WorldWideScience

Sample records for positive potential shifted

  1. Pressure-induced basilar membrane position shifts and the stimulus-evoked potentials in the low-frequency region of the guinea pig cochlea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fridberger, A; vanMaarseveen, JTPW; Scarfone, E; Ulfendahl, M; Flock, B; Flock, A

    1997-01-01

    We have used the guinea pig isolated temporal bone preparation to investigate changes in the nonlinear properties of the tone-evoked cochlear potentials during reversible step displacements of the basilar membrane towards either the scala tympani or the scala vestibuli. The position shifts were

  2. Anomalous positive flatband voltage shifts in metal gate stacks containing rare-earth oxide capping layers

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wang, H.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    measure a ∼350 mV negative shift with the Si overlayer present and a ∼110 mV positive shift with the Si overlayer removed. This effect is correlated to a positive change in the average electrostatic potential at the TaN/dielectric interface which

  3. Ontogenetic shifts of heart position in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Lillywhite, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    Heart position relative to total body length (TL) varies among snakes, with anterior hearts in arboreal species and more centrally located hearts in aquatic or ground-dwelling species. Anterior hearts decrease the cardiac work associated with cranial blood flow and minimize drops in cranial pressure and flow during head-up climbing. Here, we investigate whether heart position shifts intraspecifically during ontogenetic increases in TL. Insular Florida cottonmouth snakes, Agkistrodon conanti, are entirely ground-dwelling and have a mean heart position that is 33.32% TL from the head. In contrast, arboreal rat snakes, Pantherophis obsoleta, of similar lengths have a mean heart position that is 17.35% TL from the head. In both species, relative heart position shifts craniad during ontogeny, with negative slopes = -.035 and -.021% TL/cm TL in Agkistrodon and Pantherophis, respectively. Using a large morphometric data set available for Agkistrodon (N = 192 individuals, 23-140 cm TL), we demonstrate there is an anterior ontogenetic shift of the heart position within the trunk (= 4.56% trunk length from base of head to cloacal vent), independent of head and tail allometry which are both negative. However, in longer snakes > 100 cm, the heart position reverses and shifts caudally in longer Agkistrodon but continues toward the head in longer individuals of Pantherophis. Examination of data sets for two independent lineages of fully marine snakes (Acrochordus granulatus and Hydrophis platurus), which do not naturally experience postural gravity stress, demonstrate both ontogenetic patterns for heart position that are seen in the terrestrial snakes. The anterior migration of the heart is greater in the terrestrial species, even if TL is standardized to that of the longer P. obsoleta, and compensates for about 5 mmHg gravitational pressure head if they are fully upright. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Positional shifting of HRCT findings in patients with pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sun; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Seo, Heung Suk; Lee, Seung Rho; Hahm, Chang Kok

    2001-01-01

    To assess the value of positional shifting to a gravity-dependent area, as revealed by HRCT, in differentiating pulmonary edema (PE) from other conditions. Sixteen consecutive patients in whom plain radiographs suggested the presence of pulmonary edema but the clinical findings were indefinite underwent HRCT of the lung. For initial scanning they were in the supine position, and then in the prone position. Findings of ground-glass opacity, interlobular septal thickening and peribronchovascular interistitial thickening were analyzed in terms of the presence and degree of shifting to a gravity-dependent area, a grade of high, intermediate or low being assigned. PE was diagnosed in 8 of 16 cases, the remainder being designated as non-pulmonary edema (NPE). Ground-glass opacity was observed in all 16, while the degree of positional shifting was found to be high in ten (PE:NPE=6:4), intermediate in four (PE:NPE=2:2), and low in two (PE:NPE=0:2). There was no significant difference between the two groups (ρ > 0.05). Interlobular septal thickening was observed in all but two NPE cases; the degree of shifting was high in six (PE:NPE=6:0), intermediate in one (PE), and low in seven (PE:NPE=1:6). Shifting was significantly more prominent in PE than in NPE case (ρ <0.05). Peribronchovascular interstitial thickening was positive in all PE cases and one NPE case, with no positional shifting. Positional shifting of interlobular septal thickening to a gravity-dependent area, as demonstrated by HRCT, is the most specific indicator of pulmonary edema

  5. Experience with the shift technical advisor position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melber, B.D.; Olson, J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Winges, L.

    1984-03-01

    The provision of engineering expertise on shift at commercial nuclear power plants has mainly taken the form of the Shift Technical Advisor (STA). This person, acting in a capacity that is part engineer and part operator, is expected to advise the operations crew in the event of an emergency and review plant operating experience during normal circumstances. The position was mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission following the incident at Three Mile Island. This report expands on a growing body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of the STA. The new data presented here come from interviews with plant personnel and utility officials from nine sites. Researchers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) interviewed plant personnel, including the STA and immediate management, the shift supervisor and management, the training department, and ancillary staff, all of whom affect the intended performance of the STA. The conclusions of the report are that the design of the STA position results in limited contribution during emergencies; more comprehensive ways should be sought to provide the variety and specificity of engineering expertise needed during such times

  6. Experience with the shift technical advisor position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.D.; Olson, J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Winges, L.

    1984-03-01

    The provision of engineering expertise on shift at commercial nuclear power plants has mainly taken the form of the Shift Technical Advisor (STA). This person, acting in a capacity that is part engineer and part operator, is expected to advise the operations crew in the event of an emergency and review plant operating experience during normal circumstances. The position was mandated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission following the incident at Three Mile Island. This report expands on a growing body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of the STA. The new data presented here come from interviews with plant personnel and utility officials from nine sites. Researchers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) interviewed plant personnel, including the STA and immediate management, the shift supervisor and management, the training department, and ancillary staff, all of whom affect the intended performance of the STA. The conclusions of the report are that the design of the STA position results in limited contribution during emergencies; more comprehensive ways should be sought to provide the variety and specificity of engineering expertise needed during such times.

  7. Anomalous positive flatband voltage shifts in metal gate stacks containing rare-earth oxide capping layers

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.

    2012-03-09

    It is shown that the well-known negative flatband voltage (VFB) shift, induced by rare-earth oxide capping in metal gate stacks, can be completely reversed in the absence of the silicon overlayer. Using TaN metal gates and Gd2O3-doped dielectric, we measure a ∼350 mV negative shift with the Si overlayer present and a ∼110 mV positive shift with the Si overlayer removed. This effect is correlated to a positive change in the average electrostatic potential at the TaN/dielectric interface which originates from an interfacial dipole. The dipole is created by the replacement of interfacial oxygen atoms in the HfO2 lattice with nitrogen atoms from TaN.

  8. Ontogenetic shifts and spatial associations in organ positions for snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gretchen E; Secor, Stephen M

    2015-12-01

    Snakes possess an elongated body form and serial placement of organs which provides the opportunity to explore historic and adaptive mechanisms of organ position. We examined the influence of body size and sex on the position of, and spatial associations between, the heart, liver, small intestine, and right kidney for ten phylogenetically diverse species of snakes that vary in body shape and habitat. Snake snout-vent length explained much of the variation in the position of these four organs. For all ten species, the position of the heart and liver relative to snout-vent length decreased as a function of size. As body size increased from neonate to adult, these two organs shifted anteriorly an average of 4.7% and 5.7% of snout-vent length, respectively. Similarly, the small intestine and right kidney shifted anteriorly with an increase in snout-vent length for seven and five of the species, respectively. The absolute and relative positioning of these organs did not differ between male and female Burmese pythons (Python molurus). However, for diamondback water snakes (Nerodia rhombifer), the liver and small intestine were more anteriorly positioned in females as compared to males, whereas the right kidney was positioned more anteriorly for males. Correlations of residuals of organ position (deviation from predicted position) demonstrated significant spatial associations between organs for nine of the ten species. For seven species, individuals with hearts more anterior (or posterior) than predicted also tended to possess livers that were similarly anteriorly (or posteriorly) placed. Positive associations between liver and small intestine positions and between small intestine and right kidney positions were observed for six species, while spatial associations between the heart and small intestine, heart and right kidney, and liver and right kidney were observed in three or four species. This study demonstrates that size, sex, and spatial associations may have

  9. Positive attitudinal shifts with the Physics by Inquiry curriculum across multiple implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A. Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent publications have documented positive attitudinal shifts on the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS among students enrolled in courses with an explicit epistemological focus. We now report positive attitudinal shifts in classes using the Physics by Inquiry (PbI curriculum, which has only an implicit focus on student epistemologies and nature of science issues. These positive shifts have occurred in several different implementations of the curriculum, across multiple institutions and multiple semesters. In many classes, students experienced significant attitudinal shifts in the problem-solving categories of the CLASS, despite the conceptual focus of most PbI courses.

  10. Perihelium shifts in central potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, A.E.A.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Motivated by the rigorous results on level ordering for arbitrary central potentials recently derived in the literature a classical treatment of the perihelium shifts is presented, based on the consideration of those orbits which lie in the vicinity of a circular orbit. The role played by the Laplacian of the potential is emphasized. By the same approach Bertrand's theorem is also discussed, in connection with Arnold's proof. (Author) [pt

  11. Transformation of Image Positions, Rotations, and Sizes into Shift Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Jensen, A.; Lindvold, L.; Rasmussen, E.

    1987-01-01

    An optical image processing system is described that converts orientation and size to shift properties and simultaneously preserves the positional information as a shift. The system is described analytically and experimentally. The transformed image can be processed further with a classical...... correlator working with a rotational and size-invariant. multiplexed match filter. An optical robot vision system designed on this concept would be able to look at several objects simultaneously and determine their shape, size, orientation, and position with two measurements on the input scene at different...

  12. Body position-dependent shift in odor percept present only for perithreshold odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johan N; Boyle, Julie A; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a supine position causes a decrease in olfactory sensitivity compared with an upright position. We pursued that initial finding in 3 separate experiments in which we explored the extent of, and mechanism underlying, this phenomenon. In Experiment 1, we replicated the decrease in olfactory sensitivity when in a supine compared with an upright position. In Experiment 2, we measured body position-dependent shifts in physiological variables and sniff measures while smelling suprathreshold odorants and performing a perithreshold odor intensity discrimination task. Olfactory performances were reduced while supine. However, no relationships between the shift in olfactory performances and either the physiological variables or sniff measures were found. In Experiment 3, we determined that there were no position-dependent shifts in ability to discriminate or identify suprathreshold odors or rate them for pleasantness, intensity, or familiarity. However, a drop in scores was observed, and performance was slowed, on a cognitive skill while supine. These results demonstrate a body position-dependent shift in olfactory sensitivity only for perithreshold odors that appears to be mediated by cognitive rather than physiological factors. Implications for olfactory imaging studies are discussed.

  13. Level shifts induced by a short-range potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnakov, B.M.; Mur, V.D.

    1984-01-01

    Formulas are derived which express the shifts of levels with energies Esub(n)sup((0)) << rsub(c)sup(-2) in a field Vsub(f)(r) induced by a short-range potential U(r) of radius rsub(c) in terms of the low energy scattering parameters (scattering length and effective radius) with a moment l in the potential. If the interaction between the particle and center is nonresonant, the method developed is identical to perturbation theory on the scattering length. The theory is extended to systems with random degeneracy (Vsub(f) is the Coulomb potential). Formulas describing quasi-intersection of terms are obtained for the case of resonance interaction with the center in a partial wave with l not equal to 0 when energetically close levels are present in both U and Vsub(f). Some features of the level shift are mentioned for the case when the level possesses an anomalously small coupling energy and its coresponding wave function becomes delocalized with decrease of the coupling energy to zero. The problem is discussed of the level shift when the potential Vsub(f) is a potential well surrounded by a weaklyt penetrable barrier. Some applications of the theory to a particle in the field of two short-range potentials or in the field of a short-range and Coulomb centers are considered. Formulas are also obtained for the shifts and widths of the Landau levels and of the shallow level with an arbitrary moment which perturbs the Landau levels

  14. The impact of shifting vantage perspective when recalling and imagining positive events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Nicholas C; Moulds, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    The vantage perspective from which memories are recalled influences their emotional impact. To date, however, the impact of vantage perspective on the emotions elicited by positive memories and images of positive future events has been minimally explored. We experimentally manipulated the vantage perspective from which a sample of undergraduate students (n =80) recalled positive memories and imagined positive future events. Participants who naturally recalled their positive memories from a field perspective reported decreased vividness and positive affect (i.e., happiness, optimism, hopefulness) when they were instructed to shift to an observer perspective. The same pattern of emotionality ratings was observed when participants' vantage perspective of imagined future events was manipulated. In contrast, shifting participants from observer to field perspective recall of positive memories did not result in changes in ratings of memory-related emotion, although we found an unexpected trend towards reduced vividness. For positive future events, shifting from an observer to a field perspective resulted in decreased vividness but did not lead to any changes in positive emotion. Our findings confirm that vantage perspective plays a key role in determining the emotional impact of positive memories, and demonstrate that this relationship is also evident for images of future positive events.

  15. Methodology to reduce 6D patient positional shifts into a 3D linear shift and its verification in frameless stereotactic radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Ray, Jyotirmoy; Ganesh, Tharmarnadar; Manikandan, Arjunan; Munshi, Anusheel; Rathinamuthu, Sasikumar; Kaur, Harpreet; Anbazhagan, Satheeshkumar; Giri, Upendra K.; Roy, Soumya; Jassal, Kanan; Kalyan Mohanti, Bidhu

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this article is to derive and verify a mathematical formulation for the reduction of the six-dimensional (6D) positional inaccuracies of patients (lateral, longitudinal, vertical, pitch, roll and yaw) to three-dimensional (3D) linear shifts. The formulation was mathematically and experimentally tested and verified for 169 stereotactic radiotherapy patients. The mathematical verification involves the comparison of any (one) of the calculated rotational coordinates with the corresponding value from the 6D shifts obtained by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The experimental verification involves three sets of measurements using an ArcCHECK phantom, when (i) the phantom was not moved (neutral position: 0MES), (ii) the position of the phantom shifted by 6D shifts obtained from CBCT (6DMES) from neutral position and (iii) the phantom shifted from its neutral position by 3D shifts reduced from 6D shifts (3DMES). Dose volume histogram and statistical comparisons were made between ≤ft and ≤ft . The mathematical verification was performed by a comparison of the calculated and measured yaw (γ°) rotation values, which gave a straight line, Y  =  1X with a goodness of fit as R 2  =  0.9982. The verification, based on measurements, gave a planning target volume receiving 100% of the dose (V100%) as 99.1  ±  1.9%, 96.3  ±  1.8%, 74.3  ±  1.9% and 72.6  ±  2.8% for the calculated treatment planning system values TPSCAL, 0MES, 3DMES and 6DMES, respectively. The statistical significance (p-values: paired sample t-test) of V100% were found to be 0.03 for the paired sample ≤ft and 0.01 for ≤ft . In this paper, a mathematical method to reduce 6D shifts to 3D shifts is presented. The mathematical method is verified by using well-matched values between the measured and calculated γ°. Measurements done on the ArcCHECK phantom also proved that the proposed methodology is correct. The post-correction of the

  16. Shifted one-parameter supersymmetric family of quartic asymmetric double-well potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, Haret C.; Mancas, Stefan C.; Chen, Pisin

    2014-01-01

    Extending our previous work (Rosu, 2014), we define supersymmetric partner potentials through a particular Riccati solution of the form F(x)=(x−c) 2 −1, where c is a real shift parameter, and work out the quartic double-well family of one-parameter isospectral potentials obtained by using the corresponding general Riccati solution. For these parametric double well potentials, we study how the localization properties of the two wells depend on the parameter of the potentials for various values of the shifting parameter. We also consider the supersymmetric parametric family of the first double-well potential in the Razavy chain of double well potentials corresponding to F(x)=1/2 sinh2x−2((1+√(2))sinh2x)/((1+√(2))cosh2x+1) , both unshifted and shifted, to test and compare the localization properties. - Highlights: • Quartic one-parameter DWs with an additional shift parameter are introduced. • Anomalous localization feature of their zero modes is confirmed at different shifts. • Razavy one-parameter DWs are also introduced and shown not to have this feature

  17. Shifted one-parameter supersymmetric family of quartic asymmetric double-well potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICYT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, S.L.P. (Mexico); Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: mancass@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Chen, Pisin, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA) and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Extending our previous work (Rosu, 2014), we define supersymmetric partner potentials through a particular Riccati solution of the form F(x)=(x−c){sup 2}−1, where c is a real shift parameter, and work out the quartic double-well family of one-parameter isospectral potentials obtained by using the corresponding general Riccati solution. For these parametric double well potentials, we study how the localization properties of the two wells depend on the parameter of the potentials for various values of the shifting parameter. We also consider the supersymmetric parametric family of the first double-well potential in the Razavy chain of double well potentials corresponding to F(x)=1/2 sinh2x−2((1+√(2))sinh2x)/((1+√(2))cosh2x+1) , both unshifted and shifted, to test and compare the localization properties. - Highlights: • Quartic one-parameter DWs with an additional shift parameter are introduced. • Anomalous localization feature of their zero modes is confirmed at different shifts. • Razavy one-parameter DWs are also introduced and shown not to have this feature.

  18. Motivational intensity modulates the effects of positive emotions on set shifting after controlling physiological arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya; Siu, Angela F Y

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the construct of emotion suggests the integration of a motivational dimension into the traditional two-dimension (subjective valence and physiological arousal) model. The motivational intensity of an emotional state should be taken into account while investigating the emotion-cognition relationship. This study examined how positive emotional states varying in motivational intensity influenced set shifting, after controlling the potential confounding impacts of physiological arousal. In Experiment 1, 155 volunteers performed a set-shifting task after being randomly assigned to five states: high- vs. low-motivating positive affect (interest vs. serenity), high- vs. low-motivating negative affect (disgust vs. anxiety), and neutral state. Eighty-five volunteers participated in Experiment 2, which further examined the effects of higher vs. lower degree of interest. Both experiments measured and compared participants' physiological arousal (blood pressure and pulse rate) under the normal and experimental conditions as the covariate. Results showed no difference in switching performance between the neutral and serenity groups. As compared with the neutral state, the high-motivating positive affect significantly increased set-switching reaction time costs, but reduced error rate costs; the higher the motivational intensity, the greater the time-costs impairment. This indicates a role of the high-motivating positive affect in regulating the balance between the flexible and stable cognitive control. Motivational intensity also modulated the effects of negative emotional states, i.e., disgust caused a larger increase in time costs than anxiety. Further exploration into neurobiological mechanisms that may mediate the emotional effects on set shifting is warranted. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Positive XPS binding energy shift of supported Cu{sub N}-clusters governed by initial state effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, S.; Peredkov, S. [Technische Universität Berlin, IOAP, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Al-Hada, M. [Department of Physics, College of Education and Linguistics, University of Amran (Yemen); Neeb, M., E-mail: matthias.neeb@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Wilhelm-Conrad-Röntgen-Campus Adlershof, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Eberhardt, W. [Technische Universität Berlin, IOAP, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); DESY, Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Size dependent initial and final state effects of mass-selected deposited clusters. • Initial state effect dominates positive XPS shift in supported Cu-clusters. • Size dependent Coulomb correlation shift in the Auger final state of Cu cluster. • Size-dependent Auger parameter analysis. • Positive XPS shift differs from negative surface core level shift in crystalline copper. - Abstract: An initial state effect is established as origin for the positive 2p core electron binding energy shift found for Cu{sub N}-clusters supported by a thin silica layer of a p-doped Si(1 0 0) wafer. Using the concept of the Auger parameter and taking into account the usually neglected Coulomb correlation shift in the Auger final state (M{sub 4,5}M{sub 4,5}) it is shown that the initial state shift is comparable to the measured XPS shift while the final state relaxation shift contributes only marginally to the binding energy shift. The cluster results differ from the negative surface core-level shift of crystalline copper which has been explained in terms of a final state relaxation effect.

  20. New type shift operators for circular well potential in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guohua; Dong Shihai

    2010-01-01

    New type shift operators for circular well potential in two dimensions are identified. These so-called shift operators connect those quantum systems with the different potentials but with same energy spectrum. It should be noted that these operators depend on both the radial circular and angular variables r and φ. We find that the operators P ± =P x ±P y play the role of the shift operators. The radial linear momentum P r =-ih(∂)/(∂r) , the angular momentum L z =-ih(∂)/(∂φ) and the Hamiltonian form a complete set of commuting operators with the SO(2) symmetry.

  1. S-Matrix to potential inversion of low-energy α-12C phase shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S. G.; Mackintosh, R. S.

    1990-10-01

    The IP S-matrix to potential inversion procedure is applied to phase shifts for selected partial waves over a range of energies below the inelastic threshold for α-12C scattering. The phase shifts were determined by Plaga et al. Potentials found by Buck and Rubio to fit the low-energy alpha cluster resonances need only an increased attraction in the surface to accurately reproduce the phase-shift behaviour. Substantial differences between the potentials for odd and even partial waves are necessary. The surface tail of the potential is postulated to be a threshold effect.

  2. Bounds for phase-shifts and deductions in potential scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidharth, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    Starting from the radial Schroedinger equation and using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, expressions have been derived for bounds for phase-shifts in potential scattering and the deductions are verified in special cases such as the spherically symmetric square-well potential, where exact solutions are already known. (K.B.)

  3. Rainbow-shift mechanism behind discrete optical-potential ambiguities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandan, M.E.; McVoy, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Some years ago, Drisko et al. suggested that the discrete ambiguity often encountered for elastic scattering optical potentials could be understood as being due to the interior or small-l S-matrix elements for two ''equivalent'' potentials differing in phase by 2π, l-by-l. We point out that the absence of this phase change for peripheral partial waves is equally essential, and suggest that a deeper understanding of the ambiguity may be achieved by viewing it as a consequence of a farside interference between interior and peripheral partial waves. It is this interference which produces the broad ''Airy maxima'' of a nuclear rainbow, and we show that a Drisko-type phase-shift increment δ l →(δ l +π) for low-l phases relative to the high-l ones is exactly what is needed to shift a farside rainbow pattern by one Airy maximum, thus providing an equivalent ''rainbow-shift'' interpretation of the discrete ambiguity. The physical importance of both interpretations lies in the fact that the existence of discrete ambiguities (as well as of nuclear rainbows) is explicit evidence for low-l transparency in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The essential role played by low partial waves explains why peripheral reactions have generally not proven helpful in resolving this ambiguity

  4. Nuclear power plant shift technical advisor. Recommendations for position description, qualifications, education and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the position and identify specific areas of formal education, plant-specific training and experience necessary to assure an advanced level of analytical ability on shift. These recommendations will provide a level of technical ability that is essential to improved operational safety and are consistent with regulatory requirements. This position was developed in conjunction with representatives of utilities, equipment vendors and engineering educators, giving consideration to specific contributions the function must make to shift operations

  5. Scheduling Aircraft Landings under Constrained Position Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Chandran, Bala

    2006-01-01

    Optimal scheduling of airport runway operations can play an important role in improving the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Methods that compute the optimal landing sequence and landing times of aircraft must accommodate practical issues that affect the implementation of the schedule. One such practical consideration, known as Constrained Position Shifting (CPS), is the restriction that each aircraft must land within a pre-specified number of positions of its place in the First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) sequence. We consider the problem of scheduling landings of aircraft in a CPS environment in order to maximize runway throughput (minimize the completion time of the landing sequence), subject to operational constraints such as FAA-specified minimum inter-arrival spacing restrictions, precedence relationships among aircraft that arise either from airline preferences or air traffic control procedures that prevent overtaking, and time windows (representing possible control actions) during which each aircraft landing can occur. We present a Dynamic Programming-based approach that scales linearly in the number of aircraft, and describe our computational experience with a prototype implementation on realistic data for Denver International Airport.

  6. Nucleon-Nucleon Potentials and Computation of Scattering Phase Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhasaketan Bhoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By judicious exploitation of supersymmetry formalism of quantum mechanics higher partial wave nucleon-nucleon potentials are generated from its ground state interactions. The nuclear Hulthen potential and the corresponding ground state wave function with the parameters of Arnold and MacKellar are used as the starting point of our calculation. We compute the scattering phase shifts for our constructed potentials through Phase Function Method to examine the merit of our approach to the problem.

  7. S-matrix to potential inversion of low-energy. alpha. - sup 12 C phase shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S.G.; Mackintosh, R.S. (Open Univ., Milton Keynes (UK). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-10-22

    The IP S-matrix to potential inversion procedure is applied to phase shifts for selected partial waves over a range of energies below the inelastic threshold for {alpha}-{sup 12}C scattering. The phase shifts were determined by Plaga et al. Potentials found by Buck and Rubio to fit the low-energy alpha cluster resonances need only an increased attraction in the surface to accurately reproduce the phase-shift behaviour. Substantial differences between the potentials for odd and even partial waves are necessary. The surface tail of the potential is postulated to be a threshold effect. (orig.).

  8. Surface potential measurement of insulators in negative-ion implantation by secondary electron energy-peak shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagumo, Shoji; Toyota, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki; Tanjyo, Masayasu; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1993-01-01

    Negative-ion implantation is expected to realize charge-up free implantation. In this article, about a way to specify surface potential of negative-ion implanted insulator by secondary-electron-energy distribution, its principle and preliminary experimental results are described. By a measuring system with retarding field type energy analyzer, energy distribution of secondary electron from insulator of Fused Quartz in negative-carbon-ion implantation was measured. As a result the peak-shift of its energy distribution resulted according with the surface potential of insulator. It was found that surface potential of insulator is negatively charged by only several volts. Thus, negative-ion implanted insulator reduced its surface charge-up potential (without any electron supply). Therefore negative-ion implantation is considered to be much more effective method than conventional positive-ion implantation. (author)

  9. Large Positive and Negative Lateral Shifts from an Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab Backed by a Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Cheng; Rong, Chen

    2009-01-01

    The lateral shift of a light beam at the surface of an anisotropic metamaterial (AMM) slab backed by a metal is investigated. Analytical expressions of the lateral shifts are derived using the stationary-phase method, in the case that total refection does and does not occur at the first interface. The sign of the lateral shift in two situations is discussed, and the necessary conditions for the lateral shift to be positive or negative are given. It is shown that the thickness and physical parameters of the AMM slab and the incident angle of the light beam strongly affect the properties of the lateral shift. Numerical results validate these conclusions. The lossy effect of the metamaterial on the lateral shift is also investigated

  10. Researcher-researched relationship in qualitative research: Shifts in positions and researcher vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råheim, Målfrid; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Lunde, Åshild; Jacobsen, Torild; Blystad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The researcher role is highly debated in qualitative research. This article concerns the researcher-researched relationship. A group of health science researchers anchored in various qualitative research traditions gathered in reflective group discussions over a period of two years. Efforts to establish an anti-authoritarian relationship between researcher and researched, negotiation of who actually "rules" the research agenda, and experiences of shifts in "inferior" and "superior" knowledge positions emerged as central and intertwined themes throughout the discussions. The dual role as both insider and outsider, characteristic of qualitative approaches, seemed to lead to power relations and researcher vulnerability which manifested in tangible ways. Shifting positions and vulnerability surfaced in various ways in the projects. They nonetheless indicated a number of similar experiences which can shed light on the researcher-researched relationship. These issues could benefit from further discussion in the qualitative health research literature.

  11. Determination of the positions and residues of the. delta. /sup + +/ and. delta. /sup 0/ poles. [Phase shifts,coulomb corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasan, S S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1976-04-19

    The poles and the associated residues in the ..pi..N P/sub 33/ amplitude corresponding to the resonances ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ are determined by fitting the ..pi../sup +/p and ..pi../sup -/p hadronic phase shifts from the Carter 73 analysis. The ..delta../sup + +/ and ..delta../sup 0/ pole positions are determined also from the nuclear phase shifts, these being the phase shifts made up of the hadronic phase shifts plus the Coulomb corrections. The pole positions obtained from the two sets of phase shifts are different, the differences being larger in the case of the ..delta../sup + +/.

  12. Do phase-shift analyses and nucleon-nucleon potential models yield the wrong 3Pj phase shifts at low energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Witala, H.; Kievsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    The 4 P J waves in nucleon-deuteron scattering were analyzed using proton-deuteron and neutron-deuteron data at E N =3 MeV. New sets of nucleon-nucleon 3 P j phase shifts were obtained that may lead to a better understanding of the long-standing A y (θ) puzzle in nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering. However, these sets of 3 P j phase shifts are quite different from the ones determined from both global phase-shift analyses of nucleon-nucleon data and nucleon-nucleon potential models. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  13. Phenomenological study on the significance of the scalar potential and Lamb shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xuhao; Li Xueqian; Ke Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    We indicated in our previous work that for QED the contributions of the scalar potential, which appears at the loop level, is much smaller than that of the vector potential, and in fact negligible. But the situation may be different for QCD, the reason being that the loop effects are more significant because α s is much larger than α, and secondly the non-perturbative QCD effects may induce the scalar potential. In this work, we phenomenologically study the contribution of the scalar potential to the spectra of charmonium. Taking into account both vector and scalar potentials, by fitting the well measured charmonium spectra, we re-fix the relevant parameters and test them by calculating other states of the charmonium family. We also consider the role of the Lamb shift and present the numerical results with and without involving the Lamb shift. (authors)

  14. Load shift potential of electric vehicles in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babrowski, Sonja; Heinrichs, Heidi; Jochem, Patrick; Fichtner, Wolf

    2014-06-01

    Many governments highly encourage electric mobility today, aiming at a high market penetration. This development would bring forth an impact on the energy system, which strongly depends on the driving and charging behavior of the users. While an uncontrolled immediate charging might strain the local grid and/or higher peak loads, there are benefits to be gained by a controlled charging. We examine six European mobility studies in order to display the effects of controlled and uncontrolled unidirectional charging. Taking into account country-specific driving patterns, we generate for each country a charging load curve corresponding to uncontrolled charging and consider the corresponding parking time at charging facilities in order to identify load shift potentials. The main results are that besides the charging power of the vehicles, the possibility to charge at the work place has a significant influence on the uncontrolled charging curve. Neither national nor regional differences are as significant. When charging is only possible at home, the vehicle availability at charging facilities during the day for all countries is at least 24%. With the additional possibility to charge at work, at least 45% are constantly available. Accordingly, we identified a big potential for load shifting through controlled charging.

  15. Unraveling mysteries of personal performance style; biomechanics of left-hand position changes (shifting) in violin performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Peter; Li, Shiming; Tardif, Guillaume; Shan, Gongbing

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music performance ranks among the most complex of learned human behaviors, requiring development of highly nuanced powers of sensory and neural discrimination, intricate motor skills, and adaptive abilities in a temporal activity. Teaching, learning and performing on the violin generally occur within musico-cultural parameters most often transmitted through aural traditions that include both verbal instruction and performance modeling. In most parts of the world, violin is taught in a manner virtually indistinguishable from that used 200 years ago. The current study uses methods from movement science to examine the "how" and "what" of left-hand position changes (shifting), a movement skill essential during violin performance. In doing so, it begins a discussion of artistic individualization in terms of anthropometry, the performer-instrument interface, and the strategic use of motor behaviors. Results based on 540 shifting samples, a case series of 6 professional-level violinists, showed that some elements of the skill were individualized in surprising ways while others were explainable by anthropometry, ergonomics and entrainment. Remarkably, results demonstrated each violinist to have developed an individualized pacing for shifts, a feature that should influence timing effects and prove foundational to aesthetic outcomes during performance. Such results underpin the potential for scientific methodologies to unravel mysteries of performance that are associated with a performer's personal artistic style.

  16. Unraveling mysteries of personal performance style; biomechanics of left-hand position changes (shifting in violin performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Visentin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental music performance ranks among the most complex of learned human behaviors, requiring development of highly nuanced powers of sensory and neural discrimination, intricate motor skills, and adaptive abilities in a temporal activity. Teaching, learning and performing on the violin generally occur within musico-cultural parameters most often transmitted through aural traditions that include both verbal instruction and performance modeling. In most parts of the world, violin is taught in a manner virtually indistinguishable from that used 200 years ago. The current study uses methods from movement science to examine the “how” and “what” of left-hand position changes (shifting, a movement skill essential during violin performance. In doing so, it begins a discussion of artistic individualization in terms of anthropometry, the performer-instrument interface, and the strategic use of motor behaviors. Results based on 540 shifting samples, a case series of 6 professional-level violinists, showed that some elements of the skill were individualized in surprising ways while others were explainable by anthropometry, ergonomics and entrainment. Remarkably, results demonstrated each violinist to have developed an individualized pacing for shifts, a feature that should influence timing effects and prove foundational to aesthetic outcomes during performance. Such results underpin the potential for scientific methodologies to unravel mysteries of performance that are associated with a performer’s personal artistic style.

  17. Approximating the Shifted Hartree-Exchange-Correlation Potential in Direct Energy Kohn-Sham Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Daniel J; Levy, Mel; Tozer, David J

    2018-02-13

    Levy and Zahariev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 113002 (2014)] have proposed a new approach for performing density functional theory calculations, termed direct energy Kohn-Sham (DEKS) theory. In this approach, the electronic energy equals the sum of orbital energies, obtained from Kohn-Sham-like orbital equations involving a shifted Hartree-exchange-correlation potential, which must be approximated. In the present study, density scaling homogeneity considerations are used to facilitate DEKS calculations on a series of atoms and molecules, leading to three nonlocal approximations to the shifted potential. The first two rely on preliminary Kohn-Sham calculations using a standard generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation functional and the results illustrate the benefit of describing the dominant Hartree component of the shift exactly. A uniform electron gas analysis is used to eliminate the need for these preliminary Kohn-Sham calculations, leading to a potential with an unconventional form that yields encouraging results, providing strong motivation for further research in DEKS theory.

  18. Strong eld ionization of naphthalene: angular shifts and molecular potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Maurer, Jochen; Christensen, Lauge

    We analyze the photoelectron momentum distributions from strong eld ionization of xed-in-space naphthalene molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. By direct comparison between experiment and theory, we show that the angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distributions are very...... sensitive to the exact form of the molecular potential....

  19. Topic shift impairs pronoun resolution during sentence comprehension: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated how topic shift and topic continuation influence pronoun interpretation in Chinese. ERPs recorded on pronouns in topic structure showed stronger and earlier late positive responses (P600) for the topic-shift than for the topic-continuation conditions. However, in nontopic structure where the subject (denoting only subjecthood), rather than the topic (denoting both topichood and subjecthood), acted as the antecedent of the pronoun, almost indistinguishable P600 responses were obtained on the pronoun regardless of whether it was referring to the subject (i.e., subject continuation) or the object (i.e., subject shift). Moreover, stronger and earlier P600 responses were elicited by pronouns in the topic-shift than in the subject-shift conditions, although there was no difference between the topic-continuation and the subject-continuation conditions. These findings suggest that topic shift results in greater difficulty in the resolution stage of referential processing, although the bonding process is not sensitive to the manipulation of topic status, and that topic has a privileged cognitive status relative to other nontopic entities (e.g., subject) in real-time language processing. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. A study of the angular momentum dependence of the phase shift for finite range and Coulomb potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valluri, S.R.; Romo, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of the phase shift δ l (k) on the angular momentum l is investigated. An analytic expression for the derivative of the phase shift with respect to angular momentum is derived for a class of potentials that includes complex and real potentials. The potentials behave like the finite range potential for small r and like a Coulomb potential for large r. Specific examples like the square well, the pure point charge Coulomb and a combination of a square well and the Coulomb potential are analytically treated. Possible applications are briefly indicated. (orig.)

  1. Economic assessment of energy storage for load shifting in Positive Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Georges, Emeline

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) and Positive Energy Buildings (PEB) are gaining more and more interest. In this paper, the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building is assessed in order to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out......-in tariff and a 5 kWh battery. Finally, simple correlations (based on the feed-in tariff, the annual electrical consumption and production) to predict the optimal size of battery and the lowest payback period are proposed.......Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB) and Positive Energy Buildings (PEB) are gaining more and more interest. In this paper, the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building is assessed in order to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out...... by varying the building envelope characteristics, the power supply system, the climate, the lightning and appliances profiles, the roof tilt, the battery size and the electricity tariffs, leading to 3200 cases. The analysis is performed on an annual basis in terms of self-consumption rate, shifted energy...

  2. Emotional bias of sleep-dependent processing shifts from negative to positive with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany J; Schultz, Kurt S; Adams, Sydney; Baran, Bengi; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-09-01

    Age-related memory decline has been proposed to result partially from impairments in memory consolidation over sleep. However, such decline may reflect a shift toward selective processing of positive information with age rather than impaired sleep-related mechanisms. In the present study, young and older adults viewed negative and neutral pictures or positive and neutral pictures and underwent a recognition test after sleep or wake. Subjective emotional reactivity and affect were also measured. Compared with waking, sleep preserved valence ratings and memory for positive but not negative pictures in older adults and negative but not positive pictures in young adults. In older adults, memory for positive pictures was associated with slow wave sleep. Furthermore, slow wave sleep predicted positive affect in older adults but was inversely related to positive affect in young adults. These relationships were strongest for older adults with high memory for positive pictures and young adults with high memory for negative pictures. Collectively, these results indicate preserved but selective sleep-dependent memory processing with healthy aging that may be biased to enhance emotional well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Narrative perspective shift at retrieval: The psychological-distance-mediated-effect on emotional intensity of positive and negative autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuan; Tse, Chi-Shing

    2016-10-01

    The present study manipulated participants' narrative perspectives (1st-personal pronoun "I" and 3rd-personal pronoun "He/She") to vary their field and observer visual perspectives that they took to retrieve autobiographical events and examine how the shifts in narrative perspective could influence the self-rated emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Results showed that when narrative perspectives effectively shifted participants' visual perspectives from field to observer, they felt attenuated emotional intensities of positive and negative autobiographical memories. However, this did not occur when narrative perspectives effectively shifted the visual perspectives from observer to field. Multiple mediator models further showed that the changes in psychological distance and imagery vividness (a distance-related construct) of autobiographical memory mediated the relationship between the narrative perspective shift from the 1st- to 3rd-person and the reduction in the intensities of negative and positive emotion. This provides support for the role of psychological distancing in reducing the emotional intensity of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The experience of being a shift-leader in a hospital ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Hadass; Granot, Michal; Admi, Hanna; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the experience of being a shift-leader, and how these nurses view the management of their shift. Professional demands on skilled and capable shift-leaders, who competently handle multi-disciplinary staff and patients, as well as operations and information, call for the development of efficient nursing leadership roles. Nevertheless, knowledge of shift-leaders' perspectives concerning their task management and leadership styles is relatively limited. Twenty-eight Registered Nurses working in an Israeli medical centre participated in this qualitative study. Data were gathered through in-depth interviews conducted in two phases between February and October 2005: three focus group interviews (phase 1) followed by seven individual interviews (phase 2). Content analysis revealed two major themes which constitute the essence of being a shift-leader: (1) a burden of responsibility, where the shift-leader moves between positions of maximum control and delegating some responsibility to other nurses; (2) the role's temporal dimension, expressed as a strong desire to reach the end of the shift safely, and taking managerial perspectives beyond the boundaries of the specific shift. The core of the shift-leader's position is an immense sense of responsibility. However, this managerial role is transient and therefore lacks an established authority. A two-dimensional taxonomy of these themes reveals four types of potential and actual coping among shift-leaders, indicating the need to train them in leadership skills and systemic thinking. Interventions to limit the potential stress hazards should be focused simultaneously on shift-leaders themselves and on job restructuring.

  5. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in HIV-Positive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluísio C

    2015-10-20

    To characterize the findings of brainstem auditory evoked potential in HIV-positive individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. This research was a cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. Forty-five HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to the antiretroviral treatment - research groups I and II, respectively - and 30 control group individuals) were assessed through brainstem auditory evoked potential. There were no significant between-group differences regarding wave latencies. A higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential was observed in the HIV-positive groups when compared to the control group. The most common alteration was in the low brainstem. HIV-positive individuals have a higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential that suggests central auditory pathway impairment when compared to HIV-negative individuals. There was no significant difference between individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment.

  6. Inversion of real and complex phase shifts to potentials by the generalized Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchert, O; Scheid, W; Apagyi, B

    2006-01-01

    The Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy has been generalized to treat complex phase shifts derived from experiments. New formulae for relating phase shifts to shifted angular momenta are derived. The method is applied to phase shifts of known potentials in order to test its quality and stability and, further, it is used to invert experimental n-α and n- 12 C phase shifts

  7. Perceptual Shift in Bilingualism: Brain Potentials Reveal Plasticity in Pre-Attentive Colour Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Dering, Benjamin; Wiggett, Alison; Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the linguistic relativity principle continues to stimulate vigorous debate and research. The debate has recently shifted from the behavioural investigation arena to a more biologically grounded field, in which tangible physiological evidence for language effects on perception can be obtained. Using brain potentials in a colour…

  8. Potential impact of task-shifting on costs of antiretroviral therapy and physician supply in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergachis Andy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower-income countries face severe health worker shortages. Recent evidence suggests that this problem can be mitigated by task-shifting--delegation of aspects of health care to less specialized health workers. We estimated the potential impact of task-shifting on costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART and physician supply in Uganda. The study was performed at the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinic, a large urban HIV clinic. Methods We built an aggregate cost-minimization model from societal and Ministry of Health (MOH perspectives. We compared physician-intensive follow-up (PF, the standard of care, with two methods of task-shifting: nurse-intensive follow-up (NF and pharmacy-worker intensive follow-up (PWF. We estimated personnel and patient time use using a time-motion survey. We obtained unit costs from IDI and the literature. We estimated physician personnel impact by calculating full time equivalent (FTE physicians saved. We made national projections for Uganda. Results Annual mean costs of follow-up per patient were $59.88 (societal and $31.68 (medical for PF, $44.58 (societal and $24.58 (medical for NF and $18.66 (societal and $10.5 (medical for PWF. Annual national societal ART follow-up expenditure was $5.92 million using PF, $4.41 million using NF and $1.85 million using PWF, potentially saving $1.51 million annually by using NF and $4.07 million annually by using PWF instead of PF. Annual national MOH expenditure was $3.14 million for PF, $2.43 million for NF and $1.04 for PWF, potentially saving $0.70 million by using NF and $2.10 million by using PWF instead of PF. Projected national physician personnel needs were 108 FTE doctors to implement PF and 18 FTE doctors to implement NF or PWF. Task-shifting from PF to NF or PWF would potentially save 90 FTE physicians, 4.1% of the national physician workforce or 0.3 FTE physicians per 100,000 population. Conclusion Task-shifting results in substantial cost and

  9. Potential of satellite-derived ecosystem functional attributes to anticipate species range shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Lomba, Angela; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Nieto-Lugilde, Diego; Alves, Paulo; Georges, Damien; Vicente, Joana R.; Honrado, João P.

    2017-05-01

    In a world facing rapid environmental changes, anticipating their impacts on biodiversity is of utmost relevance. Remotely-sensed Ecosystem Functional Attributes (EFAs) are promising predictors for Species Distribution Models (SDMs) by offering an early and integrative response of vegetation performance to environmental drivers. Species of high conservation concern would benefit the most from a better ability to anticipate changes in habitat suitability. Here we illustrate how yearly projections from SDMs based on EFAs could reveal short-term changes in potential habitat suitability, anticipating mid-term shifts predicted by climate-change-scenario models. We fitted two sets of SDMs for 41 plant species of conservation concern in the Iberian Peninsula: one calibrated with climate variables for baseline conditions and projected under two climate-change-scenarios (future conditions); and the other calibrated with EFAs for 2001 and projected annually from 2001 to 2013. Range shifts predicted by climate-based models for future conditions were compared to the 2001-2013 trends from EFAs-based models. Projections of EFAs-based models estimated changes (mostly contractions) in habitat suitability that anticipated, for the majority (up to 64%) of species, the mid-term shifts projected by traditional climate-change-scenario forecasting, and showed greater agreement with the business-as-usual scenario than with the sustainable-development one. This study shows how satellite-derived EFAs can be used as meaningful essential biodiversity variables in SDMs to provide early-warnings of range shifts and predictions of short-term fluctuations in suitable conditions for multiple species.

  10. Did a brief nap break have positive benefits on information processing among nurses working on the first 8-h night shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-San; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Mei Rou; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Hsu, Chin

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers frequently experience acute sleep deprivation on first night shift. This study compared the efficacy of 30-min nap (between 2 and 3 a.m.) on the visual attention ability of the nurses working at first 8-h night shift at the time of maximum fatigue (between 3 and 4 a.m.). In addition, we measured cognitive function (between 9 and 10 a.m.) in nurses working on daytime shift, which we defined as baseline wakefulness. The results showed that working on the night shift groups was associated with sleep loss, leading to a decrease in visual attention performance compared to the daytime shift group. There was no statistically significant difference in the visual attention performance between those taking and not taking a nap during the night shift, however the effect size was medium in the information process. It was still needed increase sample size to draw the conclusion regarding a 30-min nap break have positive benefits on perceptual speed during the first night shift. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Polarized phase shift mask: concept, design, and potential advantages to photolithography process and physical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoping; Grobman, Warren D.; Reich, Alfred J.; Thompson, Matthew A.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept and design of a novel phase shift mask technology, Polarized Phase Shift Mask (P:PSM). The P:PSM technology utilizes non-interference between orthogonally polarized light sources to avoid undesired destructive interference seen in conventional two-phase shift mask technology. Hence P:PSM solves the well-known 'phase edge' or 'phase conflict' problem. By obviating the 2nd exposure and 2nd mask in current Complementary Phase Shift Mask (C:PSM) technology, this single mask/single exposure technology offers significant advantages towards photolithography process as well as pattern design. We use examples of typical design and process difficulties associated with the C:PSM technology to illustrate the advantages of the P:PSM technology. We present preliminary aerial image simulation results that support the potential of this new reticle technology for enhanced design flexibility. We also propose possible mask structures and manufacturing methods for building a P:PSM.

  12. The potential of shifting recombination hotspots to increase genetic gain in livestock breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Serap; Battagin, Mara; Johnston, Susan E; Gorjanc, Gregor; Hickey, John M

    2017-07-04

    This study uses simulation to explore and quantify the potential effect of shifting recombination hotspots on genetic gain in livestock breeding programs. We simulated three scenarios that differed in the locations of quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) and recombination hotspots in the genome. In scenario 1, QTN were randomly distributed along the chromosomes and recombination was restricted to occur within specific genomic regions (i.e. recombination hotspots). In the other two scenarios, both QTN and recombination hotspots were located in specific regions, but differed in whether the QTN occurred outside of (scenario 2) or inside (scenario 3) recombination hotspots. We split each chromosome into 250, 500 or 1000 regions per chromosome of which 10% were recombination hotspots and/or contained QTN. The breeding program was run for 21 generations of selection, after which recombination hotspot regions were kept the same or were shifted to adjacent regions for a further 80 generations of selection. We evaluated the effect of shifting recombination hotspots on genetic gain, genetic variance and genic variance. Our results show that shifting recombination hotspots reduced the decline of genetic and genic variance by releasing standing allelic variation in the form of new allele combinations. This in turn resulted in larger increases in genetic gain. However, the benefit of shifting recombination hotspots for increased genetic gain was only observed when QTN were initially outside recombination hotspots. If QTN were initially inside recombination hotspots then shifting them decreased genetic gain. Shifting recombination hotspots to regions of the genome where recombination had not occurred for 21 generations of selection (i.e. recombination deserts) released more of the standing allelic variation available in each generation and thus increased genetic gain. However, whether and how much increase in genetic gain was achieved by shifting recombination hotspots depended

  13. Albedo and land surface temperature shift in hydrocarbon seepage potential area, case study in Miri Sarawak Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suherman, A; Rahman, M Z A; Busu, I

    2014-01-01

    The presence of hydrocarbon seepage is generally associated with rock or mineral alteration product exposures, and changes of soil properties which manifest with bare development and stress vegetation. This alters the surface thermodynamic properties, changes the energy balance related to the surface reflection, absorption and emission, and leads to shift in albedo and LST. Those phenomena may provide a guide for seepage detection which can be recognized inexpensively by remote sensing method. District of Miri is used for study area. Available topographic maps of Miri and LANDSAT ETM+ were used for boundary construction and determination albedo and LST. Three land use classification methods, namely fixed, supervised and NDVI base classifications were employed for this study. By the intensive land use classification and corresponding statistical comparison was found a clearly shift on albedo and land surface temperature between internal and external seepage potential area. The shift shows a regular pattern related to vegetation density or NDVI value. In the low vegetation density or low NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to lower value than external area. Conversely in the high vegetation density or high NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to higher value than external area. Land surface temperature of internal seepage potential was generally shifted to higher value than external area in all of land use classes. In dense vegetation area tend to shift the temperature more than poor vegetation area

  14. Albedo and land surface temperature shift in hydrocarbon seepage potential area, case study in Miri Sarawak Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman, A.; Rahman, M. Z. A.; Busu, I.

    2014-02-01

    The presence of hydrocarbon seepage is generally associated with rock or mineral alteration product exposures, and changes of soil properties which manifest with bare development and stress vegetation. This alters the surface thermodynamic properties, changes the energy balance related to the surface reflection, absorption and emission, and leads to shift in albedo and LST. Those phenomena may provide a guide for seepage detection which can be recognized inexpensively by remote sensing method. District of Miri is used for study area. Available topographic maps of Miri and LANDSAT ETM+ were used for boundary construction and determination albedo and LST. Three land use classification methods, namely fixed, supervised and NDVI base classifications were employed for this study. By the intensive land use classification and corresponding statistical comparison was found a clearly shift on albedo and land surface temperature between internal and external seepage potential area. The shift shows a regular pattern related to vegetation density or NDVI value. In the low vegetation density or low NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to lower value than external area. Conversely in the high vegetation density or high NDVI value, albedo of internal area turned to higher value than external area. Land surface temperature of internal seepage potential was generally shifted to higher value than external area in all of land use classes. In dense vegetation area tend to shift the temperature more than poor vegetation area.

  15. Alternative approaches to providing engineering expertise on shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, J.; Schreiber, R.E.; Melber, B.D.

    1984-05-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a project studying the role of engineering expertise on shift in nuclear power plants. Using the present shift technical advisor (STA) position as the base case, several alternatives are analyzed. On-shift alternatives included the STA, the SS (shift supervisor), and the SE (shift engineer). The SE is degreed, experienced, trained, and licensed as a Senior Reactor Operator. Some non-shift alternatives were also studied. These included a cadre of on-call engineers and specialists within continual contact and easy reach of the plant; a technical system of phone and data lines linking the plant with a facility similar to an on-site technical support center; and finally, an SPDS (safety parameter display system) to agument technical upgrading of operator aids presently available. Potential problems considered in the analysis of implementation of these alternatives included job content constraints, problems of crew acceptance, and problems of labor supply and retention. Of the considered alternatives, the SE and SS options appear superior to the current STA approach. The SE approach appears the easiest to implement and the most effective under varied plant conditions. The SE may also serve as liaison to off-site support facilities

  16. Lateral shifting in one dimensional chiral photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Yuan, E-mail: yctcyouyuan@163.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China); Chen Changyuan [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China)

    2012-07-01

    We report the lateral shifts of the transmitted waves in a one dimensional chiral photonic crystal by using the stationary-phase approach. It is revealed that two kinds of lateral shifts are observed due to the existence of cross coupling in chiral materials, which is different from what has been observed in previous non-chiral photonic crystals. Unlike the chiral slab, the positions of lateral shift peaks are closely related to the band edges of band gap characteristics of periodic structure and lateral shifts can be positive as well as negative. Besides, the lateral shifts show a strong dependence on the chiral factor, which varies the lateral shift peaks in both magnitudes and positions. These features are desirable for future device applications.

  17. Lateral shifting in one dimensional chiral photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Yuan; Chen Changyuan

    2012-01-01

    We report the lateral shifts of the transmitted waves in a one dimensional chiral photonic crystal by using the stationary-phase approach. It is revealed that two kinds of lateral shifts are observed due to the existence of cross coupling in chiral materials, which is different from what has been observed in previous non-chiral photonic crystals. Unlike the chiral slab, the positions of lateral shift peaks are closely related to the band edges of band gap characteristics of periodic structure and lateral shifts can be positive as well as negative. Besides, the lateral shifts show a strong dependence on the chiral factor, which varies the lateral shift peaks in both magnitudes and positions. These features are desirable for future device applications.

  18. Positive organizational potential as a valuable resource of the contemporary company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Godziszewski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to present an outcome of the research project concerning the essence and importance of positive organizational potential understood as state, levels and configurations of companies’ resources which stimulate positive organizational climate, positive organizational culture and positive employees’ behaviour, supporting comprehensive companies’ development. Within the project framework was necessary to identify the internal structure of positive potential, positive culture, positive climate and positive employees’ behaviours. Correlations among the above phenomena and companies’ performances were calculated, within a group of 103 Polish companies, as well.

  19. Oxidative shift in tissue redox potential increases beat-to-beat variability of action potential duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistamás, Kornél; Hegyi, Bence; Váczi, Krisztina; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Magyar, János; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Nánási, Péter P

    2015-07-01

    Profound changes in tissue redox potential occur in the heart under conditions of oxidative stress frequently associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Since beat-to-beat variability (short term variability, SV) of action potential duration (APD) is a good indicator of arrhythmia incidence, the aim of this work was to study the influence of redox changes on SV in isolated canine ventricular cardiomyocytes using a conventional microelectrode technique. The redox potential was shifted toward a reduced state using a reductive cocktail (containing dithiothreitol, glutathione, and ascorbic acid) while oxidative changes were initiated by superfusion with H2O2. Redox effects were evaluated as changes in "relative SV" determined by comparing SV changes with the concomitant APD changes. Exposure of myocytes to the reductive cocktail decreased SV significantly without any detectable effect on APD. Application of H2O2 increased both SV and APD, but the enhancement of SV was the greater, so relative SV increased. Longer exposure to H2O2 resulted in the development of early afterdepolarizations accompanied by tremendously increased SV. Pretreatment with the reductive cocktail prevented both elevation in relative SV and the development of afterdepolarizations. The results suggest that the increased beat-to-beat variability during an oxidative stress contributes to the generation of cardiac arrhythmias.

  20. Why victimology should stay positive: The ongoing need for positive victimology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Natti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the need for positive victimology and its unique contribution to victimology. Victimology presented a shift in attention and awareness in practice, research and theory, by focusing on victims of crime and of abuse of power, and on victims’ rights and victims’ services. Positive victimology indicates a more specified shift in attention and awareness, within the larger shift of victimology. This shift stands in line with positive psychology, positive criminology and the idea of victims’ victimology. It denotes an approach to provide the following, as much as possible: 1. A wide range of social responses to the victims and their victimization that victims can experience as positive, 2. Positive outcomes of healing and recovery for victims, and 3. Positive integration of victims. Within each of those, positive victimology suggests a pragmatic coordinated system that ranges from definitions of negative poles to those of positive ones. When moving towards the positive pole at any given coordinate, a sense of justice is an important factor that might reduce the impact of the harm. Support is also a crucial factor and at the very positive pole, stands human, inter-personal love.

