WorldWideScience

Sample records for positive parent-child relationships

  1. Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child...... parent-child relationship....

  2. Parental and Child Psychopathology: Moderated Mediation by Gender and Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Annabel O; McKinney, Cliff

    2018-03-26

    Previous literature has not examined the processes underlying the relations among parent-child relationship quality, parental psychopathology, and child psychopathology in the context of gender. Further, research examining these variables in emerging adulthood is lacking. The current study examined whether parent-child relationship quality would mediate the relation between parental and child psychopathology, and whether gender moderated these associations. Participants were emerging adults (N = 665) who reported on perceptions of their parents' and their own psychological problems as well as their parent-child relationship quality. Results indicated that the relation between parental internalizing problems and parent-child relationship quality was positive for males, and that mother-child relationship quality was related positively to psychological problems in males. This suggests that sons may grow closer to their parents (particularly their mother) who are exhibiting internalizing problems; in turn, this enmeshed relationship may facilitate transmission of psychopathology. Mediational paths were conditional upon gender, suggesting moderated mediation. Overall, the current study emphasizes that the complexities of parenting must be understood in the context of gender. Further, the mother-son dyad may particularly warrant further attention.

  3. Buffering effect of positive parent-child relationships on adolescent risk taking: A longitudinal neuroimaging investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Galvan, Adriana; Telzer, Eva H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is marked by a steep increase in risk-taking behavior. The serious consequences of such heightened risk taking raise the importance of identifying protective factors. Despite its dynamic change during adolescence, family relationships remain a key source of influence for teenagers. Using a longitudinal fMRI approach, we scanned 23 adolescents twice across a 1.5-year period to examine how changes in parent-child relationships contribute to changes in adolescent risk taking over time via changes in adolescents’ neural reactivity to rewards. Results indicate that although parent-child relationships are not associated with adolescent risk taking concurrently, increases in positive parent-child relationships contribute to declines in adolescent risk taking. This process is mediated by longitudinal decreases in ventral striatum activation to rewards during risk taking. Findings highlight the neural pathways through which improvements in positive parent-child relationships serve to buffer longitudinal increases in adolescent risk taking. PMID:26342184

  4. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Michelle R; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Telzer, Eva H; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-05-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e., positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e., secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in previously institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving.

  5. Parent-child relationships between Korean American adolescents and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heeseung; Kim, Minju; Park, Chang Gi; Dancy, Barbara L

    2012-09-01

    This cross-sectional correlational study examined the association between Korean American adolescents' and their parents' reports of parent-child relationships. A total of 61 Korean American families completed a questionnaire assessing parental knowledge, parental/filial self-efficacy, parent-child communication, and parent-child conflicts. T tests, Pearson's correlations, a scatter diagram, and bivariate regression were used to analyze the data. Both Korean American adolescents and their parents reported that fathers were less knowledgeable about their child's school life and less likely to communicate with their children than were mothers. Fathers reported a significantly lower level of parental self-efficacy than mothers, and adolescents also reported a significantly higher level of filial self-efficacy in mother-child relationships than in father-child relationships. Positive correlations between parents' and adolescents' reports of parent-child relationships were observed. These findings indicated a need for parent education programs or counseling services for Korean American parents of adolescents, particularly fathers with inadequate parental skills and limited communication with their children. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Telzer, Eva H.; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y.; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2018-01-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e. positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e. secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in Previously Institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving. PMID:28401841

  7. Parent-child relationships and offspring's positive mental wellbeing from adolescence to early older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana L; Gale, Catharine R; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus

    2016-05-03

    We examined parent-child relationship quality and positive mental well-being using Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development data. Well-being was measured at ages 13-15 (teacher-rated happiness), 36 (life satisfaction), 43 (satisfaction with home and family life) and 60-64 years (Diener Satisfaction With Life scale and Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale). The Parental Bonding Instrument captured perceived care and control from the father and mother to age 16, recalled by study members at age 43. Greater well-being was seen for offspring with higher combined parental care and lower combined parental psychological control ( p  < 0.05 at all ages). Controlling for maternal care and paternal and maternal behavioural and psychological control, childhood social class, parental separation, mother's neuroticism and study member's personality, higher well-being was consistently related to paternal care. This suggests that both mother-child and father-child relationships may have short and long-term consequences for positive mental well-being.

  8. Effects of Parent-Child Relationship on the Primary School Children's Non-Violence Position Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Kalimullin, Aydar M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to identify and test experimentally the impact of parent-child relationship on the formation of the primary school children non-violence position. During the research the effectiveness of the correctional and development program "Together with my mom" was verified to promote parent-child interaction, as well…

  9. Pornography, Religion, and Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Samuel L; Snawder, Kara J

    2017-08-01

    Frequent pornography use is often negatively associated with marital quality. Recent research has argued that this negative association is particularly strong for those who are embedded in religious communities, likely due to the greater stigma and shame associated with viewing pornography. In order to test and extend this theory, the current study examined how religious service attendance moderates the link between parents' pornography consumption and four measures of parent-child relationship quality. Analyses of 2006 Portraits of American Life Study data (N = 2610) revealed that greater pornography viewing predicted negative outcomes on two out of four measures of parent-child relationship quality, while religious service attendance was associated with more positive parent-child relationship outcomes. Interaction effects, however, affirmed that the negative association between porn viewing frequency and three parent-child relationship outcomes was stronger for participants who attended religious services more often. Analyzing fathers (N = 771) and mothers (N = 904) separately revealed that the observed relationships held more consistently for fathers than mothers. Evidence for directionality was presented by incorporating re-interview data from 2012. While pornography use may be negatively associated with some aspects of parent-child relationship quality, this association was particularly strong for those embedded within religious communities, possibly owing to greater attendant guilt and shame.

  10. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  11. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  12. Impact of parenting practices on parent-child relationships in children with specific learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping up with their child′s condition. Aims: To document the parenting practices of parents having a child with newly diagnosed SpLD and to analyze their impact on parent-child relationships. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in our clinic. Materials and Methods: From May 2007 to January 2008, 150 parents (either mother or father of children consecutively diagnosed as having SpLD were enrolled. Parenting practices and parent-child relationships were measured by the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Parent Form (APQ-PF and the Parent Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation coefficients between subscales of APQ-PF and PCRQ were computed. Multiple regression analysis was carried out for statistical significance of the clinical and demographic variables. Results: Parents who were: (i "involved" in parenting had a good "personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (ii practicing "positive parenting" had good "warmth, personal relationship and disciplinary warmth," (iii "poorly supervising" their child′s activities lacked "warmth and personal relationship," (iv practicing "inconsistent discipline′ had a higher "power assertion" and (v practicing "corporal punishment" lacked "warmth" and had a higher "power assertion and possessiveness" in their relationships with their child. Parent being poorly educated or currently ill and child having all three types of SpLD present concomitantly or a sibling or a sibling with a chronic disability or being in class standard IX to XI were variables that independently predicted a poor parenting or parent-child relationship subscale score. Conclusions: The present study has identified parenting practices that need to be encouraged or excluded for improving parent-child relationships. Initiating these measures would help in the

  13. Parenting and the parent-child relationship in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=113) reported more positive discipline and physical punishment but less involvement, less positive parenting, less monitoring, a lower sense of parenting competence, less acceptance of the child, and less closeness to the child than the families of a child with MBID and no accompanying externalizing behavior problems (n=71). The parent-child relationship was most strongly associated with externalizing child behavior, over and above parenting behaviors. In addition, the parent-child relationship was found to be associated with parenting behavior, over and above the child's externalizing behavior. Our results highlight the importance of both the parent-child relationship and parenting behavior in connection with the occurrence of externalizing behavior problems on the part of children with MBID. Parenting behavior and the parent-child relationship may thus be promising targets for interventions with this group of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parents' work-family experiences and children's problem behaviors: The mediating role of the parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena

    2016-06-01

    Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Parent-child relationships in gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, H A; O'Shea, D; Lucey, J V

    2014-06-01

    To describe the relationship between parents with gender identity disorder (GID) and their child(ren) as described by the parent and to understand how being a parent affects transitioning from one gender to the other. Fourteen parents with GID underwent a semi-structured interview and completed the Index of Parental Attitudes (IPA). An IPA score of greater than 30 indicates parent–child relationship difficulties (range 0–100). The authors also conducted the SCID-I to establish other Axis I disorders. We assessed 12 male to female and two female to male parents with GID residing in Ireland. In total, 14 GID parents had 28 children. Three children had no relationship with their GID parent. The other 25 children, as reported by the parent, had good relationships with their children. In addition, these 25 children average score IPA score was 6.4 (range 0–25). Twelve GID parents (86 %) believed that being a parent had no effect on their desired level of transitioning, while two were influenced not to transition. Eleven GID parents (79 %) reported that being a parent had increased the time taken to commence transitioning, two have stopped transitioning altogether, while one cited no effect on time. Parents with GID report positive relationships or no relationship with their children and the IPA revealed no clinical problems. Being a parent can prolong transitioning time in people with GID and can affect overall achieved level of transitioning.

  16. The positive aspects of being the parent of an LGBTQ Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Kirsten A; Rostosky, Sharon S; Odom, Robert D; Riggle, Ellen D B

    2013-06-01

    Parenting an LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer) identified child presents unique opportunities for growth and development. This study focused on self-reported perceptions of the positive aspects of being the parent of an LGBTQ child. Participants (N = 142) were mothers (83.8%) and fathers (16.2%) of LGBTQ identified individuals who responded to an open-ended online survey. Thematic analysis revealed five primary themes: Personal Growth (open mindedness, new perspectives, awareness of discrimination, and compassion), Positive Emotions (pride and unconditional love), Activism, Social Connection, and Closer Relationships (closer to child and family closeness). The practice implications of these findings for supporting parents in envisioning positive relationship outcomes for themselves and their children are highlighted in the discussion. © FPI, Inc.

  17. Parental Cognitions, Parental Behavior, and the Child's Understanding of the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekovic, Maja; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Studied the relationship of parental reasoning complexity to parental behavior during parent-child interactions, and the effect of this relationship on children's social cognitions. Results indicate that parental reasoning complexity is related to parental behaviors of restrictive control, authoritative control, and support, which, in turn, are…

  18. Sanctification and spiritual disclosure in parent-child relationships: implications for family relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, Gina M

    2013-08-01

    Social scientific research on family life, religion, and spirituality tends to focus on global religiousness and spirituality with few studies seeking to understand interpersonal religious and spiritual contributors, namely sanctification and spiritual disclosure, from multiple family members' perspectives. This study explored 91 mother-college student and 64 father-college student dyads who rated their use of spiritual disclosure and theistic and nontheistic sanctification of the parent-child dyad in relation to parent-child relationship quality (e.g., parent-child relationship satisfaction and open communication). Results indicate significant positive links between higher levels of spiritual disclosure and greater theistic and nontheistic sanctification, for mothers, fathers, and their children. However, only greater nontheistic sanctification and higher levels spiritual disclosure were significantly related to increased parent-child relationship quality. Through use of Actor-Partner Interdependence Models (APIMs) results indicated unique contributions of spiritual disclosure to parent-child relationship quality above nontheistic sanctification for open communication in the family. However, full models, which included nontheistic sanctification and spiritual disclosure, predict college students' relationship satisfaction with their mothers and fathers. Implications for interpersonal religiousness and spirituality as contributors to familial relationship quality in research and practice are discussed. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  19. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent?Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3–9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent–child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families com...

  20. Do the parent-child relationship and parenting behaviors differ between families with a child with and without chronic illness? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The present meta-analysis compared the quality of the parent-child relationship as well as parenting behaviors and styles of families with a child with chronic physical illness with families of healthy children or test norms. Empirical studies were identified with the help of electronic databases and cross-referencing. Based on 325 included studies, random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Although most effect sizes were small or very small, the parent-child relationship tended to be less positive if a child had a chronic physical illness (g = -.16 standard deviation units). In addition, lower levels of parental responsiveness (emotional warmth; g = -.22) as well as higher levels of demandingness (control, monitoring; g = .18) and overprotection (g = .39) were observed in these families. However, effect sizes were heterogeneous and only significant for a limited number of diseases. There was also some evidence for higher levels of authoritarian (g = .24) and neglectful parenting (g = .51) as well as lower levels of authoritative parenting compared with families with healthy children (g = -.13). Effect sizes varied, in part, by length of illness, child age, rater, assessment method, and target of comparison. We conclude that most families with a child with chronic physical illness adapt well with regard to the parent-child relationship and parenting behaviors/styles. Nonetheless, some families of children with specific diseases-such as epilepsy, hearing impairment, and asthma-may have difficulties finding appropriate levels of protective behaviors, control, and parental warmth and building positive mutual relationships between parents and children.

  1. Strengthening Parent-Child Relationships through Co-Playing Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Anneliese; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Parent-child relationships may be strengthened when parents and children play video games together. Literature is limited in addressing the impact of co-playing video games on parent-child relationships. Family systems theory, in particular, parental mediation through co-play, may provide insights into parent-child relationships. Parents who…

  2. Exploring the impact of marital relationship on the mental health of children: Does parent-child relationship matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunkai; Jiang, Shan; Fan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qiunv

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between marital relationships and parent-child relationships on children's mental health. Participants included 19,487 students from the 2013-2014 baseline China Education Panel Survey. Structural equation modeling was applied to analyze the data and results revealed that marital and parent-child relationships positively affected children's mental health. Parent-child relationship also played a mediating role between marital relationship and children's mental health. The unique contributions of this study and its theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  3. The Indirect Effect of Positive Parenting on the Relationship Between Parent and Sibling Bereavement Outcomes After the Death of a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam T; Gabert-Quillen, Crystal; Friebert, Sarah; Carst, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2016-01-01

    Families are referred to pediatric palliative care (PPC) programs when a child is diagnosed with a medical condition associated with less than a full life expectancy. When a child dies, PPC programs typically offer a range of bereavement interventions to these families, often focusing on parents. Currently, it is unclear which factors increase the likelihood that bereaved siblings will experience negative outcomes, limiting the development of empirically supported interventions that can be delivered in PPC programs. The present study explored the relationship between parents' and surviving sibling's mental health symptoms (i.e., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], prolonged grief disorder (PGD), and depression symptoms) after a child's death. Additionally, the extent to which parent functioning indirectly impacted sibling functioning through parenting behaviors (i.e., positive parenting and parent involvement) was also examined, with a specific focus on differences based on parent gender. Sixty bereaved parents and siblings (aged 8-18) who enrolled in a PPC program from 2008 to 2013 completed measures of PTSD, PGD, and depression related to the loss of a child/sibling. Siblings also completed a measure of general parenting behaviors. Maternal, but not paternal, symptoms of PTSD and PGD were directly associated with sibling outcomes. Paternal symptoms were associated with sibling symptoms indirectly, through parenting behaviors (i.e., via decreasing positive parenting). These results underscore the importance of examining both maternal and paternal influences after the death of a child, demonstrate differential impact of maternal vs. paternal symptoms on siblings, and stress the importance of addressing postloss symptoms from a family systems perspective. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adoptive gay father families: parent-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior were administered to parents, children, and teachers. The findings indicated more positive parental well-being and parenting in gay father families compared to heterosexual parent families. Child externalizing problems were greater among children in heterosexual families. Family process variables, particularly parenting stress, rather than family type were found to be predictive of child externalizing problems. The findings contribute to theoretical understanding of the role of parental gender and parental sexual orientation in child development. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Spillover between Marital Quality and Parent-child Relationship Quality: Parental Depressive Symptoms as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study examined concurrent and time-lagged relations between marital and parent-child relationship qualities, providing a test of the spillover and compensatory hypotheses. Additionally, this study tested both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms as moderators of these daily linkages. Participants were 203 families, in which mothers and fathers completed daily diaries for 15 days. At the end of each reporting day, parents independently rated the emotional quality of their relationship with their spouse and with their child that day. Controlling for global levels of marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and parenting, a positive association was found between mothers’ and fathers’ daily ratings of marital quality and their ratings of parent-child relationship quality, supporting the spillover hypothesis. When considering time-lagged relations, support was found for the compensatory hypothesis for mothers: lower levels of marital quality were related to increases in mother-child relationship quality from one day to the next. Further, both maternal and paternal depressive symptoms moderated the link between marital quality and the other parent’s relationship quality with their child. Whereas maternal depressive symptoms strengthened spillover relations for fathers on the next day, paternal depression was related to less spillover for mothers on the same day. Alternative models did not find evidence for parent-child relationship quality as a predictor of changes in marital quality on the next day. The findings underscore the importance of the quality of the marital relationship for predicting the quality of other family relationships. PMID:24821519

  6. The effects of parental education and family income on mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and family environments in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    Using a cross-sectional design with 407 Chinese children aged 3-5 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and family income, on the children's mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and the social environment in their families. The results indicated that income negatively predicted conflict in father-child relationships and positively predicted family active-recreational environments. Income also positively predicted family cohesion among girls but not boys. Maternal education negatively predicted conflict in mother-child relationships and positively predicted closeness in mother-child and father-child relationships, family cohesion, and the intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments in the family. Paternal education positively predicted family cohesion and intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments. Income was found to partially mediate the effects of both maternal and paternal education on family active-recreational environments. Findings are discussed in the frameworks of the family stress model and the family investment model. © FPI, Inc.

  7. Effect of Perceived Parent-Child Relationship in Childhood on Resilience in Japanese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of the perceived parent-child relationship in childhood on resilience in youth. It recruited 268 university students majoring in education and college students majoring in welfare science to investigate the relationship between their perception of parent-child relationship in their childhood and their current resilience by their responses on the Adolescent Resilience Scale and the Children's Perceived Affiliation for Parents Scale. The results indicated that female's positive perception of their relationship with their mothers in childhood had a positive influence on their resilience. On the other hand, the positive influence was inconspicuous and limited with regard to the perception of female's relationship with their fathers in childhood. In contrast, this positive influence was not confirmed in male participants regardless of the perception of their relationship with mothers and fathers in childhood. Although limited to females, these results suggest that youth's perception of their parent-child relationships in childhood significantly affected the development of resilience. In addition, sex difference was observed in this effect. The findings have been discussed with respect to the process of the development of resilience.

  8. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems: A Transactional Relationship across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…

  9. Parent-child positivity and romantic relationships in emerging adulthood : Congruence, compensation, and the role of social skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2017-01-01

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been

  10. Parent-child positivity and romantic relationships in emerging adulthood : Congruence, compensation, and the role of social skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been

  11. The effects of early positive parenting and developmental delay status on child emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norona, A N; Baker, B L

    2017-02-01

    Emotion regulation has been identified as a robust predictor of adaptive functioning across a variety of domains (Aldao et al. ). Furthermore, research examining early predictors of competence and deficits in ER suggests that factors internal to the individual (e.g. neuroregulatory reactivity, behavioural traits and cognitive ability) and external to the individual (e.g. caregiving styles and explicit ER training) contribute to the development of ER (Calkins ). Many studies have focused on internal sources or external sources; however, few have studied them simultaneously within one model, especially in studies examining children with developmental delays (DD). Here, we addressed this specific research gap and examined the contributions of one internal factor and one external factor on emotion dysregulation outcomes in middle childhood. Specifically, our current study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine prospective, predictive relationships between DD status, positive parenting at age 4 years and child emotion dysregulation at age 7 years. Participants were 151 families in the Collaborative Family Study, a longitudinal study of young children with and without DD. A positive parenting factor was composed of sensitivity and scaffolding scores from mother-child interactions at home and in the research centre at child age 4 years. A child dysregulation factor was composed of a dysregulation code from mother-child interactions and a parent-report measure of ER and lability/negativity at age 7 years. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that positive parenting would mediate the relationship between DD and child dysregulation. Mothers of children with DD exhibited fewer sensitive and scaffolding behaviours compared with mothers of typically developing children, and children with DD were more dysregulated on all measures of ER. SEM revealed that both DD status and early positive parenting predicted emotion dysregulation in middle childhood. Furthermore

  12. Parent-child relationships, parental attitudes towards sex, and birth outcomes among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2014-10-01

    To examine how parent-child relationships, parental control, and parental attitudes towards sex were related to pregnancy outcomes among adolescent mothers. Prospective cohort study. Parental report of relationship satisfaction, disapproval of adolescent having sex, discussion around sexual health, and sexual communication attitudes, and adolescent report of relationship satisfaction, parental control, and parental disapproval of sex were examined as predictors of self-reported birth outcomes. Weighted multivariable linear regression models were run incorporating interactions by race. United States. 632 females who participated in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally-representative sample of students enrolled in grades 7-12 in 1994-95 and followed up in 2007-2008. Birthweight and gestational age. For Black adolescents, better parent-child relationship was associated with higher birthweight (0.14 kg, P Parent-child relationships and attitudes about sex affect outcomes of pregnant adolescents. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Parent-Child Positivity and Romantic Relationships in Emerging Adulthood: Congruence, Compensation, and the Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2017-01-01

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been discussed but not rigorously tested. Using data…

  14. Parent-child relationships in Type 1 diabetes: associations among child behavior, parenting behavior, and pediatric parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweenie, Rachel; Mackey, Eleanor R; Streisand, Randi

    2014-03-01

    Interactions between parents and children can influence behavioral and emotional functioning related to Type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet have been relatively unexplored during preadolescence. The present study examined associations among child problem behaviors, critical parenting behaviors, and pediatric parenting stress in a sample of preadolescent youth with T1D. Data are available from 86 preadolescent-parent dyads who participated in the initial baseline assessment of a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of an adherence promotion program. Measures included the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, the Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist, and the Pediatric Inventory for Parents. After controlling for significant demographic and medical characteristics, parents who reported their child's behavior as more problematic reported more difficulty with pediatric parenting stress, which was also associated with more child-reported critical parenting behaviors. Child problem behaviors and critical parenting behaviors were associated with one another, partially via their association with increased pediatric parenting stress. Potential clinical applications include interventions geared toward helping parents manage difficult child behaviors as well as cope with pediatric parenting stress, with the ultimate goal of improving the parent-child relationship and management of T1D.

  15. Early-Life Parent-Child Relationships and Adult Children's Support of Unpartnered Parents in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Wu, Hsueh-Sheng

    2018-02-08

    The proportion of older adults who are unpartnered has increased significantly over the past 25 years. Unpartnered older adults often rely on their adult children for support. Most previous studies have focused on proximal factors associated with adult children's support of their parents, while few have examined distal factors, such as parent-child relationships formed during childhood. This study fills the gap by investigating the direct and indirect associations between early-life parent-child relationships and adult children's upward transfers to unpartnered parents. Data came from two supplements to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, in which respondents were asked about their relationships with mothers and fathers before age 17 and their transfers of time and money to parents in 2013. Path models were estimated for unpartnered mother-adult child dyads and father-adult child dyads separately. For adult children of unpartnered mothers, psychological closeness has a direct, positive association with time transfer, while physical violence has an indirect association with time transfer through adult children's marital status. For adult children of unpartnered fathers, psychological closeness has neither a direct nor an indirect association with time or money transfer, but physical violence has a direct, negative association with time transfer. Early-life parent-child relationships play a pivotal role in influencing adult children's caregiving behavior, both directly and indirectly. Our findings suggest that by improving their relationships with children early in life, parents may be able to increase the amount of time transfer that they receive in late life. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Child-Care Instability and Behavior Problems: Does Parenting Stress Mediate the Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarz, Alejandra Ros; Hill, Heather D

    2017-10-01

    Child care instability is associated with more behavior problems in young children, but the mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Theoretically, this relationship is likely to emerge, at least in part, because care instability leads to increased parenting stress. Moreover, low socioeconomic status and single-mother families may be more vulnerable to the effects of instability. This study tested these hypotheses using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (n=1,675) and structural equation modeling. Three types of child care instability were examined: long-term instability, multiplicity, and needing to use back-up arrangements. Overall, findings showed little evidence that parenting stress mediated the associations between care instability and child behavior problems among the full sample. Among single-mother and low-income families, however, needing to use back-up arrangements had small positive associations with parenting stress, which partially mediated the relationship between that type of care instability and child externalizing behavior problems.

  17. Effects of parent personality, upbringing, and marijuana use on the parent-child attachment relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, J S; Richter, L; Whiteman, M

    2000-02-01

    To examine the predictors of the quality of the parent-child attachment relationship among a sample of 248 young adults with children. In this longitudinal study, data were collected during early adulthood in 1992 and in 1996/1997 via a structured questionnaire. Using logistic regression and multiple regression analyses, the authors assessed the extent to which participants' personality attributes, substance use, and relationships with their mothers predicted the quality of the parent-child bond. Logistic regression models showed that participants with certain personality attributes (e.g., high sensitivity), less frequent marijuana use, or a close relationship with their mothers had a greater likelihood of having a close parent-child attachment relationship with their own children at a later time. Regression analysis also showed that the risk of earlier substance use on the parent-child relationship was offset by protective factors in the parents' personality domain. In addition, protective factors in the various parental domains synergistically interacted with a low frequency of marijuana use, relating to a closer parent-child attachment relationship. The findings suggest that certain parenting styles are transmitted across generations and interventions in the personality and drug use domains can help increase the likelihood that parents will form close attachment relationships with their own children.

  18. Effects of a dyadic music therapy intervention on parent-child interaction, parent stress, and parent-child relationship in families with emotionally neglected children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Stine L; McKinney, Cathy H; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Work with families and families at risk within the field of music therapy have been developing for the last decade. To diminish risk for unhealthy child development, families with emotionally neglected children need help to improve their emotional communication and develop healthy parent-child interactions. While some researchers have investigated the effect of music therapy on either the parent or the child, no study has investigated the effect of music therapy on the observed interaction between the parent and child within the field of child protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a dyadic music therapy intervention on observed parent-child interaction (mutual attunement, nonverbal communication, emotional parental response), self-reported parenting stress, and self-reported parent-child relationship in families at risk and families with emotionally neglected children, ages 5-12 years. This was a randomized controlled trial study conducted at a family care center in Denmark. Eighteen parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to receive 10 weekly music therapy sessions with a credentialed music therapist (n = 9) or treatment as usual (n = 9). Observational measures for parent-child interaction, self-reported measures for parenting stress and parent-child relationship were completed at baseline and 4 months post-baseline assessment. Results of the study showed that dyads who received music therapy intervention significantly improved their nonverbal communication and mutual attunement. Similarly, parents who participated in dyadic music therapy reported themselves to be significantly less stressed by the mood of the child and to significantly improve their parent-child relationship in terms of being better at talking to and understanding their children than parents who did not receive music therapy. Both groups significantly improved in terms of increased positive and decreased negative emotional parental response, parenting stress and

  19. Taking part in 'Understanding Your Child's Behaviour' and positive changes for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Rebecca; Douglas, Hazel; Rheeston, Mary

    2016-02-01

    ABSTRACT The Solihull Approach's Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) is a 10-session group for parents run by facilitators in their local area. Previous studies have shown that parents enjoy taking part in the group, and that UYCB can reduce problematic behaviours in children. Building on this research, the present study evaluated whether UYCB programmes run more recently in the UK were rated as positively by parents, and what positive changes were reported by parents. Both quantitative and qualitative data was analysed from 105 parents who took part in 18 different UYCB groups between 2012 and 2015. The results of this analysis showed that 90 per cent of parents found the group a great place to relax and share experiences, 93 per cent rated the group as 'great' for helping them understand their child, and 92 per cent gave a 'great' rating for helping them identify changes. In addition to this, content analysis showed that 47 per cent of parents reported having a better relationship with their child after taking part, 42 per cent said they were more confident, and importantly six per cent reported a significant positive change in their lives generally as a direct result of UYCB.

  20. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; DU, Wenyong; Gao, Yan; Ma, Changlin; Ban, Chunxia; Meng, Fu

    2017-12-25

    Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional investment, negligence of inner feelings

  1. Parent-child relationship quality and infantile amnesia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carole; Nguyen, Duyen T K

    2010-11-01

    The first years of life are typically shrouded by infantile amnesia, but there is enormous variability between adults in how early and how much they can remember from this period. This study examined one possible factor affecting this variability: whether the perceived quality of parent-child relationships is associated with the number of early memories young adults can retrieve, and their age at the time of their first memory. We found such associations but they were qualified by parent gender. Mother-child relationships that were more affectively intense (greater social support but also more negative interchanges) were associated with recalling more early memories, although paternal companionship was most associated with how early an individual's first memory was. Affective tone of retrieved memories was also assessed, and a greater proportion of affectively positive memories (as well as fewer affectively neutral memories for males) was associated with high parental involvement in children's lives.

  2. Analysis of Family Functioning and Parent-Child Relationship between Adolescents with Depression and their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Qing; DU, Wenyong; GAO, Yan; MA, Changlin; BAN, Chunxia; MENG, Fu

    2017-01-01

    Background Drug therapy combined with family therapy is currently the best treatment for adolescent depression. Nevertheless, family therapy requires an exploration of unresolved problems in the family system, which in practice presents certain difficulties. Previous studies have found that the perceptual differences of family function between parents and children reflect the problems in the family system. Aims To explore the characteristics and role of family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Methods The general information and clinical data of the 93 adolescents with depression were collected. The Family Functioning Assessment Scale and Parent-child Relationship Scale were used to assess adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Results a) The dimensions of family functioning in adolescents with depressive disorder were more negative in communication, emotional response, emotional involvement, roles, and overall functioning than their parents. The differences were statistically significant. Parent-child relationship dimensions: the closeness and parent-child total scores were more negative compared with the parents and the differences were statistically significant. b) All dimensions of parent-child relationship and family functioning in adolescents with depression except the time spent together were negatively correlated or significantly negatively correlated. c) The results of multivariate regression analysis showed: the characteristics of family functioning, emotional involvement, emotional response, family structure, and income of the adolescents with depressive disorder mainly affected the parent-child relationship. Conclusions There were perceptual differences in partial family functioning and parent-child relationship between adolescents with depressive disorder and their parents. Unclear roles between family members, mutual entanglement, too much or too little emotional

  3. Family politics and the parent-child relationship | Maré ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, fundamental rights can influence the decision making process differently in respectively the common law parent-child relationship and the customary law parent-child relationship. Central to the latter situation is the fact that fundamental rights recognise individual rights, while customary law is founded in ...

  4. Effects of a Dyadic Music Therapy Intervention on Parent-Child Interaction, Parent Stress, and Parent-Child Relationship in Families with Emotionally Neglected Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl; H. McKinney, Cathy; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the effect of a dyadic music therapy intervention on observed parent-child interaction (mutual attunement, nonverbal communication, emotional parental response), self-reported parenting stress, and self-reported parent-child relationship in families at risk and families...... significantly improved their nonverbal communication and mutual attunement. Similarly, parents who participated in dyadic music therapy reported themselves to be significantly less stressed by the mood of the child and to significantly improve their parent-child relationship in terms of being better at talking......-perceived autonomy, attachment, and parental competence. Conclusions: The dyadic music therapy intervention examined in this study improved emotional communication between parent and child and interaction after 6 to 10 sessions and can be considered as a viable treatment alternative or supplement for families...

  5. Relationship between interaction parent-child with addictability rate and heterosexual orientation in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Hosseinkhanzadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the purpose of this study was to study relationship between interaction parent-child with addictability rate and heterosexual orientation in students. Method: The statistical population consisted of all students of Guilan University in 2012-2013 academic year, which among them a sample of 200 students were selected by random cluster sampling method and they completed preparation to addiction scale relationship between parent–child scale and attitude and heterosexual orientation before marriage. Findings: Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between addictability in female students and male students with relationship with father, and positive affect, interlace and communication subscales. The relationship between female students’ addictability with relationship with mother and positive affect, hurt and confusion and communication subscales was observed significant negative correlation, also there is a significant negative relationship between male students’ addictability with the relationship with mother. There is significant negative relationship between heterosexual orientations in male students with relation with father, positive affects and interlace. Results of regression analysis showed that relationship with father and relationship with mother can anticipate addict ability in female and male students. Conclusion: If parents cannot establish an appropriate and constructive interaction with their child cause child face with affection and emotional deprivation and this poor emotional and affection deprivation may cause he or she bring to the addict ability and heterosexual orientation.

  6. MENTAL HEALTH OF ADOLESCENTS IN RELATION TO EMOTIONAL MATURITY AND PARENT CHILD RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Gurmit Singh

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find the relation of Mental Health of Adolescents with their Emotional Maturity and Parent Child Relationship. The sample comprised of 200 9th class adolescents (100 boys and 100 girls) from Government Secondary Schools of Moga district The data was obtained by using Emotional Maturity Scale (2011) by Singh and Bhargava, Parent Child Relationship Scale (2011) by Rao and Mental Health Battery (2012) by Singh and Gupta. The results of the study showed positive...

