we demonstrate that the manner in which an incentive is framed has implications for individuals' task motivation. In both samples we find that individuals are less motivated when an incentive is framed as a means to accrue a gain (positive framing) as compared with when the same incentive is framed as a means to avoid a loss (negative framing). Further, we provide evidence for the role of the negativity bias in this effect, and highlight specific populations for whom positive framing may be least motivating. Interestingly, we find that people's intuitions about when they will be more motivated show the opposite pattern, with people predicting that positively framed incentives will be more motivating than negatively framed incentives. We identify a lay belief in the positive correlation between enjoyment and task motivation as one possible factor contributing to the disparity between predicted and actual motivation as a result of the framing of the incentive. We conclude with a discussion of the managerial implications for these findings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Cuijpers, P.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal

  17. Swivel arm perimeter for visual field testing in different body positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, J; Hendrickson, P; Lietz, A; Stümpfig, D

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the influence of body position on visual field results, a 'swivel arm perimeter' was built, based on a modified Octopus 1-2-3. Here, the measuring unit was detected from the control unit and mounted on a swivel arm, allowing its movement in all directions. The first results obtained with this device have indicated that its development was worthwhile.

  18. Mechanically Evoked Torque and Electromyographic Responses During Passive Elbow Extension in Upper Limb Tension Test Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    axis during passive elbow extension. A padded shoulder block was placed superior to the subject’s acromioclavicular joint to stabilize the shoulder...girdle position. A pressure sensor was used between the padded shoulder block and the acromioclavicular joint to monitor and standardize the pressure

  19. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  20. [Pregnancy and vaccinoprevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galev, A; Nacheva, A

    2014-01-01

    Vaccinations protect woman and her fetus against different infectious diseases, but their application on pregnant should be extremely responsible. In this review I present information about some infectious diseases and vaccines during pregnancy. Women, planning to get pregnant should be advised to do serological tests in order to find out their immune status against some infections, leading to fetal congenital malformations (rubella, chicken pox, hepatitis B) and if necessary to get vaccinated at least a month before pregnancy. Despite the lack of vaccines against Cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus 19 and Toxoplasma gondii it is good to know woman's immune status against these infections in order to clarify the clinical approach in case of future contact with sick or carriers. Parvovirus 19 could cause fetal death, while CMV could be transmitted to the child. Immune women wouldn't get sick and wouldn't transmit Toxoplasmagondii to the fetus during pregnancy. Recommended vaccines before pregnancy include vaccines against flu, human papilloma virus, MMR (morbilli, measles, rubella), Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough), chicken pox. CDC-Atlanta recommends during pregnancy two vaccines--against flu, in case it wasn't done before pregnancy, and Tdap during every pregnancy between 27-th and 36-th gestation week. Whooping cough is very dangerous for the baby during the first two months after birth, while it is not yet vaccinated. From this point of view it is of best interest of the mother to have strong immunity in order to transfer antibodies during breastfeeding, as well as for the father and the rest who will take care for the newborn child to be vaccinated against whooping cough. During pregnancy vaccinations against tuberculosis, morbilli, measles, rubella, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever and chicken pox are contraindicated. In case of contact vaccinations against rabies, anthrax, small pox, poliomyelitis and yellow fever should be taken into

  1. Self-Reported HIV-Positive Status But Subsequent HIV-Negative Test Result Using Rapid Diagnostic Testing Algorithms Among Seven Sub-Saharan African Military Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report. Leidos provided support in the form of salaries for JH, BRT, AGT, MBJ and JM but did not have any...have data on a QA process. The survey used for all seven partner mili- taries was based on a standardized modular survey, which assessed HIV risk... Technical considerations Technical limitations have been shown to increase false-positive HIV test results in voluntary counseling and testing centers

  2. Body image in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltzman, Alina; Falcon, Bani; Harrison, Megan E

    2015-04-01

    To review the existing literature on body image in adolescent pregnancy and explore concepts about the relationship between the two. A systematic review. Peer-reviewed articles were identified through MEDLINE (1946-present) and PsycINFO (1806-November 2013), conducted in any setting. Pregnant and postpartum adolescents ages 13-19 y. None. The outcome measures used in the studies reviewed varied: themes from focus groups, diary entry analysis, Pregnancy and weight gain attitude scale, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Parenting stress index, Eating disorder inventory, Tennessee self concept scale. The search yielded a total of 149 studies, of which 6 were relevant to the specific topic and age group. The very limited research shows a dichotomy in body image perception during pregnancy in adolescence; some studies show an increase in body image disturbance and dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescents, and other studies reviewed found that the majority of pregnant adolescents had positive body image and positive attitudes towards weight gain. A bidirectional link between depression and negative body image in adolescent pregnancy is suggested. The current research exploring the relationshp between body image and pregnancy in adolescence is limited, both in quality and quantity. Future research is needed to evaluate longitudinal models that will better inform about potential risk factors for body dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescence, including the possible role of depression. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethics of genetic testing and research in sport: a position statement from the Australian Institute of Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Fricker, Peter A; Brown, Matthew A; Hughes, David