  1. A Developmental Shift from Positive to Negative Connectivity in Human Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Dylan G.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Telzer, Eva H.; Shapiro, Mor; Hare, Todd A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Recent human imaging and animal studies highlight the importance of frontoamygdala circuitry in the regulation of emotional behavior and its disruption in anxiety-related disorders. While tracing studies have suggested changes in amygdala-cortical connectivity through the adolescent period in rodents, less is known about the reciprocal connections within this circuitry across human development, when these circuits are being fine-tuned and substantial changes in emotional control are observed. The present study examined developmental changes in amygdala-prefrontal circuitry across the ages of 4 to 22 years using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results suggest positive amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in early childhood that switches to negative functional connectivity during the transition to adolescence. Amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity was significantly positive (greater than zero) among participants younger than ten, whereas functional connectivity was significantly negative (less than zero) among participants ten years and older, over and above the effect of amygdala reactivity. The developmental switch in functional connectivity was paralleled by a steady decline in amygdala reactivity. Moreover, the valence switch might explain age-related improvement in task performance and a developmentally normative decline in anxiety. Initial positive connectivity followed by a valence shift to negative connectivity provides a neurobiological basis for regulatory development and may present novel insight into a more general process of developing regulatory connections. PMID:23467374

  2. Spatial distribution of potential and positive Aedes aegypti breeding sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elías Cuartas

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The spatial relationship between positive and potential A. aegypti breeding sites both indoors and outdoors is dynamic and highly sensitive to the characteristics of each territory. Knowing how positive and potential breeding sites are distributed contributes to the prioritization of resources and actions in vector control programs.

  3. Unintended Positional Drift and Its Potential Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    many users unintentionally move forward while walking in place. We refer to this phenomenon accidental movement as Unintended Positional Drift. The poster presents evidence of the phenomenon's existence and subsequently discusses different design solutions which potentially could circumvent the problem....

  4. Education and training of the shift technical advisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the background and current approaches for qualifying the required position of Shift Technical Advisor (STA). Industry positions regarding the regulation are given. Problems associated with meeting the requirement are identified, along with a discussion of other alternatives for upgrading the education level of shift management. Inherent in the discussion is the conclusion that voluntary improvements in the training and education of shift management personnel are more effective than mandatory positions or degree requirements

  5. Optimized surface-slab excited-state muffin-tin potential and surface core level shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundgren, J.

    2003-01-01

    An optimized muffin-tin (MT) potential for surface slabs with preassigned surface core-level shifts (SCLS's) is presented. By using the MT radii as adjustable parameters the model is able to conserve the definition of the SCLS with respect to the bulk and concurrently to generate a potential that is continuous at the MT radii. The model is conceived for elastic electron scattering in a surface slab with exchange-correlation interaction described by the local density approximation. The model employs two data bases for the self-energy of the signal electron (after Hedin and Lundqvist or Sernelius). The potential model is discussed in detail with two surface structures Be(101-bar0), for which SCLS's are available, and Cu(111)p(2x2)Cs, in which the close-packed radii of the atoms are extremely different. It is considered plausible that tensor LEED based on an optimized MT potential can be used for determining SCLS's

  6. Rescheduling nursing shifts: scoping the challenge and examining the potential of mathematical model based tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alistair; Moule, Pam; Topping, Annie; Serpell, Martin

    2015-05-01

    To review research in the literature on nursing shift scheduling / rescheduling, and to report key issues identified in a consultation exercise with managers in four English National Health Service trusts to inform the development of mathematical tools for rescheduling decision-making. Shift rescheduling is unrecognised as an everyday time-consuming management task with different imperatives from scheduling. Poor rescheduling decisions can have quality, cost and morale implications. A systematic critical literature review identified rescheduling issues and existing mathematic modelling tools. A consultation exercise with nursing managers examined the complex challenges associated with rescheduling. Minimal research exists on rescheduling compared with scheduling. Poor rescheduling can result in greater disruption to planned nursing shifts and may impact negatively on the quality and cost of patient care, and nurse morale and retention. Very little research examines management challenges or mathematical modelling for rescheduling. Shift rescheduling is a complex and frequent management activity that is more challenging than scheduling. Mathematical modelling may have potential as a tool to support managers to minimise rescheduling disruption. The lack of specific methodological support for rescheduling that takes into account its complexity, increases the likelihood of harm for patients and stress for nursing staff and managers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Quantum reflection times and space shifts for Casimir-van der Waals potential tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisch, Alexander; Friedrich, Harald

    2004-01-01

    When cold atoms approach a surface, they can be quantum reflected by quantal regions in the tail of the atom-surface potential. We study the phase of the reflection amplitude for Casimir-van der Waals potential tails, depending on the critical parameter ρ=ρ(C 3 ,C 4 ), which describes the relative importance of the -C 3 /r 3 and -C 4 /r 4 parts of the potential. The phase is related to observable kinematic quantities, the space and time shifts, the reflected atom experiences. We study three different models for the shape of the potential between the asymptotic limits and observe that the phases are more sensitive to the potential shape than the quantum reflection probabilities. At threshold, there are always time delays in comparison to the free movement. This is in contrast to the classical movement, which shows time gains. Further above threshold, the quantum reflected atom experiences a time gain relative to free motion, but this time gain is generally smaller than that of the classical particle

  8. Power shifts track serial position and modulate encoding in human episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serruya, Mijail D; Sederberg, Per B; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    The first events in a series exert a powerful influence on cognition and behavior in both humans and animals. This is known as the law of primacy. Here, we analyze the neural correlates of primacy in humans by analyzing electrocorticographic recordings in 84 neurosurgical patients as they studied and subsequently recalled lists of common words. We found that spectral power in the gamma frequency band (28-100 Hz) was elevated at the start of the list and gradually subsided, whereas lower frequency (2-8 Hz) delta and theta band power exhibited the opposite trend. This gradual shift in the power spectrum was found across a widespread network of brain regions. The degree to which the subsequent memory effect was modulated by list (serial) position was most pronounced in medial temporal lobe structures. These results suggest that globally increased gamma and decreased delta-theta spectral powers reflect a brain state that predisposes medial temporal lobe structures to enhance the encoding and maintenance of early list items.

  9. Shifts in wind energy potential following land-use driven vegetation dynamics in complex terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiannong; Peringer, Alexander; Stupariu, Mihai-Sorin; Pǎtru-Stupariu, Ileana; Buttler, Alexandre; Golay, Francois; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-10-15

    Many mountainous regions with high wind energy potential are characterized by multi-scale variabilities of vegetation in both spatial and time dimensions, which strongly affect the spatial distribution of wind resource and its time evolution. To this end, we developed a coupled interdisciplinary modeling framework capable of assessing the shifts in wind energy potential following land-use driven vegetation dynamics in complex mountain terrain. It was applied to a case study area in the Romanian Carpathians. The results show that the overall shifts in wind energy potential following the changes of vegetation pattern due to different land-use policies can be dramatic. This suggests that the planning of wind energy project should be integrated with the land-use planning at a specific site to ensure that the expected energy production of the planned wind farm can be reached over its entire lifetime. Moreover, the changes in the spatial distribution of wind and turbulence under different scenarios of land-use are complex, and they must be taken into account in the micro-siting of wind turbines to maximize wind energy production and minimize fatigue loads (and associated maintenance costs). The proposed new modeling framework offers, for the first time, a powerful tool for assessing long-term variability in local wind energy potential that emerges from land-use change driven vegetation dynamics over complex terrain. Following a previously unexplored pathway of cause-effect relationships, it demonstrates a new linkage of agro- and forest policies in landscape development with an ultimate trade-off between renewable energy production and biodiversity targets. Moreover, it can be extended to study the potential effects of micro-climatic changes associated with wind farms on vegetation development (growth and patterning), which could in turn have a long-term feedback effect on wind resource distribution in mountainous regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. The affective shift model of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledow, Ronald; Schmitt, Antje; Frese, Michael; Kühnel, Jana

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of self-regulation theories, the authors develop an affective shift model of work engagement according to which work engagement emerges from the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect. The affective shift model posits that negative affect is positively related to work engagement if negative affect is followed by positive affect. The authors applied experience sampling methodology to test the model. Data on affective events, mood, and work engagement was collected twice a day over 9 working days among 55 software developers. In support of the affective shift model, negative mood and negative events experienced in the morning of a working day were positively related to work engagement in the afternoon if positive mood in the time interval between morning and afternoon was high. Individual differences in positive affectivity moderated within-person relationships. The authors discuss how work engagement can be fostered through affect regulation. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. SU-F-J-47: Inherent Uncertainty in the Positional Shifts Determined by a Volumetric Cone Beam Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, U; Ganesh, T; Saini, V; Munshi, A; Sarkar, B; Mohanti, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify inherent uncertainty associated with a volumetric imaging system in its determination of positional shifts. Methods: The study was performed on an Elekta Axesse™ linac’s XVI cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system. A CT image data set of a Penta- Guide phantom was used as reference image by placing isocenter at the center of the phantom.The phantom was placed arbitrarily on the couch close to isocenter and CBCT images were obtained. The CBCT dataset was matched with the reference image using XVI software and the shifts were determined in 6-dimensions. Without moving the phantom, this process was repeated 20 times consecutively within 30 minutes on a single day. Mean shifts and their standard deviations in all 6-dimensions were determined for all the 20 instances of imaging. For any given day, the first set of shifts obtained was kept as reference and the deviations of the subsequent 19 sets from the reference set were scored. Mean differences and their standard deviations were determined. In this way, data were obtained for 30 consecutive working days. Results: Tabulating the mean deviations and their standard deviations observed on each day for the 30 measurement days, systematic and random errors in the determination of shifts by XVI software were calculated. The systematic errors were found to be 0.03, 0.04 and 0.03 mm while random errors were 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 mm in lateral, craniocaudal and anterio-posterior directions respectively. For rotational shifts, the systematic errors were 0.02°, 0.03° and 0.03° and random errors were 0.06°, 0.05° and 0.05° in pitch, roll and yaw directions respectively. Conclusion: The inherent uncertainties in every image guidance system should be assessed and baseline values established at the time of its commissioning. These shall be periodically tested as part of the QA protocol.

  12. New SU(1,1) position-dependent effective mass coherent states for a generalized shifted harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahiaoui, Sid-Ahmed; Bentaiba, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    A new SU(1,1) position-dependent effective mass coherent states (PDEM CS) related to the shifted harmonic oscillator (SHO) are deduced. This is accomplished by applying a similarity transformation to the generally deformed oscillator algebra (GDOA) generators for PDEM systems and a new set of operators that close the su(1,1) Lie algebra are constructed, being the PDEM CS of the basis for its unitary irreducible representation. From the Lie algebra generators, we evaluate the uncertainty relationship for a position and momentum-like operators in the PDEM CS and show that it is minimized in the sense of Barut–Girardello CS. We prove that the deduced PDEM CS preserve the same analytical form than those of Glauber states. As an illustration of our procedure, we depicted the 2D-probability density in the PDEM CS for SHO with the explicit form of the mass distribution with no singularities. (paper)

  13. Gender moderates valence effects on the late positive potential to emotional distracters

    OpenAIRE

    Syrjänen, Elmeri

    2013-01-01

    Attention is captured more strongly by emotional pictures than by neutral pictures. This allocation of attention to emotional pictures is commonly indexed by the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential (ERP) that is larger for negative and positive pictures than for neutral pictures. However, findings are mixed in regards to valence effects, that is, whether the LPP is larger for negative pictures than for positive pictures (negativity bias) or vice versa (positivity bias). ...

  14. A Tree-Ring Based Reconstruction (1725-present) of the Position of the Summer North Atlantic Jet Shows a 20th Century Northward Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouet, V.; Babst, F.

    2014-12-01

    The position and strength of the Northern Hemisphere polar jet are important modulators of mid-latitude weather extremes and the societal, ecosystem, and economic damage related to them. The position of the North Atlantic jet (NAJ) controls the location of the Atlantic storm track and anomalies in the NAJ position have been related to temperature and precipitation extremes over Europe. In summer, a southern NAJ regime can result in floods in the British Isles (BRIT) and increasing odds of heat waves in the northeastern Mediterranean (NEMED). Variability in the amplitude and speed of the Northern Hemisphere jet stream is hotly debated as a potential mechanism linking recent mid-latitude weather extremes to anthropogenic warming. However, the hypothesis of jet stream variability as a possible mechanism linking Arctic amplification to mid-latitude weather extremes is largely based on data sets with limited temporal extent that do not warrant robust results from a statistical significance perspective. Here, we combined two summer temperature-sensitive tree-ring records from BRIT and NEMED to reconstruct interannual variability in the latitudinal position of the summer NAJ back to 1725. The two well-replicated temperature proxies counter-correlate significantly over the full period and thus illustrate the temperature dipole generated by anomalous NAJ positions. Positive extremes in the NAJ reconstruction correspond to heatwaves recorded in the historical Central England temperature record and negative extremes correspond to reconstructed fire years in Greece. The reconstruction shows a northward shift in the latitudinal NAJ position since the 1930s that is most pronounced in the northern NAJ extremes, suggesting a more frequent occurrence of BRIT hot summers in the 20th century compared to previous centuries.

  15. Visual attention shifting in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Annette E; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal visual attention has been frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal shifting of visual attention is related to abnormal development of social cognition and has been identified as a key neuropsychological finding in ASD. Better characterizing attention shifting in ASD and its relationship with social functioning may help to identify new targets for intervention and improving social communication in these disorders. Thus, the current study investigated deficits in attention shifting in ASD as well as relationships between attention shifting and social communication in ASD and neurotypicals (NT). To investigate deficits in visual attention shifting in ASD, 20 ASD and 20 age- and gender-matched NT completed visual search (VS) and Navon tasks with attention-shifting demands as well as a set-shifting task. VS was a feature search task with targets defined in one of two dimensions; Navon required identification of a target letter presented at the global or local level. Psychomotor and processing speed were entered as covariates. Relationships between visual attention shifting, set shifting, and social functioning were also examined. ASD and NT showed comparable costs of shifting attention. However, psychomotor and processing speed were slower in ASD than in NT, and psychomotor and processing speed were positively correlated with attention-shifting costs on Navon and VS, respectively, for both groups. Attention shifting on VS and Navon were correlated among NT, while attention shifting on Navon was correlated with set shifting among ASD. Attention-shifting costs on Navon were positively correlated with restricted and repetitive behaviors among ASD. Relationships between attention shifting and psychomotor and processing speed, as well as relationships between measures of different aspects of visual attention shifting, suggest inefficient top-down influences over preattentive visual processing in ASD. Inefficient attention shifting may be

  16. Energy dependence of a local equivalent potential for RGM phase shifts for 16O + 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Tahar, S.; Mackintosh, R.S.; Cooper, S.G.; Wada, T.

    1993-01-01

    We have found, using the IP inversion method, the local representation of a potential that in S(l) equivalent to the RGM nonlocal potential of Wada and Horiuchi. Phase shifts corresponding to RGM calculations at laboratory energies 30, 41, 49, 59, 150, 350 and 500 MeV were inverted and the resulting local potentials compared with the local (but l-dependent) potentials obtained previously in the WKB-RGM scheme. The present l-independent potentials exhibit a smooth radial variation and show marked differences from previous results. The energy dependence arises from that of the exchange term and from the conversion of the l-dependence into an additional energy dependence. In particular, we show that the energy dependence of the volume integrals in this energy region is different from earlier WKB-RGM predictions. (orig.)

  17. Anticipating regime shifts in gene expression: The case of an autoactivating positive feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Yogita; Dutta, Partha Sharathi; Gupta, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that anticipating sudden shifts from one state to another in bistable dynamical systems is a challenging task; examples include ecosystems, financial markets, and complex diseases. In this paper, we investigate the effects of additive, multiplicative, and cross-correlated stochastic perturbations on determining the regime shifts in a bistable gene regulatory system, which gives rise to two distinct states of low and high concentrations of protein. We obtain the stationary probability density and mean first-passage time of the system. We show that increasing the additive (multiplicative) noise intensity induces a regime shift from a low (high) to a high (low) protein concentration state. However, an increase in the cross-correlation intensity always induces regime shifts from a high to a low protein concentration state. For both bifurcation-induced (often called the tipping point) and noise-induced (called stochastic switching) regime shifts, we further explore the robustness of recently developed critical-down-based early warning signal (EWS) indicators (e.g., rising variance and lag-1 autocorrelation) on our simulated time-series data. We identify that using EWS indicators, prediction of an impending bifurcation-induced regime shift is relatively easier than that of a noise-induced regime shift in the considered system. Moreover, the success of EWS indicators also strongly depends upon the nature of the noise.

  18. Positive technology–A powerful partnership between positive psychology and interactive technology. A discussion of potential and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Diefenbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the umbrella term "positive computing" concepts of positive psychology are transferred to the domain of human-computer interaction (HCI. In an interdisciplinary community psychologist, computer scientists, designers and others are exploring promising ways how to utilize interactive technology to support wellbeing and human flourishing. Along with this, the recent popularity of smartphone apps aiming at the improvement of health behavior, mindfulness and positive routines, suggests the general acceptance of technology as a facilitator of personal development. Given this, there generally seems a high potential for a technology mediated trigger of positive behavior change, especially in context of positive psychology and resource oriented approaches such as solution-focused coaching. At the same time, there is still a lack of well-founded approaches to design such technology which consider its responsible role as an "interactive coach" and systematically integrate the needed expertise of different disciplines. The present article discusses the general potential and particular challenges to support the goals of positive psychology and human desire for self-improvement through interactive technology and highlights critical steps for a successful partnership between both.

  19. Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-09-26

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  20. Potential influence of climate-induced vegetation shifts on future land use and associated land carbon fluxes in Northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kicklighter, D W; Melillo, J M; Lu, X; Cai, Y; Paltsev, S; Sokolov, A P; Reilly, J M; Zhuang, Q; Parfenova, E I; Tchebakova, N M

    2014-01-01

    Climate change will alter ecosystem metabolism and may lead to a redistribution of vegetation and changes in fire regimes in Northern Eurasia over the 21st century. Land management decisions will interact with these climate-driven changes to reshape the region’s landscape. Here we present an assessment of the potential consequences of climate change on land use and associated land carbon sink activity for Northern Eurasia in the context of climate-induced vegetation shifts. Under a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario, climate-induced vegetation shifts allow expansion of areas devoted to food crop production (15%) and pastures (39%) over the 21st century. Under a climate stabilization scenario, climate-induced vegetation shifts permit expansion of areas devoted to cellulosic biofuel production (25%) and pastures (21%), but reduce the expansion of areas devoted to food crop production by 10%. In both climate scenarios, vegetation shifts further reduce the areas devoted to timber production by 6–8% over this same time period. Fire associated with climate-induced vegetation shifts causes the region to become more of a carbon source than if no vegetation shifts occur. Consideration of the interactions between climate-induced vegetation shifts and human activities through a modeling framework has provided clues to how humans may be able to adapt to a changing world and identified the trade-offs, including unintended consequences, associated with proposed climate/energy policies. (paper)

  1. Unusually large chemical potential shift in a degenerate semiconductor: Angle-resolved photoemission study of SnSe and Na-doped SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Mizokawa, T.; Saini, N. L.; Arita, M.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Tan, G.; Zhao, L. D.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of SnSe and Na-doped SnSe by means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The valence-band top reaches the Fermi level by the Na doping, indicating that Na-doped SnSe can be viewed as a degenerate semiconductor. However, in the Na-doped system, the chemical potential shift with temperature is unexpectedly large and is apparently inconsistent with the degenerate semiconductor picture. The large chemical potential shift and anomalous spectral shape are key ingredients for an understanding of the novel metallic state with the large thermoelectric performance in Na-doped SnSe.

  2. A thermalization energy analysis of the threshold voltage shift in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors under positive gate bias stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niang, K. M.; Flewitt, A. J., E-mail: ajf@eng.cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Cambridge University, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Barquinha, P. M. C.; Martins, R. F. P. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Cobb, B. [Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Powell, M. J. [252, Valley Drive, Kendal LA9 7SL (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-29

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) employing an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) channel layer exhibit a positive shift in the threshold voltage under the application of positive gate bias stress (PBS). The time and temperature dependence of the threshold voltage shift was measured and analysed using the thermalization energy concept. The peak energy barrier to defect conversion is extracted to be 0.75 eV and the attempt-to-escape frequency is extracted to be 10{sup 7} s{sup −1}. These values are in remarkable agreement with measurements in a-IGZO TFTs under negative gate bias illumination stress (NBIS) reported recently (Flewitt and Powell, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 134501 (2014)). This suggests that the same physical process is responsible for both PBS and NBIS, and supports the oxygen vacancy defect migration model that the authors have previously proposed.

  3. Association between rotating night shift work and metabolic syndrome in Korean workers: differences between 8-hour and 12-hour rotating shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Il; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2018-02-07

    This study aimed to analyze the association between the shift work schedule and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This is a retrospective longitudinal study based on the 2015 health checkup data of 2,090 workers evaluated for MetS in 2010 at a general hospital in Korea. The participants were divided according to their shift work schedule into daytime, three-shift (8-h rotation), and two-shift (12-h rotation) workers. The index that indicates the association between the shift work schedule and MetS is the odds ratio (OR) calculated using multivariate logistic regression. The analysis for the entire group of workers indicated that there was positive association between two-shift rotation and MetS (OR=1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09, 2.29). In the analysis of rotating night-shift workers, the years of rotating night shifts, frequency of night-shift work, and sleep disturbance were added to the confounding variables, and two-shift work remained positively associated with MetS (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.70). The risk of MetS differs based on the shift work schedules they engage in. Hence, structural changes to the shift work schedules are required to prevent MetS in night-shift workers.

  4. The load shift potential of plug-in electric vehicles with different amounts of charging infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnann, Till; Klingler, Anna-Lena; Kühnbach, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles are the currently favoured option to decarbonize the passenger car sector. However, a decarbonisation is only possible with electricity from renewable energies and plug-in electric vehicles might cause peak loads if they started to charge at the same time. Both these issues could be solved with coordinated load shifting (demand response). Previous studies analyzed this research question by focusing on private vehicles with domestic and work charging infrastructure. This study additionally includes the important early adopter group of commercial fleet vehicles and reflects the impact of domestic, commercial, work and public charging. For this purpose, two models are combined. In a comparison of three scenarios, we find that charging of commercial vehicles does not inflict evening load peaks in the same magnitude as purely domestic charging of private cars does. Also for private cars, charging at work occurs during the day and may reduce the necessity of load shifting while public charging plays a less important role in total charging demand as well as load shifting potential. Nonetheless, demand response reduces the system load by about 2.2 GW or 2.8% when domestic and work charging are considered compared to a scenario with only domestic charging.

  5. Effects of extended work shifts and shift work on patient safety, productivity, and employee health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simone M

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated 1.3 million health care errors occur each year and of those errors 48,000 to 98,000 result in the deaths of patients (Barger et al., 2006). Errors occur for a variety of reasons, including the effects of extended work hours and shift work. The need for around-the-clock staff coverage has resulted in creative ways to maintain quality patient care, keep health care errors or adverse events to a minimum, and still meet the needs of the organization. One way organizations have attempted to alleviate staff shortages is to create extended work shifts. Instead of the standard 8-hour shift, workers are now working 10, 12, 16, or more hours to provide continuous patient care. Although literature does support these staffing patterns, it cannot be denied that shifts beyond the traditional 8 hours increase staff fatigue, health care errors, and adverse events and outcomes and decrease alertness and productivity. This article includes a review of current literature on shift work, the definition of shift work, error rates and adverse outcomes related to shift work, health effects on shift workers, shift work effects on older workers, recommended optimal shift length, positive and negative effects of shift work on the shift worker, hazards associated with driving after extended shifts, and implications for occupational health nurses. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Predicting climate-driven regime shifts versus rebound potential in coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Nicholas A J; Jennings, Simon; MacNeil, M Aaron; Mouillot, David; Wilson, Shaun K

    2015-02-05

    Climate-induced coral bleaching is among the greatest current threats to coral reefs, causing widespread loss of live coral cover. Conditions under which reefs bounce back from bleaching events or shift from coral to algal dominance are unknown, making it difficult to predict and plan for differing reef responses under climate change. Here we document and predict long-term reef responses to a major climate-induced coral bleaching event that caused unprecedented region-wide mortality of Indo-Pacific corals. Following loss of >90% live coral cover, 12 of 21 reefs recovered towards pre-disturbance live coral states, while nine reefs underwent regime shifts to fleshy macroalgae. Functional diversity of associated reef fish communities shifted substantially following bleaching, returning towards pre-disturbance structure on recovering reefs, while becoming progressively altered on regime shifting reefs. We identified threshold values for a range of factors that accurately predicted ecosystem response to the bleaching event. Recovery was favoured when reefs were structurally complex and in deeper water, when density of juvenile corals and herbivorous fishes was relatively high and when nutrient loads were low. Whether reefs were inside no-take marine reserves had no bearing on ecosystem trajectory. Although conditions governing regime shift or recovery dynamics were diverse, pre-disturbance quantification of simple factors such as structural complexity and water depth accurately predicted ecosystem trajectories. These findings foreshadow the likely divergent but predictable outcomes for reef ecosystems in response to climate change, thus guiding improved management and adaptation.

  7. Is health, measured by work ability index, affected by 12-hour rotating shift schedules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Elmerich, Kathrin; Karl, Dorothee; Knauth, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Two forms of continuously forward rotating 12-h shift schedules exist at BASF's Ludwigshafen site. These shift schedules were compared with a daytime working system to investigate potential differential effects on employee's health status assessed with the Work Ability Index (WAI). In the 3 x 12 system, a 12-h day shift is followed 24 h later by a 12-h night shift, and after a day off the employee returns to the day shift. The 4 x 12 schedule follows the same pattern except that there are 2 days off between the night and next day shift. A total of 924 participants (278 3 x 12 and 321 4 x 12 shiftworkers and 325 day workers) were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about shiftwork schedule, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and social factors, and the WAI was applied. The outcomes of interest were the WAI sum score and its seven dimensions. In examining the relationship with the WAI categories, a Proportional Odds Model (POM) was used to identify the potential determinants. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the impact of age on single dimensions of WAI after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Increasing age and obesity (BMI > or = 30) were the only significant determinants of poorer WAI. Although a positive association was found linking the second WAI dimension (work ability in relation to job demands) with age, an inverse association was demonstrated consistently between age and the third and fourth WAI dimensions, i.e., number of diagnosed diseases and estimated work impairment due to disease, after adjustment for potential confounders. The age-dependency was moderate overall, but seemed to be stronger among shift- than day workers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant differential impact of the working time systems on the WAI sum score or on the individual WAI dimensions. Thus, there is no indication of an excessive adverse health impact

  8. The Effectiveness of Positive Coping Program on Reduction of Addiction Potential in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nematollahi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to study the effectiveness of positive coping program on reduction of addiction potential in dormitory girl students. Method: The research method was semi experimental method namely: pre test-post test with witness group. In selection of sample, first addiction potential scale administered among 160 dormitory girl students, and 20 of them who were scored higher than cutoff score on addiction potential scale selected and divided to two experimental and witness groups. Experimental group received 10 sessions training which each session was 90 minutes. Positive coping program was based on three components of Bob Murray’s theory namely: social relationships, goal setting and spirituality. After finishing of training Post test were administered in both experimental and witness groups. Results: The results showed positive coping training was significantly reduced students’ addiction potential. Conclusion: The training of positive coping can be affect on reduction of girl students’ addiction potential.

  9. Non-linear regime shifts in Holocene Asian monsoon variability: potential impacts on cultural change and migratory patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.; Marwan, N.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.

    2015-05-01

    The Asian monsoon system is an important tipping element in Earth's climate with a large impact on human societies in the past and present. In light of the potentially severe impacts of present and future anthropogenic climate change on Asian hydrology, it is vital to understand the forcing mechanisms of past climatic regime shifts in the Asian monsoon domain. Here we use novel recurrence network analysis techniques for detecting episodes with pronounced non-linear changes in Holocene Asian monsoon dynamics recorded in speleothems from caves distributed throughout the major branches of the Asian monsoon system. A newly developed multi-proxy methodology explicitly considers dating uncertainties with the COPRA (COnstructing Proxy Records from Age models) approach and allows for detection of continental-scale regime shifts in the complexity of monsoon dynamics. Several epochs are characterised by non-linear regime shifts in Asian monsoon variability, including the periods around 8.5-7.9, 5.7-5.0, 4.1-3.7, and 3.0-2.4 ka BP. The timing of these regime shifts is consistent with known episodes of Holocene rapid climate change (RCC) and high-latitude Bond events. Additionally, we observe a previously rarely reported non-linear regime shift around 7.3 ka BP, a timing that matches the typical 1.0-1.5 ky return intervals of Bond events. A detailed review of previously suggested links between Holocene climatic changes in the Asian monsoon domain and the archaeological record indicates that, in addition to previously considered longer-term changes in mean monsoon intensity and other climatic parameters, regime shifts in monsoon complexity might have played an important role as drivers of migration, pronounced cultural changes, and the collapse of ancient human societies.

  10. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Masoom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Since utricle is the main damaged organ in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP may be an appropriate method to evaluate the utricule dysfunction and the effect of disease recurrence rate on it. This study aimed to record myogenic potential in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, ocular myogenic potential was recorded in 25 healthy subjects and 20 patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo using 500 Hz-tone bursts (95 dB nHL.Results: In the affected ear, mean amplitude was lower and mean threshold was higher than those in the unaffected ear and in the normal group (p<0.05. Mean amplitude asymmetry ratio of patients was more than the healthy subjects (p0.05. Frequencies of abnormal responses in the affected ears were higher than in unaffected ears and in the normal group (p<0.05. Furthermore, the patients with recurrent vertigo showed more abnormalities than the patients with non-recurrent (p=0.030.Conclusion: In the recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential showed more damage in the utricle, suggesting this response could be used to evaluate the patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

  11. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  12. Objectively measured physical activity of hospital shift workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loef, Bette; van der Beek, Allard J; Holtermann, Andreas; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Baarle, Debbie; Proper, Karin I

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Shift work may alter workers' leisure-time and occupational physical activity (PA) levels, which might be one of the potential underlying mechanisms of the negative health effects of shift work. Therefore, we compared objectively measured PA levels between hospital shift and non-shift

  13. Chemical shift MRI can aid in the diagnosis of indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douis, H. [University Hospital Birmingham, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Jeys, L. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Sian, P. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Spinal Surgery and Spinal Oncology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the role of chemical shift MRI in the characterisation of indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine as benign or malignant. Fifty-five patients (mean age 54.7 years) with 57 indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine were included in this retrospective study. In addition to conventional MRI at 3 T which included at least sagittal T1WI and T2WI/STIR sequences, patients underwent chemical shift MRI. A cut-off value with a signal drop-out of 20 % was used to differentiate benign lesions from malignant lesions (signal drop-out <20 % being malignant). There were 45 benign lesions and 12 malignant lesions. Chemical shift imaging correctly diagnosed 33 of 45 lesions as benign and 11 of 12 lesions as malignant. In contrast, there were 12 false positive cases and 1 false negative case based on chemical shift MRI. This yielded a sensitivity of 91.7 %, a specificity of 73.3 %, a negative predictive value of 97.1 %, a positive predictive value of 47.8 % and a diagnostic accuracy of 82.5 %. Chemical shift MRI can aid in the characterisation of indeterminate skeletal lesions of the spine in view of its high sensitivity in diagnosing malignant lesions. Chemical shift MRI can potentially avoid biopsy in a considerable percentage of patients with benign skeletal lesions of the spine. (orig.)

  14. Accurate Computation of Reduction Potentials of 4Fe−4S Clusters Indicates a Carboxylate Shift in Pyrococcus furiosus Ferredoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ooi, Bee Lean; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the computation and accurate reproduction of subtle shifts in reduction potentials for two mutants of the iron-sulfur protein Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin. The computational models involved only first-sphere ligands and differed with respect to one ligand, either acetate (as...

  15. Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, M. E. G.; Cairns, B. J.; Key, T. J.; Travis, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Shift work, including night work, has been hypothesized to increase the risk of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Recent reviews of evidence relating to these hypotheses have focussed on specific diseases or potential mechanisms, but no general summary of the current data on shift work and chronic disease has been published. Methods Systematic and critical reviews and recent original studies indexed in PubMed prior to 31 December 2009 were retrieved, aided by manual searches of reference lists. The main conclusions from reviews and principle results from recent studies are presented in text and tables. Results Published evidence is suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse association between night work and breast cancer but limited and inconsistent for cancers at other sites and all cancers combined. Findings on shift work, in relation to risks of CVD, metabolic syndrome and diabetes are also suggestive but not conclusive for an adverse relationship. Conclusions Heterogeneity of study exposures and outcomes and emphasis on positive but non-significant results make it difficult to draw general conclusions. Further data are needed for additional disease endpoints and study populations. PMID:21355031

  16. Future directions for positive body image research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for future positive body image research are outlined: (a) conceptualization, (b) models, (c) developmental factors, (d) social interactions, (e) cognitive processing style, and (f) interventions. Finally, the potential role of positive body image as a protective factor within the broader body image literature is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Engineering expertise on shift in nuclear power plants: the foreign experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melber, B.D.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    This report describes the practices of selected foreign countries with providing engineering expertise on shift in nuclear power plants. The extent to which engineering expertise is made available and the alternative models of providing such expertise are presented. The implications of foreign practices for US consideration of alternatives are discussed, with reference to the shift technical advisor (STA) position and to a proposed shift engineer position. The procedure used to obtain information on foreign practices was primarily a review of the literature, including publications, presentations, and government and utility reports. There are two approaches that are in use to make engineering expertise available on shift: (1) employing a graduate engineer in a line management operations position; and (2) creating a specific engineering position for the purpose of providing expertise to the operations staff

  18. Solutions of the Dirac Equation with the Shifted DENG-FAN Potential Including Yukawa-Like Tensor Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, W. A.; Falaye, B. J.; Oluwadare, O. J.; Oyewumi, K. J.

    2013-08-01

    By using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method, we give the approximate analytical solutions of the Dirac equation with the shifted Deng-Fan potential including the Yukawa-like tensor interaction under the spin and pseudospin symmetry conditions. After using an improved approximation scheme, we solved the resulting schr\\"{o}dinger-like equation analytically. Numerical results of the energy eigenvalues are also obtained, as expected, the tensor interaction removes degeneracies between spin and pseudospin doublets.

  19. Position-dependent energy-level shifts of an accelerated atom in the presence of a boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiying; Yu Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    We consider a uniformly accelerated atom interacting with a vacuum electromagnetic field in the presence of an infinite conducting plane boundary and calculate separately the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the atomic energy-level shift. We analyze in detail the behavior of the total energy shift in three different regimes of the distance in both the low-acceleration and high-acceleration limits. Our results show that, in general, an accelerated atom does not behave as if immersed in a thermal bath at the Unruh temperature in terms of the atomic energy-level shifts, and the effect of the acceleration on the atomic energy-level shifts may in principle become appreciable in certain circumstances, although it may not be realistic for actual experimental measurements. We also examine the effects of the acceleration on the level shifts when the acceleration is of the order of the transition frequency of the atom and we find some features which differ from what was obtained in the existing literature.

  20. Evaluating amber force fields using computed NMR chemical shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koes, David R; Vries, John K

    2017-10-01

    NMR chemical shifts can be computed from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using a template matching approach and a library of conformers containing chemical shifts generated from ab initio quantum calculations. This approach has potential utility for evaluating the force fields that underlie these simulations. Imperfections in force fields generate flawed atomic coordinates. Chemical shifts obtained from flawed coordinates have errors that can be traced back to these imperfections. We use this approach to evaluate a series of AMBER force fields that have been refined over the course of two decades (ff94, ff96, ff99SB, ff14SB, ff14ipq, and ff15ipq). For each force field a series of MD simulations are carried out for eight model proteins. The calculated chemical shifts for the 1 H, 15 N, and 13 C a atoms are compared with experimental values. Initial evaluations are based on root mean squared (RMS) errors at the protein level. These results are further refined based on secondary structure and the types of atoms involved in nonbonded interactions. The best chemical shift for identifying force field differences is the shift associated with peptide protons. Examination of the model proteins on a residue by residue basis reveals that force field performance is highly dependent on residue position. Examination of the time course of nonbonded interactions at these sites provides explanations for chemical shift differences at the atomic coordinate level. Results show that the newer ff14ipq and ff15ipq force fields developed with the implicitly polarized charge method perform better than the older force fields. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Giant Lamb shift in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuehua; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Gu Benyuan

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a general result for the Lamb shift of excited states of multilevel atoms in inhomogeneous electromagnetic structures and apply it to study atomic hydrogen in inverse-opal photonic crystals. We find that the photonic-crystal environment can lead to very large values of the Lamb shift, as compared to the case of vacuum. We also suggest that the position-dependent Lamb shift should extend from a single level to a miniband for an assembly of atoms with random distribution in space, similar to the velocity-dependent Doppler effect in atomic/molecular gases

  2. Evidence of niche shift and invasion potential of Lithobates catesbeianus in the habitat of Mexican endemic frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Becerra López

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species are one of most severe threats to biodiversity and natural resources. These biological invasions have been studied from the niche conservatism and niche shifts perspective. Niche differentiation may result from changes in fundamental niche or realized niche or both; in biological invasions, niche differences between native and non-native ranges can appear through niche expansion, niche unfilling and niche stability. The American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus is an invasive species that can have negative impacts on native amphibian populations. This research examines the climate niche shifts of this frog, its potential range of expansion in Mexico and the risk of invasion by bullfrog in the habitats of 82 frog species endemic to Mexico, that based on their climatic niche similarity were divided in four ecological groups. The results indicate that species in two ecological groups were the most vulnerable to invasion by bullfrog. However, the climate niche shifts of L. catesbeianus may allow it to adapt to new environmental conditions, so species from the two remaining groups cannot be dismissed as not vulnerable. This information is valuable for decision making in prioritizing areas for conservation of Mexican endemic frogs.

  3. Eyewitness identification in simultaneous and sequential lineups: an investigation of position effects using receiver operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisters, Julia; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2018-04-20

    For decades, sequential lineups have been considered superior to simultaneous lineups in the context of eyewitness identification. However, most of the research leading to this conclusion was based on the analysis of diagnosticity ratios that do not control for the respondent's response criterion. Recent research based on the analysis of ROC curves has found either equal discriminability for sequential and simultaneous lineups, or higher discriminability for simultaneous lineups. Some evidence for potential position effects and for criterion shifts in sequential lineups has also been reported. Using ROC curve analysis, we investigated the effects of the suspect's position on discriminability and response criteria in both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We found that sequential lineups suffered from an unwanted position effect. Respondents employed a strict criterion for the earliest lineup positions, and shifted to a more liberal criterion for later positions. No position effects and no criterion shifts were observed in simultaneous lineups. This result suggests that sequential lineups are not superior to simultaneous lineups, and may give rise to unwanted position effects that have to be considered when conducting police lineups.

  4. Phase-shift parametrization and extraction of asymptotic normalization constants from elastic-scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Suárez, O. L.; Sparenberg, J.-M.

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a simplified effective-range function for charged nuclei, related to the modified K matrix but differing from it in several respects. Negative-energy zeros of this function correspond to bound states. Positive-energy zeros correspond to resonances and "echo poles" appearing in elastic-scattering phase-shifts, while its poles correspond to multiple-of-π phase shifts. Padé expansions of this function allow one to parametrize phase shifts on large energy ranges and to calculate resonance and bound-state properties in a very simple way, independently of any potential model. The method is first tested on a d -wave 12C+α potential model. It is shown to lead to a correct estimate of the subthreshold-bound-state asymptotic normalization constant (ANC) starting from the elastic-scattering phase shifts only. Next, the 12C+α experimental p -wave and d -wave phase shifts are analyzed. For the d wave, the relatively large error bars on the phase shifts do not allow one to improve the ANC estimate with respect to existing methods. For the p wave, a value agreeing with the 12C(6Li,d )16O transfer-reaction measurement and with the recent remeasurement of the 16Nβ -delayed α decay is obtained, with improved accuracy. However, the method displays two difficulties: the results are sensitive to the Padé-expansion order and the simplest fits correspond to an imaginary ANC, i.e., to a negative-energy "echo pole," the physical meaning of which is still debatable.

  5. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48–100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20–30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals. (letter)

  6. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

  7. Analytic matrix elements with shifted correlated Gaussians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics.......Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics....

  8. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI. The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN, and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM and accuracy-recognition mode (AM, were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR. When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  9. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng; Kuo, Chung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  10. Factors influencing fast low angle positive contrast steady-state free precession (FLAPS) magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmakumar, Rohan; Koktzoglou, Ioannis; Li Debiao

    2007-01-01

    The presence of susceptibility-shifting media can lead to signal voids in magnetic resonance images. While signal voids have been traditionally used to detect such magnetic perturbers, selective magnetic resonance imaging of off-resonant spins surrounding susceptibility-shifted media allows for them to be visualized as hyper-intense (positive contrast) regions. These positive contrast methods can potentially improve the detection conspicuity of magnetic perturbers against regions that appear dark due to the absence of protons, such as air. Recently, a fast low angle positive contrast steady-state free precession (FLAPS) technique has been proposed as a positive contrast imaging method. This work systematically evaluates the contrast characteristics and acquisition strategies of FLAPS-based imaging from the standpoint of imaging parameters and physical properties of the magnetic perturbers. Results show that scan parameters (T R , flip angle, B 0 ), physical properties of the perturber (size and concentration of shift reagent) and the ratio of the relaxation constants (T 1 /T 2 ) of the medium are significant factors influencing the FLAPS-based positive contrast

  11. Change from an 8-hour shift to a 12-hour shift, attitudes, sleep, sleepiness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, A; Kecklund, G; Axelsson, J; Akerstedt, T

    1998-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the effect of a change from a rotating 3-shift (8-hour) to a 2-shift shift (12 hour) schedule on sleep, sleepiness, performance, perceived health, and well-being. Thirty-two shift workers at a chemical plant (control room operators) responded to a questionnaire a few months before a change was made in their shift schedule and 10 months after the change. Fourteen workers also filled out a diary, carried activity loggers, and carried out reaction-time tests (beginning and end of shift). Fourteen day workers served as a reference group for the questionnaires and 9 were intensively studied during a week with workdays and a free weekend. The questionnaire data showed that the shift change increased satisfaction with workhours, sleep, and time for social activities. Health, perceived accident risk, and reaction-time performance were not negatively affected. Alertness improved and subjective recovery time after night work decreased. The quick changes in the 8-hour schedule greatly increased sleep problems and fatigue. Sleepiness integrated across the entire shift cycle showed that the shift workers were less alert than the day workers, across workdays and days off (although alertness increased with the 12-hour shift). The change from 8-hour to 12-hour shifts was positive in most respects, possibly due to the shorter sequences of the workdays, the longer sequences of consecutive days off, the fewer types of shifts (easier planning), and the elimination of quick changes. The results may differ in groups with a higher work load.

  12. Interaction potential of the H-He system and the hyperfine frequency shift of H in He buffer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, K.T.; Yang, X.D.

    1990-01-01

    The van der Waals potential of the H-He interaction and the hyperfine frequency shift of H in He are predicted using the Tang-Toennies model. This model damps the long-range ab initio dispersion terms individually using a universal damping function and adds to this a simple Born-Mayer repulsive term. The Born-Mayer parameters are derived from self-consistent-field calculations. The resulting potential is found to be in good agreement with two molecular-beam experiments and its well parameters, in excellent agreement with the complete configuration-interaction calculation. In order to compare with experiment, the hyperfine frequency shift is thermally averaged over the potential both quantum mechanically and classically. The thermally averaged results are in excellent agreement with experiment in the high-temperature range but there are some discrepancies with the measurements at 0.5 and at 1.15 K. These discrepancies may be due to the fact that the long-range coefficient K 10 used is too small. The quantum and classical results are practically identical for temperature above 40 K. The classical statistics fails completely only for temperature below 5 K. Also in the quantum calculation, the isotope effect between 3 He and 4 He is found to show up only for temperature below 10 K. The theoretical isotope effect is in qualitative agreement with experiment

  13. SAT in shift manager training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, F.

    1995-01-01

    EDF has improved the organization of the operation shift teams with the replacement of shift supervisor in shift manager function. The shift manager is not only responsible for tasks associated to plant operation (production), but he is also responsible for safety of these tasks and for management of shift team members. A job analysis of this new job position has been performed in order to design the training programme. It resulted in a 10-month training programme that includes 8 weeks in safety-related topics and 12 weeks in soft-skills related topics. The safety related training courses are mandatory, the other courses are optional courses depending on individual trainee needs. The training also includes the development of management competencies. During the 10 month period, each trainee develops an individual project that is evaluated by NPP manager. As well, as group project is undertaken by the trainees and overseen by a steering committee. The steering committee participates in the evaluation process and provides operational experience feedback to the trainee groups and to the overall programme

  14. Chemical shift-dependent apparent scalar couplings: An alternative concept of chemical shift monitoring in multi-dimensional NMR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, Witek; Riek, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an alternative technique for chemical shift monitoring in a multi-dimensional NMR experiment. The monitored chemical shift is coded in the line-shape of a cross-peak through an apparent residual scalar coupling active during an established evolution period or acquisition. The size of the apparent scalar coupling is manipulated with an off-resonance radio-frequency pulse in order to correlate the size of the coupling with the position of the additional chemical shift. The strength of this concept is that chemical shift information is added without an additional evolution period and accompanying polarization transfer periods. This concept was incorporated into the three-dimensional triple-resonance experiment HNCA, adding the information of 1 H α chemical shifts. The experiment is called HNCA coded HA, since the chemical shift of 1 H α is coded in the line-shape of the cross-peak along the 13 C α dimension

  15. Phase-shift calculation using continuum-discretized states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Horiuchi, W.; Arai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for calculating scattering phase shifts which utilizes continuum-discretized states obtained in a bound-state type calculation. The wrong asymptotic behavior of the discretized state is remedied by means of the Green's function formalism. Test examples confirm the accuracy of the method. The α+n scattering is described using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The 3/2 - and 1/2 - phase shifts obtained in a single-channel calculation are too small in comparison with experiment. The 1/2 + phase shifts are in reasonable agreement with experiment, and gain contributions both from the tensor and central components of the nucleon-nucleon potential.

  16. The potential of task shifting selected maternal interventions to auxiliary midwives in Myanmar: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Kyu Kyu; Tin, Khaing Nwe; La, Thazin; Thant, Kyaw Soe; Myint, Theingi; Beeson, James G; Luchters, Stanley; Morgan, Alison

    2018-01-03

    An estimated 282 women die for every 100,000 live births in Myanmar, most due to preventable causes. Auxiliary Midwives (AMWs) in Myanmar are responsible for providing a package of care during pregnancy and childbirth to women in rural hard to reach areas where skilled birth attendants (Midwives) are not accessible. This study aims to examine the role of AMWs in Myanmar and to assess the current practices of three proposed essential maternal interventions (oral supplement distribution to pregnant women; administration of misoprostol to prevent postpartum haemorrhage; management of puerperal sepsis with oral antibiotics) in order to facilitate a formal integration of these tasks to AMWs in Myanmar. A mixed methods study was conducted in Magwe Region, Myanmar involving a survey of 262 AMWs, complemented by 15 focus group discussions with midwives (MWs), AMWs, mothers and community members, and 10 key informant interviews with health care providers at different levels within the health care system. According to current government policy, AMWs are responsible for identifying pregnant women, screening for danger signs and facilitating early referral, provision of counselling on nutrition and birth preparedness for women in hard-to-reach areas. AMWs also assist at normal deliveries and help MWs provide immunization services. In practice, they also provide oral supplements to pregnant women (84%), provide antibiotics to mothers during the puerperium (43%), and provide misoprostol to prevent postpartum haemorrhage (41%). The current practices of AMWs demonstrate the potential for task shifting on selected essential maternal interventions. However, to integrate these interventions into formal practice they must be complemented with appropriate training, clear guidelines on drug use, systematic recording and reporting, supportive monitoring and supervision and a clear political commitment towards task shifting. With the current national government's commitment towards one

  17. Lateral shift in one-dimensional quasiperiodic chiral photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da, Jian, E-mail: dajian521@sina.com [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Mo, Qi, E-mail: moqiyueyang@163.com [School of Software, Yunnan University, Cuihu Bai Road, Kunming City, Yunnan Province 650091 (China); Cheng, Yaokun [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Liu, Taixiang [Taishan Vocational College of Nursing, Shandong Province 271000 (China)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the lateral shift of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic crystal consisting of chiral and conventional dielectric materials. The effect of structural irregularity on lateral shift is evaluated by stationary-phase approach. Our results show that the lateral shift can be modulated by varying the structural irregularity in quasiperiodic structure. Besides, the position of peak in lateral shift spectrum stays sensitive to the chiral factor of chiral materials. In comparison with that of periodic structure, quasiperiodic structure provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the lateral shift.

  18. Stark shift of impurity doped quantum dots: Role of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sk. Md.; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Anuja; Ghosh, Manas

    2018-02-01

    Present study makes a punctilious investigation of the profiles of Stark shift (SS) of doped GaAs quantum dot (QD) under the supervision of Gaussian white noise. A few physical parameters have been varied and the consequent variations in the SS profiles have been monitored. The said physical parameters comprise of magnetic field, confinement potential, dopant location, dopant potential, noise strength, aluminium concentration (only for AlxGa1-x As alloy QD), position-dependent effective mass (PDEM), position-dependent dielectric screening function (PDDSF), anisotropy, hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature. The SS profiles unfurl interesting features that heavily depend upon the particular physical quantity concerned, presence/absence of noise and the manner (additive/multiplicative) noise enters the system. The study highlights feasible means of maximizing SS of doped QD in presence of noise by suitable adjustment of several control parameters. The study deems importance in view of technological applications of QD devices where noise plays some prominent role.

  19. Using chemical shift perturbation to characterise ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mike P

    2013-08-01

    Chemical shift perturbation (CSP, chemical shift mapping or complexation-induced changes in chemical shift, CIS) follows changes in the chemical shifts of a protein when a ligand is added, and uses these to determine the location of the binding site, the affinity of the ligand, and/or possibly the structure of the complex. A key factor in determining the appearance of spectra during a titration is the exchange rate between free and bound, or more specifically the off-rate koff. When koff is greater than the chemical shift difference between free and bound, which typically equates to an affinity Kd weaker than about 3μM, then exchange is fast on the chemical shift timescale. Under these circumstances, the observed shift is the population-weighted average of free and bound, which allows Kd to be determined from measurement of peak positions, provided the measurements are made appropriately. (1)H shifts are influenced to a large extent by through-space interactions, whereas (13)Cα and (13)Cβ shifts are influenced more by through-bond effects. (15)N and (13)C' shifts are influenced both by through-bond and by through-space (hydrogen bonding) interactions. For determining the location of a bound ligand on the basis of shift change, the most appropriate method is therefore usually to measure (15)N HSQC spectra, calculate the geometrical distance moved by the peak, weighting (15)N shifts by a factor of about 0.14 compared to (1)H shifts, and select those residues for which the weighted shift change is larger than the standard deviation of the shift for all residues. Other methods are discussed, in particular the measurement of (13)CH3 signals. Slow to intermediate exchange rates lead to line broadening, and make Kd values very difficult to obtain. There is no good way to distinguish changes in chemical shift due to direct binding of the ligand from changes in chemical shift due to allosteric change. Ligand binding at multiple sites can often be characterised, by

  20. Asymmetry and the shift of the Compton profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, S.C.; Suric, T.; LaJohn, L.A.; Pratt, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    We show that the conventionally defined asymmetry of the Compton profile (CP) is, to a large extent, simply a shift of CP. Compton scattering is widely used in studying the electron momentum distribution (EMD) of complex systems. Extraction of information about the EMD is based on an impulse approximation (IA) description of the process. In IA the scattering from bound electrons is described as scattering from the EMD of free electrons. Most often the angular and energy distributions of scattered photons (doubly differential cross sections (DDCS)) is measured and presented in terms of CP, which is just the DDCS normalized by a kinematical factor. The deviations of measured CP from the IA results are conventionally described as an asymmetry of CP about the IA peak position. IA predicts CP to be symmetric. We have examined the discrepancy between IA predictions (and the corresponding relativistic version of IA, RIA) and more rigorous approaches (A 2 and S-matrix), using independent particle approximations for the description of the bound state of electrons. In the nonrelativistic region (in which many measurements of CP are performed) we find that the conventional asymmetry can largely be understood as the shift of the peak position. The true asymmetry with respect to the shifted peak position is in fact much smaller. RIA has similar properties to IA, except that for atoms with high nuclear charge the p → .A → interaction may modify the shift and limit the utility of description as a shift

  1. Goos-Haenchen shift in complex crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Staliunas, Kestutis [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanats (ICREA), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The Goos-Haenchen (GH) effect for wave scattering from complex PT-symmetric periodic potentials (complex crystals) is theoretically investigated, with specific reference to optical GH shift in photonic crystal slabs with a sinusoidal periodic modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The analysis highlights some distinct and rather unique features as compared to the GH shift found in ordinary crystals. In particular, as opposed to GH shift in ordinary crystals, which is large at the band gap edges, in complex crystals the GH shift can be large inside the reflection (amplification) band and becomes extremely large as the PT symmetry-breaking threshold is approached.

  2. Magnitude of shift of tumor position as a function of moderated deep inspiration breath-hold: An analysis of pooled data of lung patients with active breath control in image-guided radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and magnitude of shift of tumor position by using active breathing control and iView-GT for patients with lung cancer with moderate deep-inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH technique. Eight patients with 10 lung tumors were studied. CT scans were performed in the breath-holding phase. Moderate deep-inspiration breath-hold under spirometer-based monitoring system was used. Few important bony anatomic details were delineated by the radiation oncologist. To evaluate the interbreath-hold reproducibility of the tumor position, we compared the digital reconstruction radiographs (DRRs from planning system with the DRRs from the iView-GT in the machine room. We measured the shift in x, y, and z directions. The reproducibility was defined as the difference between the bony landmarks from the DRR of the planning system and those from the DRR of the iView-GT. The maximum shift of the tumor position was 3.2 mm, 3.0 mm, and 2.9 mm in the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical directions. In conclusion, the moderated deep-inspiration breath-hold method using a spirometer is feasible, with relatively good reproducibility of the tumor position for image-guided radiotherapy in lung cancers.