  7. Parents’ Optimism, Positive Parenting, and Child Peer Competence in Mexican-Origin Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Schilo, Laura; Ferrer, Emilio; Taylor, Zoe E.; Robins, Richard W.; Conger, Rand D.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study examined how parents’ optimism influences positive parenting and child peer competence in Mexican-origin families. Design A sample of 521 families (521 mothers, 438 fathers, and 521 11-year-olds) participated in the cross-sectional study. We used structural equation modeling to assess whether effective parenting would mediate the effect of parents’ optimism on child peer competence and whether mothers’ and fathers’ optimism would moderate the relation between positive parenting and child social competence. Results Mothers’ and fathers’ optimism were associated with effective parenting, which in turn was related to children’s peer competence. Mothers’ and fathers’ optimism also moderated the effect of parenting on child peer competence. High levels of parental optimism buffered children against poor parenting; at low levels of parental optimism, positive parenting was more strongly related to child peer competence. Conclusions Results are consistent with the hypothesis that positive parenting is promoted by parents’ optimism and is a proximal driver of child social competence. Parental optimism moderates effects of parenting on child outcomes. PMID:23526877

  8. Association of parent-child relationships and executive functioning in South Asian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Shameem; Sheikh, Hamid; Ardila, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    It is known that some environmental variables can significantly affect the development of executive functions (EF). The primary aim of this study was to analyze whether some family conditions, such as the adolescent's perception of the quality of parent-child relationships and the socioeconomic status (SES; assessed according to education, occupational status, and income) are significantly associated with EF test scores. There were 370 Pakistani participants ranging in age 13 to 19 years who were selected and then individually administered the following tests taken from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS): Trail Making Test (TMT), Design Fluency Test (DFT), Color Word Interference Test (CWIT), and Card Sorting Test (CST). In addition, a Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS) also was administered. Results showed that perceived "neglect" in the PCRS was negatively associated with the 4 EF test scores. Parents' education and SES were positively associated with 3 EF measures: DFT, CWIT, and CST. Further correlational analyses revealed that inhibition (as measured with the CWIT) and problem-solving ability (as measured with the CST) were significantly associated with the perceived parent-child relationships. Some gender differences also were observed: males outperformed females on TMT, DFT, and CST, while females outperformed males in the CWIT. It was concluded that perceived parent-child relationships, SES, and parents' education are significantly associated with executive function test performance during adolescents. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Impact of childhood parent-child relationships on cardiovascular risks in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhongzheng; Tanenbaum, Hilary; Kiresich, Emily; Cordola Hsu, Amber; Lei, Xiaomeng; Ma, Yunsheng; Li, Zhaoping; Xie, Bin

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine prospective effects of the childhood parent-child relationships on the development of cardiovascular risks in adolescence. Using available 917 parent-child dyads from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (1991 to 2006), we analyzed the prospective effects of childhood parent-child relationships of Conflict and Closeness, as well as their categorized combinations (Harmonic, Dramatic, Hostile, and Indifferent) on the development of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (SST/TST), body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), and heart rate (HR) during adolescence. We found that higher levels of Conflict in the relationship with mothers (slope=0.05, Pparent-child relationships on the development of cardiovascular risks during adolescence, and the effect was further modified by both parents' and child's gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  11. Implications of parent-child relationships for emerging adults' subjective feelings about adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Anna K; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Killoren, Sarah E

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the role of parents in promoting their children's successful transition to adulthood, particularly for college students who may maintain stronger ties to parents than other emerging adults. The present study therefore investigated longitudinal implications of parent-child relationship qualities during emerging adults' first year of college for their feelings about the upcoming transition to adulthood 3 years later, as well as implications of 3 types of parental control (behavioral control, psychological control, helicopter parenting) for these associations. Multilevel models indicated that emerging adults who reported less negativity in their relationships with mothers and fathers felt more like adults 3 years later compared with emerging adults with low-quality relationships, while high levels of psychological control and helicopter parenting had detrimental implications for their vocational identity development and perceived competence regarding their transition to adulthood. However, nuanced interactions between parent-child relationship quality and parental control indicated that behavioral control had positive implications for outcomes if it occurred within the context of high-quality relationships, or when utilized with sons. The present study highlights the complex role that parents may play during college students' transition to adulthood, and future work should continue to examine ways that clinicians can incorporate parents as a potential resource for promoting emerging adults' successful transition to adulthood and the workforce. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. What explains violated expectations of parent-child relationship in transition to parenthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flykt, Marjo; Palosaari, Esa; Lindblom, Jallu; Vänskä, Mervi; Poikkeus, Piia; Repokari, Leena; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2014-04-01

    Parent-child relationship is created already in prenatal fantasies and expectations of the child-to-be. Negative violation of these expectations after the child is born is known to be harmful for the parent-child relationship. Yet, research is scarce about the medical and psychological factors contributing to violated expectations (VE). This study models the role of parent-, delivery- and infant-related underlying mechanisms for VE. It further compares parents with assisted reproductive treatment (ART) and spontaneous conception (SC), and primi- and multiparous couples. The couples (n = 743) separately filled in questionnaires concerning their prenatal expectations (T1) and 2 months postnatal representations (T2) of intimacy and autonomy in the relationship with their child, measured with Subjective Family Picture Test. A negative or positive discrepancy indicated violated expectations. The parent-related (mental health and marital quality), delivery-related (maternal and paternal birth experience, unplanned Caesarean, and amount of analgesia) and infant-related (infant health problems, difficult infant characteristics, and parental worry) factors were assessed at T2. Results show that among mothers, the associations were mostly indirect and mediated via mental health problems. Among fathers, the associations were direct, marital problems most crucially predicting VE. ART fathers were less susceptible to VE resulting from infant-related problems than SC fathers, but more susceptible to VE resulting from delivery problems. Delivery- and infant-related factors also predicted VE differently among primi- and multiparous mothers. Considering factors that contribute to VE is important when working with couples in transition to parenthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. From Parent-Child Mutuality to Security to Socialization Outcomes: Developmental Cascade toward Positive Adaptation in Preadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age 8. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013). The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident. PMID:26258443

  14. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  15. Associations between the parent-child relationship and adolescent self-worth: a genetically informed study of twin parents and their adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom A; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Eley, Thalia C

    2017-01-01

    Low self-worth during adolescence predicts a range of emotional and behavioural problems. As such, identifying potential sources of influence on self-worth is important. Aspects of the parent-child relationship are often associated with adolescent self-worth but to date it is unclear whether such associations may be attributable to familial confounding (e.g. genetic relatedness). We set out to clarify the nature of relationships between parental expressed affection and adolescent self-worth, and parent-child closeness and adolescent self-worth. We used data from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden, a children-of-twins sample comprising 909 adult twin pairs with adolescent children. Using these data we were able to apply structural equation models with which we could examine whether associations remained after accounting for genetic transmission. Results demonstrated that parent-child closeness and parental-expressed affection were both phenotypically associated with adolescent self-worth. Associations could not be attributed to genetic relatedness between parent and child. Parent-child closeness and parental affection are associated with adolescent self-worth above and beyond effects attributable to genetic relatedness. Data were cross-sectional, so the direction of effects cannot be confirmed but findings support the notion that positive parent-child relationships increase adolescent self-worth. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Effectiveness of a parental training programme in enhancing the parent-child relationship and reducing harsh parenting practices and parental stress in preparing children for their transition to primary school: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia S C; Mak, Yim Wah; Lam, Tai Hing

    2013-11-16

    Entering primary school is an important childhood milestone, marking the beginning of a child's formal education. Yet the change creates a time of vulnerability for the child, the parents and the parent-child relationship. Failure to adjust to the transition may place the family in a psychologically devastating position. The aims of this study were to test the effectiveness of a parental training programme in enhancing the parent-child relationship and decreasing parental stress by reducing harsh parenting in preparing children for the transition to primary school. A randomised controlled trial incorporating a two-group pre-test and repeated post-test was conducted in one of the largest public housing estates in Hong Kong. A total of 142 parents were recruited, with 72 parents randomly assigned to the experimental group and 70 to the control group. Harsh parenting practices, parent-child relationships and parental stress were assessed. In comparison to parents in the control group, those in the experimental group engaged in less harsh parenting practices and reported better parent-child relationships. However, parental stress scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the effectiveness of the training programme for enhancing parent-child relationship and decreasing parental stress at the time of a child's transition to primary school. The findings from this study provide empirical evidence of the effectiveness of the parental training programme and highlight the significance of parenting in promoting a smooth transition for children from kindergarten to primary 1. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01845948.

  17. Mother-Child Positivity and Negativity: Family-Wide and Child-Specific Main Effects and Interactions Predict Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Pike, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Links between positive and negative aspects of the parent-child relationship and child adjustment are undisputed. Scholars recognize the importance of parental differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, yet, less is known about PDT in the context of the shared (family-wide) parent-child relationship climate, or about the extent to which positivity…

  18. Exploring adverse parent-child relationships from the perspective of convicted child murderers: A South African qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Dekel

    Full Text Available Child homicide is the most extreme form of violence against children. Within South Africa, children face the highest risk of homicide by parents/caregivers. It is suggested that prolonged exposure to adverse relationships with one's own parents may be linked to committing child homicide as it may lead to psychological damage and disturb neurological functioning. This paper explores the adverse parent-child relationships of 22 men and women incarcerated for the murder of either a biological child, a stepchild or a child in their care and draws on 49 in-depth interviews with these participants. We illustrate that traumatic parent-child experiences in the form of absent parents, neglect and abuse have a profound impact on establishing unhealthy attachment styles and emphasize the importance of early adverse parent-child bonds in setting the tone for future bonds as adults. The pathway to adopting an adverse attachment with one's own child is argued to be influenced by these early traumatic emotional experiences within the home. This study highlights the need to acknowledge the impact that adverse parent-child experiences have on the formation of violent forms of parental behavior. It is imperative to reduce children's emotional vulnerabilities by implementing strategies to strengthen current parenting practices, to promote the development of less violent parent-child relationships and to work towards resolving parents' experiences of trauma in reducing child homicide.

  19. Exploring adverse parent-child relationships from the perspective of convicted child murderers: A South African qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Bianca; Abrahams, Naeemah; Andipatin, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Child homicide is the most extreme form of violence against children. Within South Africa, children face the highest risk of homicide by parents/caregivers. It is suggested that prolonged exposure to adverse relationships with one's own parents may be linked to committing child homicide as it may lead to psychological damage and disturb neurological functioning. This paper explores the adverse parent-child relationships of 22 men and women incarcerated for the murder of either a biological child, a stepchild or a child in their care and draws on 49 in-depth interviews with these participants. We illustrate that traumatic parent-child experiences in the form of absent parents, neglect and abuse have a profound impact on establishing unhealthy attachment styles and emphasize the importance of early adverse parent-child bonds in setting the tone for future bonds as adults. The pathway to adopting an adverse attachment with one's own child is argued to be influenced by these early traumatic emotional experiences within the home. This study highlights the need to acknowledge the impact that adverse parent-child experiences have on the formation of violent forms of parental behavior. It is imperative to reduce children's emotional vulnerabilities by implementing strategies to strengthen current parenting practices, to promote the development of less violent parent-child relationships and to work towards resolving parents' experiences of trauma in reducing child homicide.

  20. Parental attributions for positive behaviours in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussanich, P; Hartley, S L; Bolt, D

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined parental attributions for positive child behaviour in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their association with parent outcomes. In total, 175 couples who had a child with ASD (5-12 years) completed measures about the child's positive behaviour, ASD symptoms, functional skills and negative behaviour problems, and their own positive and negative affect and closeness in the parent-child relationship. A comparison group of 170 couples who had a child without a neurodevelopmental disability also completed measures. Dyadic multilevel models were conducted. Parents of children with ASD believed that their child's positive behaviour was due to factors less internal to the child, less stable and less controllable by the child than the comparison group. Beliefs about stability were associated with closeness in the parent-child relationship. Child age and level of impairment and parent education were associated with parental attributions. Interventions that alter parental attributions may offer pathways to increase closeness in the parent-child relationship. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Role of Parenting Dimensions and Child-Parent Relationship in Children's Internalized and Externalized Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سید عباس ساطوریان

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to predict and investigate the relationship between parenting dimensions and child-parent relationship with internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems; and designed with descriptive-correlative method. The sample group included 413 single-child and multi-childe elementary school students in Yazd (141 single-child, 121 two-child, 101 three-child, 50 four-child and more with their parents, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Alabama Parenting Dimensions Questionnaire (APQ, Parent ـChild Relationship Scale (PCRS and also a researcher-made form for demography information, were used for data collecting. Results of a stepwise linear regression showed that among parenting skills, dimensions of “poor control”, and “physical punishment” were better predictors for internalized behavioral problems, and dimensions of “participation” and “physical punishment” were better predictors for externalized behavioral problems in children. Among subscales of PCRS, the “dependence” in boys and the “conflict” in girls were better predictors for internalizing problems, and the subscale of “conflict” in both boys and girls was a better predictor for externalizing problems.

  2. Parent-child relationships, partner relationships, and emotional adjustment: a birth-to-maturity prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Stattin, Håkan; Vermulst, Ad; Ha, Thao; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2007-03-01

    This study examined whether detrimental childhood relationships with parents were related to partner relationship quality and emotional adjustment in adulthood. The authors tested a theoretical model in which (a) low-quality parent-child relationships were related to conflict and low-quality communication with parents in adolescence, (b) parent-adolescent conflict and low-quality communication were linked to low-quality partner relationships in young adulthood, and (c) low-quality partner relationships in young adulthood were predictive of low-quality partner relationships as well as depression, anxiety, and dissatisfaction with life at midlife. Multi-informant data were used from 212 Swedish individuals who were followed from birth into adulthood. Results demonstrated that, as hypothesized, negative parent-child bonds were indirectly related to low-quality partner relationships and dissatisfaction with life in adulthood (but not anxiety and depression) through conflictual parent-adolescent communication and low-quality partner relationships in young adulthood.

  3. Adoptive Gay Father Families: Parent-Child Relationships and Children's Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Mellish, Laura; Jennings, Sarah; Casey, Polly; Tasker, Fiona; Lamb, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Findings are presented on a U.K. study of 41 gay father families, 40 lesbian mother families, and 49 heterosexual parent families with an adopted child aged 3-9 years. Standardized interview and observational and questionnaire measures of parental well-being, quality of parent-child relationships, child adjustment, and child sex-typed behavior…

  4. Parent-Child Relationships and the Management of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined dimensions of parent-child relationships as predictors of adherence to treatment and metabolic control in study of 88 children/adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ratings of parent-child discipline, warmth, and behavioral support were not significantly associated with diabetes outcome, but parent-child conflict was…

  5. An Instrument to Investigate Expectations about and Experiences of the Parent-Child Relationship: The Parent-Child Relationship Schema Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Dixson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the reasons for and process of creating and testing for reliability and constructing the validity of the Parent-Child Relationship Schema Scale (PCRSS. The instrument is based on the Model of Relationships Survey (MRS. However, where the MRS is an open-ended survey which takes 20–30 minutes to complete and longer to analyze, the PCRSS is a Likert scale survey which can be completed in less than half the time and offers more sophisticated analysis possibilities as well as new research opportunities. The paper explains the three-stage process used to create the PCRSS and the five tests of reliability and concurrent validity that it “passed”. We also discuss the potential for new areas of research about the parent-child relationship with the PCRSS.

  6. The Parent-Child Relationship Competencies: How Three Infant-Parent Psychotherapists Find Paths into Diverse Infant-Family Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Maria Seymour

    2016-01-01

    This article weaves the stories of three practitioner-family relationships and describes how the Parent-Child Relationship Competencies (PCRCs; St. John, 2010) function as a map for assessment and treatment planning. The PCRCs are a set of culturally variable yet universal bi-directional (parent-to-child and child-to-parent) relational capacities…

  7. The Role of Intraverbal Exchanges in Assessing Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhan, Nurper; Dennis, Tracy A.; Crossman, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the role of verbal exchanges between parent and child (intraverbal exchanges) in relation to two contemporary measurements of the parent-child relationship, mutual responsive orientation (MRO) and synchrony. Data were collected from 30 mother-preschool child dyads (19 girls, 11 boys) during a laboratory…

  8. Parent-child relationships of boys in different offending trajectories. A developmental perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background This study tested the theoretical assumption that transformations of parent-child relationships in late childhood and adolescence would differ for boys following different offending trajectories. Methods Using longitudinal multiinformant data of 503 boys (ages 7–19), we conducted Growth Mixture Modeling to extract offending trajectories. Developmental changes in child reports of parent-child joint activities and relationship quality were examined using Latent Growth Curves. Results Five offending trajectories were found: non-offenders, moderate childhood offenders, adolescent-limited offenders, serious childhood offenders, and serious persistent offenders. Non-offenders reported high and stable levels of relationship quality between age 10 and 16. Adolescent-limited offenders reported a similarly high relationship quality as non-offenders at ages 7 and 10, but a lower and decreasing relationship quality in adolescence. Compared with non-offenders, serious persistent offenders reported poorer parent-child relationship quality at all ages, and a decreasing relationship quality in adolescence. Serious persistent offenders and adolescent-limited offenders reported similar levels and changes in parent-child relationship quality in adolescence. Although serious persistent offenders reported fewer joint activities at age 10 and 13 than non-offenders, a similar linear decrease in joint activities in early to middle adolescence was found for boys in each trajectory. Conclusion Developmental changes in parent-child relationship quality differ for different types of offenders. This finding has scientific and practical implications. PMID:22816682

  9. Does Maternal HIV Disclosure Self-Efficacy Enhance Parent-Child Relationships and Child Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead, Lisa; Goodrum, Nada; Schulte, Marya; Marelich, William; LeCroix, Rebecca; Murphy, Debra A

    2018-02-09

    Nondisclosure of maternal HIV status to young children can negatively impact child functioning; however, many mothers do not disclose due to lack of self-efficacy for the disclosure process. This study examines demographic variations in disclosure self-efficacy, regardless of intention to disclose, and assesses the relationship between self-efficacy and child adjustment via the parent-child relationship among a sample of HIV+ mothers and their healthy children (N = 181 pairs). Mothers completed demographic and self-efficacy measures; children completed measures assessing the parent-child relationship and child adjustment (i.e., worry, self-concept, depression). Across demographics, few mothers reported confidence in disclosure. Results from covariance structural modeling showed mothers endorsing higher self-efficacy had children who reported better relationship quality, and, in turn, reported fewer adjustment difficulties; higher levels of disclosure self-efficacy also directly predicted fewer adjustment problems. Findings offer support for interventions aimed at providing mothers with skills to enhance confidence for disclosing their HIV status.

  10. Role conflict and ambivalence in the aged-parent-adult-child relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjia Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The parent-child relationship is important to the solidarity of families and the emotional well-being of family members. Since people are more dependent on their close social relationships as they age, understanding the quality of relationships between aged parents and their adult children is a critical topic. Previous research shows that this relationship is complicated with both kinship and ambivalence. However, there is little research on the causes of this complexity. This paper proposes a role model to explain this complexity by studying the leadership transition within a family as the child grows. Design/methodology/approach – In this paper, we proposed a novel perception to understand this transition process and explain related problems based on the analysis of the leader-follower relationship between the parents and their children. Findings – When a child is born, his/her parents become the leader of this family because of their abilities, responsibilities and the requirements of the infant. This leader-follower role structure will last a long time in this family. Decades later, when the parents become old and the child grows up, the inter-generational contracts within the family and the requirement of each members change. This transition weakens the foundation of the traditional leader-follower role structure within the family. If either the parent or the child does not want to accept their new roles, both of them will suffer and struggle in this relationship. This role conflict will cause ambivalence in the relationship between aged parents and their adult children. Originality/value – Based on the quantitative study model provided in this paper, we can moderate the relationships between aged parents and their adult children. This effort is meaningful in enhancing the quality of life and emotional wellbeing for senior citizens.

  11. Depression among Migrant and Left-Behind Children in China in Relation to the Quality of Parent-Child and Teacher-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Qu, Zhiyong; Zhou, Qianyun; Ran, Chun; Wang, Xia; Hu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine rates of depression among migrant children (MC) and left-behind children (LBC) as compared to non-left-behind children (NLBC) and also to examine the relationship between depression among these children and the quality of their parent-child and teacher-child relationships. This study collected data from a large sample of 3,759 children aged from 8 to 17 years, including 824 who had been left behind by one parent (LBCO), 423 who had been left behind by both parents (LBCB), 568 MC and 1944 NLBC. Children’s Depression Inventory–Short Form was used to measure child depression. Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS) and Teacher-Child Relationship Scale (TCRS) were used to measure the quality of parent-child and teacher-child relationships, respectively. The results showed that the prevalence of depression was 10.5% among NLBC, 13.1% among LBCO, 16.1% among LBCB, and 20.1% among MC. Depression was related to parent-child relationship quality and teacher-child relationship quality. Negative parent-child relationship was more relevant to depression than negative teacher-child relationship among LBCB, while negative teacher-child relationship was the most correlated with depression among MC. PMID:26719895

  12. Conformity expectations: Differential effects on IVF twins and singletons' parent-child relationships and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Rueter, Martha A; Connor, Jennifer J; Chen, Muzi; Damario, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Increased utilization of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to treat infertility has resulted in a growing twin birthrate. Despite early childhood risks, twins have fewer psychosocial problems in middle childhood than singleton children. This study proposes that parents' conformity expectations for children have differential effects on parent-child relationships for twin and singleton children, which indirectly explains twins' more optimum psychosocial adjustment. Parental conformity expectations, parent-child relationship satisfaction, and children's emotional, behavioral, and attention problems were assessed in a sample of 288 6- to 12-year-old IVF-conceived twins and singletons. Overall, parents of twins had higher expectations for child conformity to parent rules than singleton parents. Path models demonstrate that twin status and parental expectations for child conformity interact to influence parent-child relationships, and this interaction indirectly accounted for differences in twins' and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. Findings suggest parenting constructs have differential influences on the association between twin status and parent-child relationships. Parenting research, predominantly conducted with singletons, should be reexamined before applying existing research to twin children and their families. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Day-to-day Consistency in Positive Parent-Child Interactions and Youth Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Davis, Kelly D; Lawson, Katie M; McHale, Susan M

    2016-12-01

    The frequency of positive parent-child interactions is associated with youth adjustment. Yet, little is known about daily parent-child interactions and how day-to-day consistency in positive parent-child interactions may be linked to youth well-being. Using a daily diary approach, this study added to this literature to investigate whether and how day-to-day consistency in positive parent-child interactions was linked to youth depressive symptoms, risky behavior, and physical health. Participants were youth whose parents were employed in the IT division of a Fortune 500 company ( N = 129, youth's mean age = 13.39, 55 % female), who participated in an 8 day daily diary study. Analyses revealed that, controlling for cross-day mean levels of positive parent-child interactions, older (but not younger) adolescents who experienced more consistency in positive interactions with parents had fewer depressive and physical health symptoms (e.g., colds, flu). The discussion focuses on the utility of daily diary methods for assessing the correlates of consistency in parenting, possible processes underlying these associations, and intervention implications.

  14. Adult Children of Gay Fathers: Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornello, Samantha L; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2018-01-01

    According to family systems theory, parent-child relationships are an important aspect of individual wellbeing. This study explored associations among parental disclosure, parent-child relationships, and wellbeing among 84 adult children with gay fathers. We explored associations between the adult children's wellbeing and the children's ages at sexual orientation disclosure, geographic distance, relationship quality, and closeness with their fathers. We found that when parental disclosure had occurred earlier in the adult child's life, participants reported feeling closer to fathers in adulthood. Those who reported closer relationships with their fathers reported greater wellbeing. Using a stepwise regression, we found that adult children's reports of closeness with fathers were the best predictors of adult children's wellbeing.

  15. Father–Child Longitudinal Relationship: Parental Monitoring and Internet Gaming Disorder in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyuan Su

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although empirical studies have indicated that parents have an important role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents, longitudinal research on the parental predictors of Internet gaming disorder is lacking. We used a three-wave cross-lagged panel model to explore the reciprocal association between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, and examined the different impacts of mother– and father–child relationships on this association. A sample of 1490 adolescents aged 10–15 years (M = 12.03, SD = 1.59; 45.4% female completed assessments at all three points. The cross-lagged model revealed that (a parental monitoring at T1 predicted lower Internet gaming disorder at T2, and greater Internet gaming disorder at T2 predicted lower parental monitoring at T3; (b father–child relationship had a reciprocal, indirect effect on the relationship between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, while mother–child relationship did not. These findings suggest that the parental effects (e.g., higher parental monitoring and better father–child relationship might play a vital role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents.

  16. Father–Child Longitudinal Relationship: Parental Monitoring and Internet Gaming Disorder in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Binyuan; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Su, Qin; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    Although empirical studies have indicated that parents have an important role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents, longitudinal research on the parental predictors of Internet gaming disorder is lacking. We used a three-wave cross-lagged panel model to explore the reciprocal association between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, and examined the different impacts of mother– and father–child relationships on this association. A sample of 1490 adolescents aged 10–15 years (M = 12.03, SD = 1.59; 45.4% female) completed assessments at all three points. The cross-lagged model revealed that (a) parental monitoring at T1 predicted lower Internet gaming disorder at T2, and greater Internet gaming disorder at T2 predicted lower parental monitoring at T3; (b) father–child relationship had a reciprocal, indirect effect on the relationship between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, while mother–child relationship did not. These findings suggest that the parental effects (e.g., higher parental monitoring and better father–child relationship) might play a vital role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents. PMID:29467704

  17. Father-Child Longitudinal Relationship: Parental Monitoring and Internet Gaming Disorder in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Binyuan; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Su, Qin; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    Although empirical studies have indicated that parents have an important role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents, longitudinal research on the parental predictors of Internet gaming disorder is lacking. We used a three-wave cross-lagged panel model to explore the reciprocal association between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, and examined the different impacts of mother- and father-child relationships on this association. A sample of 1490 adolescents aged 10-15 years ( M = 12.03, SD = 1.59; 45.4% female) completed assessments at all three points. The cross-lagged model revealed that (a) parental monitoring at T1 predicted lower Internet gaming disorder at T2, and greater Internet gaming disorder at T2 predicted lower parental monitoring at T3; (b) father-child relationship had a reciprocal, indirect effect on the relationship between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, while mother-child relationship did not. These findings suggest that the parental effects (e.g., higher parental monitoring and better father-child relationship) might play a vital role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents.

  18. Authoritarian Child Rearing, Parental Locus of Control, and the Child's Behavior Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…

  19. Parental Reflective Functioning: An Approach to Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships in Pediatric Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Monica Roosa; Webb, Denise; Sadler, Lois S; Slade, Arietta

    2015-01-01

    The current state of science suggests that safe, responsive, and nurturing parent-child relationships early in children's lives promotes healthy brain and child development and protection against lifelong disease by reducing toxic stress and promoting foundational social-emotional health. Pediatric health care providers (HCPs) have a unique opportunity to foster these relationships. However, such a role requires a shift in pediatric health care from a focus only on children to one that includes families and communities, as well as the inclusion of children's social and emotional health with their physical health. To foster healthy parent-child relationships, HCPs must develop the expertise to integrate approaches that support the family's socioemotional health into pediatric primary care. This article suggests ways in which pediatric HCPs can integrate a focus on parental reflective functioning into their clinical work, helping parents to understand some of the thoughts and feelings that underlie their children's behavior. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Do Historical Changes in Parent-Child Relationships Explain Increases in Youth Conduct Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collishaw, Stephan; Gardner, Frances; Maughan, Barbara; Scott, Jacqueline; Pickles, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The coincidence of historical trends in youth antisocial behavior and change in family demographics has led to speculation of a causal link, possibly mediated by declining quality of parenting and parent-child relationships. No study to date has directly assessed whether and how parenting and parent-child relationships have changed. Two national…

  1. High-risk diagnosis, social stress, and parent-child relationships: A moderation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Eryn; Millman, Zachary B; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Kline, Emily; Pitts, Steven C; DeVylder, Jordan E; Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Stress is related to symptom severity among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, although this relation may be influenced by protective factors. We explored whether the association of CHR diagnosis with social stress is moderated by the quality of parent-child relationships in a sample of 96 (36 CHR; 60 help-seeking controls) adolescents and young adults receiving mental health services. We examined self-reported social stress and parent-child relationships as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2), and determined CHR status from the clinician-administered Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndrome (SIPS). The social stress subscale, part of the clinical domain of the BASC-2, assesses feelings of stress and tension in personal relationships and the relations with parents subscale, part of the adaptive domain of the BASC-2, assesses perceptions of importance in family and quality of parent-child relationship. There was a modest direct relation between risk diagnosis and social stress. Among those at CHR, however, there was a significant relation between parent-child relationships and social stress (b=-0.73, t[92]=-3.77, psocial stress for those at risk for psychosis. Findings provide additional evidence to suggest that interventions that simultaneously target both social stress and parent-child relationships might be relevant for adolescents and young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In Sync and in Control: A Meta-Analysis of Parent-Child Positive Behavioral Synchrony and Youth Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    A growing body of research has highlighted the connection between parent-child positive behavioral synchrony and youth self-regulation; however, this association has yet to be the focus of a meta-analytic review. Therefore, the present meta-analysis aimed to estimate the magnitude of the relation between parent-child positive behavioral synchrony and youth self-regulation and to identify moderator variables that can explain the variability in the degree of this association across the extant literature. A thorough literature search of two major databases, in addition to scanning the reference sections of relevant articles, yielded a total of 10 peer-reviewed articles (24 effect sizes, 658 children) that were eligible for inclusion in the current meta-analysis. Results from the overall mean effect size calculation using a random-effects model indicated that parent-child positive behavioral synchrony was significantly, positively correlated with youth self-regulation and the effect size was medium. Children's ages at the time of synchrony and self-regulation measurements, as well as parent gender, served as significant moderator variables. Findings from the present meta-analysis can help to refine existing theoretical models on the role of the parent-child relationship in youth adjustment. Prevention and intervention efforts may benefit from an increased emphasis on building parent-child positive behavioral synchrony to promote youth self-regulation and thus children's overall well-being. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  3. Parental discipline behaviours and beliefs about their child: associations with child internalizing and mediation relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskey, B J; Cartwright-Hatton, S

    2009-09-01

    Internalizing disorders of childhood are a common and disabling problem, with sufferers at increased risk of subsequent psychiatric morbidity. Several studies have found associations between parenting styles and children's internalizing, although few have considered the role of parental discipline. Parental discipline style may exert an effect on children's internalizing symptoms. Anxiety and depression are reliably found to run in families and parental anxiety has been shown to effect parenting behaviour. This study set out to examine the links between parental anxiety, parental discipline style and child internalizing symptoms. Eighty-eight parents of children aged 4-10 years were recruited through primary schools. All parents completed questionnaires including measures relating to: adult anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait version, Penn State Worry Questionnaire), parental depression (Beck Depression Inventory - Fastscreen), parental discipline (The Parenting Scale), parenting-related attributions (Parenting Attitudes, Beliefs and Cognitions Scale) and child psychological morbidity (Child Behaviour Checklist 4-18 version). Significant correlations were found between both parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with ineffective discipline and negative beliefs about parenting. Particularly strong correlations were found between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms with harsh discipline. Parents of anxious/withdrawn children were more likely to hold negative beliefs about their child. The link between parental anxiety and child internalizing symptoms was mediated by harsh discipline. The link between parental anxiety and harsh discipline was mediated by parental beliefs about the child. Discipline style may be an important factor in the relationship between parent anxiety and child internalizing symptoms.

  4. Early Childhood Education and Care Educators Supporting Parent-Child Relationships: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Amanda; Nolan, Andrea; Bergmeier, Heidi; Hooley, Merrilyn; Olsson, Craig; Cann, Warren; Williams-Smith, Janet; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Building strong relationships between children and parents is vital for children's social and emotional development. A majority of children attend early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings where they experience a range of relationships (educator-child, educator-parent, parent-child). Educators build relationships with children and…

  5. Bidirectional Links and Concurrent Development of Parent-Child Relationships and Boys’ Offending Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined different types of longitudinal associations (i.e., directional links and overlapping developmental changes) between children’s delinquency and the quality of parent-child relationships from middle childhood to late adolescence. We used 10-wave interview data of 503 boys, their primary caregivers, and their teachers. Our first aim was to unravel the direction of effects between parent-child relationships and children’s offending. Cross-lagged panel models revealed bidirectional links over time between poorer quality parent-child relationships and boys’ offending across late childhood (age 7–10), early adolescence (age 10–13) and middle adolescence (age 13–16). Second, we examined the associations between mean changes in delinquency, on the one hand, and mean changes in relationship quality, on the other hand. Although parent-child relationships improved during childhood, their quality decreased in early adolescence and remained stable in middle adolescence. Delinquency increased only in middle adolescence. In 5 out of 6 models, the slope factors of relationship quality and offending were strongly correlated, indicating that stronger increases in delinquency were associated with stronger decreases in parent-child relationship quality across childhood, early adolescence, and middle adolescence. The discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of these two types of longitudinal associations. PMID:21842967

  6. First child's impact on parental relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina; Mogensen, Ole; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    about how life together as a couple changed. At the same time, some experienced more conflicts with their partner than before giving birth, however, the majority did actually not. More than half felt their relationship linked to 'something bigger than themselves' or had had dreams on being a family......Background: The first child's birth is for most mothers a profound experience carrying the potential to change life orientations and values. However, little is known of how becoming a mother influences the existential dimensions of life within the parental relationship for example how motherhood...... may change how we view our partner and what we find important. The aim of this study was to explore how becoming a mother might change the parental relationship seen from the mother's perspective with a specific focus on dimensions related to existential meaning-making. Methods: In 2011, 499 Danish...

  7. Intergenerational support, satisfaction with parent-child relationship and elderly parents' life satisfaction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chenhong; Kwok, Chi Leung; Law, Yik Wa; Yip, Paul S F; Cheng, Qijin

    2018-01-22

    This study examines in what exchange patterns that three types of intergenerational support are associated with elderly parents' life satisfaction, and whether elderly parents' evaluation on parent-child relationship plays a mediation role on those associations. Data were drawn from Hong Kong Panel Survey for Poverty Alleviation. Respondents aged 65 and over were included ( N=504). Three types of support, namely, daily-living, financial, and emotional support were examined in four patterns-the over-benefited , under-benefited , reciprocal and no flow of exchange. A multivariable linear regression was applied to investigate the association between pattern of intergenerational exchange and life satisfaction, and mediation analysis was employed to examine the mediating role of satisfaction with parent-child relationship on their associations. Elderly parents were less satisfied with their lives when they had no flow of exchange in daily-living support, and more satisfied when they were under-benefited in financial support, and over-benefited or reciprocal in emotional support. Elderly parents' satisfaction with parent-child relationship mediated the association between exchange of emotional support and life satisfaction; but not the association between daily-living or financial support and life satisfaction. Different types of intergenerational support are associated with elderly parents' life satisfaction in different patterns.

  8. Relationship Between Parents and Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Ongider

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Parents play a key role in the emotional development of child especially in preschool age. There are many related factors in the relationship of child and parent. It is important to understand children’s subjective experiences with their parents. Temperamental characteristics of the mother have an important role to play in the quality of this relationship. Most parents desire to have deep, intimate relationships between their children. Also, children need emo-tional closeness, safety and security. Attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between child and primary caregiver. The secure attachment style increases the emotional development of child positively and it may serve as a protective factor for psychological well-being. Children’s well-being often depends on how children perceive or interpret their parents behaviors. Poor parenting practices represent some of the most risk factors for psychological problems in childhood. There are many research results show that correlation between the parental negative attitudes and the psychopathology of the children. The present study aimed to review the relationship between parent and preschool children.

  9. Parent-child interaction: Does parental language matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2016-11-01

    Although parental language and behaviour have been widely investigated, few studies have examined their unique and interactive contribution to the parent-child relationship. The current study explores how parental behaviour (sensitivity and non-intrusiveness) and the use of parental language (exploring and control languages) correlate with parent-child dyadic mutuality. Specifically, we investigated the following questions: (1) 'Is parental language associated with parent-child dyadic mutuality above and beyond parental behaviour?' (2) 'Does parental language moderate the links between parental behaviour and the parent-child dyadic mutuality?' (3) 'Do these differences vary between mothers and fathers?' The sample included 65 children (M age  = 1.97 years, SD = 0.86) and their parents. We observed parental behaviour, parent-child dyadic mutuality, and the type of parental language used during videotaped in-home observations. The results indicated that parental language and behaviours are distinct components of the parent-child interaction. Parents who used higher levels of exploring language showed higher levels of parent-child dyadic mutuality, even when accounting for parental behaviour. Use of controlling language, however, was not found to be related to the parent-child dyadic mutuality. Different moderation models were found for mothers and fathers. These results highlight the need to distinguish parental language and behaviour when assessing their contribution to the parent-child relationship. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Observed Parent-Child Relationship Quality Predicts Antibody Response to Vaccination in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Wang, Hongyue; Moynihan, Jan A; Wyman, Peter A.; Carnahan, Jennifer; Lofthus, Gerry; Quataert, Sally A.; Bowman, Melissa; Burke, Anne S.; Caserta, Mary T

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality of the parent-child relationship is a robust predictor of behavioral and emotional health for children and adolescents; the application to physical health is less clear. Methods We investigated the links between observed parent-child relationship quality in an interaction task and antibody response to meningococcal conjugate vaccine in a longitudinal study of 164 ambulatory 10-11 year-old children; additional analyses examine associations with cortisol reactivity, BMI, and somatic illness. Results Observed negative/conflict behavior in the interaction task predicted a less robust antibody response to meningococcal serotype C vaccine in the child over a 6 month-period, after controlling for socio-economic and other covariates. Observer rated interaction conflict also predicted increased cortisol reactivity following the interaction task and higher BMI, but these factors did not account for the link between relationship quality and antibody response. Conclusions The results begin to document the degree to which a major source of child stress exposure, parent-child relationship conflict, is associated with altered immune system development in children, and may constitute an important public health consideration. PMID:25862953

  11. The Effectiveness of Parent-Child Play Therapy on Decreasing Depression Symptoms in Children with Cancer, Decreasing Perceived Stress on Their Mothers and Improving Parent-Child Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    رویا سادات علویان

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study, aimed to assess the effect of parent-child play therapy on decreasing depression symptoms in children with cancer, decreasing perceived stress of their mothers and improving the parent-child relationship. A total of 14 children diagnosed with cancer were selected, among the patients of Dr. Sheikh Hospital in the city of Mashhad, and randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control. Mothers completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS and the Parent-Child Relationship Scale (PCRS, the children completed the Child Depression Inventory (CDI, both in pre-test and post-test. Eight sessions of parent-child play therapy were adminstered separately for every pair of mother-child from intervention group. Data were analyzed by using analysis of covariance. Compared to the control group, CDI scores of intervention group reduced significantly from pre to post test. Also scores of PCRS increased significantly for the intervention group. PSS Scores of intervention groups was not significantly different from control group. As a result, parent-child play therapy can be effective in reducing depression symptoms of children with cancer, and improving the parent-child relationship; while, it was not effective for reducing mothers' level of perceived stress.

  12. Parent-Child Communication and Parental Involvement in Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Cardemil, Esteban V.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the associations among parent-child relationship characteristics, acculturation and enculturation, and child externalizing symptoms in a sample of 40 Latino parent-adolescent dyads. Specifically, the associations between parent-child relationship characteristics (i.e., communication and parental involvement) and adolescents'…

  13. A Play Therapy Approach Focusing on Parent-Child Relationship: Filial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Filial therapy is a structured, short-term, and evidence-based play therapy model that aims to train and supervise parents in conducting child-centered play therapy sessions with their children. Filial therapy strengthens the relationship among all family members -in particular the relationship between the parent and the child- and helps parents acquire new and effective parenting skills. Thus parents gain a powerful tool to cope with the difficulties they experience even after therapy sessions end. In this review, filial therapy is explained within the context of its theoretical background and therapy process. Several adaptations of the model and research studies on its effectiveness are also discussed briefly. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 208-220

  14. Identifying Moderators of the Link Between Parent and Child Anxiety Sensitivity: The Roles of Gender, Positive Parenting, and Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rebecca A; Weems, Carl F

    2015-07-01

    A substantial body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor for the development of anxiety problems and research has now begun to examine the links between parenting, parent anxiety sensitivity and their child's anxiety sensitivity. However, the extant literature has provided mixed findings as to whether parent anxiety sensitivity is associated with child anxiety sensitivity, with some evidence suggesting that other factors may influence the association. Theoretically, specific parenting behaviors may be important to the development of child anxiety sensitivity and also in understanding the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. In this study, 191 families (n = 255 children and adolescents aged 6-17 and their parents) completed measures of child anxiety sensitivity (CASI) and parenting (APQ-C), and parents completed measures of their own anxiety sensitivity (ASI) and their parenting (APQ-P). Corporal punishment was associated with child anxiety sensitivity and the child's report of their parent's positive parenting behaviors moderated the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. The child's gender was also found to moderate the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity, such that there was a positive association between girls' and their parents anxiety sensitivity and a negative association in boys. The findings advance the understanding of child anxiety sensitivity by establishing a link with corporal punishment and by showing that the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity may depend upon the parenting context and child's gender.