    2016-01-01

    As Australia's peak high-performance sport agency, the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed this position statement to address the implications of recent advances in the field of genetics and the ramifications for the health and well-being of athletes. Genetic testing has proven of value in the practice of clinical medicine. There are, however, currently no scientific grounds for the use of genetic testing for athletic performance improvement, sport selection or talent identifica...

  4. Determination of specificity and pattern of antinuclear antibodies (ana) in systemic rheumatic disease patients positive for ana testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, H.; Bashir, M.M.; Iqbal, W.

    2018-01-01

    To determine probability of finding antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) positive samples and associating ANA patterns with anti-ENA reactivities among a consecutive cohort of samples of systemic rheumatic disease patients referred for ANA testing. Study Design:Prospective cohort study. Place and Duration of Study:Immunology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2016. Methodology:All the samples referred for ANA testing with clinical suspicion of systemic rheumatic disease were included. After screening, ANA positive samples were subjected to anti-ENA antibodies testing (including anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-SCL-70 and anti-Jo-1 antibodies) and ANA pattern and titer determination. Results:Of 4,347 samples received, 397 were positive for ANA (9%). Of 397, 96 (24%) samples positive on ENA screen were tested for anti-ENA reactivity. Anti-SSA antibodies were found in 59 samples. Commonest ANA patterns were coarse and fine speckled (43 and 22 samples of 81 tested), while majority of samples carried ANA in titers of 1:40 and 1:80 (22 and 18 samples of 81 tested). No specific ANA pattern was associated with any particular anti-ENA reactivity. Conclusion:Among samples/patients referred for investigations of autoimmune disorders, probability of finding positive ANA is approximately 9%. Of these 9%, about 24% also show reactivity against ENA. Commonest ANA pattern is coarse speckled and majority of such patients carry ANA in titers ranging from 1:40 to 1:80. Commonest ENA reactivity was against SSA. (author)

  5. Preventive maintenance and load testing of fixed position cranes in support of major operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detrick, C.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper will address load testing and preventive maintenance of fixed in-place cranes in general, and maintenance and load testing of the 200 ton Polar Gantry Crane at the FFTF in particular. This paper also covers the installation of a 100-ton bridge crane in the FFTF's Reactor Service Building, as well as use of these cranes in making important lifts of FFTF equipment

  6. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnant women: cross-sectional analysis of physiological parameters throughout pregnancy and the impact of the supine position.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Rossi (Adriano); J.M.J. Cornette (Jérôme); M.R. Johnson (Mark); Y. Karamermer (Yusuf); T. Springeling (Tirza); P. Opic (Petra); A. Moelker (Adriaan); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien); R.J.M. van Geuns (Robert Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere are physiological reasons for the effects of positioning on hemodynamic variables and cardiac dimensions related to altered intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. This problem is especially evident in pregnant women due to the additional aorto-caval compression by the

  7. Public health consequences of a false-positive laboratory test result for Brucella--Florida, Georgia, and Michigan, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    Human brucellosis, a nationally notifiable disease, is uncommon in the United States. Most human cases have occurred in returned travelers or immigrants from regions where brucellosis is endemic, or were acquired domestically from eating illegally imported, unpasteurized fresh cheeses. In January 2005, a woman aged 35 years who lived in Nassau County, Florida, received a diagnosis of brucellosis, based on results of a Brucella immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) performed in a commercial laboratory using analyte specific reagents (ASRs); this diagnosis prompted an investigation of dairy products in two other states. Subsequent confirmatory antibody testing by Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT) performed at CDC on the patient's serum was negative. The case did not meet the CDC/Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' (CSTE) definition for a probable or confirmed brucellosis case, and the initial EIA result was determined to be a false positive. This report summarizes the case history, laboratory findings, and public health investigations. CDC recommends that Brucella serology testing only be performed using tests cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or validated under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and shown to reliably detect the presence of Brucella infection. Results from these tests should be considered supportive evidence for recent infection only and interpreted in the context of a clinically compatible illness and exposure history. EIA is not considered a confirmatory Brucella antibody test; positive screening test results should be confirmed by Brucella-specific agglutination (i.e., BMAT or standard tube agglutination test) methods.