  3. Harm avoidance in adolescents modulates late positive potentials during affective picture processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei; Ni, Ziyin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Dahua; Shen, Jiliang

    2013-08-01

    Research in adults has shown that individual differences in harm avoidance (HA) modulate electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli. To determine whether HA in adolescents modulates affective information processing, we collected event-related potentials from 70 adolescents while they viewed 90 pictures from the Chinese affective picture system. Multiple regressions revealed that HA negatively predicted late positive potential (LPP) for positive pictures and positively predicted for negative pictures; however, HA did not correlate with LPP for neutral pictures. The results suggest that at the late evaluative stage, high-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures while low-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures. Moreover, these dissociable attentional patterns imply that individual differences in adolescents' HA modulate the late selective attention mechanism of affective information. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Night shift work exposure profile and obesity: Baseline results from a Chinese night shift worker cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miaomiao; Feng, Wenting; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Wu, Zijun; Li, Zhimin; Zhang, Bo; He, Yonghua; Xie, Shaohua; Li, Mengjie; Fok, Joan P C; Tse, Gary; Wong, Martin C S; Tang, Jin-Ling; Wong, Samuel Y S; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Evans, Greg; Vermeulen, Roel; Tse, Lap Ah

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the associations between types of night shift work and different indices of obesity using the baseline information from a prospective cohort study of night shift workers in China. A total of 3,871 workers from five companies were recruited from the baseline survey. A structured self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the participants' demographic information, lifetime working history, and lifestyle habits. Participants were grouped into rotating, permanent and irregular night shift work groups. Anthropometric parameters were assessed by healthcare professionals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between night shift work and different indices of obesity. Night shift workers had increased risk of overweight and obesity, and odds ratios (ORs) were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.97-1.41) and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.74-2.18), respectively. Abdominal obesity had a significant but marginal association with night shift work (OR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.01-1.43). A positive gradient between the number of years of night shift work and overweight or abdominal obesity was observed. Permanent night shift work showed the highest odds of being overweight (OR = 3.94, 95% CI, 1.40-11.03) and having increased abdominal obesity (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19-9.37). Irregular night shift work was also significantly associated with overweight (OR = 1.56, 95% CI, 1.13-2.14), but its association with abdominal obesity was borderline (OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 0.94-1.69). By contrast, the association between rotating night shift work and these parameters was not significant. Permanent and irregular night shift work were more likely to be associated with overweight or abdominal obesity than rotating night shift work. These associations need to be verified in prospective cohort studies.

  5. Night shift work exposure profile and obesity: Baseline results from a Chinese night shift worker cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenting; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Wu, Zijun; Li, Zhimin; Zhang, Bo; He, Yonghua; Xie, Shaohua; Li, Mengjie; Fok, Joan P. C.; Tse, Gary; Wong, Martin C. S.; Tang, Jin-ling; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Evans, Greg; Vermeulen, Roel; Tse, Lap Ah

    2018-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to evaluate the associations between types of night shift work and different indices of obesity using the baseline information from a prospective cohort study of night shift workers in China. Methods A total of 3,871 workers from five companies were recruited from the baseline survey. A structured self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the participants’ demographic information, lifetime working history, and lifestyle habits. Participants were grouped into rotating, permanent and irregular night shift work groups. Anthropometric parameters were assessed by healthcare professionals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between night shift work and different indices of obesity. Results Night shift workers had increased risk of overweight and obesity, and odds ratios (ORs) were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.97–1.41) and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.74–2.18), respectively. Abdominal obesity had a significant but marginal association with night shift work (OR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.01–1.43). A positive gradient between the number of years of night shift work and overweight or abdominal obesity was observed. Permanent night shift work showed the highest odds of being overweight (OR = 3.94, 95% CI, 1.40–11.03) and having increased abdominal obesity (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19–9.37). Irregular night shift work was also significantly associated with overweight (OR = 1.56, 95% CI, 1.13–2.14), but its association with abdominal obesity was borderline (OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 0.94–1.69). By contrast, the association between rotating night shift work and these parameters was not significant. Conclusion Permanent and irregular night shift work were more likely to be associated with overweight or abdominal obesity than rotating night shift work. These associations need to be verified in prospective cohort studies. PMID:29763461

  6. Guide to good practices for the selection, training, and qualification of shift technical advisors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    The DOE Guide to Good Practices For The Selection, Training, and Qualification of Shift Technical Advisors can be used by any DOE nuclear facility that has implemented the shift technical advisor position. DOE Order 5480-20, ``Personnel Selection, Qualification, Training, and Staffing Requirements at DOE Reactor and Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities,`` states that only Category A reactors must use shift technical advisor position. However, many DOE nuclear facilities have implemented the shift technical advisor position to provide independent on-shift technical advice and counsel to the shift operating personnel to help determine cause and mitigation of facility accidents. Those DOE nuclear facilities that have implemented or are going to implement the shift technical advisor position will find this guide useful. This guide addresses areas that may be covered by other training programs. In these cases, it is unnecessary (and undesirable) to duplicate these areas in the STA training program as long as the specific skills and knowledge essential for STAs are addressed. The guide is presented based on the premise that the trainee has not completed any facility-specific training other than general employee training.

  7. Response shift in parents' assessment of health-related quality of life of children with new-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajobi, Tolulope T; Speechley, Kathy N; Liang, Zhiying; Goodwin, Shane W; Ferro, Mark A; Wiebe, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of epilepsy is known to impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with new-onset epilepsy and can also influence their conceptualization and valuation of HRQOL construct, also known as response shift. This study investigates the presence of response shift in a cohort of children with new-onset epilepsy. Data are from the HEalth-Related QUality of Life in children with Epilepsy Study, a prospective cohort study of 373 children with new-onset epilepsy. Hypotheses about the presence of reconceptualization, reprioritization, and recalibration response shift were tested in the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE-55) Questionnaire, a parent-reported, disease-specific HRQOL measure, using Oort's structural equation model between baseline and 1-year follow-up. Model fit was assessed using log-likelihood ratio test, root mean square error of approximation, and comparative fit index. Small positive uniform recalibration response shift effects were observed on physical, emotional, and social functioning domains of the QOLCE-55, but negligibly small negative nonuniform recalibration response shift effect was observed on social functioning domain. There was no significant change in overall QOLCE-55 scores over time after adjusting for response shift effects. Parents of children with new-onset epilepsy are likely to positively recalibrate (upward bias) their assessments of their children's HRQOL over a 1-year period after diagnosis. This study highlights the potential benefits of response shift as a desired consequence in parents' perception of changes in HRQOL of children with new-onset epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pole Inflation - Shift Symmetry and Universal Corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broy, Benedict J.; Galante, Mario; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    An appealing explanation for the Planck data is provided by inflationary models with a singular non-canonical kinetic term: a Laurent expansion of the kinetic function translates into a potential with a nearly shift-symmetric plateau in canonical fields. The shift symmetry can be broken at large

  9. Night shift work and chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Laura; Benavente, Yolanda; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Casabonne, Delphine; Robles, Claudia; Gonzalez-Barca, Eva-Maria; de la Banda, Esmeralda; Alonso, Esther; Aymerich, Marta; Tardón, Adonina; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Gimeno-Vázquez, Eva; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollán, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2016-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has few known modifiable risk factors. Recently, circadian disruption has been proposed as a potential contributor to lymphoid neoplasms' etiology. Serum melatonin levels have been found to be significantly lower in CLL subjects compared with healthy controls, and also, CLL prognosis has been related to alterations in the circadian molecular signaling. We performed the first investigation of an association between night shift work and CLL in 321 incident CLL cases and 1728 population-based controls in five areas of Spain. Participants were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers to collect information on sociodemographic factors, familial, medical and occupational history, including work shifts and other lifestyle factors. We used logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Seventy-nine cases (25%) and 339 controls (20%) had performed night work. Overall, working in night shifts was not associated with CLL (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.78-1.45, compared with day work). However, long-term night shift (>20 years) was positively associated with CLL (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work)  = 1.77; 95% = 1.14-2.74), although no linear trend was observed (P trend = 0.18). This association was observed among those with rotating (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work)  = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.33-3.92; P trend = 0.07), but not permanent night shifts (OR(tertile 3 vs . day-work) = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.60-2.25; P trend = 0.86). The association between CLL and long-term rotating night shift warrants further investigation. © 2016 UICC.

  10. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  11. On the energy shift the ECC cusp. Does the shift really exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkadi, L.; Barrachina, R.O.

    2004-01-01

    The cusplike 'electron capture to the continuum' (ECC) peak appearing in the spectrum of the forward emitted electrons in ion-atom collisions are generally thought to be a divergence. Recently Shah et al., however, claimed that 'the ECC cusp is indeed a cusp, and not a divergence smoothed by the experiment'. These authors measured the ECC cusp for collisions of 10- and 20-keV protons with H 2 and He, and found that the peak was shifted to lower velocity than its expected position. We also carried out CTMC calculations (for the case of 20-keV protons on He) by which we demonstrated that the shift really exists but its value depends on the angular window of the electron detection. (K.A.)

  12. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  13. Shift Work, Chronotype, and Melatonin Patterns among Female Hospital Employees on Day and Night Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael; Tranmer, Joan; Hung, Eleanor; Korsiak, Jill; Day, Andrew G; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    Shift work-related carcinogenesis is hypothesized to be mediated by melatonin; however, few studies have considered the potential effect modification of this underlying pathway by chronotype or specific aspects of shift work such as the number of consecutive nights in a rotation. In this study, we examined melatonin patterns in relation to shift status, stratified by chronotype and number of consecutive night shifts, and cumulative lifetime exposure to shift work. Melatonin patterns of 261 female personnel (147 fixed-day and 114 on rotations, including nights) at Kingston General Hospital were analyzed using cosinor analysis. Urine samples were collected from all voids over a 48-hour specimen collection period for measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations using the Buhlmann ELISA Kit. Chronotypes were assessed using mid-sleep time (MSF) derived from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ). Sociodemographic, health, and occupational information were collected by questionnaire. Rotational shift nurses working nights had a lower mesor and an earlier time of peak melatonin production compared to day-only workers. More pronounced differences in mesor and acrophase were seen among later chronotypes, and shift workers working ≥3 consecutive nights. Among nurses, cumulative shift work was associated with a reduction in mesor. These results suggest that evening-types and/or shift workers working ≥3 consecutive nights are more susceptible to adverse light-at-night effects, whereas long-term shift work may also chronically reduce melatonin levels. Cumulative and current exposure to shift work, including nights, affects level and timing of melatonin production, which may be related to carcinogenesis and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 830-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Effect of the relative shift between the electron density and temperature pedestal position on the pedestal stability in JET-ILW and comparison with JET-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanikova, E.; Frassinetti, L.; Saarelma, S.; Loarte, A.; Nunes, I.; Garzotti, L.; Lomas, P.; Rimini, F.; Drewelow, P.; Kruezi, U.; Lomanowski, B.; de la Luna, E.; Meneses, L.; Peterka, M.; Viola, B.; Giroud, C.; Maggi, C.; contributors, JET

    2018-05-01

    The electron temperature and density pedestals tend to vary in their relative radial positions, as observed in DIII-D (Beurskens et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 056120) and ASDEX Upgrade (Dunne et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59 14017). This so-called relative shift has an impact on the pedestal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and hence on the pedestal height (Osborne et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 063018). The present work studies the effect of the relative shift on pedestal stability of JET ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) baseline low triangularity (δ) unseeded plasmas, and similar JET-C discharges. As shown in this paper, the increase of the pedestal relative shift is correlated with the reduction of the normalized pressure gradient, therefore playing a strong role in pedestal stability. Furthermore, JET-ILW tends to have a larger relative shift compared to JET carbon wall (JET-C), suggesting a possible role of the plasma facing materials in affecting the density profile location. Experimental results are then compared with stability analysis performed in terms of the peeling-ballooning model and with pedestal predictive model EUROPED (Saarelma et al 2017 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion). Stability analysis is consistent with the experimental findings, showing an improvement of the pedestal stability, when the relative shift is reduced. This has been ascribed mainly to the increase of the edge bootstrap current, and to minor effects related to the increase of the pedestal pressure gradient and narrowing of the pedestal pressure width. Pedestal predictive model EUROPED shows a qualitative agreement with experiment, especially for low values of the relative shift.

  15. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy for authentication of cheese and cheese analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2016-04-01

    Food authentication and the detection of adulterated products are recent major issues in the food industry as these topics are of global importance for quality control and food safety. To effectively address this challenge requires fast, reliable and non-destructive analytical techniques. Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) is well suited for identification purposes as it combines the chemically specific information obtained by Raman spectroscopy with the ability for efficient fluorescence rejection. The two slightly shifted excitation wavelengths necessary for SERDS are realized by specially designed microsystem diode lasers. At 671 nm the laser (optical power: 50 mW, spectral shift: 0.7 nm) is based on an external cavity configuration whereas an emission at 783 nm (optical power: 110 mW, spectral shift: 0.5 nm) is achieved by a distributed feedback laser. To investigate the feasibility of SERDS for rapid and nondestructive authentication purposes four types of cheese and three different cheese analogues were selected. Each sample was probed at 8 different positions using integration times of 3-10 seconds and 10 spectra were recorded at each spot. Principal components analysis was applied to the SERDS spectra revealing variations in fat and protein signals as primary distinction criterion between cheese and cheese analogues for both excitation wavelengths. Furthermore, to some extent, minor compositional differences could be identified to discriminate between individual species of cheese and cheese analogues. These findings highlight the potential of SERDS for rapid food authentication potentially paving the way for future applications of portable SERDS systems for non-invasive in situ analysis.

  16. Organisational characteristics associated with shift work practices and potential opportunities for intervention: findings from a Canadian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amy L; Smit, Andrea N; Mistlberger, Ralph E; Landry, Glenn J; Koehoorn, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Shift work is a common working arrangement with wide-ranging implications for worker health. Organisational determinants of shift work practices are not well characterised; such information could be used to guide evidence-based research and best practices to mitigate shift work's negative effects. This exploratory study aimed to describe and assess organisational-level determinants of shift work practices thought to affect health, across a range of industry sectors. Data on organisational characteristics, shift work scheduling, provision of shift work education materials/training to employees and night-time lighting policies in the workplace were collected during phone interviews with organisations across the Canadian province of British Columbia. Relationships between organisational characteristics and shift work practices were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. The study sample included 88 participating organisations, representing 30 700 shift workers. Long-duration shifts, provision of shift work education materials/training to employees and night-time lighting policies were reported by approximately one-third of participating organisations. Odds of long-duration shifts increased in larger workplaces and by industry. Odds of providing shift work education materials/training increased in larger workplaces, in organisations reporting concern for shift worker health and in organisations without seasonal changes in shift work. Odds of night-time lighting policies in the workplace increased in organisations reporting previous workplace accidents or incidents that occurred during non-daytime hours, site maintenance needs and client service or care needs. This study points to organisational determinants of shift work practices that could be useful for targeting research and workplace interventions. Results should be interpreted as preliminary in an emerging body of literature on shift work and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  17. When teams shift among processes: insights from simulation and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Deanna M; McComb, Sara A

    2014-09-01

    This article introduces process shifts to study the temporal interplay among transition and action processes espoused in the recurring phase model proposed by Marks, Mathieu, and Zacarro (2001). Process shifts are those points in time when teams complete a focal process and change to another process. By using team communication patterns to measure process shifts, this research explores (a) when teams shift among different transition processes and initiate action processes and (b) the potential of different interventions, such as communication directives, to manipulate process shift timing and order and, ultimately, team performance. Virtual experiments are employed to compare data from observed laboratory teams not receiving interventions, simulated teams receiving interventions, and optimal simulated teams generated using genetic algorithm procedures. Our results offer insights about the potential for different interventions to affect team performance. Moreover, certain interventions may promote discussions about key issues (e.g., tactical strategies) and facilitate shifting among transition processes in a manner that emulates optimal simulated teams' communication patterns. Thus, we contribute to theory regarding team processes in 2 important ways. First, we present process shifts as a way to explore the timing of when teams shift from transition to action processes. Second, we use virtual experimentation to identify those interventions with the greatest potential to affect performance by changing when teams shift among processes. Additionally, we employ computational methods including neural networks, simulation, and optimization, thereby demonstrating their applicability in conducting team research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Evidence of chemical-potential shift with hole doping in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Z.; Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O.; Olson, C.G.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lombado, L.; List, R.S.; Arko, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    We have performed photoemission studies on high-quality Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ samples with various δ. Our results show a clear chemical-potential shift (0.15--0.2 eV) as a function of doping. This result and the existing angle-resolved-photoemission data give a rather standard doping behavior of this compound in its highly doped regime

  19. A single-gradient junction technique to replace multiple-junction shifts for craniospinal irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, Austin; Ding, George X.

    2014-01-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) requires abutting fields at the cervical spine. Junction shifts are conventionally used to prevent setup error–induced overdosage/underdosage from occurring at the same location. This study compared the dosimetric differences at the cranial-spinal junction between a single-gradient junction technique and conventional multiple-junction shifts and evaluated the effect of setup errors on the dose distributions between both techniques for a treatment course and single fraction. Conventionally, 2 lateral brain fields and a posterior spine field(s) are used for CSI with weekly 1-cm junction shifts. We retrospectively replanned 4 CSI patients using a single-gradient junction between the lateral brain fields and the posterior spine field. The fields were extended to allow a minimum 3-cm field overlap. The dose gradient at the junction was achieved using dose painting and intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The effect of positioning setup errors on the dose distributions for both techniques was simulated by applying shifts of ± 3 and 5 mm. The resulting cervical spine doses across the field junction for both techniques were calculated and compared. Dose profiles were obtained for both a single fraction and entire treatment course to include the effects of the conventional weekly junction shifts. Compared with the conventional technique, the gradient-dose technique resulted in higher dose uniformity and conformity to the target volumes, lower organ at risk (OAR) mean and maximum doses, and diminished hot spots from systematic positioning errors over the course of treatment. Single-fraction hot and cold spots were improved for the gradient-dose technique. The single-gradient junction technique provides improved conformity, dose uniformity, diminished hot spots, lower OAR mean and maximum dose, and one plan for the entire treatment course, which reduces the potential human error associated with conventional 4-shifted plans

  20. Shift schedule, work-family relationships, marital communication, job satisfaction and health among transport service shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra-Golec, Irena; Smith, Lawrence; Wilczek-Rużyczka, Ewa; Siemiginowska, Patrycja; Wątroba, Joanna

    2017-02-21

    Existing research has documented that shiftwork consequences may depend on the shift system parameters. Fast rotating systems (1-3 shifts of the same kind in a row) and day work have been found to be less disruptive biologically and socially than slower rotating systems and afternoon and night work. The aim of this study was to compare day workers and shift workers of different systems in terms of rotation speed and shifts worked with regard to work-family and family-work positive and negative spillover, marital communication style, job satisfaction and health. Employees (N = 168) of the maintenance workshops of transportation service working different shift systems (day shift, weekly rotating 2 and 3‑shift system, and fast rotating 3-shift system) participated in the study. They completed the Work- Family Spillover Questionnaire, Marital Communication Questionnaire, Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Physical Health Questionnaire (a part of the Standard Shiftwork Index). The workers of quicker rotating 3-shift systems reported significantly higher scores of family-to-work facilitation (F(3, 165) = 4.175, p = 0.007) and a higher level of constructive style of marital communication (Engagement F(3, 165) = 2.761, p = 0.044) than the workers of slower rotating 2-shift systems. There were no differences between the groups of workers with regard to health and job satisfaction. A higher level of work-family facilitation and a more constructive style of marital communication were found among the workers of faster rotating 3-shift system when compared to the workers of a slower rotating 2-shift system (afternoon, night). This may indicate that the fast rotating shift system in contrary to the slower rotating one is more friendly for the work and family domains and for the relationship between them. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1):121-131. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Shift schedule, work–family relationships, marital communication, job satisfaction and health among transport service shift workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Iskra-Golec

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Existing research has documented that shiftwork consequences may depend on the shift system parameters. Fast rotating systems (1–3 shifts of the same kind in a row and day work have been found to be less disruptive biologically and socially than slower rotating systems and afternoon and night work. The aim of this study was to compare day workers and shift workers of different systems in terms of rotation speed and shifts worked with regard to work–family and family–work positive and negative spillover, marital communication style, job satisfaction and health. Material and Methods: Employees (N = 168 of the maintenance workshops of transportation service working different shift systems (day shift, weekly rotating 2 and 3‑shift system, and fast rotating 3-shift system participated in the study. They completed the Work– Family Spillover Questionnaire, Marital Communication Questionnaire, Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Physical Health Questionnaire (a part of the Standard Shiftwork Index. Results: The workers of quicker rotating 3-shift systems reported significantly higher scores of family-to-work facilitation (F(3, 165 = 4.175, p = 0.007 and a higher level of constructive style of marital communication (Engagement F(3, 165 = 2.761, p = 0.044 than the workers of slower rotating 2-shift systems. There were no differences between the groups of workers with regard to health and job satisfaction. Conclusions: A higher level of work–family facilitation and a more constructive style of marital communication were found among the workers of faster rotating 3-shift system when compared to the workers of a slower rotating 2-shift system (afternoon, night. This may indicate that the fast rotating shift system in contrary to the slower rotating one is more friendly for the work and family domains and for the relationship between them. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1:121–131

  2. Simulation and optimisation of a position sensitive scintillation detector with wavelength shifting fibers for thermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzkamp, Matthias; Engels, Ralf; Kemmerling, Guenter [ZEA-2, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Brueckel, Thomas [JCNS, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Stahl, Achim [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Waasen, Stefan van [ZEA-2, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Faculty of Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In neutron scattering experiments it is important to have position sensitive large scale detectors for thermal neutrons. A detector based on a neutron scintillator with wave length shifting fibers is a new kind of such a detector. We present the simulation of the detector based on the microscopic structure of the scintillation material of the mentioned detector. It consists of a converter and a scintillation powder bound in a matrix. The converter in our case is lithium fluoride with enriched lithium 6, to convert thermal neutrons into high energetic alpha and triton particles. The scintillation material is silver doped zinc sulfide. We show that pulse height spectra obtained by these scintillators can be be explained by the simple model of randomly distributed spheres of zinc sulfide and lithium fluoride. With this model, it is possible to optimise the mass ratio of zinc sulfide to lithium fluoride with respect to detection efficiency and/or energy deposition in zinc sulfide.

  3. Muon Knight shift and μ+ site in the monopnictide CeAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenck, A.; Amato, A.; Gygax, F.N.; Pinkpank, M.; Ott, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    The transverse field μSR-signal from μ + implanted in a CeAs single crystal shows a splitting into two components, displaying a positive and a negative Knight shift, respectively which both scale reasonably well with the magnetic bulk susceptibility above 10 K. The orientation dependence of the frequency shifts, measured at 15 K, is fully accounted for by the demagnetization field, implying an isotropic Knight shift, consistent with the μ + residing at the only interstitial site of high (cubic) symmetry, i.e., at the position (1/4,1/4,1/4). The occurrence of a split signal remains unexplained

  4. Pressure Shift Freezing as Potential Alternative for Generation of Decellularized Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eichhorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Protocols using chemical reagents for scaffold decellularization can cause changes in the properties of the matrix, depending on the type of tissue and the chemical reagent. Technologies using physical techniques may be possible alternatives for the production grafts with potential superior matrix characteristics. Material and Methods. We tested four different technologies for scaffold decellularization. Group 1: high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 1 GPa; Group 2: pressure shift freezing (PSF; Group 3: pulsed electric fields (PEF; Group 4: control group: detergent (SDS. The degree of decellularization was assessed by histological analysis and the measurement of residual DNA. Results. Tissue treated with PSF showed a decellularization with a penetration depth (PD of 1.5 mm and residual DNA content of . HHD treatment caused a PD of 0.2 mm with a residual DNA content of . PD in PEF was 0.5 mm, and the residual DNA content was . In the SDS group, PD was found to be 5 mm, and the DNA content was determined at . Conclusion. PSF showed promising results as a possible technique for scaffold decellularization. The penetration depth of PSF has to be optimized, and the mechanical as well as the biological characteristics of decellularized grafts have to be evaluated.

  5. Rotating shift work associated with obesity in men from northeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Cotterchio, Michelle; Kirsh, Victoria A; Nadalin, Victoria; Lightfoot, Nancy; Kreiger, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    While some studies have suggested associations between shift work and obesity, few have been population-based or considered multiple shift schedules. Since obesity is linked with several chronic health conditions, understanding which types of shift work influence obesity is important and additional work with more detailed exposure assessment of shift work is warranted. Using multivariate polytomous logistic regression, we investigated the associations between shift work (evening/night, rotating and other shift schedules) and overweight and obesity as measured by body mass index cross-sectionally among 1561 men. These men had previously participated as population controls in a prostate cancer case-control study conducted in northeastern Ontario from 1995 to 1999. We obtained information on work history (including shift work), height and weight from the existing self-reported questionnaire data. We observed an association for ever (vs. never) having been employed in rotating shift work for both the overweight (OR [odds ratio] = 1.34; 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.05-1.73) and obese (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.12-2.21) groups. We also observed nonsignificant associations for ever (vs. never) having been employed in permanent evening/night shifts. In addition, we found a significant trend of increased risk for both overweight and obesity with increasing duration of rotating shift work. Both the positive association between rotating shift work and obesity and the suggested positive association for permanent evening/night shift work in this study are consistent with previous findings. Future population-based research that is able to build on our results while examining additional shift work characteristics will further clarify whether some shift patterns have a greater impact on obesity than others.

  6. CASE REPORT PET/CT-positive brown tumour – a potentially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brown tumor of bone: a potential source of false-positive Thallium-201 localization. J Nucl Med 1989; 30: 1264-1267. 4. Nassar GM, Ayus JC. Images in clinical medicine. Brown tumor in end stage renal disease. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341: 1652. 5. Keyser JS, Postma GN. Brown tumor of the mandible. Am J Otolaryngol 1996; ...

  7. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveewo, Steven; Kamya, Moses R; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Fatch, Robin; Bangsberg, David R; Coates, Thomas; Hahn, Judith A; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2012-03-19

    Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold). However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2%) were HIV negative. Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  8. Phenological shifts conserve thermal niches in North American birds and reshape expectations for climate-driven range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolar, Jacob B; Epanchin, Peter N; Beissinger, Steven R; Tingley, Morgan W

    2017-12-05

    Species respond to climate change in two dominant ways: range shifts in latitude or elevation and phenological shifts of life-history events. Range shifts are widely viewed as the principal mechanism for thermal niche tracking, and phenological shifts in birds and other consumers are widely understood as the principal mechanism for tracking temporal peaks in biotic resources. However, phenological and range shifts each present simultaneous opportunities for temperature and resource tracking, although the possible role for phenological shifts in thermal niche tracking has been widely overlooked. Using a canonical dataset of Californian bird surveys and a detectability-based approach for quantifying phenological signal, we show that Californian bird communities advanced their breeding phenology by 5-12 d over the last century. This phenological shift might track shifting resource peaks, but it also reduces average temperatures during nesting by over 1 °C, approximately the same magnitude that average temperatures have warmed over the same period. We further show that early-summer temperature anomalies are correlated with nest success in a continental-scale database of bird nests, suggesting avian thermal niches might be broadly limited by temperatures during nesting. These findings outline an adaptation surface where geographic range and breeding phenology respond jointly to constraints imposed by temperature and resource phenology. By stabilizing temperatures during nesting, phenological shifts might mitigate the need for range shifts. Global change ecology will benefit from further exploring phenological adjustment as a potential mechanism for thermal niche tracking and vice versa.

  9. Positive zeta potential of a negatively charged semi-permeable plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-08-01

    The negative charge of the plasma membrane (PM) severely affects the nature of moieties that may enter or leave the cells and controls a large number of ion-interaction-mediated intracellular and extracellular events. In this letter, we report our discovery of a most fascinating scenario, where one interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) of the negatively charged PM shows a positive surface (or ζ) potential, while the other interface (e.g., membrane-electrolyte interface) still shows a negative ζ potential. Therefore, we encounter a completely unexpected situation where an interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) that has a negative surface charge density demonstrates a positive ζ potential. We establish that the attainment of such a property by the membrane can be ascribed to an interplay of the nature of the membrane semi-permeability and the electrostatics of the electric double layer established on either side of the charged membrane. We anticipate that such a membrane property can lead to such capabilities of the cell (in terms of accepting or releasing certain kinds of moieties as well regulating cellular signaling) that was hitherto inconceivable.

  10. S-wave kaon-nucleon phase shifts with instanton induced effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, S.; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    2003-01-01

    The kaon-nucleon S-wave phase shifts have been calculated, for both isospin channels I=0 and I=1, in the framework of a semirelativistic quark potential model which includes an instanton induced force. The agreement with experimental phase shifts is poor essentially because of a dominant attraction coming from instantons. The low-energy behaviour of S-wave phase shifts, for I=0 and I=1 channels, obtained in the kaon-nucleon system is characteristic of a potential which can produce one loosely bound state

  11. S-wave kaon-nucleon phase shifts with instanton induced effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, S. E-mail: lemaire@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B

    2003-09-22

    The kaon-nucleon S-wave phase shifts have been calculated, for both isospin channels I=0 and I=1, in the framework of a semirelativistic quark potential model which includes an instanton induced force. The agreement with experimental phase shifts is poor essentially because of a dominant attraction coming from instantons. The low-energy behaviour of S-wave phase shifts, for I=0 and I=1 channels, obtained in the kaon-nucleon system is characteristic of a potential which can produce one loosely bound state.

  12. Two-dimensional potential and charge distributions of positive surface streamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Daiki; Matsuoka, Shigeyasu; Kumada, Akiko; Hidaka, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    Information on the potential and the field profile along a surface discharge is required for quantitatively discussing and clarifying the propagation mechanism. The sensing technique with a Pockels crystal has been developed for directly measuring the potential and electric field distribution on a dielectric material. In this paper, the Pockels sensing system consists of a pulse laser and a CCD camera for measuring the instantaneous two-dimensional potential distribution on a 25.4 mm square area with a 50 μm sampling pitch. The temporal resolution is 3.2 ns which is determined by the pulse width of the laser emission. The transient change in the potential distribution of a positive surface streamer propagating in atmospheric air is measured with this system. The electric field and the charge distributions are also calculated from the measured potential profile. The propagating direction component of the electric field near the tip of the propagating streamer reaches 3 kV mm -1 . When the streamer stops, the potential distribution along a streamer forms an almost linear profile with the distance from the electrode, and its gradient is about 0.5 kV mm -1 .

  13. On the counting rate-dependent amplitude shifts in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh, K.

    1976-01-01

    The presence of a positive ion cloud near the anode wire, which has been believed to be the cause of the observed counting rate-dependent peak shifts in proportional counters, does not explain various exhibited features of these shifts. The possibility of other mechanisms involved is, therefore, examined. The columnar recombination of primary ions in the counter is considered to explain the origin of the shifts and their observed features. (Auth.)

  14. Precise determination of lattice phase shifts and mixing angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bing-Nan, E-mail: b.lu@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Lähde, Timo A. [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Lee, Dean [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Meißner, Ulf-G. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA – High Performance Computing, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-09-10

    We introduce a general and accurate method for determining lattice phase shifts and mixing angles, which is applicable to arbitrary, non-cubic lattices. Our method combines angular momentum projection, spherical wall boundaries and an adjustable auxiliary potential. This allows us to construct radial lattice wave functions and to determine phase shifts at arbitrary energies. For coupled partial waves, we use a complex-valued auxiliary potential that breaks time-reversal invariance. We benchmark our method using a system of two spin-1/2 particles interacting through a finite-range potential with a strong tensor component. We are able to extract phase shifts and mixing angles for all angular momenta and energies, with precision greater than that of extant methods. We discuss a wide range of applications from nuclear lattice simulations to optical lattice experiments.

  15. Cylinder gauge measurement using a position sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, W. Doyle

    2007-01-01

    A position sensitive detector (PSD) has been used to determine the diameter of cylindrical pins based on the shift in a laser beam's centroid. The centroid of the light beam is defined here as the weighted average of position by the local intensity. A shift can be observed in the centroid of an otherwise axially symmetric light beam, which is partially obstructed. Additionally, the maximum shift in the centroid is a unique function of the obstructing cylinder diameter. Thus to determine the cylinder diameter, one only needs to detect this maximum shift as the cylinder is swept across the beam

  16. The Memory Trace Supporting Lose-Shift Responding Decays Rapidly after Reward Omission and Is Distinct from Other Learning Mechanisms in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Aaron J; Thapa, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    The propensity of animals to shift choices immediately after unexpectedly poor reinforcement outcomes is a pervasive strategy across species and tasks. We report here that the memory supporting such lose-shift responding in rats rapidly decays during the intertrial interval and persists throughout training and testing on a binary choice task, despite being a suboptimal strategy. Lose-shift responding is not positively correlated with the prevalence and temporal dependence of win-stay responding, and it is inconsistent with predictions of reinforcement learning on the task. These data provide further evidence that win-stay and lose-shift are mediated by dissociated neural mechanisms and indicate that lose-shift responding presents a potential confound for the study of choice in the many operant choice tasks with short intertrial intervals. We propose that this immediate lose-shift responding is an intrinsic feature of the brain's choice mechanisms that is engaged as a choice reflex and works in parallel with reinforcement learning and other control mechanisms to guide action selection.

  17. Tendon shift in hallux valgus: observations at MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustace, S. [Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical Center Hospital, 88 East Newton Street, Atrium - 2, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Williamson, D. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wilson, M. [Department of Orthopedics, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); O`Byrne, J. [Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical Center Hospital, 88 East Newton Street, Atrium - 2, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Bussolari, L. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thomas, M. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Stephens, M. [Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical Center Hospital, 88 East Newton Street, Atrium - 2, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Stack, J. [Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical Center Hospital, 88 East Newton Street, Atrium - 2, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Weissman, B. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to demonstrate a shift in tendon alignment at the first metatarsophalangeal joint in patients with hallux valgus by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Design. Ten normal feet and 20 feet with the hallux valgus deformity conforming to conventional clinical and radiographic criteria were prospectively studied using magnetic resonance imaging. Correlation was made between tendon position at the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the severity of the hallux valgus deformity. Results. There is a significant shift in tendon position at the first metatarsophalangeal joint of patients with hallux valgus. The insertion of the abductor hallucis tendon is markedly plantarward and the flexor and extensor tendons bowstring at the first metatarsophalangeal joint compared with patients without the deformity. The severity of the tendon shift correlates with the hallux valgus angle and clinical severity of the hallux valgus deformity in each case. Conclusion. Patients with hallux valgus have a significant tendon shift at the first metatarsophalangeal joint which appears to contribute to development of the deformity. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Tendon shift in hallux valgus: observations at MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustace, S.; Williamson, D.; Wilson, M.; O'Byrne, J.; Bussolari, L.; Thomas, M.; Stephens, M.; Stack, J.; Weissman, B.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. This study was undertaken to demonstrate a shift in tendon alignment at the first metatarsophalangeal joint in patients with hallux valgus by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Design. Ten normal feet and 20 feet with the hallux valgus deformity conforming to conventional clinical and radiographic criteria were prospectively studied using magnetic resonance imaging. Correlation was made between tendon position at the first metatarsophalangeal joint and the severity of the hallux valgus deformity. Results. There is a significant shift in tendon position at the first metatarsophalangeal joint of patients with hallux valgus. The insertion of the abductor hallucis tendon is markedly plantarward and the flexor and extensor tendons bowstring at the first metatarsophalangeal joint compared with patients without the deformity. The severity of the tendon shift correlates with the hallux valgus angle and clinical severity of the hallux valgus deformity in each case. Conclusion. Patients with hallux valgus have a significant tendon shift at the first metatarsophalangeal joint which appears to contribute to development of the deformity. (orig.). With 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Rotating shift work associated with obesity in men from northeastern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Grundy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While some studies have suggested associations between shift work and obesity, few have been population-based or considered multiple shift schedules. Since obesity is linked with several chronic health conditions, understanding which types of shift work influence obesity is important and additional work with more detailed exposure assessment of shift work is warranted. Methods: Using multivariate polytomous logistic regression, we investigated the associations between shift work (evening/night, rotating and other shift schedules and overweight and obesity as measured by body mass index cross-sectionally among 1561 men. These men had previously participated as population controls in a prostate cancer case-control study conducted in northeastern Ontario from 1995 to 1999. We obtained information on work history (including shift work, height and weight from the existing self-reported questionnaire data. Results: We observed an association for ever (vs. never having been employed in rotating shift work for both the overweight (OR [odds ratio] = 1.34; 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.05–1.73 and obese (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.12–2.21 groups. We also observed nonsignificant associations for ever (vs. never having been employed in permanent evening/night shifts. In addition, we found a significant trend of increased risk for both overweight and obesity with increasing duration of rotating shift work. Conclusion: Both the positive association between rotating shift work and obesity and the suggested positive association for permanent evening/night shift work in this study are consistent with previous findings. Future population-based research that is able to build on our results while examining additional shift work characteristics will further clarify whether some shift patterns have a greater impact on obesity than others.

  20. Red light-induced shift of the fluence-response curve for first positive curvature of maize [Zea mays] coleoptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, E.; Schäfer, E.

    1987-01-01

    The fluence-response curve for first positive phototropic curvture of dark-grown maize coleoptiles is shifted to ten-fold higher fluences if the coieoptiles are irradiated with red light 2 h prior to the phototropic induction with blue light. Fluence-response curves for this red-induced shift were obtained with unilateral red irradiations 2 h prior to inductive blue pulses of different fluences. They differ significantly depending on whether the red light was given from the same side as or the opposite side to the respective inductive blue pulse, thus demonstrating that the red light effect is a local response of the coleoptile. The fluence-response curves for an inductive blue pulse in the ascending part were compared with those for an inductive blue pulse in the descending part of the fluence-response curve for blue light induced phototropism. They are quite different in threshold of red light sensitivity and shape for irradiations from both the same and the opposite sides. This offers evidence for the hypothesis that at least two different photosystems are involved in phototropism, and that they are modulated differently by a red light preirradiation. All these fluence-response curves indicate that it is possible to increase the response in the coleoptile, if the red light preirradiation is given opposite to the inductive blue pulse. This is supported by blue light fluence-response curves obtained after a weak unilateral red preirradiation. (author)

  1. Competition and facilitation may lead to asymmetric range shift dynamics with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ailene; HilleRisLambers, Janneke

    2017-09-01

    Forecasts of widespread range shifts with climate change stem from assumptions that climate drives species' distributions. However, local adaptation and biotic interactions also influence range limits and thus may impact range shifts. Despite the potential importance of these factors, few studies have directly tested their effects on performance at range limits. We address how population-level variation and biotic interactions may affect range shifts by transplanting seeds and seedlings of western North American conifers of different origin populations into different competitive neighborhoods within and beyond their elevational ranges and monitoring their performance. We find evidence that competition with neighboring trees limits performance within current ranges, but that interactions between adults and juveniles switch from competitive to facilitative at upper range limits. Local adaptation had weaker effects on performance that did not predictably vary with range position or seed origin. Our findings suggest that competitive interactions may slow species turnover within forests at lower range limits, whereas facilitative interactions may accelerate the pace of tree expansions upward near timberline. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baveewo Steven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold. However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2% were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals.

  3. Orientation-dependent surface core-level shifts and chemical shifts on clean and H 2S-covered GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, W.; Finster, J.; Kuhr, H. J.

    1987-08-01

    Photoelectron spectra of the As 3d and Ga 3d core levels were studied in situ on a cylindrically shaped GaAs single crystal for the six inequivalent orientations (001), (113), (111), (110), (11¯1) and (11¯3). On the clean surface, prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), surface core levels are shifted by 0.25 to 0.55 eV towards smaller binding energy (BE) for As 3d and -0.25 to -0.35 eV towards higher BE for Ga, depending on orientation. Additional As causes As 3d contributions shifted between -0.45 and -0.7 eV towards higher BE. The position and intensity of them is influenced by H 2S adsorption. At 150 K, H 2S adsorbs preferentially on As sites. As chemical shifts appear at -0.6 to -0.9 eV towards higher BE. Simultaneously, As accumulation occurs on all orientations with the exception of (110). High temperature adsorption (550 K, 720 K) influences mainly the Ga 3d peaks. Two peaks shifted by about -0.45 and -0.8 eV towards higher Be were found which are attributed to Ga atoms with one or two sulfur ligands, respectively. At 720 K, also As depletion is observed. The compatibility of surface core-level positions and intensities with recent structural models for the (111) and (11¯1) surfaces is discussed.

  4. 'Table step-shift DSA' for peripheral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Kanji; Seo, Hiroyuki; Kawase, Yoshirou; Hino, Ichirou; Satou, Katashi; Takashima, Hitoshi; Ohkawa, Motoomi; Tamai, Toyosato; Tanabe, Masatada

    1987-01-01

    We developed a new technique of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for peripheral angiography, which make it possible to obtain DSA images of two contiguous positions with a single injection of contrast material. It is made by the combination with DSA system (Toshiba Digiformer X-03A) and the angio-table with step-shift function (Toshiba CAT-FX), which is widely used in the conventional angiography for pelvis and lower extrimities. When DSA image of the first position is sufficiently demonstrated, the table is semi-automatically translated to the second position by the switching of the operator, observing TV-monitor. The images are stored into the digital image disc. DSA image of the second position can be given by the remasking method. We examined 40 times ''table step-shift DSA'' on 18 patients, which consist of 19 IVDSA with central injection and 21 IADSA for abdomen and lower leg. In 90 % and 72.5 % of images the procedure was diagnostic for the 1st and 2nd position respectively. The causes of nondiagnostic image were mostly from the prolonged blood flow and its difference in both sides. With this technique we could reduce the contrast material load and the time consumption of the examination. (author)

  5. A singular position-dependent mass particle in an infinite potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Omar; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

    2009-01-01

    An unusual singular position-dependent-mass particle in an infinite potential well is considered. The corresponding Hamiltonian is mapped through a point-canonical-transformation and an explicit correspondence between the target Hamiltonian and a Poeschl-Teller type reference Hamiltonian is obtained. New ordering ambiguity parametric setting are suggested

  6. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłońska, Beata; Burdelak, Weronika; Krysicka, Jolanta; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Sobala, Wojciech; Klimecka-Muszyńska, Dorota; Rybacki, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more) - 434 individuals currently working night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity) was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22) among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029). This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  7. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  8. Potential profile and photovoltaic effect in nanoscale lateral pn junction observed by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Roland; Moraru, Daniel; Mizuno, Takeshi; Jablonski, Ryszard; Tabe, Michiharu

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale pn junctions have been investigated by Kelvin probe force microscopy and several particular features were found. Within the depletion region, a localized noise area is observed, induced by temporal fluctuations of dopant states. Electronic potential landscape is significantly affected by dopants with ground-state energies deeper than in bulk. Finally, the effects of light illumination were studied and it was found that the depletion region shifts its position as a function of light intensity. This is ascribed to charge redistribution within the pn junction as a result of photovoltaic effect and due to the impact of deepened-level dopants. - Highlights: • In pn nano-junctions, temporal potential fluctuations are found in depletion layer. • Fluctuations are due to frequent capture and emission of free carriers by dopants. • Depletion layer position shifts as a function of the intensity of irradiated light. • The depletion layer shifts are due to changes of deep-level dopants' charge states

  9. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  10. Shift work and its association with metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Maria Carlota Borba; Filho, Fábio Fernandes Dantas; Schnorr, Claudia Carolina; Bottega, Gustavo Borchardt; Rodrigues, Ticiana C

    2015-01-01

    Although the health burden of shift work has not been extensively studied, evidence suggests that it may affect the metabolic balance and cause obesity and other metabolic disorders. Sleep deprivation, circadian desynchronization and behavioral changes in diet and physical activity are among the most commonly mentioned factors in studies of the association between night work and metabolic disorders. Individual adaptation to night work depends greatly on personal factors such as family and social life, but occupational interventions may also make a positive contribution to the transition to shift work, such as exposure to bright lights during the night shift, melatonin use, shift regularity and clockwise rotation, and dietary adaptations for the metabolic needs of night workers. The evaluation of the impact of night work on health and of the mechanisms underlying this relationship can serve as a basis for intervention strategies to minimize the health burden of shift work. This review aimed to identify highlights regarding therapeutic implications following the association between night and shift work and metabolic disorders, as well as the mechanisms and pathways responsible for these relationships.

  11. Magnetic phase shift reconstruction for uniformly magnetized nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtari-Zavareh, Azadeh [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); De Graef, Marc [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kavanagh, Karen L. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    A new analytical model is developed for the magnetic phase shift of uniformly magnetized nanowires with ideal cylindrical geometry. The model is applied to experimental data from off-axis electron holography measurements of the phase shift of CoFeB nanowires, and the saturation induction of a selected wire, as well as its radius, aspect ratio, position and orientation, is determined by fitting the model parameters. The saturation induction value of 1.7 T of the CoFeB nanowire is found to be similar, to be within the measurement error, to values reported in the literature. - Highlights: • We describe a mathematical model for the magnetic phase shift of a cylindrical nanowire. • We discuss electron holography experiments on magnetic nanowires. • We obtain an accurate fit of the measured magnetic phase shift profile. • We extract the magnetic induction of the nanowire from the phase shift model. • The magnetic induction of 1.7 T agrees well with literature results.

  12. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.W.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  13. Effect of asymmetric actuator and detector position on Coriolis flowmeter and measured phase shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enz, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Coriolis flowmeters (CFM) are forced to vibrate by a periodic excitation usually applied midpipe through an electromagnetic actuator. From hands-on experience with industrial CFMs it appears, that the electromagnetic actuator has to be located as symmetric as possible. For CFM design and trouble...... perturbation analysis. The result is a simple analytical expression for the approximated phase shift, which offers a direct insight into how the location of the actuator influences the phase shift. It appears, that asymmetrical forcing combined with fluctuating pipe damping could be a factor contributing...... zero-point stability. The validity of the hypotheses, which are assumed to be basically similar for more complicated geometries, e.g. bended and/or dual pipe CFMs, with or without multiple actuators, is suggested to be tested using laboratory experiments with purpose built non-ideal CFMs....

  14. Bidirectional shifts of TRPM8 channel gating by temperature and chemical agents modulate the cold sensitivity of mammalian thermoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälkiä, Annika; Madrid, Rodolfo; Meseguer, Victor; de la Peña, Elvira; Valero, María; Belmonte, Carlos; Viana, Félix

    2007-05-15

    TRPM8, a member of the melastatin subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels, is activated by voltage, low temperatures and cooling compounds. These properties and its restricted expression to small sensory neurons have made it the ion channel with the most advocated role in cold transduction. Recent work suggests that activation of TRPM8 by cold and menthol takes place through shifts in its voltage-activation curve, which cause the channel to open at physiological membrane potentials. By contrast, little is known about the actions of inhibitors on the function of TRPM8. We investigated the chemical and thermal modulation of TRPM8 in transfected HEK293 cells and in cold-sensitive primary sensory neurons. We show that cold-evoked TRPM8 responses are effectively suppressed by inhibitor compounds SKF96365, 4-(3-chloro-pyridin-2-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid (4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-amide (BCTC) and 1,10-phenanthroline. These antagonists exert their effect by shifting the voltage dependence of TRPM8 activation towards more positive potentials. An opposite shift towards more negative potentials is achieved by the agonist menthol. Functionally, the bidirectional shift in channel gating translates into a change in the apparent temperature threshold of TRPM8-expressing cells. Accordingly, in the presence of the antagonist compounds, the apparent response-threshold temperature of TRPM8 is displaced towards colder temperatures, whereas menthol sensitizes the response, shifting the threshold in the opposite direction. Co-application of agonists and antagonists produces predictable cancellation of these effects, suggesting the convergence on a common molecular process. The potential for half maximal activation of TRPM8 activation by cold was approximately 140 mV more negative in native channels compared to recombinant channels, with a much higher open probability at negative membrane potentials in the former. In functional terms, this difference translates

  15. Tilt shift determinations with spatial-carrier phase-shift method in temporal phase-shift interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang; Wang, Baorui

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed to deal with tilt-shift errors in temporal phase-shift interferometry (PSI). In the algorithm, the tilt shifts are detected with the spatial-carrier phase-shift (SCPS) method and then the tilt shifts are applied as priori information to the least-squares fittings of phase retrieval. The algorithm combines the best features of the SCPS and the temporal PSI. The algorithm could be applied to interferograms of arbitrary aperture without data extrapolation for the Fourier transform is not involved. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The statistics of simulation results show a satisfied accuracy in detecting tilt-shift errors. Comparisons of the measurements with and without environmental vibration show that the proposed algorithm could compensate tilt-shift errors and retrieve wavefront phase accurately. The algorithm provides an approach to retrieve wavefront phase for the temporal PSI in vibrating environment. (paper)

  16. Changes in extratropical storm track cloudiness 1983-2008: observational support for a poleward shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Frida A.M.; Ramanathan, V. [University of California, Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate (C4), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Tselioudis, George [Columbia University, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Climate model simulations suggest that the extratropical storm tracks will shift poleward as a consequence of global warming. In this study the northern and southern hemisphere storm tracks over the Pacific and Atlantic ocean basins are studied using observational data, primarily from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, ISCCP. Potential shifts in the storm tracks are examined using the observed cloud structures as proxies for cyclone activity. Different data analysis methods are employed, with the objective to address difficulties and uncertainties in using ISCCP data for regional trend analysis. In particular, three data filtering techniques are explored; excluding specific problematic regions from the analysis, regressing out a spurious viewing geometry effect, and excluding specific cloud types from the analysis. These adjustments all, to varying degree, moderate the cloud trends in the original data but leave the qualitative aspects of those trends largely unaffected. Therefore, our analysis suggests that ISCCP data can be used to interpret regional trends in cloudiness, provided that data and instrumental artefacts are recognized and accounted for. The variation in magnitude between trends emerging from application of different data correction methods, allows us to estimate possible ranges for the observational changes. It is found that the storm tracks, here represented by the extent of the midlatitude-centered band of maximum cloud cover over the studied ocean basins, experience a poleward shift as well as a narrowing over the 25 year period covered by ISCCP. The observed magnitudes of these effects are larger than in current generation climate models (CMIP3). The magnitude of the shift is particularly large in the northern hemisphere Atlantic. This is also the one of the four regions in which imperfect data primarily prevents us from drawing firm conclusions. The shifted path and reduced extent of the storm track cloudiness is accompanied

  17. Changes in Extratropical Storm Track Cloudiness 1983-2008: Observational Support for a Poleward Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Frida A-M.; Rananathan, V.; Tselioudis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Climate model simulations suggest that the extratropical storm tracks will shift poleward as a consequence of global warming. In this study the northern and southern hemisphere storm tracks over the Pacific and Atlantic ocean basins are studied using observational data, primarily from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, ISCCP. Potential shifts in the storm tracks are examined using the observed cloud structures as proxies for cyclone activity. Different data analysis methods are employed, with the objective to address difficulties and uncertainties in using ISCCP data for regional trend analysis. In particular, three data filtering techniques are explored; excluding specific problematic regions from the analysis, regressing out a spurious viewing geometry effect, and excluding specific cloud types from the analysis. These adjustments all, to varying degree, moderate the cloud trends in the original data but leave the qualitative aspects of those trends largely unaffected. Therefore, our analysis suggests that ISCCP data can be used to interpret regional trends in cloudiness, provided that data and instrumental artefacts are recognized and accounted for. The variation in magnitude between trends emerging from application of different data correction methods, allows us to estimate possible ranges for the observational changes. It is found that the storm tracks, here represented by the extent of the midlatitude-centered band of maximum cloud cover over the studied ocean basins, experience a poleward shift as well as a narrowing over the 25 year period covered by ISCCP. The observed magnitudes of these effects are larger than in current generation climate models (CMIP3). The magnitude of the shift is particularly large in the northern hemisphere Atlantic. This is also the one of the four regions in which imperfect data primarily prevents us from drawing firm conclusions. The shifted path and reduced extent of the storm track cloudiness is accompanied

  18. Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) by precise object displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, Sebastien; Trausch, Gregory; Cordier, Benoit; Grandclaude, Denis; Retournard, Alain; Fraissard, Jacques; Canet, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; A mechanical device (NMR lift) has been built for displacing vertically an object (typically a NMR sample tube) inside the NMR probe with an accuracy of 1 Μm. A series of single pulse experiments are performed for incremented vertical positions of the sample. With a sufficiently spatially selective rf field, one obtains chemical shift information along the displacement direction (one dimensional Chemical Shift Imaging – CSI). Knowing the vertical radio-frequency (rf) f...

  19. Goos-Hänchen shifts of partially coherent light beams from a cavity with a four-level Raman gain medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate spatial and angular Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts (both negative and positive) in the reflected light for a partial coherent light incident on a cavity. A four-level Raman gain atomic medium is considered in a cavity. The effects of spatial coherence, beam width, and mode index of partial coherent light fields on spatial and angular GH shifts are studied. Our results reveal that a large magnitude of negative and positive GH shifts in the reflected light is achievable with the introduction of partial coherent light fields. Furthermore, the amplitude of spatial (negative and positive) GH shifts are sharply affected by the partial coherent light beam as compared to angular (negative and positive) GH shifts in the reflected light.

  20. 12-hour shifts: an ethical dilemma for the nurse executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Susan G

    2008-06-01

    Flexible work hours, including 12-hour shifts, have become a common scheduling option for nurses. The author explores whether 12-hour shifts are an ethical scheduling option for nurses because recent research suggests that 12-hour shifts are a potential hazard to patients. A multistep model for ethical decision making, reflecting the concept of procedural justice, is used to examine this issue.

  1. Beta cell 5'-shifted isomiRs are candidate regulatory hubs in type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Baran-Gale

    Full Text Available Next-generation deep sequencing of small RNAs has unveiled the complexity of the microRNA (miRNA transcriptome, which is in large part due to the diversity of miRNA sequence variants ("isomiRs". Changes to a miRNA's seed sequence (nucleotides 2-8, including shifted start positions, can redirect targeting to a dramatically different set of RNAs and alter biological function. We performed deep sequencing of small RNA from mouse insulinoma (MIN6 cells (widely used as a surrogate for the study of pancreatic beta cells and developed a bioinformatic analysis pipeline to profile isomiR diversity. Additionally, we applied the pipeline to recently published small RNA-seq data from primary human beta cells and whole islets and compared the miRNA profiles with that of MIN6. We found that: (1 the miRNA expression profile in MIN6 cells is highly correlated with those of primary human beta cells and whole islets; (2 miRNA loci can generate multiple highly expressed isomiRs with different 5'-start positions (5'-isomiRs; (3 isomiRs with shifted start positions (5'-shifted isomiRs are highly expressed, and can be as abundant as their unshifted counterparts (5'-reference miRNAs. Finally, we identified 10 beta cell miRNA families as candidate regulatory hubs in a type 2 diabetes (T2D gene network. The most significant candidate hub was miR-29, which we demonstrated regulates the mRNA levels of several genes critical to beta cell function and implicated in T2D. Three of the candidate miRNA hubs were novel 5'-shifted isomiRs: miR-375+1, miR-375-1 and miR-183-5p+1. We showed by in silico target prediction and in vitro transfection studies that both miR-375+1 and miR-375-1 are likely to target an overlapping, but distinct suite of beta cell genes compared to canonical miR-375. In summary, this study characterizes the isomiR profile in beta cells for the first time, and also highlights the potential functional relevance of 5'-shifted isomiRs to T2D.