  15. The mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Elisabeth M; Frankel, Leslie A; Hernandez, Daphne C

    2017-06-01

    Emotional eating, or eating in response to negative emotions rather than internal hunger cues, has been related to many maladaptive eating patterns that contribute to weight gain and obesity. The parent feeding practice of use of food as a reward is positively associated with children emotionally overeating, yet, little is known as to the potential behavioral mechanism linking these behaviors. The current study examined the mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating. Parents of preschool aged children (n = 254) completed online questionnaires targeting parent feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and child self-regulation in eating. Mediation was assessed with Hayes' PROCESS macros in SPSS. Results demonstrated that the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating was partially mediated by child self-regulation in eating, even after controlling for parent and child gender, household income, and race/ethnicity. In summary, parental use of food as a reward leads to children's diminished ability to regulate intake, which then leads to increased emotional over eating. Results of this study have implications for both the prevention of disordered eating behaviors and childhood obesity prevention programs, suggesting the need to assist children in learning how to self-regulate in the presence of food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancing Parent-Child Relationship through Dialogic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganotice, Fraide A., Jr.; Downing, Kevin; Mak, Teresa; Chan, Barbara; Lee, Wai Yip

    2017-01-01

    Dialogic reading (DR) has been identified as an effective strategy for enhancing children's literacy skills in Western and Asian contexts. Given that storytelling is a shared experience between adults and children, parent-child relationships is hypothesised to be enhanced by DR. Despite this possibility, there has been no systematic attempt to…

  17. And still WE rise: Parent-child relationships, resilience, and school readiness in low-income urban Black families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Riana Elyse

    2018-02-01

    The Family Stress Model acknowledges forms of resilience in the face of hardship; however, few studies have emerged on the potentially positive role of familial relationships in the academic, psychological, and prosocial success of impoverished Black children. The current study evaluates how parent-child relationship conflict and financial stress are associated with children's school readiness (i.e., academic, psychosocial, and socioemotional indicators). Latent profile analyses, incorporating financial stress, general stress, and parent-child relationship variables were used to test whether varying family stress profiles differentially predicted children's school readiness in Black families with children entering kindergarten (N = 292). Findings revealed 4 latent classifications with profiles of low, moderate, moderate/high, and high/moderate stress and conflict variables, respectively. Whereas the low-profile was associated with the most desirable school readiness indicators overall, children in the high/moderate-profile were rated as significantly more psychosocially and socioemotionally prepared for school than their moderate/high-profile counterparts. Families with less conflictual parent-child relationships had more optimal school readiness relative to families with higher conflict and less financial strain. The findings of the current study have the potential to contribute to theories of poverty and parent-child relationships, as well as guide therapeutic services focused on family relationships through school- and community-related programs for impoverished urban Black youth and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Sibling Relationships: Parent-Child Agreement and Contributions of Siblings with and without ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconnier, Megan L.; Coffman, Marika C.; Kelso, Nicole; Wolf, Julie M.

    2018-01-01

    Research on the experiences of siblings of individuals with ASD and the quality of their sibling relationships has yielded mixed results. The present study examined the significance of parent- versus child-report of both positive and negative behaviors exhibited by siblings and their brothers and sisters with ASD within sibling dyads. Findings…

  19. Meeting on Common Ground: Assessing Parent-Child Relationships through the Joint Painting Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavron, Tami

    2013-01-01

    A basic assumption in psychotherapy with children is that the parent-child relationship is central to the child's development. This article describes the Joint Painting Procedure, an art-based assessment for evaluating relationships with respect to the two main developmental tasks of middle childhood: (a) the parent's ability to monitor and…

  20. The parent-coach/child-athlete relationship in youth sport: cordial, contentious, or conundrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Maureen R; Fretwell, Susan D

    2005-09-01

    The roles of coach and parent are often synonymous in youth sport, but little data-based research has been conducted on the parent-coach/child-athlete relationship. Six boys in U-12 competitive soccer were interviewed regarding positive and negative aspects about playing for their father-coach. Similar questions were posed to father-coaches and two teammates. Inductive content analysis indicated that, among the benefits, sons identified perks, praise, technical instruction, understanding of ability level, insider information, involvement in decision making, special attention, quality time, and motivation. Costs of being coached by one's father included negative emotional responses, pressure/expectations, conflict, lack of understanding/empathy, criticism for mistakes, and unfair behavior. For father-coaches, positive themes included taking pride in son's achievements, reason for coaching, positive social interactions, opportunity to teach skills and values, enjoying coaching son, and quality time. Negatives included inability to separate parent-child from coach-player role, placing greater expectations and pressure on son, and showing differential attention toward son. While teammates perceived some favoritism by the parent-coach, they cited mostly positive instructional experiences. Results are discussed within motivational theories that highlight the influence of significant adults on children's psychosocial development in the physical domain.

  1. When inflammation and depression go together: The longitudinal effects of parent-child relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Leslie G; Ehrlich, Katherine; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A

    2017-12-01

    Parent-child relationships have long-term effects on health, particularly later inflammation and depression. We hypothesized that these effects would be mediated by later romantic partner relationships and elevated stressors in young adulthood, helping promote chronic, low grade, inflammation as well as depressive symptoms, and driving their covariation. It has been proposed recently that youth experiencing harsher parenting may also develop a stronger association between inflammation and depressive symptoms in adulthood and altered effects of stressors on outcomes. In the current investigation, we test these ideas using an 18-year longitudinal study of N = 413 African American youth that provides assessment of the parent-child relationship (at age 10), pro-inflammatory cytokine profile and depressive symptoms (at age 28), and potential mediators in early young adulthood (assessed at ages 21 and 24). As predicted, the effect of harsher parent-child relationships (age 10) on pro-inflammatory state and increased depressive symptoms at age 28 were fully mediated through young adult stress and romantic partner relationships. In addition, beyond these mediated effects, parent-child relationships at age 10 moderated the concurrent association between inflammation and depressive symptoms, as well as the prospective association between romantic partner relationships and inflammation, and resulted in substantially different patterns of indirect effects from young adult mediators to outcomes. The results support theorizing that the association of depression and inflammation in young adulthood is conditional on earlier parenting, and suggest incorporating this perspective into models predicting long-term health outcomes.

  2. The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Parental Intelligence and Child Behavior Problems in a Study of Korean Preschool Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Yoon

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…

  3. Impressions That Last: Particularly Negative and Positive Experiences Reported by Parents Five Years after the End of a Child's Successful Cancer Treatment or Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ljungman

    Full Text Available To describe the experience of parenting a child diagnosed with cancer by examining particularly negative and positive experiences reported by parents of childhood cancer survivors and parents of children lost to cancer.168 parents (88 mothers, 80 fathers participated. Data were collected five years after the end of successful treatment or the child's death. The parents' experiences were identified by open-ended semi-structured questions about particularly negative and positive experiences of the child's cancer. An inductive approach was used in which the manifest verbal content of the answers was analysed using content analysis.The analysis revealed eight categories of negative experience (child late effects; distressing events; healthcare; impaired relationships; long-term psychological consequences; own reactions; surrounding institutions; the fact that the child got cancer and seven categories of positive experience (healthcare; improved relationships; long-term consequences for the child; personal development; support systems; treatment outcome; unexpected joy. The categories were related to past events or to the present situation. The findings indicate variations in experiences between parents of survivors and bereaved parents, and between fathers and mothers, as some experiences were only reported by parents of survivors and some experiences were only reported by mothers.The results highlight the importance of past and present events to parents, and accordingly the long-lasting impact of paediatric cancer on parents. The results also point to the wide range of negative as well as positive experiences involved in parenting a child diagnosed with cancer, and provide a comprehensive understanding of the overall experience for parents of children with cancer. Specifically, the findings give guidance to healthcare providers by illustrating the need to provide healthcare personnel with continuous training in communication skills, offering

  4. Work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality: The mediating role of temporal involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.; Lippe, A.G. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the amount and nature of parent-child time mediated the association between parental work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality. We based hypotheses on the conflict and enrichment approaches, and we tested a path model using self-collected data on

  5. Work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality : the mediating role of temporal involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, A.; Lippe, T. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the amount and nature of parent-child time mediated the association between parental work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality. We based hypotheses on the conflict and enrichment approaches, and we tested a path model using self-collected data on

  6. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective.

  7. Faranak Parent-Child Mother Goose Program: Impact on Mother-Child Relationship for Mothers of Preschool Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogayeh Koohi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: The Frank parent-child Mother Goose program could help families with hearing-impaired children in this 12-week community-based program, wherein parents learned skills that affect the relationship between mother and child.

  8. Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCARE): A Randomized Trial of a Parent Training for Child Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; French, Benjamin; Berkowitz, Steven J; Dougherty, Susan L; Scribano, Philip V; Wood, Joanne N

    Child-Adult Relationship Enhancement in Primary Care (PriCARE) is a 6-session group parent training designed to teach positive parenting skills. Our objective was to measure PriCARE's impact on child behavior and parenting attitudes. Parents of children 2 to 6 years old with behavior concerns were randomized to PriCARE (n = 80) or control (n = 40). Child behavior and parenting attitudes were measured at baseline (0 weeks), program completion (9 weeks), and 7 weeks after program completion (16 weeks) using the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) and the Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory 2 (AAPI2). Linear regression models compared mean ECBI and AAPI2 change scores from 0 to 16 weeks in the PriCARE and control groups, adjusted for baseline scores. Of those randomized to PriCARE, 43% attended 3 or more sessions. Decreases in mean ECBI intensity and problem scores between 0 and 16 weeks were greater in the PriCARE group, reflecting a larger improvement in behavior problems [intensity: -22 (-29, -16) vs -7 (-17, 2), P = .012; problem: -5 (-7, -4) vs -2 (-4, 0), P = .014]. Scores on 3 of the 5 AAPI2 subscales reflected greater improvements in parenting attitudes in the PriCARE group compared to control in the following areas: empathy toward children's needs [0.82 (0.51, 1.14) vs 0.25 (-0.19, 0.70), P = .04], corporal punishment [0.22 (0.00, 0.45) vs -0.30 (-0.61, 0.02), P = .009], and power and independence [0.37 (-0.02, 0.76) vs -0.64 (-1.19, -0.09), P = .003]. PriCARE shows promise in improving parent-reported child-behavior problems in preschool-aged children and increasing positive parenting attitudes. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parenting and the Family Check-Up: Changes in Observed Parent-Child Interaction Following Early Childhood Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Gill, Anne; Dishion, Thomas; Winter, Charlotte; Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Coercion theory posits a cyclical relationship between harsh and coercive parent-child interactions and problem behavior beginning in early childhood. As coercive interactions have been theorized and found to facilitate the development and growth of early conduct problems, early interventions often target parenting to prevent or reduce early disruptive problem behavior. This study utilizes direct observations of parent-child interactions from the Early Steps Multisite study (N = 731; 369 boys) to examine the effect of the Family Check-Up, a family-centered intervention program, on measures of parent-child positive engagement and coercion from age 2 through 5, as well as on childhood problem behavior at age 5. Results indicate that high levels of parent-child positive engagement were associated with less parent-child coercion the following year, but dyadic coercion was unrelated to future levels of positive engagement. In addition, families assigned to the Family Check-Up showed increased levels of positive engagement at ages 3 and 5, and the association between positive engagement at age 3 and child problem behavior at age 5 was mediated by reductions in parent-child coercion at age 4. These findings provide longitudinal confirmation that increasing positive engagement in parent-child interaction can reduce the likelihood of coercive family dynamics in early childhood and growth in problem behavior.

  10. A Study of the Relationship of Parenting Styles, Child Temperament, and Operatory Behavior in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Amanda K; Wilson, Stephen; Thikkurissy, S

    2018-05-11

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of the child's temperament, parenting styles, and parents' prediction of their child's behavior in the dental setting. Subjects were healthy children 4-12 years of age attending a dental clinic. A Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) was given to parents to determine their parenting style. Parents completed the Emotionality, Activity, Sociability Temperament (EAS) survey to measure their child's temperament. Parents were asked to predict their child's behavior using the Frankl Scale. Data analysis included 113 parent/child dyads. Parents accurately predicted their child's behavior 58% of the time. Significant correlations were noted between parent's predictions of behavior and emotionality (r = -.497, p behavior and emotionality (r = -.586, p Parenting style scores did not correlate to predicted or actual behavior; however, categories of PSDQ were related to parental predictions of behavior. Relationships between temperament and parenting may aid in predicting children's behavior in the operatory.

  11. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Hyatt Raymond R; Goldberg Jeanne P; Hughes Sheryl O; Hennessy Erin; Economos Christina D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and ...

  12. Parenting and the parent-child relationship in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities and externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiringa, Hilde; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between parenting behavior, the parent-child relationship, and externalizing child behavior in families of children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (MBID). The families of a child with MBID and accompanying externalizing behavior

  13. Work Characteristics and Parent-Child Relationship Quality: The Mediating Role of Temporal Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Anne; Van Der Lippe, Tanja; Kluwer, Esther S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether the amount and nature of parent-child time mediated the association between parental work characteristics and parent-child relationship quality. We based hypotheses on the conflict and enrichment approaches, and we tested a path model using self-collected data on 1,008 Dutch fathers and 929 Dutch mothers with…

  14. Examination on Validity of Mothers' Parenting Skills Scale: The Relationship among Scale for Mother's Cognitive and Affective Attitudes on Adolescent and Mother's parenting Attitude toward Adolescent Child

    OpenAIRE

    渡邉, 賢二; 平石, 賢二; WATANABE, Kenji; HIRAISHI, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of parenting skills scale, and the relationship among the parenting skills scale and scale for mother's cognitive and affective attitudes on adolescent and mother's parenting attitude toward adolescent child. 3 subscales of the parenting skills were positively related to "positive cognition and affection" and negatively related to "negative cognition and affection." They were negatively related to "sense of uncertainly" and positively rela...

  15. Positive Child Rearing Practices: Parents training for reduce bullying

    OpenAIRE

    González, Brenda; Cabrera, Francisco; Martínez, Kalina

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a positive child rearing program with parents for reducing bullying and incrementing pro-social behavior of their children. Participants were eight couples and two single parents of 10 children identified as bullies. Half of the parents were assigned to a control group and the other half were trained to identify aggressive and pro-social behaviors of their children, as well as their antecedents and consequences. During eight weekly sessions pa...

  16. Child Perfectionism and its Relationship with Personality, Excessive Parental Demands, Depressive Symptoms and Experience of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Laura B; Iuorno, Ornella; Serppe, Mónica

    2017-02-13

    While adaptive perfectionism ensures good overall performance, maladaptive perfectionism is associated with emotional disorders for which psychological treatment is sought. There are many factors that can explain the development of this disorder throughout childhood. The present study analyzed to what extent the child's personality traits and excessive parental demands can predict maladaptive perfectionism, and, in turn, also analyzed how this relates to positive emotions and depressive symptoms in a sample of 404 Argentinian children (M age = 10.30; SD = 1.03). Stepwise multiple regression analyses and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed. Results showed that excessive parental demands, together with high child neuroticism increased the likelihood of developing perfectionism (p children's mental health.

  17. Effects of a Workplace Intervention on Parent-Child Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M; Davis, Kelly D; Green, Kaylin; Casper, Lynne; Kan, Marni L; Kelly, Erin L; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Okechukwu, Cassandra

    2016-02-01

    This study tested whether effects of a workplace intervention, aimed at promoting employees' schedule control and supervisor support for personal and family life, had implications for parent-adolescent relationships; we also tested whether parent-child relationships differed as a function of how many intervention program sessions participants attended. Data came from a group randomized trial of a workplace intervention, delivered in the information technology division of a Fortune 500 company. Analyses focused on 125 parent-adolescent dyads that completed baseline and 12-month follow-up home interviews. Results revealed no main effects of the intervention, but children of employees who attended 75% or more program sessions reported more time with their parent and more parent education involvement compared to adolescents whose parents attended less than 75% of sessions, and they tended to report more time with parent and more parental solicitation of information about their experiences compared to adolescents whose parents were randomly assigned to the usual practice condition.

  18. EARLY POSTPARTUM PARENTAL PREOCCUPATION AND POSITIVE PARENTING THOUGHTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENT-INFANT INTERACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Mayes, Linda; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F; Swain, James E

    2013-01-01

    Parenting behaviors and parent-infant emotional bonding during the early postpartum months play a critical role in infant development. However, the nature and progression of parental thoughts and their relationship with interactive behaviors have received less research. The current study investigated the trajectory of parental thoughts and behaviors among primiparous mothers ( n = 18) and fathers ( n = 15) and multiparous mothers ( n = 13) and fathers ( n = 13), which were measured at the first and third postpartum month. At the third postpartum month, the relationship between parental thoughts and parental interactive behaviors also was tested. Mothers and fathers showed high levels of preoccupations and caregiving thoughts during the first postpartum month that significantly declined by the third postpartum month. In contrast, positive thoughts about parenting and the infant increased over the same time interval. Mothers presented higher levels of preoccupations and positive thoughts than did fathers, and first-time parents reported more intense preoccupations than did experienced parents. Although maternal sensitivity was inversely related to maternal anxious thoughts, paternal sensitivity was predicted by higher levels of anxious as well as caregiving and positive thoughts.

  19. Parent-child relationship of directly measured physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mâsse Louise C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on parent-child correlations of physical activity have been mixed. Few studies have examined concurrent temporal patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in parents and children using direct measures. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child activity correlations by gender, day of week, and time of day, using accelerometers - a method for direct assessment of physical activity. Methods Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity and sedentary time in 45 fathers, 45 mothers and their children (23 boys, 22 girls, mean age 9.9 years over the course of 4 days (Thursday - Sunday. Participants were instructed to wear accelerometers for 24 hours per day. Data from accelerometers were aggregated into waking hours on weekdays and weekends (6:00 am to midnight and weekday after-school hours (3:00 - 7:00 pm. Results Across the 4 days, the mean minutes per day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA for fathers was 30.0 (s.d. = 17.3, for mothers was 30.1 (s.d. = 20.1 and for children was 145.47 (s.d. = 51.64. Mothers' and fathers' minutes of MVPA and minutes of sedentary time were positively correlated with child physical activity and sedentary time (all ps Conclusions Greater parental MVPA was associated with increased child MVPA. In addition, having two parents with higher levels of MVPA was associated with greater levels of activity in children. Sedentary time in children was not as strongly correlated with that of their parents. Findings lend support to the notion that to increase childhood activity levels it may be fruitful to improve physical activity among parents.

  20. Parental Incarceration and Child Mortality in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. Methods. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. Conclusions. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent. PMID:24432916

  1. Positive Parenting and Children’s Prosocial Behavior in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Research supports the beneficial role of prosocial behaviors on children’s adjustment and successful youth development. Empirical studies point to reciprocal relations between negative parenting and children’s maladjustment, but reciprocal relations between positive parenting and children’s prosocial behavior are understudied. In the present study reciprocal relations between two different dimensions of positive parenting (quality of the mother-child relationship and the use of balanced positive discipline) and children’s prosocial behavior were examined in Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Method Mother-child dyads (N = 1105) provided data over 2 years in 2 waves (Mage of child in wave 1 = 9.31 years, SD = .73; 50% female). Results A model of reciprocal relations between parenting dimensions, but not among parenting and children’s prosocial behavior, emerged. In particular, children with higher levels of prosocial behavior at age 9 elicited higher levels of mother-child relationship quality in the following year. Conclusions Findings yielded similar relations across countries, evidencing that being prosocial in late childhood contributes to some degree to the enhancement of a nurturing and involved mother-child relationship in countries that vary widely on sociodemographic profiles and psychological characteristics. Policy and intervention implications of this study are discussed. PMID:26511201

  2. Parenting stress in parents of children with cochlear implants: relationships among parent stress, child language, and unilateral versus bilateral implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarant, Julia; Garrard, Philippa

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been focused on stress levels of parents of children with cochlear implants (CIs). This study examined the stress experience of 70 parents of children with CIs by comparing stress levels in this group of parents to those in parents of children without disabilities, identifying primary stressors, examining the relationship between parent stress and child language, and comparing stress in parents of children with bilateral and unilateral CIs. Parents completed a parent stress questionnaire, and the receptive vocabulary and language abilities of the children were evaluated. Results indicated that these parents had a higher incidence of stress than the normative population. Parent stress levels and child language outcomes were negatively correlated. Child behavior and lack of spousal and social support were the prime causes of parent stress. Parents of children with bilateral CIs were significantly less stressed than were parents of children with unilateral CIs.

  3. Welcoming expertise: Bereaved parents' perceptions of the parent-healthcare provider relationship when a critically ill child is admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashleigh E; Copnell, Beverley; Hall, Helen

    2017-11-15

    Entering the paediatric intensive care unit with a critically ill child is a stressful experience for parents. In addition to fearing for their child's well-being, parents must navigate both a challenging environment and numerous new relationships with healthcare staff. How parents form relationships with staff and how they perceive both their own and the healthcare providers' roles in this early stage of their paediatric intensive care journey is currently unknown. This paper explores bereaved parents' perceptions of their role and their relationships with healthcare providers when their child is admitted to the intensive care unit, as part of a larger study exploring their experiences when their child dies in intensive care. A constructivist grounded theory approach was utilised to recruit 26 bereaved parents from 4 Australian intensive care units. Parents participated in audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews lasting 90-150min. All data were analysed using the constant comparative analysis processes, supported by theoretical memos. Upon admission, parents viewed healthcare providers as experts, both of their child's medical care and of the hospital system. This expertise was welcomed, with the parent-healthcare provider relationship developing around the child's need for medical care. Parents engaged in 2 key behaviours in their relationships with staff: prioritising survival, and learning 'the system'. Within each of these behaviours are several subcategories, including 'Stepping back', 'Accepting restrictions' and 'Deferring to medical advice'. The relationships between parents and staff shift and change across the child's admission and subsequent death in the paediatric intensive care unit. However, upon admission, this relationship centres around the child's potential survival and their need for medical care, and the parent's recognition of the healthcare staff as experts of both the child's care and the hospital system. Copyright © 2017 Australian

  4. Residential Arrangements and Children's School Engagement: The Role of the Parent-Child Relationship and Selection Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Nele; Sodermans, An Katrien; Matthijs, Koen

    2017-01-01

    The increase in shared residential arrangements is driven by the belief that it is in the best interest of the child. The maintenance of contact between child and parents can mitigate negative consequences of separation. However, selection mechanisms may account for a positive relationship between shared residential arrangements and child…

  5. [Alienation of a child from one parent in divorce situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2010-01-01

    Alienation of a child from one parent refers to the behavior of the parent in a divorce situation in a manner essentially complicating or in some cases completely breaking the interrelationship between the child and the other parent. The process occurs in situations where the separation was preceded by a normal and positively affective relationship between the alienated parent and the child without any indication of the parent being prejudicial to the child. This behavior in usually motivated by hatred and animosity felt by the alienator against the other part.

  6. The Relationship Among Socioeconomic Status, Home Environment, Parent Involvement, Child Self Concept and Child Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, Dennis A.

    The relationship among socio-economic status, sibling variables, social-psychological home environment, parent involvement in intervention programs, and child self-concept and achievement were empirically investigated to determine the importance and kind of parent participation most closely related to childrens' cognitive and affective…

  7. Parents' perfectionism and its relation to child rearing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greblo, Zrinka; Bratko, Denis

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between parents' perfectionism and self-reported parenting behaviors. The study included 786 parents (417 mothers and 369 fathers) of high school students. Results showed that parents' positive and negative perfectionism were differently related to specific forms of child rearing practices. Namely, positive perfectionism was positively, while negative perfectionism was negatively related to parental acceptance for both mothers and fathers. Mothers' and fathers' negative perfectionism was positively related to parental criticism and permissiveness. In addition, fathers' positive perfectionism was negatively associated with permissive child rearing practices. After controlling for background variables, parents' positive and negative perfectionism explained significant amounts of variance in all self-reported parenting dimensions for fathers and significantly accounted for the variance of parental acceptance and criticism for mothers. According to our findings, parents' perfectionism might have an important role in shaping parenting behaviors. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The role of the father in child sleep disturbance: child, parent, and parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millikovsky-Ayalon, Maaian; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Meiri, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The majority of studies on child sleep problems focus primarily on mothers, neglecting paternal influences. Guided by the transactional framework, we explored how child temperament, paternal and maternal stress, and the parent-child interactions differ between families having children with sleep disturbances and a selected comparison group. The role of paternal involvement in child caregiving as a moderator of these differences was assessed. The sample consisted of 51 children (1-3 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Data were collected during home visits, when mothers and fathers completed questionnaires and were interviewed. In addition, mother-child and father-child interactions were videotaped. Results indicate that compared to the comparison group, fathers rated children with sleep disturbances as fussier, both their mothers and fathers experienced higher levels of stress, and reported using more bedtime interactions that interfere with child's sleep-wake self-regulation. In addition, their fathers were less sensitive during father-child interaction and less involved in child caregiving. Finally, paternal involvement moderated the group differences seen in maternal stress, suggesting that high paternal involvement acted as a buffer to protect parents of children with sleep disturbances from experiencing parental stress. The important role of fathers in families having children with sleep disturbances is discussed. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Raymond R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p p = 0.03. While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. Conclusions This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential

  10. Childhood atopic dermatitis: a cross-sectional study of relationships between child and parent factors, atopic dermatitis management, and disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amy E; Fraser, Jennifer A; Ramsbotham, Joanne; Morawska, Alina; Yates, Patsy

    2015-01-01

    Successful management of atopic dermatitis poses a significant and ongoing challenge to parents of affected children. Despite frequent reports of child behaviour problems and parenting difficulties, there is a paucity of literature examining relationships between child behaviour and parents' confidence and competence with treatment. To examine relationships between child, parent, and family variables, parents' self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis, self-reported performance of management tasks, observed competence with providing treatment, and atopic dermatitis severity. Cross-sectional study design. Participants A sample of 64 parent-child dyads was recruited from the dermatology clinic of a paediatric tertiary referral hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Parents completed self-report questionnaires examining child behaviour, parents' adjustment, parenting conflict, parents' relationship satisfaction, and parents' self-efficacy and self-reported performance of key management tasks. Severity of atopic dermatitis was assessed using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index. A routine home treatment session was observed, and parents' competence in carrying out the child's treatment assessed. Pearson's and Spearman's correlations identified significant relationships (pconflict, and relationship satisfaction. There were also significant relationships between each of these variables and parents' self-reported performance of management tasks. More profound child behaviour difficulties were associated with more severe atopic dermatitis and greater parent stress. Using multiple linear regressions, significant proportions of variation in parents' self-efficacy and self-reported task performance were explained by child behaviour difficulties and parents' formal education. Self-efficacy emerged as a likely mediator for relationships between both child behaviour and parents' education, and self-reported task performance. Direct observation of treatment sessions revealed strong

  11. Early childhood cortisol reactivity moderates the effects of parent-child relationship quality on the development of children’s temperament in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Dyson, Margret W.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Olino, Thomas M.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    Positive parenting has been related both to lower cortisol reactivity and more adaptive temperament traits in children, whereas elevated cortisol reactivity may be related to maladaptive temperament traits, such as higher negative emotionality (NE) and lower positive emotionality (PE). However, no studies have examined whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, as measured by cortisol reactivity, moderates the effect of the quality of the parent-child relationship on changes in temperament in early childhood. In this study, 126 3-year olds were administered the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB; Goldsmith et al., 1995) as a measure of temperamental NE and PE. Salivary cortisol was collected from the child at 4 time points during this task. The primary parent and the child completed the Teaching Tasks battery (Egeland et al., 1995), from which the quality of the relationship was coded. At age 6, children completed the Lab-TAB again. From age 3 to 6, adjusting for age 3 PE or NE, a better quality relationship with their primary parent predicted decreases in NE for children with elevated cortisol reactivity and predicted increases in PE for children with low cortisol reactivity. Results have implications for our understanding of the interaction of biological stress systems and the parent-child relationship in the development of temperament in childhood. PMID:26689860

  12. Maltreatment and Affective and Behavioral Problems in Emerging Adults With and Without Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms: Mediation by Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Stearns, Melanie; Szkody, Erica

    2018-03-01

    The current study examined the indirect effect of maternal and paternal emotional and physical maltreatment on affective and behavioral symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) through parent-child relationship quality; gender and overall ODD symptoms were examined as moderators. Participants included 2,362 emerging adults who completed questionnaires about parental emotional and physical maltreatment, parent-child relationship quality, and affective and behavioral ODD symptoms. These characteristics were compared across parent and child gender (i.e., maternal and paternal effects as well as male and female differences) as well as participants reporting high and low ODD symptoms. In the low ODD group, indirect effects of emotional maltreatment occurred in all parent-child dyads except the mother-son dyad, whereas in the high ODD group, indirect effects occurred only in the father-son dyad. Indirect effects of physical maltreatment occurred only in the father-son dyad in the low ODD group, and only in the mother-daughter dyad on behavioral ODD symptoms in the high ODD group. The results suggest that specific parent-child gender dyads respond differently, warranting further investigation of gender effects. Moreover, emerging adults in the low ODD symptoms group demonstrated a positive association between parental maltreatment and ODD symptoms and a negative association between parent-child relationship quality and ODD symptoms, whereas those high in the high ODD symptoms group did not demonstrate these associations. That is, emerging adults reporting high ODD symptoms demonstrated no relationship between their ODD symptoms and harsh parenting, suggesting an ineffective coercive process.

  13. Inequalities in child mortality in Mozambique: differentials by parental socio-economic position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macassa, Gloria; Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus; Bernhardt, Eva

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between socio-economic parental position (education and occupation) and child death in Mozambique using data from the Mozambican Demographic and Health Survey carried out between March and July 1997. The analysis included 9142 children born within 10 years...... before the survey. In spite of the Western system of classification used in the study, the results partly showed a parental socio-economic gradient of infant and child mortality in Mozambique. Father's education seemed to reflect the family's social standing in the Mozambique context, showing a strong...... statistical association with postneonatal and child mortality. However, maternal education as a measure of socio-economic position was not statistically significantly associated with child mortality. This finding may partly be explained by the extreme hardships experienced by the country (civil war...

  14. Impact of Caregiving for a Child With Cancer on Parental Health Behaviors, Relationship Quality, and Spiritual Faith: Do Lone Parents Fare Worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Lori; Viola, Adrienne; Kearney, Julia; Mullins, Larry L; Sherman-Bien, Sandra; Zadeh, Sima; Farkas-Patenaude, Andrea; Pao, Maryland

    2016-09-01

    Caregiving stress has been associated with changes in the psychological and physical health of parents of children with cancer, including both partnered and single parents. While parents who indicate "single" on a demographic checklist are typically designated as single parents, a parent can be legally single and still have considerable support caring for an ill child. Correspondingly, an individual can be married/partnered and feel alone when caring for a child with serious illness. In the current study, we report the results from our exploratory analyses of parent self-reports of behavior changes during their child's treatment. Parents (N = 263) of children diagnosed with cancer were enrolled at 10 cancer centers. Parents reported significant worsening of all their own health behaviors surveyed, including poorer diet and nutrition, decreased physical activity, and less time spent engaged in enjoyable activities 6 to 18 months following their child's diagnosis. More partnered parents found support from friends increased or stayed the same since their child's diagnosis, whereas a higher proportion of lone parents reported relationships with friends getting worse. More lone parents reported that the quality of their relationship with the ill child's siblings had gotten worse since their child's diagnosis. Spiritual faith increased for all parents. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Parent-Child Relationships Predict Metacognitive Questions to Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Foster, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of metacognitive language exposure to early educational achievement is widely recognized in the development literature. However, few studies have explored parents' metacognitive language, while accounting for family SES and stress within the parent-child relationship. This is a preliminary descriptive study to explore…

  16. Addressing Parent-Child Conflict: Attachment-Based Interventions with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvatter, Aaron; Desmond, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of attachment theory to address parent-child conflict. The authors propose that parent-child conflict is attributable to the unmet attachment needs of both children and parents and that attachment insecurity results in problematic patterns of attachment in parent-child relationships. Three conversational frames are…

  17. Child Temperamental Flexibility Moderates the Relation between Positive Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jill A.; Drabick, Deborah A.G.; Reynolds, Maureen D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Olino, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Temperamental flexibility and lower positive parenting are associated with internalizing and externalizing problems; however, youth varying in flexibility may be differentially affected by positive parenting in the prediction of symptoms. We examined whether children's flexibility moderated prospective relations between maternal and paternal positive parenting and youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence. Participants (N =775, 71% male) and their caregivers completed measures when youth were 10-12 and 12-14 years old. Father positive parenting interacted with child flexibility to predict father-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. Consistent with the diathesis-stress model, children lower in flexibility experienced greater symptoms than children higher in flexibility in lower positive parenting contexts. Among children lower in flexibility, lower paternal positive parenting was associated with greater internalizing and externalizing symptoms compared to higher paternal positive parenting. However, among youth higher in flexibility, symptom levels were similar regardless of whether youth experienced lower or higher paternal positive parenting. PMID:26834305

  18. Parent-child relationship quality and family transmission of parent posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and child externalizing and internalizing symptoms following fathers' exposure to combat trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James; Gewirtz, Abigail; Schrepferman, Lynn; Gird, Suzanne R; Quattlebaum, Jamie; Pauldine, Michael R; Elish, Katie; Zamir, Osnat; Hayes, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Transactional cascades among child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and fathers' and mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined in a sample of families with a male parent who had been deployed to recent military conflicts in the Middle East. The role of parents' positive engagement and coercive interaction with their child, and family members' emotion regulation were tested as processes linking cascades of parent and child symptoms. A subsample of 183 families with deployed fathers and nondeployed mothers and their 4- to 13-year-old children who participated in a randomized control trial intervention (After Deployment: Adaptive Parenting Tools) were assessed at baseline prior to intervention, and at 12 and 24 months after baseline, using parent reports of their own and their child's symptoms. Parents' observed behavior during interaction with their children was coded using a multimethod approach at each assessment point. Reciprocal cascades among fathers' and mothers' PTSD symptoms, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, were observed. Fathers' and mothers' positive engagement during parent-child interaction linked their PTSD symptoms and their child's internalizing symptoms. Fathers' and mothers' coercive behavior toward their child linked their PTSD symptoms and their child's externalizing symptoms. Each family member's capacity for emotion regulation was associated with his or her adjustment problems at baseline. Implications for intervention, and for research using longitudinal models and a family-systems perspective of co-occurrence and cascades of symptoms across family members are described.

  19. Longitudinal Linkages among Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Parenting, Parent-Child Sense of Alienation, and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the authors of the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation…

  20. You are such a bad child! Appraisals as mechanisms of parental negative and positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavita, Oana Alexandra; David, Daniel; DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Although parent cognitions are considered important predictors that determine specific emotional reactions and parental practices, models on the cognitive strategies for regulating parental distress or positive emotions are not well developed. Our aim was to investigate the nature of cognitions involved in parental distress and satisfaction, in terms of their specificity (parental or general) and their processing levels (inferential or evaluative cognitions). We hypothesized that parent's specific evaluative cognitions will mediate the impact of more general and inferential cognitive structures on their affective reactions. We used bootstrapping procedures in order to test the mediation models proposed. Results obtained show indeed that rather specific evaluative parental cognitions are mediating the relationship between general cognitions and parental distress. In terms of the cognitive processing levels, it seems that when parents hold both low self-efficacy and parental negative global evaluations for the self/child, this adds significantly to their distress.

  1. The relationship of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parenting stress to uncertainty in youth with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Larry L; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Pai, Ahna L Hoff; Carpentier, Melissa Y; Gillaspy, Stephen; Cheek, Jeff; Page, Melanie

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship of parent-reported overprotection (OP), perceived child vulnerability (PCV), and parenting stress (PS) to youth-reported illness uncertainty, and to explore potential developmental differences. Eighty-two children and 82 adolescents (n = 164) diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) or asthma, completed a measure of illness uncertainty, while their parents completed measures of OP, PCV, and PS. After controlling for demographic and illness parameters, both PCV and PS significantly predicted youth illness uncertainty in the combined sample. Within the child group, only PS significantly predicted illness uncertainty, whereas only PCV significantly predicted uncertainty for adolescents. Specific parenting variables are associated with youth-reported illness uncertainty; however, their relationship varies according to developmental level. Although OP has been identified as a predictor of child psychological outcomes in other studies, it does not appear to be associated with illness uncertainty in youth with DM1 or asthma.