  8. THE TEST PROGRAMME CONCERNING AIRCRAFT POSITIONING AND TRAFFIC MONITORING – PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk JAFERNIK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on the determination of an aircraft’s trajectory and positioning accuracy. The PPP method was applied to determine the aircraft’s position in kinematic mode for code observations in the GPS system. Computations were executed in the “PPP_KINEMTIC” software, whose source code was written using the Scilab 5.3.2 platform. The PPP_KINEMTIC software allows for the latitude coordinate to be estimated with accuracy between 1 and 6 m, the longitude coordinate to be estimated with accuracy between 0.5 and 2.5 m, and the ellipsoidal height to be estimated with accuracy between 1 and 7 m. The average value of the MRSE term equals 5 m with a magnitude between 1 and 8.5 m. In the paper, general libraries of the PPP_KINEMTIC application were presented and the PPP method was characterized too.

  9. The Test of Inaccurate Position of Renography Detector to Relative UptakeFigure and Individual Excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang-Supardiyono; Prayitno

    2000-01-01

    Accuracy of detector position toward the kidney location (preciseposition) in renography will resulting the maximum count figure, detectorposition change from the precise point (inaccurate) will decreasing the countrate. Therefore for it had been simulated the influence of count figure ofright kidney (fixed left kidney count) ± 5 % to ± 20 % to relativeuptake figure and individual excretion. Based on the calculation it was foundthat the relation of detector position ± 0.5 cm to ± 2 cm from theprecise point will have effect to relative uptake figure ± (1.25 % to 5.00%), the fixed individual excretion figure. The change is still can beaccepted because the qualitative information with 10 % accuracy is stillacceptable. (author)

  10. Test of a position-sensitive photomultiplier for fast scintillating fiber detector read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, J.; Hoffmann, B.; Luedecke, H.; Nahnhauer, R.; Pohl, M.; Roloff, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    A position-sensitive photomultiplier with 256 anode pixels has been used to read out scintillating fibers excited by light emitting diodes, electrons from a β-source and a 5 GeV electron beam. Measurements have been done within a magnetic field up to 0.6 T. Tracking and electromagnetic shower detection capabilities of a simple fiber detector have been studied. (orig.)

  11. Six movements measurement system employed for GAIA secondary mirror positioning system vacuum tests at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Garranzo García-Ibarrola, Daniel; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the optical measurement system employed to evaluate the performance of a 6 degrees of freedom (dof) positioning mechanism under cryogenic conditions is explored. The mechanism, the flight model of three translations and three rotations positioning mechanism, was developed by the Spanish company SENER (for ASTRIUM) to fulfil the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for the positioning of a secondary mirror within the GAIA Astrometric Mission. Its performance has been evaluated under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions (up to a 10-6mbar and 100K) at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA). After the description of the 'alignment tool' developed to compare a fixed reference with the optical signal corresponding to the movement under evaluation, the optical system that allows measuring the displacements and the rotations in the three space directions is reported on. Two similar bread-boards were defined and mounted for the measurements purpose, one containing two distancemeters, in order to measure the displacements through the corresponding axis, and an autocollimator in order to obtain the rotations on the plane whose normal vector is the axis mentioned before, and other one containing one distancemeter and one autocollimator. Both distancemeter and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions.

  12. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A C; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention, or a control condition. Children's acceptance by peers, their number of mutual friends, and their proximity to others were assessed annually through peer ratings. Externalizing behavior was annually rated by teachers. Reductions in children's externalizing behavior and improvements in positive peer relations were found among GBG children, as compared with control-group children. Reductions in externalizing behavior appeared to be partly mediated by the improvements in peer acceptance. This mediating role of peer acceptance was found for boys only. The results suggest that positive peer relations are not just markers, but they are environmental mediators of boys' externalizing behavior development. Implications for research and prevention are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Does Gender Influence Emotions Resulting from Positive Applause Feedback in Self-Assessment Testing? Evidence from Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Huang, Chin-Fei; Liu, Ming-Chi; Chien, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Computerized self-assessment testing can help learners reflect on learning content and can also promote their motivation toward learning. However, a positive affective state is the key to achieving these learning goals. This study aims to examine learning gains and emotional reactions resulting from receiving emotional feedback in the form of…