  2. The human factors of implementing shift work in logging operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D L; Gallagher, T V; Thomas, R E

    2008-10-01

    A fairly recent development in the forest industry is the use of shift work in logging in the southeastern U.S. Logging company owners are implementing shift work as an opportunity to increase production and potentially reduce the cost of producing each unit of wood, without consideration of the potential impacts on the logging crew. There are many documented physiological and psychological impacts on workers from shift work in a variety of industries, although few address forestry workers in the U.S. Semi-structured interviews were performed to gather information about how logging company owners were implementing shift work in seven southeastern states. Data collected during the interviews included employee turnover, shift hours, shift scheduling, safety considerations, and production impacts. Various work schedules were employed. The majority of the schedules encompassed less than 24 hours per day. Permanent and rotating shift schedules were found. None of the logging company owners used more than two crews in a 24-hour period. Additional safety precautions were implemented as a result of working after dark. No in-woods worker accidents or injuries were reported by any of those interviewed. Results indicate that a variety of work schedules can be successfully implemented in the southeastern logging industry.

  3. Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloy, K.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10 -18 and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.

  4. Examining the Conservative Shift from Harsh Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycelyn Pollock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a political shift has been observed, in that some political conservatives are now advocating, adjusting, or abandoning draconian drug laws, including mandatory minimums, and funding diversion, re-entry, and drug programs. Vocal proponents of this movement include Grover Norquist, Rand Paul, Edwin Meese, and Mark Levin, from the Texas Public Policy Council. Any movement away from the mass incarceration that has characterized the U.S. correctional policy for the last 30 years is welcomed; however, it is important to note carefully the philosophical foundation of the conservative’s interest in shifting correctional policy. This paper explores the potential factors contributing to this philosophical shift.

  5. KN phase shifts in a constituent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, S.; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    2001-01-01

    In a first step, the I=1 and I=0 kaon-nucleon s-wave phase shifts have been calculated in a quark potential model using the resonating group method (RGM) and a relativistic kinematics. The spinless Salpeter equation has been solved numerically using the Fourier grid hamiltonian method. The results have been compared to the nonrelativistic ones. For each isospin channel the phase shifts obtained are not so far from the nonrelativistic results. Then, K-nucleon p, d, f, g-waves phase shifts have been calculated using a nonrelativistic kinematics

  6. Isospectral Trigonometric Pöschl-Teller Potentials with Position Dependent Mass Generated by Supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-Cruz, C

    2016-01-01

    In this work a position dependent mass Hamiltonian with the same spectrum of the trigonometric Pöschl-Teller one was constructed by means of the underlying potential algebra. The corresponding wave functions are determined by using the factorization method. A new family of isospectral potentials are constructed by applying a Darboux transformation. An example is presented in order to illustrate the formalism. (paper)

  7. A Spectral Active Material Interference in the Electrical Conductivity of the Internal Electrolyte and the Potential Shift of the Ag/AgCl Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Myung Hee; Yeon, Jei Won; Hwang, Jae Sik; Song, Kyu Seok

    2009-01-01

    The Ag/AgCl electrode is a type of reference electrode, commonly used in electrochemical measurements, because it is simple and stable. For these reasons, the Ag/AgCl electrode has long been used to provide a reliable potential monitoring of ions in a solution. However, when a reference electrode is used in an aqueous solution containing a very low electrolyte for a long period of time, this could cause a considerable potential shift of the reference electrode due to a dilution of the internal electrolyte. If the potential of the reference electrode shifts, undesirable conditions may occur. Therefore, many studies have been applied to improve the long-term performance of the reference electrode. However, these attempts have not completely resolved the problem of an electrolyte dilution by the test solution. In the present study, we developed a creative technique to correct the concentration change of the internal electrolyte by a long-term exposure of the Ag/AgCl electrode in very dilute solutions. We measured the electrical conductivity and UV/VIS absorbance of the internal electrolyte. From these measurements, we observed the linear relationship between KCl concentration and the potential of the Ag/AgCl electrode. In order to accelerate the diffusion of the internal electrolyte into the test solution, an Ag/AgCl electrode with a tiny perforation was used. We confirmed the feasibility of the creative calibration technique

  8. Commonwealth Edison's approach to enhanced on-shift technical capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscas, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    A long-term plan was formulated that called for the integration of accident assessment and operational supervisory functions into a new operating position called the Station Control Room Engineer (SCRE). Pending implementation of the long-term plan, an alternative to the Shift Technical Advisor concept was selected as an interim plan. This alternative, called the SRO Augmentation program, involved giving five modules of specialized training to shift Senior Operators

  9. Position-Dependent Mass Schrödinger Equation for the Morse Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovando, G; Peña, J J; Morales, J; López-Bonilla, J

    2017-01-01

    The position dependent mass Schrödinger equation (PDMSE) has a wide range of quantum applications such as the study of semiconductors, quantum wells, quantum dots and impurities in crystals, among many others. On the other hand, the Morse potential is one of the most important potential models used to study the electronic properties of diatomic molecules. In this work, the solution of the effective mass one-dimensional Schrödinger equation for the Morse potential is presented. This is done by means of the canonical transformation method in algebraic form. The PDMSE is solved for any model of the proposed kinetic energy operators as for example the BenDaniel-Duke, Gora-Williams, Zhu-Kroemer or Li-Kuhn. Also, in order to solve the PDMSE with Morse potential, we consider a superpotential leading to a special form of the exactly solvable Schrödinger equation of constant mass for a class of multiparameter exponential-type potential along with a proper mass distribution. The proposed approach is general and can be applied in the search of new potentials suitable on science of materials by looking into the viable choices of the mass function. (paper)

  10. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from top predator amino acids reveal rapidly shifting ocean biochemistry in the outer California Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I Ruiz-Cooley

    Full Text Available Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore California Current System (CCS by measuring δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus. Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ≥1 ‰ by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer δ15N and δ13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ∼4‰ for δ15N source-AAs and 3‰ for δ13C essential-AAs, while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline δ15N and δ13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure.

  11. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from top predator amino acids reveal rapidly shifting ocean biochemistry in the outer California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I; Koch, Paul L; Fiedler, Paul C; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore California Current System (CCS) by measuring δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs) can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ≥1 ‰) by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer) δ15N and δ13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ∼4‰ for δ15N source-AAs and 3‰ for δ13C essential-AAs), while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline δ15N and δ13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure.

  12. A two-shift optimisation of the 'no action level' setup correction protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, C.; Fisher, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: As electronic portal imaging equipment becomes more common, many radiotherapy centres now have the ability to collect patient treatment position deviation values. One commonly used off-line set-up correction protocol for calculating patient setup corrections is the 'no action level' (NAL) protocol. This paper proposes a two-shift approach and calculates the number of images required for minimum systematic error. Patient data is used in a simulation to confirm this approach. Patient treatment position deviations were available for all treatment sessions for a large group of patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate. Thirty of these patients were selected. The patient position at treatment and all isocentre shifts made were recorded in the treatment notes. These were used to simulate the effect of the NAL protocol using a range of image numbers as the basis of the set-up correction. As Bortfeld et al noted, there is an error minimum that can be observed beyond which the mean radial systematic set-up error increases slowly with an increase in the number of images used. An enhancement to the NAL was proposed in which the patient's position is corrected on two occasions; once early in the treatment schedule, and again after more images have been collected. The expectation value of the set-up error for this two-shift NAL was found and minimised. The optimum staging for the two-shift NAL for the prostate patients was to image for a total of 9 sessions and to shift the patient after 3 sessions and 9 sessions. The thirty patients showed an uncorrected mean radial setup error of 0.65cm. In this simulation this was corrected to 0.26cm by application of the NAL using 5 images and to 0.17 cm using the two shift NAL with shifts after three and nine images. In situations where staff can manage the workload of collecting and analysing portal images for nine sessions for each patient, the two-shift NAL will result in a high level of set-up accuracy. Copyright

  13. Millivolt-scale DC shifts in the human scalp EEG: evidence for a nonneuronal generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voipio, Juha; Tallgren, Pekka; Heinonen, Erkki; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Kaila, Kai

    2003-04-01

    Slow shifts in the human scalp-recorded EEG, including those related to changes in brain CO(2) levels, have been generally assumed to result from changes in the level of tonic excitation of apical dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons. We readdressed this issue using DC-EEG shifts elicited in healthy adult subjects by hypo- or hypercapnia. A 3-min period of hyperventilation resulted in a prompt negative shift with a rate of up to 10 microV/s at the vertex (Cz) and an extremely steep dependence (up to 100 microV/mmHg) on the end-tidal Pco(2). This shift had a maximum of up to -2 mV at Cz versus the temporal derivations (T3/T4). Hyperventilation-like breathing of 5% CO(2)-95% O(2), which does not lead to a significant hypocapnia, resulted in a near-complete block of the negative DC shift at Cz. Hypoventilation, or breathing 5% CO(2) in air at normal respiratory rate, induced a positive shift. The high amplitude of the voltage gradients on the scalp induced by hyperventilation is not consistent with a neuronal origin. Instead, the present data suggest that they are generated by extracortical volume currents driven by a Pco(2)-dependent potential difference across epithelia separating the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Since changes in respiratory patterns and, hence, in the level of brain Pco(2), are likely to occur under a number of experimental conditions in which slow EEG responses have been reported (e.g., attention shifts, preparatory states, epileptic seizures, and hypoxic episodes), the present results call for a thorough reexamination of the mechanisms underlying scalp-recorded DC-EEG responses.

  14. Toward precise potential energy curves for diatomic molecules, derived from experimental line positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, H.

    1984-01-01

    An inverted, first-order perturbation approach is used to derive potential energy curves for diatomic molecules from experimental line positions of molecular bands. The concept adopted here is based on the inverted perturbation analysis (IPA) proposed by Kozman and Hinze, but uses radial eigenfunctions of the trial potential energy curves as basis sets for the perturbation correction. Using molecular linepositions rather than molecular energy levels we circumvent the necessity of defining molecular constants for the molecule prior to the derivation of the potential energy curves. (Author)

  15. Electrical and proximity-magnetic effects induced quantum Goos–Hänchen shift on the surface of topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuai, Jian [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers College, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China); Da, H.X., E-mail: haixia8779@163.com [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-03-15

    We use scattering matrix method to theoretically demonstrate that the quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulator coated by ferromagnetic strips is sensitive to the magnitude of ferromagnetic magnetization. The dependence of quantum Goos–Hänchen shift on magnetization and gate bias is investigated by performing station phase approach. It is found that quantum Goos–Hänchen shift is positive and large under the magnetic barrier but may be positive as well as negative values under the gate bias. Furthermore, the position of quantum Goos–Hänchen peak can also be modulated by the combination of gate bias and proximity magnetic effects. Our results indicate that topological insulators are another candidates to support quantum Goos–Hänchen shift. - Highlights: • Quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators is first investigated. • The magnetization affects quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators. • Quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators can be manipulated by the gate voltages.

  16. Primary selection into shift work and change of cardiovascular risk profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Germann, Christina; Lang, Stefan; Oberlinner, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    A potential "healthy shift worker effect" may bias the studied effect of shift work on health. The observed differences among shift and day workers in health behavior and health outcomes can be caused by: (i) primary selection, (ii) the influence from the shift work-related environment, and (iii) the impact of shift work. We aimed to study these potential sources. A cohort of 4754 male trainees who had finished their professional training and started their career in production in a chemical company between 1995 and 2012 was identified. Among them, 1348 (28%) were involved in rotating shift work and 3406 (72%) in day work. Information on health behavior and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases was retrieved from the medical examinations. This information was then compared (i) at the beginning of training, (ii) at the end of training, and (iii) 3 years after the employment, in relation to the working time. At the beginning of the training, the prevalence of smokers was higher among future shift workers (26% versus 21%), from 1995 to 2012. During the training and the first three years of employment, a marginal decline of systolic blood pressure and an elevation of triglyceride were related with shift work. No difference was found with respect to other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Our findings do not support a primary selection in favor of shift workers. An impact of shift work on the risk profile of cardiovascular diseases was not indicated in the observation period.

  17. Robust balance shift control with posture optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavafoglu, Z.; Kavafoglu, Ersan; Egges, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a control framework which creates robust and natural balance shifting behaviours during standing. Given high-level features such as the position of the center of mass projection and the foot configurations, a kinematic posture satisfying these features is synthesized using

  18. Nutrient reduction and climate change cause a potential shift from pelagic to benthic pathways in a eutrophic marine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Blenckner, T.; Stenseth, N.C.

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which marine ecosystems may support the pelagic or benthic food chain has been shown to vary across natural and anthropogenic gradients for e.g., in temperature and nutrient availability. Moreover, such external forcing may not only affect the flux of organic matter but could trigger...... variables across all trophic levels, we here propose a potential regime shift from pelagic to benthic regulatory pathways; a possible first sign of recovery from eutrophication likely triggered by drastic nutrient reductions (involving both nitrogen and phosphorus), in combination with climate...

  19. Blackbody radiation shift of the Ga+ clock transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yongjun; Mitroy, J

    2013-01-01

    The blackbody radiation shift of the Ga + clock transition is computed to be −0.0140 ± 0.0062 Hz at 300 K. The small shift is consistent with the blackbody radiation shifts of the clock transitions of other group III ions which are of a similar size. The polarizabilities of the Ga + states were computed using the configuration interaction method with an underlying semi-empirical core potential. Quadrupole and non-adiabatic dipole polarizabilities were also computed. A byproduct of the analysis involved calculations of the low-lying spectrum and oscillator strengths, including polarizabilities, of the Ga 2+ ion. (paper)

  20. Tachyons, Lamb Shifts and Superluminal Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    2000-01-01

    An elementary account on the origins of cosmic chaos in an open and multiply connected universe is given; there is a finite region in the open 3-space in which the world-lines of galaxies are chaotic, and the mixing taking place in this chaotic nucleus of the universe provides a mechanism to create equidistribution. The galaxy background defines a distinguished frame of reference and a unique cosmic time order; in this context superluminal signal transfer is studied. Tachyons are described by a real Proca field with negative mass square, coupled to a current of subluminal matter. Estimates on tachyon mixing in the geometric optics limit are derived. The potential of a static point source in this field theory is a damped periodic function. We treat this tachyon potential as a perturbation of the Coulomb potential, and study its effects on energy levels in hydrogenic systems. By comparing the induced level shifts to high-precision Lamb shift measurements and QED calculations, we suggest a tachyon mass of 2.1 ke...

  1. Lossy effects on the lateral shifts in negative-phase-velocity medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of the lateral shifts of the reflected and transmitted beams were performed, using the stationary-phase approach, for the planar interface of a conventional medium and a lossy negative-phase-velocity medium. The lateral shifts exhibit different behaviors beyond and below a certain angle, for both incident p-polarized and incident s-polarized plane waves. Loss in the negative-phase-velocity medium affects lateral shifts greatly, and may cause changes from negative to positive values for p-polarized incidence

  2. Impact of 12h shift patterns in nursing: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth; Sims, Sarah; Parr, Jenny; Davies, Nigel

    2015-02-01

    To provide a comprehensive scoping review of evidence of the impact and effectiveness of 12h shifts in the international nursing literature, supplemented by a review of evidence in other, non-nursing related industries. A search of the academic literature was undertaken in electronic databases (AMED, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Scopus, HMIC, the Cochrane Library, Business Source Premier, Econ Lit, ASSIA and Social Policy and Practice). A total of 158 potentially relevant nursing research papers and reviews were published between 1973 and 2014. Two reviewers independently reviewed the articles, leaving 85 primary research studies and 10 review papers in the nursing field to be included in the scoping review. Thirty-one relevant primary research papers and reviews were also identified in the non-nursing related industries literature. Research into 12h nursing shifts fell within five broad themes: 'risks to patients', 'patient experience', 'risks to staff', 'staff experience' and 'impact on the organisation of work'. There was inconclusive evidence of the effects of 12h shift patterns in all five themes, with some studies demonstrating positive impacts and others negative or no impacts. This also mirrors the evidence in other, non-nursing related industries. The quality of research reviewed is generally weak and most studies focus on the risks, experience and work/life balance for staff, with few addressing the impact on patient outcomes and experience of care or work productivity. There is insufficient evidence to justify the widespread implementation or withdrawal of 12h shifts in nursing. It is not clearly understood where there are real benefits and where there are real and unacceptable risks to patients and staff. More research focusing on the impact of 12h nursing shifts on patient safety and experience of care and on the long term impact on staff and work organisation is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Focused-laser interferometric position sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Stephen J.; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman

    2005-01-01

    We describe a simple method to measure the position shifts of an object with a range of tens of micrometers using a focused-laser (FL) interferometric position sensor. In this article we examine the effects of mechanical vibration on FL and Michelson interferometers. We tested both interferometers using vibration amplitudes ranging from 0 to 20 μm. Our FL interferometer has a resolution much better than the diffraction grating periodicities of 10 and 14 μm used in our experiments. A FL interferometer provides improved mechanical stability at the expense of spatial resolution. Our experimental results show that Michelson interferometers cannot be used when the vibration amplitude is more than an optical wavelength. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a focused-laser interferometric position sensor can be used to measure the position shifts of an object on a less sensitive, micrometer scale when the vibration amplitude is too large to use a Michelson interferometer

  4. Theoretical modeling of deuteration-induced shifts of the 0-0 bands in absorption spectra of selected aromatic amines: the role of the double-well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejak, Marcin; Kolek, Przemysław

    2013-12-05

    The harmonic approximation fails for inversion of the NH2 group in the ground state of aromatic amines as this vibration is characterized by a symmetric double-well potential with relatively small energy barrier. In such cases, the standard harmonic vibrational analysis is inapplicable: the inversion frequency calculated for the bottom of the potential well is strongly overestimated, while it attains imaginary values for the planar conformation of the molecule. The model calculations are discussed taking explicitly into account the presence of the double-well potential. The study is initially focused on reproduction of the deuteration-induced shifts of the 0-0 absorption band for anthranilic acid. The (incorrect) harmonic frequency of the NH2 inversion is replaced by a better one, obtained from numerical calculations employing a simple, quartic-quadratic model for the double-well potential, which is parametrized using just the harmonic frequency of the inversion and the height of the energy barrier. This operation brings theoretical results to qualitative agreement with experiment. A still better match is achieved with a modified version of the model that accounts for mixing of the NH2 inversion mode with other normal modes while retaining the initial simplicity of one-dimensional approach. The corrected results show surprisingly good accuracy, with deviations of the calculated shifts from the experimental values reduced to less than 5 cm(-1). In order to test the performance of the model for systems with higher energy barrier for the NH2 inversion, we have measured the LIF excitation spectra of three different amminobenzonitriles. Partial assignment of the 0-0 bands has been achieved based on their relative intensities for samples with different isotopic exchange ratios. Calculated shifts are in excellent agreement with experimental values for the identified bands. Theoretical predictions are used to complete the assignment of the 0-0 bands in the spectra of the

  5. Corrosion potentials of hafnium in molten alkaline-earth metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalik, O.Yu.; Tkhaj, V.D.

    2000-01-01

    Corrosion potentials of hafnium in molten calcium, strontium and barium chlorides are measured and their temperature dependences are determined. It is stated that the corrosion potential of hafnium becomes more electropositive with an increase of the environment temperature. If the temperature is the same the potential shifts to the interval of more electronegative values in the row of CaCl 2 , SrCl 2 , BaCl 2 which corresponds to a lesser corrosion rate in environments positioned from left to right. the comparison of hafnium corrosion potentials with previously measured values for titanium and zirconium shows that a metal activity decrease results in a more electronegative corrosion potential [ru

  6. Policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambisya Yoswa M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has a severe health worker shortage and a high demand for health care services. This study aimed to assess the policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative, descriptive study through 34 key informant interviews and eight (8 focus group discussions, with participants from various levels of the health system. Results Policy makers understood task shifting, but front-line health workers had misconceptions on the meaning and intention(s of task shifting. Examples were cited of task shifting within the Ugandan health system, some formalized (e.g. psychiatric clinical officers, and some informal ones (e.g. nurses inserting IV lines and initiating treatment. There was apparently high acceptance of task shifting in HIV/AIDS service delivery, with involvement of community health workers (CHW and PLWHA in care and support of AIDS patients. There was no written policy or guidelines on task shifting, but the policy environment was reportedly conducive with plans to develop a policy and guidelines on task shifting. Factors favouring task shifting included successful examples of task shifting, proper referral channels, the need for services, scarcity of skills and focused initiatives such as home based management of fever. Barriers to task shifting included reluctance to change, protection of professional turf, professional boundaries and regulations, heavy workload and high disease burden, poor planning, lack of a task shifting champion, lack of guidelines, the name task shifting itself, and unemployed health professionals. There were both positive and negative views on task shifting: the positive ones cast task shifting as one of the solutions to the dual problem of lack of skills and high demand for service, and as something that is already happening; while negative ones saw it as a quick fix intended for the poor, a threat to quality care and likely to compromise the health

  7. Electronic isotope shifts, muonic atoms, and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shera, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    The roles of electronic isotope shift, muonic atom, and electron scattering experiments in studying the nuclear charge distribution are discussed in terms of the potentials of each probe. Barium isotope shift data are presented as an example of a combined muonic-optical analysis and the results are compared with droplet and IBA model predictions. A survey of muonic and (e,e) results is presented with emphasis on shell-structure related features

  8. Anisotropic shift of the irreversibility line by neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerzopf, F.M.; Wiesinger, H.P.; Weber, H.W.; Crabtree, G.W.; Frischherz, M.C.; Kirk, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    The irreversibility line of high-T c superconductors is shifted considerably by irradiating the material with fast neutrons. The anisotropic and non-monotonous shift is qualitatively explained by a simple model based on an interaction between three pinning mechanisms, the intrinsic pinning by the ab-planes, the weak pinning by the pre-irradiation defect structure, and strong pinning by neutron induced defect cascades. A correlation between the cascade density and the position of the irreversibility line is observed

  9. Gastrointestinal complaints in shift-working and day-working nurses in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravveji Ali

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence in the scientific literature of the adverse physiological and psychological effects of shift work. The work of nurses in hospitals is connected with shift and night work. Several publications have described gastrointestinal disturbances in shift workers. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI complaints of nurses on a rotating shift with that of nurses on a regular day shift. Methods The study involved 160 nurses (133 working in shifts and at night and 27 working on day shifts in the Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran. These nurses answered a Gastrointestinal Symptom Questionnaire regarding the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms (including heartburn, regurgitation, constipation, diarrhea and bloating. Positive responses required frequent symptom occurrence in the past 4 weeks. Significance of group differences was assessed by chi-square and Fisher-exact tests. Results Prevalence of GI symptoms was significantly higher (p = 0.009 in rotating-shift nurses (81.9% than in day-shift nurses (59.2%. Irregular meal consumption (p = 0.01 and GI medications (p = 0.002 were all significantly higher among the rotating shift nurses. In both groups, regurgitation was the most common symptom. Conclusion Nurses on rotating shifts in Iran experience more GI disturbances than do nurses on day shifts.

  10. Socioeconomic Development and Shifts in Mate Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Stone

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mate preferences shift according to contexts such as temporal duration of mateship sought and ecological prevalence of parasites. One important cross-cultural context that has not been explored is a country's socioeconomic development. Because individuals in less developed countries are generally less healthy and possess fewer resources than those in more developed countries, displays of health and resources in a prospective long-term partner were hypothesized to be valued more in populations in which they are rare than in populations in which they are more common. We also predicted negative correlations between development and preferences for similar religious background and a desire for children. We found strong support for the health hypothesis and modest support for the resource acquisition potential hypothesis. We also found an unpredicted positive correlation between development and importance ratings for love. Discussion addresses limitations of the current research and highlights directions for future cross-cultural research on mating psychology.

  11. Night shift and rotating shift in association with sleep problems, burnout and minor mental disorder in male and female employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen

    2017-07-01

    Shift work is associated with adverse physical and psychological health outcomes. However, the independent health effects of night work and rotating shift on workers' sleep and mental health risks and the potential gender differences have not been fully evaluated. We used data from a nationwide survey of representative employees of Taiwan in 2013, consisting of 16 440 employees. Participants reported their work shift patterns 1 week prior to the survey, which were classified into the four following shift types: fixed day, rotating day, fixed night and rotating night shifts. Also obtained were self-reported sleep duration, presence of insomnia, burnout and mental disorder assessed by the Brief Symptom Rating Scale. Among all shift types, workers with fixed night shifts were found to have the shortest duration of sleep, highest level of burnout score, and highest prevalence of insomnia and minor mental disorders. Gender-stratified regression analyses with adjustment of age, education and psychosocial work conditions showed that both in male and female workers, fixed night shifts were associated with greater risks for short sleep duration (night shifts were also associated with increased risks for burnout and mental disorders, but after adjusting for insomnia, the associations between fixed night shifts and poor mental health were no longer significant. The findings of this study suggested that a fixed night shift was associated with greater risks for sleep and mental health problems, and the associations might be mediated by sleep disturbance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Regime shifts and resilience in China's coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2016-02-01

    Regime shift often results in large, abrupt, and persistent changes in the provision of ecosystem services and can therefore have significant impacts on human wellbeing. Understanding regime shifts has profound implications for ecosystem recovery and management. China's coastal ecosystems have experienced substantial deterioration within the past decades, at a scale and speed the world has never seen before. Yet, information about this coastal ecosystem change from a dynamics perspective is quite limited. In this review, I synthesize existing information on coastal ecosystem regime shifts in China and discuss their interactions and cascading effects. The accumulation of regime shifts in China's coastal ecosystems suggests that the desired system resilience has been profoundly eroded, increasing the potential of abrupt shifts to undesirable states at a larger scale, especially given multiple escalating pressures. Policy and management strategies need to incorporate resilience approaches in order to cope with future challenges and avoid major losses in China's coastal ecosystem services.

  13. Effects of strain on Goos-Hänchen-like shifts of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhenzhou; Cheng Yanfu; Li Guanqiang

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the Goos-Hänchen-like (GHL) shifts for massless Dirac electrons passing across a potential barrier in strained graphene. The analytical solutions of the transmission coefficient and the GHL shifts are obtained. The GHL shifts as the function of the strain tensor and direction, the incidence angle and the barrier's width are discussed. We also explore how critical angles change as the strain tensor and incidence electron energy change. Finally, we make a proposal of experimental measurement of the GHL shifts. The study of the GHL shifts will make for applications in graphene-based nano-electronics.

  14. Longitudinal Bunch Position Control for the Super-B Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsche, Kirk; Rivetta, Claudio; Sullivam, Michael K.; SLAC; Drago, Alessandro; Frascati

    2009-01-01

    The use of normal conducting cavities and an ion-clearing gap will cause a significant RF accelerating voltage gap transient and longitudinal phase shift of the individual bunches along the bunch train in both rings of the SuperB accelerator. Small relative centroid position shifts between bunches of the colliding beams will have a large adverse impact on the luminosity due to the small β* y at the interaction point (IP). We investigate the possibility of minimizing the relative longitudinal position shift between bunches by reducing the gap transient in each ring and matching the longitudinal bunch positions of the two rings at the IP using feedback/feedforward techniques in the LLRF. The analysis is conducted assuming maximum use of the klystron power installed in the system

  15. Determination of accurate 1H positions of an alanine tripeptide with anti-parallel and parallel β-sheet structures by high resolution 1H solid state NMR and GIPAW chemical shift calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Koji; Suzuki, Furitsu; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ohata, Takuya; Aoki, Akihiro; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Kaji, Hironori; Shimizu, Tadashi; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2012-11-25

    The accurate (1)H positions of alanine tripeptide, A(3), with anti-parallel and parallel β-sheet structures could be determined by highly resolved (1)H DQMAS solid-state NMR spectra and (1)H chemical shift calculation with gauge-including projector augmented wave calculations.

  16. Relationship of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, Marga B M; Koppes, Lando L J; Rodenburg, Wendy; van Steeg, Harry; Proper, Karin I

    2015-04-01

    To prospectively study the association of night and shift work with weight change and lifestyle behaviors. Workers participating in the Netherlands Working Conditions Cohort Study (2008 and 2009) (N = 5951) reported night and shift work, weight and height. Groups included stable night or shift work, from day work to night or shift work, from night or shift work to day work, and no night or shift work in 2008 and 2009. Regression analyses were used to study association changes in night and shift work with weight change and changes in lifestyle behaviors. A larger weight change was seen in normal-weight workers changing from day to shift work (β = 0.93%; 95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 1.85) compared with stable no shift workers. No further associations of night and shift work with weight change were observed, neither in normal-weight, overweight, and obese workers. Despite the fact that starting night or shift work is associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits, this study did not confirm a positive association of night and shift work with weight change over 1 year, except for normal-weight workers moving from day to shift work.

  17. Detecting Fermi-level shifts by Auger electron spectroscopy in Si and GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debehets, J.; Homm, P.; Menghini, M.; Chambers, S. A.; Marchiori, C.; Heyns, M.; Locquet, J. P.; Seo, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, changes in surface Fermi-level of Si and GaAs, caused by doping and cleaning, are investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy. Based on the Auger voltage contrast, we compared the Auger transition peak energy but with higher accuracy by using a more accurate analyzer and an improved peak position determination method. For silicon, a peak shift as large as 0.46 eV was detected when comparing a cleaned p-type and n-type wafer, which corresponds rather well with the theoretical difference in Fermi-levels. If no cleaning was applied, the peak position did not differ significantly for both wafer types, indicating Fermi-level pinning in the band gap. For GaAs, peak shifts were detected after cleaning with HF and (NH4)2S-solutions in an inert atmosphere (N2-gas). Although the (NH4)2S-cleaning in N2 is very efficient in removing the oxygen from the surface, the observed Ga- and As-peak shifts are smaller than those obtained after the HF-cleaning. It is shown that the magnitude of the shift is related to the surface composition. After Si-deposition on the (NH4)2S-cleaned surface, the Fermi-level shifts back to a similar position as observed for an as-received wafer, indicating that this combination is not successful in unpinning the Fermi-level of GaAs.

  18. A canonical correlation analysis based EMG classification algorithm for eliminating electrode shift effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe Fan; Zhong Wang; Guanglin Li; Ruomei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Motion classification system based on surface Electromyography (sEMG) pattern recognition has achieved good results in experimental condition. But it is still a challenge for clinical implement and practical application. Many factors contribute to the difficulty of clinical use of the EMG based dexterous control. The most obvious and important is the noise in the EMG signal caused by electrode shift, muscle fatigue, motion artifact, inherent instability of signal and biological signals such as Electrocardiogram. In this paper, a novel method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was developed to eliminate the reduction of classification accuracy caused by electrode shift. The average classification accuracy of our method were above 95% for the healthy subjects. In the process, we validated the influence of electrode shift on motion classification accuracy and discovered the strong correlation with correlation coefficient of >0.9 between shift position data and normal position data.

  19. Paradigm shift in psychiatry: what may it involve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Paul

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to examine the potential nature of an ongoing paradigm shift in psychiatry that has been suggested to be occurring. New findings in traumatology and neuroscience do form a potential platform for a paradigm shift. Prior conflicting paradigms are suggested to be due to biases arising from mental structures themselves. A new wholist perspective is proposed, which makes sense of and incorporates previous paradigms, and coheres recent understanding of right- and left-brain functioning and biopsychosocial traumatic processes and their ramifications. The perspective makes sense of the great variety of post-traumatic manifestations ranging from somatic to meaning-making dysfunctions. The wholist perspective may well be an important step in solidifying a fresh paradigmatic perspective in psychiatry.

  20. Study on the Control Strategy of Shifting Time Involving Multigroup Clutches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the control strategy of shifting time involving multigroup clutches for a hydromechanical continuously variable transmission (HMCVT. The dynamic analyses of mathematical models are presented in this paper, and the simulation models are used to study the control strategy of HMCVT. Simulations are performed in Simulation X platform to investigate the shifting time of clutches under different operating conditions. On this basis, simulation analysis and test verification of two typical conditions, which play the decisive roles for the shifting quality, are carried out. The results show that there are differences in the shifting time of the two typical conditions. In the shifting process from the negative transmission of hydromechanical ranges to the positive transmission of hydromechanical ranges, the control strategy based on the shifting time is switching the clutches of shifting mechanism firstly and then disengaging a group of clutches of planetary gear mechanism and engaging another group of the clutches of planetary gear mechanism lastly. In the shifting process from the hydraulic range to the hydromechanical range, the control strategy based on the shifting time is switching the clutches of hydraulic shifting mechanism and planetary gear mechanism at first and then engaging the clutch of shifting mechanism.

  1. A phenomenological view of language shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsipis, Lukas D

    2004-01-01

    Sociolinguistic studies of language shift have in their majority framed their research object in a horizon of theoretically received variables such as class, ethnicity, locality, attitudes etc. In spite of a limited usefulness of such conceptual variables, and of a recently emerging focus on agency, negotiation, and praxis the best results we obtain have not questioned in a coherent and theoretically sound manner the continuing hegemony of mechanistic-metaphorical models (language death, language suicide). In this paper I propose to examine language shift as a multifaceted phenomenon, joining in this respect work by other linguistic anthropologists researching similar areas. I specifically argue that by replacing vertical concepts such as age and generation, and dichotomous logics such as center and periphery with phenomenologically inspired concepts such as typifications, consociateship, contemporariness, and stream of consciousness we are in a better position to generalize about language shift dynamics. Data for this work is derived primarily from the Albanian speech communities of modern Greece, but also from other communities for comparative purposes.

  2. Shifting Pacific storm tracks as stressors to ecosystems of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Matthew P; Wise, Erika K

    2017-11-01

    Much of the precipitation delivered to western North America arrives during the cool season via midlatitude Pacific storm tracks, which may experience future shifts in response to climate change. Here, we assess the sensitivity of the hydroclimate and ecosystems of western North America to the latitudinal position of cool-season Pacific storm tracks. We calculated correlations between storm track variability and three hydroclimatic variables: gridded cool-season standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index, April snow water equivalent, and water year streamflow from a network of USGS stream gauges. To assess how historical storm track variability affected ecosystem processes, we derived forest growth estimates from a large network of tree-ring widths and land surface phenology and wildfire estimates from remote sensing. From 1980 to 2014, cool-season storm tracks entered western North America between approximately 41°N and 53°N. Cool-season moisture supply and snowpack responded strongly to storm track position, with positive correlations to storm track latitude in eastern Alaska and northwestern Canada but negative correlations in the northwestern U.S. Ecosystems of the western United States were greener and more productive following winters with south-shifted storm tracks, while Canadian ecosystems were greener in years when the cool-season storm track was shifted to the north. On average, larger areas of the northwestern United States were burned by moderate to high severity wildfires when storm tracks were displaced north, and the average burn area per fire also tended to be higher in years with north-shifted storm tracks. These results suggest that projected shifts of Pacific storm tracks over the 21st century would likely alter hydroclimatic and ecological regimes in western North America, particularly in the northwestern United States, where moisture supply and ecosystem processes are highly sensitive to the position of cool-season storm tracks.

  3. Limitation of Piston Centre Shift in Free Piston Stirling Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Woude, R.R. [ECN Energy in the Built Environment and Networks, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    Piston centre shift is one of the phenomena setting Free Piston engines apart from traditional kinematic engines. In kinematic engines the piston centre position is determined by the design of the engine's internal mechanisms. In Free Piston engines however, the piston's mid-stroke position is determined by the balance of forces acting on the piston, in particular flexure and gas pressure forces. As a result, a mean pressure difference across the piston emerging during engine operation will cause the piston mid-stroke position to shift away from the geometrical centre. This process will continue until a new balance is reached with the flexure forces counteracting the new mean pressure balance. Yet, before the new equilibrium is reached, the resulting piston centre shift may have grown to such an extent that piston overstrokes have become inevitable. In order to limit piston centre shift and prevent piston overstrokes, several solutions have been proposed in the past. Popular solutions include ingenious mechanisms to vent gas between the spaces separated by the piston, in an attempt to limit the pressure difference. Enatec however has adopted a different approach by applying a precisely determined clearance between the piston and cylinder. With the right shape the clearance effectively limits the mean pressure difference across the piston and therefore limits the extent of the piston centre drift. Taking benefit of tightly controlled tolerances of both piston and cylinder, Enatec has demonstrated the effectiveness of this simple concept in series produced engines.

  4. Opacity in compact extragalactic radio sources and the core shift effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, Y Y; Lobanov, A P; Pushkarev, A B; Zensus, J A

    2008-01-01

    The apparent position of the 'core' in a parsec-scale radio jet (a compact, bright emitting region at the narrow end of the jet) depends on the observing frequency, owing to synchrotron self-absorption and external absorption. This dependency both provides a tool to probe physical conditions in the vicinity of the core and poses problems for astrometric studies using compact radio sources. We investigate the frequency-dependent shift of the positions of the cores (core shift) observed with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) in parsec-scale jets. We present results for 29 selected active galactic nuclei (AGN). In these AGN, the magnitude of the measured core shift between 2.3 and 8.6 GHz reaches 1.4 mas, with a median value for the sample of 0.44 mas. We discuss related physics as well as astrometry applications and plans for further studies.

  5. Stationary potentials and corrosion of metals and steels in sodium and potassium chloride eutectic melts saturated with hydrogen chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, V.N.; Ershova, T.K.; Kochergin, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    Stationary potentials have been measured at 850 deg C and corrosion rates found gravimetrically for a number of metals and steels in the eutectic NaCl-KCl melt saturated with HCl. Periodic shifts of the stationary potentials towards positive values have been established in the Ti-V-Cr-Fe-Ni, Cu-Zr-Nb-Mo, Ag-Ta-W-Pt systems, with the corrosion rate of metals decreasing in them. The stationary potentials are shown to shift towards positive values in the series: st.08 KP, st.3, Kh17N2, Kh22N6T, Kh13NChG9, 1Kh18N10T, Kh17N13M2T, OKh17N16M3T, Kh23N18, Kh25N16G7, Kh23N28M3D3T, with corrosive resistance in this series increasing

  6. SU-E-J-21: Setup Variability of Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated in the Prone Position and Dosimetric Comparison with the Supine Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A; Foster, J; Chu, W; Karotki, A [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre/Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Many cancer centers treat colorectal patients in the prone position on a belly board to minimize dose to the small bowel. That may potentially Result in patient setup instability with corresponding impact on dose delivery accuracy for highly conformal techniques such as IMRT/VMAT. Two aims of this work are 1) to investigate setup accuracy of rectum patients treated in the prone position on a belly board using CBCT and 2) to evaluate dosimetric impact on bladder and small bowel of treating rectum patients in supine vs. prone position. Methods: For the setup accuracy study, 10 patients were selected. Weekly CBCTs were acquired and matched to bone. The CBCT-determined shifts were recorded. For the dosimetric study, 7 prone-setup patients and 7 supine-setup patients were randomly selected from our clinical database. Various clinically relevant dose volume histogram values were recorded for the small bowel and bladder. Results: The CBCT-determined rotational shifts had a wide variation. For the dataset acquired at the time of this writing, the ranges of rotational setup errors for pitch, roll, and yaw were [−3.6° 4.7°], [−4.3° 3.2°], and [−1.4° 1.4°]. For the dosimetric study: the small bowel V(45Gy) and mean dose for the prone position was 5.6±12.1% and 18.4±6.2Gy (ranges indicate standard deviations); for the supine position the corresponding dose values were 12.9±15.8% and 24.7±8.8Gy. For the bladder, the V(30Gy) and mean dose for prone position were 68.7±12.7% and 38.4±3.3Gy; for supine position these dose values were 77.1±13.7% and 40.7±3.1Gy. Conclusion: There is evidence of significant rotational instability in the prone position. The OAR dosimetry study indicates that there are some patients that may still benefit from the prone position, though many patients can be safely treated supine.

  7. Are AMPA Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulators Potential Pharmacotherapeutics for Addiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Watterson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptors are a diverse class of compounds that increase fast excitatory transmission in the brain. AMPA PAMs have been shown to facilitate long-term potentiation, strengthen communication between various cortical and subcortical regions, and some of these compounds increase the production and release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in an activity-dependent manner. Through these mechanisms, AMPA PAMs have shown promise as broad spectrum pharmacotherapeutics in preclinical and clinical studies for various neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. In recent years, a small collection of preclinical animal studies has also shown that AMPA PAMs may have potential as pharmacotherapeutic adjuncts to extinction-based or cue-exposure therapies for the treatment of drug addiction. The present paper will review this preclinical literature, discuss novel data collected in our laboratory, and recommend future research directions for the possible development of AMPA PAMs as anti-addiction medications.

  8. Nonlocal optical effects on the Goos–Hänchen shifts at multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Bian, Tingting; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Leung, P T

    2016-01-01

    The lateral beam shift of light incident on a multilayered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) is investigated using a theoretical model which emphasizes the nonlocal optical response of the indefinite material. By applying an effective local response theory formulated recently in the literature, it is found that nonlocal effects only affect p polarized light in this Goos–Hänchen (GH) shift of the incident beam; leading to a blue-shifted peak for positive shifts at high frequencies and red-shifted dip for negative shifts at low frequencies in the GH shift spectrum. An account for the observed phenomenon is given by referring to the ‘Brewster condition’ for the reflected wave from the HMM. This observation thus provides a relatively direct probe for the nonlocal response of the HMM. (paper)

  9. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Raquel; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status), socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift), and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration) of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2). The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2), followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64), workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93) and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24). On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73). CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  10. Metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Canuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if metabolic syndrome and its altered components are associated with demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors in fixed-shift workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 902 shift workers of both sexes in a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil in 2010. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was determined according to the recommendations from Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome. Its frequency was evaluated according to the demographic (sex, skin color, age and marital status, socioeconomic (educational level, income and work shift, and behavioral characteristics (smoking, alcohol intake, leisure time physical activity, number of meals and sleep duration of the sample. The multivariate analysis followed a theoretical framework for identifying metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers. RESULTS The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the sample was 9.3% (95%CI 7.4;11.2. The most frequently altered component was waist circumference (PR 48.4%; 95%CI 45.5;51.2, followed by high-density lipoprotein. Work shift was not associated with metabolic syndrome and its altered components. After adjustment, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was positively associated with women (PR 2.16; 95%CI 1.28;3.64, workers aged over 40 years (PR 3.90; 95%CI 1.78;8.93 and those who reported sleeping five hours or less per day (PR 1.70; 95%CI 1.09;2.24. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome was inversely associated with educational level and having more than three meals per day (PR 0.43; 95%CI 0.26;0.73. CONCLUSIONS Being female, older and deprived of sleep are probable risk factors for metabolic syndrome, whereas higher educational level and higher number of meals per day are protective factors for metabolic syndrome in fixed-shift workers.

  11. Analytical theory for the nuclear level shift of hadronic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Lisin, V.I.; Popov, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    The spectrum problem in the Coulomb potential distorted at small distances is considered. Nuclear shifts of 3-levels in p anti p and Σ - p atoms are calculated. The probabilities of radiative transitions from p-states to the shifted s-states in hadronic atom are also given. It is shown that the reconstruction of atomic levels switches to oscillation regime when absorption increases. The limits of applicability of the perturbation theory in terms of the scattering length for different values of absorption is discussed. An exactly solvable model, Coulomb plus Yamaguchi potential, is considered

  12. Solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem using finite set of phase shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Apagyi, B; Scheid, W

    2003-01-01

    A system of nonlinear equations is presented for the solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem (1970 J. Math. Phys. 11 805) at fixed energy. From a given finite set of phase shifts for physical angular momenta, the nonlinear equations determine related sets of asymptotic normalization constants and nonphysical (shifted) angular momenta from which all quantities of interest, including the inversion potential itself, can be calculated. As a first application of the method we use input data consisting of a finite set of phase shifts calculated from Woods-Saxon and box potentials representing interactions with diffuse or sharp surfaces, respectively. The results for the inversion potentials, their first moments and asymptotic properties are compared with those provided by the Newton-Sabatier quantum inversion procedure. It is found that in order to achieve inversion potentials of similar quality, the Cox-Thompson method requires a smaller set of phase shifts than the Newton-Sabatier procedure.

  13. Solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem using finite set of phase shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apagyi, Barnabas; Harman, Zoltan; Scheid, Werner

    2003-01-01

    A system of nonlinear equations is presented for the solution of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering problem (1970 J. Math. Phys. 11 805) at fixed energy. From a given finite set of phase shifts for physical angular momenta, the nonlinear equations determine related sets of asymptotic normalization constants and nonphysical (shifted) angular momenta from which all quantities of interest, including the inversion potential itself, can be calculated. As a first application of the method we use input data consisting of a finite set of phase shifts calculated from Woods-Saxon and box potentials representing interactions with diffuse or sharp surfaces, respectively. The results for the inversion potentials, their first moments and asymptotic properties are compared with those provided by the Newton-Sabatier quantum inversion procedure. It is found that in order to achieve inversion potentials of similar quality, the Cox-Thompson method requires a smaller set of phase shifts than the Newton-Sabatier procedure

  14. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Groeger, Joachim P.

    2012-01-01

    methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face...

  15. NEG-shift, Licensing, and Repair Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2008-01-01

    I entertain the idea that the cross-linguistic variation in the licensing of NEG-shift, the movement of negative objects to spec-NegP, can be accounted for by a few representational constraints that are not directly related to case licensing or feature checking, and which potentially conflict...

  16. Impact of Compression Stockings vs. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Overnight Fluid Shift and Obstructive Sleep Apnea among Patients on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C. Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionObstructive sleep apnea (OSA is common in edematous states, notably in hemodialysis patients. In this population, overnight fluid shift can play an important role on the pathogenesis of OSA. The effect of compression stockings (CS and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP on fluid shift is barely known. We compared the effects of CS and CPAP on fluid dynamics in a sample of patients with OSA in hemodialysis, through a randomized crossover study.MethodsEach participant performed polysomnography (PSG at baseline, during CPAP titration, and after 1 week of wearing CS. Neck circumference (NC and segmental bioelectrical impedance were done before and after PSG.ResultsFourteen patients were studied (53 ± 9 years; 57% men; body mass index 29.7 ± 6.8 kg/m2. Apnea–hypopnea index (AHI decreased from 20.8 (14.2; 39.6 at baseline to 7.9 (2.8; 25.4 during CPAP titration and to 16.7 (3.5; 28.9 events/h after wearing CS (CPAP vs. baseline, p = 0.004; CS vs. baseline, p = 0.017; and CPAP vs. CS, p = 0.017. Nocturnal intracellular trunk water was higher after wearing CS in comparison to baseline and CPAP (p = 0.03. CS reduced the fluid accumulated in lower limbs during the day, although not significantly. Overnight fluid shift at baseline, CPAP, and CS was −183 ± 72, −343 ± 220, and −290 ± 213 ml, respectively (p = 0.006. Overnight NC increased at baseline (0.7 ± 0.4 cm, decreased after CPAP (−1.0 ± 0.4 cm, and while wearing CS (−0.4 ± 0.8 cm (CPAP vs. baseline, p < 0.0001; CS vs. baseline, p = 0.001; CPAP vs. CS, p = 0.01.ConclusionCS reduced AHI by avoiding fluid retention in the legs, favoring accumulation of water in the intracellular component of the trunk, thus avoiding fluid shift to reach the neck. CPAP improved OSA by exerting local pressure on upper airway, with no impact on fluid redistribution. CPAP performed significantly better than CS

  17. Effects of strain on Goos-Hänchen shifts of monolayer phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaihui; Cheng, Fang

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the Goos-Hänchen(GH) shift for ballistic electrons (i) reflected from a step-like inhomogeneity of strain, and (ii) transmitted through a monolayer phosphoresce junction consisting of a positive strained region and two normal regions (or a normal region and two negative strained regions). Refraction occurs at the interface between the unstrained/positive-strain(negative-strain/unstrained), in analogy with optical refraction. The critical angle is different for different strengths and directions of the strains. The critical angles for electrons tunneling through unstrained/positive-strain junction can even decrease to zero when the positive strain exceeds a critical value. For the monolayer phosphorene junction consisting of a positive strain region and two normal regions (or a normal region and two negative strain regions), we find that the GH shifts resonantly depends on the middle region width. The resonant values and the plus-minus sign of the displacement can be controlled by the incident angle, incident energy and the strain. These properties will be useful for the applications in phosphorene-based electronic devices.

  18. New method for evaluation of perigastric invasion of gastric cancer by right lateral position CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, T.; Fukuda, K.; Tada, S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate usefulness of right lateral position CT in determining invasion of gastric cancer into adjacent organs. We assessed whether position shift, a change in the relative location of a gastric tumor and adjacent organs between the supine position and right lateral position CT, was a useful sign for absence of invasion into perigastric organs. In 37 patients with advanced gastric cancer with doubtful invasion into adjacent organs by conventional CT after 500 ml water oral intake, additive right lateral CT was performed. Of 24 cases of lesions in the gastric body, 16 had a position shift and no invasion into adjacent organs at surgery (T3), and 8 had no position shift and invasion (T4). The accuracy was 100%. Six gastric cardial and 7 pyloric tumors showed no position shift, and 3 cardial and 2 pyloric tumors were proved to be nonivasive (T3). The accuracy of cardial and pyloric tumor was 50 and 71%. We concluded that position shift may be useful in the diagnosis of invasion of adjacent organs by gastric cancer, limited to in cases with gastric body cancer. (orig.)

  19. An organic dye with very large Stokes-shift and broad tunability of fluorescence: Potential two-photon probe for bioimaging and ultra-sensitive solid-state gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Tingchao; Tian, Xiaoqing; Lin, Xiaodong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wang, Yue; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Handong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, and Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-01-04

    Light-emitting nonlinear optical molecules, especially those with large Stokes shifts and broad tunability of their emission wavelength, have attracted considerable attention for various applications including biomedical imaging and fluorescent sensors. However, most fluorescent chromophores have only limited potential for such applications due to small Stokes shifts, narrow tunability of fluorescence emissions, and small optical nonlinearity in highly polar solvents. In this work, we demonstrate that a two-photon absorbing stilbene chromophore exhibits a large two-photon absorption action cross-section (ηδ = 320 GM) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and shows broad fluorescence tunability (125 nm) by manipulating the polarity of the surrounding medium. Importantly, a very large Stokes shift of up to 227 nm is achieved in DMSO. Thanks to these features, this chromophore can be utilized as a two-photon probe for bioimaging applications and in an ultrasensitive solid-state gas detector.

  20. The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrows, Michael T.; Schoeman, David S.; Buckley, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change challenges organisms to adapt or move to track changes in environments in space and time. We used two measures of thermal shifts from analyses of global temperatures over the past 50 years to describe the pace of climate change that species should track: the velocity of climate...... change (geographic shifts of isotherms over time) and the shift in seasonal timing of temperatures. Both measures are higher in the ocean than on land at some latitudes, despite slower ocean warming. These indices give a complex mosaic of predicted range shifts and phenology changes that deviate from...... simple poleward migration and earlier springs or later falls. They also emphasize potential conservation concerns, because areas of high marine biodiversity often have greater velocities of climate change and seasonal shifts....

  1. Predicting climate-induced range shifts: model differences and model reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua J. Lawler; Denis White; Ronald P. Neilson; Andrew R. Blaustein

    2006-01-01

    Predicted changes in the global climate are likely to cause large shifts in the geographic ranges of many plant and animal species. To date, predictions of future range shifts have relied on a variety of modeling approaches with different levels of model accuracy. Using a common data set, we investigated the potential implications of alternative modeling approaches for...

  2. Brownian motion surviving in the unstable cubic potential and the role of Maxwell's demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornigotti, Luca; Ryabov, Artem; Holubec, Viktor; Filip, Radim

    2018-03-01

    The trajectories of an overdamped particle in a highly unstable potential diverge so rapidly, that the variance of position grows much faster than its mean. A description of the dynamics by moments is therefore not informative. Instead, we propose and analyze local directly measurable characteristics, which overcome this limitation. We discuss the most probable particle position (position of the maximum of the probability density) and the local uncertainty in an unstable cubic potential, V (x ) ˜x3 , both in the transient regime and in the long-time limit. The maximum shifts against the acting force as a function of time and temperature. Simultaneously, the local uncertainty does not increase faster than the observable shift. In the long-time limit, the probability density naturally attains a quasistationary form. We interpret this process as a stabilization via the measurement-feedback mechanism, the Maxwell demon, which works as an entropy pump. The rules for measurement and feedback naturally arise from the basic properties of the unstable dynamics. All reported effects are inherent in any unstable system. Their detailed understanding will stimulate the development of stochastic engines and amplifiers and, later, their quantum counterparts.

  3. Trophic signatures of seabirds suggest shifts in oceanic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Tyler O.; Hyrenbach, K. David; Hagemann, Molly E.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level–based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher–trophic level to lower–trophic level prey. No species increased their trophic position. Given species prey preferences, Bayesian diet reconstructions suggest a shift from fishes to squids, a result consistent with both catch reports and ecosystem models. Machine learning models further reveal that trophic position trends have a complex set of drivers including climate, commercial fisheries, and ecomorphology. Our results show that multiple species of fish-consuming seabirds may track the complex changes occurring in marine ecosystems. PMID:29457134

  4. Relativistic theory of the Lamb shift based on self energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Salamin, Y.I.

    1987-07-01

    A study is made to evaluate the Lamb shift to all orders in (Zα) using relativistic Dirac Coulomb wavefunctions and without resorting to the dipole approximation. Use is made of the angular integrals and spins sums performed elsewhere exactly. A regularization procedure is given that makes the sum over the positive and negative energy states finite. Finally, the energy shift ΔE n LS is given in terms of an integral that may be done numerically. (author). 19 refs

  5. The impact of chronotype on melatonin levels among shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Mirick, Dana K; Davis, Scott

    2014-03-01

    The association between shift work and cancer, which is thought to be mediated by effects on circulating melatonin levels, may be modified by chronotype (ie, the inherent preference for activity in the morning or the evening); however, few studies have examined the potential impact of chronotype on the carcinogenic effects of shift work. The authors analysed the impact of chronotype on previously reported differences in melatonin levels among healthcare workers that exclusively worked night or day shifts. The cross-sectional study included 664 men and women (310 day shift and 354 night shift workers) from which urine samples were collected throughout work and sleep periods and were assayed for 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. Participants also completed the Composite Scale of Morningness, a questionnaire used to assess chronotype. Among both morning and evening-type night shift workers, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were constitutively lower during daytime sleep, night-time sleep and night work compared with day shift workers during night-time sleep. However, morning-type night shift workers consistently showed 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels that were closer to levels in day shift workers than did evening-type night shift workers. Differences in 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels between morning-type and evening-type night shift workers relative to day shift workers were statistically significant in every instance (pnight shift workers may be better able to maintain a 'normal' circadian pattern of melatonin production as compared with evening-type night shift workers. The impact of this chronotype effect on cancer risk among shift workers requires further study.