  2. The connection of socio-demographic factors and child-parent relationships to the psychological aspects of children’s development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobkin V. S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschool childhood is a time of rapid development. During this period a child`s interaction with significant adults plays a very important role. The parent, as a mediator, defines the “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1984. The common assumption is that to determine a parent’s position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship. Hence, the type of research where a child’s psychological development is studied in the context of the socio-demographic and socio-psychological factors which determine the social situation of development, is very promising. Based on our previous research (Sobkin, Marich, 2002; Cheie, Veraksa, 2015, a program of experimental research intended to determine the interconnections between the socio-demographic and socio-psychological parameters of parent-child relationships, and the level of a child’s psychic development, was designed. The research was based upon the material obtained through testing 59 children between 5 and 7 years old with specially collected psychological testing methods (Veraksa A.N. etc, as well as from the results of a special sociological questionnaire presented to their mothers (Sobkin V.S. etc. The research was carried out in 2014-2015 in municipal kindergartens of Moscow. Among the socio-demographic factors analyzed, the most significant results were related to the child’s gender, the family structure, and the mother’s education. Thus, boys showed higher results on visual memory tests, and girls scored better on tests for self-control and social intelligence (higher ability to detect the reason for someone else’s negative emotions. Children from single-parent families had better results on verbal memory tests, but scored lower on those for self-control. Also they had less ability for decentration. The differences in mothers’ educational levels influenced the

  3. Parental distress, parenting practices, and child adaptive outcomes following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklewright, Jackie L; King, Tricia Z; O'Toole, Kathleen; Henrich, Chris; Floyd, Frank J

    2012-03-01

    Moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with significant familial distress and child adaptive sequelae. Our aim was to examine the relationship between parental psychological distress, parenting practices (authoritarian, permissive, authoritative), and child adaptive functioning 12-36 months following TBI or orthopedic injury (OI). Injury type was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning, demonstrating a significantly stronger relationship in the TBI relative to OI group. Authoritarian parenting practices were hypothesized to mediate relationship between parental distress and child adaptive functioning across groups. Groups (TBI n = 21, OI n = 23) did not differ significantly on age at injury, time since injury, sex, race, or SES. Parents completed the Brief Symptom Inventory, Parenting Practices Questionnaire, and Vineland-II. Moderation and mediation hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression and a bootstrapping approach, respectively. Results supported moderation and revealed that higher parental psychological distress was associated with lower child adaptive functioning in the TBI group only. Mediation results indicated that higher parental distress was associated with authoritarian parenting practices and lower adaptive functioning across groups. Results suggest that parenting practices are an important area of focus for studies attempting to elucidate the relationship between parent and child functioning following TBI.

  4. Stressful Life Events and Child Anxiety: Examining Parent and Child Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Rheanna; Williams, Sarah R.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2015-01-01

    While a number of factors have been linked with excessive anxiety (e.g., parenting, child temperament), the impact of stressful life events remains under-studied. Moreover, much of this literature has examined bivariate associations rather than testing more complex theoretical models. The current study extends the literature on life events and child anxiety by testing a theory-driven meditational model. Specifically, one child factor (child cognitions/locus of control), two parent factors (parent psychopathology and parenting stress), and two parent-child relationship factors (parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parenting style) were examined as mediators in the relationship between stressful life events and severity of child anxiety. One hundred and thirty anxious parents and their nonanxious, high-risk children (ages ranged from 7 to 13 years) participated in this study. Results indicated that levels of parenting stress, parental anxious rearing, and dysfunctional parent-child interaction mediated the association between stressful life events and severity of anxiety symptoms. Child cognition and parent psychopathology factors failed to emerge as mediators. Findings provide support for more complex theoretical models linking life events and child anxiety and suggest potential targets of intervention. PMID:25772523

  5. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child

  6. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2010-10-07

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. This work

  7. Emotionally evaluative attitude of parents in the high conflict families to each other and the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakov S.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of dysfunctional families causes an increase in the number of civil litigation on the education of the child, where the relationship between the persons are highly conflictual. The actual task is study the one of components in the structure of the psychological relationship - emotional and semantic constructs underlying semantic perception of each other and the child's parents. Examination of 42 testees (parents from harmonious families and 54 testees (parents during the forensic psychological and psychiatric examination (regarding the definition of child`s residence or the order of meetings for the child and the parent who don`t live with it by methods "Geometric test of relations" and "Semantic Differential" showed that in families where is highly conflictual relationship, there is positive assessments of herself and her child, while assessment of the spouse (wife characterized inversion. This negative attitude toward the spouse (wife is not the other parent's negative characteristics. It is the ignoring the other parent's positive characteristics. The positive acceptance of all family members was revealed in harmonious families.

  8. The Influence of Parenting Style and Child Temperament on Child-Parent-Dentist Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser Asl; Deljavan, Alireza Sighari; Jamali, Zahra; Azar, Fatemeh Pournaghi; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interaction between parenting style and child's temperament as modulators of anxiety and behavior in children during the dental procedure. Healthy four- to six-year-olds (n equals 288), with carious primary molars scheduled to receive amalgam fillings were selected. The Primary Caregivers Practices Report was used to assess the parenting style, and the Children's Behavior Questionnaire-Very Short Form was used to evaluate child temperament. Children were managed using common behavior management strategies. Child behavior and anxiety during the procedure were assessed using the Frankl behavior rating scale and the verbal skill scale, respectively. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation among variables. Authoritative parenting style was positively related to positive child's behavior (Pauthoritative parenting style on the effortful control trait (Pparent style on the child negative affectivity (PParenting style appeared to mediate child temperament and anxiety, and was related to the child's behavior. Parenting style should be considered in the selection of behavior guidance techniques.

  9. Gene-Environment Interplay between Parent-Child Relationship Problems and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Bailey, Jennifer; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that genetic risk for externalizing (EXT) disorders is greater in the context of adverse family environments during adolescence, but it is unclear whether these effects are long-lasting. The current study evaluated developmental changes in gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between parent-child relationship problems and EXT at ages 18 and 25. Method The sample included 1,382 twin pairs (48% male) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, participating in assessments at ages 18 (M = 17.8 years, SD = 0.69) and 25 (M = 25.0 years, SD = 0.90). Perceptions of parent-child relationship problems were assessed using questionnaires. Structured interviews were used to assess symptoms of adult antisocial behavior and nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drug dependence. Results We detected a gene-environment interaction at age 18, such that the genetic influence on EXT was greater in the context of more parent-child relationship problems. This moderation effect was not present at age 25, nor did parent-relationship problems at age 18 moderate genetic influence on EXT at age 25. Rather, common genetic influences accounted for this longitudinal association. Conclusions Gene-environment interaction evident in the relationship between adolescent parent-child relationship problems and EXT is both proximal and developmentally limited. Common genetic influence, rather than a gene-environment interaction, accounts for the long-term association between parent-child relationship problems at age 18 and EXT at age 25. These results are consistent with a relatively pervasive importance of gene-environmental correlation in the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood. PMID:25066478

  10. Child maltreatment and interpersonal relationship among Chinese children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Chi, Peilian; Wang, Zhonghui; Heath, Melissa Allen; Du, Hongfei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment negatively affects children's development and wellbeing. This study investigated the associations between child maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical abuse) and interpersonal functioning, including parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, and peer relationships among children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). A total of 256 children with ODD and their parents and class master teachers from Mainland China completed questionnaires. Results showed a negative correlation between emotional abuse (parent-reported) and children's interpersonal relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Emotional neglect and physical abuse were related to poor parent-child relationships. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of child maltreatment among children with ODD. ODD children with more severe levels of one type of maltreatment were also more likely to have experienced severe levels of other types of maltreatment. Children with ODD who were in the group of high maltreatment had the poorest quality of interpersonal relationships. Our findings highlight the urgent need to prevent child maltreatment and promote more positive parenting in families with ODD children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and Lability in the Parent-Child Relationship During Adolescence: Associations With Pubertal Timing and Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Ram, Nilam; Susman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' and parents' reactions to pubertal development are hypothesized to contribute to changes in family dynamics. Using 7-year longitudinal data from the NICHD-SECCYD (488 boys, 475 girls) we examined relations between pubertal development (timing, tempo) and trajectories (developmental change and year-to-year lability) of parent-child conflict and closeness from age 8.5 to 15.5 years. Changes were mostly characterized by year-to-year fluctuations – lability. Parent-child conflict increased and closeness decreased some with age. Pubertal timing and tempo were more consistently associated with lability in parent-child relationships than with long-term trends, although faster tempo was associated with steeper decreases in parent-child closeness. Findings provide a platform for examining how puberty contributes to both long-term and transient changes in adolescents' relationships and adjustment. PMID:26321856

  12. Marital and Parent-Child Relationships in Families with Daughters Who Have Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…

  13. Child behaviour problems, parenting behaviours and parental adjustment in mothers and fathers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Wells, Michael B; Sarkadi, Anna

    2014-11-01

    We aim to examine the relationship between child behavioural problems and several parental factors, particularly parental behaviours as reported by both mothers and fathers in a sample of preschool children in Sweden. Participants were mothers and fathers of 504 3- to 5-year-olds that were recruited through preschools. They completed a set of questionnaires including the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, Parenting Scale, Parent Problem Checklist, Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Correlational analyses showed that parent-reported child behaviour problems were positively associated with ineffective parenting practices and interparental conflicts and negatively related to parental competence. Regression analyses showed that, for both mothers and fathers, higher levels of parental over-reactivity and interparental conflict over child-rearing issues and lower levels of parental satisfaction were the most salient factors in predicting their reports of disruptive child behaviour. This study revealed that swedish parents' perceptions of their parenting is related to their ratings of child behaviour problems which therefore implies that parent training programs can be useful in addressing behavioural problems in Swedish children. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. How the Parent-Child Relationship Affects Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behavior Development in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Lauren Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parent-child relationship characteristics (attachment, involvement, discipline practices, parenting confidence, and relational frustration) and behavioral outcomes (internalizing, externalizing, and adaptive) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD presents pervasive…

  15. Child Characteristics, Parenting Stress, and Parental Involvement: Fathers versus Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Schoppe, Sarah J.; Rane, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines variations in the relationships among child characteristics, parenting stress, and parental involvement. Analyses revealed significant, yet somewhat different, associations between child temperament and parental stress for mothers and fathers. More significant associations were found between perceptions of child temperament and…

  16. Relationships between parenting practices and perceptions of child behaviour among Korean immigrant mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boram; Keown, Louise J; Brown, Gavin T L

    2016-10-18

    This study examined parenting styles and culturally-specific parenting practices of Korean immigrant mothers (N = 128) and fathers (N = 79) of children (ages 6-10) in New Zealand and the parenting predictors of child behaviour. Participants completed questionnaires on parenting styles and practices, and parental perceptions of child behaviour. Both parents indicated a high degree of devotion (Mo jeong) and involvement in care and education of their child with fathers were more likely than mothers to utilise shaming/love withdrawal and modesty encouragement. Results of regression analyses showed that there were some differences between mothers and fathers in the parenting predictors of child internalising and externalising behaviour problems and prosocial behaviour. Across the whole sample, there were contrasting relationships for authoritative parenting styles, devoted/involved parenting and modesty encouragement/shaming/non-reasoning parenting practices with child behaviour problems. Results indicated a blend of Western and Korean parenting practices were being utilised after settling in New Zealand. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Correlating parenting styles with child behavior and caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howenstein, Jeff; Kumar, Ashok; Casamassimo, Paul S; McTigue, Dennis; Coury, Daniel; Yin, Han

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between parenting style, sociodemographic data, caries status, and child's behavior during the first dental visit. Parents/legal guardians of new patients aged three to six years presenting to Nationwide Children's Hospital dental clinic for an initial examination/hygiene appointment completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) to assess parenting style and a 15-question demographic survey. Blinded and calibrated expanded function dental auxiliaries or dental hygienists (EFDA/DH) performed a prophylaxis and assessed child behavior using the Frankl scale (inter-rater reliability was 92 percent). A blinded and calibrated dentist performed an oral examination. 132 parent/child dyads participated. Children with authoritative parents exhibited more positive behavior (Pcaries (Pparents. Children attending daycare exhibited more positive behavior compared to children who did not (Pbehavior (P>.04) and less caries (P>.024) compared to children with Medicaid or no dental insurance. Authoritative parenting and having private dental insurance were associated with less caries and better behavior during the first dental visit. Attending daycare was associated with better behavior during the first dental visit.

  18. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  19. Effects of parental monitoring, parent-child communication, and parents' expectation of the child's acculturation on the substance use behaviors of urban, Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Unger, Jennifer B; Wagner, Karla D; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Sussman, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,936 Hispanic adolescents of mean age 14.0 years (standard deviation= 0.4) from seven Los Angeles area schools. The effects of perceived parental monitoring and parent-child communication on the adolescents' self-reported past thirty day cigarette smoking and alcohol and marijuana use behaviors were analyzed. In addition, the relationships between parents' expectations of the child's acculturation and adolescents' drug use behaviors were examined. Parental monitoring and parent-child communication were found to have statistically significant inverse associations with all three drug types when controlling for one another and the demographic variables assessed in the study. Parents' expectation of the child's acculturation to the U.S. was found to be inversely related with alcohol use. Parental monitoring and parent-child communication were not found to mediate the relationship between parents' expectation of the child's acculturation and alcohol use.

  20. Self-Efficacy, Parent-Child Relationships, and Academic Performance: A Comparison of European American and Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shu; Weiser, Dana A.; Fischer, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child relationships play an important role in successful academic outcomes. Previous research suggests that the association between parent-child relationships and offspring's academic achievement may be mediated by offspring's self-efficacy levels, although these relationships are not fully understood. Furthermore, the association between…

  1. Factors Underlying the Relationship Between Parent and Child Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, David J; Cipriano, Madeline R

    2017-01-01

    The death of a parent in a child's life is a significant risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. While much has been written about the surviving parent's functioning and its effects on their bereaved children, little work has been done to look into factors underlying this effect such as how the parent copes. The present study recruited 38 parent-child dyads from a community-based grief support center. Parent and child, independently, completed various measures of emotional functioning, including grief symptoms and coping such as social support and locus of control. The results indicated that parental coping did have an impact on children's grief symptoms. This represents a unique view of adaptation in bereaved children: Parental coping strategies can have an impact on the child, independent of the child's coping strategies. By focusing on parent coping, we have highlighted another possible pathway through which parental functioning affects children's grief.

  2. Parent-Child Relationships in Nondivorced, Divorced Single-Mother, and Remarried Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Margaret Stanley; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Over time, mother-child relationships in families with remarried mothers grew increasingly similar to those in families whose parents had never divorced. Relationships in single-mother families remained different from those in the other two types of families. Stepfathers were less likely to be authoritative than were nondivorced fathers. (BC)

  3. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent-child

  4. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between0020parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of rater bias. As the presence of significant shared environmental effects has often been attributed to rater bias in the past (Baker, Jacobsen, Raine, Lozano, & Bezdjian, 2007; Bartels et al., 2004; Bartels et al., 2003; Hewitt, Silberg, Neale, & Eaves, 1992), it would be important to confirm that findings of shared environmental mediation persist when even examining (presumably more objective) observer-ratings of these constructs. The current study thus examined the origins of the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent acting-out behavior, as measured using both observer-ratings and various informant-reports. Participants included 1,199 adopted and non-adopted adolescents in 610 families from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Results indicated that parent-child conflict consistently predicts acting-out behavior in adopted adolescents, and moreover, that this association is equivalent to that in biologically-related adolescents. Most importantly, these findings did not vary across parent- and adolescent-reported or observer-ratings of parent-child conflict and acting-out behavior. Such findings argue strongly against rater bias as a primary explanation of shared environmental mediation of the association between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior. PMID:21484334

  5. Teacher-child relationships as dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine factors associated with the quality of the teacher-child relationship from first through fifth grade using data from phases I, II and III of the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, a prospective study of 1364 children from birth through sixth grade. On average, children evidenced moderately high quality relationships with teachers in fifth grade. However, there was extensive variation in fifth grade relationship quality across children. Children who received more support and stimulation at home and whose parents had higher quality interactions with the school had higher quality relationships. Additionally, children in classrooms with more positive environments and better management had higher quality relationships. Lastly, females, European-American children, children with lower levels of behavior problems and children who had higher quality relationships with their teachers in kindergarten also had higher quality relationships with teachers. On average, children evidenced decreases in the quality of their relationships with teachers from first through fifth grade. Interestingly, children whose parents had more contact with their schools, who were in schools where teachers received higher salaries and in classrooms that had more positive emotional climates and that were better managed evidenced slower rates of decline in relationship quality. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  6. Parenting in the Wake of Abuse: Exploring the Mediating Role of PTSD Symptoms on the Relationship Between Parenting and Child Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Fredland, Nina; Maddoux, John; Zhou, Weiden

    2016-02-01

    Children whose mothers report partner violence and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at risk for behavior dysfunctions. To examine the mediating effects of maternal PTSD symptoms on the relationship of parenting behaviors to child internalizing and externalizing behavior dysfunctions. Maternal PTSD symptoms have a partial mediating effect on the relationship between inconsistent discipline and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Maternal PTSD symptoms have a fully mediating effect on the relationship between poor supervision and child internalizing behaviors. There is a need to identify women who report partner violence and are at high risk for PTSD and intervene early to prevent problematic parenting and resulting child behavior problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parenting Stress in CHARGE Syndrome and the Relationship with Child Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulffaert, Josette; Scholte, Evert M; Dijkxhoorn, Yvette M; Bergman, Jorieke E H; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A

    2009-08-01

    This study investigates the parental perception of stress related to the upbringing of children with CHARGE syndrome and its association with behavioral and physical child characteristics. Parents of 22 children completed the Nijmegen Parenting Stress Index-Short, Developmental Behavior Checklist, and Dutch Vineland Screener 0-12 and reported their child's problems with hearing, vision and ability to speak. Parenting stress was high in 59% of the subjects. Behavioral problems on the depression, autism, self-absorbed and disruptive behavior scales correlated positively with parenting stress. A non-significant trend was found, namely higher stress among the parents of non-speaking children. No associations were found with other child characteristics, i.e. level of adaptive functioning and intellectual disability, auditory and visual problems, deafblindness, gender, and age. Raising a child with CHARGE syndrome is stressful; professional support is therefore essential for this population. More research into other possible influencing characteristics is needed to improve family-oriented interventions. Since CHARGE is a rare syndrome, closer international collaboration is needed, not only to expand the group of study subjects to increase statistical power, but also to harmonize research designs and measurement methods to improve the validity, the reliability, and the generalization of the findings.

  8. Family and relationship influences on parenting behaviors of young parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Murphy, Alexandrea; Lewis, Jessica; Divney, Anna; Albritton, Tashuna; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick

    2014-02-01

    Assess the influence of relationship and family factors during pregnancy on parenting behavior 6 months postpartum among low-income young parents. Some 434 young expectant couples were recruited from obstetrics clinics during pregnancy and followed 6 months postpartum. Using a series of general estimating equations to control for the correlated nature of the data, we assessed the influence of relationship factors (e.g., relationship satisfaction, attachment) and family factors (e.g., family functioning, family history) during pregnancy on parenting (e.g., parenting involvement, time spent caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence) 6 months postpartum controlling for covariates. Relationship functioning related to parenting involvement, caregiving, parenting experiences, and parenting sense of competence. In addition, several family factors related to parenting. Mother involvement during childhood was related to more parenting involvement, parenting positive experiences, and parenting sense of competence. History of being spanked as a child related to less time spent caregiving and less positive life change from being a parent. Further, gender significantly moderated the associations between relationship and family factors and parenting behavior. Male parenting behavior was more influenced by relationship and family factors than female parenting. This study suggests the importance of relationship and family contexts for parenting behaviors of young mothers and fathers, highlighting the potential utility of involving both young mothers and fathers in parenting programs, and developing interventions that focus on strengthening young parents' romantic relationships and that address negative parenting experienced during childhood. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  10. Mothers with breast cancer: A mixed-method systematic review on the impact on the parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Rita; Brandão, Tânia; Matos, Paula Mena

    2018-02-01

    To systematically review and integrate the findings from quantitative and qualitative studies on parenting and parent-child relationships in families where mothers had breast cancer (BC). Ten different databases were searched from inception to January 2016. All authors assessed these data independently. Full-text, peer-reviewed articles exploring parenting and/or mother-child relationships in families where the mother had BC, regardless of cancer stage, were considered for inclusion. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. From 116 studies, 23 were deemed eligible for inclusion. Five of them were quantitative, 15 were qualitative, and 1 study used a mixed-method approach. Most studies analysed the mother's perceptions about the experience of having BC in parenting and in the parent-child relationship. The majority of studies explored experiences and perspectives on the parent-child relationship in mothers with minor children, although a minority of studies included adult children. Additionally, a few studies (17%) addressed perceptions and experiences of women with advanced stage cancer. Three main themes were found: priorities and concerns of patients, decision-making processes about sharing the diagnosis with their children, and mother-child relationship and parenting after mother's diagnosis. Findings indicated that the diagnosis of BC is accompanied by an array of challenges that affect parental roles and parenting. Further studies are needed to explore these issues more sensitively. For now, however, the evidence suggests that the families of women with BC, and particularly the women themselves, may benefit from informal and formal support aimed at helping them cope effectively with this challenging life event. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Association of Externalizing Behavior and Parent-Child Relationships: An Intergenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Brown, Elaine N.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the child's behavior on the quality of the mutual parent-child attachment relationships across three generations. We did so using a prospective longitudinal study which spanned 20 years from adolescence through adulthood. Study participants completed in-class questionnaires as students in the East Harlem area of…

  12. A Model of Female Sexual Desire: Internalized Working Models of Parent-Child Relationships and Sexual Body Self-Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasskaya, Eugenia; Rosario, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    The etiology of low female sexual desire, the most prevalent sexual complaint in women, is multi-determined, implicating biological and psychological factors, including women's early parent-child relationships and bodily self-representations. The current study evaluated a model that hypothesized that sexual body self-representations (sexual subjectivity, self-objectification, genital self-image) explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment, separation-individuation, parental identification) and sexual desire in heterosexual women. We recruited 614 young, heterosexual women (M = 25.5 years, SD = 4.63) through social media. The women completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used. The hypotheses were supported in that the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment and separation-individuation) and sexual desire was mediated by sexual body self-representations (sexual body esteem, self-objectification, genital self-image). However, parental identification was not related significantly to sexual body self-representations or sexual desire in the model. Current findings demonstrated that understanding female sexual desire necessitates considering women's internalized working models of early parent-child relationships and their experiences of their bodies in a sexual context. Treatment of low or absent desire in women would benefit from modalities that emphasize early parent-child relationships as well as interventions that foster mind-body integration.

  13. The Effect of Widowhood on Parent-Child Relationships in Korea: Do Parents' Filial Expectations and Geographic Proximity to Children Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lim, Yeon Ok; Heo, Sun-Young

    2016-03-01

    Although previous research based on data from the U.S. suggests that parents' widowhood is associated with increased emotional support from children, little is known about the impact of late-life widowhood on intergenerational relationships in other cultures. Using data of Korean older adults, this paper examined: (1) the effect of widowhood on both positive and negative aspects of parent-child relationships and (2) whether these effects are moderated by older adults' expectations about children's filial responsibilities and the geographic proximity to their children. Analyses are based on data from the Hallym Aging Study, a stratified multi-stage probability sample of older adults living in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon in Korea. Compared to married older adults, widowed persons in this sample reported higher levels of ambivalence, lower levels of positive interactions, and higher levels of negative interactions with their children. Parents' notion about filial responsibilities did not have a significant moderating effect, whereas geographic proximity to children was a significant moderator. Findings suggest that widowhood is associated with greater strain in intergenerational relationships in Korea. Helping widowed older adults forge constructive relationships with their children may enhance both bereaved older adults' and their children's well-being in this cultural milieu.

  14. The effectiveness of a short-term group music therapy intervention for parents who have a child with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M; Walker, Sue; Abad, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The positive relationship between parent-child interactions and optimal child development is well established. Families of children with disabilities may face unique challenges in establishing positive parent-child relationships; yet, there are few studies examining the effectiveness of music therapy interventions to address these issues. In particular, these studies have been limited by small sample size and the use of measures of limited reliability and validity. This study examined the effectiveness of a short-term group music therapy intervention for parents of children with disabilities and explored factors associated with better outcomes for participating families. Participants were 201 mother-child dyads, where the child had a disability. Pre- and post-intervention parental questionnaires and clinician observation measures were completed to examine outcomes of parental wellbeing, parenting behaviors, and child development. Descriptive data, t-tests for repeated measures and a predictive model tested via logistic regression are presented. Significant improvements pre to post intervention were found for parent mental health, child communication and social skills, parenting sensitivity, parental engagement with child and acceptance of child, child responsiveness to parent, and child interest and participation in program activities. There was also evidence for high parental satisfaction and that the program brought social benefits to families. Reliable change on six or more indicators of parent or child functioning was predicted by attendance and parent education. This study provides positive evidence for the effectiveness of group music therapy in promoting improved parental mental health, positive parenting and key child developmental areas.

  15. Relationship between parental estimate and an objective measure of child television watching

    OpenAIRE

    Roemmich James N; Fuerch Janene H; Winiewicz Dana D; Robinson Jodie L; Epstein Leonard H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Many young children have televisions in their bedrooms, which may influence the relationship between parental estimate and objective measures of child television usage/week. Parental estimates of child television time of eighty 4–7 year old children (6.0 ± 1.2 years) at the 75th BMI percentile or greater (90.8 ± 6.8 BMI percentile) were compared to an objective measure of television time obtained from TV Allowance™ devices attached to every television in the home over a three week pe...

  16. Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Family Transmission of Parent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Child Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms Following Fathers’ Combat-Trauma Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James; Gewirtz, Abigail; Schrepferman, Lynn; Gird, Suzanne R.; Quattlebaum, Jamie; Pauldine, Michael R.; Elish, Katie; Zamir, Osnat; Hayes, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Transactional cascades among child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and fathers’ and mothers’ post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were examined in a sample of families with a male parent who had been deployed to recent military conflicts in the Middle East. The role of parents’ positive engagement and coercive interaction with their child, and family members’ emotion regulation were tested as processes linking cascades of parent and child symptoms. A subsample of 183 families with deployed fathers and non-deployed mothers and their 4 to 13 year old children who participated in a randomized control trial intervention (After Deployment: Adaptive Parenting Tools, or ADAPT) were assessed at baseline prior to intervention, and at 12 and 24 months after baseline, using parent reports of their own and their child’s symptoms. Parents’ observed behavior during interaction with their children was coded using a multi-method approach at each assessment point. Reciprocal cascades among fathers’ and mothers’ PTSD symptoms, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms were observed. Fathers’ and mothers’ positive engagement during parent-child interaction linked their PTSD symptoms and their child’s internalizing symptoms. Fathers’ and mothers’ coercive behavior toward their child linked their PTSD symptoms and their child’s externalizing symptoms. Each family members’ capacity for emotion regulation was associated with their adjustment problems at baseline. Implications for intervention, and for research using longitudinal models and a family-systems perspective of co-occurrence and cascades of symptoms across family members are described. PMID:27739388

  17. Features of Parent-Child Relationship of Mothers with Teenage Children in the Conditions of Late Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova E.I.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author's attention is attracted by one of the features of modern Russian family: the tendency to increase the frequency of childbirth by women of older reproductive age. The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the mothers’ parent position, who had children at different periods of adulthood (middle, late. The aim of the study was to investigate the features of the parent-child relationship of mothers with teenage children in the conditions of late motherhood. Mothers of adolescents who participated in the study were divided into two groups: "young" mothers who gave birth to the first child before the age of 30 years, and "late" mothers who gave birth to their first child after being 30 years old. It turned out that the strategies of education and interaction between the "young" and "late" mothers, reflecting the value orientation of personality, are significantly different. Focusing on the emotional closeness with the child and creativity, education strategy of "late" mothers has a high emotional involvement, soft and inconsistent parenting. The features of maternal parenting strategies are adequately reflected by the teenagers who follow their mothers in priority of the values of family and work, or material well-being and the pursuit of hedonistic values.

  18. Tensions in the Parent and Adult Child Relationship: Links to Solidarity and Ambivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S.; Miller, Laura M.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2009-01-01

    Tensions are normative in the parent and adult child relationship, but there is little research on the topics that cause the most tension or whether tensions are associated with overall relationship quality. Adult sons and daughters, aged 22 to 49, and their mothers and fathers (N = 158 families, 474 individuals) reported the intensity of different tension topics and relationship quality (solidarity and ambivalence) with one another. Tensions varied between and within families by generation, gender and age of offspring. In comparison to tensions regarding individual issues, tensions regarding the relationship were associated with lower affective solidarity and greater ambivalence. Findings are consistent with the developmental schism hypothesis, which indicates that parent-child tensions are common and are the result of discrepancies in developmental needs which vary by generation, gender, and age. PMID:19485648

  19. Parent-Child Positive Touch: Gender, Age, and Task Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined gender, age, and task differences in positive touch and physical proximity during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- ( M  = 53.50 months, SD  = 3.54) and 6-year-old ( M  = 77.07 months, SD  = 3.94) children participated in this study. Positive touch was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past emotions). Fathers touched their children positively more frequently during the play-related storytelling task than did mothers. Both mothers and fathers were in closer proximity to their 6-year-olds than their 4-year-olds. Mothers and fathers touched their children positively more frequently when reminiscing than when playing. Finally, 6-year-olds remained closer to their parents than did 4-year-olds. Implications of these findings for future research on children's socioemotional development are discussed.

  20. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Meaning of the Child Interview: A new procedure for assessing and understanding parent-child relationships of 'at-risk' families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Ben; Farnfield, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Reder and Duncan's well-known studies of the 1990s on fatal child abuse drew attention to how parental scripts regarding their children could dangerously distort relationships in ways that were sometimes fatal to children. This article reports on a new system for assessing the 'meaning of the child to the parent', called the Meaning of the Child Interview (MotC). Parents are interviewed using the established Parent Development Interview, or equivalent, and the transcript of the interview is then analysed according to parental sensitivity and likely risk to the child. The MotC constructs were developed from those used in observed parent-child interaction (specifically, the CARE-Index) and the form of discourse analysis used in the Dynamic Maturational Model - Adult Attachment Interview, allowing a more systemic and inter-subjective understanding of parenting representations than often put forward. This article discusses the theoretical background to the MotC, gives a brief review of similar measures and then introduces the coding system and patterns of caregiving. The validity of the MotC is addressed elsewhere.

  2. Twins conceived using assisted reproduction: parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment at middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Koh, Bibiana D; Connor, Jennifer J; Koerner, Ascan F; Damario, Mark; Rueter, Martha A

    2014-10-10

    Compared with singletons, what is the parent mental health, parent-child and couple relationship satisfaction, and child adjustment of 6- to 12-year-old assisted reproduction technology (ART) twins and their families? There are no differences between 6- and 12-year-old ART twin and singleton families in parent mental health or family relationships; however, twins had significantly fewer behavior and attention problems than singletons in middle childhood. When ART twins are younger than 5 years old, parents have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child relationship quality, and no differences have been found in ART twin and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. However, studies have only examined the implications of ART twin status in families with infant and toddler aged children. A cross-sectional study of 300 6-12-year-old ART children (n = 124 twins and n = 176 singletons) from 206 families at a reproductive endocrinology clinic in the USA. Patients from one clinic with a child born between 1998 and 2004 were invited to participate in an online survey (82% recruitment rate). Participants provided information on each 6- to 12-year-old ART child in the family, and responded to questions on parent mental health, family relationships and child adjustment. There were no differences in parent mental health or family relationships in families with 6- to 12-year-old ART twins versus singletons. However, twins (M = 2.40, SE = 0.35) had significantly fewer behavior problems than singletons (M = 3.47, SE = 0.36; F(1, 201) = 4.54, b = 1.08, P difficulties and lower parent-child relationship quality than singleton families. This study indicates the negative effects of twin status may have ameliorated by middle childhood, and twins may even have more optimum psychosocial adjustment than singletons in this developmental period. This research is based on a collaborative research effort supported by University of Minnesota Agriculture Experiment Station Project

  3. The association of parent's outcome expectations for child TV viewing with parenting practices and child TV viewing: an examination using path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lauren; Chen, Tzu-An; Hughes, Sheryl O; O'Connor, Teresia M

    2015-05-28

    Television (TV) viewing has been associated with many undesirable outcomes for children, such as increased risk of obesity, but TV viewing can also have benefits. Although restrictive parenting practices are effective in reducing children's TV viewing, not all parents use them and it is currently unclear why. The current study examined parenting practices related to TV viewing in the context of social- cognitive theory. Specifically, we hypothesized that positive and negative Parental Outcome Expectations for child's TV Viewing (POETV) would be associated with social co-viewing and restrictive parenting practices, and that POETV and parenting practices influence the amount of TV viewed by child. Data were collected from an internet survey of 287 multi-ethnic parents and their 6-12 year old children on participants' sociodemographic information, parenting practices related to TV use, POETV, and parent and child TV viewing. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship amongst variables in separate models for weekday and weekend TV viewing. controlling for child age, household education, and parental TV viewing. The results provided partial support for the hypotheses, with notable differences between weekday and weekend viewing. The models explained 13.6% and 23.4% of the variance in children's TV viewing on weekdays and weekends respectively. Neither positive nor negative POETV were associated with restrictive TV parenting in either model. One subscale each from positive and negative POETV were associated with social co-viewing parenting on both weekends and weekdays in the expected direction. Restrictive parenting practices were directly negatively associated with children's TV viewing on weekdays, but not weekends. Social co-viewing parenting was directly positively associated with children's TV viewing on weekends, but not weekdays. The strongest influence on children's TV viewing was having a TV in the child's bedroom. Negative POETV was weakly associated

  4. The changing nature of relationships between parents and healthcare providers when a child dies in the paediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashleigh E; Hall, Helen; Copnell, Beverley

    2018-01-01

    To explore bereaved parents' interactions with healthcare providers when a child dies in a paediatric intensive care unit. Although most children admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit will survive, 2-5% will die during their stay. The parents of these children interact and form relationships with numerous healthcare staff during their child's illness and death. Although previous studies have explored the parental experience of child death in intensive care generally, the nature of their relationships with healthcare providers during this time remains unknown. This study used a constructivist grounded theory approach. Data were collected via semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews with 26 bereaved parents from four paediatric intensive care units over 18 months in 2015-2016. Constant comparative analysis and theoretical memos were used to analyse the data. The theory "Transitional togetherness" demonstrates the changing nature of the parent-healthcare provider relationship across three key phases of the parents' journey. Phase one, "Welcoming expertise," focuses on the child's medical needs, with the healthcare provider dominant in the relationship. Phase two, "Becoming a team," centres around the parents' need to recreate a parental role and work collaboratively with healthcare providers. Finally, "Gradually disengaging" describes the parents' desire for the relationship to continue after the child's death as a source of support until no longer needed. Findings from this study offer valuable insights into the changing nature of the parent-healthcare provider relationship and highlight the key foci of the relationship at each stage of the parental journey. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Predicting success in an online parenting intervention: the role of child, parent, and family factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Palmer, Melanie L; Sanders, Matthew R; Keown, Louise J

    2014-04-01

    The present study involved an examination of the extent to which a wide range of child, parent, family, and program-related factors predicted child behavior and parenting outcomes after participation in an 8-session online version of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program. Participants were mothers and fathers of 97 children aged between 3 and 8 years displaying elevated levels of disruptive behavior problems. For both mothers and fathers, poorer child behavior outcomes at postintervention were predicted by the number of sessions of the intervention completed by the family. For mothers, postintervention child behavior was also predicted by the quality of the mother-child relationship at baseline; for fathers, baseline child behavior severity was an additional predictor. Mothers' postintervention ineffective parenting was predicted by session completion and preintervention levels of ineffective parenting, whereas the only predictor of fathers' ineffective parenting at postintervention was preintervention levels of ineffective parenting. Socioeconomic risk, parental adjustment, and father participation in the intervention were not significant predictors of mother- or father-reported treatment outcomes. The implications of the findings for the provision of online parenting support are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. General Parenting Strategies: Practical Suggestions for Common Child Behavior Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Michael G; Saxena, Shailendra K; Rafiq, Naureen

    2018-05-15

    Parents often seek guidance from physicians on child behavior problems. Questions may range from general parenting strategies to managing specific child behaviors. Physicians and their staff can identify problematic parent-child interactions or behaviors within the office setting and assist parents by providing effective monitoring tools for behavior problems. Effective strategies for influencing a child's behavior include positive reinforcement to increase appropriate behavior, extinction (planned ignoring) for most low-level problematic behaviors, and time-out from reinforcement for more problematic behaviors. Written contracting provides parents the opportunity to communicate with their children about important behaviors and strengthens the commitment of each party to improve behavior. Parents should be cautioned about the use of punishment (e.g., scolding, taking away privileges or possessions) because it suppresses behavior only temporarily. Physicians should discourage physical or corporal punishment because it is related to negative parent-child relationships, increased aggressiveness, antisocial behavior, lower cognitive ability, lower self-esteem, mental health problems, and increased risk of physical abuse.