  14. Development of a stable positive control to be used for quality assurance of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Inge; Mens, Petra F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a simple, cheap, and stable positive control for the quality control and quality assurance (QA) of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for the diagnosis of malaria. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro culture of known parasite concentrations was dried on a

  15. False-positive cryptococcal antigen test associated with use of BBL Port-a-Cul transport vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah A; Sholtis, Mary; Parshall, Sharon; Hall, Gerri S; Procop, Gary W

    2011-02-01

    A total of 52 residual CSF and serum specimens, which were originally negative with the Cryptococcal Antigen Latex Agglutination System (CALAS), were shown to become falsely positive after placement in BBL Port-A-Cul anaerobic transport vials. This transport device, although excellent for specimen transportation for subsequent culture, should not be used if cryptococcal antigen testing is needed.

  16. False-Positive Cryptococcal Antigen Test Associated with Use of BBL Port-A-Cul Transport Vials▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Sholtis, Mary; Parshall, Sharon; Hall, Gerri S.; Procop, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 52 residual CSF and serum specimens, which were originally negative with the Cryptococcal Antigen Latex Agglutination System (CALAS), were shown to become falsely positive after placement in BBL Port-A-Cul anaerobic transport vials. This transport device, although excellent for specimen transportation for subsequent culture, should not be used if cryptococcal antigen testing is needed. PMID:21159939

  17. "Familias: Preparando La Nueva Generación": A Randomized Control Trial Testing the Effects on Positive Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Williams, Lela Rankin; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Booth, Jaime M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports the effects of a culturally grounded parenting intervention to strengthen positive parenting practices. Method: The intervention was designed and tested with primarily Mexican origin parents in a large urban setting of the southwestern United States using an ecodevelopmental approach. Parents (N = 393) were…

  18. Prevalence of Celiac Disease and its Effects on Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the coeliac disease(CD symptoms is infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we are not cognizant of any CD reports in pregnancy in Iran. Therefore, this study aims to prospectively estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed CD in a population of pregnant women as well as its complications in pregnancy. Methods: 796 pregnant women with mean age of 26 years(SD= 26 and mean pregnancy duration of 5.4 months participated in this descriptive study from 2007 to 2008. Total IgA test and antitissue transglutaminase(tTGA antibodies were measured. Those with positive TGA underwent histological biopsy specimens according to modified Marsh classification. Results: A positive CD serology for tTGA was obderved in 17(2.1% out of 796 pregnant women. Out of the 17 seropositive patients, 10 had abnormal histology compatible with CD(Marsh I-IIIc symptoms. Two pregnant women had already experienced miscarriage. Moreover, 3 patients had born low birth weight babies. Conclusion: In this study, there was no significant relationship between CD and high incidence of adverse outcomes. Overall, 1 out of 66 pregnant women(1.5% rate of prevalence suffered from CD. Celiac disease shows different severity in different individuals. In other words, not every celiac patient is at high risk for its complications. This may propose that gluten free diet could be avoided in the patients who have a normal pregnancy

  19. PREGNANCY DERMATOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Priscilla Katta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pregnancy is a physiological status of a woman. Every organ is adapting in order to accept another human body. The main changes occur in the endocrine, immune, metabolic and vascular systems. The skin is no exception. Many skin changes during pregnancy are considered to be normal or physiological including striae gravidarum or melasma. These physiological skin changes are usually well tolerated by the pregnant woman. There is no balance between these systems, however, and abnormalities can appear. Immunologic status of the woman plays an important role in the manifestations exhibited in the skin. Alterations of the skin during pregnancy can be classified as physiologic skin changes, changes in pre-existing skin diseases and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 200 pregnant women with skin manifestations attending Dermatology and Obstetric departments attached to Government General Hospital, Kurnool, were studied. 1. A detailed proforma was taken, which included: a. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. b. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. c. Complete general physical and systemic examination. d. Associated skin/medical disorders. 2. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBsAg, VDRL, HIV 1 and 2 were done routinely. 3. KOH mount, saline mount and skin biopsy performed wherever required. Inclusion criteria- All pregnant women having skin lesions were included in the study irrespective of the duration of pregnancy and gravidity. Exclusion criteria- Pregnant women having any underlying medical diseases. All pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted into wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at KIMS Hospital are studied. 1. Detailed history including chief complaints related to skin. 2. Onset in relation to duration of pregnancy. 3. Complete general physical and systemic examination. 4. Associated skin/medical disorders. 5. Investigations-CBP, CUE, RBS, LFT, HBs

  20. Reactivation of tuberculosis during immunosuppressive treatment in a patient with a positive QuantiFERON-RD1 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denma