  6. Temporal dynamics of circadian phase shifting response to consecutive night shifts in healthcare workers: role of light-dark exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Julia E; Sletten, Tracey L; Magee, Michelle; Ganesan, Saranea; Mulhall, Megan D; Collins, Allison; Howard, Mark; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2018-03-28

    Shift work is highly prevalent and is associated with significant adverse health impacts. There is substantial inter-individual variability in the way the circadian clock responds to changing shift cycles. The mechanisms underlying this variability are not well understood. We tested the hypothesis that light-dark exposure is a significant contributor to this variability; when combined with diurnal preference, the relative timing of light exposure accounted for 71% of individual variability in circadian phase response to night shift work. These results will drive development of personalised approaches to manage circadian disruption among shift workers and other vulnerable populations to potentially reduce the increased risk of disease in these populations. Night shift workers show highly variable rates of circadian adaptation. This study examined the relationship between light exposure patterns and the magnitude of circadian phase resetting in response to night shift work. In 21 participants (nursing and medical staff in an intensive care unit) circadian phase was measured using 6-sulphatoxymelatonin at baseline (day/evening shifts or days off) and after 3-4 consecutive night shifts. Daily light exposure was examined relative to individual circadian phase to quantify light intensity in the phase delay and phase advance portions of the light phase response curve (PRC). There was substantial inter-individual variability in the direction and magnitude of phase shift after three or four consecutive night shifts (mean phase delay -1:08 ± 1:31 h; range -3:43 h delay to +3:07 h phase advance). The relative difference in the distribution of light relative to the PRC combined with diurnal preference accounted for 71% of the variability in phase shift. Regression analysis incorporating these factors estimated phase shift to within ±60 min in 85% of participants. No participants met criteria for partial adaptation to night work after three or four consecutive night

  7. Insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder in nurses having less than 11 hours in-between shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fagerbakke Eldevik

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess if less than 11 hours off work between work shifts (quick returns was related to insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder among nurses. METHODS: A questionnaire including established instruments measuring insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and shift work disorder was administered. Among the 1990 Norwegian nurses who participated in the study; 264 nurses had no quick returns, 724 had 1-30 quick returns and 892 had more than 30 quick returns during the past year. 110 nurses did not report the number of quick returns during the past year. The prevalence of insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder was calculated within the three groups of nurses. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between quick returns and such complaints. RESULTS: We found a significant positive association between quick returns and insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue and shift work disorder. Anxiety and depression were not related to working quick returns. CONCLUSIONS: There is a health hazard associated with quick returns. Further research should aim to investigate if workplace strategies aimed at reducing the number of quick returns may reduce complaints among workers.

  8. Insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder in nurses having less than 11 hours in-between shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldevik, Maria Fagerbakke; Flo, Elisabeth; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    To assess if less than 11 hours off work between work shifts (quick returns) was related to insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder among nurses. A questionnaire including established instruments measuring insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and shift work disorder was administered. Among the 1990 Norwegian nurses who participated in the study; 264 nurses had no quick returns, 724 had 1-30 quick returns and 892 had more than 30 quick returns during the past year. 110 nurses did not report the number of quick returns during the past year. The prevalence of insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder was calculated within the three groups of nurses. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between quick returns and such complaints. We found a significant positive association between quick returns and insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue and shift work disorder. Anxiety and depression were not related to working quick returns. There is a health hazard associated with quick returns. Further research should aim to investigate if workplace strategies aimed at reducing the number of quick returns may reduce complaints among workers.

  9. Relational interaction in occupational therapy: Conversation analysis of positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiste, Elina

    2018-01-01

    The therapeutic relationship is an important factor for good therapy outcomes. The primary mediator of a beneficial therapy relationship is clinician-client interaction. However, few studies identify the observable interactional attributes of good quality relational interactions, e.g. offering the client positive feedback. The present paper aims to expand current understanding of relational interaction by analyzing the real-time interactional practices therapists use for offering positive feedback, an important value in occupational therapy. The analysis is based on the conversation analysis of 15 video-recorded occupational therapy encounters in psychiatric outpatient clinics. Two types of positive feedback were identified. In aligning feedback, therapists encouraged and complimented clients' positive perspectives on their own achievements in adopting certain behaviour, encouraging and supporting their progress. In redirecting feedback, therapists shifted the perspective from clients' negative experiences to their positive experiences. This shift was interactionally successful if they laid the foundation for the shift in perspective and attuned their expressions to the clients' emotional states. Occupational therapists routinely provide their clients with positive feedback. Awareness of the interactional attributes related to positive feedback is critically important for successful relational interaction.

  10. Incongruence between Verbal and Non-Verbal Information Enhances the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Shu; Osumi, Michihiro; Shiotani, Mayu; Nobusako, Satoshi; Maeoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Yohei; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Matsuo, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP). Combinations of verbal information [positive/negative] and facial expressions [smile/angry] expressions were presented randomly on a computer screen to 17 healthy volunteers. The value of trustworthiness of the presented facial expression was evaluated by the amount of donation offered by the observer to the person depicted on the computer screen. In addition, the time required to judge the value of trustworthiness was recorded for each trial. Using electroencephalography, ERP were obtained by averaging the wave patterns recorded while the participants judged the value of trustworthiness. The amount of donation offered was significantly lower when the verbal information and facial expression were incongruent, particularly for [negative × smile]. The amplitude of the early posterior negativity (EPN) at the temporal lobe showed no significant difference between all conditions. However, the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) at the parietal electrodes for the incongruent condition [negative × smile] was higher than that for the congruent condition [positive × smile]. These results suggest that the LPP amplitude observed from the parietal cortex is involved in the processing of incongruence between verbal information and facial expression.

  11. Salinity critical threshold values for photosynthesis of two cosmopolitan seaweed species: providing baselines for potential shifts on seaweed assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Ventura, Robson; Barufi, José Bonomi; Horta, Paulo Antunes

    2013-10-01

    Climate change has increased precipitation in several South American regions leading to higher freshwater inputs into marine systems with potential to cause salinity declines along the coast. The current salinity profile on the southern coast of Brazil was surveyed during four years providing a baseline of the current salinity pattern in the region. Additionally, the effects of salinity decreases on the photosynthesis of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca and Sargassum stenophyllum were investigated in laboratory. Seaweeds were cultured at salinities 5, 15 and 34 and at the mean winter and summer temperatures. Photosynthetic performance was measured following 24 and 96 h from the beginning of experiment. U. lactuca remained practically unaltered by low salinities while S. stenophyllum presented declines of important photosynthetic parameters. This is due to the different regulation abilities of energy distribution at the PSII of the two species. These differences have potential to lead to seaweed community shifts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface core-level shifts for simple metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldén, Magnus; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Johansson, Börje

    1994-01-01

    screening, whereby a SCLS becomes equivalent to the surface segregation energy of a core-ionized atom, a quantity we obtain by separate bulk and surface impurity calculations. The results are in good agreement with experiment in most of those cases where the data originates from single-crystal measurements....... We discuss the surface shifts of the electrostatic potentials and the band centers in order to trace the microscopic origin of the SCLS in the simple metals and find that the anomalous subsurface core-level shifts in beryllium are caused by charge dipoles, which persist several layers into the bulk...

  13. Regime Shifts and Resilience in Fisheries Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Chuan Zhong; Villasante, Sebastian; Zhu, Xueqin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of potential regime shifts in Argentinean hake fishery and the inter-linkage between ecological and economic resilience. We develop a theoretical model incorporated with the hazard function for resource management under alternative conditions, and derive the corrective

  14. Shift Work Disorder and Mental and Physical Effects of Shift Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the growing prevalence of shift work all over the the world, the relationship between the daily lives of irregular lifestyles and rhythms is being investigated for those working as shift workers and their families. The effect of shift work on physical and mental health is a very important field of research in recent years. The onset and persistence of medical complications in shift workers includes impaired synchronization between work schedule rhythms and circadian clock. In this context, studies have been carried out showing the increased risk of sleep-wake disorders, gastrointestinal problems, and cardiovascular diseases. There is little information about the actual frequency, effect on health and treatment of shift work disorder, known as circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Shift work disorder includes insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness related with the work schedule. The aim of this rewiev, mentioning about the physical and mental effects of shift work, and to provide information about the diagnosis, clinic and treatment methods of shift-work disorder.

  15. Re-scheduling nursing shifts: Scoping the challenge and examining the potential of mathematical model based tools

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, A.; Moule, P.; Topping, A.; Serpell, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To review research in the literature on nursing shift scheduling/rescheduling, and report key issues identified in a listening exercise with managers in four English NHS trusts to inform the development of mathematical tools for rescheduling decision-making.\\ud Background: Shift rescheduling is unrecognised as an everyday time-consuming management task with different imperatives than scheduling. Poor rescheduling decisions can have quality, cost and morale implications.\\ud Evaluation: A...

  16. Compensation for unfavorable characteristics of irregular individual shift rotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauth, Peter; Jung, Detlev; Bopp, Winfried; Gauderer, Patric C; Gissel, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Some employees of TV companies, such as those who produce remote TV programs, have to cope with very irregular rotas and many short-term schedule deviations. Many of these employees complain about the negative effects of such on their wellbeing and private life. Therefore, a working group of employers, council representatives, and researchers developed a so-called bonus system. Based on the criteria of the BESIAK system, the following list of criteria for the ergonomic assessment of irregular shift systems was developed: proportion of night hours worked between 22 : 00 and 01 : 00 h and between 06 : 00 and 07 : 00 h, proportion of night hours worked between 01 : 00 and 06 : 00 h, number of successive night shifts, number of successive working days, number of shifts longer than 9 h, proportion of phase advances, off hours on weekends, work hours between 17 : 00 and 23 : 00 h from Monday to Friday, number of working days with leisure time at remote places, and sudden deviations from the planned shift rota. Each individual rota was evaluated in retrospect. If pre-defined thresholds of criteria were surpassed, bonus points were added to the worker's account. In general, more bonus points add up to more free time. Only in particular cases was monetary compensation possible for some criteria. The bonus point system, which was implemented in the year 2002 for about 850 employees of the TV company, has the advantages of more transparency concerning the unfavorable characteristics of working-time arrangements, incentive for superiors to design "good" rosters that avoid the bonus point thresholds (to reduce costs), positive short-term effects on the employee social life, and expected positive long-term effects on the employee health. In general, the most promising approach to cope with the problems of shift workers in irregular and flexible shift systems seems to be to increase their influence on the arrangement of working times. If this is not possible, bonus point systems

  17. Night Shift Work Increases the Risks of Multiple Primary Cancers in Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 61 Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xia; Zhu, Chenjing; Wang, Manni; Mo, Fei; Du, Wei; Ma, Xuelei

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of studies have examined associations between night shift work and the risks of common cancers among women, with varying conclusions. We did a meta-analysis to identify whether long-term night shift work increased the risks of common cancers in women. We enrolled 61 articles involving 114,628 cases and 3,909,152 participants from Europe, North America, Asia, and Australia. Risk estimates were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses about breast cancer were conducted to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. In addition, we carried out a dose-response analysis to quantitatively estimate the accumulative effect of night shift work on the risk of breast cancer. A positive relationship was revealed between long-term night shift work and the risks of breast [OR = 1.316; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.196-1.448], digestive system (OR = 1.177; 95% CI, 1.065-1.301), and skin cancer (OR = 1.408; 95% CI, 1.024-1.934). For every 5 years of night shift work, the risk of breast cancer in women was increased by 3.3% (OR = 1.033; 95% CI, 1.012-1.056). Concerning the group of nurses, long-term night shift work presented potential carcinogenic effect in breast cancer (OR = 1.577; 95% CI, 1.235-2.014), digestive system cancer (OR = 1.350; 95% CI, 1.030-1.770), and lung cancer (OR = 1.280; 95% CI, 1.070-1.531). This systematic review confirmed the positive association between night shift work and the risks of several common cancers in women. We identified that cancer risk of women increased with accumulating years of night shift work, which might help establish and implement effective measures to protect female night shifters. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(1); 25-40. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Shift work and burnout among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisetborisut, A; Angkurawaranon, C; Jiraporncharoen, W; Uaphanthasath, R; Wiwatanadate, P

    2014-06-01

    Burnout, defined as a syndrome derived from prolonged exposure to stressors at work, is often seen in health care workers. Shift work is considered one of the occupational risks for burnout in health care workers. To identify and describe the association between shift work and burnout among health care workers. A cross-sectional study of health care workers in Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. Data were collected via an online self-answered questionnaire and included details of shift work and burnout. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Two thousand seven hundred and seventy two health care workers participated, a 52% response rate. Burnout was found more frequently among shift workers than those who did not work shifts (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.9). Among shift workers, over 10 years of being a shift worker was associated with increasing burnout (aOR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6) and having 6-8 sleeping hours per day was associated with having less burnout (aOR 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9). Nurses who had at least 8 days off per month had lower odds of burnout compared with those with fewer than 8 days off (aOR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.8). Shift work was associated with burnout in this sample. Increased years of work as a shift worker were associated with more frequent burnout. Adequate sleeping hours and days off were found to be possible protective factors. Policies on shift work should take into account the potential of such work for contributing towards increasing burnout. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Backward- and forward-looking potential of anaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra B. Schumacher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Personal pronouns and demonstratives contribute differently to the encoding of information in the mental model and they serve distinct backward- and forward-looking functions. While (unstressed personal pronouns are the default means to indicate coreference with the most prominent discourse entity (backward-looking function and typically mark the maintenance of the current topic, demonstratives are used to refer to a less prominent entity and serve the additional forward-looking function of signaling a possible topic shift. In Experiment 1, we present an ERP study that examines the time course of processing personal and d-pronouns in German (er vs. der and assesses the impact of two prominence features of the antecedent, thematic role and sentential position, as well as neurophysiological correlates of backward- and forward-looking functions of referential expressions. We tested the comprehension of personal and d-pronouns following context sentences containing two potential antecedents. In addition to the factor pronoun type (er vs. der, we varied the verb type (active accusative verbs vs. dative experiencer verbs and the thematic role order (canonical vs. non-canonical in the context sentences to vary the antecedent’s prominence. Time-locked to pronoun-onset, the ERPs revealed a general biphasic N400-Late Positivity for d-pronouns over personal pronouns with further subtle interactions of the prominence-lending cues in the early time window. The findings indicate that the calculation of the referential candidates’ prominence (backward-looking function is guided by thematic role and positional information. Thematic role information, in combination with initial position, thus represents a central predictor during referential processing. Coreference with a less prominent entity (assumed for d-pronouns results in processing costs (N400. The additional topic shift signaled by d-pronouns (forward-looking function results in attentional

  20. A fast high-precision six-degree-of-freedom relative position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Macasaet, Van P.; Griswold, Janelle; Sison, Claudia A.; Lubin, Philip; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Brashears, Travis; Zhang, Qicheng; Madajian, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Lasers are commonly used in high-precision measurement and profiling systems. Some laser measurement systems are based on interferometry principles, and others are based on active triangulation, depending on requirements of the application. This paper describes an active triangulation laser measurement system for a specific application wherein the relative position of two fixed, rigid mechanical components is to be measured dynamically with high precision in six degrees of freedom (DOF). Potential applications include optical systems with feedback to control for mechanical vibration, such as target acquisition devices with multiple focal planes. The method uses an array of several laser emitters mounted on one component. The lasers are directed at a reflective surface on the second component. The reflective surface consists of a piecewise-planar pattern such as a pyramid, or more generally a curved reflective surface such as a hyperbolic paraboloid. The reflected spots are sensed at 2-dimensional photodiode arrays on the emitter component. Changes in the relative position of the emitter component and reflective surface will shift the location of the reflected spots within photodiode arrays. Relative motion in any degree of freedom produces independent shifts in the reflected spot locations, allowing full six-DOF relative position determination between the two component positions. Response time of the sensor is limited by the read-out rate of the photodiode arrays. Algorithms are given for position determination with limits on uncertainty and sensitivity, based on laser and spot-sensor characteristics, and assuming regular surfaces. Additional uncertainty analysis is achievable for surface irregularities based on calibration data.

  1. Night shift fatigue among anaesthesia trainees at a major metropolitan teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancman, B M

    2016-05-01

    Night shifts expose anaesthesia trainees to the risk of fatigue and, potentially, fatigue-related performance impairment. This study examined the workload, fatigue and coping strategies of anaesthesia trainees during night shifts. A blinded survey-based study was undertaken at a major single centre metropolitan teaching hospital in Australia. All ten anaesthesia trainees who worked night shifts participated. The survey collected data on duration of night shifts, workload, and sleep patterns. Fatigue was assessed using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). There were 93 night shifts generating data out of a potential 165. Trainees tended to sleep an increasing amount before their shift as the nights progressed from 1 to 5. Night 1 was identified as an 'at risk' night due to the amount of time spent awake before arriving at work (32% awake for U+003E8 hours); on all other nights trainees were most likely to have slept 6-8 hours. The KSS demonstrated an increase in sleepiness of 3 to 4 points on the scale from commencement to conclusion of a night shift. The Night 1 conclusion sleepiness was markedly worse than any other night with 42% falling into an 'at-risk' category. The findings demonstrate fatigue and inadequate sleep in anaesthesia trainees during night shifts in a major metropolitan teaching hospital. The data obtained may help administrators prepare safer rosters, and junior staff develop improved strategies to reduce the likelihood of fatigue.

  2. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure–response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Methods Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Results Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1–4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure–response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Conclusions Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:27872151

  3. Positively charged phosphorus as a hydrogen bond acceptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Schou; Du, Lin; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an element that is essential to the life of all organisms, and the atmospheric detection of phosphine suggests the existence of a volatile biogeochemical P cycle. Here, we investigate the ability of P to participate in the formation of OH···P hydrogen bonds. Three bimolecular......-stretching frequency red shifts and quantum chemical calculations, we find that P is an acceptor atom similar in strength to O and S and that all three P, O, and S atoms are weaker acceptors than N. The quantum chemical calculations show that both H and P in the OH···P hydrogen bond have partial positive charges......, as expected from their electronegativities. However, the electrostatic potentials show a negative potential area on the electron density surface around P that facilitates formation of hydrogen bonds....

  4. Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation with the position-dependent mass for a hard-core potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shihai; Lozada-Cassou, M.

    2005-01-01

    The exact solutions of two-dimensional Schrodinger equation with the position-dependent mass for a hard-core potential are obtained. The eigenvalues related to the position-dependent masses μ 1 and μ 2 , the potential well depth V 0 and the effective range r 0 can be calculated by the boundary condition. We generalize this quantum system to three-dimensional case. The special cases for l=0,1 are studied in detail. For l=0 and c=0, we find that the energy levels will increase with the parameters μ 2 , V 0 and r 0 if μ 1 >μ 2

  5. The Atmospheric Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds Through Hydrogen Shift Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Hasse Christian

    a radical is denoted as a H-shift reaction. Quantum chemical calculations were carried out to investigate the potential energy surface of the H-shift reactions and the subsequent decomposition pathways. The transition state theory including the Eckart quantum tunneling correction have been used to calculate...... the reaction rate constants of the H-shift reactions. The autoxidation of volatile organic compounds is an important oxidation mechanism that produces secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and recycles hydroxyl (OH) radicals. The autoxidation cycle produces a second generation peroxy radical (OOQOOH) through...... a series of H-shift reactions and O2 attachments. I have investigated the H-shift reactions in two OOQOOH radicals (hydroperoxy peroxy radicals and hydroperoxy acyl peroxy radicals). The H-shift reaction rate constants have been compared with the bimolecular reaction rate constants of the peroxy radicals...

  6. Reduced Tolerance to Night Shift in Chronic Shift Workers: Insight From Fractal Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Morris, Christopher J; Patxot, Melissa; Yugay, Tatiana; Mistretta, Joseph; Purvis, Taylor E; Scheer, Frank A J L; Hu, Kun

    2017-07-01

    Healthy physiology is characterized by fractal regulation (FR) that generates similar structures in the fluctuations of physiological outputs at different time scales. Perturbed FR is associated with aging and age-related pathological conditions. Shift work, involving repeated and chronic exposure to misaligned environmental and behavioral cycles, disrupts circadian coordination. We tested whether night shifts perturb FR in motor activity and whether night shifts affect FR in chronic shift workers and non-shift workers differently. We studied 13 chronic shift workers and 14 non-shift workers as controls using both field and in-laboratory experiments. In the in-laboratory study, simulated night shifts were used to induce a misalignment between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the sleep-wake cycles (ie, circadian misalignment) while environmental conditions and food intake were controlled. In the field study, we found that FR was robust in controls but broke down in shift workers during night shifts, leading to more random activity fluctuations as observed in patients with dementia. The night shift effect was present even 2 days after ending night shifts. The in-laboratory study confirmed that night shifts perturbed FR in chronic shift workers and showed that FR in controls was more resilience to the circadian misalignment. Moreover, FR during real and simulated night shifts was more perturbed in those who started shift work at older ages. Chronic shift work causes night shift intolerance, which is probably linked to the degraded plasticity of the circadian control system. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Adaptive Watermarking Scheme Using Biased Shift of Quantization Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Seo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a watermark embedding and extracting method for blind watermarking. It uses the characteristics of a scalar quantizer to comply with the recommendation in JPEG, MPEG series, or JPEG2000. Our method performs embedding of a watermark bit by shifting the corresponding frequency transform coefficient (the watermark position to a quantization index according to the value of the watermark bit, which prevents from losing the watermark information during the data compression process. The watermark can be embedded simultaneously to the quantization process without an additional process for watermarking, which means it can be performed at the same speed to the compression process. In the embedding process, a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR is used to hide the watermark informations and the watermark positions. The experimental results showed that the proposed method satisfies enough robustness and imperceptibility that are the major requirements for watermarking.

  8. Topic structure affects semantic integration: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xuhai; Chen, Shuang; Xu, Xiaoying; Yang, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether semantic integration in discourse context could be influenced by topic structure using event-related brain potentials. Participants read discourses in which the last sentence contained a critical word that was either congruent or incongruent with the topic established in the first sentence. The intervening sentences between the first and the last sentence of the discourse either maintained or shifted the original topic. Results showed that incongruent words in topic-maintained discourses elicited an N400 effect that was broadly distributed over the scalp while those in topic-shifted discourses elicited an N400 effect that was lateralized to the right hemisphere and localized over central and posterior areas. Moreover, a late positivity effect was only elicited by incongruent words in topic-shifted discourses, but not in topic-maintained discourses. This suggests an important role for discourse structure in semantic integration, such that compared with topic-maintained discourses, the complexity of discourse structure in topic-shifted condition reduces the initial stage of semantic integration and enhances the later stage in which a mental representation is updated.

  9. SU-F-J-126: Influence of Six Dimensional Motions in Frameless Stereotactic Dosimetry Incorporating Rotational Shifts as Equivalent Translational Shifts: A Feasibility Study for Elekta-BrainLAB Stereotactic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, B [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon (India); GLA University, Mathura, UP (India); Manikandan, A [NRI medical college, Gunbtur, Andra pradesh (India); Jassal, K; Ganesh, T [King Fahad Specialist Hospital, New Delhi (India); Munshi, A; Mohanti, B [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Pradhan, A [GLA University, Mathura, UP (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Six dimensional positional shifts (translational and rotational) determined by a volumetric imaging system were mathematically combined and incorporated as simple translational shifts and the resultant impact on dose characteristics was studied. Methods: Thirty patients who underwent either single fraction (12 Gy) or five fractions (5 Gy per fraction) stereotactic treatments were included in this study. They were immobilized using a double layered thermoplastic mask from BrainLAB. Isocenter matching was done using infrared marker of ExacTrac. An initial cone beam CT (CBCT) gave positional shifts in 6-dimensions that were applied through 6-D motion enabled couch. A verification CBCT was done following corrections before treatment. These 6-D positional shifts determined at each imaging session from the first CBCT were mathematically combined to give three simple translational shifts. Doses were recalculated in the patient matrix with these positional errors present by moving the whole image dataset. Doses were also recalculated after second CBCT with only residual errors present. PTV dose statistics were compared. Results: For the approved plans V100%(PTV), V100%(GTV), D95%(PTV), D95%(GTV), D1%(PTV) and D1%(GTV) were 96.2±3.0%, 98.2±1.4%, 102%±1.7%, 103±1.2%, 107.9±8.9% and 109.3±7.5% of prescription dose respectively. With the positional errors present (after 1st CBCT) the corresponding values were 86.7±4.9%, 91.3±2.9%, 89.6±4.2%, 95.9±3.7%, 108.3±9.9% and 108.6±4.5%. Post-correction (after 2nd CBCT) with only residual errors present, values were 94.5±5.7%, 97.3±2.9%, 99.3%±3.2%, 102%±2.1%, 107.6±8.5% and 109.0±7.6% respectively. Significant and nominal OAR dose variation was observed between pre- and post-table corrections. Conclusion: Positional errors significantly affect PTV dose statistics. They need to be corrected before delivery of stereotactic treatments although the magnitude of dose changes can vary from patient

  10. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-05-01

    Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1-4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure-response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Shift work and cancer risk: potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Erhard L; Smolensky, Michael H

    2013-08-01

    Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today's 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The association between shift work and sick leave: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Holte, Kari Anne; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

    2012-01-01

    Shift work is associated with a number of negative health outcomes, although it is not known whether it is associated with sick leave. This systematic review therefore aimed to determine whether an association exists between shift work and sick leave. A systematic literature search was conducted in six databases on observational studies. Two reviewers independently selected relevant articles and appraised methodological quality. Data extraction was performed independently by review couples. Articles were categorised according to shift work characteristics and summarised using a levels of evidence synthesis. In total, the search strategy yielded 1207 references, of which 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were appraised as high quality and used in the levels of evidence synthesis. Two high quality longitudinal studies found a positive association between fixed evening shifts and longer sick leave for female healthcare workers. The evidence was assessed as strong. Evidence was inconclusive for rotating shifts, shift work including nights, for fixed night work, and for 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. The association found between evening work and sick leave in female healthcare workers implies that the association between shift work and sick leave might be schedule and population specific. To study the association further, more high quality studies are necessary that assess and adjust for detailed shift work exposure. PMID:22767871

  13. The characterization of GH shifts of surface plasmon resonance in a waveguide using the FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Geum-Yoon; Kim, Doo Gun; Choi, Young-Wan

    2009-11-09

    We have explicated the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift in a mum-order Kretchmann-Raether configuration embedded in an optical waveguide structure by using the finite-difference time-domain method. For optical waveguide-type surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices, the precise derivation of the GH shift has become critical. Artmann's equation, which is accurate enough for bulk optics, is difficult to apply to waveguide-type SPR devices. This is because Artmann's equation, based on the differentiation of the phase shift, is inaccurate at the critical and resonance angles where drastic phase changes occur. In this study, we accurately identified both the positive and the negative GH shifts around the incidence angle of resonance. In a waveguide-type Kretchmann-Raether configuration with an Au thin film of 50 nm, positive and negative lateral shifts of -0.75 and + 1.0 microm are obtained on the SPR with the incident angles of 44.4 degrees and 47.5 degrees, respectively, at a wavelength of 632.8 nm.

  14. Job characteristics and musculoskeletal pain among shift workers of a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Dânia; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Henn, Ruth Liane; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Faoro, Mariana Wentz; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between job characteristics and musculoskeletal pain among shift workers employed at a 24-hour poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,103 production line workers aged 18-52 years. The job characteristics of interest were shift (day/night), shift duration, and plant sector ambient temperature. Musculoskeletal pain was defined as self-reported occupational-related pain in the upper or lower extremities and trunk, occurring often or always, during the last 12 months. The mean (SD) participant age was 30.8 (8.5) years, and 65.7% of participants were women. The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was greater among female participants than male participants. After adjustment for job characteristics and potential confounders, the prevalence ratios (PR) of lower extremity musculoskeletal pain among female workers employed in extreme-temperature conditions those working the night shift, and those who had been working longer on the same shift were 1.75 (95% CI 1.12, 2.71), 1.69 (95% CI 1.05, 2.70), and 1.64 (95% CI 1.03, 2.62), respectively. In male workers, only extreme-temperature conditions showed a significant association with lower extremity musculoskeletal pain (PR=2.17; 95% CI 1.12, 4.22) after adjustment analysis. These findings suggest a need for implementation of measures to mitigate the damage caused by nighttime work and by working under extreme temperature conditions, especially among female shift workers, such as changing positions frequently during work and implementation of rest breaks and a workplace exercise program, so as to improve worker quality of life.

  15. Exact two-loop vacuum polarization correction to the Lamb shift in hydrogenlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plunien, G.; Beier, T.; Soff, G.

    1998-01-01

    We present a calculation scheme for the two-loop vacuum polarization correction of order α 2 to the Lamb shift of hydrogenlike high-Z atoms. The interaction with the external Coulomb field is taken into account to all orders in (Zα). By means of a modified potential approach the problem is reduced to the evaluation of effective one-loop vacuumpolarization potentials. An expression for the energy shift is deduced within the framework of partial wave decomposition performing appropriate subtractions. Exact results for the two-loop vacuum polarization contribution to the Lamb shift of K- and L-shell electron states in hydrogenlike lead and uranium are presented. (orig.)

  16. Potential predictors for the amount of intra-operative brain shift during deep brain stimulation surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datteri, Ryan; Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Konrad, Peter E.; Neimat, Joseph S.; D'Haese, Pierre-François; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2011-03-01

    A number of groups have reported on the occurrence of intra-operative brain shift during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. This has a number of implications for the procedure including an increased chance of intra-cranial bleeding and complications due to the need for more exploratory electrodes to account for the brain shift. It has been reported that the amount of pneumocephalus or air invasion into the cranial cavity due to the opening of the dura correlates with intraoperative brain shift. Therefore, pre-operatively predicting the amount of pneumocephalus expected during surgery is of interest toward accounting for brain shift. In this study, we used 64 DBS patients who received bilateral electrode implantations and had a post-operative CT scan acquired immediately after surgery (CT-PI). For each patient, the volumes of the pneumocephalus, left ventricle, right ventricle, third ventricle, white matter, grey matter, and cerebral spinal fluid were calculated. The pneumocephalus was calculated from the CT-PI utilizing a region growing technique that was initialized with an atlas-based image registration method. A multi-atlas-based image segmentation method was used to segment out the ventricles of each patient. The Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software package was utilized to calculate the volumes of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), white matter and grey matter. The volume of individual structures had a moderate correlation with pneumocephalus. Utilizing a multi-linear regression between the volume of the pneumocephalus and the statistically relevant individual structures a Pearson's coefficient of r = 0.4123 (p = 0.0103) was found. This study shows preliminary results that could be used to develop a method to predict the amount of pneumocephalus ahead of the surgery.

  17. Surface potential on gold nanodisc arrays fabricated on silicon under light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Tomotarou; Matsutani, Akihiro; Nishioka, Kunio; Shoji, Dai; Sato, Mina; Okamoto, Takayuki; Isobe, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Akira; Matsushita, Sachiko

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM) as a new measurement method of plasmon phenomenon. The surface potential of two arrays, namely, a monomeric array and a tetrameric array, of gold nanodiscs (600 nm diameter) on a silicon substrate fabricated by electron beam lithography was investigated by KFM with the view point of irradiation light wavelength change. In terms of the value of the surface potential, contrasting behaviour, a negative shift in the monomeric disc array and a positive shift in the tetrameric disc array, was observed by light irradiation. This interesting behaviour is thought to be related to a difference in localised plasmons caused by the disc arrangement and was investigated from various viewpoints, including Rayleigh anomalies. Finally, this paper reveals that KFM is powerful not only to investigate the plasmonic behaviour but also to predict the electron transportation.

  18. Analytical solutions for quantum walks on 1D chain with different shift operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Kun; Ide, Yusuke; Konno, Norio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the discrete-time quantum walks on 1D Chain with the moving and swapping shift operators. We derive analytical solutions for the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the evolution operator U -hat using the Chebyshev polynomial technique, and calculate the long-time averaged probabilities for the two different shift operators respectively. It is found that the probability distributions for the moving and swapping shift operators display completely different characteristics. For the moving shift operator, the probability distribution exhibits high symmetry where the probabilities at mirror positions are equal. The probabilities are inversely proportional to the system size N and approach to zero as N→∞. On the contrary, for the swapping shift operator, the probability distribution is not symmetric, the probability distribution approaches to a power-law stationary distribution as N→∞ under certain coin parameter condition. We show that such power-law stationary distribution is determined by the eigenstates of the eigenvalues ±1 and calculate the intrinsic probability for different starting positions. Our findings suggest that the eigenstates corresponding to eigenvalues ±1 play an important role for the swapping shift operator. - Highlights: • QWs on 1D chain with the moving and swapping operators are studied for the first time. • We derive analytical results for the probability distribution for the two operators. •We compare the dynamics of QWs with two different shift operators. • We find the particular eigenvalues ±1 play an important role for the dynamics. • We use the Chebyshev technique to treat the problem

  19. Beyond Massive MIMO: The Potential of Positioning With Large Intelligent Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sha; Rusek, Fredrik; Edfors, Ove

    2018-04-01

    We consider the potential for positioning with a system where antenna arrays are deployed as a large intelligent surface (LIS), which is a newly proposed concept beyond massive-MIMO where future man-made structures are electronically active with integrated electronics and wireless communication making the entire environment \\lq\\lq{}intelligent\\rq\\rq{}. In a first step, we derive Fisher-information and Cram\\'{e}r-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) in closed-form for positioning a terminal located perpendicular to the center of the LIS, whose location we refer to as being on the central perpendicular line (CPL) of the LIS. For a terminal that is not on the CPL, closed-form expressions of the Fisher-information and CRLB seem out of reach, and we alternatively find approximations of them which are shown to be accurate. Under mild conditions, we show that the CRLB for all three Cartesian dimensions ($x$, $y$ and $z$) decreases quadratically in the surface-area of the LIS, except for a terminal exactly on the CPL where the CRLB for the $z$-dimension (distance from the LIS) decreases linearly in the same. In a second step, we analyze the CRLB for positioning when there is an unknown phase $\\varphi$ presented in the analog circuits of the LIS. We then show that the CRLBs are dramatically increased for all three dimensions but decrease in the third-order of the surface-area. Moreover, with an infinitely large LIS the CRLB for the $z$-dimension with an unknown $\\varphi$ is 6 dB higher than the case without phase uncertainty, and the CRLB for estimating $\\varphi$ converges to a constant that is independent of the wavelength $\\lambda$. At last, we extensively discuss the impact of centralized and distributed deployments of LIS, and show that a distributed deployment of LIS can enlarge the coverage for terminal-positioning and improve the overall positioning performance.

  20. Observation of the Goos-Haenchen Shift with Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, Victor-O. de; Plomp, Jeroen; Rekveldt, Theo M.; Kraan, Wicher H.; Well, Ad A. van; Dalgliesh, Robert M.; Langridge, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The Goos-Haenchen effect is a spatial shift along an interface resulting from an interference effect that occurs for total internal reflection. This phenomenon was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton, but it was not until 1947 that the effect was experimentally observed by Goos and Haenchen. We provide the first direct, absolute, experimental determination of the Goos-Haenchen shift for a particle experiencing a potential well as required by quantum mechanics: namely, wave-particle duality. Here, the particle is a spin-polarized neutron reflecting from a film of magnetized material. We detect the effect through a subtle change in polarization of the neutron. Here, we demonstrate, through experiment and theory, that neutrons do exhibit the Goos-Haenchen effect and postulate that the associated time shift should also be observable.

  1. Clinical Positioning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Lars Peter Hedegaard; Christensen, Mette Krogh; Rytter, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of residents’ clinical experiences and communication in outpatient oncology consultations. We apply positioning theory, a dynamic alternative to role theory, to investigate how oncology residents and patients situate themselves as persons with rights...... and duties. Drawing from seven qualitative interviews and six days of observation, we investigate the residents’ social positioning and their conversations with patients or supervisors. Our focus is on how (a) relational shifts in authority depend on each situation and its participants; (b) storylines...... establish acts and positions and narratively frame what participants can expect from a medical consultation viewed as a social episode; and (c) the positioning of rights and duties can lead to misunderstandings and frustrations. We conclude that residents and patients locate themselves in outpatient...

  2. Disciplinary style and child abuse potential: association with indicators of positive functioning in children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Eden, Ann M

    2008-06-01

    Reduction of ineffective parenting is promoted in parent training components of mental health treatment for children with externalizing behavior disorders, but minimal research has considered whether disciplinary style and lower abuse risk could also be associated with positive functioning in such children. The present study examined whether lower dysfunctional disciplinary style and child abuse risk was associated with children's positive self-concept, adaptive attributional style, and hopefulness. Recruited from children undergoing treatment for disruptive behavior disorders, 69 mother-child dyads participated, with maternal caregivers reporting on their disciplinary style and abuse potential and children reporting independently on their positive functioning (adaptive attributional style, overall self-concept, and hopelessness). Findings supported the hypothesized association, with lower scores on mothers' dysfunctional discipline style and abuse potential significantly predicting children's reported positive functioning. Future research directions pertaining to more adaptive functioning in children with behavior problems are discussed.

  3. Blue and red shifted temperature dependence of implicit phonon shifts in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sarita; Jindal, V. K.

    2017-07-01

    We have calculated the implicit shift for various modes of frequency in a pure graphene sheet. Thermal expansion and Grüneisen parameter which are required for implicit shift calculation have already been studied and reported. For this calculation, phonon frequencies are obtained using force constants derived from dynamical matrix calculated using VASP code where the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) is used in interface with phonopy software. The implicit phonon shift shows an unusual behavior as compared to the bulk materials. The frequency shift is large negative (red shift) for ZA and ZO modes and the value of negative shift increases with increase in temperature. On the other hand, blue shift arises for all other longitudinal and transverse modes with a similar trend of increase with increase in temperature. The q dependence of phonon shifts has also been studied. Such simultaneous red and blue shifts in transverse or out plane modes and surface modes, respectively leads to speculation of surface softening in out of plane direction in preference to surface melting.

  4. [Night work, shift work: Breast cancer risk factor?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabu, J-C; Stoll, F; Gonzalez, M; Mathelin, C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this review was to determine the link between night/shift work and breast cancer. The analysed articles were taken from the PUBMED database between 1996 and 2015. The keywords used were "breast cancer risk", "night work" and "shift work". In total, 25 articles were selected. Night/shift workers are more at risk to develop a breast cancer (relative risk (RR) between 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02-1.20 and 1.48; 95% CI: 1.36-1.61 in the meta-analyses). However, this risk is not found by some cohort and case-control studies. The circadian rhythm disruption, responsible of disorderliness of melatonin secretion, could be one of the mechanisms involved in the increase of that risk. Hormonal status of night/shift workers, their geographic origin, their lifestyle and their vitamin D deficiency appear as other mechanisms potentially responsible for increased risk of cancer in this professional population. Moreover, a dose-effect connection may exist, with an increase of the risk with the number of years of night/shift work. Night/shift work is associated with a moderate increased risk of breast cancer, especially among women who worked over 20 years. Recommendations concerning the breast monitoring in this population could be diffused. The benefit of melatonin supplementation remains to be assessed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Photoionization cross section in a spherical quantum dot: Effects of some parabolic confining electric potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tshipa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical investigation of the effects of spatial variation of confining electric potential on photoionization cross section (PCS in a spherical quantum dot is presented. The potential profiles considered here are the shifted parabolic potential and the inverse lateral shifted parabolic potential compared with the well-studied parabolic potential. The primary findings are that parabolic potential and the inverse lateral shifted parabolic potential blue shift the peaks of the PCS while the shifted parabolic potential causes a red shift.

  6. Distribution of convection potential around the polar cap boundary as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, G.; Reiff, P.H.; Karty, J.L.; Hairston, M.R.; Heelis, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma flow data from the AE-C, AE-D and DE 2 satellites have been used to systematically study the distribution of the convection potential around the polar cap boundary under a variety of different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. For either a garden hose (B x B y x B y >0) orientation of the IMF, the potential distribution is mainly affected by the sign of B y . In the northern hemisphere, the zero potential line (which separates the dusk convection cell from the dawn cell) on the dayside shifts duskward as B y changes from positive to negative. But in the southern hemisphere, a dawnward shift has been found, although the uncertainties are large. The typical range of displacement is about ±1.5 hours MLT. Note that this shift is in the opposite direction from most simple schematic models of ionospheric flow; this reflects the fact that the polar cap boundary is typically more poleward than the flow reversal associated with the region 1 current system, which shifts in the opposite direction. Thus the enhanced flow region typically crosses noon. In most cases a sine wave is an adequate representation of the distribution of potential around the boundary. However, in a few cases the data favors (at the 80% confidence level) a steeper gradient near noon, more indicative of a throat. The potential drop at the duskside boundary is almost greater than at the dawnside boundary. A slight duskward shift of the patterns observed as the IMF changes from garden hose to ortho-garden hose conditions. Analytic equipotential contours, given the potential function as a boundary condition, are constructed for several IMF conditions

  7. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Men's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Nanfu; Kohn, Taylor P; Lipshultz, Larry I; Pastuszak, Alexander W

    2018-01-19

    their efficacy. Non-standard shift work has been associated with a variety of negative health outcomes and urologic complications, especially with concurrent SWSD. Recognition of these increased risks among shift workers can potentially aid in more effective screening of chronic health and urologic conditions. Non-pharmacologic treatment of SWSD focuses on behavioral therapy and sleep hygiene while melatonin, hypnotics, and stimulants are used to alleviate insomnia and excessive sleepiness of SWSD. Further research into both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies for SWSD is needed to establish more definitive guidelines in the treatment of SWSD in order to increase productivity, minimize workplace accidents, and improve quality of life for shift workers. Deng N, Kohn TP, Lipshultz LI, et al. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Men's Health. Sex Med Rev 2018;XX:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Preposition stranding versus pied-piping: Negative Shift of prepositional complements in dialects of Faroese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Engels

    2009-01-01

             These asymmetries will be accounted for within Fox and Pesetsky's (2003, 2005 cyclic linearization model, which requires non-string-vacuous movement to proceed through the left edge of Spell-out domains, deriving cross-linguistic variation as to Negative Shift from differences in the availability of these left-edge positions. Thereby, pied-piping is considered a last resort strategy, possible only if the prepositional complement cannot undergo Negative Shift on its own due to the unavailability of the relevant left-edge position.

  9. Contribution of eye position to movement perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Panichi, R; Bambagioni, D; Grassi, S; Botti, F M

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the influence of gaze eccentricity on movement perception during asymmetric vestibular stimulation. Subjects (n = 10) were placed on a rotating platform and oscillated asymmetrically in the dark. Subjects were asked to reproduce with a pointer the location in space of a light spot that was turned off at the beginning of the oscillation. The target was presented in centric and eccentric (0 degrees, 20 degrees and 40 degrees) positions. In the centric position a large shift from the real position of the target was observed in the opposite direction to that of the faster vestibular stimulation. The shift increased when the target was placed eccentrically toward the slower vestibular stimulation side and decreased when it was placed in the opposite direction. The dependence of rotation perception on the target position suggests that the eye deviation, imposed by the eccentricity of the target, is able to influence the perception of body movement and may modulate the internal reference frame.

  10. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  11. Faraday-Shielded dc Stark-Shift-Free Optical Lattice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloy, K.; Zhang, X.; McGrew, W. F.; Hinkley, N.; Yoon, T. H.; Nicolodi, D.; Fasano, R. J.; Schäffer, S. A.; Brown, R. C.; Ludlow, A. D.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the absence of a dc Stark shift in an ytterbium optical lattice clock. Stray electric fields are suppressed through the introduction of an in-vacuum Faraday shield. Still, the effectiveness of the shielding must be experimentally assessed. Such diagnostics are accomplished by applying high voltage to six electrodes, which are grounded in normal operation to form part of the Faraday shield. Our measurements place a constraint on the dc Stark shift at the 10-20 level, in units of the clock frequency. Moreover, we discuss a potential source of error in strategies to precisely measure or cancel nonzero dc Stark shifts, attributed to field gradients coupled with the finite spatial extent of the lattice-trapped atoms. With this consideration, we find that Faraday shielding, complemented with experimental validation, provides both a practically appealing and effective solution to the problem of dc Stark shifts in optical lattice clocks.

  12. Challenges of Transit Oriented Development (TOD in Iran. The Need for a Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahta Mirmoghtadaee

    2016-10-01

    The major contention of this paper is to discuss the general concept of TOD, its benefits and challenges in Iranian urban context. It is discussed here that TOD has several positive outcomes considering the existing urbanization trends in Iran. It may be used as a practical instrument to deal with rapidly urbanizing country in which motorization rate is increasing and air pollution is the serious cause of life loss. However there are several challenges which should be faced. The need for an Iranian version of TOD, which re-narrated the theory according to local situation, is the first challenge. A paradigm shift in the government, shifting the priority from housing schemes to mass transit systems is the second challenge needed to be taken into consideration. The third challenge is the overlapping and parallel institutions dealing with mass transit systems in urban and regional transportation planning and insufficient planning instruments. The integrated transportation and urban planning system is necessary here, and there is an urgent need to develop a national TOD guideline with the potential to develop local versions for each city.

  13. Contributors to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses working rotating shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Sun; Lee, Bokim

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers have rapidly increased in South Korea; however, there is no published research exploring shift work tolerance among South Korean workers. This study aimed to investigate factors related to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses. The sample comprised of 660 nurses who worked shifts in a large hospital in South Korea. A structured questionnaire included following comprehensive variables: demographic (age and number of children), individual (morningness and self-esteem), psychosocial (social support and job stress), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, physical activity, and BMI), and working condition factors (number of night shifts and working hours). Shift work tolerance was measured in terms of insomnia, fatigue, and depression. The results of hierarchical regressions indicate that all variables, except for three, number of children, BMI, and working hours, were related to at least one of the symptoms associated with shift work tolerance. Based on these results, we offer some practical implications to help improve shift work tolerance of workers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Myosin phosphatase Fine-tunes Zebrafish Motoneuron Position during Axonogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bremer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis the spinal cord shifts position along the anterior-posterior axis relative to adjacent tissues. How motor neurons whose cell bodies are located in the spinal cord while their axons reside in adjacent tissues compensate for such tissue shift is not well understood. Using live cell imaging in zebrafish, we show that as motor axons exit from the spinal cord and extend through extracellular matrix produced by adjacent notochord cells, these cells shift several cell diameters caudally. Despite this pronounced shift, individual motoneuron cell bodies stay aligned with their extending axons. We find that this alignment requires myosin phosphatase activity within motoneurons, and that mutations in the myosin phosphatase subunit mypt1 increase myosin phosphorylation causing a displacement between motoneuron cell bodies and their axons. Thus, we demonstrate that spinal motoneurons fine-tune their position during axonogenesis and we identify the myosin II regulatory network as a key regulator.

  15. Relativistic total energy and chemical potential of heavy atoms and positive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory, with a finite nucleus, is used to study the variation of the chemical potential μ with atomic number Z and number of electrons N (N <= Z). The difference between the total energy of positive ions and that of the corresponding neutral atom has been obtained. The scaling predictions are confirmed by numerical calculations. The first principles calculation of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi total energy of neutral atoms is also studied. (author)

  16. Scandinavian object shift, remnant VP-topicalisation, verb particles and causatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engels, Eva; Vikner, Sten

    2013-01-01

    constructions in Danish and Swedish, namely particle verb constructions and causative constructions with Danish "lade" and Swedish "låta" ‘let’. It is shown how differences in the VP-internal object position give rise to mirror image sequences concerning Object Shift in connection with verb second (Vº......On the basis of an examination of remnant VP-topicalisation constructions, this paper argues for an order preservation analysis of Scandinavian Object Shift. Extending the empirical database, we account for the phenomena in an Optimality Theoretic framework. The paper focusses on two particular...

  17. Expert system application for prioritizing preventive actions for shift work: shift expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Hatice; Hatipoğlu, Tuğçen; Cihan, Ahmet; Fiğlali, Nilgün

    2017-09-19

    Shift patterns, work hours, work arrangements and worker motivations have increasingly become key factors for job performance. The main objective of this article is to design an expert system that identifies the negative effects of shift work and prioritizes mitigation efforts according to their importance in preventing these negative effects. The proposed expert system will be referred to as the shift expert. A thorough literature review is conducted to determine the effects of shift work on workers. Our work indicates that shift work is linked to demographic variables, sleepiness and fatigue, health and well-being, and social and domestic conditions. These parameters constitute the sections of a questionnaire designed to focus on 26 important issues related to shift work. The shift expert is then constructed to provide prevention advice at the individual and organizational levels, and it prioritizes this advice using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process model, which considers comparison matrices provided by users during the prioritization process. An empirical study of 61 workers working on three rotating shifts is performed. After administering the questionnaires, the collected data are analyzed statistically, and then the shift expert produces individual and organizational recommendations for these workers.

  18. In-line digital holography with phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhang, Junyong; Zhang, Yanli; Zhou, Shenlei; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2018-04-01

    Phase shifting is the key technique in in-line digital holography, but traditional phase shifters have their own limitations in short wavelength regions. Here, phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves with amplitude-only modulation are introduced into in-line digital holography, which are essentially a kind of diffraction lens with three-dimensional array diffraction-limited foci. In the in-line digital holographic experiment, we design two kinds of sieves by lithography and verify the validity of their phase-shifting function by measuring a 1951 U.S. Air Force resolution test target and three-dimensional array foci. With advantages of high resolving power, low cost, and no limitations at shorter wavelengths, phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves have great potential in X-ray holography or biochemical microscopy for the next generation of synchrotron light sources.

  19. County community health associations of net voting shift in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Jason H; Stewart, Charles; Bhambhani, Vijeta

    2017-01-01

    In the U.S. presidential election of 2016, substantial shift in voting patterns occurred relative to previous elections. Although this shift has been associated with both education and race, the extent to which this shift was related to public health status is unclear. To determine the extent to which county community health was associated with changes in voting between the presidential elections of 2016 and 2012. Ecological study with principal component analysis (PCA) using principal axis method to extract the components, then generalized linear regression. General community. All counties in the United States. Physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, percent food insecure, teen birth rate, primary care physician visit rate, age-adjusted mortality rate, violent crime rate, average health care costs, percent diabetic, and percent overweight or obese. The percentage of Donald Trump votes in 2016 minus percentage of Mitt Romney votes in 2012 ("net voting shift"). Complete public health data was available for 3,009 counties which were included in the analysis. The mean net voting shift was 5.4% (+/- 5.8%). Of these 3,009 counties, 2,641 (87.8%) had positive net voting shift (shifted towards Trump) and 368 counties (12.2%) had negative net voting shift (shifted away from Trump). The first principal component ("unhealthy score") accounted for 68% of the total variance in the data. The unhealthy score included all health variables except primary care physician rate, violent crime rate, and health care costs. The mean unhealthy score for counties was 0.39 (SD 0.16). Higher normalized unhealthy score was associated with positive net voting shift (22.1% shift per unit unhealthy, p Donald Trump in 2016 relative to Mitt Romney in 2012 and measures of poor public health. Although these results do not demonstrate causality, these results suggest a possible role for health status in political choices.

  20. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  1. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  2. Health promotion and work: prevention of shift work disorders in companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Kneginja D; Acker, Jens; Scholz, Friederike; Niklewski, Günter

    2010-12-01

    Workplace health promotion is a strategy to improve the health and well-being of people at work. The measures aim at the personal, organisational and work environment. Shift work is one of many reasons provoking increased job stress. According to worldwide epidemiological data, up to 30% of the working population are employed in shifts. Taking into consideration that shift work causes a large number of somatic and psychiatric diseases which bear considerable negative consequences for the health status and the quality of life, it seems to be important to initiate health promotion strategies for shift workers in the companies. The results of recent studies indicate that well-scheduled und targeted health programmes can change the lifestyle of shift working employees and have an impact on the risk factors involved. One problem, though, is a considerable time lag till effects become apparent; therefore, the long-term economic effects of workplace health promotion have not been evaluated sufficiently to date. These definitely positive effects highlight the demand for trainings and workshops for people in shift work. We urgently suggest a speedy implementation of the recommended strategies by companies with shift work systems. In our view, this poses a challenge to the "infant" interdisciplinary field of sleep medicine that should be solved.

  3. Is Education a Fundamental Right? People's Lay Theories About Intellectual Potential Drive Their Positions on Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Rattan, Aneeta; Dweck, Carol S

    2017-09-01

    Does every child have a fundamental right to receive a high-quality education? We propose that people's beliefs about whether "nearly everyone" or "only some people" have high intellectual potential drive their positions on education. Three studies found that the more people believed that nearly everyone has high potential, the more they viewed education as a fundamental human right. Furthermore, people who viewed education as a fundamental right, in turn (a) were more likely to support the institution of free public education, (b) were more concerned upon learning that students in the country were not performing well academically compared with students in peer nations, and (c) were more likely to support redistributing educational funds more equitably across wealthier and poorer school districts. The studies show that people's beliefs about intellectual potential can influence their positions on education, which can affect the future quality of life for countless students.

  4. Effects of positive potential in the catastrophe theory study of the point model for bumpy tori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punjabi, A; Vahala, G [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1985-02-01

    With positive ambipolar potential, ion non-resonant neoclassical transport leads to increased particle confinement times. In certain regimes of filling pressure, microwave powers (ECRH and ICRH) and positive potential, new folds can now emerge from previously degenerate equilibrium surfaces allowing for distinct C, T, and M modes of operation. A comparison in the equilibrium fold structure is also made between (i) equal particle and energy confinement times, and (ii) particle confinement times enhanced over the energy confinement time. The nonlinear time evolution of these point model equations is considered and confirms the delay convention occurrences at the fold edges. It is clearly seen that the time-asymptotic equilibrium state is very sensitive, not only to the values of the control parameters (neutral density, ambipolar electrostatic potential, electron and ion cyclotron power densities) but also to the initial conditions on the plasma density, and electron and ion temperatures.

  5. Positive Feedbacks Enhance Macroalgal Resilience on Degraded Coral Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Claire L A; Longo, Guilherme O; Hay, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Many reefs have shifted from coral and fish dominated habitats to less productive macroalgal dominated habitats, and current research is investigating means of reversing this phase shift. In the tropical Pacific, overfished reefs with inadequate herbivory can become dominated by the brown alga Sargassum polycystum. This alga suppresses recruitment and survival of corals and fishes, thus limiting the potential for reef recovery. Here we investigate the mechanisms that reinforce S. polycystum dominance and show that in addition to negatively affecting other species, this species acts in a self-reinforcing manner, positively promoting survival and growth of conspecifics. We found that survival and growth of both recruit-sized and mature S. polycystum fronds were higher within Sargassum beds than outside the beds and these results were found in both protected and fished reefs. Much of this benefit resulted from reduced herbivory within the Sargassum beds, but adult fronds also grew ~50% more within the beds even when herbivory did not appear to be occurring, suggesting some physiological advantage despite the intraspecific crowding. Thus via positive feedbacks, S. polycystum enhances its own growth and resistance to herbivores, facilitating its dominance (perhaps also expansion) and thus its resilience on degraded reefs. This may be a key feedback mechanism suppressing the recovery of coral communities in reefs dominated by macroalgal beds.