  7. Interpersonal relationships and child-rearing practices in 214 parents of battered children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Hanson, R

    1975-12-01

    The self-reported child-rearing practices of 214 parents of battered babies were characterized in a few but not all respects by demanding behaviour which exceeded that to be expected in relation to their social class and age. Inconsistency in child management was noted in the comparison between lack of demonstrativeness and emotional over-involvement, and between physical punishment and a tendency to be lax in the supervision of the child, and was reminiscent of parents of delinquents. Unhappiness and hostility in relationships with members of their families of origin, with unsupporting partners and with people in general were other important features. Generally, identified perpetrators were characterized by features significant for the sample as a whole.

  8. Parent-child discrepancies in reports of parental monitoring and their relationship to adolescent alcohol-related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies between parents and adolescents regarding parenting behaviors have been hypothesized to represent a deficit in the parent-child relationship and may represent unique risk factors for poor developmental outcomes. The current study examined the predictive utility of multiple methods for characterizing discrepancies in parents’ and adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring on youth alcohol use behaviors in order to inform future study design and predictive modeling. Data for the current study came from a prospective investigation of alcohol initiation and progression. The analyzed sample consisted of 606 adolescents (6th – 8th grade; 54% female) and their parents were surveyed at baseline, with youth followed up 12 months later. A series of hierarchical logistic regressions were performed for each monitoring-related construct examined (parental knowledge, parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure). The results showed that adolescents’ reports were more closely related to outcomes than parents’ reports, while greater discrepancies were frequently found to be uniquely associated with greater likelihood of alcohol use behaviors. Implications for future work incorporating parents’ and adolescents’ reports are discussed. PMID:24964878

  9. Child pain catastrophizing mediates the relationship between parent responses to pain and disability in youth with functional abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors in response to their child’s pain (overprotection, minimizing and/or encouragement) interact with child coping characteristics (e.g., catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relationship between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by children’s level of maladaptive coping (i.e., pain catastrophizing). Methods Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: protection, minimizing, and encouragement/monitoring subscales). Results Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relationship between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relationship between parent protectiveness and disability. Conclusions The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined in part by the child’s coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP. PMID:25121521

  10. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  11. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  12. Parental influences on memories of parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Franca; Bonechi, Alice; Peterson, Carole; Smorti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the role parent-child relationship quality has on two types of memories, those of parents and those of friends. Participants were 198 Italian university students who recalled memories during 4 separate timed memory-fluency tasks about their preschool, elementary school, middle school, high school and university years. Half were instructed to recall memories involving parents and the remainder memories involving friends. Moreover, parent-child relationships were assessed by the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; W. Furman & D. Buhrmester, 1985) and Adolescents' Report of Parental Monitoring (D. M. Capaldi & G. R. Patterson, 1989). Results showed that men with positive parent-son relationships had more memories of parents and more affectively positive memories of friends, supporting a consistency model positing similarity between parent-child relationships and memories of friends. Women with positive parental relationship quality had more affectively positive memories of parents but for friends, positive relationship quality only predicted positive memories when young. At older ages, especially middle school-aged children, negative parent-daughter relationships predicted more positive memories of friends, supporting a compensatory model. The gender of parent also mattered, with fathers having a more influential role on affect for memories of friends.

  13. 'Mixed blessings': parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-08-01

    Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants. Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates. Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different

  14. The Contribution of the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS) Warm-Up Segments in Assessing Parent-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Jenelle R.; Niec, Larissa N.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the inclusion of uncoded segments in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System, an analogue observation of parent-child interactions. The relationships between warm-up and coded segments were assessed, as well as the segments' associations with parent ratings of parent and child behaviors. Sixty-nine non-referred…

  15. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were

  16. Parent-child relationships and self‑control in male university students' desire to play video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasizadeh, Sina; Jani, Masih; Keshvari, Mahtab

    2018-06-12

    To determine the relationship between the parent-child relationship, self-control and demographic characteristics and the desire to play video games among male university students at one university in Iran. This was a correlational, descriptive, applied study. A total of 103 male students were selected randomly as a study sample from the population of male students at Isfahan University in Iran. Data collection tools used were the Video Games Questionnaire, Tanji's Self-Control Scale, Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire, and Demographic Questionnaire. Data were analysed using stepwise regression analysis. This study found several factors increased male students' desire to play video games. Demographic characteristics associated with increased tendency to play video games among male students in Iran are older age, larger number of family members, lower parental level of education and higher socio-economic class, while other significant factors are a lower level of self‑control and a poorer parent-child relationship. PARTICIPANTS': higher socio-economic class, lower level of self-control and older age explained 8.2%, 5.2% and 5.9% of their desire to play video games, respectively. These three variables together accounted for significantly 16.9% of a male student's desire to play video games in this study ( P video games in Iran. Moreover, lower levels of self-control and a poorer parent-child relationship were found to be accompanied by a greater desire to play video games among male university students. © 2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  17. Post-traumatic stress symptoms, parenting stress and mother-child relationships following childbirth and at 2 years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sarah; Slade, Pauline; Spiby, Helen; Iles, Jane

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms at 2 years postpartum and the relationship between such symptoms and both self-reported parenting stress and perceptions of the mother-child relationship. 81 women completed measures of childbirth-related PTS symptoms at 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum; these results were used in an exploration of their predictive links with mother-child relationship and parenting measures at 2 years. 17.3% of respondents reported some PTS symptoms at a clinically significant level at 2 years postpartum. However, these symptoms were only weakly linked to parenting stress and were not related to mothers' perceptions of their children. However earlier PTS symptoms within 3 months of childbirth did show limited associations with parenting stress at 2 years but no association with child relationship outcomes once current depression was taken into account. Implications for clinical practice and the concept of childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.

  18. The effects of knowledge of child development and social-emotional maturity on adolescent attitudes toward parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J J; Juhasz, A M

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the combined effect of knowledge of child development and level of social-emotional maturity, and the extent to which this relationship affects adolescent attitudes toward parenting. The analysis of the data (multiple regression and canonical analysis) suggested that there were significant relationships among these variables. In general, the relationships indicated that subjects' negative attitudes toward parenting were associated with lack of knowledge of child development and low levels of social-emotional maturity, while subjects' positive attitudes toward parenting were associated with knowledge of child development and high levels of social-emotional maturity. The joint impact of knowledge of child development and social-emotional maturity factors on attitudes toward parenting accounted for 51% of the variation among the variables.

  19. Father's parenting and father-child relationship among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Ren; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-02-01

    Western literature documents impaired father-child interactions in addition to strong evidence of impaired mother-child interactions in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the parenting process of fathers and their engagement in the Asian family with children with ADHD remain unexplored. The authors compared fathering and father-child relationships between children with ADHD and those without ADHD and identified the correlates of these paternal measures. Fathering and father-child relationships were compared between 296 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 229 children without ADHD in Taiwan. All child participants and their parents received psychiatric interviews for the diagnosis of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders of the children, and their fathers were assessed for ADHD, anxiety and depressive symptoms. Both the fathers and children reported on the father's parenting style, father-child interactions, behavioral problems at home, and perceived family support. The results showed that children with ADHD received less affection/care and more overprotection and authoritarian control from their fathers. They had less active interactions with their fathers, more severe behavioral problems at home; and perceived less family support than children without ADHD. Correlates for impaired father-child interactions included childhood ADHD symptoms, any comorbidity, age at assessment, and the father's neurotic personality and depressive symptoms. In addition, the children reported more negatively on fathering and father-child interactions than the fathers. Our findings suggest the negative impacts of ADHD on the father's parenting style and father-child interactions. Clinical interventions aimed at improving father-child interactions warrant more attention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of childhood cancer on parents' relationships: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernanda Machado; Jacob, Eufemia; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of cancer and the treatment decisions associated with it may cause uncertainty, stress, and anxiety among parents. Emotional tensions can affect parents' relationships during the trajectory of the child's cancer illness. We conducted an integrative review to examine the evidence related to the effects of childhood cancer on parents' relationships. An integrative literature search of studies published between 1997 and 2009 was conducted in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychology Information (PsycINFO), PubMed, Scopus, CUIDEN, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS). The key words used were neoplasms, child, marriage, spouses, family relations, and nursing. Articles were reviewed if the (a) topic addressed parents' relationships during childhood cancer; (b) participants were mothers, fathers, or both; (c) design was either qualitative or quantitative; (d) language was English, Portuguese, or Spanish; (e) date of publication was between January 1997 and October 2009; and (f) abstract was available. Fourteen articles met the search criteria and were reviewed using Cooper's framework for integrative reviews. Four themes emerged: (a) changes in the parents' relationship during the trajectory of the child's illness; (b) difficulty in communication between couples; (c) gender differences in parental stress and coping; and (d) role changes. Findings revealed positive and negative changes in parents' relationships, communication, stress, and roles. Nurses need to assess the impact of cancer diagnosis and treatments on parent relationships, offer support and encouragement, and allow expression of feelings. Future research is needed to develop and test interventions that increase parents' potentials and strengthen relationships during the challenging trajectory of their children's cancer and treatment. The multiple sources of stress and uncertainty associated with a child's cancer diagnosis and

  1. Overprotective parenting and child anxiety: the role of co-occurring child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Martina K; Villabø, Marianne A; Torgersen, Svenn; Kendall, Philip C

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between overprotective parenting and child anxiety has been examined repeatedly because theories emphasize its role in the maintenance of child anxiety. No study has yet tested whether this relationship is unique to child anxiety, by controlling for commonly co-occurring behavior problems within the same children. The current study examined 190 children (age 7-13, 118 [corrected] boys) referred to mental health clinics and their parents. Results revealed that significant correlations between overprotective parenting and child anxiety symptoms disappear after controlling for co-occurring child behavior symptoms. It appears that overprotection is not uniquely related to child anxiety. Furthermore, overprotective parenting was significantly and uniquely related to child behavior symptoms. Researchers and practitioners need to consider co-occurring child behavior problems when working with the parents of anxious children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between parent held child records for immunisations, parental recall and health service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jessop, L

    2011-03-01

    Parent held child records (PHCR) were introduced in Ireland in 2008. This study investigated the relationship between the PHCR, parental recall and regional Health Service Executive (HSE) records for immunisation uptake. It used the Lifeways cohort study of 1070 singleton children to compare immunisation data from PHCR at one year, parental recall at five years and information from the HSE. When compared to HSE records, full recording of primary immunisations in the PHCR was reported for 695 of 749 (92.8%) children. Parental recall was correct for 520 of 538 (96.7%) children. Of the 307 completed PHCRs, 207 (75.9%) agreed with the HSE records. Agreement between the three sources for primary immunisations was 74-93% but was not statistically significant. Agreement was 91% (p < 0.001) for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccines between parental recall and HSE records. PHCRs underestimated and parental recall overestimated immunisation status when compared with HSE records.

  3. Mothers' Perspectives on the Development of Their Preschoolers' Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors and Parent-Child Relationship: Implications for Pediatric Primary Care Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Keeley J; Van Fossen, Catherine; Cotto-Maisonet, Jennifer; Palmer, Elizabeth N; Eneli, Ihuoma

    2017-07-01

    The study explores female caregivers' reflections on their relationship with their child (2-5 years old) and the development of their child's dietary and physical activity behaviors. Five, 90-minute semistructured focus groups were conducted to inquire about children's growth, eating behaviors and routines, physical activity, personality, and the parent-child relationship. Nineteen female caregivers diverse in race/ethnicity, age, and educational attainment participated. Participants reported that they maintained a schedule, but needed to be flexible to accommodate daily responsibilities. Family, social factors, and day care routines were influences on their children's behaviors. The main physical activity barriers were safety and time constraints. Guidance from pediatric primary care providers aimed at supporting female caregivers to build a positive foundation in their parent-child relationship, and to adopt and model healthy diet and physical activity behaviors that are respectful of schedules and barriers should be a priority for childhood obesity prevention.

  4. Factor Structure of the Chinese Version of the Parent Adult-Child Relationship Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoyang Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Parent Adult-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PACQ included two identical versions of the 13-item scale, which were administered to each subject, one which referred to “relationship with mother” and the other to “relationship with father.” The PACQ, originally in English, is a self-report measure of the filial relationship. The present study aimed to develop a Chinese version of the PACQ and use it to explore Chinese parent adult-child relationships. A total of 454 Chinese adult-children completed the Chinese version of the PACQ. The structure of the questionnaire was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. We found that the Cronbach's α was 0.66–0.88 for fathers and 0.76–0.91 for mothers, which demonstrates high internal consistency reliabilities of the Chinese version of the PACQ. The Chinese version of the PACQ for father had similar constructs similar to with those of the original English version. However, a new factor for mothers, “attachment,” was derived from the original English version. The results suggested that the Chinese version of PACQ is a valid and reliable measure of relationship quality between Chinese adult-children and their parents.

  5. Relationship between parental estimate and an objective measure of child television watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemmich James N

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many young children have televisions in their bedrooms, which may influence the relationship between parental estimate and objective measures of child television usage/week. Parental estimates of child television time of eighty 4–7 year old children (6.0 ± 1.2 years at the 75th BMI percentile or greater (90.8 ± 6.8 BMI percentile were compared to an objective measure of television time obtained from TV Allowance™ devices attached to every television in the home over a three week period. Results showed that parents overestimate their child's television time compared to an objective measure when no television is present in the bedroom by 4 hours/week (25.4 ± 11.5 vs. 21.4 ± 9.1 in comparison to underestimating television time by over 3 hours/week (26.5 ± 17.2 vs. 29.8 ± 14.4 when the child has a television in their bedroom (p = 0.02. Children with a television in their bedroom spend more objectively measured hours in television time than children without a television in their bedroom (29.8 ± 14.2 versus 21.4 ± 9.1, p = 0.003. Research on child television watching should take into account television watching in bedrooms, since it may not be adequately assessed by parental estimates.

  6. Parents' mental health after the birth of an extremely preterm child: a comparison between bereaved and non-bereaved parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenewein, J; Moergeli, H; Fauchère, J-C; Bucher, H U; Kraemer, B; Wittmann, L; Schnyder, U; Büchi, S

    2008-03-01

    To assess the impact of extremely preterm birth (24-26 weeks of gestation) on the mental health of parents two to six years after delivery, and to examine potential differences in post-traumatic growth between parents whose newborn infant died and those whose child survived. A total of 54 parents who had lost their newborn and 38 parents whose preterm child survived were assessed by questionnaires with regard to depression and anxiety (HADS) and post-traumatic growth (PTGI). Neither group of parents had clinically relevant levels of depression and anxiety. Mothers showed higher levels of anxiety than fathers. Bereaved parents with no other, living child reported higher levels of depression than bereaved parents with one or more children. Mothers reported higher post-traumatic growth compared to fathers. In particular, bereaved mothers experienced the value and quality of their close social relationships more positively compared to the non-bereaved parents. In the long term, bereaved and non-bereaved parents cope reasonably well with an extremely preterm birth of a child. Post-traumatic growth appears to be positively related to bereavement, particularly in mothers.

  7. The efficacy of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in improving parenting and child behavior: a comparison with two other treatment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Cina, Annette; Ledermann, Thomas; Sanders, Matthew R

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of an evidence-based parenting program (the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program), intending to improve parenting skills and children's well-being. Parents participating in a Group Triple P program (n=50 couples) were compared with parents of a non-treated control group (n=50 couples) and parents participating in a marital distress prevention program (couples coping enhancement training (CCET)) (n=50 couples). The two major goals of this study were (a) to evaluate the efficacy of Triple P compared with the two other treatment conditions over a time-span of 1 year and (b) to answer the question whether this program that was developed in Australia is culturally accepted by Swiss parents. Results revealed that Triple P was effective with Swiss families. Mothers of the Triple P group showed significant improvements in parenting, parenting self-esteem, and a decrease in stressors related to parenting. Women trained in Triple P also reported significantly lower rates of child's misbehavior than women of the two other conditions. However, in men only a few significant results were found. Positive effects of the relationship training (CCET) were somewhat lower than those for the Triple P. These findings are further discussed.

  8. Depression among Migrant and Left-Behind Children in China in Relation to the Quality of Parent-Child and Teacher-Child Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jing; Ren, Xuezhu; Wang, Xiaohua; Qu, Zhiyong; Zhou, Qianyun; Ran, Chun; Wang, Xia; Hu, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine rates of depression among migrant children (MC) and left-behind children (LBC) as compared to non-left-behind children (NLBC) and also to examine the relationship between depression among these children and the quality of their parent-child and teacher-child relationships. This study collected data from a large sample of 3,759 children aged from 8 to 17 years, including 824 who had been left behind by one parent (LBCO), 423 who had been left behind b...

  9. Longitudinal linkages among parent-child acculturation discrepancy, parenting, parent-child sense of alienation, and adolescent adjustment in Chinese immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2013-05-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy is a risk factor in the development of children in immigrant families. Using a longitudinal sample of Chinese immigrant families, the authors of the current study examined how unsupportive parenting and parent-child sense of alienation sequentially mediate the relationship between parent-child acculturation discrepancy and child adjustment during early and middle adolescence. Acculturation discrepancy scores were created using multilevel modeling to take into account the interdependence among family members. Structural equation models showed that during early adolescence, parent-child American orientation discrepancy is related to parents' use of unsupportive parenting practices; parents' use of unsupportive parenting is related to increased sense of alienation between parents and children, which in turn is related to more depressive symptoms and lower academic performance in Chinese American adolescents. These patterns of negative adjustment established in early adolescence persist into middle adolescence. This mediating effect is more apparent among father-adolescent dyads than among mother-adolescent dyads. In contrast, parent-child Chinese orientation discrepancy does not demonstrate a significant direct or indirect effect on adolescent adjustment, either concurrently or longitudinally. The current findings suggest that during early adolescence, children are more susceptible to the negative effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancy; they also underscore the importance of fathering in Chinese immigrant families.

  10. Sustaining Parent-Young Child Relationships during and after Separation and Divorce. Or Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Kyle; Pruett, Marsha Kline

    2012-01-01

    That separation and divorce frequently burden the young child emotionally and developmentally has moved from scientific to common knowledge over the past two decades. Recent cultural changes also moderate or intensify such stress and strain on the parent-child relationship: a divorce rate hovering at about 40% of all marriages, a third of all…

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTAL AND CHILD CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Fesharak Nia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: Adult cardiovascular disease has its root in childhood. Cardiovascular disease aggregates in families, so identification of high-risk families and early screening and control of cardiovascular risk factors in offspring will help prevent cardiovascular disease. This study was performed to determine the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors in parents having a positive history of premature myocardial infarction and their offspring. methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004 on 91 parents and their offspring (91 children. The parents were randomly selected from among patients hospitalized in the critical care unit of Vali-e-Asr hospital with premature myocardial infarction. Important indicators such as systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were measured in both groups. results: There was no significant relation of systolic and diastolic blood pressure between parents and their offspring. Thirty-three percent of the parents were hypertensive. No cases of hypertension were found in children. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in the children of hypertensive parents. Significant relations were seen between BMI and obesity in parents and their children. There was no significant relation between serum lipids, high TC, high LDL-C and low HDL-C levels in parents and their children. The commonest lipid disorder in parents and their offspring was low HDL-C. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show a significant relation between hypertension, obesity and blood lipid disorders between parents with positive history of premature myocardial infraction and their children. Hence, screening programs in these children for detection of cardiovascular risk factors are recommended.     Keywords

  12. Asian cultural values gap, cognitive flexibility, coping strategies, and parent-child conflicts among Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Annie J; Kim, Bryan S K; Park, Yong S

    2008-10-01

    The study examined Korean American college students' perceived Asian cultural values gap between themselves and their parents, cognitive flexibility, and coping strategies. The relationships between these factors were studied with the intensities and types of parent-child conflicts. The results indicated that the participants adhered less strongly to Asian values than their parents. When faced with conflicts, the participants reported using problem solving coping strategy to the greatest extent, followed by social support coping strategy, and then avoidance coping strategy. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between the participant-perceived parent-child values gap and the intensity of conflicts, particularly in the area of dating and marriage. There were inverse relationships between cognitive flexibility and the intensity of conflicts, specifically in the area of dating and marriage. A positive relationship was observed between the use of social support coping strategy and intensity of conflicts. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect in which participant-perceived parent-child values gap and cognitive flexibility were related to increased frequency of dating and marriage conflicts.

  13. Parental Catastrophizing Partially Mediates the Association between Parent-Reported Child Pain Behavior and Parental Protective Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Shelby L.; Romano, Joan M.; Mancl, Lloyd; Levy, Rona L.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to model and test the role of parental catastrophizing in relationship to parent-reported child pain behavior and parental protective (solicitous) responses to child pain in a sample of children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and their parents (n = 184 dyads). Parents completed measures designed to assess cognitions about and responses to their child's abdominal pain. They also rated their child's pain behavior. Mediation analyses were performed using regression-based techn...

  14. [Formula: see text]Associations among parent-child relationships and cognitive and language outcomes in a clinical sample of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Kara; Heffelfinger, Amy; Kaugars, Astrida

    2017-02-01

    To examine associations among parent-child relationship characteristics and child cognitive and language outcomes. Preschool children (n = 72) with early neurological insult completed assessments of cognitive and language functioning and participated in a parent-child semi-structured interaction. Quality of the parent-child relationship accounted for a significant amount of unique variance (12%) in predicting children's overall cognitive and language functioning. Impact of neurological insult was a significant predictor. Caregiver-child interactions that are harmonious and reciprocal as evidenced by affective and/or verbal exchanges support children's cognitive and language development. Observations of interactions can guide providers in facilitating child- and family-centered interventions.

  15. Research Paper: Relationship of Parent-Child Stress with Cochlear Implanted Children’s Developmental Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Faramarzi

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion The results of this study showed that parent-child stress had a significant effect on developmental skills of children with cochlear implants. Due to the importance of developmental skills in children with cochlear implants, the results of this study warned the need to provide counseling and psychological support for this group of parents. Accordingly, the programs should be offered in the form of workshops for mothers of these children. Also, psychologists and family counselors and experts in family therapy are recommended to have special attention to the role of stress in parent-child relationships in treatment programs and training.

  16. Associations of Perceived Sibling and Parent-Child Relationship Quality With Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Comparing Indian and Dutch Early Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, K. L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241099218; Verhoeven, Marjolein|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349747; Hoksbergen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068229127; Ter Laak, J.; Watve, S.; Paranjpe, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to examine whether Dutch and Indian early adolescents differ concerning sibling and parent-child relationship quality and externalizing and internalizing problems, and (b) to compare the associations between sibling and parent-child relationship quality and

  17. Representations of Parent-Child Alliances in Children's Family Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Kim; Wallace, Tamar; Rudy, Duane

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between children's representations of parent-child alliances (PCA) and their peer relationship quality, using a new scale that was developed to rate representations of PCA in children's family drawings. The parent-child alliance pattern is characterized by a relationship between parent and…

  18. Impact of Play Therapy on Parent-Child Relationship Stress at a Mental Health Training Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Dee C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of Child-Centred Play Therapy (CCPT)/Non-Directive Play Therapy on parent-child relationship stress using archival data from 202 child clients divided into clinical behavioural groups over 3-74 sessions in a mental health training setting. Results demonstrated significant differences between pre and post testing…

  19. The birth of the first child as a positive event in the lives of young parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójtowicz-Dacka Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to research the relatioship between level of knowledge possessed by the contemporary parents about the psychological needs of small children and their perception of the birth of their child as a positive event. Study involved 90 parents, aged 25-30, who are currently raising young children up to 1 year of age. The analyses that were carried out verified the existence of such a correlation, but the event of birth is not a positive event for all parents. In summary, the sense of satisfaction with the birth of a child and perceiving this situation as a positive event is especially high among women and those with a higher education. For men and for parents with a low level of education, it can become a positive experience if they raise their level of knowledge about the needs of small children.

  20. Parenting and childhood atopic dermatitis: A cross-sectional study of relationships between parenting behaviour, skin care management, and disease severity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amy E; Fraser, Jennifer A; Morawska, Alina; Ramsbotham, Joanne; Yates, Patsy

    2016-12-01

    ineffective parenting strategies. Self-efficacy for managing difficult child behaviour and self-efficacy for managing atopic dermatitis were positively correlated (rho=0.48, ppermissive (r=0.35, p=0.005) and less authoritarian (r=0.41, p=0.001) parenting. Directly observed aversive child behaviour was associated with more severe atopic dermatitis, parent stress, and parent-reported child behaviour problems. This study revealed relationships between parents' self-efficacy and parenting practices across the domains of child behaviour management and atopic dermatitis management. Parents of children with more severe atopic dermatitis may have difficulty responding to child behaviour difficulties appropriately, potentially impacting on illness management. Incorporating parent and parenting support within treatment plans may improve not only child and family wellbeing, but also treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Parent-child interactions and children with cerebral palsy: An exploratory study investigating emotional availability, functional ability, and parent distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfoot, J; Meredith, P; Ziviani, J; Whittingham, K

    2017-11-01

    Emotionally available parent-child relationships are supportive of child health and development. When a child has cerebral palsy, a range of child and parent factors can potentially impact the parent-child relationship; however, little research has specifically addressed this question. The aim of this study is to investigate links between parent-child emotional availability and both child functional abilities and parent distress in a sample of parents and children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-three mothers (mean age 37.3+/-5.7 years) and their children (mean age 4.9+/-3.3 years) with cerebral palsy completed a 20 min videoed parent-child interaction, scored using the Emotional Availability Scales. Parents also completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Correlational analyses were conducted, and qualitative observations were made. Parent-child dyads in which the parent reported depressive symptoms scored poorer on all aspects of parent-child emotional availability. Where parents reported experiencing anxiety or stress, increased parent hostility and decreased child responsiveness was found. There was no relationship between child functional abilities and either parent distress or parent-child emotional availability. Parent sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness were negatively associated with child peer problems. Both child responsiveness and child involvement were negatively associated with hyperactivity/inattention. Observations of video footage suggested that parent implementation of therapy strategies impacted negatively on parent-child emotional availability for some dyads. Findings from this study are consistent with the wider literature showing a link between parental depression and the parent-child relationship and extend this link to the cerebral palsy population. The importance of routine screening for parental mental health problems in early

  2. Parental Employment and Child Behaviors: Do Parenting Practices Underlie These Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzic, Renata; Magee, Christopher A.; Robinson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether hours of parental employment were associated with child behaviors via parenting practices. The sample included 2,271 Australian children aged 4-5 years at baseline. Two-wave panel mediation models tested whether parenting practices that were warm, hostile, or characterized by inductive reasoning linked parent's hours of…

  3. The effect of positive parenting program on parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research indicates that impaired hearing is one of the most stressful disabilities. The parenting stress involved could lead to family malfunction and improper parenting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of positive parenting programs on the parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children.Methods: The statistical population comprised mothers of all 7-12-year-old impaired hearing children in Tehran city. Thereafter, using the random sampling method, 24 individuals were shortlisted as research participants and were randomly assigned to two groups: control and experimental. The experimental group was trained with a positive parenting program based on the Sanders program (1993 over eight sessions. The measurement instrument was the Abidin parenting stress questionnaire.Results: The mean score for grades in the experimental groups’ parent and child domains at the pre- and post-test stages had reduced more than that in the control group. In addition, the results of a multivariate covariance analysis indicated that positive parenting training was effective in the reduction of parenting stress scores, reinforcement, and child mood components in the child domain, and in the feelings of competence, relationships with the spouse, and role limitation components (p<0.05 in the parent domain.Conclusion : Considering the benefits of training parents for the reduction of parenting stress of mothers with impaired hearing children, this method is recommended in all learning centers for the deaf.

  4. [Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briegel, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a manualized evidence-based intervention, was originally developed to treat disruptive behavior problems in children aged 2–6 years. It is also considered to be an evidence-based intervention for physical abuse among children. Moreover, PCIT has proved to be effective for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and depression. Thus, it could become the first evidence-based, transdiagnostic intervention method for 2–6-year-old children. PCIT is based on attachment theory as well as learning theory, combining aspects of play therapy and behavior therapy. It consists of two treatment phases: child-directed interaction (CDI) and parent-directed interaction (PDI). In both phases parents are taught special skills. When interacting with their child parents practice these skills and are live coached by the therapist. CDI aims at improving the parent-child relationship and is the basis for PDI. In CDI, parents learn to follow their child’s lead as long as the child shows appropriate behavior. In PDI, parents practice effectively taking the lead wherever necessary. On average, it takes about 15–20 sessions to complete PCIT, which can be terminated as soon as the parents demonstrate a mastery of the skills, when child disruptive behavior has been reduced to clearly normal levels, and when the parents have become confident in managing child behavior on their own.

  5. The relationship between sources and functions of social support and dimensions of child- and parent-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, M J; Hammond, M A; Neville, B; Connor, R T

    2008-12-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between the sources and functions of social support and dimensions of child- and parent-related stress for mothers of young children with mild developmental delays. Sixty-three mothers completed assessments of stress and support at two time points. Multiple regression analyses revealed that parenting support during the early childhood period (i.e. advice on problems specific to their child and assistance with child care responsibilities), irrespective of source, consistently predicted most dimensions of parent stress assessed during the early elementary years and contributed unique variance. General support (i.e. primarily emotional support and validation) from various sources had other, less widespread effects on parental stress. The multidimensional perspective of the construct of social support that emerged suggested mechanisms mediating the relationship between support and stress and provided a framework for intervention.

  6. [Theraplay--interactive therapy between parent and child in juvenile mental problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Jukka; Salo, Saara

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child interaction therapy is an effective means to prevent and correct children's mental problems. Interactive interventions shown to be effective share common features: the focus is on the support of the parent's sensitivity, positive guiding ability and reflective capability. Simultaneous participation of both parents in the therapy, application of video observation and affirmation of positive collaborative relationship with the parents seem to increase the efficacy of the intervention. The above-mentioned elements are utilized in an interactive therapy method called Theraplay.

  7. Triple p-positive parenting program for mothers of ADHD children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghebati, Asma; Gharraee, Banafsheh; Hakim Shoshtari, Mitra; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder which affects 9% of school-age children. Triple P-Positive Parenting Program is an evidence-based parenting program reported to be useful in the management of this disorder. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of Triple P in mothers of ADHD children. In this study, 30 mothers with ADHD children aged between 6 to 10 were randomly assigned to two groups (15 participants in each group). Parenting style, mother-child relationship, maternal depression, anxiety and stress, and children's behavioral problems were evaluated. The intervention group received 120 minute sessions for 5 weeks and 15-30 minute telephone contacts for 3 weeks while no intervention was done for the control group. Analysis of covariance revealed that mothers of the Triple P group showed significant (p parenting style, mother-child relationship, and considerable decrease in depression, anxiety and stress. Women trained in the Triple P group also reported significantly lower rates of child misbehavior than women of the control group. Triple P-Positive Parenting intervention is effective and acceptable for mothers of ADHD children. None. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.irct.ir. Unique identifier: IRCT201111288234N1.

  8. Associations between child emotional eating and general parenting style, feeding practices, and parent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Abby; Rhee, Kyung; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah A; Zucker, Nancy; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-09-01

    Emotional eating is the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions. Prior research has identified a relationship between parenting style and child emotional eating, but this has not been examined in clinical samples. Furthermore, the relationship between specific parenting practices (e.g., parent feeding practices) and child emotional eating has not yet been investigated. The current study examined relationships between child emotional eating and both general and specific parenting constructs as well as maternal symptoms of depression and binge eating among a treatment-seeking sample of overweight children. Participants included 106 mother-child dyads who attended a baseline assessment for enrollment in a behavioral intervention for overeating. Ages of children ranged from 8 to 12  years old. Mothers completed self-report measures of their child's emotional eating behavior, their own feeding practices, and symptoms of depression and binge eating. Children completed a self-report measure of their mothers' general parenting style. A stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify the parent variable that was most strongly related to child emotional eating, controlling for child age and gender. Emotional feeding behavior (i.e., a tendency to offer food to soothe a child's negative emotions) was the parent factor most significantly related to child emotional eating. Findings suggest that emotional feeding practices in parents may be related to emotional eating in children. Treatment with overweight children who engage in emotional eating may be improved by targeting parent feeding practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beliefs regarding child anxiety and parenting competence in parents of children with separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Chantal; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that numerous developmental models have highlighted the role of parental cognitive processes in connection with anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, the role of parents' beliefs about their children and parenting remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the specific association between parental beliefs and child separation anxiety. Parents of children with a diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) reported on beliefs and expectations related to their child's fears and own parenting competence. To study the potential specificity of relationships, a clinical control group of mothers of children with social phobia (SoP) and a group of mothers of children without a mental disorder (healthy controls, HC) were included. Results indicated that parents of anxious children had significantly higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs than the parents in the HC group. Mothers of children with SAD showed lower levels of parenting self-efficacy than mothers of children with SoP. They also demonstrated lower parenting self-efficacy and satisfaction compared to mothers of healthy children. Parental dysfunctional beliefs about child anxiety and paternal parenting self-efficacy were significantly positively associated with child anxiety. The effects remained significant after controlling for parental anxiety and depression. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causality of the found effects cannot be inferred. Data suggest that children's anxiety and parents' beliefs about their child's anxiety, coping skills and parenting are strongly associated. Further research is needed to investigate whether addressing parental cognitions in addition to parents' anxiety may improve prevention and intervention of child anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H.C.G.; Alink, Lenneke R.A.; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J.M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of

  11. Parent-child relationship trajectories during adolescence: Longitudinal associations with romantic outcomes in emerging adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiffge-Krenke, I.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of parent-child relationships in adolescence. especially with respect to changes in support levels and negativity, and analyzed if and how these trajectories were associated with the subsequent quality of romantic relationships in young adulthood. A

  12. Child ADHD Severity and Positive and Negative Parenting as Predictors of Child Social Functioning: Evaluation of Three Theoretical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Nina M.; McBurnett, Keith; Pfiffner, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established links between child social functioning and both parenting and child ADHD severity; however, research examining the way that these variables work together is lacking. The current article aims to test three possible models (main effects, mediation, and moderation) by which ADHD severity and positive and…

  13. A study of school adjustment, self-concept, self-esteem, general wellbeing and parent child relationship in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anita; Yadav, T P

    2013-03-01

    To assess school adjustment, self-concept, self-esteem, general wellbeing and parent-child relationship in children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)and to study the correlation of these parameters with chronicity of disease, number of active joints, laboratory parameters of disease activity and JIA subtypes. A total of 64 children (32 cases and 32 controls) were recruited for analysis. Self report questionnaires which included PGI General Wellbeing Measure, Adjustment Inventory for School Students, Parent Child Relationship Scale, Self Esteem Inventory and Self Concept Questionnaires were used to assess all the enrolled subjects. Cases had significantly lower general physical well being (p self-esteem, self-concept, adjustment in school, general wellbeing and evokes disturbed parent-child relationship.