  6. Positive Feedbacks Enhance Macroalgal Resilience on Degraded Coral Reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L A Dell

    Full Text Available Many reefs have shifted from coral and fish dominated habitats to less productive macroalgal dominated habitats, and current research is investigating means of reversing this phase shift. In the tropical Pacific, overfished reefs with inadequate herbivory can become dominated by the brown alga Sargassum polycystum. This alga suppresses recruitment and survival of corals and fishes, thus limiting the potential for reef recovery. Here we investigate the mechanisms that reinforce S. polycystum dominance and show that in addition to negatively affecting other species, this species acts in a self-reinforcing manner, positively promoting survival and growth of conspecifics. We found that survival and growth of both recruit-sized and mature S. polycystum fronds were higher within Sargassum beds than outside the beds and these results were found in both protected and fished reefs. Much of this benefit resulted from reduced herbivory within the Sargassum beds, but adult fronds also grew ~50% more within the beds even when herbivory did not appear to be occurring, suggesting some physiological advantage despite the intraspecific crowding. Thus via positive feedbacks, S. polycystum enhances its own growth and resistance to herbivores, facilitating its dominance (perhaps also expansion and thus its resilience on degraded reefs. This may be a key feedback mechanism suppressing the recovery of coral communities in reefs dominated by macroalgal beds.

  7. Effects of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Sartini Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of a 12-hour shift on mood states and sleepiness at the beginning and end of the shift. METHOD Quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study.It was conducted with 70 neonatal intensive care unit nurses. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS, and a socio-demographic profile questionnaire were administered. RESULTS When the KSS and BRUMS scores were compared at the beginning of the shift associations were found with previous sleep quality (p ≤ 0.01, and quality of life (p ≤ 0.05. Statistical significant effects on BRUMS scores were also associated with previous sleep quality, quality of life, liquid ingestion, healthy diet, marital status, and shift work stress. When the beginning and end of the shift were compared, different KSS scores were seen in the group of all nurses and in the night shift one. Significant vigor and fatigue scores were observed within shift groups. CONCLUSION A good night’s sleep has positive effects on the individual`s mood states both at the beginning and the end of the shift. The self-perception of a good quality of life also positively influenced KSS and BRUMS scores at the beginning and end of the shift. Proper liquid ingestion led to better KSS and BRUMS scores.

  8. Short-term effects of night shift work on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of payroll data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistisen, Helene Tilma; Garde, Anne Helene; Frydenberg, Morten; Christiansen, Peer; Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Johnni; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to examine if night shift work is a short-term risk factor for breast cancer, including combined estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) breast cancer subtypes. Methods The cohort comprised 155 540 public sector female workers in Denmark who were followed from 2007-2012. Day-to-day work-hour information was available from payroll registers and 1245 incident cases of breast cancer were identified in national cancer registries together with receptor subtype information. Results A rate ratio (RR) of 0.90 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.80-1.01] was observed for workers ever working night shifts during the follow-up period compared with workers only working day shifts after adjustment for age, age at first child, parity, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, sex hormones, medications related to alcoholism, family educational level, mammography screening, and other potential confounders. Comparable results were seen for the inception population of employees with first recorded employment after 2007. Modestly increased RR were suggested for breast cancer subtypes characterized by a positive HER2 status irrespective of ER status. Conclusions These findings do not support an overall short-term effect of night shift work on breast cancer risk. Future studies should explore further the impact of HER2 status.

  9. An Evaluation of the Potential for Shifting of Freight from Truck to Rail and Its Impacts on Energy Use and GHG Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, Anant D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guo, Zhaomiao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes our evaluation of the potential energy-use and GHG-emissions reduction achieved by shifting freight from truck to rail under a most-likely scenario. A sensitivity analysis is also included. The sensitivity analysis shows changes in energy use and GHG emissions when key parameters are varied. The major contribution and distinction from previous studies is that this study considers the rail level of service (LOS) and commodity movements at the origin-destination (O-D) level. In addition, this study considers the fragility and time sensitivity of each commodity type.

  10. Looking on the bright side in social anxiety: the potential benefit of promoting positive mental imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud ePictet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Current cognitive models of social phobia converge on the view that negative imagery is a key factor in the development and maintenance of the disorder. Research to date has predominantly focussed on the detrimental impact of negative imagery on cognitive bias and anxiety symptoms, while the potential benefit of promoting positive imagery has been relatively unexplored. Emerging evidence suggests however that positive imagery could have multiple benefits such as improving positive affect, self-esteem and positive interpretation bias, and enhancing social performance. The present article defends the view that combining bias induction with a repeated practice in generating positive imagery in a cognitive bias modification procedure could represent a promising area for future research and clinical innovation in social anxiety disorder.

  11. Potential Arctic tundra vegetation shifts in response to changing temperature, precipitation and permafrost thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der Henk-Jan; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Huissteden, van J.; Pullens, J.W.M.; Berendse, F.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, vegetation and climate have changed significantly in the Arctic. Deciduous shrub cover is often assumed to expand in tundra landscapes, but more frequent abrupt permafrost thaw resulting in formation of thaw ponds could lead to vegetation shifts towards graminoid-dominated

  12. Low pressure broadening and shift of the 540.06 nm line of neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielski, A.; Dokurno, W.; Szudy, J.; Wolnikowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The collision broadening and shift of the 540.06 nm line of neon emitted from a low pressure glow discharge in pure neon and a neon-helium mixture have been measured. The values of the broadening and shift coefficients were determined and compared with the results of calculations based on the Lindholm-Foley impact theory assuming a Lennard-Jones potential. The results for pure neon demonstrate the inadequacy of the Lennard-Jones potential for the Ne-Ne interaction. (orig.)

  13. Unregistered health care staff's perceptions of 12 hour shifts: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Louise; Schneider, Justine; Hare Duke, Laurie

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore unregistered health care staff's perceptions of 12 hour shifts on work performance and patient care. Many unregistered health care staff work 12 hour shifts, but it is unclear whether these are compatible with good quality care or work performance. Twenty five health care assistants from a range of care settings with experience of working 12 hour shifts took part in interviews or focus groups. A wide range of views emerged on the perceived impact of 12 hour shifts in different settings. Negative outcomes were perceived to occur when 12 hour shifts were combined with short-staffing, consecutive long shifts, high work demands, insufficient breaks and working with unfamiliar colleagues. Positive outcomes were perceived to be more likely in a context of control over shift patterns, sufficient staffing levels, and a supportive team climate. The perceived relationship between 12 hour shifts and patient care and work performance varies by patient context and wider workplace factors, but largely focuses on the ability to deliver relational aspects of care. Nursing managers need to consider the role of other workplace factors, such as shift patterns and breaks, when implementing 12 hour shifts with unregistered health care staff. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A study of the bound states for square potential wells with position-dependent mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, A.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.; Nieto, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    A potential well with position-dependent mass is studied for bound states. Applying appropriate matching conditions, a transcendental equation is derived for the energy eigenvalues. Numerical results are presented graphically and the variation of the energy of the bound states are calculated as a function of the well-width and mass

  15. Energy phase shift as mechanism for catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás

    2012-05-01

    Catalysts are agents that by binding reactant molecules lower the energy barriers to chemical reaction. After reaction the catalyst is regenerated, its unbinding energy recruited from the environment, which is associated with an inevitable loss of energy. We show that combining several catalytic sites to become energetically and temporally phase-shifted relative to each other provides a possibility to sustain the overall reaction by internal \\'energy recycling\\', bypassing the need for thermal activation, and in principle allowing the system to work adiabatically. Using an analytical model for superimposed, phase-shifted potentials of F 1-ATP synthase provides a description integrating main characteristics of this rotary enzyme complex. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular-level mechanisms of vibrational frequency shifts in a polar liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Christine M; Thompson, Ward H

    2011-06-16

    A molecular-level analysis of the origins of the vibrational frequency shifts of the CN stretching mode in neat liquid acetonitrile is presented. The frequency shifts and infrared spectrum are calculated using a perturbation theory approach within a molecular dynamics simulation and are in good agreement with measured values reported in the literature. The resulting instantaneous frequency of each nitrile group is decomposed into the contributions from each molecule in the liquid and by interaction type. This provides a detailed picture of the mechanisms of frequency shifts, including the number of surrounding molecules that contribute to the shift, the relationship between their position and relative contribution, and the roles of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions. These results provide insight into what information is contained in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra about the environment of the probed vibrational mode. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Dirac Particle for the Position Dependent Mass in the Generalized Asymmetric Woods-Saxon Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Alpdoğan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional Dirac equation with position dependent mass in the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential is solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The transmission and reflection coefficients are obtained by considering the one-dimensional electric current density for the Dirac particle and the equation describing the bound states is found by utilizing the continuity conditions of the obtained wave function. Also, by using the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential solutions, the scattering states are found out without making calculation for the Woods-Saxon, Hulthen, cusp potentials, and so forth, which are derived from the generalized asymmetric Woods-Saxon potential and the conditions describing transmission resonances and supercriticality are achieved. At the same time, the data obtained in this work are compared with the results achieved in earlier studies and are observed to be consistent.

  18. Simulation of a programmed frequency shift near extraction from the Fermilab Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, P.; Kerns, Q.

    1987-03-01

    The longitudinal phase space program ESME has been used to simulate the effects of a linear shift in RF frequency away from that appropriate for the accelerator guide field. This shift takes place in the new Booster low level RF and is used to position the particle bunches in Main Ring buckets in a reproducible fashion. Shifts in frequency are found to generate synchrotron oscillations; however, the simulations show that these can be reduced to acceptable levels by introduction of jumps in RF phase preceding the programmed frequency changes. Lowering the RF voltage near extraction from the Booster, a desirable operational feature, has also been investigated

  19. Comparative study of potential whiplash injuries for different occupant seated positions during rear end accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerović, Senad; Tomasch, Ernst; Gutsche, Andreas J; Prebil, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Whiplash injuries to the cervical spine represent a considerable economic burden on society with medical conditions, in some cases persisting for more than a year. Numerous studies of whiplash injuries have been made for occupant normal seated position, leaving the analysis of neck injuries for out-of-normal positions not well documented. For that purpose, a detailed human cervical spine finite element model was developed. The analysis was made for four most common occupant seated positions, such as: Normal Position with the torso against the seat back and the head looking straight ahead, Torso Lean forward position with the torso away from the seat back for approximately 10°, Head Flexed position with the head flexed forward approximately 20° from the normal position and Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward position with the head flexed forward approximately 20° and torso 10° from the normal position. The comparative study included the analysis of capsular ligament deformation and the level of S-curvature of the cervical spine. The model developed predicted that Head Flexed seated position and Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward seated position are most threatening for upper and lower cervical spine capsular ligament, respectively. As for the level of S-curvature, the model predicted that Head-Flexed with Torso Lean forward seated position would be most prone to neck injuries associated with it. This study demonstrated that the occupant seated position has a significant influence on potential whiplash injuries.

  20. 3D atom microscopy in the presence of Doppler shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah; Chuang, You-Lin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of hot atoms with laser fields produces a Doppler shift, which can severely affect the precise spatial measurement of an atom. We suggest an experimentally realizable scheme to address this issue in the three-dimensional position measurement of a single atom in vapors of rubidium atoms. A three-level Λ-type atom-field configuration is considered where a moving atom interacts with three orthogonal standing-wave laser fields and spatial information of the atom in 3D space is obtained via an upper-level population using a weak probe laser field. The atom moves with velocity v along the probe laser field, and due to the Doppler broadening the precision of the spatial information deteriorates significantly. It is found that via a microwave field, precision in the position measurement of a single hot rubidium atom can be attained, overcoming the limitation posed by the Doppler shift.

  1. Stark shift and photoionization cross section of on-center and off-center donor impurity in a core/shell ellipsoidal quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Yan, Z. W.

    2018-04-01

    Within the framework of the effective-mass approximation and by using a variational method, the Stark shift of on-center and off-center donor impurity binding energies and photoionization cross section under a z-direction electric field in a prolate (oblate) core/shell ellipsoidal quantum dot has been studied. We have calculated the Stark shift as a function of the core and shell sizes and shapes, electric field, and impurity position. We also discuss the photoionization cross section as a function of photon energy with different core and shell sizes and shapes, electric field strengths, and impurity positions. The results show that the Stark shift depends strongly on the impurity position, it could be positive or negative. The core and shell sizes and shapes also have a pronounce influence on the Stark shift, and the Stark shift changes with them is non-monotonic, especially when the impurity is located at the -z-axis, the situation will become complicated. In addition, the core and shell sizes and shapes, impurity position, and electric field also have an important influence on the photoionization cross section. In particular, the photoionization cross section will vanish when the impurity is located at center of spherical core with spherical or prolate shell case at zero field.

  2. Transformational Change and Regime Shifts in the Circumpolar Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika E. Nilsson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is changing rapidly, and there are many indications that the region is in the midst of transformational change. While some of the focus relates to impacts of climate change, rapid economic development and the potential for shifts in political and social structures in the region have also been in the limelight. This article looks at the circumpolar Arctic as a potential case of a regime shift in a large-scale social–ecological system that includes reinforcing feedbacks. A special focus is placed on governance structures, as these play an important role in social negotiations on the relationship between societies and the environment. While climate change is often portrayed as a driver of social change in the Arctic, it does not appear that the ongoing changes in the biophysical features of the Arctic region have rocked current circumpolar governance structures out of kilter. On the contrary, the ongoing climate-related changes, in particular sea ice decline, appear to have reinforced political commitment to existing legal structures. Major past social regime shifts have mainly been related to access to resources and national identity ideology, with political dynamics reinforced at times by military security considerations.

  3. A hypothesis-testing framework for studies investigating ontogenetic niche shifts using stable isotope ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Hammerschlag-Peyer

    Full Text Available Ontogenetic niche shifts occur across diverse taxonomic groups, and can have critical implications for population dynamics, community structure, and ecosystem function. In this study, we provide a hypothesis-testing framework combining univariate and multivariate analyses to examine ontogenetic niche shifts using stable isotope ratios. This framework is based on three distinct ontogenetic niche shift scenarios, i.e., (1 no niche shift, (2 niche expansion/reduction, and (3 discrete niche shift between size classes. We developed criteria for identifying each scenario, as based on three important resource use characteristics, i.e., niche width, niche position, and niche overlap. We provide an empirical example for each ontogenetic niche shift scenario, illustrating differences in resource use characteristics among different organisms. The present framework provides a foundation for future studies on ontogenetic niche shifts, and also can be applied to examine resource variability among other population sub-groupings (e.g., by sex or phenotype.

  4. Numerical analysis of the shifting slabs applied in a wireless power transfer system to enhance magnetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yayun; Yang, Xijun; Jin, Nan; Li, Wenwen; Yao, Chen; Tang, Houjun

    2017-05-01

    Shifting medium is a kind of metamaterial, which can optically shift a space or an object a certain distance away from its original position. Based on the shifting medium, we propose a concise pair of shifting slabs covering the transmitting or receiving coil in a two-coil wireless power transfer system to decrease the equivalent distance between the coils. The electromagnetic parameters of the shifting slabs are calculated by transformation optics. Numerical simulations validate that the shifting slabs can approximately shift the electromagnetic fields generated by the covered coil; thus, the magnetic coupling and the efficiency of the system are enhanced while remaining the physical transmission distance unchanged. We also verify the advantages of the shifting slabs over the magnetic superlens. Finally, we provide two methods to fabricate shifting slabs based on split-ring resonators.

  5. Attention effects at auditory periphery derived from human scalp potentials: displacement measure of potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Hayashi, Akiko; Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Era, Shukichi

    2006-10-01

    It is known in humans that electrophysiological measures such as the auditory brainstem response (ABR) are difficult to identify the attention effect at the auditory periphery, whereas the centrifugal effect has been detected by measuring otoacoustic emissions. This research developed a measure responsive to the shift of human scalp potentials within a brief post-stimulus period (13 ms), that is, displacement percentage, and applied it to an experiment to retrieve the peripheral attention effect. In the present experimental paradigm, tone pips were exposed to the left ear whereas the other ear was masked by white noise. Twelve participants each conducted two conditions of either ignoring or attending to the tone pips. Relative to averaged scalp potentials in the ignoring condition, the shift of the potentials was found within early component range during the attentive condition, and displacement percentage then revealed a significant magnitude difference between the two conditions. These results suggest that, using a measure representing the potential shift itself, the peripheral effect of attention can be detected from human scalp potentials.

  6. Shifting schedules: the health effects of reorganizing shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare L; Whitehead, Margaret M; Sowden, Amanda J; Akers, Joanne; Petticrew, Mark P

    2008-05-01

    Approximately one fifth of workers are engaged in some kind of shift work. The harmful effects of shift work on the health and work-life balance of employees are well known. A range of organizational interventions has been suggested to address these negative effects. This study undertook the systematic review (following Quality Of Reporting Of Meta [QUORUM] analyses guidelines) of experimental and quasi-experimental studies, from any country (in any language) that evaluated the effects on health and work-life balance of organizational-level interventions that redesign shift work schedules. Twenty-seven electronic databases (medical, social science, economic) were searched. Data extraction and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent reviewers. Narrative synthesis was performed. The review was conducted between October 2005 and November 2006. Twenty-six studies were found relating to a variety of organizational interventions. No one type of intervention was found to be consistently harmful to workers. However, three types were found to have beneficial effects on health and work-life balance: (1) switching from slow to fast rotation, (2) changing from backward to forward rotation, and (3) self-scheduling of shifts. Improvements were usually at little or no direct organizational cost. However, there were concerns about the generalizability of the evidence, and no studies reported on impacts on health inequalities. This review reinforces the findings of epidemiologic and laboratory-based research by suggesting that certain organizational-level interventions can improve the health of shift workers, their work-life balance, or both. This evidence could be useful when designing interventions to improve the experience of shift work.

  7. Investigation on the pinch point position in heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lisheng; Shi, Weixiu

    2016-06-01

    The pinch point is important for analyzing heat transfer in thermodynamic cycles. With the aim to reveal the importance of determining the accurate pinch point, the research on the pinch point position is carried out by theoretical method. The results show that the pinch point position depends on the parameters of the heat transfer fluids and the major fluid properties. In most cases, the pinch point locates at the bubble point for the evaporator and the dew point for the condenser. However, the pinch point shifts to the supercooled liquid state in the near critical conditions for the evaporator. Similarly, it shifts to the superheated vapor state with the condensing temperature approaching the critical temperature for the condenser. It even can shift to the working fluid entrance of the evaporator or the supercritical heater when the heat source fluid temperature is very high compared with the absorbing heat temperature. A wrong position for the pinch point may generate serious mistake. In brief, the pinch point should be founded by the iterative method in all conditions rather than taking for granted.

  8. Salpeter equation in position space: Numerical solution for arbitrary confining potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickisch, L.J.; Durand, L.; Durand, B.

    1984-01-01

    We present and test two new methods for the numerical solution of the relativistic wave equation [(-del 2 +m 1 2 )/sup 1/2/+(-del 2 +m 2 2 )/sup 1/2/+V(r)-M]psi( r ) = 0, which appears in the theory of relativistic quark-antiquark bound states. Our methods work directly in position space, and hence have the desirable features that we can vary the potential V(r) locally in fitting the qq-bar mass spectrum, and can easily build in the expected behavior of V for r→0,infinity. Our first method converts the nonlocal square-root operators to mildly singular integral operators involving hyperbolic Bessel functions. The resulting integral equation can be solved numerically by matrix techniques. Our second method approximates the square-root operators directly by finite matrices. Both methods converge rapidly with increasing matrix size (the square-root matrix method more rapidly) and can be used in fast-fitting routines. We present some tests for oscillator and Coulomb interactions, and for the realistic Coulomb-plus-linear potential used in qq-bar phenomenology

  9. Exogenous and endogenous shifts of attention in perihand space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bigot, Nathalie; Grosjean, Marc

    2016-07-01

    While some studies have found that attentional orienting is altered in perihand space, most have not. One reason for such discrepancies may be related to the types of cues (uninformative and informative) that have been used, as they are known to induce different types of shifts of attention (exogenous and endogenous, respectively). To systematically address this question, two experiments were performed in which an uninformative peripheral cue (Experiment 1) or an informative central cue (Experiment 2) preceded a peripheral target with a short (100-150 ms) stimulus-onset asynchrony. Participants performed the task with their left hand, right hand, both hands, or no hands near the display. Cueing effects were obtained in both experiments, but they were only modulated by hand position in Experiment 1, with larger effects observed in the right- and both-hand conditions. These findings suggest that exogenous attention shifts are affected by hand proximity, while endogenous shifts are not.

  10. Observation of the Goos-Hänchen shift with neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Victor-O; Plomp, Jeroen; Rekveldt, Theo M; Kraan, Wicher H; van Well, Ad A; Dalgliesh, Robert M; Langridge, Sean

    2010-01-08

    The Goos-Hänchen effect is a spatial shift along an interface resulting from an interference effect that occurs for total internal reflection. This phenomenon was suggested by Sir Isaac Newton, but it was not until 1947 that the effect was experimentally observed by Goos and Hänchen. We provide the first direct, absolute, experimental determination of the Goos-Hänchen shift for a particle experiencing a potential well as required by quantum mechanics: namely, wave-particle duality. Here, the particle is a spin-polarized neutron reflecting from a film of magnetized material. We detect the effect through a subtle change in polarization of the neutron. Here, we demonstrate, through experiment and theory, that neutrons do exhibit the Goos-Hänchen effect and postulate that the associated time shift should also be observable.

  11. Nonlinear focal shift beyond the geometrical focus in moderately focused acoustic beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena, Francisco; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Jiménez, Noé; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor

    2013-08-01

    The phenomenon of the displacement of the position along the axis of the pressure, intensity, and radiation force maxima of focused acoustic beams under increasing driving voltages (nonlinear focal shift) is studied for the case of a moderately focused beam. The theoretical and experimental results show the existence of this shift along the axis when the initial pressure in the transducer increases until the acoustic field reaches the fully developed nonlinear regime of propagation. Experimental data show that at high amplitudes and for moderate focusing, the position of the on-axis pressure maximum and radiation force maximum can surpass the geometrical focal length. On the contrary, the on-axis pressure minimum approaches the transducer under increasing driving voltages, increasing the distance between the positive and negative peak pressure in the beam. These results are in agreement with numerical KZK model predictions and the existed data of other authors and can be explained according to the effect of self-refraction characteristic of the nonlinear regime of propagation.

  12. Intrafractional Baseline Shift or Drift of Lung Tumor Motion During Gated Radiation Therapy With a Real-Time Tumor-Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Seishin; Miyamoto, Naoki; Matsuura, Taeko; Onimaru, Rikiya; Katoh, Norio; Inoue, Tetsuya; Sutherland, Kenneth Lee; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Shirato, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the frequency and amplitude of baseline shift or drift (shift/drift) of lung tumors in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using a real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy (RTRT) system. Methods and Materials: Sixty-eight patients with peripheral lung tumors were treated with SBRT using the RTRT system. One of the fiducial markers implanted near the tumor was used for the real-time monitoring of the intrafractional tumor motion every 0.033 seconds by the RTRT system. When baseline shift/drift is determined by the system, the position of the treatment couch is adjusted to compensate for the shift/drift. Therefore, the changes in the couch position correspond to the baseline shift/drift in the tumor motion. The frequency and amount of adjustment to the couch positions in the left-right (LR), cranio-caudal (CC), and antero-posterior (AP) directions have been analyzed for 335 fractions administered to 68 patients. Results: The average change in position of the treatment couch during the treatment time was 0.45 ± 2.23 mm (mean ± standard deviation), −1.65 ± 5.95 mm, and 1.50 ± 2.54 mm in the LR, CC, and AP directions, respectively. Overall the baseline shift/drift occurs toward the cranial and posterior directions. The incidence of baseline shift/drift exceeding 3 mm was 6.0%, 15.5%, 14.0%, and 42.1% for the LR, CC, AP, and for the square-root of sum of 3 directions, respectively, within 10 minutes of the start of treatment, and 23.0%, 37.6%, 32.5%, and 71.6% within 30 minutes. Conclusions: Real-time monitoring and frequent adjustments of the couch position and/or adding appropriate margins are suggested to be essential to compensate for possible underdosages due to baseline shift/drift in SBRT for lung cancers.

  13. Personality and emotional processing: A relationship between extraversion and the late positive potential in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Perlman, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Dissociating the Influence of Affective Word Content and Cognitive Processing Demands on the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowparast Rostami, Hadiseh; Ouyang, Guang; Bayer, Mareike; Schacht, Annekathrin; Zhou, Changsong; Sommer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) elicited by affective stimuli in the event-related brain potential (ERP) is often assumed to be a member of the P3 family. The present study addresses the relationship of the LPP to the classic P3b in a published data set, using a non-parametric permutation test for topographical comparisons, and residue iteration decomposition to assess the temporal features of the LPP and the P3b by decomposing the ERP into several component clusters according to their latency variability. The experiment orthogonally manipulated arousal and valence of words, which were either read or judged for lexicality. High-arousing and positive valenced words induced a larger LPP than low-arousing and negative valenced words, respectively, and the LDT elicited a larger P3b than reading. The experimental manipulation of arousal, valence, and task yielded main effects without any interactions on ERP amplitude in the LPP/P3b time range. The arousal and valence effects partially differed from the task effect in scalp topography; in addition, whereas the late positive component elicited by affective stimuli, defined as LPP, was stimulus-locked, the late positive component elicited by task demand, defined as P3b, was mainly latency-variable. Therefore LPP and P3b manifest different subcomponents.

  15. Shift work and breast cancer among women textile workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M; Thomas, David B; Davis, Scott; Yost, Michael; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E Dawn; Camp, Janice E; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J; Checkoway, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Although night-shift work has been associated with elevated risk of breast cancer in numerous epidemiologic studies, evidence is not consistent. We conducted a nested case-cohort study to investigate a possible association between shift work including a night shift and risk of breast cancer within a large cohort of women textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 1,709 incident breast cancer cases and 4,780 non-cases. Data on historical shift work schedules were collected by categorized jobs from the factories, where the study subjects had worked, and then were linked to the complete work histories of each subject. No jobs in the factories involved exclusively night-shift work. Therefore, night shift was evaluated as part of a rotating shift work pattern. Hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling adapted for the case-cohort design for years of night-shift work and the total number of nights worked. Additionally, analyses were repeated with exposures lagged by 10 and 20 years. We observed no associations with either years of night-shift work or number of nights worked during the entire employment period, irrespective of lag intervals. Findings from the age-stratified analyses were very similar to those observed for the entire study population. The findings from this study provide no evidence to support the hypothesis that shift work increases breast cancer risk. The positive association between shift work and breast cancer observed in Western populations, but not observed in this and other studies of the Chinese population, suggests that the effect of shift work on breast cancer risk may be different in Asian and Caucasian women.

  16. SHIFT WORK AND BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN TEXTILE WORKERS IN SHANGHAI, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Thomas, David B.; Davis, Scott; Yost, Michael; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E. Dawn; Camp, Janice E.; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Although night shift work has been associated with elevated risk of breast cancer in numerous epidemiologic studies, evidence is not consistent. We conducted a nested case-cohort study to investigate a possible association between shift work including a night shift and risk of breast cancer within a large cohort of women textile workers in Shanghai, China. METHODS The study included 1709 incident breast cancer cases and 4780 non-cases. Data on historical shift-work schedules were collected by categorized jobs from the factories where the study subjects had worked, and then were linked to the complete work histories of each subject. No jobs in the factories involved exclusively night shift work. Therefore, night shift was evaluated as part of a rotating shift work pattern. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling adapted for the case-cohort design for years of night-shift work and the total number of nights worked. Additionally, analyses were repeated with exposures lagged by 10 and 20 years. RESULTS We observed no associations with either years of night-shift work, or number of nights worked during the entire employment period, irrespective of lag intervals. Findings from the age-stratified analyses were very similar to those observed for the entire study population. CONCLUSIONS The findings from this study provide no evidence to support the hypothesis that shift work increases breast cancer risk. The positive association between shift work and breast cancer observed in Western populations, but not observed in this and other studies of the Chinese population, suggest that the effect of shift work on breast cancer risk may be different in Asian and Caucasian women. PMID:25421377

  17. Josephson shift registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  18. The Effects of Shift Work on Sleeping Quality, Hypertension and Diabetes in Retired Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; Liu, Yuewei; Huang, Xiji; Rong, Yi; He, Meian; Wang, Youjie; Yuan, Jing; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Background Shift work has been associated with adverse health effects by disturbing circadian rhythms. However,its potential long-term health effects and the persistent effects after leaving shifts have not been well established. Methods and Results We studied 26,463 workers from Tongji-Dongfeng Cohort in China. All the participants are retired employees of Dongfeng Motor Company. Information on demographics, occupational history and medical history were gathered through questionnaires. After adjusting potential confounders in the logistic regression models, shift work was associated with poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension independently. We observed significant effects of shift work on poor sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension; the ORs (95%CI) are 1.18 (1.09–1.27), 1.10 (1.03–1.17) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) respectively. In the further analysis, we found elevated ORs (95%CI) for participants with poor sleeping quality, the ORs (95%CI) are 1.34 (1.08–1.60), 1.13 (1.05–1.21), 1.05 (1.03–1.07) and 1.05 (1.01–1.09) for 1–4, 5–9, 10–19, ≥20 years of shift work respectively. However, with the extension of leaving shift work duration, the effects of shift work on sleep quality gradually reduced. Conclusions Shift work may be an independent risk factor for sleeping quality, diabetes and hypertension even in retired workers. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of sleep loss, diabetes, and hypertension for shift workers. PMID:23976988

  19. Numerical analysis of the shifting slabs applied in a wireless power transfer system to enhance magnetic coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayun Dong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Shifting medium is a kind of metamaterial, which can optically shift a space or an object a certain distance away from its original position. Based on the shifting medium, we propose a concise pair of shifting slabs covering the transmitting or receiving coil in a two-coil wireless power transfer system to decrease the equivalent distance between the coils. The electromagnetic parameters of the shifting slabs are calculated by transformation optics. Numerical simulations validate that the shifting slabs can approximately shift the electromagnetic fields generated by the covered coil; thus, the magnetic coupling and the efficiency of the system are enhanced while remaining the physical transmission distance unchanged. We also verify the advantages of the shifting slabs over the magnetic superlens. Finally, we provide two methods to fabricate shifting slabs based on split-ring resonators.

  20. PEAK SHIFTS PRODUCED BY CORRELATED RESPONSE TO SELECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor; Turelli, Michael; Slatkin, Montgomery

    1993-02-01

    Traits may evolve both as a consequence of direct selection and also as a correlated response to selection on other traits. While correlated response may be important for both the production of evolutionary novelty and in the build-up of complex characters, its potential role in peak shifts has been neglected empirically and theoretically. We use a quantitative genetic model to investigate the conditions under which a character, Y, which has two alternative optima, can be dragged from one optimum to the other as a correlated response to selection on a second character, X. High genetic correlations between the two characters make the transition, or peak shift, easier, as does weak selection tending to restore Y to the optimum from which it is being dragged. When selection on Y is very weak, the conditions for a peak shift depend only on the location of the new optimum for X and are independent of the strength of selection moving it there. Thus, if the "adaptive valley" for Y is very shallow, little reduction in mean fitness is needed to produce a shift. If the selection acts strongly to keep Y at its current optimum, very intense directional selection on X, associated with a dramatic drop in mean fitness, is required for a peak shift. When strong selection is required, the conditions for peak shifts driven by correlated response might occur rarely, but still with sufficient frequency on a geological timescale to be evolutionarily important. © 1993 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Ocular Measures of Sleepiness Are Increased in Night Shift Workers Undergoing a Simulated Night Shift Near the Peak Time of the 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftouni, Suzanne; Sletten, Tracey L.; Nicholas, Christian L.; Kennaway, David J.; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The study examined the relationship between the circadian rhythm of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and ocular measures of sleepiness and neurobehavioral performance in shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift. Methods: Twenty-two shift workers (mean age 33.4, SD 11.8 years) were tested at approximately the beginning (20:00) and the end (05:55) of a simulated night shift in the laboratory. At the time point corresponding to the end of the simulated shift, 14 participants were classified as being within range of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) acrophase— defined as 3 hours before or after aMT6s peak—and 8 were classified as outside aMT6s acrophase range. Participants completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the auditory psychomotor vigilance task (aPVT). Waking electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and infrared reflectance oculography was used to collect ocular measures of sleepiness: positive and negative amplitude/velocity ratio (PosAVR, NegAVR), mean blink total duration (BTD), the percentage of eye closure (%TEC), and a composite score of sleepiness levels (Johns Drowsiness Scale; JDS). Results: Participants who were tested within aMT6s acrophase range displayed higher levels of sleepiness on ocular measures (%TEC, BTD, PosAVR, JDS), objective sleepiness (EEG delta power frequency band), subjective ratings of sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance, compared to those who were outside aMT6s acrophase range. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that objective ocular measures of sleepiness are sensitive to circadian rhythm misalignment in shift workers. Citation: Ftouni S, Sletten TL, Nicholas CL, Kennaway DJ, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SM. Ocular measures of sleepiness are increased in night shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift near the peak time of the 6-sulfatoxymelatonin rhythm. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1131–1141. PMID:26094925

  2. Equivalence principle for quantum systems: dephasing and phase shift of free-falling particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulos, C.; Hu, B. L.

    2018-02-01

    We ask the question of how the (weak) equivalence principle established in classical gravitational physics should be reformulated and interpreted for massive quantum objects that may also have internal degrees of freedom (dof). This inquiry is necessary because even elementary concepts like a classical trajectory are not well defined in quantum physics—trajectories originating from quantum histories become viable entities only under stringent decoherence conditions. From this investigation we posit two logically and operationally distinct statements of the equivalence principle for quantum systems. Version A: the probability distribution of position for a free-falling particle is the same as the probability distribution of a free particle, modulo a mass-independent shift of its mean. Version B: any two particles with the same velocity wave-function behave identically in free fall, irrespective of their masses. Both statements apply to all quantum states, including those without a classical correspondence, and also for composite particles with quantum internal dof. We also investigate the consequences of the interaction between internal and external dof induced by free fall. For a class of initial states, we find dephasing occurs for the translational dof, namely, the suppression of the off-diagonal terms of the density matrix, in the position basis. We also find a gravitational phase shift in the reduced density matrix of the internal dof that does not depend on the particle’s mass. For classical states, the phase shift has a natural classical interpretation in terms of gravitational red-shift and special relativistic time-dilation.

  3. Future directions for positive body image research

    OpenAIRE

    Halliwell, E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for fu...

  4. Shift work parameters and disruption of diurnal cortisol production in female hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Eleanor Wai Man; Aronson, Kristan J; Leung, Michael; Day, Andrew; Tranmer, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Disruption of cortisol production is a potential underlying mechanism. This study explored the associations of diurnal quantity and pattern of cortisol production in relation to (1) current shift work status (exclusive day versus rotating days and nights), (2) years of past shift work and (3) parameters of rotating shift work (timing, length and intensity). Female hospital employees (160 day workers and 168 rotating shift workers) from southeastern Ontario, Canada, participated in a cross-sectional study. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire and measures of body height, weight, and waist circumference were taken. Midstream urine samples were collected over two separate 24-hour periods to measure creatinine-adjusted cortisol. Total diurnal cortisol production and pattern were described with two measures of the area under the curve. The effect of shift work on cortisol was modeled using multivariable linear regression analyses. Cortisol production in day workers and shift workers on their day shift were similar; however, shift workers on the night shift had flatter diurnal cortisol curves and produced less cortisol. This suggests that night work is associated with an acute attenuation of cortisol production.

  5. Extending positive CLASS results across multiple instructors and multiple classes of Modeling Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, Eric; Traxler, Adrienne; de la Garza, Jorge; Kramer, Laird H.

    2013-12-01

    We report on a multiyear study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed significantly improved attitudes from pre- to postcourse. Cohen’s d effect sizes range from 0.08 to 0.95 for individual instructors. The average effect was d=0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.26-0.64). These results build on previously published results showing positive shifts in attitudes from Modeling Instruction classes. We interpret these data in light of other published positive attitudinal shifts and explore mechanistic explanations for similarities and differences with other published positive shifts.

  6. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  7. Extraction of Spin-Orbit Interactions from Phase Shifts via Inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lun, D.R.; Buckman, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    An exact inversion procedure for obtaining the central and spin-orbit potential from phase shifts at fixed energy is described. The method, based on Sabatier interpolation formulas, reduces the nonlinear problem to linear-algebraic equations. We have tested the method with a Woods-Saxon potential with a strong spin-orbit component. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Staff perceptions of leadership during implementation of task-shifting in three surgical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Amanda; Paterson, Karyn; Burmeister, Liz; Thomson, Bernadette; Young, Louise

    2013-03-01

    Registered nurses are difficult to recruit and retain. Task shifting, which involves reallocation of delegation, can reduce demand for registered nurses. Effective leadership is needed for successful task shifting. This study explored leadership styles of three surgical nurse unit managers. Staff completed surveys before and after the implementation of task shifting. Task shifting involved the introduction of endorsed enrolled nurses (licensed nurses who must practise under registered nurse supervision) to better utilize registered nurses. Implementation of task shifting occurred over 4 months in a 700-bed tertiary hospital, in southeast Queensland, Australia. A facilitator assisted nurse unit managers during implementation. The impact was assessed by comparison of data before (n = 49) and after (n = 72) task shifting from registered nurses and endorsed enrolled nurses (n = 121) who completed the Ward Organization Features Survey. Significant differences in leadership and staff organization subscales across the settings suggest that how change involving task shifting is implemented influences nurses' opinions of leadership. Leadership behaviours of nurse unit managers is a key consideration in managing change such as task shifting. Consistent and clear messages from leaders about practice change are viewed positively by nursing staff. In the short term, incremental change possibly results in staff maintaining confidence in leadership. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The first year: A cultural shift towards improving student progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Jobe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Student attrition has been a primary focus among higher education institutions for nearly 50 years, yet overall retention and graduation rates continue to be of significant concern. Despite increased attention, ongoing struggles of colleges and universities to effectively address potential barriers to student progress are well-documented.  Part of the challenge lies in garnering widespread organizational commitment that establishes student progress as an institutional priority.  Along with leadership commitment, broad institutional involvement and adherence to a systematic approach to testing new, innovative solutions are necessary to better position the institution to make clear, evidence-based decisions that improve the student experience. The purpose of this manuscript is to detail one university’s cultural shift towards establishing a clear student progress strategy (with particular focus on the first year, and the methodological approach that laid the foundation for a multi-year study of initiatives that resulted in improved student satisfaction, performance, and retention.

  10. Shift work, long working hours, and later risk of dementia: A long-term follow-up of the Copenhagen Male Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Gyntelberg, Finn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Waldemar, Gunhild; Westendorp, Rudi Gj; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-11-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work and long working hours in midlife on the risk of dementia in old age. Methods The present study comprised 4766 participants from the Copenhagen Male Study. We used information on shift work (collected in 1970-1971 and 1985-1986), long working hours defined as >45 hours per week (collected in 1970-1971), socioeconomic status, sleep, stress, and cardiovascular risk factors. Information about dementia diagnoses was obtained from registers. Participants were followed until 2014 (mean length of follow-up was 17.8 years). We employed Poisson regression for the survival analyses and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found no statistically significant association between shift work (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.05) or long working hours (IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0.79-1.19) and dementia. Adjustment for potential confounders and mediators did not change the estimates. Working shifts at both time points of exposure assessment was not associated with a higher incidence of dementia compared with non-shift workers at both time points (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.69-1.42). The lowest incidence of dementia was observed among participants who reported shift work at one time point (only in 1985-1986: IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.16-1.23 and only in 1970-1971: IRR 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.11). Conclusion We did not find positive evidence of an association between shift work or long working hours and the incidence of dementia, but the negative findings may reflect the crude assessment of shift work and long working hours, which is a major limitation of the present study.

  11. Shifts in coastal fish communities: Is eutrophication always beneficial for sticklebacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Karine; Gräfnings, Max; Boström, Christoffer

    2017-11-01

    Following declines of predatory fish, mesopredators such as sticklebacks have been linked to shifts in coastal trophic networks through both top-down (preying on mesograzers and facilitating algal blooms) and bottom-up (benefitting from eutrophicated conditions) processes. Here, we tested whether the association between eutrophication effects (filamentous algae and turbidity) and sticklebacks held true in the Finnish Archipelago Sea where predatory fish populations have remained stable. If so, sticklebacks should be more abundant in the middle archipelago, where eutrophic conditions have led to increased turbidity, higher filamentous algal loads, and decreased cover of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), than in the outer archipelago, where environmental conditions are better. We measured the spatial and seasonal variation of sticklebacks (three-spined Gasterosteus aculeatus and nine-spined Pungitius pungitius) in middle and outer archipelago sites, as well as environmental variables potentially affecting their abundance. Adults and juveniles of both species were more abundant in the outer than middle archipelago. The outer archipelago was characterized by greater Secchi depth throughout the summer and higher SAV cover in late summer. Secchi depth was positively correlated with stickleback abundance of both species, while SAV cover was also positively correlated in late summer. Filamentous algal cover was high in both the middle and outer archipelago, but not consistently associated with stickleback abundance throughout the summer. While sticklebacks have been thought to both contribute to, and benefit from, eutrophication, our results instead suggest that the resulting environmental changes may have adverse effects on sticklebacks, especially if predators are present. This may lead them to shift their breeding grounds and spatial distribution to less eutrophicated areas where lower turbidity and the resulting increased availability of SAV provide refuge from

  12. Exploring Insight: Focus on Shifts of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik, Alik; Koichu, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents and analyses a sequence of events that preceded an insight solution to a challenging problem in the context of numerical sequences. A three­week long solution process by a pair of ninth­-grade students is analysed by means of the theory of shifts of attention. The goal for this article is to reveal the potential of this theory…

  13. Investigation of the dosimetric accuracy of the isocenter shifting method in prostate cancer patients with and without hip prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Andrew B.; Kinsey, Erica; Xia Ping

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The use of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) enables compensation for prostate movement by shifting the treatment isocenter to track the prostate on a daily basis. Although shifting the isocenter can alter the source to skin distances (SSDs) and the effective depth of the target volume, it is commonly assumed that these changes have a negligible dosimetric effect, and therefore, the number of monitor units delivered is usually not adjusted. However, it is unknown whether or not this assumption is valid for patient with hip prostheses, which frequently contain high density materials. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective study to investigate dosimetric effect of the isocenter shifting method for prostate patients with and without hip prostheses. For each patient, copies of the prostate volume were shifted by up to 1.5 cm from the original position to simulate prostate movement in 0.5 cm increments. Subsequently, 12 plans were created for each patient by creating a copy of the original plan for each prostate position with the isocenter shifted to track the position of the shifted prostate. The dose to the prostate was then recalculated for each plan. For patients with hip prostheses, plans were created both with and without lateral beam angles entering through the prostheses. Results: Without isocenter shifting to compensate for prostate motion of 1.5 cm, the dose to the 95% of the prostate (D-95%) changed by an average of 30% and by up to 64%. This was reduced to less than 3% with the isocenter shifting method. It was found that for patients with hip prostheses, this technique worked best for treatment plans that avoided beam angles passing through the prostheses. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that the isocenter shifting method can accurately deliver dose to the prostate even in patients with hip prostheses.

  14. A strontium lattice clock with reduced blackbody radiation shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masoudi, Ali Khalas Anfoos

    2016-09-30

    Optical clocks have been quickly moving to the forefront of the frequency standards field due to their high spectral resolution, and therefore the potential high stability and accuracy. The accuracy and stability of the optical clocks are nowadays two orders of magnitude better than microwave Cs clocks, which realize the SI second. Envisioned applications of highly accurate optical clocks are to perform tests of fundamental physics, for example, searching for temporal drifts of the fine structure constant α, violations of the Local Position Invariance (LPI), dark matter and dark energy, or to performance relativistic geodesy. In this work, the uncertainty of a strontium lattice clock, based on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition in {sup 87}Sr, due to the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift has been reduced to less than 1 x 10{sup -18} by more than one order of magnitude compared to the previous evaluation of the BBR shift uncertainty in this clock. The BBR shift has been reduced by interrogating the atoms in a cryogenic environment. The systematic uncertainty of the cryogenic lattice clock is evaluated to be 1.3 x 10{sup -17} which is dominated by the uncertainty of the AC Stark shift of the lattice laser and the uncertainty contribution of the BBR shift is negligible. Concerning the instability of the clock, the detection noise of the clock has been measured, and a model linking noise and clock instability has been developed. This noise model shows that, in our lattice clock, quantum projection noise is reached if more than 130 atoms are interrogated. By combining the noise model with the degradation due to the Dick effect reflecting the frequency noise of the interrogation laser, the instability of the clock is estimated to be 1.6 x 10{sup -16}/√(τ/s) in regular operation. During this work, several high-accuracy comparisons to other atomic clocks have been performed, including several absolute frequency measurements. The Sr clock transition frequency

  15. Perspective on the northwestward shift of autumn tropical cyclogenesis locations over the western North Pacific from shifting ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundi; Zhang, Chengyang; Yang, Song; Chen, Dake; He, Shengping

    2017-11-01

    During the recent decades of satellite era, more tropical cyclogenesis locations (TCLs) were observed over the northwestern part of the western North Pacific (WNP), relative to the southeastern part, during the boreal autumn. This increase in TCLs over the northwestern WNP is largely attributed to the synergy of shifting El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the 1998 Pacific climate regime shift. Both central Pacific (CP) La Niña and CP El Niño have occurred more frequently since 1998, with only one eastern Pacific El Niño observed in autumn 2015. The change in the mean longitude of TCLs is closely linked to the ENSO diversity, whereas the change in the mean latitude is dominated by the warming of the WNP induced by an interdecadal tendency of CP La Niña-like events. The physical mechanisms responsible for this shifting ENSO-TCL linkage can be potentially explained by the tacit-and-mutual configurations between tropical upper-tropospheric trough and monsoon trough, on both interannual and interdecadal timescales, which is mainly due to the ENSO-related large-scale environment changes in ocean and atmosphere that modulate the WNP TCL.

  16. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L; Folkard, S; Tucker, P; Macdonald, I

    1998-04-01

    Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.

  17. Third ventricle midline shift on computed tomography as an alternative to septum pellucidum shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Carlos Francis A.; Oropilla, Jean Quint L; Alvarez, Victor M.

    2000-01-01

    The cerebral midline shift is measured using the displacement from midline of the third ventricle. It is an easily determined criterion from which CT scans of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma may be investigated. Midline shift is a significant criteria in which to gauge the neurological status of patients. In a retrospective study of 32 patients with spontaneous unilateral intracerebral hemorrhage, a midline third ventricle shift correlated well with septum pellucidum shift. A greater than 7 mm midline third ventricle shift was associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score compared a shift less than 7mm. For the septum pellucidum, a greater than 10 mm shift was similarly associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score. (Author)

  18. Insomnia in shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Meta-analysis on shift work and risks of specific obesity types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Feng, W; Wang, F; Li, P; Li, Z; Li, M; Tse, G; Vlaanderen, J; Vermeulen, R; Tse, L A

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the associations between shift work patterns and risks of specific types of obesity. PubMed was searched until March 2017 for observational studies that examined the relationships between shift work patterns and obesity. Odds ratio for obesity was extracted using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Subgroup meta-analyses were carried out for study design, specific obesity types and characteristics of shift work pattern. A total of 28 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The overall odds ratio of night shift work was 1.23 (95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.29) for risk of obesity/overweight. Cross-sectional studies showed a higher risk of 1.26 than those with the cohort design (risk ratio = 1.10). Shift workers had a higher frequency of developing abdominal obesity (odds ratio = 1.35) than other obesity types. Permanent night workers demonstrated a 29% higher risk than rotating shift workers (odds ratio 1.43 vs. 1.14). This meta-analysis confirmed the risks of night shift work for the development of overweight and obesity with a potential gradient association suggested, especially for abdominal obesity. Modification of working schedules is recommended, particularly for prolonged permanent night work. More accurate and detailed measurements on shift work patterns should be conducted in future research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Are Categorical Spatial Relations Encoded by Shifting Visual Attention between Objects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, David; Franconeri, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving not just values, but relations between values, is critical to human cognition. We tested the predictions of a proposed mechanism for processing categorical spatial relations between two objects—the shift account of relation processing—which states that relations such as ‘above’ or ‘below’ are extracted by shifting visual attention upward or downward in space. If so, then shifts of attention should improve the representation of spatial relations, compared to a control condition of identity memory. Participants viewed a pair of briefly flashed objects and were then tested on either the relative spatial relation or identity of one of those objects. Using eye tracking to reveal participants’ voluntary shifts of attention over time, we found that when initial fixation was on neither object, relational memory showed an absolute advantage for the object following an attention shift, while identity memory showed no advantage for either object. This result is consistent with the shift account of relation processing. When initial fixation began on one of the objects, identity memory strongly benefited this fixated object, while relational memory only showed a relative benefit for objects following an attention shift. This result is also consistent, although not as uniquely, with the shift account of relation processing. Taken together, we suggest that the attention shift account provides a mechanistic explanation for the overall results. This account can potentially serve as the common mechanism underlying both linguistic and perceptual representations of spatial relations. PMID:27695104

  1. Adaptive Shape Kernel-Based Mean Shift Tracker in Robot Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adaptive shape kernel-based mean shift tracker using a single static camera for the robot vision system. The question that we address in this paper is how to construct such a kernel shape that is adaptive to the object shape. We perform nonlinear manifold learning technique to obtain the low-dimensional shape space which is trained by training data with the same view as the tracking video. The proposed kernel searches the shape in the low-dimensional shape space obtained by nonlinear manifold learning technique and constructs the adaptive kernel shape in the high-dimensional shape space. It can improve mean shift tracker performance to track object position and object contour and avoid the background clutter. In the experimental part, we take the walking human as example to validate that our method is accurate and robust to track human position and describe human contour.

  2. Adaptive Shape Kernel-Based Mean Shift Tracker in Robot Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive shape kernel-based mean shift tracker using a single static camera for the robot vision system. The question that we address in this paper is how to construct such a kernel shape that is adaptive to the object shape. We perform nonlinear manifold learning technique to obtain the low-dimensional shape space which is trained by training data with the same view as the tracking video. The proposed kernel searches the shape in the low-dimensional shape space obtained by nonlinear manifold learning technique and constructs the adaptive kernel shape in the high-dimensional shape space. It can improve mean shift tracker performance to track object position and object contour and avoid the background clutter. In the experimental part, we take the walking human as example to validate that our method is accurate and robust to track human position and describe human contour. PMID:27379165

  3. English Learners' Participation in Mathematical Discussion: Shifting Positionings and Dynamic Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Erin; Dominguez, Higinio; Maldonado, Luz; Empson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated discursive positioning moves that facilitated Latino/a English learners' (ELs) opportunities to take on agentive problem-solving roles in group mathematical discussion. A focus on mechanisms that support students' agentive participation is consistent with the authors' view that recurrent experiences participating and being…

  4. Shift in genomic RNA patterns of human rotaviruses isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotalvirus-positive specimens from 322 infants and young children submitted to private patl1ology laboratories were analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of the viral RNA. A predominance of long RNA profiles occurred and a temporal shift in the genomic patterns was identified. An epidemic of the classic shorter ...

  5. County community health associations of net voting shift in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Wasfy

    Full Text Available In the U.S. presidential election of 2016, substantial shift in voting patterns occurred relative to previous elections. Although this shift has been associated with both education and race, the extent to which this shift was related to public health status is unclear.To determine the extent to which county community health was associated with changes in voting between the presidential elections of 2016 and 2012.Ecological study with principal component analysis (PCA using principal axis method to extract the components, then generalized linear regression.General community.All counties in the United States.Physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, percent food insecure, teen birth rate, primary care physician visit rate, age-adjusted mortality rate, violent crime rate, average health care costs, percent diabetic, and percent overweight or obese.The percentage of Donald Trump votes in 2016 minus percentage of Mitt Romney votes in 2012 ("net voting shift".Complete public health data was available for 3,009 counties which were included in the analysis. The mean net voting shift was 5.4% (+/- 5.8%. Of these 3,009 counties, 2,641 (87.8% had positive net voting shift (shifted towards Trump and 368 counties (12.2% had negative net voting shift (shifted away from Trump. The first principal component ("unhealthy score" accounted for 68% of the total variance in the data. The unhealthy score included all health variables except primary care physician rate, violent crime rate, and health care costs. The mean unhealthy score for counties was 0.39 (SD 0.16. Higher normalized unhealthy score was associated with positive net voting shift (22.1% shift per unit unhealthy, p < 0.0001. This association was stronger in states that switched Electoral College votes from 2012 to 2016 than in other states (5.9% per unit unhealthy, p <0.0001.Substantial association exists between a shift toward voting for Donald Trump in 2016 relative to Mitt Romney in 2012

  6. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  7. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  8. Beta receptor-mediated modulation of the late positive potential in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rover, Mischa; Brown, Stephen B R E; Boot, Nathalie; Hajcak, Greg; van Noorden, Martijn S; van der Wee, Nic J A; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2012-02-01

    Electrophysiological studies have identified a scalp potential, the late positive potential (LPP), which is modulated by the emotional intensity of observed stimuli. Previous work has shown that the LPP reflects the modulation of activity in extrastriate visual cortical structures, but little is known about the source of that modulation. The present study investigated whether beta-adrenergic receptors are involved in the generation of the LPP. We used a genetic individual differences approach (experiment 1) and a pharmacological manipulation (experiment 2) to test the hypothesis that the LPP is modulated by the activation of β-adrenergic receptors. In experiment 1, we found that LPP amplitude depends on allelic variation in the β1-receptor gene polymorphism. In experiment 2, we found that LPP amplitude was modulated by the β-blocker propranolol in a direction dependent on subjects' level of trait anxiety: In participants with lower trait anxiety, propranolol led to a (nonsignificant) decrease in the LPP modulation; in participants with higher trait anxiety, propranolol increased the emotion-related LPP modulation. These results provide initial support for the hypothesis that the LPP reflects the downstream effects, in visual cortical areas, of β-receptor-mediated activation of the amygdala.

  9. Experimental test of spatial updating models for monkey eye-head gaze shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J Van Grootel

    Full Text Available How the brain maintains an accurate and stable representation of visual target locations despite the occurrence of saccadic gaze shifts is a classical problem in oculomotor research. Here we test and dissociate the predictions of different conceptual models for head-unrestrained gaze-localization behavior of macaque monkeys. We adopted the double-step paradigm with rapid eye-head gaze shifts to measure localization accuracy in response to flashed visual stimuli in darkness. We presented the second target flash either before (static, or during (dynamic the first gaze displacement. In the dynamic case the brief visual flash induced a small retinal streak of up to about 20 deg at an unpredictable moment and retinal location during the eye-head gaze shift, which provides serious challenges for the gaze-control system. However, for both stimulus conditions, monkeys localized the flashed targets with accurate gaze shifts, which rules out several models of visuomotor control. First, these findings exclude the possibility that gaze-shift programming relies on retinal inputs only. Instead, they support the notion that accurate eye-head motor feedback updates the gaze-saccade coordinates. Second, in dynamic trials the visuomotor system cannot rely on the coordinates of the planned first eye-head saccade either, which rules out remapping on the basis of a predictive corollary gaze-displacement signal. Finally, because gaze-related head movements were also goal-directed, requiring continuous access to eye-in-head position, we propose that our results best support a dynamic feedback scheme for spatial updating in which visuomotor control incorporates accurate signals about instantaneous eye- and head positions rather than relative eye- and head displacements.

  10. The effects of napping on night shift performance : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    This study represents a collaborative effort between the Federal Aviation Administrations Civil Aeromedical Institute and the US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory to investigate the effects of napping on the midnight shift as a potential counte...

  11. Precision in single atom localization via Raman-driven coherence: Role of detuning and phase shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmatullah,; Qamar, Sajid, E-mail: sajid_qamar@comsats.edu.pk

    2013-10-01

    Role of detuning and phase shift associated with the standing-wave driving fields is revisited for precision position measurement of single atom during its motion through two standing-wave fields. A four-level atomic system in diamond configuration is considered where the intermediate levels are coupled to upper and lower level via standing-wave driving fields and atomic decay channels, respectively. The former is responsible for the generation of quantum mechanical coherence via two-photon Raman transition while the latter leads to spontaneous emission of a photon. Due to standing-wave driving fields the atom–field interaction becomes position-dependent and measurement of the frequency of spontaneously emitted photon gives the position information of the atom. The unique position of the atom with much higher spatial resolution, i.e., of the order of λ/100 is observed using detuning and phase shift associated with the standing-wave driving fields.

  12. Modelling a Nurse Shift Schedule with Multiple Preference Ranks for Shifts and Days-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Cheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to nurse shift schedules, it is found that the nursing staff have diverse preferences about shift rotations and days-off. The previous studies only focused on the most preferred work shift and the number of satisfactory days-off of the schedule at the current schedule period but had few discussions on the previous schedule periods and other preference levels for shifts and days-off, which may affect fairness of shift schedules. As a result, this paper proposes a nurse scheduling model based upon integer programming that takes into account constraints of the schedule, different preference ranks towards each shift, and the historical data of previous schedule periods to maximize the satisfaction of all the nursing staff's preferences about the shift schedule. The main contribution of the proposed model is that we consider that the nursing staff’s satisfaction level is affected by multiple preference ranks and their priority ordering to be scheduled, so that the quality of the generated shift schedule is more reasonable. Numerical results show that the planned shifts and days-off are fair and successfully meet the preferences of all the nursing staff.

  13. Constraining new physics models with isotope shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugiuele, Claudia; Fuchs, Elina; Perez, Gilad; Schlaffer, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Isotope shifts of transition frequencies in atoms constrain generic long- and intermediate-range interactions. We focus on new physics scenarios that can be most strongly constrained by King linearity violation such as models with B -L vector bosons, the Higgs portal, and chameleon models. With the anticipated precision, King linearity violation has the potential to set the strongest laboratory bounds on these models in some regions of parameter space. Furthermore, we show that this method can probe the couplings relevant for the protophobic interpretation of the recently reported Be anomaly. We extend the formalism to include an arbitrary number of transitions and isotope pairs and fit the new physics coupling to the currently available isotope shift measurements.

  14. Dynamical damping terms for symmetry-seeking shift conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alic, Daniela; Rezzolla, Luciano; Hinder, Ian; Moesta, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Suitable gauge conditions are fundamental for stable and accurate numerical-relativity simulations of inspiralling compact binaries. A number of well-studied conditions have been developed over the last decade for both the lapse and the shift and these have been successfully used both in vacuum and non-vacuum spacetimes when simulating binaries with comparable masses. At the same time, recent evidence has emerged that the standard 'Gamma-driver' shift condition requires a careful and non-trivial tuning of its parameters to ensure long-term stable evolutions of unequal-mass binaries. We present a novel gauge condition in which the damping constant is promoted to be a dynamical variable and the solution of an evolution equation. We show that this choice removes the need for special tuning and provides a shift damping term which is free of instabilities in our simulations and dynamically adapts to the individual positions and masses of the binary black-hole system. Our gauge condition also reduces the variations in the coordinate size of the apparent horizon of the larger black hole and could therefore be useful when simulating binaries with very small mass ratios.

  15. Extending positive CLASS results across multiple instructors and multiple classes of Modeling Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Brewe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on a multiyear study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed significantly improved attitudes from pre- to postcourse. Cohen’s d effect sizes range from 0.08 to 0.95 for individual instructors. The average effect was d=0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.26–0.64. These results build on previously published results showing positive shifts in attitudes from Modeling Instruction classes. We interpret these data in light of other published positive attitudinal shifts and explore mechanistic explanations for similarities and differences with other published positive shifts.

  16. Shift systems in nuclear power plants - aspects for planning, shift systems, utility practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauf, E.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture contains the most important aspects of shift structure and shift organisation. The criteria for shift planning involving essential tasks, duties, laws and regulations, medical aspects, social aspects, will be presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany some basic models were established, which will be shown and explained with special reference to the number of teams, size of shift crews and absence regulations. Moreover, the lecture will deal with rotation systems and provisions for the transfer of shift responsibilities. By example of a utility plant commissioning time scale (1300 MW PWR) the practice of shift installations will be shown as well as the most important points of education and training. Within this compass the criteria and requirements for training and education of operational personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany will also be touched. (orig.)

  17. Modified potentials in many-body perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, D.M.; Bartlett, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Many-body perturbation-theory calculations of the pair-correlation energy within the regime of various finite expansions in two-center Slater-type basis sets are performed using a wide variety of modified potentials for the determination of unoccupied orbitals. To achieve meaningful convergence, it appears that the perturbation series must be carried through third order, using shifted denominators to include contributions from various higher-order diagrams. Moreover, certain denominator shifts are found necessary to ensure that a negative-definite resolvent accompanies the perturbation scheme when an arbitrary modified potential is employed. Through third order with denominator shifts, well-behaved modified potentials are found to give results that are equivalent, within 1 kcal/mole, to those obtained for pair-correlation energies with the standard self-consistent-field-V/sup N/ potential

  18. Midline Shift Threshold Value for Hemiparesis in Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juković, Mirela F; Stojanović, Dejan B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) has a variety of clinical presentations, with numerous neurological symptoms and signs. Hemiparesis is one of the leading signs that potentially indicates CSDH. Purpose of this study was to determine the threshold (cut-off) value of midsagittal line (MSL) shift after which hemiparesis is likely to appear. The study evaluated 83 patients with 53 unilateral and 30 bilateral CSDHs in period of three years. Evaluated computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with CSDH were diameter of the hematoma and midsagittal line shift, measured on non-contrast CT scan in relation with occurrence of hemiparesis. Threshold values of MSL shift for both types of CSDHs were obtained as maximal (equal) sensitivity and specificity (intersection of the curves). MSL is a good predictor for hemiparesis occurrence (total sample, AUROC 0.75, p=0.0001). Unilateral and bilateral CSDHs had different threshold values of the MSL for hemiparesis development. Results suggested that in unilateral CSDH the threshold values of MSL could be at 10 mm (AUROC=0.65; p=0.07). For bilateral CSDH the threshold level of MSL shift was 4.5 mm (AUROC=0.77; p=0.01). Our study pointed on the phenomenon that midsagittal line shift can predict hemiparesis occurrence. Hemiparesis in patients with bilateral CSDH was more related to midsagittal line shift compared with unilateral CSDH. When value of midsagittal line shift exceed the threshold level, hemiparesis occurs with certain probability.

  19. Molecular dynamics with phase-shift-based electronic stopping for calibration of ion implantation profiles in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.Y.; Nordlund, K.; Gossmann, H.-J.L.; Harris, M.; Montgomery, N.J.; Mulcahy, C.P.A.; Biswas, S.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Benistant, F.; Ng, C.M.; Chan, Lap

    2006-01-01

    Prediction of the final dopant positions after ion implantation has always been strongly influenced by the choice of stopping models. A molecular dynamics (MD) method is used in this work; the nuclear stopping is treated by accurate pair potentials calculated by density functional theory (DFT). The slowing down due to collisions with electrons will be described by both a non-local semi-empirical model and a local model based on Fermi level phase shift factors. Comparisons with experimental data using both models show that a local pair-specific electronic stopping model is essential in accurately predicting range profiles for any element even at low implant energies where nuclear effects are dominant

  20. Nurses' shift reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies...... of nurses' shift reports. BACKGROUND: Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy...... and accuracy of patient information and feature handovers at the bedside. Still, verbal reports between groups of nurses about patients are commonplace. Shift reports are obvious sites for studying the situated accomplishment of professional nursing at the group level. This review is focused exclusively...

  1. Infrared Sensor System for Mobile-Robot Positioning in Intelligent Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pallarés Puerto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to position a Mobile Robot in an Intelligent Space, and this paper presents a sensorial system for measuring differential phase-shifts in a sinusoidally modulated infrared signal transmitted from the robot. Differential distances were obtained from these phase-shifts, and the position of the robot was estimated by hyperbolic trilateration. Due to the extremely severe trade-off between SNR, angle (coverage and real-time response, a very accurate design and device selection was required to achieve good precision with wide coverage and acceptable robot speed. An I/Q demodulator was used to measure phases with one-stage synchronous demodulation to DC. A complete set of results from real measurements, both for distance and position estimations, is provided to demonstrate the validity of the system proposed, comparing it with other similar indoor positioning systems.

  2. Extension of shift-invariant systems in L2(ℝ) to frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bownik, Marcin; Christensen, Ole; Huang, Xinli

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we show that any shift-invariant Bessel sequence with an at most countable number of generators can be extended to a tight frame for its closed linear span by adding another shift-invariant system with at most the same number of generators. We show that in general this result...... is optimal, by providing examples where it is impossible to obtain a tight frame by adding a smaller number of generators. An alternative construction (which avoids the technical complication of extracting the square root of a positive operator) yields an extension of the given Bessel sequence to a pair...

  3. What does the literature tell us about health workers' experiences of task-shifting projects in sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic, qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijovic, Hana; McKnight, Jacob; English, Mike

    2016-08-01

    To review systematically, qualitative literature covering the implementation of task shifting in sub-Saharan Africa to address the growing interest in interventions of this kind. This review aims to distil the key practical findings to both guide a specific project aiming to improve the quality of neonatal care in Kenya and to contribute to the broader literature. Task-shifting programmes aim to improve access to healthcare by delegating specific tasks from higher to lower skilled health workers. Evidence suggests that task-shifting programmes in sub-Saharan Africa may improve patient outcomes, but they have also been criticised for providing fragmented, unsustainable services. This systematic review of qualitative literature summarises factors affecting implementation of task shifting and how such interventions in sub-Saharan Africa may have affected health workers' feelings about their own positions and their ability to provide care. Following literature search, a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) framework was used to assess quality. Thereafter, analysis adopted a thematic synthesis approach. A systematic literature search identified qualitative studies examining task -shifting interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Thematic synthesis was used to identify overarching themes arising from across the studies and infer how task-shifting interventions may impact on the health workers from whom tasks are being shifted. From the 230 studies screened, 13 met the inclusion criteria. Overarching themes identified showed that task shifting has been associated with jurisdictional debates linked to new cadres working beyond their scope of practice, and tension around compensation and career development for those taking on tasks that were being delegated. Based on the qualitative data available, it appears that task shifting may negatively impact the sense of agency and the ability to perform of health workers' from whom tasks are shifted. The potential

  4. Economic assessment of electric energy storage for load shifting in positive energy building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Georges, Emeline

    2017-01-01

    Net zero energy buildings and positive energy buildings are gaining more and more interest. This paper evaluates the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building used to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out by varying the buildin...... and a 3.7 kWh battery. Finally, simple correlations (based on the feed-in tariff, the annual electrical consumption and production) to predict the optimal size of battery and the lowest payback period are proposed.......Net zero energy buildings and positive energy buildings are gaining more and more interest. This paper evaluates the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building used to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out by varying the building...... envelope characteristics, the power supply system, the climate, the lighting and appliances profiles, the roof tilt angle, the battery size and the electricity tariffs, leading to 3200 cases. The analysis is performed on an annual basis in terms of self-consumption and self-production rate and payback...

  5. [Sleep quality of nurses working in shifts - Hungarian adaptation of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusz, Katalin; Tóth, Ákos; Fullér, Noémi; Müller, Ágnes; Oláh, András

    2015-12-06

    Sleep disorders among shift workers are common problems due to the disturbed circadian rhythm. The Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire assesses discrete sleep problems related to work shifts (day, evening and night shifts) and rest days. The aim of the study was to develop the Hungarian version of this questionnaire and to compare the sleep quality of nurses in different work schedules. 326 nurses working in shifts filled in the questionnaire. The authors made convergent and discriminant validation of the questionnaire with the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. The questionnaire based on psychometric characteristics was suitable to assess sleep disorders associated with shift work in a Hungarian sample. The frequency of discrete symptoms significantly (pshifts. Nurses experienced the worst sleep quality and daytime fatigue after the night shift. Nurses working in irregular shift system had worse sleep quality than nurses working in regular and flexible shift system (pworking in shifts should be assessed with the Hungarian version of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire on a nationally representative sample, and the least burdensome shift system could be established.

  6. Age differences in strategy shift: retrieval avoidance or general shift reluctance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David J; Touron, Dayna R; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults' demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch's (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attending to only that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions that promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults' strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits.

  7. Age Differences in Strategy Shift: Retrieval Avoidance or General Shift Reluctance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David J.; Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults’ demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch’s (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attend only to that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions which promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults’ strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits. PMID:23088195

  8. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Bakker, Marije F.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for

  9. Slow potentials in a melody recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleger, R; Schellberg, D

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study, slow negative shifts were found in the EEG of subjects listening to well-known melodies. The two experiments reported here were designed to investigate the variables to which these slow potentials are related. In the first experiment, two opposite hypotheses were tested: The slow shifts might express subjects' acquaintance with the melodies or, on the contrary, the effort invested to identify them. To this end, some of the melodies were presented in the rhythms of other melodies to make recognition more difficult. Further, melodies rated as very well-known and as very unknown were analysed separately. However, the slow shifts were not affected by these experimental variations. Therefore in the second experiment, on the one hand the purely physical parameters intensity and duration were varied, but this variation had no impact on the slow shifts either. On the other hand, recognition was made more difficult by monotonously repeating the pitch of the 4th tone for the rest of some melodies. The slow negative shifts were enhanced with these monotonous melodies. This enhancement supports the "effort" hypothesis. Accordingly, the ofter shifts obtained in both experiments might likewise reflect effort. But since the task was not demanding, it is suggested that these constant shifts reflect the effort invested for coping with the entire underarousing situation rather than with the task. Frequently, slow eye movements occurred in the same time range as the slow potentials, resulting in EOG potentials spreading to the EEG recording sites. Yet results did not change substantially when the EEG recordings were corrected for the influence of EOG potentials.

  10. Automated bead-positioning system for measuring impedances of R-F cavity modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1993-05-01

    We describe a fully automated bead puller system which uses stepping motors to position the bead, and an HP-8510 network analyzer to measure the resulting frequency shifts, both devices being under computer control. Longitudinal motion of the bead is used for measurement of cavity shunt impedance. In addition, azimuthal scans at fixed longitudinal position aid in determining the multipole character of higher-order modes. High sensitivity/accuracy is made possible by measuring phase shifts at the unperturbed resonant frequencies (rather than frequency shifts themselves), thereby permitting averaging factors of > 500 with only modest increases in data acquisition time. Sample measurements will be presented. A comprehensive analysis of the experimental results is presented in an accompanying paper

  11. How to detect the gravitationally induced phase shift of electromagnetic waves by optical-fiber interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is called to a laboratory experiment of an optical-fiber interferometer which can show the gravitationally induced phase shift of optical waves. A phase shift of approx.10 -6 rad is anticipated for the Earth's gravitational potential difference of 1 m when a He-Ne laser and two multiple-turn optical-fiber loops of length 5 km are used. The phase shift can be varied by rotating the loops about an axis parallel to the Earth's surface. This order of phase shifts can be detected by current optical-fiber interferometric techniques

  12. Calculation of vibrational shifts of nitrile probes in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase upon ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layfield, Joshua P; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-01-16

    The vibrational Stark effect provides insight into the roles of hydrogen bonding, electrostatics, and conformational motions in enzyme catalysis. In a recent application of this approach to the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), thiocyanate probes were introduced in site-specific positions throughout the active site. This paper implements a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach for calculating the vibrational shifts of nitrile (CN) probes in proteins. This methodology is shown to reproduce the experimentally measured vibrational shifts upon binding of the intermediate analogue equilinen to KSI for two different nitrile probe positions. Analysis of the molecular dynamics simulations provides atomistic insight into the roles that key residues play in determining the electrostatic environment and hydrogen-bonding interactions experienced by the nitrile probe. For the M116C-CN probe, equilinen binding reorients an active-site water molecule that is directly hydrogen-bonded to the nitrile probe, resulting in a more linear C≡N--H angle and increasing the CN frequency upon binding. For the F86C-CN probe, equilinen binding orients the Asp103 residue, decreasing the hydrogen-bonding distance between the Asp103 backbone and the nitrile probe and slightly increasing the CN frequency. This QM/MM methodology is applicable to a wide range of biological systems and has the potential to assist in the elucidation of the fundamental principles underlying enzyme catalysis.

  13. Anthropogenic climate change drives shift and shuffle in North Atlantic phytoplankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Andrew D; Irwin, Andrew J; Finkel, Zoe V; Stock, Charles A

    2016-03-15

    Anthropogenic climate change has shifted the biogeography and phenology of many terrestrial and marine species. Marine phytoplankton communities appear sensitive to climate change, yet understanding of how individual species may respond to anthropogenic climate change remains limited. Here, using historical environmental and phytoplankton observations, we characterize the realized ecological niches for 87 North Atlantic diatom and dinoflagellate taxa and project changes in species biogeography between mean historical (1951-2000) and future (2051-2100) ocean conditions. We find that the central positions of the core range of 74% of taxa shift poleward at a median rate of 12.9 km per decade (km⋅dec(-1)), and 90% of taxa shift eastward at a median rate of 42.7 km⋅dec(-1) The poleward shift is faster than previously reported for marine taxa, and the predominance of longitudinal shifts is driven by dynamic changes in multiple environmental drivers, rather than a strictly poleward, temperature-driven redistribution of ocean habitats. A century of climate change significantly shuffles community composition by a basin-wide median value of 16%, compared with seasonal variations of 46%. The North Atlantic phytoplankton community appears poised for marked shift and shuffle, which may have broad effects on food webs and biogeochemical cycles.

  14. Shift work and the risk of ischemic heart disease - a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, P.; Kolstad, H.A.; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objective of this review was to evaluate the epidemiologic evidence for a causal relation between shift work and ischemic heart disease. Methods We conducted a systematic search until the end of March 2008 for studies providing information on the relative risk of ischemic heart...... disease in relation to shift work. The quality of included papers was evaluated with respect to design, exposure and outcome information, bias, and exposure response assessment. Results Of the 16 studies examined, relevant information was retrieved from 14. Seven of these analyzed fatal events, six......-fatal events showed modest positive associations. In a majority of studies, we could not reasonably rule out negative or positive bias due to the quality of outcome or exposure information, or confounder control. Five studies used years in shift work for exposure response analysis and no consistent pattern...

  15. Pionic 4f→3d transition in 181Ta, natural Re, and 209Bi and the strong interaction level shift and the strong interaction level shift and width of the pionic 3d state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Panman, J.K.; Koch, J.H.; Doesburg, W. van; Ewan, G.T.; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.; Fransson, K.; Tauscher, L.

    1979-01-01

    Owing to a powerful Compton-suppression technique it was possible to observe for the first time the pionic 4f→3d X-ray transition in elements heavier than A=150. The strong interaction monopole shifts epsilon 0 and widths GAMMA 0 as well as the quadrupole splitting of the 3d levels have been measured in Ta, Re and Bi. Thus in addition to the strongly shifted and broadened 5g→4f transitions, a second, strongly affected line is available for these elements. For the pionic 4f levels, standard optical potentials fit the strong interaction shifts and broadenings quite well. The now observed, deeper-lying 3d states in Ta, Re and Bi have shifts and widths that differ by a factor of 2 or more from the standard optical potential predictions. From the observed relative X-ray intensities of the pionic cascade the strong interaction widths of the 5g and 4f levels are also extracted. (Auth.)

  16. Accommodating state shifts within the conceptual framework of the wetland continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; McKenna, Owen; LaBaugh, James W.; Euliss, Ned H.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2018-01-01

    The Wetland Continuum is a conceptual framework that facilitates the interpretation of biological studies of wetland ecosystems. Recently summarized evidence documenting how a multi-decadal wet period has influenced aspects of wetland, lake and stream systems in the southern prairie-pothole region of North America has revealed the potential for wetlands to shift among alternate states. We propose that incorporation of state shifts into the Wetland Continuum, as originally proposed or as modified by Hayashi et al., is a relatively simple matter if one allows for shifts of wetlands along the horizontal, groundwater axis of the framework under conditions of extreme and sustained wet or dry conditions. We suggest that the ease by which state shifts can be accommodated within both the original and modified frameworks of the Wetland Continuum is a testament to the robustness of the concept when it is related to the alternative-stable-state concept.

  17. The Summating Potential Is a Reliable Marker of Electrode Position in Electrocochleography: Cochlear Implant as a Theragnostic Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstaedter, Victor; Lenarz, Thomas; Erfurt, Peter; Kral, Andrej; Baumhoff, Peter

    2017-12-14

    For the increasing number of cochlear implantations in subjects with residual hearing, hearing preservation, and thus the prevention of implantation trauma, is crucial. A method for monitoring the intracochlear position of a cochlear implant (CI) and early indication of imminent cochlear trauma would help to assist the surgeon to achieve this goal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the different electric components recorded by an intracochlear electrocochleography (ECochG) as markers for the cochleotopic position of a CI. The measurements were made directly from the CI, combining intrasurgical diagnostics with the therapeutical use of the CI, thus, turning the CI into a "theragnostic probe." Intracochlear ECochGs were measured in 10 Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs of either sex, with normal auditory brainstem response thresholds. All subjects were fully implanted (4 to 5 mm) with a custom six contact CI. The ECochG was recorded simultaneously from all six contacts with monopolar configuration (retroauricular reference electrode). The gross ECochG signal was filtered off-line to separate three of its main components: compound action potential, cochlear microphonic, and summating potential (SP). Additionally, five cochleae were harvested and histologically processed to access the spatial position of the CI contacts. Both ECochG data and histological reconstructions of the electrode position were fitted with the Greenwood function to verify the reliability of the deduced cochleotopic position of the CI. SPs could be used as suitable markers for the frequency position of the recording electrode with an accuracy of ±1/4 octave in the functioning cochlea, verified by histology. Cochlear microphonics showed a dependency on electrode position but were less reliable as positional markers. Compound action potentials were not suitable for CI position information but were sensitive to "cochlear health" (e.g., insertion trauma). SPs directly recorded from

  18. Extension of Newton's Dynamical Spectral Shift for Photons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extension of Newton's Dynamical Spectral Shift for Photons in Gravitational Fields of Static Homogeneous Spherical Massive Bodies. ... is perfectly in agreement with the physical fact that gravitational scalar potential is negative and increase in recession leads to decrease in kinetic energy and hence decrease in frequency.

  19. Metabolic shifts in microorganisms: the case of Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goel, A.

    2013-01-01

    A commonly observed organismal response to changing growth rate is a metabolic shift from one mode of metabolism to another. This phenomenon is potentially interesting from a fundamental and industrial perspective because it can influence cellular choices and can limit the capacity of

  20. Prediction of Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation from sequence and chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yang; Bax, Ad, E-mail: bax@nih.go [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We present a program, named Promega, to predict the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation on the basis of backbone chemical shifts and the amino acid sequence. Using a chemical shift database of proteins of known structure together with the PDB-extracted amino acid preference of cis Xaa-Pro peptide bonds, a cis/trans probability score is calculated from the backbone and {sup 13}C{sup {beta}} chemical shifts of the proline and its neighboring residues. For an arbitrary number of input chemical shifts, which may include Pro-{sup 13}C{sup {gamma}}, Promega calculates the statistical probability that a Xaa-Pro peptide bond is cis. Besides its potential as a validation tool, Promega is particularly useful for studies of larger proteins where Pro-{sup 13}C{sup {gamma}} assignments can be challenging, and for on-going efforts to determine protein structures exclusively on the basis of backbone and {sup 13}C{sup {beta}} chemical shifts.

  1. Is education a fundamental right? People's lay theories about intellectual potential drive their positions on education

    OpenAIRE

    Savani, K; Rattan, A; Dweck, C S

    2017-01-01

    Does every child have a fundamental right to receive a high quality education? We propose that people’s beliefs about whether “nearly everyone” or “only some people” have high intellectual potential drive their positions on education. Three studies found that the more people believed that nearly everyone has high potential, the more they viewed education as a fundamental human right. Further, people who viewed education as a fundamental right, in turn, (1) were more likely to support the inst...

  2. Computing shifts to monitor ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure and operations

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00068610; The ATLAS collaboration; Barberis, Dario; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine Chrystel; De, Kaushik; Fassi, Farida; Stradling, Alden; Svatos, Michal; Vartapetian, Armen; Wolters, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) group established a new Computing Run Coordinator (CRC) shift at the start of LHC Run 2 in 2015. The main goal was to rely on a person with a good overview of the ADC activities to ease the ADC experts’ workload. The CRC shifter keeps track of ADC tasks related to their fields of expertise and responsibility. At the same time, the shifter maintains a global view of the day-to-day operations of the ADC system. During Run 1, this task was accomplished by a person of the expert team called the ADC Manager on Duty (AMOD), a position that was removed during the shutdown period due to the reduced number and availability of ADC experts foreseen for Run 2. The CRC position was proposed to cover some of the AMODs former functions, while allowing more people involved in computing to participate. In this way, CRC shifters help with the training of future ADC experts. The CRC shifters coordinate daily ADC shift operations, including tracking open issues, reporting, and representing...

  3. Computing shifts to monitor ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Adam Bourdarios, Claire; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) group established a new Computing Run Coordinator (CRC) shift at the start of LHC Run2 in 2015. The main goal was to rely on a person with a good overview of the ADC activities to ease the ADC experts' workload. The CRC shifter keeps track of ADC tasks related to their fields of expertise and responsibility. At the same time, the shifter maintains a global view of the day-to-day operations of the ADC system. During Run1, this task was accomplished by the ADC Manager on Duty (AMOD), a position that was removed during the shutdown period due to the reduced number and availability of ADC experts foreseen for Run2. The CRC position was proposed to cover some of the AMOD’s former functions, while allowing more people involved in computing to participate. In this way, CRC shifters help train future ADC experts. The CRC shifters coordinate daily ADC shift operations, including tracking open issues, reporting, and representing ADC in relevant meetings. The CRC also facilitates ...

  4. Energy reduction potential from the shift to electric vehicles: The Flores island case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, André; Baptista, Patrícia; Silva, Carlos; Ferrão, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The increase of fossil fuel demand raises concerns on availability of resources for future energy demand and on potential environmental impacts. Electric vehicles (EVs) appear as one alternative to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy resources. This research work analyzes the benefits of the introduction of EVs in a small energy system, the Flores island, Azores, in terms of primary energy and CO 2 emissions. Four scenarios were designed considering different penetration rates of EVs (Low and High) and different time of recharging strategies (Fixed and Flexible). The high shares of RES in the electricity production system (60–62%) did not guarantee a significant use of RES for the recharging of EVs (10–40%), as the additional electricity required had to be produced mainly from the diesel generators. The flexible recharging strategies allowed doubling the share of RES in the recharging of the EVs when compared to fixed recharging, and consequently double the impact on the reduction of primary energy consumption and fossil fuels imports. While the reduction of primary energy ranged between 0.2% and 1.1%, for CO 2 emissions there was a decrease between 0.3 and 1.7%, proving that EVs can help improve the sustainability of energy systems. - highlights: • High shares of RES in electricity do not guarantee a low energy use by EVs. • The introduction of EVs can help reduce CO 2 emissions by 11% in 2030. • Flexible time of recharging strategies allows a 2.5 times higher share of RES

  5. On the energy shift of the ECC cusp. Does the shift really exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Sarkadi, L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The cusplike 'electron capture to the continuum' (ECC) peak appearing in the spectrum of the forward emitted electrons in ion-atom collisions is generally thought to be a divergence. The peak is centered at electron velocity that matches that of the projectile. Recently Illescas et al. [1] claimed, however, that 'the cusp is not a divergence smoothed by the experiment, and is slightly shifted from the impact-velocity value'. In a subsequent work Shah et al. [2] measured the ECC cusp for collisions of 10- and 20- keV protons with H2 and He, and found that the peak was indeed shifted to a velocity below its expected position. Their classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations reproduced the observation well. In the present work we demonstrate by our CTMC calculations (made for the case of 20-keV protons on He) that the intensity, width and position of the ECC cusp do depend on the experimental conditions by which the electrons are detected (first of all, the acceptance angle of the electron spectrometer). We also present experimental data for this collision system. While the latter data are well reproduced by our CTMC calculations, neither the theoretical results, nor the experimental data of the present work support of the findings of Shah et al. [2]. At the same time, analyzing the problem in the framework of the general final-state interaction theory of cusp formation [3], we concluded that 'rigorously' speaking Shah et al. [2] are right when they state that the ECC cusp is not a divergence. The divergence is smeared out by the scattering of the projectile. However, this effect is negligibly small at the lowest energy that was considered in their paper, 10 keV. At this impact energy the projectile motion is smeared within an angular region Δθ th ∼ 0.06 deg, which is much smaller than the acceptance angle of the experiment, Δθ exp ∼ 1.5 deg

  6. Pendulum Shifts, Context, Error, and Personal Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Blackman; Oren Hester

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a series of tools that were developed to achieve a balance in under-standing LOWs and the human component of events (including accountability) as the INL continues its shift to a learning culture where people report, are accountable and interested in making a positive difference - and want to report because information is handled correctly and the result benefits both the reporting individual and the organization. We present our model for understanding these interrelationships; the initiatives that were undertaken to improve overall performance.

  7. Energy efficiency improvement by gear shifting optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojevic Ivan A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have proved that elements of driver’s behavior related to gear selection have considerable influence on the fuel consumption. Optimal gear shifting is a complex task, especially for inexperienced drivers. This paper presents an implemented idea for gear shifting optimization with the aim of fuel consumption minimization with more efficient engine working regimes. Optimized gear shifting enables the best possible relation between vehicle motion regimes and engine working regimes. New theoretical-experimental approach has been developed using On-Board Diagnostic technology which so far has not been used for this purpose. The matrix of driving modes according to which tests were performed is obtained and special data acquisition system and analysis process have been developed. Functional relations between experimental test modes and adequate engine working parameters have been obtained and all necessary operations have been conducted to enable their use as inputs for the designed algorithm. The created Model has been tested in real exploitation conditions on passenger car with Otto fuel injection engine and On-Board Diagnostic connection without any changes on it. The conducted tests have shown that the presented Model has significantly positive effects on fuel consumption which is an important ecological aspect. Further development and testing of the Model allows implementation in wide range of motor vehicles with various types of internal combustion engines.

  8. Accessible surface area from NMR chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafsa, Noor E.; Arndt, David; Wishart, David S., E-mail: david.wishart@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Computing Science (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Accessible surface area (ASA) is the surface area of an atom, amino acid or biomolecule that is exposed to solvent. The calculation of a molecule’s ASA requires three-dimensional coordinate data and the use of a “rolling ball” algorithm to both define and calculate the ASA. For polymers such as proteins, the ASA for individual amino acids is closely related to the hydrophobicity of the amino acid as well as its local secondary and tertiary structure. For proteins, ASA is a structural descriptor that can often be as informative as secondary structure. Consequently there has been considerable effort over the past two decades to try to predict ASA from protein sequence data and to use ASA information (derived from chemical modification studies) as a structure constraint. Recently it has become evident that protein chemical shifts are also sensitive to ASA. Given the potential utility of ASA estimates as structural constraints for NMR we decided to explore this relationship further. Using machine learning techniques (specifically a boosted tree regression model) we developed an algorithm called “ShiftASA” that combines chemical-shift and sequence derived features to accurately estimate per-residue fractional ASA values of water-soluble proteins. This method showed a correlation coefficient between predicted and experimental values of 0.79 when evaluated on a set of 65 independent test proteins, which was an 8.2 % improvement over the next best performing (sequence-only) method. On a separate test set of 92 proteins, ShiftASA reported a mean correlation coefficient of 0.82, which was 12.3 % better than the next best performing method. ShiftASA is available as a web server ( http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com http://shiftasa.wishartlab.com ) for submitting input queries for fractional ASA calculation.

  9. Night shift work and stomach cancer risk in the MCC-Spain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmati, Georgina; Turner, Michelle C; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Alguacil, Juan; Costas, Laura; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martin Sanchez, Vicente; Ardanaz, Eva; Moreno, Victor; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Fernández-Tardon, Guillermo; Villanueva Ballester, Vicent; Capelo, Rocio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Santibáñez, Miguel; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-08-01

    Night shift work has been classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, based on experimental studies and limited evidence on human breast cancer risk. Evidence at other cancer sites is scarce. We evaluated the association between night shift work and stomach cancer risk in a population-based case-control study. A total of 374 incident stomach adenocarcinoma cases and 2481 population controls were included from the MCC-Spain study. Detailed data on lifetime night shift work were collected including permanent and rotating shifts, and their cumulative duration (years). Adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were used in analysis. A total of 25.7% of cases and 22.5% of controls reported ever being a night shift worker. There was a weak positive, non-significant association between ever having had worked for at least 1 year in permanent night shifts and stomach cancer risk compared to never having worked night shifts (OR=1.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.8). However, there was an inverse 'U' shaped relationship with cumulative duration of permanent night shifts, with the highest risk observed in the intermediate duration category (OR 10-20 years=2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6) (p for trend=0.19). There was no association with ever having had worked in rotating night shifts (OR=0.9, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.2) and no trend according to cumulative duration (p for trend=0.68). We found no clear evidence concerning an association between night shift work and stomach cancer risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Empirical correlation between protein backbone {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C secondary chemical shifts and its application to nitrogen chemical shift re-referencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Liya [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (United States); Markley, John L. [University of Wisconsin, Biochemistry Department (United States)], E-mail: markley@nmrfam.wisc.edu

    2009-06-15

    The linear analysis of chemical shifts (LACS) has provided a robust method for identifying and correcting {sup 13}C chemical shift referencing problems in data from protein NMR spectroscopy. Unlike other approaches, LACS does not require prior knowledge of the three-dimensional structure or inference of the secondary structure of the protein. It also does not require extensive assignment of the NMR data. We report here a way of extending the LACS approach to {sup 15}N NMR data from proteins, so as to enable the detection and correction of inconsistencies in chemical shift referencing for this nucleus. The approach is based on our finding that the secondary {sup 15}N chemical shift of the backbone nitrogen atom of residue i is strongly correlated with the secondary chemical shift difference (experimental minus random coil) between the alpha and beta carbons of residue i - 1. Thus once alpha and beta {sup 13}C chemical shifts are available (their difference is referencing error-free), the {sup 15}N referencing can be validated, and an appropriate offset correction can be derived. This approach can be implemented prior to a structure determination and can be used to analyze potential referencing problems in database data not associated with three-dimensional structure. Application of the LACS algorithm to the current BMRB protein chemical shift database, revealed that nearly 35% of the BMRB entries have {delta}{sup 15}N values mis-referenced by over 0.7 ppm and over 25% of them have {delta}{sup 1}H{sup N} values mis-referenced by over 0.12 ppm. One implication of the findings reported here is that a backbone {sup 15}N chemical shift provides a better indicator of the conformation of the preceding residue than of the residue itself.

  11. Comparison of Schwinger and Kohn variational phase shift calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, I.

    1980-01-01

    Numerical calculations of the l = 0 phase shift for an attractive Yukawa potential are reported using Schwinger and Kohn (type) variational methods. Accurate values can be obtained from both procedures, but when the same basis set of short range functions is used, the Kohn procedure gives superior results. (orig.)

  12. Chemical shift imaging: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brateman, L.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical shift is the phenomenon that is seen when an isotope possessing a nuclear magnetic dipole moment resonates at a spectrum of resonance frequencies in a given magnetic field. These resonance frequencies, or chemical shifts, depend on the chemical environments of particular nuclei. Mapping the spatial distribution of nuclei associated with a particular chemical shift (e.g., hydrogen nuclei associated with water molecules or with lipid groups) is called chemical shift imaging. Several techniques of proton chemical shift imaging that have been applied in vivo are presented, and their clinical findings are reported and summarized. Acquiring high-resolution spectra for large numbers of volume elements in two or three dimensions may be prohibitive because of time constraints, but other methods of imaging lipid of water distributions (i.e., selective excitation, selective saturation, or variations in conventional magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences) can provide chemical shift information. These techniques require less time, but they lack spectral information. Since fat deposition seen by chemical shift imaging may not be demonstrated by conventional magnetic resonance imaging, certain applications of chemical shift imaging, such as in the determination of fatty liver disease, have greater diagnostic utility than conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, edge artifacts caused by chemical shift effects can be eliminated by certain selective methods of data acquisition employed in chemical shift imaging

  13. Sensor fault-tolerant control for gear-shifting engaging process of automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; He, Kai; Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Yahui

    2018-01-01

    Angular displacement sensor on the actuator of automated manual transmission (AMT) is sensitive to fault, and the sensor fault will disturb its normal control, which affects the entire gear-shifting process of AMT and results in awful riding comfort. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of fault-tolerant control for AMT gear-shifting engaging process. By using the measured current of actuator motor and angular displacement of actuator, the gear-shifting engaging load torque table is built and updated before the occurrence of the sensor fault. Meanwhile, residual between estimated and measured angular displacements is used to detect the sensor fault. Once the residual exceeds a determined fault threshold, the sensor fault is detected. Then, switch control is triggered, and the current observer and load torque table estimates an actual gear-shifting position to replace the measured one to continue controlling the gear-shifting process. Numerical and experiment tests are carried out to evaluate the reliability and feasibility of proposed methods, and the results show that the performance of estimation and control is satisfactory.

  14. Transverse magnetic field effect on the giant Goos–Hänchen shifts based on a degenerate two-level system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi, R.

    2018-06-01

    We study the effect of the Goos–Hänchen (GH) shifts through a cavity with degenerate two-level systems in the line of . For this purpose, we focus on the transverse magnetic field (TMF) in a Floquet frame to obtain the giant GH shifts. Physically, the collisional effects of TMF lead to increasing the population trapping in the ground state. However, we demonstrate that the population trapping generates the large negative or positive GH shifts and simultaneously switches from superluminal to subluminal (or vice versa). Also, we investigate the other optical properties such as the longitudinal magnetic field (LMF), which plays an important role in the control of the GH shifts and leads to the generation of new subsystems. In the next step, we evaluate the GH shifts beyond the multi-photon resonance condition by the control of TMF. Moreover, we compute the appearance of negative and positive GH shifts by setting the width of the incident Gaussian beams in the presence of a multi-photon resonance condition. Our results show that superluminal or subluminal light propagation can be simultaneously controlled by adjusting the rates of the TMF and LMF. The significant effects of these factors on the degenerate two-level systems provide different applications such as slow light, optical switches and quantum information storage.

  15. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Ali M.; Kassem, Ahmed M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. → Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. → The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. → The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. → The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  16. Optimal pole shifting controller for interconnected power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Ali M., E-mail: drali_yousef@yahoo.co [Electrical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University (Egypt); Kassem, Ahmed M., E-mail: kassem_ahmed53@hotmail.co [Control Technology Dep., Industrial Education College, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Mathematical model represents a power system which consists of synchronous machine connected to infinite bus through transmission line. {yields} Power system stabilizer was designed based on optimal pole shifting controller. {yields} The system performances was tested through load disturbances at different operating conditions. {yields} The system performance with the proposed optimal pole shifting controller is compared with the conventional pole placement controller. {yields} The digital simulation results indicated that the proposed controller has a superior performance. -- Abstract: Power system stabilizer based on optimal pole shifting is proposed. An approach for shifting the real parts of the open-loop poles to any desired positions while preserving the imaginary parts is presented. In each step of this approach, it is required to solve a first-order or a second-order linear matrix Lyapunov equation for shifting one real pole or two complex conjugate poles, respectively. This presented method yields a solution, which is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index. The attractive feature of this method is that it enables solutions of the complex problem to be easily found without solving any non-linear algebraic Riccati equation. The present power system stabilizer is based on Riccati equation approach. The control law depends on finding the feedback gain matrix, and then the control signal is synthesized by multiplying the state variables of the power system with determined gain matrix. The gain matrix is calculated one time only, and it works over wide range of operating conditions. To validate the power of the proposed PSS, a linearized model of a simple power system consisted of a single synchronous machine connected to infinite bus bar through transmission line is simulated. The studied power system is subjected to various operating points and power system parameters changes.

  17. Adaptation of Shift Sequence Based Method for High Number in Shifts Rostering Problem for Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liogys

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—is to investigate a shift sequence-based approach efficiency then problem consisting of a high number of shifts.Research objectives:• Solve health care workers rostering problem using a shift sequence based method.• Measure its efficiency then number of shifts increases.Design/methodology/approach—Usually rostering problems are highly constrained. Constraints are classified to soft and hard constraints. Soft and hard constraints of the problem are additionally classified to: sequence constraints, schedule constraints and roster constraints. Sequence constraints are considered when constructing shift sequences. Schedule constraints are considered when constructing a schedule. Roster constraints are applied, then constructing overall solution, i.e. combining all schedules.Shift sequence based approach consists of two stages:• Shift sequences construction,• The construction of schedules.In the shift sequences construction stage, the shift sequences are constructed for each set of health care workers of different skill, considering sequence constraints. Shifts sequences are ranked by their penalties for easier retrieval in later stage.In schedules construction stage, schedules for each health care worker are constructed iteratively, using the shift sequences produced in stage 1.Shift sequence based method is an adaptive iterative method where health care workers who received the highest schedule penalties in the last iteration are scheduled first at the current iteration.During the roster construction, and after a schedule has been generated for the current health care worker, an improvement method based on an efficient greedy local search is carried out on the partial roster. It simply swaps any pair of shifts between two health care workers in the (partial roster, as long as the swaps satisfy hard constraints and decrease the roster penalty.Findings—Using shift sequence method for solving health care workers rostering problem

  18. Adaptation of Shift Sequence Based Method for High Number in Shifts Rostering Problem for Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liogys

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—is to investigate a shift sequence-based approach efficiency then problem consisting of a high number of shifts. Research objectives:• Solve health care workers rostering problem using a shift sequence based method.• Measure its efficiency then number of shifts increases. Design/methodology/approach—Usually rostering problems are highly constrained.Constraints are classified to soft and hard constraints. Soft and hard constraints of the problem are additionally classified to: sequence constraints, schedule constraints and roster constraints. Sequence constraints are considered when constructing shift sequences. Schedule constraints are considered when constructing a schedule. Roster constraints are applied, then constructing overall solution, i.e. combining all schedules.Shift sequence based approach consists of two stages:• Shift sequences construction,• The construction of schedules.In the shift sequences construction stage, the shift sequences are constructed for each set of health care workers of different skill, considering sequence constraints. Shifts sequences are ranked by their penalties for easier retrieval in later stage.In schedules construction stage, schedules for each health care worker are constructed iteratively, using the shift sequences produced in stage 1. Shift sequence based method is an adaptive iterative method where health care workers who received the highest schedule penalties in the last iteration are scheduled first at the current iteration. During the roster construction, and after a schedule has been generated for the current health care worker, an improvement method based on an efficient greedy local search is carried out on the partial roster. It simply swaps any pair of shifts between two health care workers in the (partial roster, as long as the swaps satisfy hard constraints and decrease the roster penalty.Findings—Using shift sequence method for solving health care workers rostering

  19. Shift from bird to butterfly pollination in Clivia (Amaryllidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiepiel, Ian; Johnson, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator shifts have been implicated as a driver of divergence in angiosperms. We tested the hypothesis that there was a transition from bird- to butterfly pollination in the African genus Clivia (Amaryllidaceae) and investigated how floral traits may have been either modified or retained during this transition. We identified pollinators using field observations, correlations between lepidopteran wing scales and pollen on stigmas, and single-visit and selective exclusion experiments. We also quantified floral rewards and advertising traits. The upright trumpet-shaped flowers of C. miniata were found to be pollinated effectively by swallowtail butterflies during both nectar-feeding and brush visits. These butterflies transfer pollen on their wings, as evidenced by positive correlations between wing scales and pollen loads on stigmas. All other Clivia species have narrow pendulous flowers that are visited by sunbirds. Selective exclusion of birds and large butterflies from flowers of two Clivia species resulted in a significant decline in seed production. From the distribution of pollination systems on available phylogenies, it is apparent that a shift took place from bird- to butterfly pollination in Clivia. This shift was accompanied by the evolution of trumpet-shaped flowers, smaller nectar volume, and emission of scent, while flower color and nectar chemistry do not appear to have been substantially modified. These results are consistent with the idea that pollinator shifts can explain major floral modifications during plant diversification.

  20. Shift work, mental distress and job satisfaction among Palestinian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Y M; Nielsen, M B; Kristensen, P; Bast-Pettersen, R

    2017-01-01

    Associations between shift work (SW) schedules, mental distress and job satisfaction have never been completely described. To examine gender-specific associations of SW with mental distress and job satisfaction in nurses in Hebron District, Palestine, in 2012. Detailed information on work schedules (day versus shift), socio-demographic status, mental distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-30) and job satisfaction (Generic Job Satisfaction Scale) in nurses employed in Hebron District, Palestine, was obtained through a questionnaire survey. Associations of SW and outcomes were examined by linear regression analysis. Of 372 nurses eligible for the study, 309 and 338 completed surveys regarding mental distress and job satisfaction, respectively. The sample comprised 62% women and 38% men. After adjusting for covariates, women working shifts reported significantly higher levels of mean mental distress [β coefficient 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-7.0] compared with women working regular day shifts. Men working shifts reported significantly lower levels of job satisfaction (-3.3; 95% CI -6.2 to -0.5) than men working regular day shifts. Women reported higher levels of mental distress than men, but this was unrelated to work schedule. In this study, nurses working shifts reported higher levels of mental distress and lower levels of job satisfaction, although these associations were weaker when adjusted for potential covariates. There was no evidence of a gender differential in the association between SW and mental distress and job satisfaction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  1. Energy shift and conduction-to-valence band transition mediated by a time-dependent potential barrier in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Andrey; da Costa, D. R.; de Sousa, G. O.; Pereira, J. M.; Farias, G. A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the scattering of a wave packet describing low-energy electrons in graphene by a time-dependent finite-step potential barrier. Our results demonstrate that, after Klein tunneling through the barrier, the electron acquires an extra energy which depends on the rate of change of the barrier height with time. If this rate is negative, the electron loses energy and ends up as a valence band state after leaving the barrier, which effectively behaves as a positively charged quasiparticle.

  2. A Hyperchaotic Attractor with Multiple Positive Lyapunov Exponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo-Si, Hu

    2009-01-01

    There are many hyperchaotic systems, but few systems can generate hyperchaotic attractors with more than three PLEs (positive Lyapunov exponents). A new hyperchaotic system, constructed by adding an approximate time-delay state feedback to a five-dimensional hyperchaotic system, is presented. With the increasing number of phase-shift units used in this system, the number of PLEs also steadily increases. Hyperchaotic attractors with 25 PLEs can be generated by this system with 32 phase-shift units. The sum of the PLEs will reach the maximum value when 23 phase-shift units are used. A simple electronic circuit, consisting of 16 operational amplifiers and two analogy multipliers, is presented for confirming hyperchaos of order 5, i.e., with 5 PLEs

  3. Combined chemical shift changes and amino acid specific chemical shift mapping of protein-protein interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Frank H.; Riepl, Hubert [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany); Maurer, Till [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co. KG, Analytical Sciences Department (Germany); Gronwald, Wolfram [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany); Neidig, Klaus-Peter [Bruker BioSpin GmbH, Software Department (Germany); Kalbitzer, Hans Robert [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany)], E-mail: hans-robert.kalbitzer@biologie.uni-regensburg.de

    2007-12-15

    Protein-protein interactions are often studied by chemical shift mapping using solution NMR spectroscopy. When heteronuclear data are available the interaction interface is usually predicted by combining the chemical shift changes of different nuclei to a single quantity, the combined chemical shift perturbation {delta}{delta}{sub comb}. In this paper different procedures (published and non-published) to calculate {delta}{delta}{sub comb} are examined that include a variety of different functional forms and weighting factors for each nucleus. The predictive power of all shift mapping methods depends on the magnitude of the overlap of the chemical shift distributions of interacting and non-interacting residues and the cut-off criterion used. In general, the quality of the prediction on the basis of chemical shift changes alone is rather unsatisfactory but the combination of chemical shift changes on the basis of the Hamming or the Euclidian distance can improve the result. The corrected standard deviation to zero of the combined chemical shift changes can provide a reasonable cut-off criterion. As we show combined chemical shifts can also be applied for a more reliable quantitative evaluation of titration data.

  4. The Analytic Solution of Schroedinger Equation with Potential Function Superposed by Six Terms with Positive-power and Inverse-power Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xianquan; Luo Guang; Cui Lipeng; Niu Lianbin; Li Fangyu

    2009-01-01

    The analytic solution of the radial Schroedinger equation is studied by using the tight coupling condition of several positive-power and inverse-power potential functions in this article. Furthermore, the precisely analytic solutions and the conditions that decide the existence of analytic solution have been searched when the potential of the radial Schroedinger equation is V(r) = α 1 r 8 + α 2 r 3 + α 3 r 2 + β 3 r -1 + β 2 r -3 + β 1 r -4 . Generally speaking, there is only an approximate solution, but not analytic solution for Schroedinger equation with several potentials' superposition. However, the conditions that decide the existence of analytic solution have been found and the analytic solution and its energy level structure are obtained for the Schroedinger equation with the potential which is motioned above in this paper. According to the single-value, finite and continuous standard of wave function in a quantum system, the authors firstly solve the asymptotic solution through the radial coordinate r → and r → 0; secondly, they make the asymptotic solutions combining with the series solutions nearby the neighborhood of irregular singularities; and then they compare the power series coefficients, deduce a series of analytic solutions of the stationary state wave function and corresponding energy level structure by tight coupling among the coefficients of potential functions for the radial Schroedinger equation; and lastly, they discuss the solutions and make conclusions. (general)

  5. Comparison of sleep disturbances in shift workers and people working with a fixed shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Yazdi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different types of sleep disturbances can have a serious negative effect on a person’s ability, function and overall well-being. One of the most important issues that can result in sleep disturbances are occupational causes, the most important among them is shift work. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of sleep disturbances between shift work and non-shift workers. Material and Methods: This study was designed as a case-control study in 196 shift workers and 204 non-shift workers in a textile factory. The data were collected by using a comprehensive questionnaire including Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire, Berlin Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index and Restless Leg Syndrome Questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using the SPSS software version 13 by student's t-test, Chi square and multiple logistic regressions. Results: The duration of night sleep in shift workers was less than day workers (p<0.001. Prevalence of poor sleep quality and insomnia were higher in shift workers significantly than non shift workers (p<0.001, OR=2.3 95% CI: 1.7-2.9. The most prevalent type of insomnia was problems in initiating sleep (P=0.022, OR=2.2 95% CI: 1.5-3.2. There was no difference in the prevalence of excessive day-time sleepiness, restless leg syndrome, snoring, obstructive sleep apnea and different types of parasomnias between two groups. Conclusion: Reduced length of sleep and higher prevalence of poor sleep quality and insomnia in shift workers emphasizes the importance of serious attention to sleep disorders in shift workers.

  6. George Kubler Shifting South: Architecture History Following Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Santos, Eliana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to present the shifting relations between North America and the South - South America and the South of Europe - through the work of the historian George Kubler. At the beginning of his career as a scholar, Kubler was invited by the Department of State to participate in a conference on inter-American relations. Later, with the positioning of the United States in World War II, the transatlantic relationship between the US and Europe became more prominent. Kubler’s research interests followed this change: His research shift from South America to peripheral Southern Europe reflects an availability of funding given his country's geopolitical interests. So far, artists and other scholars have praised Kubler’s vast work regarding the art and architecture of different 'Souths' mainly as a sign of 'nonalignment' and of his attention to the condition of peripheral countries.

  7. Gain-assisted control of the Goos-Haenchen shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziauddin,; Qamar, Sajid [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-11-15

    A gain-assisted model is considered to study the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift behavior in the reflected and transmitted light. In this model, a probe light is incident on a cavity containing three-level dilute gaseous atomic medium. The atom-field interaction follows two-photon Raman transitions, and the dielectric susceptibility of the medium exhibits dispersion and gain properties [L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature (London) 406, 227 (2000)]. Under appropriate conditions, two gain peaks are observed with anomalous dispersion between the peaks, whereas normal dispersion can be observed at and around the gain maxima. The manipulation of the detuning associated with the probe light field which interacts with the intracavity medium during its propagation through the cavity can lead to a control over negative and positive GH shift in the reflected and transmitted light beam via the anomalous and normal dispersion of the medium.

  8. Fluorescence spectral shift of QD films with electron injection: Dependence on counterion proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meilin; Li, Bo; Zhang, Yaxin; Liu, Weilong; Yang, Yanqiang; Wang, Yuxiao; Yang, Qingxin

    2017-05-01

    Due to the promising application of quantum dot (QD) films in solar cells, LEDs and environmental detectors, the fluorescence of charged QD films has achieved much attention during recent years. In this work, we observe the spectral shift of photoluminescence (PL) in charged CdSe/ZnS QD films controlled by electrochemical potential. The spectral center under negative bias changes from red-shift to blue-shift while introducing smaller inorganic counterions (potassium ions) into the electrolyte. This repeatable effect is attributed to the enhanced electron injection with smaller cations and the electronic perturbations of QD luminescence by these excess charges.

  9. Observation of core-level binding energy shifts between (100) surface and bulk atoms of epitaxial CuInSe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Berry, G.; Rockett, A.

    1997-01-01

    Core-level and valence band photoemission from semiconductors has been shown to exhibit binding energy differences between surface atoms and bulk atoms, thus allowing one to unambiguously distinguish between the two atomic positions. Quite clearly, surface atoms experience a potential different from the bulk due to the lower coordination number - a characteristic feature of any surface is the incomplete atomic coordination. Theoretical accounts of this phenomena are well documented in the literature for III-V and II-VI semiconductors. However, surface state energies corresponding to the equilibrium geometry of (100) and (111) surfaces of Cu-based ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors have not been calculated or experimental determined. These compounds are generating great interest for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications, and are an isoelectronic analog of the II-VI binary compound semiconductors. Surface core-level binding energy shifts depend on the surface cohesive energies, and surface cohesive energies are related to surface structure. For ternary compound semiconductor surfaces, such as CuInSe 2 , one has the possibility of variations in surface stoichiometry. Applying standard thermodynamical calculations which consider the number of individual surface atoms and their respective chemical potentials should allow one to qualitatively determine the magnitude of surface core-level shifts and, consequently, surface state energies

  10. The direct measurement of the heteronuclear chemical shifts relative to tetramethylsilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritz, A.G.