  14. Parent-Child Relationships of Boys in Different Offending Trajectories: A Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study tested the theoretical assumption that transformations of parent-child relationships in late childhood and adolescence would differ for boys following different offending trajectories. Methods: Using longitudinal multiinformant data of 503 boys (ages 7-19), we conducted Growth Mixture Modeling to extract offending…

  15. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…

  16. The Validation of Macro and Micro Observations of Parent-Child Dynamics Using the Relationship Affect Coding System in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Mun, Chung Jung; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Kim, Hanjoe; Shaw, Daniel S; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N; Peterson, Jenene

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the validity of micro social observations and macro ratings of parent-child interaction in early to middle childhood. Seven hundred and thirty-one families representing multiple ethnic groups were recruited and screened as at risk in the context of Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) Nutritional Supplement service settings. Families were randomly assigned to the Family Checkup (FCU) intervention or the control condition at age 2 and videotaped in structured interactions in the home at ages 2, 3, 4, and 5. Parent-child interaction videotapes were micro-coded using the Relationship Affect Coding System (RACS) that captures the duration of two mutual dyadic states: positive engagement and coercion. Macro ratings of parenting skills were collected after coding the videotapes to assess parent use of positive behavior support and limit setting skills (or lack thereof). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the measurement model of macro ratings of limit setting and positive behavior support was not supported by the data, and thus, were excluded from further analyses. However, there was moderate stability in the families' micro social dynamics across early childhood and it showed significant improvements as a function of random assignment to the FCU. Moreover, parent-child dynamics were predictive of chronic behavior problems as rated by parents in middle childhood, but not emotional problems. We conclude with a discussion of the validity of the RACS and on methodological advantages of micro social coding over the statistical limitations of macro rating observations. Future directions are discussed for observation research in prevention science.

  17. Associations of Perceived Sibling and Parent-Child Relationship Quality with Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Comparing Indian and Dutch Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L.; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hoksbergen, René; ter Laak, Jan; Watve, Sujala; Paranjpe, Analpa

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (a) to examine whether Dutch and Indian early adolescents differ concerning sibling and parent-child relationship quality and externalizing and internalizing problems, and (b) to compare the associations between sibling and parent-child relationship quality and externalizing and internalizing problems for Indian…

  18. Parents' Discord and Divorce, Parent-Child Relationships and Subjective Well-Being in Early Adulthood: Is Feeling Close to Two Parents Always Better than Feeling Close to One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the associations between parents' marital discord and divorce, patterns of parent-child relationships, and adult children's subjective well-being. Parental divorce and marital conflict appeared to increase the odds that children were close to neither parent in adulthood. Parental divorce (but not marital conflict) appeared to increase…

  19. Factors associated with parent concern for child weight and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Karissa L; Welk, Gregory; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Yang, Shu; Kim, Jae-Kwang

    2015-06-01

    A parent's perception about their child's overweight status is an important precursor or determinant of preventative actions. Acknowledgment of, and concern for, overweight may be moderated by the parent's own weight status whereas engaging in healthy behaviors at home may promote healthy weight status. It is hypothesized that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and acknowledge overweight in their own children whereas heavier parents may report more concern about child weight. A total of 1745 parents of first- through fifth-grade students completed a questionnaire assessing reactions to a school BMI report and perceptions about BMI issues. Specific items included perceptions of child's weight status, concern for child weight status, and preventive practices. Parents also provided information about their own weight status. Relationships between measured child weight, perceived child weight, parent weight, parent concern, and healthy behaviors were examined. Overweight parents were more likely to identify overweight in their child and report concern about their child's weight. Concern was higher for parents of overweight children than of normal weight children. Normal weight parents and parents of normal weight children reported more healthy behaviors. Results support the hypothesis that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and that overweight parents are more likely to report concern about child weight. However, overweight parents are also more likely to acknowledge overweight status in their own child. Future research should examine links between parent concern and actual pursuit of weight management assistance.

  20. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Child Conflict and Child Depression Through Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Wilson, Sylia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Few studies have investigated potential gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later depression, a notable gap given substantial gender differences in rates of depression and suggestive evidence of differences in the etiology of depression among females and males. To fill this gap, we evaluated whether the prospective relationship between parent-child conflict and major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms varied as a function of parent-child gender composition. Method A combined twin and adoption sample was used (53% female; 85% European ancestry), containing 1,627 adolescent sibling pairs (789 monozygotic twin pairs, 594 dizygotic/full-biological pairs, 244 genetically unrelated pairs) with assessments at two time points in adolescence (ages ~15 to ~18). Results Prospective associations between parent-child conflict and subsequent adolescent depression were explained predominately through common genetic influences for mother-daughter and mother-son pairs, but less so for father-daughter and father-son pairs. Conclusion Processes of gene-environment correlation involved in the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later adolescent depression appear to be less relevant to father-child relationships in comparison to mother-child relationships. Notably, results did not show parent-child conflict was more relevant to the etiology of MDD for girls than boys; gender differences in depression do not appear to be due to differences in the associations between parent-child conflict and child depression. PMID:27043719

  1. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Child Conflict and Child Depression Through Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Wilson, Sylia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2016-04-04

    Few studies have investigated potential gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later depression, a notable gap given substantial gender differences in rates of depression and suggestive evidence of differences in the etiology of depression among females and males. To fill this gap, we evaluated whether the prospective relationship between parent-child conflict and major depressive disorder symptoms varied as a function of parent-child gender composition. A combined twin and adoption sample was used (53% female; 85% European ancestry), containing 1,627 adolescent sibling pairs (789 monozygotic twin pairs, 594 dizygotic/full-biological pairs, 244 genetically unrelated pairs) with assessments at two time points in adolescence (approximate ages 15 and 18). Prospective associations between parent-child conflict and subsequent adolescent depression were explained predominately through common genetic influences for mother-daughter and mother-son pairs but less so for father-daughter and father-son pairs. Results support the notion that processes of gene-environment correlation involved in the prospective associations between parent-child conflict, and later adolescent depression appear to be less relevant to father-child relationships in comparison to mother-child relationships. Notably, results did not show that parent-child conflict was more relevant to the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) for girls than boys; gender differences in depression do not appear to be due to differences in the associations between parent-child conflict and child depression.

  2. Families Created by Assisted Reproduction: Parent-Child Relationships in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lucy; Golombok, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the third phase of a longitudinal study of families created by assisted reproduction. The quality of parent-child relationships was examined close to the adolescent's 18th birthday in 26 "in vitro" fertilization (IVF) families and 26 donor insemination (DI) families in comparison with 38 adoptive families and 63…

  3. Incarcerated fathers and parenting: importance of the relationship with their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Bae; Sansone, Frank A; Swanson, Cheryl; Tatum, Kimberly M

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of incarcerated fathers (n = 185) with their children while in a maximum security prison. Despite the attention to parental incarceration and at-risk children, the child welfare and corrections literature has focused mostly on imprisoned mothers and children. Demographic, sentence, child-related, and program participation factors were investigated for their influence on father-child relationships. Multiple regression analyses indicated race and sentence contributed to the father's positive perceptions of contacts with their children. Most important, many, though serving lengthy sentences, valued and perceived a positive father-child relationship. Results are discussed in light of implications for future research and social policy.

  4. Parents and Friendships: A Longitudinal Examination of Interpersonal Mediators of the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Suicidal Ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Adam B.; Adams, Leah M.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parental relationship quality, friendship quality, and depression as mediators of the association between child maltreatment (CM) and adolescent suicidal ideation (SI). Participants were 674 adolescents (46% female; 55% African American) involved in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Data were collected via youth self-report at ages 12, 16, and 18. CM before age 12 predicted poor parental relationships and depression, but not poor friendships, ...

  5. Parent-Child Hostility and Child ADHD Symptoms: A Genetically Sensitive and Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifford, Kate J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Background: Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report higher rates of conflict within the family and more negative parent-child relationships. This study aimed to test whether negative parent-child relationships have a risk effect on ADHD symptoms using two complementary designs. Method: The first sample…

  6. Family affection as a protective factor against the negative effects of perceived Asian values gap on the parent-child relationship for Asian American male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong S; Vo, Leyna P; Tsong, Yuying

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether family affection (i.e., affective responsiveness, affectionate communication, and affective orientation) protected against the negative effects of perceived parent-child Asian values gap on the quality of their parent relationships for 259 female and 77 male Asian American college students. Asian values gap was higher for women than men, and inversely related to a perceived healthy parent-child relationship for both genders. Participants rated the relationship with their mothers as more positive and affectionate than with their fathers. Both parents were reported to communicate more supportive affection than verbal and nonverbal affection. Affective responsiveness was identified as a protective factor in the father-son relationship whereas verbal affection protected the mother-daughter relationship. The study also revealed that daughters' affective orientation had beneficial effects on the father-daughter relationship at lower levels of Asian values gap. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Impact of Childhood Family Disruption on Young Adults' Relationships with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of childhood family disruption for parent-adult child relations in sample of 4,516 young adults. Among young adults raised in single-parent families, relationships with custodial mothers and custodial fathers remained quite positive into early adulthood. Becoming noncustodial parent resulted in severe deterioration of…

  8. Youth Online Media Use: Associations with Youth Demographics, Parental Monitoring, and Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Rudi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As online media has become an increasingly important part of youths’ daily lives, it is critical for the field to explore questions related to youth online media use in order to support youth workers, youth development practice and programming. Using a national sample of youth age 13-22 (N = 585, the current study explored demographic differences in youth online media use, and examined associations between youth demographics, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, and likelihood of being a frequent user of online activities. Although youth reported being frequent users of online media, Internet use was not the same for all youth. Online media use differed significantly by youth age, gender, race, and family relationship quality. The findings remind the field to consider the young people we are working with and how they use online media in their daily lives.

  9. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. Methods A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Results Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6 and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9, but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8 than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p < 0.05 and after (β = 1.73; 95 % CI: 0.53, 2.94; p < 0.001 controlling for confounders, and an inverse relationship between consensual family type and child BMI after adjustment (β = −1.92; 95 % CI: −3.59, −0.24; p < 0.05. There was no significant relationship between parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Conclusion Children’s perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need

  10. The relationship between parental overprotection and health-related quality of life in pediatric cancer: the mediating role of perceived child vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Meyer, William H; McNall-Knapp, Rene Y; Mullins, Larry L

    2010-11-01

    The current study sought to examine the relation of parental overprotection and perceived child vulnerability to parent-reported health-related quality of life in parents of children with cancer. Parents (N = 89) of children who had been diagnosed with cancer completed measures of parental overprotection, perceived child vulnerability, and parent-proxy report of health-related quality of life. After controlling for theoretically relevant covariates, parental overprotection and perceived child vulnerability were both found to be significantly related to child health-related quality of life. Additional analyses revealed that perceived child vulnerability mediated the relationship between overprotective parenting behaviors and the child's health-related quality of life. The findings highlight the need to assess for these discrete parenting variables in parents of children with cancer and to develop interventions to target parental perceptions of vulnerability.

  11. The 2-year stability of parental perceptions of child vulnerability and parental overprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-08-01

    Clinicians often identify parent-child relationships that are believed to be problematic for the child's future emotional growth, yet there are minimal outcome data on which to base anticipatory guidance. This 2-year follow-up study examined the stability and child behavioral correlates of parental perceptions of increased child vulnerability and parental overprotection. Of 192 potential participants, 114 parents (93% mothers, 86% white, 75% married, 90% middle-upper socioeconomic status) with children age 4 to 7 years successfully completed the Parent Protection Scale, Child Vulnerability Scale, Child Behavior Checklist 4-18, and the Parental Bonding Instrument. The 2-year stability of high parental overprotection was 37%; for high parental perception of child vulnerability, it was 31%. High perceived vulnerability at enrollment was significantly associated with both internalizing (somatic complaints, anxious/depressed) and externalizing (aggressive) behaviors at follow-up. A history of overprotection in the parent's childhood was not associated with current parental report of overprotective behaviors toward the child.

  12. The bi-directional relationship between parent-child conflict and treatment outcome in treatment-resistant adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon M; Hilton, Robert; Porta, Giovanna; He, Jiayan; Emslie, Graham J; Mayes, Taryn; Clarke, Gregory N; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Keller, Martin B; Ryan, Neal D; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A

    2013-04-01

    To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent-child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Depressed youth who had not responded to an adequate course of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were randomized to either a switch to another SSRI or venlafaxine, with or without the addition of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study. The Conflict Behavior Questionnaire was used to assess adolescent (CBQ-A) and parent-reported (CBQ-P) parent-child discord. The impact of remission on parent-child conflict, and the differential impact of medication and CBT on the CBQ-A and CBQ-P, were assessed using generalized linear models. Although there were no differential treatment effects on parent or adolescent-report of conflict, remission was associated with improvement in the CBQ-P. In general, intake family conflict did not predict remission, except in the sub-group of participants whose parents reported clinically significant parent-child conflict at intake, for whom high levels of parent-reported conflict predicted a lower likelihood of remission. Conflict also did not moderate treatment response. Remission of depression may be sufficient to reduce parent-reported parent-child conflict. However, higher parent-reported conflict, in the clinically significant range, predicts a lower likelihood of remission from depression. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00018902. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between child abuse, parental divorce, and lifetime mental disorders and suicidality in a nationally representative adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-03-01

    To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years; response rate 82.4%). Logistic regression models were used to determine the odds of experiencing lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation and attempts. Parental divorce alone was associated with some psychiatric disorders after adjusting for sociodemographic variables (AOR ranging from 1.30 to 2.37), while child abuse alone was associated with psychiatric disorders (AOR ranging from 1.39 to 6.07) and suicidal ideation (AOR=2.08; 95% CI=1.57-2.77) and attempts (AOR=1.54; 95% CI=1.02-2.31) after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. However, having experienced both parental divorce and child abuse together resulted in significantly increased odds for lifetime PTSD (AOR=9.87; 95% CI=6.69-14.55), conduct disorder (AOR=4.01; 95% CI=2.92-5.51) and suicide attempts (AOR=2.74; 95% CI=1.84-4.08) compared to having experienced either parental divorce or child abuse alone. These results were attenuated when further adjusting for parental psychopathology. When the experience of parental divorce is accompanied with child abuse, the associations with some poor mental health outcomes are significantly greater compared to the impact of either parental divorce or child abuse on its own. Therefore, parental divorce is an additional childhood adversity that significantly contributes to poor mental health outcomes especially when in combination with child abuse. Parental psychopathology attenuated these relationships suggesting that it may be one possible mechanism to explain the relationships between child abuse, parental divorce, and psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts.

  14. Effects of a child with a craniofacial anomaly on stability of the parental relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Dane; Pai, Lori; Belfer, Myron L; Mulliken, John B

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine rates of divorce in parents of children with various types of craniofacial anomalies and to analyze possible confounding factors. A 29-question survey was sent to parents of all children evaluated in the Craniofacial Centre between 1992 and 1997. Parents were questioned regarding pre- and postnatal marital stability, whether the child's facial anomaly contributed to divorce, and involvement in the child's welfare. Using deformational posterior plagiocephaly as a control group, rates of divorce vs. non-divorce were compared for craniofacial anomalies, categorized as asymmetric (hemifacial microsomia, unilateral coronal synostosis, cleft lip, cleft lip/palate) or symmetric (syndromic-craniosynostosis, orbital hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome). Major anomalies (hemifacial microsomia, craniosynostosis, orbital hypertelorism, Treacher Collins syndrome) were also compared to minor anomalies (cleft lip, cleft lip/palate). Surveys were sent to both parents in 412 families; 403 surveys were returned; and the results were evaluated in 275 families (67%). Frequency analysis demonstrated an overall divorce rate of 6.8% and 4.9% separation. Anomalies associated with the highest rate of divorce were hemifacial microsomia (24.0%), syndromic craniosynostosis (12.2%), and cleft lip/palate (6.8%). 79% of non-divorced couples reported a strong prenatal relationship, whereas 59% of divorced couples reported a problematic relationship. Following birth of the affected child, 47% of non-divorced couples responded that the bonds became stronger and 41% of divorced couples thought the relationship worsened. Two-sided Fisher exact test comparing control vs. all other anomalies showed significance (p=.030) for rates of divorce. Separation of anomalies into asymmetric vs. symmetric and major vs. minor categories demonstrated no significant difference in divorce rate (p>.05). The mother was more likely to become a child's primary caregiver

  15. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Parents in the Transition into Higher Education: Impact on Dynamics in the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hees, Valérie; Roeyers, Herbert; De Mol, Jan

    2018-05-02

    This study examined how 34 senior students and first-year college students with autism spectrum disorder, their mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 26) navigate the higher education transition, and how this context impacts on dynamics in the parent-child relationships. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed based on grounded theory and dyadic analysis principles. Both parties were confronted with an abundance of challenges and experienced strong feelings of ambivalence, stress and anxiety. Differences in perspectives occurred regarding the construction of adulthood, the acquisition of autonomy, disclosure and subscribing to support services. These differences caused tensions in the parent-child relationship, hindering the transformation of the relationship into an adult-like mutual relationship. Clinical implications are extrapolated on the basis of these findings.

  16. Attributional style as a mediator between parental abuse risk and child internalizing symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2006-05-01

    This study examined a model wherein children's attributional style mediates the relationship between parental physical child-abuse risk and children's internalizing problems. Using structural equation modeling, three indices of abuse risk were selected (child abuse potential, physical discipline use, and dysfunctional parenting style) and two indices of children's internalizing problems (depression and anxiety). The sample included 75 parent-child dyads, in which parents reported on their abuse risk and children independently completed measures of depressive and anxious symptomatology and a measure on their attributional style. Findings supported the model that children's attributional style for positive events (but not negative events) partially mediated the relationship between abuse risk and internalizing symptoms, with significant direct and indirect effects of abuse risk on internalizing symptomatology. Future directions to continue evaluating additional mediators and other possible contextual variables are discussed.

  17. Child Maltreatment in Turkey: Comparison of Parent and Child Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoğlu, Zeynep; Sarıyer, Görkem; Ataman, M Gökalp

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment, i.e. abuse and neglect, is a significant problem worldwide and can cause impaired physical and mental health throughout life. The true extent still remains unknown in all countries, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to apply the two versions of the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool of ICAST-C and ICAST-P, which are used to assess child and parent feedback and to compare reports given by children and those given by parents. This is the first study of its kind conducted in Turkey. First, ICAST was translated into Turkish by bilingual experts. Students and their parents were asked to complete ICAST-C and ICAST-P respectively, with the help of trained researchers. In total, data from 2,608 matched reports (2,608 children and 2,608 parents) was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate demographical variables, and chi-square tests were employed to investigate the statistical significance of comparisons. The present study demonstrated that Turkish parents consider rebukes, insults and corporal punishment effective ways of disciplining children. According to parents' reports, the use of psychological abuse was most prevalent against boys aged 16, while the use of physical abuse was most prevalent against boys aged 13. A statistically significant relationship was found between parents' economic conditions and child abuse (p0.05). However, the relationship between paternal educational background and psychological abuse was observed to be significant (pchildren's and parents' reports shows that parents tended to under-report child maltreatment. The results show that there is a significant healthcare problem in Turkey, since child maltreatment is prevalent, but parents are not generally aware of its extent. Possible approaches to changing this situation include efforts to increase education levels, promoting public awareness, and strengthening political commitments

  18. Characteristics and correlates of sibling relationships in two-parent African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M; Whiteman, Shawn D; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Crouter, Ann C

    2007-06-01

    The authors studied sibling relationships of African American youths and family and youth characteristics linked to sibling dynamics. Participants were fathers, mothers, and 2 siblings (M = 14.04 and M = 10.34 years of age) from 172 working-middle class 2-parent families. Cluster analyses of data collected in home interviews revealed 3 sibling relationship types: positive, negative, and distant. Parent education was lower, parent religiosity higher, and parent-child relationships more positive in the positive group; maternal discrimination experiences were higher in the negative group; youth ethnic identity was stronger in the positive group; and youth depression and risky behavior were higher in the negative group. The findings target sociocultural factors to consider in interventions for African American families.

  19. [Multi-parent families as "normal" families--segregation and parent-child-alienation after separation and divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp-Peters, Anneke

    2005-12-01

    Decisive for the question as to how children cope with their parents' divorce is whether or not the parents continue to perform their parental role together even after separation, or have at least made arrangements for the child to maintain a good relationship with each parent. These are the findings of a longitudinal study of 150 postdivorce families. The case of a multi-parent family after remarriage, which sees itself as a "normal" family and segregates the visiting parent, shows what consequences the breakdown of parent-child relationships has for the psychological health and the development of children. Alienation and long-term disruption of the contact between child and visiting parent is a phenomenon which the psychiatric and psychotherapeutic professions are increasingly confronted with. The American child psychiatrist R. A. Gardner has introduced the term "Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS)" to encompass this childhood disorder that arises almost exclusively in the context of child-custody disputes.

  20. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over 6 years: The contribution of each parent's depressive history to the other's parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen M; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E S; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-10-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents' depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. The results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent's permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. The results highlight the importance of considering both parents' depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms.

  1. Changes in Parent-Child Relationship Quality across Early Adolescence: Implications for Engagement in Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Alyssa D.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated how changes in specific dimensions of the parent-adolescent relationship predict adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse and oral sex. Longitudinal data from 1,364 participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were gathered at…

  2. Parent-child feeding practices in a developing country: Findings from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee

    2018-06-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Malaysia, examination of family environmental factors is warranted. Reviews from developed countries report inconsistent findings on the relationship between parental-child feeding practices and child weight-related health outcomes. The current study aimed to examine parent-child feeding practices by familial-child characteristics in Malaysia. The Family Diet Study was conducted with urban Malay families and included a child aged 8-12 years and their main carer(s). Seven domains of parent-child feeding practices were assessed using the child feeding questionnaire and familial demographics, including socio-economic status, child anthropometry and dietary intake were collected. Inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between variables. Of the 315 families enrolled, 236 completed all measures, with the majority of parent-reporters being mothers (n = 182). One-third of the children were classified as overweight/obese. Three domains of parent-child feeding practices had median scores of 4.0 out of 5.0 [concern about child overweight (CCO) (Interquartile range (IQR): 3.3, 4.7); pressure-to-eat (PTE) (IQR: 3.3, 4.5) and food monitoring (IQR: 3.0, 5.0)]. The domain of 'perceived child overweight' was positively associated with child age (r = 0.45, p parent-child feeding practices. Further research examining the cultural context of family environmental factors related to childhood obesity is warranted within Malaysia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Food parenting practices and child dietary behavior. Prospective relations and the moderating role of general parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Dagnelie, Pieter C; De Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2014-08-01

    Research on parenting practices has focused on individual behaviors while largely failing to consider the context of their use, i.e., general parenting. We examined the extent to which food parenting practices predict children's dietary behavior (classified as unhealthy: snacking, sugar-sweetened beverage; and healthy: water and fruit intake). Furthermore, we tested the moderating role of general parenting on this relationship. Within the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, in the Netherlands, questionnaire data were collected at 6 and 8 years (N = 1654). Correlations were computed to assess the association between food parenting practices and general parenting (i.e., nurturance, behavioral control, structure, coercive control, and overprotection). Linear regression models were fitted to assess whether food parenting practices predict dietary behavior. Instrumental and emotional feeding, and pressure to eat were found to have associations with undesirable child dietary behavior (increased unhealthy intake/decreased healthy intake), whereas associations were in the desirable direction for covert control, encouragement and restriction. Moderation analyses were performed by evaluating interactions with general parenting. The associations of encouragement and covert control with desirable child dietary behaviors were found to be stronger for children who were reared in a positive parenting context. Future research should assess the influence of contextual parenting factors moderating the relationships between food parenting and child dietary behavior as the basis for the development of more effective family-based interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Practices and preferences: Exploring the relationships between food-related parenting practices and child food preferences for high fat and/or sugar foods, fruits, and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Baietto, Jamey

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between food-related parenting practices and child fruit, vegetable, and high fat/sugar food preferences. Parents (n = 148) of children (3-7 years old) completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ), the Preschool Adapted Food Liking Scale (PALS), and answered demographic questions. Separate linear regressions were conducted to test relationships between the different food categories on PALS (fruits, vegetables, and high fat/sugar foods) and each food-related parenting practice using race, ethnicity, and income level, and child age and gender as covariates. It was found that when a parent allows a child to control eating, it was negatively associated with a child's preference for fruit (β = -0.15, p = 0.032) and parent encouragement of child involvement in meal preparation was positively related to child preference for vegetables (β = 0.14, p = 0.048). Children preferred high fat and sugar foods more if parents used food to regulate child emotions (β = 0.24, p = 0.007), used food as a reward (β = 0.32, p food (β = 0.16, p = 0.045), and restricted unhealthy food (β = 0.20, p = 0.024). Conversely, children preferred high fat and sugar foods less if parents made healthy food available in the home (β = -0.13, p = 0.05), modeled healthy eating in front of the child (β = -0.21, p = 0.021), and if parents explained why healthy foods should be consumed (β = -0.24, p = 0.011). Although it cannot be determined if the parent is influencing the child or vice versa, this study provides some evidence that coercive feeding practices are detrimental to a child's food preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening parents during child evaluations: exploring parent and child psychopathology in the same clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidair, Hilary B; Reyes, Jazmin A; Shen, Sa; Parrilla-Escobar, Maria A; Heleniak, Charlotte M; Hollin, Ilene L; Woodruff, Scott; Turner, J Blake; Rynn, Moira A

    2011-05-01

    Children of depressed and/or anxious parents are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders. Little research has focused on screening parents bringing their children for psychiatric evaluation, and few studies have included fathers or Hispanic children. This study had the following aims: 1) to identify current symptom rates in parents bringing their children for evaluation; and 2) to determine whether parental symptoms were associated with children's symptoms, diagnoses, and functioning. The sample included 801 mothers, 182 fathers, and 848 children (aged 6 through 17 years). The majority (55.66%) were Hispanic, who attended a child and adolescent psychiatric evaluation service. Parent and child symptoms were assessed via parental reports. Children's diagnoses and functioning were determined by clinicians. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether severity of parental symptoms was associated with clinical child variables adjusting for child and parent demographic variables. In all, 18.80% of mothers and 18.42% of fathers reported elevated internalizing symptoms. Maternal symptoms were significantly associated with problems in children's functioning and children's anxiety, depression, and oppositional/conduct diagnoses; but not attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Adjusting for parental and child demographics had a reduction on the effect of maternal symptoms on child depression. Paternal symptoms and functioning were positively associated with children's diagnoses, but the associations were smaller and not significant. Both parents' symptoms were significantly associated with children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. However, these significant effects were not moderated by marital status or child ethnicity. This study highlights the importance of screening parents when their children receive a psychiatric evaluation. The findings support the development of mental health services that address psychiatric needs of the

  6. Families Created Through Surrogacy Arrangements: Parent-Child Relationships in the 1st Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, Susan; Murray, Clare; Jadva, Vasanti; MacCallum, Fiona; Lycett,Emma

    2004-01-01

    Findings are presented of a study of families created through surrogacy arrangements. Forty-two surrogacy families were compared with 51 egg-donation families and 80 natural-conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of the parents, the quality of parent-child relationships, and infant…

  7. A friend request from dear old dad: associations between parent-child social networking and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents.

  8. Poverty and Child Behavioral Problems: The Mediating Role of Parenting and Parental Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Till; Li, Jianghong; Pollmann-Schult, Matthias; Song, Anne Y

    2017-08-30

    The detrimental impact of poverty on child behavioral problems is well-established, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are less well-known. Using data from the Families in Germany Study on parents and their children at ages 9-10 (middle childhood), this study extends previous research by examining whether or not and to what extent different parenting styles and parents' subjective well-being explain the relationship between poverty and child behavior problems. The results show that certain parenting styles, such as psychological control, as well as mothers' life satisfaction partially mediate the correlation between poverty and child behavioral problems.

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of the Relationship between Parenting, Parent-Child Shared Reading Practices, and Child Development in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Casey A.; Stacks, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between parenting, shared reading practices, and child development. Participants included 28 children (M = 24.66 months, SD = 8.41 months) and their parents. Measures included naturalistic observations of parenting and shared reading quality, assessments of child cognitive and language development, and home reading…

  10. Relationships among Parenting Practices, Parental Stress, Child Behaviour, and Children's Social-Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…

  11. A Secure Base from which to Cooperate: Security, Child and Parent Willing Stance, and Adaptive and Maladaptive Outcomes in two Longitudinal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, Kathryn C; Boldt, Lea J; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2017-10-17

    Early secure attachment plays a key role in socialization by inaugurating a long-term mutual positive, collaborative interpersonal orientation within the parent-child dyad. We report findings from Family Study (community mothers, fathers, and children, from age 2 to 12, N = 102, 51 girls) and Play Study (exclusively low-income mothers and children, from age 3.5 to 7, N = 186, 90 girls). We examined links among observed secure attachment at toddler age, child and parent receptive, willing stance to each other, observed in parent-child contexts at early school age, and developmental outcomes. The developmental outcomes included parent-rated child antisocial behavior problems and observed positive mutuality with regard to conflict issues at age 12 in Family Study, and mother-rated child antisocial behavior problems and observed child regard for rules and moral self at age 7 in Play Study. In mother-child relationships, the child's willing stance mediated indirect effects of child security on positive mutuality in Family Study and on all outcomes in Play Study. In father-child relationships, both the child's and the parent's willing stance mediated indirect effects of child security on both outcomes. Early security initiates an adaptive developmental cascade by enlisting the child and the parent as active, willingly receptive and cooperative agents in the socialization process. Implications for children's parenting interventions are noted.

  12. Surrogate mothers 10 years on: a longitudinal study of psychological well-being and relationships with the parents and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Imrie, S; Golombok, S

    2015-02-01

    How do the psychological health and experiences of surrogate mothers change from 1 year to 10 years following the birth of the surrogacy child? The psychological well-being of surrogate mothers did not change 10 years following the birth, with all remaining positive about the surrogacy arrangement and the majority continuing to report good mental health. Studies have found that surrogates may find the weeks following the birth difficult, but do not experience psychological problems 6 months or 1 year later. Research has also shown that surrogates can form close relationships with the intended parents during the pregnancy which may continue after the birth. This study used a prospective longitudinal design, in which 20 surrogates were seen at two time points: 1 year following the birth of the surrogacy child and 10 years later. The 20 surrogates (representing 59% of the original sample) participated in a semi-structured interview and completed self-report questionnaires. Eleven surrogates were gestational carriers and nine surrogates had used their own oocyte (genetic surrogacy). Four were previously known to the intended parents and 16 were previously not known. Ten years following the birth of the surrogacy child, surrogate mothers scored within the normal range for self-esteem and did not show signs of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. Marital quality remained positive over time. All surrogates reported that their expectations of their relationship with the intended parents had been either met or exceeded and most reported positive feelings towards the child. In terms of expectations for the future, most surrogates reported that they would like to maintain contact or would be available to the child if the child wished to contact them. None expressed regrets about their involvement in surrogacy. The sample size of this study was small and the women may not be representative of all surrogates. Therefore the extent to which these findings can

  13. Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of parent-child relationships on later life mental health status in two national birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Z; Brugha, T; Fryers, T; Stewart-Brown, S

    2012-11-01

    Abusive and neglectful parenting is an established determinant of adult mental illness, but longitudinal studies of the impact of less severe problems with parenting have yielded inconsistent findings. In the face of growing interest in mental health promotion, it is important to establish the impact of this potentially remediable risk factor. 8,405 participants in the 1958 UK birth cohort study, and 5,058 in the 1970 birth cohort study questionnaires relating to the quality of relationships with parents completed at age 16 years. 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Malaise Inventory collected at age 42 years (1958 cohort) and 30 years (1970 cohort). Statistical methodology: logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex, social class and teenage mental health problems. 1958 cohort: relationships with both mother and father predicted mental health problems in adulthood; increasingly poor relationships were associated with increasing mental health problems at age 42 years. 1970 cohort: positive items derived from the Parental Bonding Instrument predicted reduced risk of mental health problems; negative aspects predicted increased risk at age 30 years. Odds of mental health problems were increased between 20 and 80% in fully adjusted models. Results support the hypothesis that problems with parent-child relationships that fall short of abuse and neglect play a part in determining adult mental health and suggest that interventions to support parenting now being implemented in many parts of the Western world may reduce the prevalence of mental illness in adulthood.

  15. How do relationships support parenting? Effects of attachment style and social support on parenting behavior in an at-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beth L; Furrer, Carrie; McAllister, Carol

    2007-09-01

    The importance of supportive relationships for new parents has been the focus of both research and parenting interventions. Attachment style, typically viewed as a relatively stable trait reflecting one's comfort in social relationships, as well as social support, or one's perception of the social context, have both been found to be important for fostering engaged, involved parenting. Less is known, however, about how these variables work together to influence parenting behavior, especially in families at higher risk for negative child outcomes. Data were collected from 152 urban, predominantly African American, low-income parents when their children were 14 and 36 months of age. Results suggest that parents with more social support show greater increases in the frequency of positive parent-child activities over time, but that this effect is mediated by mothers' attachment style, specifically, their level of anxious/ambivalent attachment. Mothers with more social support tended to be less anxious/ambivalent about close relationships, and this in turn led to increases over time in the frequency of parent-child interactions. Mothers' tendency to avoid close relationships, however, while correlated with social support, was unrelated to changes in parenting behavior. Implications of these findings for program development, parenting, and the malleability of attachment style based on social context are discussed.

  16. Harsh parenting, child behavior problems, and the dynamic coupling of parents' and children's positive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenheimer, Erika; Ram, Nilam; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Yin, Peifeng

    2017-09-01

    We examined self-reported maternal and paternal harsh parenting (HP) and its effect on the moment-to-moment dynamic coupling of maternal autonomy support and children's positive, autonomous behavior. This positive behavior coupling was measured via hidden Markov models as the likelihood of transitions into specific positive dyadic states in real time. We also examined whether positive behavior coupling, in turn, predicted later HP and child behavior problems. Children (N = 96; age = 3.5 years at Time 1) and mothers completed structured clean-up and puzzle tasks in the laboratory. Mothers' and fathers' HP was associated with children's being less likely to respond positively to maternal autonomy support; mothers' HP was also associated with mothers' being less likely to respond positively to children's autonomous behavior. When mothers responded to children's autonomous behavior with greater autonomy support, children showed fewer externalizing and internalizing problems over time and mothers showed less HP over time. These results were unique to the dynamic coupling of maternal autonomy support and children's autonomous behavior: The overall amount of these positive behaviors did not similarly predict reduced problems. Findings suggest that HP in the family system compromises the coregulation of positive behavior between mother and child and that improving mothers' and children's abilities to respond optimally to one another's autonomy-supportive behaviors may reduce HP and child behavior problems over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Managing childhood chronic illness: parent perspectives and implications for parent-provider relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Lyn; Uding, Nancy; Trahms, Cristine M; Villareale, Nanci; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2009-12-01

    When children have special health care needs, parents assume the roles of care coordinator, medical expert, and systems advocate as well as their typical parenting roles. They face many challenges in managing their child's chronic condition in the context of everyday life. Health care providers are uniquely positioned to assist parents in meeting those challenges and to promote parent competency and confidence in their child's care. The data for this analysis were collected during classes for parents of children with chronic conditions who took part in a randomized controlled study of a curriculum's effectiveness. During facilitated discussions, parents discussed challenges they faced and generated strategies they found helpful. Qualitative data analysis revealed dominant themes across subject areas. Challenges included social isolation, strained relationships and ongoing frustrations with health care and educational systems. Helpful strategies focused on being prepared, connecting with peers, becoming an advocate, developing partnerships and caring for one's self. Implications for health care providers include: understanding common challenges parents face; promoting parent-to-parent connections; and building partnerships with parents and their children with special needs.

  18. Parents and Young Children with Disabilities: The Effects of a Home-Based Music Therapy Program on Parent-Child Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yen-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Responsive parenting style and synchronous parent-child interactions have a positive impact on children in terms of language, cognitive, and social-emotional development. Despite widely documented benefits of music therapy on parent-child interactions, empirical evidence for the effects of music therapy on parent-child synchrony is lacking. To examine effects of parent-child dyads' participation in a six-week home-based music therapy program on parent response, child initiation, and parent-child synchrony, as well as parents' daily use of musical activities with their child. Twenty-six parent-child dyads participated in this pretest-posttest within-subject single-group design study. Participating dyads included parents and their child with disabilities or developmental delays (ages 1-3 years inclusive). Parent-child dyads participated in a home-based music therapy program that included six weekly 40-minute sessions, and incorporated five responsive teaching strategies (i.e., affect, match, reciprocity, shared control, and contingency). Observational data were recorded for parent-child interactions and parent-child synchrony. Parents' positive physical and verbal responses, as well as children's positive verbal initiations, increased significantly pre- to post-intervention; however, children's positive physical initiations did not increase significantly. Parent-child synchrony also improved significantly pre- to post-intervention. Findings support the use of home-based music therapy programs to facilitate parent-child interactions in the areas of parental responsiveness and child-initiated communication, as well as parent-child synchrony. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Relationship between Child and Parental Dental Anxiety with Child's Psychological Functioning and Behavior during the Administration of Local Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, Vasiliki; Arapostathis, Konstantinos; Kotsanos, Nikolaos; Karagiannis, Vassilis; van Loveren, Cor; Veerkamp, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the relationship between children's psychological functioning, dental anxiety and cooperative behavior before and during local anesthesia, 2) the relationship of parental dental anxiety with all the above child characteristics. There was a convenient sample of 100 children (4-12 years). Child dental anxiety and psychological functioning were measured using the "Children's Fear Survey Schedule" (CFSS-DS) and the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ) respectively. Parental dental anxiety was measured using the "Modified Dental Anxiety Scale" (MDAS). All questionnaires were completed by parents. Before and during local anesthesia, the child behavior was scored by one experienced examiner, using the Venham scale. Non-parametric tests and correlations (Mann-Whitney, Spearman's rho) were used for the analysis. The mean SDQ score was 10±5.6 for boys (n=60) and 8.3±4.8 for girls (n=40) (p=0.038), but there was no correlation with children's age. The mean CFSS-DS score was 33.1±11.86 and there was no correlation with age or gender. Children with higher levels in the pro-social subscale of the SDQ had significantly less anxiety and better behavior before local anesthesia. Higher mean CFSS-DS scores were significantly associated with uncooperative behavior during local anesthesia (p=0.04). There was no correlation between parents' and their children's dental anxiety, psychological functioning and behavior. 46% of the children had previous dental experience in the last 6 months. As time since the last dental treatment increased, an improvement was found in children's behavior during local anesthesia. Child psychological functioning was related to dental anxiety and behavior during dental appointment involving local anesthesia.

  20. Stress in Parents of a Child with Hemifacial Microsomia: The Role of Child Characteristics and Parental Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkosuwito, Edwin; van der Vlies, Lieneke; Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia; van Neck, Han; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Hovius, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Objective Examine stress levels of parents of children with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) and the relationship of parental stress to child characteristics and cognitive coping strategies. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Participants and Setting Parents with a child (age 3-19 years) with HFM (N = 31) were recruited through the Department of Orthodontics and the Craniofacial Center, Sophia-Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Intervention and Outcome Measures The adapted and shortened Dutch version of the parental stress index (NOSI-K) was used to measure parental stress, and the cognitive emotion-regulation questionnaire was used to measure cognitive coping strategies. Pearson correlations and a multiple regression analysis were performed. Results The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed associations between increased parental stress and learning difficulties and use of acceptance as a coping strategy. This suggests that problems other than the characteristic visual appearance of the child's face in HFM have a greater influence on parental stress. Conclusions Learning difficulties of the child with HFM and parental acceptance affect stress in parents with a child with HFM the most and are important in the search for a targeted tailoring of intervention for parents with high levels of parental stress.

  1. Parent-child relationships in Italian families: connectedness and autonomy in the transition to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Scabini

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the changes in parent-child relationships during the transition to adulthood, that implies a modification of the balance of connectedness and autonomy. The principal aim was twofold: 1 to verify how relational support and style of decision making - respectively markers of family connectedness and autonomy - change from adolescence to young adulthood; 2 to compare the perceptions of parents and children through a measure of agreement. The sample was composed of 259 Italian families with a child between 17 and 25 years of age. Participants filled out a self report questionnaire including the Parent-Adolescent Support Scale and the Style of Decision Making Scale. Results highlighted that children perceived a significant increase in relational support and in autonomy from late adolescence to young adulthood. Furthermore, agreement between parents and children increased by aging. Therefore, near the transition to adulthood, parents and young adults are closer to each other than during late adolescence.

  2. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children’s behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children’s behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment. PMID:20582847

  3. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  4. Pairing attachment theory and social learning theory in video-feedback intervention to promote positive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2017-06-01

    Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) is a social-learning and attachment-based intervention using video feedback to support sensitive parenting and at the same time setting firm limits. Empirical studies and meta-analyses have shown that sensitive parenting is the key determinant to promote secure child-parent attachment relationships and that adequate parental discipline contributes to fewer behavior problems in children. Building on this evidence, VIPP-SD has been tested in various populations of at-risk parents and vulnerable children (in the age range of zero to six years), as well as in the context of child care. In twelve randomized controlled trials including 1116 parents and caregivers, VIPP-SD proved to be effective in promoting sensitive caregiving, while positive social-emotional child outcomes were also found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour before and after a parenting programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Linda; Kendall, Sally

    2012-10-01

    To explore whether changes in parenting self-efficacy after attending a parenting programme are related to changes in parenting stress and child behaviour. Adverse parenting is a risk factor in the development of a range of health and behavioural problems in childhood and is predictive of poor adult outcomes. Strategies for supporting parents are recognised as an effective way to improve the health, well-being and development of children. Parenting is influenced by many factors including the behaviour and characteristics of the child, the health and psychological well-being of the parent and the contextual influences of stress and support. Parenting difficulties are a major source of stress for parents, and parenting self-efficacy has been shown to be an important buffer against parenting stress. In all, 63 parents who had a child under the age of 10 years took part in the research. Of those, 58 returned completed measures of parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour at the start of a parenting programme and 37 at three-month follow-up. Improvements in parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress were found at follow-up, but there was less evidence for improvements in child behaviour. The findings clearly suggest a relationship between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress; parents who are feeling less efficacious experience higher levels of stress, whereas greater parenting self-efficacy is related to less stress. This study adds to the evidence that parent outcomes may be a more reliable measure of programme effectiveness than child outcomes at least in the short term.

  6. Parent-child attachment: meta-analysis of associations with parenting behaviors in middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Amanda J; Kerns, Kathryn A

    2018-08-01

    Maternal sensitivity predicts mother-child attachment in young children, but no meta-analysis has investigated the link between parenting and parent-child attachment in older children. This study examined the relationship between parent-child attachment and multiple components of parenting in children 5-18 years of age. A series of meta-analyses showed that parents of children with more secure attachment are more responsive, more supportive of the child's autonomy, use more behavioral control strategies, and use less harsh control strategies. Parents of children with more avoidant attachment were less responsive and used less behavioral control strategies. Ambivalent attachment was not significantly related to any of the parenting behaviors, and there were not enough studies to reliably test the relationship between disorganized attachment and parenting. There were few significant moderators. The findings inform new areas for future research, as well as family interventions for at-risk youth.

  7. Maternal Mental Representations of the Child and Mobile Phone Use During Parent-Child Mealtimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radesky, Jenny; Leung, Christy; Appugliese, Danielle; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2018-05-01

    Qualities of the parent-child relationship have not been explored as predictors of parent mobile device use during parent-child activities. In 195 mother-child dyads enrolled in an ongoing cohort study, maternal mental representations of their child (ability to reflect on their child's characteristics, emotional state, and their parenting role) were evaluated through the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI), a validated semistructured interview. WMCI scale scores were examined as predictors of active maternal mobile device use during parent-child eating encounters (videotaped home mealtimes and a structured laboratory-based protocol) in multivariate logistic regression models. Children were aged 5.9 years (SD: 0.7), mothers were aged 31.5 years (SD: 7.4), and 73.3% of mothers were of white non-Hispanic race/ethnicity. During the family mealtime, 47 (24.1%) mothers actively used a mobile device at least once, whereas during the structured eating protocol, 44 (22.6%) mothers used a device. Controlling for maternal race/ethnicity, education level, and child's sex, WMCI subscales were associated with device use during home mealtimes (higher Child Difficulty) and the eating protocol (higher Child Difficulty and lower Richness of Perceptions and Caregiving Sensitivity). Maternal mental representations of their child were significantly associated with using mobile devices during eating encounters. More research studies are needed to understand directionality and longer-term associations between mobile device use and parent-child relationship characteristics.

  8. Observed parent-child feeding dynamics in relation to child body mass index and adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C M; Henderson, M S; Tripicchio, G; Rozin, P; Heo, M; Pietrobelli, A; Berkowitz, R I; Keller, K L; Faith, M S

    2018-04-01

    Restrictive feeding is associated with child overweight; however, the majority of studies used parent-report questionnaires. The relationship between child adiposity measures and directly observed parent and child behaviours were tested using a novel behavioural coding system (BCS). Data from 109 children, participants in a twin study and their mothers, were analyzed. Parent-child dyads were video-recorded twice in the laboratory, while children ate ad libitum from a buffet lunch. Mother and child behaviours were assessed using the BCS. Height, body weight and body fat were directly measured for each child. Associations between child adiposity measures and average BCS behaviour (i.e. pooled across visits) were tested using partial correlations adjusting for child age. Regarding discouragement prompts, child body mass index (BMI) z-score was significantly associated with a greater rate of total discouragements (per minute, min -1 ), nonverbal discouragements (min -1 ) and temporary (delay) discouragements (min -1 ) (p < 0.05). Child percent body fat was associated with greater nonverbal discouragements (min -1 ). Regarding encouragement prompts, child BMI z-score was significantly associated with a greater rate of total encouragements (min -1 ), nonverbal encouragements (min -1 ) and reward encouragements (min -1 ). Child BMI z-score and percent body fat were both positively associated with greater maternal health encouragements (min -1 ). Associations with encouragement to eat prompts were no longer significant when accounting for the dependence among twins (being part of the same family). Heavier children received greater maternal discouragements to eat and, with qualifications, encouragements to eat. The role of nonverbal parenting cues warrants further research regarding child eating regulation and obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Angry responses to infant challenges: parent, marital, and child genetic factors associated with harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Nastassia; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Moore, Ginger; Leve, Leslie; Shaw, Daniel; Harold, Gordon; Scaramella, Laura; Ganiban, Jody; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of adopted 9-month-olds (N = 503), with an emphasis on positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics. Evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) was examined by testing the effect of both positive and negative indices of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents' harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers' harsh parenting was inversely related to birth mother positive temperament, indicating evocative rGE, as well as to marital quality. Adoptive parents' negative temperamental characteristics were related to hostile parenting for both fathers and mothers. Findings support the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Parental feeding practices and socioeconomic status are associated with child adiposity in a multi-ethnic sample of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardel, Michelle; Willig, Amanda L; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Casazza, Krista; Beasley, T Mark; Fernández, José R

    2012-02-01

    Parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, but results have been inconsistent across populations. Research is needed to elucidate the relationship between parental feeding practices and adiposity in diverse populations. The present study tested if: (1) parental feeding practices differed by race/ethnicity, (2) parental pressure to eat and parental restriction were associated with adiposity levels, and (3) to investigate the relationship between parental feeding practices and/or child adiposity with socioeconomic status (SES). Structural equations modeling was conducted to test the model in 267 children aged 7-12 years self-identified as African American (AA), European American (EA), or Hispanic American (HA) from economically diverse backgrounds. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography scanning were used to determine body composition and abdominal fat distribution, respectively. Parental restriction was a significant predictor of child adiposity while parental pressure to eat had an inverse relationship with child adiposity. HA parents reported significantly higher levels of restriction and pressure to eat, whereas EA parents reported the lowest. SES was positively associated with child adiposity and inversely related to parental restriction and pressure to eat. Thus, parental feeding practices differ across racial/ethnic groups and SES and may contribute to population differences in child adiposity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parent-school relationships and children's academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R

    2010-08-01

    Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling the dyadic effects of parenting, stress, and coping on parent-child communication in families tested for hereditary breast-ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jada G; Mays, Darren; DeMarco, Tiffani; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2016-10-01

    Genetic testing for BRCA genes, associated with hereditary breast-ovarian cancer risk, is an accepted cancer control strategy. BRCA genetic testing has both medical and psychosocial implications for individuals seeking testing and their family members. However, promoting open and adaptive communication about cancer risk in the family is challenging for parents of minor children. Using prospective data collected from mothers undergoing BRCA genetic testing and their untested co-parents (N = 102 parenting dyads), we examined how maternal and co-parent characteristics independently and conjointly influenced the overall quality of parent-child communication with minor children. Statistical associations were tested in accordance with the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Significant Actor effects were observed among mothers, such that open parent-child communication prior to genetic testing was positively associated with open communication 6 months following receipt of genetic test results; and among co-parents, more open parent-child communication at baseline and greater perceived quality of the parenting relationship were associated with more open parent-child communication at follow-up. Partner effects were also observed: co-parents' baseline communication and confidence in their ability to communicate with their minor children about genetic testing was positively associated with open maternal parent-child communication at follow-up. These results demonstrate that for families facing the prospect of cancer genetic testing, perceptions and behaviors of both members of child-rearing couples have important implications for the overall quality of communication with their minor children, including communication about cancer risk.

  13. Sibling Relationships When a Child Has Autism: Marital Stress and Support Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Jessica Wood; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2003-01-01

    Family systems theory was employed to study sibling relationships in 50 families with a child (ages 4-12) with autism. Typically developing siblings expressed satisfaction with their sibling relationships. Parents were somewhat less positive about the sibling relationships. Stress in the marital relationship was associated with compromised sibling…

  14. The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: a systematic review and meta-analysis of a multi-level system of parenting support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Kirby, James N; Tellegen, Cassandra L; Day, Jamin J

    2014-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effects of the multilevel Triple P-Positive Parenting Program system on a broad range of child, parent and family outcomes. Multiple search strategies identified 116 eligible studies conducted over a 33-year period, with 101 studies comprising 16,099 families analyzed quantitatively. Moderator analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling. Risk of bias within and across studies was assessed. Significant short-term effects were found for: children's social, emotional and behavioral outcomes (d=0.473); parenting practices (d=0.578); parenting satisfaction and efficacy (d=0.519); parental adjustment (d=0.340); parental relationship (d=0.225) and child observational data (d=0.501). Significant effects were found for all outcomes at long-term including parent observational data (d=0.249). Moderator analyses found that study approach, study power, Triple P level, and severity of initial child problems produced significant effects in multiple moderator models when controlling for other significant moderators. Several putative moderators did not have significant effects after controlling for other significant moderators. The positive results for each level of the Triple P system provide empirical support for a blending of universal and targeted parenting interventions to promote child, parent and family wellbeing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenting-by-gender interactions in child psychopathology: attempting to address inconsistencies with a Canadian national database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown strong links between parenting and child psychopathology. The moderating role of child gender is of particular interest, due to gender differences in socialization history and in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Currently there is little agreement on how gender moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychopathology. This study attempts to address this lack of consensus by drawing upon two theories (self-salience vs. gender stereotyped misbehaviour to determine how child gender moderates the role of parenting, if at all. Methods Using generalized estimating equations (GEE associations between three parenting dimensions (hostile-ineffective parenting, parental consistency, and positive interaction were examined in relationship to child externalizing (physical aggression, indirect aggression, and hyperactivity-inattention and internalizing (emotional disorder-anxiety dimensions of psychopathology. A sample 4 and 5 year olds from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY were selected for analysis and followed over 6 years (N = 1214. Two models with main effects (Model 1 and main effects plus interactions (Model 2 were tested. Results No child gender-by-parenting interactions were observed for child physical aggression and indirect aggression. The association between hostile-ineffective parenting and child hyperactivity was stronger for girls, though this effect did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance (p = .059. The associations between parenting and child emotional disorder did vary as a function of gender, where influences of parental consistency and positive interaction were stronger for boys. Discussion Despite the presence of a few significant interaction effects, hypotheses were not supported for either theory (i.e. self-salience or gender stereotyped misbehaviour. We believe that the inconsistencies in the literature regarding child gender-by-parenting

  16. Parent-child discrepancies in the assessment of children's and adolescents' happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Belén; Wilson, Ellie L

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we assessed parent-child agreement in the perception of children's general happiness or well-being in typically developing children (10- and 11-year-olds, n = 172) and adolescents (15- and 16-year-olds, n = 185). Despite parent and child reporters providing internally consistent responses in the General Happiness single-item scale and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire-Short Form, their perceptions about children's and adolescents' general happiness did not correlate. Parents of 10- and 11-year-olds significantly overestimated children's happiness, supporting previous literature on the parents' positivity bias effect. However, parents of 15- and 16-year-olds showed the reverse pattern by underestimating adolescents' happiness. Furthermore, parents' self-reported happiness or well-being (reported 6 months later) significantly correlated with their estimations of children's and adolescents' happiness. Therefore, these results suggest a potential parents' "egocentric bias" when estimating their children's happiness. These findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and applied implications for research into child-parent relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Van Den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls' (N = 1,335) and boys' (N = 1,203) cigarette and alcohol use across a 12-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time…

  18. Parent--child relations and offending during young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendi L; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2011-07-01

    There is a long tradition of studying parent-child relationships and adolescent delinquency. However, the association between parent-child relationships and criminal offending during young adulthood is less well understood. Although the developmental tasks of young adulthood tend to focus on intimate relationships, employment, and family formation, the parent-child bond persists over the life course and likely continues to inform and shape behavior beyond adolescence. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the influence of parental involvement on patterns of offending among respondents interviewed first as adolescents (mean age of 15 years), and later as young adults (mean age of 20 years), is examined. The TARS sample used for our study (N = 1,007) is demographically diverse (49.5% female; 25.3% Black; 7.2% Hispanic) and includes youth beyond those enrolled in college. The influences of both early and later parenting factors such as support, monitoring and conflict on young adults' criminal behavior are examined. Results show that early monitoring and ongoing parental support are associated with lower offending in young adulthood. These effects persist net of peer influence and adolescent delinquency. This suggests the importance of examining multiple ways in which parental resources and support influence early adult behavior and well-being.

  19. Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes in Puerto Rican Families

    OpenAIRE

    Colón, Jeisianne Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate observed parenting styles among Puerto Rican parents living in Puerto Rico. Participants included 51 families with a child between the ages of 6 and 11. Families engaged in different behavioral observational tasks. Observations were coded for parenting dimensions and family parenting styles in order to determine its relationship to child outcomes. The Parenting Styles Observation Rating Scale was used to code the observations and the Child Behavior Ch...

  20. Parental mentalizing as an indirect link between attachment anxiety and parenting satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Margaret L; Borelli, Jessica L; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Brody, Robin; Sbarra, David A

    2017-03-01

    Attachment anxiety in parents is associated with lower quality parent-child relationships. An inhibited capacity to reflect on children's mental states, referred to as prementalizing, may reduce the pleasure parents derive from their relationships. In the current study, we explored the associations among attachment anxiety, prementalizing, and parenting satisfaction in two groups of participants randomly assigned either to reflect on a positive memory with their child (n = 150) or to reflect on a positive memory not involving their child (n = 150). Narratives were evaluated for positive content using two metrics: coder-rated positivity and frequency of positive emotion words. Results revealed that self-reported prementalizing operated indirectly to link attachment anxiety and self-reported parenting satisfaction for both groups. However, prementalizing only served as an indirect link between attachment anxiety and coded measures of positivity among participants who reflected on parenting experiences, suggesting the specificity of prementalizing in linking attachment anxiety and reduced positivity in the parenting role. The results have implications for understanding influences of attachment and mentalization on parents' perception of parent-child relationship quality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Parent-Child Attunement Moderates the Prospective Link between Parental Overcontrol and Adolescent Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly F; Borelli, Jessica L; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-10-22

    Parental overcontrol (OC), behavior that intrusively or dominantly restricts child autonomy, has been identified as a transdiagnostic risk factor for youth. However, it is as yet unknown whether the association between parental OC and child maladjustment remains even when OC is exerted infrequently or by attuned parents. Rather, the selective use of OC might steer children away from danger. Taking a developmental psychopathology approach, this study focuses on the larger parent-child relationship context, testing whether either the dose at which parents demonstrate OC or the degree to which children perceive their parents as attuned determines whether OC is risky or protective for adolescents' adjustment. Among a community sample of 114 families of children followed from the ages of 12-18, we examine whether OC, behaviorally coded from triadic mother-father-child discussions in middle childhood, is associated with later risky behavior and anxiety symptoms in adolescence. Overcontrol exerted by either mothers or fathers had a curvilinear effect on adolescent risky behaviors, and this effect was moderated by children's perceived attunement. Although OC generally was associated with increased risky behaviors, low doses of OC or OC exerted by highly attuned parents protected against engagement in risky behaviors. No main effect of OC was observed on adolescent anxiety; however, mothers' OC interacted with perceived parental attunement, such that OC exerted by less attuned parents predicted greater anxiety. Results underscore that the effect of parenting behaviors depends on the larger parent-child relationship context. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  2. Poverty and Child Behavioral Problems: The Mediating Role of Parenting and Parental Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Till; Li, Jianghong; Pollmann-Schult, Matthias; Song, Anne Y.

    2017-01-01

    The detrimental impact of poverty on child behavioral problems is well-established, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are less well-known. Using data from the Families in Germany Study on parents and their children at ages 9–10 (middle childhood), this study extends previous research by examining whether or not and to what extent different parenting styles and parents’ subjective well-being explain the relationship between poverty and child behavior problems. The results show that certain parenting styles, such as psychological control, as well as mothers’ life satisfaction partially mediate the correlation between poverty and child behavioral problems. PMID:28867777

  3. The relationship between parents' and children's television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy B; Hennessy, Michael

    2013-08-01

    To examine the effect of parental television viewing on children's television viewing compared with traditional predictors such as household television access, parental rules, and demographic characteristics of the child, parent, and household. An online survey using national samples of 1550 parents with children in 3 age groups (children ≤ 5 years, children aged 6-11 years, and adolescents aged 12-17 years), weighted to be representative of US parents with children in each age group. Adolescents (n = 629) of participating parents were also surveyed. Parent television time is associated with child television time and had a stronger relationship to child time than access to television in the home or the child's bedroom, as well as parental rules about television viewing and coviewing. This pattern persisted across all age groups of children. Educating parents about the relationship between their own and their child's viewing may be a useful strategy for interventions that aim to reduce children's excessive television viewing. Additionally, health professionals can engage parents in a discussion about how family television time is associated with increased television time for children.

  4. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Rosa M.; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding children?s health after a sibling?s death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children?s and their parents? perceptions of children?s health and identified relationships of children?s age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling?s cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. Methods 64 children and 48 parents rated the child?s health ?now? and ?now vs before?...

  5. Associations between positive parenting practices and child externalizing behavior in underserved Latino immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Kendal; McNeil Smith, Sharde'; Scott, Jenna C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined whether five specific parenting practices (i.e., monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, problem solving, and positive involvement) were associated with reduced child externalizing behaviors among a sample of Latino immigrant families. It utilized baseline data from 83 Latino couples with children participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of a culturally adapted parenting intervention. Results reveal that monitoring, discipline, skill encouragement, and problem solving each made independent contributions to the prediction of child externalizing behavior, although not all in the expected direction. Further analyses examining mothers and fathers separately suggest that mother-reported monitoring and father-reported discipline practices uniquely contributed to these findings. These results may have important implications for prevention and clinical intervention efforts with Latino immigrant families, including the cultural adaptation and implementation of parenting interventions with this underserved population. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  6. Self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and early adolescents' positive and negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Harper, James M; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-08-01

    The current study examined the role of adolescents' self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and adolescent outcomes, after controlling for the quality of the parent-child relationship. Participants were 395 families (282 two parent; 113 single parent) with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 1 = 11.15, SD = .96, 49% female) who took part in [project name masked for blind review] at both Time 1 and Time 2. Path analysis via structural equation modeling suggested that sibling affection was longitudinally and positively related to self-regulation and prosocial behaviors, and negatively related to externalizing behaviors; while sibling hostility was positively, and having a sister was negatively related to internalizing behaviors (in general, paths were stronger for adolescents from two- vs. single-parent families). There was also evidence that adolescents' self-regulation partially mediated the relation between sibling affection and positive and negative adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on the importance of continued research examining the mechanisms through which the sibling relationship influences development during adolescence.

  7. Unpacking the Relationship between Parental Migration and Child well-Being: Evidence from Moldova and Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Franziska; Siegel, Melissa; Vanore, Michaella; Waidler, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Using household survey data collected between September 2011 and December 2012 from Moldova and Georgia, this paper measures and compares the multidimensional well-being of children with and without parents abroad. While a growing body of literature has addressed the effects of migration for children 'left behind', relatively few studies have empirically analysed if and to what extent migration implies different well-being outcomes for children, and fewer still have conducted comparisons across countries. To compare the outcomes of children in current- and non-migrant households, this paper defines a multidimensional well-being index comprised of six dimensions of wellness: education, physical health, housing conditions, protection, communication access, and emotional health. This paper challenges conventional wisdom that parental migration is harmful for child well-being: while in Moldova migration does not appear to correspond to any positive or negative well-being outcomes, in Georgia migration was linked to higher probabilities of children attaining well-being in the domains of communication access, housing, and combined well-being index. The different relationship between migration and child well-being in Moldova and Georgia likely reflects different migration trajectories, mobility patterns, and levels of maturity of each migration stream.

  8. Corporal Punishment and Externalizing Behaviors in Toddlers: The Moderating Role of Positive and Harsh Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Marcos; Durtschi, Jared; Neppl, Tricia K.; Stith, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether corporal punishment when the child was two years old predicted child externalizing behaviors a year later, and whether or not this association was moderated by parents' observed behavior towards their child. Data came from 218 couples and their first born child. The frequency of fathers' corporal punishment when the child was two years old predicted child externalizing behaviors a year later, while controlling for initial levels of child externalizing behaviors. Also, observed positive and harsh parenting moderated the relationship between corporal punishment and child externalizing behaviors. These results highlight the importance of continuing to examine the effects of a commonly used form of discipline (i.e., corporal punishment) and the parental climate in which it is used. PMID:26866839

  9. Serial migration and its implications for the parent-child relationship: a retrospective analysis of the experiences of the children of Caribbean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea; Lalonde, Richard N; Johnson, Simone

    2004-05-01

    This study addressed the potential impact of serial migration for parent-children relationships and for children's psychological well-being. The experience of being separated from their parents during childhood and reunited with them at a later time was retrospectively examined for 48 individuals. A series of measures (e.g., self-esteem, parental identification) associated with appraisals at critical time periods during serial migration (separation, reunion, current) revealed that serial migration can potentially disrupt parent-child bonding and unfavorably affect children's self-esteem and behavior. Time did not appear to be wholly effective in repairing rifts in the parent-child relationship. Risk factors for less successful reunions included lengthy separations and the addition of new members to the family unit in the child's absence. (c) 2004 APA

  10. Child dental anxiety, parental rearing style and dental history reported by parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.B.; van Wijk, A.J.; ten Cate, J.M.; Veerkamp, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using

  11. Empathic parenting and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Simonič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our experience of the world and life is associated with our sense of ‘self’, which begins to grow in the preverbal period through the child’s primary relationships with his/her parents. Such relationships should be optimal and full of true, genuine and deep contact, marked with a parent’s empathic responsiveness. Empathic parents encourage positive development, while lack of empathy is many times associated with dysfunctional patterns of behaviour in later life. Empathy is a critical factor for the healthy development of a child, especially for the growth of a creative and genuine sense of ‘self’, which in adulthood is essential for a healthy and vibrant personality, one who is capable of coping with life and living empathic relationships. Empathy in the narrowest sense of the word is the ability to share and comprehend the feelings and thoughts of another, e.g. the ability to have insight into experiencing. In a broader sense, it is the basic dynamics of relationships that fully enable us to feel safe and accepted with others and thereby give us space for growth and development.

  12. Mothers of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: relationship among parenting stress, parental practices and child behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Maria João; Vieira-Santos, Salomé; Santos, Vanessa; Vale, Maria Carmo

    2011-03-01

    This study focuses on mothers of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and sets out (1) to characterize dimensions of both parental functioning (parenting stress and parental practices) and child characteristics (behaviour) and (2) to determine predictors of parenting stress, namely parental rearing practices or perceived behaviour of the child, in order to plan intervention with the families. Fifty-two mothers of children diagnosed with ADHD and aged 6-12 years participated in the study. The Portuguese versions of the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin and Santos 2003), EMBU-P (Canavarro and Pereira 2007) and Child Behaviour Checklist (Albuquerque et al. 1999) were used. Results showed that mothers of children with ADHD experience higher levels of parenting stress (emerging essentially from the child's characteristics) and report more behavioural problems in their children (for girls and boys), but use parental practices similar to those of the mothers of the Portuguese validation sample. Results also indicate that child behaviour (both internalized and externalized) and parental practices dominated by rejection predict parenting stress. These findings have implications for intervention with children diagnosed with ADHD and their families.

  13. Parental reflective functioning as a moderator of child internalizing difficulties in the context of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Karin; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to examine pathways from child sexual abuse (CSA) and maternal mentalizing to child internalizing and externalizing difficulties and to test a model of MRF as a moderator of the relationships between CSA and child difficulties. The sample was comprised of 154 mothers and children aged 2-12 where 64 children had experienced CSA. To assess parental mentalizing the Parental Development Interview was rated with the Parental Reflective Functioning Scale. Child internalizing and externalizing difficulties were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results indicate that there were significant inverse relationships between maternal mentalizing and child internalizing and externalizing difficulties. When maternal mentalizing was considered together with CSA, only maternal mentalizing was a significant predictor of child difficulties. Furthermore, maternal mentalizing moderated the relationship between CSA and child internalizing difficulties. These findings provide evidence of the importance of the parents' mentalizing stance for psychiatric symptoms of children aged 2-12, as well as children's recovery from CSA. The clinical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parenting disability, parenting stress and child behaviour in early inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, P; Looper, K J; Mustafa, S S; Purden, M; Baron, M

    2013-03-01

    Our study examines the association between the disease characteristics of inflammatory arthritis and patients' self-perception of mental health, parenting disability, parenting stress and child behaviour in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients in the early phase (more than 6 weeks, less than 18 months) of inflammatory arthritis were recruited from a larger EIA registry that recorded sociodemographic data and measures of pain, physical functioning and disease activity. Patient-perceived parenting disability, parenting stress, depression and children's behaviour problems were assessed using the Parenting Disability Index, Parenting Stress Index, Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Mood Scale and Child Behavior Checklist, respectively. Pain, physical dysfunction, number of tender joints and physician global assessment of disease activity were associated with parenting disability. Self-report measures of parenting disability were associated with those of depression and parenting stress. Parenting stress was associated with children internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems while parenting disability was associated with children externalizing behaviour problems. This study suggests a possible reciprocal relationship among physical aspects of disease activity, parenting disability and parent and child distress in EIA.

  15. Understand parental influence on child athletes: From disinterested to fanatical parents

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Elizabeth; Butler, Caerwen; Hedge, Nicola; Cunliffe, Josh

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will investigate the role of parental influence on child athletes and how a parent's behaviour can affect athletes in a variety of ways, from positively enhancing performance through to potentially damaging the health of a child. Parents are acknowledged to represent a significant part of the sport workforce; many children would be unable to continue their involvement in sport without their support.

  16. Child dental anxiety, parental rearing style and dental history reported by parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikken, J B; Vanwijk, A J; Tencate, J M; Veerkamp, J S

    2013-12-01

    To examine the relationship between self-reported parental rearing style, parent's assessment of their child's dental anxiety and the dental history of children. Parents of primary school children were asked to complete questionnaires about their parenting style, using four different questionnaires. Parents also completed the Child Fear Survey Schedule Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) on behalf of their child and a questionnaire about the dental history of their child. 454 interview forms were available for analysis. Minor associations were found between dental anxiety and parenting style. Anxious parents were more permissive and less restrictive in their parenting style. Parents of children who did not visit their dentist for regular check-ups reported more laxness and less restrictiveness. Children who had a cavity at the time of investigation, children who had suffered from toothache in the past and children who did not have a nice and friendly dentist reported more dental anxiety. No clear associations between parenting style and dental anxiety were found. Known causes of dental anxiety were confirmed.

  17. Stress generation in a developmental context: the role of youth depressive symptoms, maternal depression, the parent-child relationship, and family stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Priscilla T; Doan, Stacey N; Tompson, Martha C

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined stress generation in a developmental and family context among 171 mothers and their preadolescent children, ages 8-12 years, at baseline (Time 1) and 1-year follow-up (Time 2). In the current study, we examined the bidirectional relationship between children's depressive symptoms and dependent family stress. Results suggest that children's baseline level of depressive symptoms predicted the generation of dependent family stress 1 year later. However, baseline dependent family stress did not predict an increase in children's depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, we examined whether a larger context of both child chronic strain (indicated by academic, behavioral, and peer stress) and family factors, including socioeconomic status and parent-child relationship quality, would influence the stress generation process. Although both chronic strain and socioeconomic status were not associated with dependent family stress at Time 2, poorer parent-child relationship quality significantly predicted greater dependent family stress at Time 2. Child chronic strain, but neither socioeconomic status nor parent-child relationship quality, predicted children's depression symptoms at Time 2. Finally, gender, maternal depression history, and current maternal depressive symptoms did not moderate the relationship between level of dependent family stress and depressive symptoms. Overall, findings provide partial support for a developmental stress generation model operating in the preadolescent period.

  18. Important Evidence Highlights the Meaning of Teacher-Child Relationships for Child Development. Commentary on: "Formations of Attachment Relationships towards Teachers Lead to Conclusions for Public Child Care"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Sagi-Schwartz evaluates the article by Beckh and Becker-Stoll (2016) on attachment relationships with non-parental caregivers and how it may contribute to public child care. Beckh and Becker-Stoll first describe important background about research on early parent-child relationships, and how their nature and quality might…

  19. Sibling differentiation: sibling and parent relationship trajectories in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Cumsille, Patricio

    2003-01-01

    Studied here were the links between sibling differences in trajectories of change in the qualities of parent-child relationships and the qualities of sibling relationships across a 2-year period in adolescence. Participants were first- and second-born siblings (M age = 14.94 years for firstborns and M age = 12.46 years for secondborns) from 185 predominantly White, working and middle-class families. In home interviews, siblings reported on their dyadic family relationships. For reports of parent-child warmth but not parent-child conflict, results were consistent with sibling differentiation theory: Increasing differences between siblings over time in parent-child warmth were linked to trajectories of increasing warmth and decreasing conflict in the sibling relationship as reported by firstborns, and increasing warmth in the sibling relationship as reported by secondborns. The findings support the view that sibling differentiation may be a strategy for managing sibling conflict and rivalry.

  20. Relationship between Work Interference with Family and Parent-Child Interactive Behavior: Can Guilt Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunae; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its theoretical and practical importance, behavioral consequences of work-family conflict that reside in the family domain rarely have been examined. Based on two studies, the current research investigated the relationship of work-interference-with-family (WIF) with parent-child interactive behavior (i.e., educational, recreational, and…

  1. Corporal punishment and externalizing behaviors in toddlers: The moderating role of positive and harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Marcos; Durtschi, Jared; Neppl, Tricia K; Stith, Sandra M

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated whether corporal punishment when the child was 2 years old predicted child externalizing behaviors a year later, and whether or not this association was moderated by parents' observed behavior toward their child. Data came from 218 couples and their firstborn child. The frequency of fathers' corporal punishment when the child was 2 years old predicted child externalizing behaviors a year later, while controlling for initial levels of child externalizing behaviors. Also, observed positive and harsh parenting moderated the relationship between corporal punishment and child externalizing behaviors. These results highlight the importance of continuing to examine the effects of a commonly used form of discipline (i.e., corporal punishment) and the parental climate in which it is used. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  3. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Differences in health care utilization between parents who perceive their child as vulnerable versus overprotective parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-06-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders.

  5. Perceived parental alcohol problems, internalizing problems and impaired parent — child relationships among 71 988 young people in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Veronica Sofie Clara; Bloomfield, Kim; Tolstrup, Janne

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To test the hypothesis that young people with perceived parental alcohol problems have poorer parent-child relationships and more emotional symptoms, low self-esteem, loneliness, and depression than young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... internalizing problems such as emotional symptoms, depression, self-esteem, loneliness and aspects of the parent-child relationship. The main predictor variable was perceived parental alcohol problems, including the severity of the perceived problems and living with a parent with alcohol problems. Control...... using data from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. SETTING: DENMARK: PARTICIPANTS: 71.988 high school and vocational school students (aged 12-25, nested in 119 schools and 3.186 school classes) recruited throughout 2014. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome variables included...

  6. Parental Cognitive Errors Mediate Parental Psychopathology and Ratings of Child Inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Jiang, Yuan; Delucchi, Kevin; Kaiser, Nina; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis in a sample of 199 school-aged children with ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive presentation (ADHD-I) by examining relations and cross-sectional mediational pathways between parental characteristics (i.e., levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms) and parental ratings of child problem behavior (inattention, sluggish cognitive tempo, and functional impairment) via parental cognitive errors. Results demonstrated a positive association between parental factors and parental ratings of inattention, as well as a mediational pathway between parental depressive and ADHD symptoms and parental ratings of inattention via parental cognitive errors. Specifically, higher levels of parental depressive and ADHD symptoms predicted higher levels of cognitive errors, which in turn predicted higher parental ratings of inattention. Findings provide evidence for core tenets of the Depression-Distortion Hypothesis, which state that parents with high rates of psychopathology hold negative schemas for their child's behavior and subsequently, report their child's behavior as more severe. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  7. Promoting positive parenting: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Positive parenting is built on respect for children and helps develop self-esteem, inner discipline, self-confidence, responsibility, and resourcefulness. Positive parenting is also good for parents: parents feel good about parenting well. It builds a sense of dignity. Positive parenting can be learned. Understanding normal development is a first step, so that parents can distinguish common behaviors in a stage of development from "problems." Central to positive parenting is developing thoughtful approaches to child guidance that can be used in place of anger, manipulation, punishment, and rewards. Support for developing creative and loving approaches to meet special parenting challenges, such as temperament, disabilities, separation and loss, and adoption, is sometimes necessary as well. This annotated bibliography offers resources to professionals helping parents and to parents wishing to develop positive parenting skills.