    1988-12-01

    The measurement of heteronuclear chemical shifts using absolute frequencies of the heteronucleus and the 1 H resonance of tetramethylsilane has been examined. This method avoids the problems associated with external standards and gives results which can be obtained quickly and with high precision. The method has a number of advantages in the accurate measurement of chemical shifts, as for example 31 P in chemical warfare agents and related chemicals and allows multinuclear data to be obtained without dynamic range or potential interference problems. 15 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Shift work and overall and cause-specific mortality in the Danish nurse cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Karlsen, Sashia; Stayner, Leslie T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Evidence of an effect of shift work on all-cause and cause-specific mortality is inconsistent. This study aims to examine whether shift work is associated with increased all-cause and cause-specific mortality.  Methods: We linked 28 731 female nurses (age ≥44 years), recruited in 1993...... or 1999 from the Danish nurse cohort where they reported information on shift work (night, evening, rotating, or day), to the Danish Register of Causes of Death to identify deaths up to 2013. We used Cox regression models with age as the underlying scale to examine the associations between night, evening......, and rotating shift work (compared to day shift work) and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in models adjusted for potentially confounding variables.  Results: Of 18 015 nurses included in this study, 1616 died during the study time period from the following causes: cardiovascular disease (N=217), cancer...

  12. Meaning shift: findings from wellness acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibich, Mark; Wissow, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Wellness or holistic acupuncture places an emphasis on working with and developing the patient's understanding of health and illness. This research project examines changes in meaning in 367 letters from successful wellness acupuncture. Mentions of changes of the meaning of health and illness were categorized into themes using content analysis. Five main meaning shifts were identified in the data. These shifts are (1) from a goal of fixing the problem to a goal of increasing health, (2) from symptoms as problems to symptoms as teachers, (3) from healing as passive to healing as active, (4) from being dominated by illness to moving beyond the illness, and (5) from regarding the practitioner as a technician to regarding the practitioner as a healer or friend. The shifts in meaning seen in the data illustrate a potential pathway for bringing health benefits to patients and may provide a useful strategy for healing. Narrative (defined here as "first-person accounts by respondents of their experience") is thought to play a major role in the manifestation of symptoms and the ability of patients to cope with illness. Patients suffer not only from their primary symptoms, but also from the results and effects of their illnesses, such as depression and changes in their relationships. For the patient, symptoms often hold much meaning beyond physical sensation. A recurrence of symptoms can have other unpleasant results, such as additional trips to doctors, paying for medications, time off from work, not being able to play with children, or changes in relationships with family members. In many cases, the anxiety and depression surrounding the symptoms causes suffering which are greater than the suffering caused by the physical symptoms directly. These factors also change how the ill individual interacts socially, thereby reducing both instrumental and emotional social support, resulting in a downward spiral of suffering. By interacting with narrative, a path to improved health

  13. Two-stage unified stretched-exponential model for time-dependence of threshold voltage shift under positive-bias-stresses in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan-Yong; Kim, Hee-Joong; Hong, Sae-Young; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we show that the two-stage unified stretched-exponential model can more exactly describe the time-dependence of threshold voltage shift (ΔV TH) under long-term positive-bias-stresses compared to the traditional stretched-exponential model in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). ΔV TH is mainly dominated by electron trapping at short stress times, and the contribution of trap state generation becomes significant with an increase in the stress time. The two-stage unified stretched-exponential model can provide useful information not only for evaluating the long-term electrical stability and lifetime of the a-IGZO TFT but also for understanding the stress-induced degradation mechanism in a-IGZO TFTs.

  14. Long adaptation reveals mostly attractive shifts of orientation tuning in cat primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisovan, N; Nemri, A; Shumikhina, S; Molotchnikoff, S

    2009-12-15

    In the adult brain, sensory cortical neurons undergo transient changes of their response properties following prolonged exposure to an appropriate stimulus (adaptation). In cat V1, orientation-selective cells shift their preferred orientation after being adapted to a non-preferred orientation. There are conflicting reports as to the direction of those shifts, towards (attractive) or away (repulsive) from the adapter. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying attractive shifts remain unexplained. In the present investigation we show that attractive shifts are the most frequent outcome of a 12 min adaptation. Overall, cells displaying selectivity for oblique orientations exhibit significantly larger shifts than cells tuned to cardinal orientations. In addition, cells selective to cardinal orientations had larger shift amplitudes when the absolute difference between the original preferred orientation and the adapting orientation increased. Conversely, cells tuned to oblique orientations exhibited larger shift amplitudes when this absolute orientation difference was narrower. Hence, neurons tuned to oblique contours appear to show more plasticity in response to small perturbations. Two different mechanisms appear to produce attractive and repulsive orientation shifts. Attractive shifts result from concurrent response depression on the non-adapted flank and selective response facilitation on the adapted flank of the orientation tuning curve. In contrast, repulsive shifts are caused solely by response depression on the adapted flank. We suggest that an early mechanism leads to repulsive shifts while attractive shifts engage a subsequent late facilitation. A potential role for attractive shifts may be improved stimulus discrimination around the adapting orientation.

  15. Chemical shift homology in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, Barbara C.M.; Chazin, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The degree of chemical shift similarity for homologous proteins has been determined from a chemical shift database of over 50 proteins representing a variety of families and folds, and spanning a wide range of sequence homologies. After sequence alignment, the similarity of the secondary chemical shifts of C α protons was examined as a function of amino acid sequence identity for 37 pairs of structurally homologous proteins. A correlation between sequence identity and secondary chemical shift rmsd was observed. Important insights are provided by examining the sequence identity of homologous proteins versus percentage of secondary chemical shifts that fall within 0.1 and 0.3 ppm thresholds. These results begin to establish practical guidelines for the extent of chemical shift similarity to expect among structurally homologous proteins

  16. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Postnova

    Full Text Available Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8 in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  17. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  18. Mediating pathways and gender differences between shift work and subjective cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Imelda S; Smith, Peter M; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Mustard, Cameron A; Gignac, Monique A M

    2016-11-01

    Increased injury risk among shift workers is often attributed to cognitive function deficits that come about as a result of sleep disruptions. However, little is known about the intermediate influences of other factors (eg, work stress, health) which may affect this relationship. In addition, gender differences in these the complex relationships have not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify the extent to which work and non-work factors mediate the relationship between shift work, sleep and subsequent subjective cognitive function; and (2) determine if the mediating pathways differ for men and women. Data from the 2010 National Population Health Survey was used to create a cross-sectional sample of 4255 employed Canadians. Using path modelling, we examined the direct and indirect relationships between shift work, sleep duration, sleep quality and subjective cognitive function. Multigroup analyses tested for significantly different pathways between men and women. Potential confounding effects of age and self-reported health and potential mediating effects of work stress were simultaneously examined. Work stress and sleep quality significantly mediated the effects of shift work on cognition. Age and health confounded the relationship between sleep quality and subjective cognition. No differences were found between men and women. Occupational health and safety programmes are needed to address stress and health factors, in addition to sleep hygiene, to effectively address cognitive function among shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Foreign gas pressure broadening and shifts of the 2S-4S two-photon transition in lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGraffenreid, W; Campbell, Sarah C; Sansonetti, Craig J

    2003-01-01

    We have observed broadening and shift of the 2S-4S Doppler-free two-photon transition of atomic Li by collisions with neon and argon buffer gases in a heat-pipe oven. Measured broadening and shift rates are presented and compared with theoretical predictions calculated in the impact approximation using three different interaction potentials. A superposition of polarization and modified Fermi potentials gives good agreement with the experimental data

  20. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.; Schmidt, O. G.; Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B.; Jorgensen, M. R.; Miao, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  1. Work schedule and self-reported hypertension - the potential beneficial role of on-shift naps for night workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-01-01

    Data on the association between shift work and hypertension are controversial. Sleep restriction is hypothesized to be involved in this relationship. Since on-shift nap can partly compensate for sleep deprivation among night workers, this investigation is aimed at (i) comparing the prevalence of hypertension among workers considering both current and former night work, (ii) testing the association between on-shift naps and hypertension among night workers, and (iii) analyzing the influence of sleep complaints in the association between on-shift nap and hypertension. Nap was defined as a sleep episode with duration shorter than the average nighttime sleep. A cross-sectional study was performed at the 18 largest public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2010-2011 (N = 2588 female registered nurses). Nurses were informally allowed to nap for up to three consecutive hours during working nights. Workers completed a multidimensional questionnaire including self-reported information on physician diagnosis of hypertension, napping, and sleep complaints (insomnia, diurnal sleepiness, and non-satisfactory sleep). Epidemiological and statistical treatment of data included binomial logistic regression and interaction tests. Higher chances of hypertension were observed for both current and former night workers compared with workers with no previous experience in night work, i.e. exclusive day workers (OR = 1.68; CI95% 1.22-2.33 and OR = 1.40; CI95% 1.01-1.96, respectively) after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, insomnia, weekly work hours, and BMI. Compared with exclusive day workers, both non-nappers and nappers were at a higher likelihood of reporting hypertension (OR = 1.93 CI95% 1.35-2.79 and OR = 1.41 CI95% 1.08-2.20, respectively). An interaction was observed between napping behavior and insomnia (p = 0.037). In the whole sample of night workers, the lower OR for nappers was confirmed when they were directly

  2. High potential oxidation-reduction titration of absorbance changes induced by pulsed laser and continuous light in chromatophores of photosynthesizing bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum and Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remennikov, S.M.; Chamorovsky, S.K.; Kononenko, A.A.; Venediktov, P.S.; Rubin, A.B.

    1975-01-01

    The photoreactions, activated both by pulsed laser and continuous light were studied in the membranes of isolated bacterial chromatophores poised at different oxidation-reduction potentials over a range of +200 mV to +500 mV. In Rhodospirillum rubrum a midpoint potential of oxidation-reduction curves for the laser-induced positive absorbance changes centred around 430 nm and carotenoid red shifts coincides with that for continuous light-induced absorbance changes, bleaching at 865 nm and blue shift at 800 nm, of the photosynthetic reaction centre bacteriochlorophyll. In Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii the photosynthetic reaction centre bacteriochlorophyll, its photooxidation can be seen as light-induced absorbance changes, bleaching at 890 nm, blue shift at 800 nm and broad band appearance near 440 nm, has a midpoint oxidation-reduction potential of +390 mV at pH 7.4. The analysis of the oxidation-reduction titration curves for the high-potential c-type cytochrome absorbance changes induced both by pulsed laser and continuous light allowed to show that at least two haems of this cytochrome with a midpoint potential of +290 mV (pH 7.4), associated with each reaction centre bacteriochlorophyll, can donate electrons to the oxidized pigment directly

  3. Red shift of near band edge emission in cerium implanted GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, Abdul; Ali, Akbar

    2009-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) doping in GaN is a promising technology to control the optical properties. However, there are no reports on doping of cerium (Ce) into GaN, which is a very unique RE element. In this paper, we performed photoluminescence (PL) and optical transmission measurements on Ce-doped GaN for the first time. A significant red shift of about 120 meV was observed in the PL peak position of the donor bound excitons. This red shift of near band emission was corroborated by the red shift of the absorption edge related to GaN in the optical transmission measurements. This observation is attributed to the band gap narrowing in GaN heavily doped with Ce. The activation energy of the Ce-related shallow donor is found to be 21.9 meV in GaN.

  4. Determining the Pressure Shift of Helium I Lines Using White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarota, Lawrence

    This dissertation explores the non-Doppler shifting of Helium lines in the high pressure conditions of a white dwarf photosphere. In particular, this dissertation seeks to mathematically quantify the shift in a way that is simple to reproduce and account for in future studies without requiring prior knowledge of the star's bulk properties (mass, radius, temperature, etc.). Two main methods will be used in this analysis. First, the spectral line will be quantified with a continuous wavelet transformation, and the components will be used in a chi2 minimizing linear regression to predict the shift. Second, the position of the lines will be calculated using a best-fit Levy-alpha line function. These techniques stand in contrast to traditional methods of quantifying the center of often broad spectral lines, which usually assume symmetry on the parts of the lines.

  5. Red shift of near band edge emission in cerium implanted GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul; Ali, Akbar, E-mail: abdulmajid40@yahoo.co, E-mail: akbar@qau.edu.p [Advance Materials Physics Laboratory, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-02-21

    Rare earth (RE) doping in GaN is a promising technology to control the optical properties. However, there are no reports on doping of cerium (Ce) into GaN, which is a very unique RE element. In this paper, we performed photoluminescence (PL) and optical transmission measurements on Ce-doped GaN for the first time. A significant red shift of about 120 meV was observed in the PL peak position of the donor bound excitons. This red shift of near band emission was corroborated by the red shift of the absorption edge related to GaN in the optical transmission measurements. This observation is attributed to the band gap narrowing in GaN heavily doped with Ce. The activation energy of the Ce-related shallow donor is found to be 21.9 meV in GaN.

  6. From Reified Abstractions to Situated Contexts: Feminist Jurisprudence, Paradigm Shift and Legal Change

    OpenAIRE

    Petoussi, Vassiliki Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This study addresses the extent to which feminist jurisprudence literature has developed the potential to initiate a legal paradigm shift leading to legal and consequent social change that would alleviate gender inequality. Drawing upon Kuhn's (1970) and Stacey and Thorne's (1985) arguments, I theorized that for a paradigm shift centered upon women and women's experiences to occur, feminist jurisprudence, particularly second- and third-phase feminist jurisprudence, needs to be incorporated i...

  7. Increased errors and decreased performance at night: A systematic review of the evidence concerning shift work and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cordova, Pamela B; Bradford, Michelle A; Stone, Patricia W

    2016-02-15

    Shift workers have worse health outcomes than employees who work standard business hours. However, it is unclear how this poorer health shift may be related to employee work productivity. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the relationship between shift work and errors and performance. Searches of MEDLINE/PubMed, EBSCOhost, and CINAHL were conducted to identify articles that examined the relationship between shift work, errors, quality, productivity, and performance. All articles were assessed for study quality. A total of 435 abstracts were screened with 13 meeting inclusion criteria. Eight studies were rated to be of strong, methodological quality. Nine studies demonstrated a positive relationship that night shift workers committed more errors and had decreased performance. Night shift workers have worse health that may contribute to errors and decreased performance in the workplace.

  8. Effect of Shift Work on Nocturia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook

    2016-01-01

    To identify the circadian sensitive component of nocturia by comparing nocturia in patients who voluntarily choose a disrupted circadian rhythm, that is, shift workers, with those who maintain normal day-night cycles. Between 2011 and 2013, a total of 1741 untreated patients, 1376 nonshift workers and 365 shift workers, were compared for nocturia indices based on frequency volume charts (FVCs). General linear model of 8-hour interval urine production and frequency were compared between FVCs of nonshift workers, FVCs of night-shift workers, and FVCs of day-shift workers. Nocturia frequency was increased in the night-shift workers (2.38 ± 1.44) compared with nonshift workers (2.18 ± 1.04) (P night-shift workers, 0.34 ± 0.13 for nonshift workers, P = .24), nocturnal bladder capacity index increased significantly (1.41 ± 1.06 for night-shift workers, 1.26 ± 0.92 for nonshift workers, P shift (P shift changes (P = .35). Patients in alternating work shifts showed increased nocturia, especially during their night shift. These changes tended to be more associated with decreased nocturnal bladder capacity than increased nocturnal polyuria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations between number of consecutive night shifts and impairment of neurobehavioral performance during a subsequent simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Michelle; Sletten, Tracey L; Ferguson, Sally A; Grunstein, Ronald R; Anderson, Clare; Kennaway, David J; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate sleep and circadian phase in the relationships between neurobehavioral performance and the number of consecutive shifts worked. Thirty-four shift workers [20 men, mean age 31.8 (SD 10.9) years] worked 2-7 consecutive night shifts immediately prior to a laboratory-based, simulated night shift. For 7 days prior, participants worked their usual shift sequence, and sleep was assessed with logs and actigraphy. Participants completed a 10-minute auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) at the start (~21:00 hours) and end (~07:00 hours) of the simulated night shift. Mean reaction times (RT), number of lapses and RT distribution was compared between those who worked 2-3 consecutive night shifts versus those who worked 4-7 shifts. Following 4-7 shifts, night shift workers had significantly longer mean RT at the start and end of shift, compared to those who worked 2-3 shifts. The slowest and fastest 10% RT were significantly slower at the start, but not end, of shift among participants who worked 4-7 nights. Those working 4-7 nights also demonstrated a broader RT distribution at the start and end of shift and had significantly slower RT based on cumulative distribution analysis (5 (th), 25 (th), 50 (th), 75 (th)percentiles at the start of shift; 75th percentile at the end of shift). No group differences in sleep parameters were found for 7 days and 24 hours prior to the simulated night shift. A greater number of consecutive night shifts has a negative impact on neurobehavioral performance, likely due to cognitive slowing.

  10. Boson-triboson Scattering with Yamaguchi potential. 2. Inclusion of additional p-wave component for the 3+1-subamplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Yoshiko

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the p-wave contribution from the 3+1-subamplitude in the S-wave phase shift for boson-triboson elastic scattering when the Yamaguchi potential for the two-body interaction is assumed, the Faddeev-Osborn equation for a system of four identical bosons in solved numerically by extending the previous calculation to include the p-wave component for the 3+1-subamplitude. The results obtained closely resemble the previous results. The calculated phase shift generally has the standard behavior of the two-body phase shift for a loosely bound state and has further characteristic behavior represented by a valley witha peak as fine structure. The phase shift obtained in the present calculation has a higher peak and a deeper valley than the previous one, while the positions of the peak and the valley in the two sets of results agree precisely. Thus the calculated resonance energies are the same as those obtained in the previous result. (author)

  11. SHIFT: server for hidden stops analysis in frame-shifted translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Singh, Tiratha Raj

    2013-02-23

    Frameshift is one of the three classes of recoding. Frame-shifts lead to waste of energy, resources and activity of the biosynthetic machinery. In addition, some peptides synthesized after frame-shifts are probably cytotoxic which serve as plausible cause for innumerable number of diseases and disorders such as muscular dystrophies, lysosomal storage disorders, and cancer. Hidden stop codons occur naturally in coding sequences among all organisms. These codons are associated with the early termination of translation for incorrect reading frame selection and help to reduce the metabolic cost related to the frameshift events. Researchers have identified several consequences of hidden stop codons and their association with myriad disorders. However the wealth of information available is speckled and not effortlessly acquiescent to data-mining. To reduce this gap, this work describes an algorithmic web based tool to study hidden stops in frameshifted translation for all the lineages through respective genetic code systems. This paper describes SHIFT, an algorithmic web application tool that provides a user-friendly interface for identifying and analyzing hidden stops in frameshifted translation of genomic sequences for all available genetic code systems. We have calculated the correlation between codon usage frequencies and the plausible contribution of codons towards hidden stops in an off-frame context. Markovian chains of various order have been used to model hidden stops in frameshifted peptides and their evolutionary association with naturally occurring hidden stops. In order to obtain reliable and persuasive estimates for the naturally occurring and predicted hidden stops statistical measures have been implemented. This paper presented SHIFT, an algorithmic tool that allows user-friendly exploration, analysis, and visualization of hidden stop codons in frameshifted translations. It is expected that this web based tool would serve as a useful complement for

  12. Eye and head movements shape gaze shifts in Indian peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Platt, Michael L; Land, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Animals selectively direct their visual attention toward relevant aspects of their environments. They can shift their attention using a combination of eye, head and body movements. While we have a growing understanding of eye and head movements in mammals, we know little about these processes in birds. We therefore measured the eye and head movements of freely behaving Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) using a telemetric eye-tracker. Both eye and head movements contributed to gaze changes in peafowl. When gaze shifts were smaller, eye movements played a larger role than when gaze shifts were larger. The duration and velocity of eye and head movements were positively related to the size of the eye and head movements, respectively. In addition, the coordination of eye and head movements in peafowl differed from that in mammals; peafowl exhibited a near-absence of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which may partly result from the peafowl's ability to move their heads as quickly as their eyes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Elevated CO2 shifts the functional structure and metabolic potentials of soil microbial communities in a C4 agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; He, Zhili; Shi, Shengjing; Kent, Angela; Deng, Ye; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-03-20

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration is continuously increasing, and previous studies have shown that elevated CO2 (eCO2) significantly impacts C3 plants and their soil microbial communities. However, little is known about effects of eCO2 on the compositional and functional structure, and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities under C4 plants. Here we showed that a C4 maize agroecosystem exposed to eCO2 for eight years shifted the functional and phylogenetic structure of soil microbial communities at both soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-15 cm) using EcoPlate and functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) analyses. The abundances of key genes involved in carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling were significantly stimulated under eCO2 at both soil depths, although some differences in carbon utilization patterns were observed between the two soil depths. Consistently, CO2 was found to be the dominant factor explaining 11.9% of the structural variation of functional genes, while depth and the interaction of depth and CO2 explained 5.2% and 3.8%, respectively. This study implies that eCO2 has profound effects on the functional structure and metabolic potential/activity of soil microbial communities associated with C4 plants, possibly leading to changes in ecosystem functioning and feedbacks to global change in C4 agroecosystems.

  14. A cross-sectional study of shift work, sleep quality and cardiometabolic risk in female hospital employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K J; Day, A; Tranmer, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Investigating the potential pathways linking shift work and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), this study aimed to identify whether sleep disturbances mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of CVD risk factors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A tertiary-level, acute care teaching hospital in Southeastern Ontario, Canada. Participants Female hospital employees working a shift schedule of two 12 h days, two 12 h nights, followed by 5 days off (n=121) were compared with female day-only workers (n=150). Primary and secondary outcome measures Each of the seven components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was measured. Of these, PSQI global score, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were examined as potential mediators in the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome. Results Shift work status was associated with poor (>5) PSQI global score (OR=2.10, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.65), poor (≥2) sleep latency (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.87) and poor (≥2) sleep efficiency (OR=2.11, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.84). Although shift work was associated with the metabolic syndrome (OR=2.29, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.70), the measured components of sleep quality did not mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Women working in a rapid forward rotating shift pattern have poorer sleep quality according to self-reported indicators of the validated PSQI and they have a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome compared with women who work during the day only. However, sleep quality did not mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that there are other psychophysiological pathways linking shift work to increased risk for CVD. PMID:25757950

  15. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  16. Integrated trend assessment of ecosystem changes in the Limfjord (Denmark): evidence of a recent regime shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Maciej Tomasz; Dinesen, Grete E.; Hoffmann, Erik

    2012-01-01

    An integrated ecosystem assessment was carried out for the Limfjord over the period from 1984 to 2008 to describe changes in ecosystem structure and potentially important drivers. The Limfjord is an eutrophic transitional Danish fjord system with the main inflow from the North Sea in the west and...... further showed the regime shift to be driven by a combination of anthropogenic pressures and possible interplay with climatic disturbance......An integrated ecosystem assessment was carried out for the Limfjord over the period from 1984 to 2008 to describe changes in ecosystem structure and potentially important drivers. The Limfjord is an eutrophic transitional Danish fjord system with the main inflow from the North Sea in the west......), jellyfish, common shore crab, starfish and blue mussels. We interpret this change as a regime shift that showed a similar temporal pattern to regime shifts identified in adjacent seas. The observed changes in trophic interactions and food web reorganisation suggested a non-linear regime shift. The analyses...

  17. Nutrient enrichment shifts mangrove height distribution: Implications for coastal woody encroachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Carolyn A; Armitage, Anna R

    2018-01-01

    Global changes, such as increased temperatures and elevated CO2, are driving shifts in plant species distribution and dominance, like woody plant encroachment into grasslands. Local factors within these ecotones can influence the rate of regime shifts. Woody encroachment is occurring worldwide, though there has been limited research within coastal systems, where mangrove (woody shrub/tree) stands are expanding into salt marsh areas. Because coastal systems are exposed to various degrees of nutrient input, we investigated how nutrient enrichment may locally impact mangrove stand expansion and salt marsh displacement over time. We fertilized naturally co-occurring Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) stands in Port Aransas, TX, an area experiencing mangrove encroachment within the Northern Gulf of Mexico mangrove-marsh ecotone. After four growing seasons (2010-2013) of continuous fertilization, Avicennia was more positively influenced by nutrient enrichment than Spartina. Most notably, fertilized plots had a higher density of taller (> 0.5 m) mangroves and mangrove maximum height was 46% taller than in control plots. Fertilization may promote an increase in mangrove stand expansion within the mangrove-marsh ecotone by shifting Avicennia height distribution. Avicennia individuals, which reach certain species-specific height thresholds, have reduced negative neighbor effects and have higher resilience to freezing temperatures, which may increase mangrove competitive advantage over marsh grass. Therefore, we propose that nutrient enrichment, which augments mangrove height, could act locally as a positive feedback to mangrove encroachment, by reducing mangrove growth suppression factors, thereby accelerating the rates of increased mangrove coverage and subsequent marsh displacement. Areas within the mangrove-marsh ecotone with high anthropogenic nutrient input may be at increased risk of a regime shift from grass to woody

  18. Nutrient enrichment shifts mangrove height distribution: Implications for coastal woody encroachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Anna R.

    2018-01-01

    Global changes, such as increased temperatures and elevated CO2, are driving shifts in plant species distribution and dominance, like woody plant encroachment into grasslands. Local factors within these ecotones can influence the rate of regime shifts. Woody encroachment is occurring worldwide, though there has been limited research within coastal systems, where mangrove (woody shrub/tree) stands are expanding into salt marsh areas. Because coastal systems are exposed to various degrees of nutrient input, we investigated how nutrient enrichment may locally impact mangrove stand expansion and salt marsh displacement over time. We fertilized naturally co-occurring Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass) stands in Port Aransas, TX, an area experiencing mangrove encroachment within the Northern Gulf of Mexico mangrove-marsh ecotone. After four growing seasons (2010–2013) of continuous fertilization, Avicennia was more positively influenced by nutrient enrichment than Spartina. Most notably, fertilized plots had a higher density of taller (> 0.5 m) mangroves and mangrove maximum height was 46% taller than in control plots. Fertilization may promote an increase in mangrove stand expansion within the mangrove-marsh ecotone by shifting Avicennia height distribution. Avicennia individuals, which reach certain species-specific height thresholds, have reduced negative neighbor effects and have higher resilience to freezing temperatures, which may increase mangrove competitive advantage over marsh grass. Therefore, we propose that nutrient enrichment, which augments mangrove height, could act locally as a positive feedback to mangrove encroachment, by reducing mangrove growth suppression factors, thereby accelerating the rates of increased mangrove coverage and subsequent marsh displacement. Areas within the mangrove-marsh ecotone with high anthropogenic nutrient input may be at increased risk of a regime shift from grass to woody

  19. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  20. Shift Work and the Relationship with Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Aged Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; Rong, Yi; Huang, Xiji; Lai, Hanpeng; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Yuewei; He, Meian; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Background Shift work is indicated to be associated with adverse metabolic disorders. However, potential effects of shift work on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components have not been well established. Methods In total, 26,382 workers from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort were included in this study. Information on shift work history was gathered through questionnaires and metabolic traits were measured. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for long-term shift work related with MetS and each component, respectively. Further stratification analysis was performed to detect the differences on MetS between female and male shift workers. Results Long-term shift work was associated with MetS without adjusting for any confounders. Compared with the group of non-shift work, the multivariate-adjusted ORs (95%CI) of MetS associated with 1–10, 11−20, and ≥20y of shift work were 1.05 (0.95−1.16), 1.14 (1.03−1.26), 1.16 (1.01−1.31), respectively. In female workers, we found a dose-response relationship that every 10 years increase in shift work was associated with a 10% (95% CI: 1%−20%) elevated OR of MetS, while no significant dose-response trend was found among male workers. Furthermore, shift work duration was significantly associated with ORs of high blood pressure (1.07, 1.01−1.13), long waist circumference (1.10, 1.01−1.20) and high glucose levels (1.09, 1.04−1.15). No significant association was observed between shift work and low HDL cholesterol) and raised triglyceride levels. Conclusions Long-term shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome and the association might differ by gender in retired workers. Applicable intervention strategies are needed for prevention of metabolic disorders for shift workers. PMID:25761114

  1. Galectin-7 Expression Potentiates HER-2-Positive Phenotype in Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrée-Anne Grosset

    Full Text Available HER-2 positive tumors are among the most aggressive subtypes of breast cancer and are frequently associated with metastasis and poor outcome. As with other aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, these tumors are associated with abnormally high expression of galectin-7 (gal-7, which confers metastatic breast tumor cells with increased invasive behavior. Although previous studies in the rat model of breast tumorigenesis have shown that gal-7 is also increased in primary breast tumor, its contribution to the development of the primary breast tumors remains unclear. In the present work, we have used genetically-engineered gal-7-deficient mice to examine the role of gal-7 in the development of the mammary gland and of breast cancer. Using histological and immunohistological analysis of whole mammary glands at different stages of development, we detected no significant changes between normal and gal-7-deficient mice. To test the involvement of gal-7 in breast cancer, we next examined the effects of loss of gal-7 on mammary tumor development by crossing gal-7-deficient mice with the mammary tumor transgenic mouse strain FVB-Tg(MMTV-Erbb2NK1Mul/J. Finally, assessment of mice survival and tumor volume showed a delay of mammary tumor growth in the absence of systemic gal-7. These data suggest that gal-7 could potentiate the phenotype of HER-2 positive primary breast cancer.

  2. Nonlinear frequency shift of a coherent dust-acoustic wave in the presence of dust-acoustic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Sumin; Ryu, C.-M.; Yoon, Peter H.

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear frequency shift of a low-frequency, coherent dust-acoustic wave in the presence of higher frequency dust-acoustic turbulence is investigated in the framework of weak turbulence theory. It is found that the frequency shift of the dust-acoustic wave in an unmagnetized dusty plasma is always positive irrespective of the propagation direction of the coherent wave. It is also found that turbulent waves propagating in the same direction as the coherent wave are shown to give rise to a much higher frequency shift than the opposite case. Finally, it is shown that the nonlinear frequency shift of a dust-acoustic wave is more pronounced than in the case of the customary ion-acoustic waves in fully ionized plasmas

  3. Simultaneous weak measurement of angular and spatial Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Chandravati; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2017-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate the weak measurement scheme to simultaneously measure the amplified angular and spatial contributions to the Goos-Hänchen (GH) and Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts, due to transmission through a glass plate. We have studied two cases of post-selection using a polarizer in the first case and a quarter-wave plate (QWP)-polarizer combination in the second case. The two cases are analyzed theoretically using Jones calculus of polarization formalism and the results are verified experimentally. In the first case of post-selection, the projection of the polarizer at +/- {{Δ }} away from the crossed position amplifies the angular GH and IF shifts, while in the second case of post-selection, the projection of QWP at +/- {{Δ }} and polarizer kept fixed measures the polarization ellipticity in the beam and thus amplifies the spatial shift along with the angular shift simultaneously, for {{Δ }}\\ll 1.

  4. Use of uranyl nitrate as a shift reagent in polar and inert solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosov, B.P.

    1988-01-01

    This work examines the effect of uranyl nitrate as a shift reagent on the PMR spectra of different organic molecules in polar and inert solvents. In order to identify the coordination site of the uranyl ion, its effect on the spectra of amino acids and acetic or propionic acids in water was compared. It was found that the induced shifts of the protons in the corresponding positions of the different acids after addition of uranyl nitrate agreed to within ±0.01 ppm. When nitrogenous bases such as diethylamine and pyridine were added to solutions of the carboxylic acids with uranyl nitrate, an increase in the induced chemical shift of the resonance signals occurred. These facts suggest the coordination of the uranyl ion with the carboxyl oxygen both for acetic and propionic acids and for amino acids. The authors established that the addition of uranyl nitrate to solutions of organic compounds caused different downfield shifts of the resonance signals from the protons. In polar solvents shifts induced by uranyl nitrate in the PMR spectra of carboxylic acids occur only when nitrogenous bases are added

  5. Observation of core-level binding energy shifts between (100) surface and bulk atoms of epitaxial CuInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Berry, G.; Rockett, A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Core-level and valence band photoemission from semiconductors has been shown to exhibit binding energy differences between surface atoms and bulk atoms, thus allowing one to unambiguously distinguish between the two atomic positions. Quite clearly, surface atoms experience a potential different from the bulk due to the lower coordination number - a characteristic feature of any surface is the incomplete atomic coordination. Theoretical accounts of this phenomena are well documented in the literature for III-V and II-VI semiconductors. However, surface state energies corresponding to the equilibrium geometry of (100) and (111) surfaces of Cu-based ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors have not been calculated or experimental determined. These compounds are generating great interest for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications, and are an isoelectronic analog of the II-VI binary compound semiconductors. Surface core-level binding energy shifts depend on the surface cohesive energies, and surface cohesive energies are related to surface structure. For ternary compound semiconductor surfaces, such as CuInSe{sub 2}, one has the possibility of variations in surface stoichiometry. Applying standard thermodynamical calculations which consider the number of individual surface atoms and their respective chemical potentials should allow one to qualitatively determine the magnitude of surface core-level shifts and, consequently, surface state energies.

  6. Spatial profile measurements of ion-confining potentials using novel position-sensitive ion-energy spectrometer arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Cho, T.; Hirata, M.; Ito, H.; Kohagura, J.; Yatsu, K.; Miyoshi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The first experimental demonstration of simultaneous measurements of temporally and spatially resolved ion-confining potentials phi c and end-loss-ion fluxes I ELA has been carried out during a single plasma discharge alone by the use of newly designed ion-energy-spectrometer arrays installed in both end regions of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. This position-sensitive ion-detector structure is proposed to obtain precise ion-energy spectra without any perturbations from simultaneously incident energetic electrons into the arrays. The relation between phi c and I ELA is physically interpreted in terms of Pastukhov's potential confinement theory. In particular, the importance of axisymmetric phi c formation is found for the plasma confinement

  7. Performance and sleepiness in nurses working 12-h day shifts or night shifts in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marian; Permito, Regan; English, Ashley; Albritton, Sandra; Coogle, Carlana; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2017-10-05

    Hospitals are around-the-clock operations and nurses are required to care for patients night and day. The nursing shortage and desire for a more balanced work-to-home life has popularized 12-h shifts for nurses. The present study investigated sleep/wake cycles and fatigue levels in 22 nurses working 12-h shifts, comparing day versus night shifts. Nurses (11day shift and 11 night shift) were recruited from a suburban acute-care medical center. Participants wore a wrist activity monitor and kept a diary to track their sleep/wake cycles for 2 weeks. They also completed a fatigue test battery, which included the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), at the beginning, middle and end of 4 duty shifts. Daily sleep duration was 7.1h on average. No overall difference in mean daily sleep duration was found between nurses working day shifts versus night shifts. Objective performance on the PVT remained relatively good and stable at the start, middle, and end of duty shifts in day shift workers, but gradually degraded across duty time in night shift workers. Compared to day shift workers, night shift workers also exhibited more performance variability among measurement days and between participants at each testing time point. The same pattern was observed for subjective sleepiness on the KSS. However, congruence between objective and subjective measures of fatigue was poor. Our findings suggest a need for organizations to evaluate practices and policies to mitigate the inevitable fatigue that occurs during long night shifts, in order to improve patient and healthcare worker safety. Examination of alternative shift lengths or sanctioned workplace napping may be strategies to consider. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  9. The influence of applied internal and external rotation on the pivot shift phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Sebastian; Musahl, Volker; Perka, Carsten; Kauert, Ralf; Hoburg, Arnd; Becker, Roland

    2017-04-01

    The pivot shift test is performed in different techniques and the rotation of the tibia seems to have a significant impact on the amount of the pivot shift phenomenon. It has been hypothesised that external rotation will increase the phenomenon due to less tension at the iliotibial band in knee extension. Twenty-four patients with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency were included prospectively. The pivot shift test was performed bilaterally in internal and external tibial rotation under general anaesthesia. Knee motion was captured using a femoral and a tibial inertial sensor. The difference between positive and negative peak values in Euclidean norm of acceleration was calculated to evaluate the amount of the pivot shift phenomenon. The pivot shift phenomenon was significantly increased in patients with ACL insufficiency when the test was performed in external [mean 5.2 ms - 2 (95% CI 4.3-6.0)] compared to internal tibial rotation [mean 4.4 ms - 2 (95% CI 3.5-5.4)] (p = 0.002). In healthy, contralateral knees did not show any difference between external [mean 4.0 ms - 2 (95% CI 3.3-4.7)] and internal tibial rotation [mean 4.0 ms - 2 (95% CI 3.4-4.6)] (ns). The pivot shift phenomenon was increased with external rotation in ACL-insufficient knees, and therefore, one should perform the pivot shift test, rather, in external rotation to easily evoke the, sometimes difficult to detect, pivot shift phenomenon. I (diagnostic study).

  10. Complementary shifts in photoreceptor spectral tuning unlock the full adaptive potential of ultraviolet vision in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Matthew B; Lind, Olle; Frederiksen, Rikard; Curley, Robert W; Riedl, Ken M; Wilby, David; Schwartz, Steven J; Witt, Christopher C; Harrison, Earl H; Roberts, Nicholas W; Vorobyev, Misha; McGraw, Kevin J; Cornwall, M Carter; Kelber, Almut; Corbo, Joseph C

    2016-07-12

    Color vision in birds is mediated by four types of cone photoreceptors whose maximal sensitivities (λmax) are evenly spaced across the light spectrum. In the course of avian evolution, the λmax of the most shortwave-sensitive cone, SWS1, has switched between violet (λmax > 400 nm) and ultraviolet (λmax < 380 nm) multiple times. This shift of the SWS1 opsin is accompanied by a corresponding short-wavelength shift in the spectrally adjacent SWS2 cone. Here, we show that SWS2 cone spectral tuning is mediated by modulating the ratio of two apocarotenoids, galloxanthin and 11’,12’-dihydrogalloxanthin, which act as intracellular spectral filters in this cell type. We propose an enzymatic pathway that mediates the differential production of these apocarotenoids in the avian retina, and we use color vision modeling to demonstrate how correlated evolution of spectral tuning is necessary to achieve even sampling of the light spectrum and thereby maintain near-optimal color discrimination.

  11. Assessing the Electrode-Neuron Interface with the Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential, Electrode Position, and Behavioral Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Lindsay; Scheperle, Rachel; Bierer, Julie Arenberg

    2016-06-01

    Variability in speech perception scores among cochlear implant listeners may largely reflect the variable efficacy of implant electrodes to convey stimulus information to the auditory nerve. In the present study, three metrics were applied to assess the quality of the electrode-neuron interface of individual cochlear implant channels: the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP), the estimation of electrode position using computerized tomography (CT), and behavioral thresholds using focused stimulation. The primary motivation of this approach is to evaluate the ECAP as a site-specific measure of the electrode-neuron interface in the context of two peripheral factors that likely contribute to degraded perception: large electrode-to-modiolus distance and reduced neural density. Ten unilaterally implanted adults with Advanced Bionics HiRes90k devices participated. ECAPs were elicited with monopolar stimulation within a forward-masking paradigm to construct channel interaction functions (CIF), behavioral thresholds were obtained with quadrupolar (sQP) stimulation, and data from imaging provided estimates of electrode-to-modiolus distance and scalar location (scala tympani (ST), intermediate, or scala vestibuli (SV)) for each electrode. The width of the ECAP CIF was positively correlated with electrode-to-modiolus distance; both of these measures were also influenced by scalar position. The ECAP peak amplitude was negatively correlated with behavioral thresholds. Moreover, subjects with low behavioral thresholds and large ECAP amplitudes, averaged across electrodes, tended to have higher speech perception scores. These results suggest a potential clinical role for the ECAP in the objective assessment of individual cochlear implant channels, with the potential to improve speech perception outcomes.

  12. Choice Shifts in Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "choice shifts" in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ``safe" and ``risky" decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made on her own. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic...

  13. In-beam measurement of the position resolution of a highly segmented coaxial germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descovich, M.; Lee, I.Y.; Fallon, P.; Cromaz, M.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Radford, D.C.; Vetter, K.; Clark, R.M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Stephens, F.S.; Ward, D.

    2005-01-01

    The position resolution of a highly segmented coaxial germanium detector was determined by analyzing the 2055keV γ-ray transition of Zr90 excited in a fusion-evaporation reaction. The high velocity of the Zr90 nuclei imparted large Doppler shifts. Digital analysis of the detector signals recovered the energy and position of individual γ-ray interactions. The location of the first interaction in the crystal was used to correct the Doppler energy shift. Comparison of the measured energy resolution with simulations implied a position resolution (root mean square) of 2mm in three-dimensions

  14. A Rising Female Empire? : Exploring the potential barriers women face in achieving leadership positions in the humanitarian sector

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Lina Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to explore how women and men view and perceive potential barriers to women achieving leadership positions in the humanitarian sector. Female leadership is so far an under-researched area within the humanitarian sector, so it is unknown whether females encounter any barriers in accessing and attaining leadership positions. Three categories were identified; identity, perception and challenges through which the views and barriers are explored. Semi-structured interviews were c...

  15. The single-particle density of states, bound states, phase-shift flip, and a resonance in the presence of an Aharonov-Bohm potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, A.

    1994-01-01

    Both the nonrelativistic scattering and the spectrum in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm potential are analyzed, and the single-particle density of states for different self-adjoint extensions is calculated, which is shown to be a symmetric and periodic function of the flux depending only on the distance from the nearest integer. The Aharonov-Casher theorem on the number of zero modes is corrected for the singular field configuration. The Hall resistivity is calculated in the dilute vortex limit. The magnetic moment coupling and not the spin is shown to be the primary source for the phase-shift flip that may occur even in its absence. The total energy of the system consisting of particles and field is discussed. (author) 65 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Proton-deuteron phase-shift analysis above the deuteron breakup threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Box 90308, Durham, NC (United States); Witala, H. [Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30059 Cracow (Poland)

    1998-03-02

    We have performed single-energy phase-shift analyses of proton-deuteron elastic scattering data in the proton energy range from 3.5 to 10 MeV. The resulting values for the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} and {sup 4}P{sub 1/2}, {sup 4}P{sub 3/2}, and {sup 4}P{sub 5/2} phase shifts are important benchmark values for three-nucleon calculations based on nucleon-nucleon potential models (with and without three-nucleon forces) aimed at describing the triton binding energy and at resolving the nucleon-deuteron A{sub y}({theta}) and iT{sub 11}({theta}) puzzles, respectively. (orig.) 7 refs.

  17. A Note on the Role of Mean Flows in Doppler-Shifted Frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerkema, T.; Maas, L.R.M.; van Haren, H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to resolve a confusion that may arise from two quite distinct definitions of "Doppler shifts": both are used in the oceanographic literature but they are sometimes conflated. One refers to the difference in frequencies measured by two observers, one at a fixed position

  18. Intraoperative cyclorotation and pupil centroid shift during LASIK and PRK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Julio; Brucks, Matthew; Zimmerman, Grenith; Bekendam, Peter; Bacon, Gregory; Schmid, Kristin

    2012-05-01

    To determine the degree of cyclorotation and centroid shift in the x and y axis that occurs intraoperatively during LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Intraoperative cyclorotation and centroid shift were measured in 63 eyes from 34 patients with a mean age of 34 years (range: 20 to 56 years) undergoing either LASIK or PRK. Preoperatively, an iris image of each eye was obtained with the VISX WaveScan Wavefront System (Abbott Medical Optics Inc) with iris registration. A VISX Star S4 (Abbott Medical Optics Inc) laser was later used to measure cyclotorsion and pupil centroid shift at the beginning of the refractive procedure and after flap creation or epithelial removal. The mean change in intraoperative cyclorotation was 1.48±1.11° in LASIK eyes and 2.02±2.63° in PRK eyes. Cyclorotation direction changed by >2° in 21% of eyes after flap creation in LASIK and in 32% of eyes after epithelial removal in PRK. The respective mean intraoperative shift in the x axis and y axis was 0.13±0.15 mm and 0.17±0.14 mm, respectively, in LASIK eyes, and 0.09±0.07 mm and 0.10±0.13 mm, respectively, in PRK eyes. Intraoperative centroid shifts >100 μm in either the x axis or y axis occurred in 71% of LASIK eyes and 55% of PRK eyes. Significant changes in cyclotorsion and centroid shifts were noted prior to surgery as well as intraoperatively with both LASIK and PRK. It may be advantageous to engage iris registration immediately prior to ablation to provide a reference point representative of eye position at the initiation of laser delivery. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Non-Invasive Electromagnetic Skin Patch Sensor to Measure Intracranial Fluid–Volume Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Griffith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elevated intracranial fluid volume can drive intracranial pressure increases, which can potentially result in numerous neurological complications or death. This study’s focus was to develop a passive skin patch sensor for the head that would non-invasively measure cranial fluid volume shifts. The sensor consists of a single baseline component configured into a rectangular planar spiral with a self-resonant frequency response when impinged upon by external radio frequency sweeps. Fluid volume changes (10 mL increments were detected through cranial bone using the sensor on a dry human skull model. Preliminary human tests utilized two sensors to determine feasibility of detecting fluid volume shifts in the complex environment of the human body. The correlation between fluid volume changes and shifts in the first resonance frequency using the dry human skull was classified as a second order polynomial with R2 = 0.97. During preliminary and secondary human tests, a ≈24 MHz and an average of ≈45.07 MHz shifts in the principal resonant frequency were measured respectively, corresponding to the induced cephalad bio-fluid shifts. This electromagnetic resonant sensor may provide a non-invasive method to monitor shifts in fluid volume and assist with medical scenarios including stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, concussion, or monitoring intracranial pressure.

  20. A plant distribution shift: temperature, drought or past disturbance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan W Schwilk

    Full Text Available Simple models of plant response to warming climates predict vegetation moving to cooler and/or wetter locations: in mountainous regions shifting upslope. However, species-specific responses to climate change are likely to be much more complex. We re-examined a recently reported vegetation shift in the Santa Rosa Mountains, California, to better understand the mechanisms behind the reported shift of a plant distribution upslope. We focused on five elevational zones near the center of the gradient that captured many of the reported shifts and which are dominated by fire-prone chaparral. Using growth rings, we determined that a major assumption of the previous work was wrong: past fire histories differed among elevations. To examine the potential effect that this difference might have on the reported upward shift, we focused on one species, Ceanothus greggii: a shrub that only recruits post-fire from a soil stored seedbank. For five elevations used in the prior study, we calculated time series of past per-capita mortality rates by counting growth rings on live and dead individuals. We tested three alternative hypotheses explaining the past patterns of mortality: 1 mortality increased over time consistent with climate warming, 2 mortality was correlated with drought indices, and 3 mortality peaked 40-50 years post fire at each site, consistent with self-thinning. We found that the sites were different ages since the last fire, and that the reported increase in the mean elevation of C. greggii was due to higher recent mortality at the lower elevations, which were younger sites. The time-series pattern of mortality was best explained by the self-thinning hypothesis and poorly explained by gradual warming or drought. At least for this species, the reported distribution shift appears to be an artifact of disturbance history and is not evidence of a climate warming effect.

  1. Determinants of Shift Work impacting Job Satisfaction: A study on Service Sector Organizations in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim Abbas Awan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of determinants of shift work on job satisfaction in service sector organizations of Pakistan. History reveals that the invention of Thomas Edison brought the change in working environment and industrial revolution results in the birth of shift works. A great number of theories in Management are there to define Job satisfaction. All of them show the relationship between ability to perform and the productivity. In order to investigate their impact descriptive study is taken in to account in which survey research method is used to collect data. On the basis of quantitative analysis this study reveals that determinants of shift work has positive impact on job satisfaction. Finally recommendations are made to increase shift work in service sector organizations of Pakistan so that people may upraise their standards of living.

  2. Real life working shift assignment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, San-Nah; Kwek, Yeek-Ling; Tiong, Wei-King; Chiew, Kang-Leng

    2017-07-01

    This study concerns about the working shift assignment in an outlet of Supermarket X in Eastern Mall, Kuching. The working shift assignment needs to be solved at least once in every month. Current approval process of working shifts is too troublesome and time-consuming. Furthermore, the management staff cannot have an overview of manpower and working shift schedule. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop working shift assignment simulation and propose a working shift assignment solution. The main objective for this study is to fulfill manpower demand at minimum operation cost. Besides, the day off and meal break policy should be fulfilled accordingly. Demand based heuristic is proposed to assign working shift and the quality of the solution is evaluated by using the real data.

  3. Dynamics and computation in functional shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Jun; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2004-07-01

    We introduce a new type of shift dynamics as an extended model of symbolic dynamics, and investigate the characteristics of shift spaces from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation. This shift dynamics is called a functional shift, which is defined by a set of bi-infinite sequences of some functions on a set of symbols. To analyse the complexity of functional shifts, we measure them in terms of topological entropy, and locate their languages in the Chomsky hierarchy. Through this study, we argue that considering functional shifts from the viewpoints of both dynamics and computation gives us opposite results about the complexity of systems. We also describe a new class of shift spaces whose languages are not recursively enumerable.

  4. Separable potential approach in the folding model. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.L.; Robson, D.

    1982-01-01

    A microscopic folding formalism using a separable potential approach is applied to the elastic scattering of the n-α system. Starting with a separable nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential model, a sum of separable nucleon-nucleus potentials is obtained. A simple structure of the α-particle is assumed and the Tabakin, the Doleschall and the Strobel NN potentials are considered. These phenomenological interactions are of Yukawa or gaussian form with variable parameters for each partial wave. Spin-orbit and tensor forces are included. The resulting potentials developed from our folding calculations give approximately the same ssub(1/2) phase shifts for the n-α elastic scattering. However, in the psub(1/2) and psub(3/2) phase-shift analysis, an effective interaction derived from the NN potential is necessary to reproduce the resonances. One free energy independent parameter is introduced in our approximate G-matrix concept to give a good fit for the phase shifts. Single-nucleon knockout exchange (SNKE) is considered throughout. (orig.)

  5. Early visual evoked potentials are modulated by eye position in humans induced by whole body rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petit Laurent

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reach and grasp an object in space on the basis of its image cast on the retina requires different coordinate transformations that take into account gaze and limb positioning. Eye position in the orbit influences the image's conversion from retinotopic (eye-centered coordinates to an egocentric frame necessary for guiding action. Neuroimaging studies have revealed eye position-dependent activity in extrastriate visual, parietal and frontal areas that is along the visuo-motor pathway. At the earliest vision stage, the role of the primary visual area (V1 in this process remains unclear. We used an experimental design based on pattern-onset visual evoked potentials (VEP recordings to study the effect of eye position on V1 activity in humans. Results We showed that the amplitude of the initial C1 component of VEP, acknowledged to originate in V1, was modulated by the eye position. We also established that putative spontaneous small saccades related to eccentric fixation, as well as retinal disparity cannot explain the effects of changing C1 amplitude of VEP in the present study. Conclusions The present modulation of the early component of VEP suggests an eye position-dependent activity of the human primary visual area. Our findings also evidence that cortical processes combine information about the position of the stimulus on the retinae with information about the location of the eyes in their orbit as early as the stage of primary visual area.

  6. Measuring 13Cβ chemical shifts of invisible excited states in proteins by relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstroem, Patrik; Lin Hong; Kay, Lewis E.

    2009-01-01

    A labeling scheme is introduced that facilitates the measurement of accurate 13 C β chemical shifts of invisible, excited states of proteins by relaxation dispersion NMR spectroscopy. The approach makes use of protein over-expression in a strain of E. coli in which the TCA cycle enzyme succinate dehydrogenase is knocked out, leading to the production of samples with high levels of 13 C enrichment (30-40%) at C β side-chain carbon positions for 15 of the amino acids with little 13 C label at positions one bond removed (∼5%). A pair of samples are produced using [1- 13 C]-glucose/NaH 12 CO 3 or [2- 13 C]-glucose as carbon sources with isolated and enriched (>30%) 13 C β positions for 11 and 4 residues, respectively. The efficacy of the labeling procedure is established by NMR spectroscopy. The utility of such samples for measurement of 13 C β chemical shifts of invisible, excited states in exchange with visible, ground conformations is confirmed by relaxation dispersion studies of a protein-ligand binding exchange reaction in which the extracted chemical shift differences from dispersion profiles compare favorably with those obtained directly from measurements on ligand free and fully bound protein samples

  7. Associations of rotational shift work and night shift status with hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sandhya; Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Mao, Michael A; Herrmann, Sandra M

    2017-10-01

    The reported risks of hypertension (HTN) in rotating shift and night shift workers are controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between shift work status and HTN. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Database from inception through October 2016. Studies that reported odds ratios (OR) comparing the risk of HTN in shift workers were included. A prespecified subgroup analysis by rotating shift and night shift statuses were also performed. Pooled OR and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. The protocol for this study is registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews; no. CRD42016051843. Twenty-seven observational studies (nine cohort and 18 cross-sectional studies) with a total of 394 793 individuals were enrolled. The pooled ORs of HTN in shift workers in cohort and cross-sectional studies were 1.31 (95% CI, 1.07-1.60) and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.00-1.20), respectively. When meta-analysis was restricted only to cohort studies in rotating shift, the pooled OR of HTN in rotating shift workers was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.08-1.67). The data regarding night shift and HTN in cohort studies was limited. The pooled OR of HTN in night shift workers in cross-sectional studies was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.85-1.35). Based on the findings of our meta-analysis, shiftwork status may play an important role in HTN, as there is a significant association between rotating shift work and HTN. However, there is no significant association between night shift status and risk of HTN.

  8. Time evolution, Lamb shift, and emission spectra of spontaneous emission of two identical atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dawei; Li Zhenghong; Zheng Hang; Zhu Shiyao

    2010-01-01

    A unitary transformation method is used to investigate the dynamic evolution of two multilevel atoms, in the basis of symmetric and antisymmetric states, with one atom being initially prepared in the first excited state and the other in the ground state. The unitary transformation guarantees that our calculations are based on the ground state of the atom-field system and the self-energy is subtracted at the beginning. The total Lamb shifts of the symmetric and antisymmetric states are divided into transformed shift and dynamic shift. The transformed shift is due to emitting and reabsorbing of virtual photons, by a single atom (nondynamic single atomic shift) and between the two atoms (quasi-static shift). The dynamic shift is due to the emitting and reabsorbing of real photons, by a single atom (dynamic single atomic shift) and between the two atoms (dynamic interatomic shift). The emitting and reabsorbing of virtual and real photons between the two atoms result in the interatomic shift, which does not exist for the one-atom case. The spectra at the long-time limit are calculated. If the distance between the two atoms is shorter than or comparable to the wavelength, the strong coupling between the tw