  8. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Bacallao, Martica L; Cotter, Katie L; Evans, Caroline B R

    2015-06-01

    The quality of parent-child relationships has a significant impact on adolescent developmental outcomes, especially mental health. Given the lack of research on rural adolescent mental health in general and rural parent-child relationships in particular, the current longitudinal study explores how rural adolescents' (N = 2,617) perceptions of parenting practices effect their mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, aggression, self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction) over a 1 year period. Regression models showed that current parenting practices (i.e., in Year 2) were strongly associated with current adolescent mental health outcomes. Negative current parenting, manifesting in parent-adolescent conflict, was related to higher adolescent anxiety, depression, and aggression and lower self-esteem, and school satisfaction. Past parent-adolescent conflict (i.e., in Year 1) also positively predicted adolescent aggression in the present. Current positive parenting (i.e., parent support, parent-child future orientation, and parent education support) was significantly associated with less depression and higher self-esteem, future optimism, and school satisfaction. Past parent education support was also related to current adolescent future optimism. Implications for practice and limitations were discussed.

  9. Relationship between body mass index and family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting style among African migrant parents and children in Victoria, Australia: a parent-child dyad study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, S; Halliday, J; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2016-08-03

    Although childhood obesity prevalence is stabilised in developed countries including Australia, it is continuing to rise among migrants and socially disadvantaged groups in these countries. African migrants and refugees in particular, are at high risk of obesity due to changes in their family dynamics. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between children and parental perception of family functioning, family communication, family type and parenting styles and their relationship with body mass index. A cross-sectional parent-child dyad study was conducted among 284 African families from migrant and refugee backgrounds living in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Bilingual workers were trained to collect demographic, anthropometric and questionnaire data on family functioning, parenting, family type and family communication. Parents and children reported different levels of family dynamics. Children reported a higher prevalence of poor family functioning (61.5 %, 95 % CI: 55.6, 67.2 versus 56.8 %, 95 % CI: 49.7, 61.6) and protective family type (29 %, 95 % CI: 23.9, 34.5 vs. 13.4 %, 95 % CI: 9.9, 17.9), but a lower prevalence of authoritative parenting style (51.6 %, 95 % CI: 45.7, 57.5 vs. 63 %, 95 % CI: 57.5, 68.8) than parents. There was a positive relationship between poor family functioning and child BMI both before (β = 1.28; 95 % CI: 0.14, 2.41; p parental BMI and family functioning, communication, family type or parenting style. Children's perception of poor family functioning was associated with childhood obesity. Family interventions to reduce childhood obesity need to adopt an intergenerational approach to promote a clear understanding of family dynamics between children and parents. Unless these intergenerational challenges associated with family dynamics are clearly addressed in obesity interventions, current obesity prevention initiatives will continue to widen the childhood obesity gap in Australia.

  10. Parenting stress and child physical health among a low-income sample: The moderating role of child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Katherine M; Nelson, Timothy D; Van Dyk, Tori

    2015-11-01

    This study examined child anxiety as a potential moderator of the relationship between parenting stress and child physical health. Low-income youth (N = 109, M = 9.51 years old) and their parents completed measures of anxiety, health-related quality of life, and parenting stress in an outpatient clinic. As an objective measure of physical health, medical service utilization was extracted from medical records. Parenting stress was associated significantly with worse health-related quality of life and higher service utilization. Child anxiety moderated the relationship between stress and health. Health psychologists should target both family stress and child anxiety in promoting better health outcomes among low-income families. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. [A PhD completed 7. Just add positivity? Dental caries, obesity and problem behaviour in children: the role of parents and family -relations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong-Lenters, M

    2016-11-01

    In this doctoral research project the relationship between, on the one hand, parenting and the functioning of families, and, on the other, child dental health were measured on the basis of interviews, questionnaires and observations of parent-child interaction. The groups studied consisted of children with and without caries and a variety of socio-economic backgrounds. The analyses revealed a distinct and significant difference between children with and children without caries with respect to parenting style and parent-child interaction. Positive parenting skills, such as positive involvement, positive reinforcement and problem-solving ability, correlate less often with children with caries. The study also revealed that children of parents with a parenting style that involved coercion and strict type of discipline, combined with the expression of little warmth, had a greater likelihood of developing caries. No relationship was found between an unhealthy high Body Mass Index (BMI) and the presence of dental caries. There was a significant relationship between behavioural problems and the presence of dental caries, which may be explained by an underlying influence of the family factors that were measured.

  12. Parental knowledge reduces long term anxiety induced by false-positive test results after newborn screening for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, A.M.M.; Pal, S.M. van der; Reijntjens, A.J.T.; Loeber, J.G.; Dompeling, E.; Dankert-Roelse, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: False-positive screening results in newborn screening for cystic fibrosis may lead to parental stress, family relationship problems and a changed perception of the child's health. Aim of the study: To evaluate whether parental anxiety induced by a false positive screening result

  13. A comparison of online versus workbook delivery of a self-help positive parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Dittman, Cassandra K; Farruggia, Susan P; Keown, Louise J

    2014-06-01

    A noninferiority randomized trial design compared the efficacy of two self-help variants of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: an online version and a self-help workbook. We randomly assigned families of 193 children displaying early onset disruptive behavior difficulties to the online (N = 97) or workbook (N = 96) interventions. Parents completed questionnaire measures of child behavior, parenting, child maltreatment risk, personal adjustment and relationship quality at pre- and post-intervention and again at 6-month follow up. The short-term intervention effects of the Triple P Online program were not inferior to the workbook on the primary outcomes of disruptive child behavior and dysfunctional parenting as reported by both mothers and fathers. Both interventions were associated with significant and clinically meaningful declines from pre- to post-intervention in levels of disruptive child behavior, dysfunctional parenting styles, risk of child maltreatment, and inter-parental conflict on both mother and father report measures. Intervention effects were largely maintained at 6-month follow up, thus supporting the use of self-help parenting programs within a comprehensive population-based system of parenting support to reduce child maltreatment and behavioral problems in children.

  14. Parent-child communication patterns during the first year after a parent's cancer diagnosis: the effect on parents' functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam-Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald; van der Graaf, Winette; van de Wiel, Harry; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette

    2009-09-15

    Good parent-child communication is thought to help families adjust more easily during stressful events such as parental cancer. Families dealing with cancer who communicate openly have reported less psychological distress. The first year after diagnosis may be particularly stressful. The authors investigated parents' quality of life (QOL) and stress-response symptoms and parent-child communication during the first year after diagnosis and examined possible relationships between communication and parents' functioning. Recently-diagnosed cancer patients (N=70) and spouses (N=55) participated within 4 months of diagnosis (T1) and 6 months (T2) and 12 months later (T3). Parents reported on communication with the children (PACS) and on their own physical and psychosocial functioning (RAND-36) and stress-response symptoms (IES). Parent-child communication remained stable throughout the first year after diagnosis and was similar to communication in families 1 year to 5 years after diagnosis. Patients' functioning improved and cancer-related distress decreased significantly. Spouses' cancer-related distress decreased; their functioning fluctuated through the year. In concurrent analyses, patients' open communication with the children related only to T1 intrusion. Spouses' open communication related to T3 psychosocial functioning; problem communication related to T1 and T2 psychosocial functioning and T2 avoidance. In prospective analyses, no significant relationships were found between parent-child communication and change in parents' functioning. Communication between parents and children remained stable over time; patients' and spouses' functioning improved. Parent-child communication seems to have a limited affect on parents' functioning. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  15. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part I. Parental overprotection and the development of the Parent Protection Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C; Shonkoff, J P

    1995-08-01

    There is a spectrum of parental protective behaviors promoting child safety and security, ranging from neglect to overprotection. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure of parental protective behaviors toward children age 2 to 10 years, the Parent Protection Scale (PPS). Items were selected to represent key dimensions of protective behaviors. Factor analyses suggested four subscales: Supervision, Separation Problems, Dependence, and Control. The PPS has acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and clinical validity. Norms by child age in the form of cutoff points corresponding to +1 SD were determined. Clinical and research uses for the PPS are noted.

  16. Explaining parent-child (dis)agreement in generic and short stature-specific health-related quality of life reports: do family and social relationships matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sommer, Rachel; Bullinger, Monika; Silva, Neuza

    2016-10-21

    In the context of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) assessment in pediatric short stature, the present study aimed to examine the levels of agreement/disagreement between parents' and children's reports of generic and condition-specific HrQoL, and to identify socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables associated with the extent and direction of parent-child discrepancies. This study was part of the retest phase of the QoLISSY project, which was a multicenter study conducted simultaneously in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and UK. The sample comprised 137 dyads of children/adolescents between 8 and 18 years of age, diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS), and one of their parents. The participants completed child- and parent-reported questionnaires on generic (KIDSCREEN-10 Index) and condition-specific HrQoL (QoLISSY Core Module). Children/adolescents also reported on social support (Oslo 3-items Social Support Scale) and parents assessed the parent-child relationships (Parental Role subscale of the Social Adjustment Scale) and burden of short stature on parents (QoLISSY- additional module). The parent-child agreement on reported HrQoL was strong (intraclass correlation coefficients between .59 and .80). The rates of parent-child discrepancies were 61.5 % for generic and 35.2 % for condition-specific HrQoL, with the parents being more prone to report lower generic (42.3 %) and condition-specific HrQoL (23.7 %) than their children. The extent of discrepancies was better explained by family and social relationships than by clinical and socio-demographic variables: poorer parent-child relationships and better children's social support were associated with larger discrepancies in generic HrQoL, while more parental burden was associated with larger discrepancies in condition-specific HrQoL reports. Regarding the direction of discrepancies, higher parental burden was significantly associated with parents

  17. Current Themes in Understanding Children’s Emotion Regulation as Developing from within the Parent-Child Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Kalomiris, Anne E.

    2015-01-01

    A large existing literature has established that children’s emotion regulation (ER) behaviors and capacities emerge from within the parent-child relationship. This review identified very recently published studies that exemplify contemporary themes in this area of research. Specifically, new research suggests that the influence of fathers, above and beyond that of mothers, becomes more pronounced across development. Further, culture influences how parents socialize emotion and how specific parenting behaviors relate to children’s developing ER. Lastly, studies find child-elicited effects, such that children’s ER predicts parents’ emotion socialization and other relevant behaviors. We suggest several future directions, including understanding the nature of situations that elicit ER patterns, as well as both expanding upon and integrating the areas highlighted in the review. PMID:25745639

  18. The existence of parenting styles in the owner-dog relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Herwijnen, Van, Ineke R.; Borg, Van Der, Joanne A.M.; Naguib, Marc; Beerda, Bonne

    2018-01-01

    Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent to child and owner to dog relationships, we determined the extent to which parenting styles exist in the owner to dog relationship using the existing Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire ...

  19. Does it take a village to raise a child?: The buffering effect of relationships with relatives for parental life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mikucka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strong relationships with relatives may alleviate the consequences of stressful experiences,but the evidence documenting such 'buffering effect' during parenthood is scarce. Objective: This paper investigated the buffering effect of relationships with relatives during parenthoodin Switzerland. We tested whether relationships with relatives (network size, frequencyof contact, and availability of practical and emotional support were activated inresponse to parenthood, and if people who had stronger relationships with their relativesexperienced more positive trajectories of life satisfaction during parenthood. Methods: We used Swiss Household Panel data for the years 2000-2011, and fixed effect regressionmodels. Results: The birth of a first child was associated with an increase in mothers' contact with nonresidentrelatives. Moreover, parents with at least two children who had better accessto support from relatives experienced more increase and less decline in life satisfactionduring parenthood than parents who had less access to relatives' support. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the support of relatives is a resource for parents having twoor more children and that it improves the experience of parenthood even in a relativelywealthy society. Contribution: This is the first paper which demonstrates that relationships with relatives are a source of heterogeneity of the effect of parenthood on life satisfaction. Moreover, it shows that weak relationships with relatives may lower life satisfaction of parents and limit fertility, especially at higher parities.

  20. A smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of parental behavioral consistency: Associations with parental stress and child ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J; Lansford, Jennifer E

    2018-04-02

    Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms. Participants were 184 kindergartners with and without ADHD and their parents. Harsh and warm dimensions of parental behavior were assessed using questionnaires, observations, and an EMA administered through parents' smartphones, which measured parent-child behaviors every day for a period of 1 week. Family, social, and parenting-related stress were assessed from questionnaires, and child ADHD symptoms were assessed from a fully structured diagnostic interview with the parent. Child ADHD symptoms were associated with variability in warm parenting behaviors, and higher levels of parenting-related stress were related to greater variability in harsh parenting behaviors. No significant interactions were detected between parental stress and child ADHD on parental variability. These findings suggest that different factors influence the consistency in parenting behavior, depending on whether positive parenting or negative parenting is assessed. Parent-based treatment programs for children with ADHD should include a stronger focus on reducing stress from parenting (e.g., teaching coping skills for parents), as this may lead to greater consistency in parental behavior more generally, and presumably better child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  2. The role of stigma in parental help-seeking for child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert; Wildman, Beth; Keating, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between stigma and parental help-seeking after controlling for demographics, child behavior, and barriers to treatment. One hundred fifteen parents of children ages 4 to 8 years were surveyed during well-child visits in a rural pediatric primary care practice. Parental perceptions of stigma toward parents and children were both assessed. Parents believe that children are more likely to be stigmatized by the public and personally impacted by stigma. In linear regression analyses, parents rated themselves as more likely to attend parenting classes with lower levels of self-stigma and greater levels of personal impact of stigma. Stigma toward the child was not associated with help-seeking. Child behavior moderated the relationship between stigma and parental help-seeking. When referring parents to treatment, providers should address potential stigma concerns. Future research should assess both the impact of the stigma of attending treatment and the stigma of having a child with behavior problems.

  3. Child Adjustment to First Grade as Perceived by the Parents: The Role of Parents' Personal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2017-04-01

    The current study aimed at investigating the direct and moderating role of personal growth in a child's adjustment to first grade as perceived by the parents, drawing on Positive Psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, ) and the theory of families as systems (Cox & Paley, ). The sample consisted of 280 Israeli parents (213 mothers and 67 fathers) whose children were in first grade. The participants completed questionnaires relating to background variables of the parent and child, as well as parents' perceived stress, emotional intelligence, perceived child's adjustment to school and personal growth. The findings indicate that a child's entrance into the school system may lead to personal growth in the parents and that variables of both the parent (age and education) and the child (birth order) contribute to this process. Furthermore, among parents with a low level of personal growth, higher emotional intelligence was associated with a more positive assessment of the child's adjustment. The study thus demonstrates that the transition to first grade may serve as a lever for the parents' growth and development, which in turn may affect their perception of their child's adjustment to school. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Predictors of parent-child interaction style in dyads with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudry, Kristelle; Aldred, Catherine; Wigham, Sarah; Green, Jonathan; Leadbitter, Kathy; Temple, Kathryn; Barlow, Katherine; McConachie, Helen

    2013-10-01

    Parent synchrony has been shown to be developmentally important for the growth of communication skills in young children with autism. Understanding individual-differences in parent synchrony and other associated features of dyadic interaction therefore presents as an important step toward the goal of appreciating how and why some parent-child dyads come to adopt more optimal interaction styles, while for others, parent interaction is more asynchronous and less developmentally facilitative. Within the large, well-characterized Preschool Autism Communication Trial (PACT) cohort, baseline parent-child interaction samples were coded for three key aspects of dyadic interaction style; - Parent Synchrony, Child Initiation, and Shared Attention. We explored associations among these measures, demographic characteristics and standardized child assessment scores. While various child factors were associated with each of the interaction measures, very few associations were observed with parent/familial factors. Child language age-equivalence was a significant positive predictor of variation in each interaction measure, while child repetitive symptoms predicted reduced Shared Attention. The three interaction measures were moderately positively inter-related. In the context of childhood autism, variation in dyadic interaction style appears to be driven more by child language and repetitive behaviors than age, social-communication symptoms and non-verbal ability. Parent/family factors contributed little to explaining variability in parent-child interaction, in the current study. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing Parent-Child Communication about Drug Use: Strategies for Professionals Working with Parents and Guardians

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that family connectedness is the leading protective factor against youth involvement in alcohol and other drug use. A vital component to building positive family connections is effective parent-child communication. This article discusses the importance of building positive parent-child communication skills and provides practical…

  6. Patterns of Spillover Between Marital Adjustment and Parent-Child Conflict During Pediatric Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Gurtovenko, Kyrill; Keim, Madelaine; Kawamura, Joy; King, Kevin M; Friedman, Debra L; Compas, Bruce E; Breiger, David; Lengua, Liliana J; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2018-03-17

     When a child is diagnosed with cancer, problems may arise in family relationships and negatively affect child adjustment. The current study examined patterns of spillover between marital and parent-child relationships to identify targets for intervention aimed at ameliorating family conflict.  Families (N = 117) were recruited from two US children's hospitals within 2-week postdiagnosis to participate in a short-term prospective longitudinal study. Children with cancer were 2-10 years old (M = 5.42 years, SD = 2.59). Primary caregivers provided reports of marital and parent-child conflict at 1-, 6-, and 12-month postdiagnosis.  Results indicated that a unidirectional model of spillover from the marital to the parent-child relationship best explained the data. In terms of specific temporal patterns, lower marital adjustment soon after diagnosis was associated with an increase in parent-child conflict 6 months later, though this pattern was not repeated in the latter 6 months of treatment.  Targeting problems in marital relationships soon after diagnosis may prevent conflict from developing in the parent-child relationship.

  7. The Role of Emotion in Parent-Child Relationships: Children's Emotionality, Maternal Meta-Emotion, and Children's Attachment Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu Mei; Lin, Hsiao Shih; Li, Chun Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study was intended to examine the relationship among children's emotionality, parental meta-emotion, and parent-child attachment. The sample consisted of 546 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers. The test instruments used in this study were the Emotionality subscale of the EAS Temperament Survey (mothers' ratings only), the Parental…

  8. Adolescent Coping Styles and Perceptions of Parental Child Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jerome B.; Danko, Maribeth

    1994-01-01

    A study of 107 15- and 17-year olds examined the relationship between adolescents' general coping styles (problem focused, emotion focused, or cognitive) and their perceptions of parental child-rearing practices (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). Findings were consistent with the view that parents' child-rearing techniques…

  9. Caring for an intimate stranger: parenting a child with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmi, E; Bellali, T; Papazoglou, I; Karamitri, I; Papadatou, D

    2017-05-01

    The care of an adult son or daughter with psychosis is filled with overwhelming demands caused by the symptomatology and illness exacerbations. Parents display disenfranchised grief over multiple losses and report increased levels of emotional burden. Most studies use quantitative methods and rely on pre-existing theoretical frameworks to investigate, through psychometric measures, the effects of being a carer. Meaning attributions to the disorder, and changes in parent-child relations over time, are poorly understood. This hermeneutic phenomenological study illuminates the subjective experience of parenting a son or daughter with psychosis, as it is lived and described by parents of young adults with psychosis. Findings suggest that the parents' perceptions of their child changes over the course of the disorder, leading to a redefinition of the parent-child relationship, causing alternations in attachment. Findings illuminate the parents' profound guilt over having contributed or not prevented the disorder, over not being 'good' parents and feeling ambivalent towards an 'intimate stranger.' Guilt is compensated by absolute dedication to the son or daughter's care, at the expense of their own well-being. Interventions for parents must be available as soon as possible, both during hospitalization and after discharge. Professionals should provide a therapeutic space, where parents could express intimate thoughts and feelings, address guilt, fear and resentment issues, be assisted in their parenting role as well as in the reconstruction of a sense of self and self-esteem. Professionals are invited to facilitate illness acceptance, provide accurate information, assist parents to redefine their relationship to the child and facilitate the integration of the traumatic experience into their personal and family narrative. Professionals must develop in depth awareness of their biases and attitudes, have an ongoing training on how to respond to the parents' needs, facilitate

  10. Non-genetic and non-gestational parenthood: consequences for parent-child relationships and the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers and children at age 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, S; Murray, C; Jadva, V; Lycett, E; MacCallum, F; Rust, J

    2006-07-01

    Findings are presented of the third phase of a longitudinal study of children conceived by assisted reproduction procedures involving surrogacy and/or donor conception. At the time of the child's third birthday, 34 surrogacy families, 41 donor insemination families and 41 oocyte donation families were compared with 67 natural conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of the parents, mother-child relationships and the psychological well-being of the child. The differences found between family types reflected higher levels of warmth and interaction between mothers and their 3-year-old children in assisted reproduction families than in families with a naturally conceived child. A higher proportion of surrogacy parents than donor conception parents had told their children about the nature of their birth. It appears that the absence of a genetic and/or gestational link between parents and their child does not have a negative impact on parent-child relationships or the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers or children at age 3.

  11. The Relationship between Parent-Child Interactions and Prosocial Behavior among Fifth- and Sixth-Grade Students: Gratitude as a Mediating Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ho-Tang; Tseng, Shu-Feng; Wu, Pai-Lu; Chen, Chun-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child interaction, gratitude and prosocial behavior have a crucial impact on psychological development. According to our literature review, these three variables are positively related to one another. Therefore, the authors created a model that treats parent-child interaction as an exogenous variable, gratitude as a mediating variable, and…

  12. Personality characteristics and parent-child relationships juveniles who commit violent crimes of a sexual nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartanyan G.A.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of aggressive behavior of teenagers and sexual aggression in particular in the last time are particularly relevant and valuable in modern society. This is confirmed by the data of criminological statistics, according to which the rate of minor crime in the Russian Federation in recent years has virtually the same range. A comprehensive study of the person of a minor convicted of violent crimes of a sexual nature (personal characteristics, characteristics of sexual identity and parent-child relationship on the basis of comparative analysis with a group of teenagers convicted of the crime of mercenary-violent type, and a group of students emerging in socially favourable environment, enabled them to identify some distinctive features. The obtained results allow to suggest a possible mutual influence of personal characteristics and characteristics of sexual identity with the peculiarities of child-parent relationships in a group of juveniles convicted for violent crimes of a sexual nature.

  13. Poverty and Child Behavioral Problems: The Mediating Role of Parenting and Parental Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Till; Li, Jianghong; Pollmann-Schult, Matthias; Song, Anne Y.

    2017-01-01

    The detrimental impact of poverty on child behavioral problems is well-established, but the mechanisms that explain this relationship are less well-known. Using data from the Families in Germany Study on parents and their children at ages 9–10 (middle childhood), this study extends previous research by examining whether or not and to what extent different parenting styles and parents’ subjective well-being explain the relationship between poverty and child behavior problems. The results show ...

  14. The relations of child adiposity with parent-to-child and parent-to-parent hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Michael F; White-Ajmani, Mandi L; Dixon, Denise; Slep, Amy M S; Heyman, Richard E

    2017-11-01

    Investigate (1) the association of child adiposity with parent-to-child and parent-to-parent hostility, (2) the mediation of these associations by dietary behaviours and (3) moderation by gender. One hundred thirty-five couples with 6- to 14-year-old children completed measures of emotional and physical aggression, overreactive discipline and child diet. Parent-to-parent hostility was also coded from laboratory observations. Child adiposity was a combination of body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. Mother-to-child hostility was associated with child adiposity. This association was concentrated in boys and was not significantly explained by child dietary factors. Mother-to-father hostility was not significantly associated with boys' or girls' adiposity. Girls' adiposity was not significantly associated with family hostility. Fathers' hostility was not linked to child adiposity. This is the first study to take a family-level approach to understanding the relation of hostility to child adiposity by examining relations among adiposity and both mothers' and fathers' hostility directed toward one another and toward their children. Our findings highlight the potential role played by mothers' emotional hostility in boys' adiposity and suggest that, if this role is further substantiated, mother-son emotional hostility may be a promising target for the prevention of child obesity.

  15. Examining bidirectional relationships between parenting and child maladjustment in youth with autism spectrum disorder: A 9-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, Lisa M; De Pauw, Sarah S W; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim; Prinzie, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Longitudinal bidirectional effects between parents and children are usually studied in samples of typically developing children, but remain understudied in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder. This three-wave longitudinal study examined how parents and children with autism spectrum disorder influence one another, relying on parent reports of parenting behaviors and children's problem behaviors across 9 years, in a sample of 139 youngsters (M age Time 1 = 10.2 years, 83% boys). Cross-lagged analyses indicated that children's externalizing problems at Time 1 predicted negative controlling parenting 6 years later (Time 2) that in turn predicted externalizing problems 3 years later (Time 3). Negative parental control at Time 1 also increased the risk for internalizing problems at Time 2. It was surprising that externalizing problems at Time 2 also predicted positive parental involvement at Time 3. Thus, although results indicate that externalizing problems generally elicit maladaptive reactions in parents, this study also suggests that parents adjust their way of reacting to externalizing child problems as their child reaches adolescence/emerging adulthood. Implications for future research on parenting dynamics in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder are discussed.

  16. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  17. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  18. The pragmatic language, communication skills, parent-child relationships, and symptoms of children with ADHD and their playmates 18-months after a parent-delivered play-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Cantrill, Alycia; Parsons, Lauren; Smith, Cally; Cordier, Reinie

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the communication skills, pragmatic language, parent-child relationships, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of children with ADHD and their playmates 18-months after a pilot parent-delivered intervention for improving social play skills and pragmatic language. Participants were five children with ADHD, their parents, and five typically-developing playmates. Outcomes were measured immediately post and 18-months following the intervention. Parent-rated norm-based assessments and an observational measure were used. Differences within and between the ADHD and playmate groups were examined. Children maintained all skills gained 18-months following the intervention. Compared to a normative sample, children with ADHD remained below the average range on aspects of communication skills, parent-child relationships, and ADHD symptom levels 18-months following intervention. After intervention, children with ADHD still experienced pragmatic language skills below those of their peers on norm-based assessments that measure their skills across contexts. School-based interventions are needed to facilitate ongoing skill development and generalization.

  19. Parental discussion of G6PD deficiency and child health: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Roter, Debra L; Huang, Aichu; Erby, Lori A H; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang

    2014-03-01

    Parents are encouraged to discuss self-care with children affected by G6PD deficiency; however, little is known about the extent or impact of these discussions on the physical and psychosocial health of these children. The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of parental-child discussions of G6PD deficiency self-care and their relationship to child health. A quantitative cross-sectional survey of 178 Taiwanese parents of children with G6PD deficiency was conducted. The extent of parental-child self-care discussions was assessed in regards to coverage of nine key topics. Parent's G6PD deficiency status, knowledge of haemolytic anaemia symptoms and reported G6PD deficiency education from providers were examined as correlates of parental discussion. Child health was assessed with the child health questionnaire-parent form (Chinese version) and a 13-item haemolytic anaemia symptom list. Self-care discussions were positively correlated with parental G6PD deficiency status (β=2.08, p=0.03), accurate identification of haemolytic anaemia symptoms (β=0.18, p=0.01), the thoroughness and clarity of patient education (β=0.14, pchild age (β=1.04, pchild health (β=1.18, pchild G6PD deficiency self-care discussions are associated with better child health, and parental involvement in these discussions is facilitated by the thoroughness and clarity of patient education received from providers.

  20. Art/expressive therapies and psychodynamics of parent-child relationship in concept of sophrology and psychosocial oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Miholić, Damir; Prstačić, Miroslav; Martinec, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The main aim of this research includes the analysis of the psychodynamics of the changes in the experience of the child and in the parent-child relationship, during the complementary application and supporting creative art/expressive therapy in pediatric oncology, especially in connection with the modern concepts of psychosocial oncology, sophrology, education and rehabilitation sciences. Method: According to initial hypothesis application of complementary and creative art/expressive ...

  1. Warm Parenting Associated with Decreasing or Stable Child BMI during Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyung E; Jelalian, Elissa; Boutelle, Kerri; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald; Wing, Rena

    2016-04-01

    While authoritative parenting, which includes high levels of warmth and behavioral control, has been associated with lower risk of obesity, little is known about how general parenting impacts child weight loss during treatment. Our goal was to examine the relationship between several general parenting dimensions and 'decreasing /stable' child BMI during a 16-week family-based behavioral weight control program. Forty-four overweight parent-child dyads (child age 8 to 12 years) enrolled in the program. Families were videotaped at baseline eating dinner in their home. Using the General Parenting Observational Scale (GPOS), meals were coded for several general parenting dimensions. Primary outcome was percent of children whose BMI 'decreased or stayed the same.' Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between general parenting and decreasing/stable child BMI. Forty families (91%) completed the program. Children had a mean BMI change of -0.40 (SD 1.57), which corresponds to a -0.15 (SD 0.20) change in BMI z-score (BMI-Z); 75% of children had decreasing/stable BMI. In the unadjusted models, lower parent BMI, higher parent education, and higher levels of parental warmth were significantly associated with decreasing/stable child BMI. In the multivariable model, only higher level of warmth was associated with increased odds of decreasing/stable child BMI (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.62). Baseline parental warmth may influence a child's ability to lower/maintain BMI during a standard family-based behavioral weight control program. Efforts to increase parent displays of warmth and emotional support towards their overweight child may help to increase the likelihood of treatment success.

  2. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  3. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9–11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education

  4. Later Life Parental Divorce and Widowhood: Impact on Young Adults' Assessment of Parent-Child Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of later life parental divorce and widowhood for relationship between parents and young adult children among 3,281 young adults who grew up in intact families. Family disruption that occurred after children were grown had sizable effects on parent-adult child relations, with later life divorce lowering relationship quality…

  5. Parenting and Child Development in Adoptive Families: Does Parental Sexual Orientation Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Rachel H.; Forssell, Stephen L.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2010-01-01

    This study, funded by Williams Institute, investigated child development and parenting in 106 families headed by 27 lesbian, 29 gay, and 50 heterosexual couples with young adopted children. Parents and teachers reported that, on average, children were developing in typical ways. Measures of children’s adjustment, parenting approaches, parenting stress, and couple relationship adjustment were not significantly associated with parental sexual orientation. However, several family process variabl...

  6. Psychosocial correlates of parenting a child with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa Ali; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2014-09-01

    The lifelong experience of raising a child with a complex developmental disability such as autistic disorder is considered one of the most significant parenting stressors, with the potential to spill over into various areas of the life of parents. Therefore, studying the psychological functioning for parents of children with developmental disabilities requires the consideration of multiple factors acting and interacting concurrently. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between two sets of variables in a sample of parents of children with autistic disorder. The first set was composed of the parents' characteristics and the coping strategies used. The second set was composed of three stress subscales-parental distress (PD), parent-child dysfunctional interaction (PCDI), and difficult child (DC)-and the parental quality of life (QOL). Canonical correlation multivariate analysis was used to examine the relationship between the sets of variables in 184 Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. The analyses revealed that the parents who have higher incomes, use diverse problem-solving strategies, exhibit less escape-avoidance, and exhibit less responsibility acceptance behavior tended to report lower PD, PCDI, and DC scores and a higher QOL score. The analyses also revealed that being an older parent, having more time since the child's autistic diagnosis, and using more distancing coping strategies were associated with lower PD scores, higher PCDI and DC scores, and better QOL. This study is the first to investigate a wide range of parental psychosocial impacts as well as several sociodemographic factors that are possibly associated with raising a child with autistic disorder. The results indicate that health professionals working with parents of children with autistic disorder need to consider holistically the factors that can potentially affect the parents' health and well-being and provide care that focuses on the parents as both

  7. Relationship between Test Anxiety and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thergaonkar, Neerja R.; Wadkar, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between test anxiety and parenting style. Method: Democratic attitude of parents, acceptance of parents by the child, parental attitude regarding academics, parental expectations and gender stereotyped perceptions of parents regarding academics were evaluated in the domain…

  8. Relationships between child behavior problems and family functioning: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an

  9. The Relationship between Parental Behaviors and Children's Sugary Drink Consumption Is Moderated by a Television in the Child's Bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Henderson, Kathryn E; Luedicke, Joerg; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the link between perceived authoritative parenting behaviors and sugary drink consumption among children from low-income families who do or do not have televisions (TVs) in their bedrooms. Middle school students (N = 480) completed a baseline survey in sixth grade and a follow-up survey in seventh grade. The students were recruited from 12 schools in a low-income, predominantly black (33%) and Latino (48%), urban school district. The survey assessed the children's perception of their parents' controlling and nurturing behaviors, the presence of a TV in their bedrooms, and their level of sugary drink consumption on the previous school day. Children's report of specific controlling and nurturing parental behaviors were used to create an "authoritative parenting" score. Regression analyses were used to test the main and interactive effects of authoritative parenting behaviors and having a TV in the bedroom with sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, BMI, and sugary drink consumption in sixth grade. A significant interaction emerged: The authoritative parenting score predicted lower levels of sugary drink consumption in seventh grade, but this relationship was moderated by whether or not there was a TV in the child's bedroom. A TV in the child's bedroom may weaken the positive influence of authoritative parenting behaviors on limiting sugary drink consumption among middle school children from low-income families. Stronger initiatives are recommended to educate parents and help them refrain from placing TVs in their children's bedrooms.

  10. Maternal Prenatal Psychological Distress and Preschool Cognitive Functioning: the Protective Role of Positive Parental Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Julia C; Brennan, Patricia A; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Johnson, Katrina C

    2017-02-01

    Considerable animal research and available human studies suggest that psychological distress experienced by mothers during gestation is associated with later neurodevelopmental deficits in offspring; however, little research has examined potential protective factors that might mitigate this risk. The current study examined the impact of maternal prenatal psychological distress during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes in preschoolers (ages 2.5-5 years) and positive parenting as a potential protective factor. Mother-child dyads (N = 162, mean child age = 44 months, 49 % female) were recruited from a longitudinal cohort of women who had previously participated in a study of maternal mood disorders during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal distress was assessed with multiple measures collected throughout pregnancy. During a follow-up visit, mothers were interviewed about their psychological symptoms since the birth of the child, parenting behaviors were recorded during a parent-child interaction, and children's cognitive abilities were measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd Edition. Maternal prenatal distress significantly predicted lower general cognitive abilities; however, this relationship was strongest for children whose mothers exhibited low levels of positive engagement and not significant when mothers exhibited high levels of positive engagement. Results suggest that positive parental engagement can protect against the detrimental effects of maternal prenatal distress on preschoolers' cognitive abilities.

  11. Parent-child cultural orientations and child adjustment in Chinese American immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and their own Chinese and American orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social relationships. Parents and teachers rated children's externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence. Using structural equation modeling, we found evidence for both the effects of children's and parents' cultural orientations and the effects of parent-child gaps. Specifically, children's American orientations across domains were associated with their better adjustment (especially social competence). These associations were partly mediated by authoritative parenting. Parents' English and Chinese media use were both associated with higher authoritative parenting, which in turn was associated with children's better adjustment. Furthermore, greater gaps in parent-child Chinese proficiency were associated with children's poorer adjustment, and these relations were partly mediated by authoritative parenting. Together, the findings underscore the complex relations between immigrant families' dual orientations to the host and heritage cultures and children's psychological adjustment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Adolescents' self-esteem, peers and parents relationships interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanauskienė, Ramunė; Valantinas, Antanas; Endriulaitienė, Auksė

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to measure the relationships among late adolescents' self-esteem, peer and parents relations. The subjects were 199 students from 9th and 11th grades. Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, Index of peer relations and Child's attitude toward mother and father scales was used in the investigation. The analysis of the results showed a significant positive correlation between self-esteem, and peer relations and, for girls only, a significant positive correlation between ...

  13. Parent-Child Interactions and Obesity Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.; Aksan, Nazan; Dell'Aquila, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity research has generally not examined multiple layers of parent-child relationships during weight-related activities such as feeding, eating and play. A literature review was conducted to locate empirical studies that measured parent-child interactions and child eating and child weight variables; five papers met the inclusion criteria…

  14. Creating a Different Kind of Normal: Parent and Child Perspectives on Sibling Relationships when One Child in the Family Has Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachraz, Vijetta; Grace, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study that explored the nature of sibling relationships when one child in the family has autism. It employs a collective case study approach to capture the perspectives of parents and young children (aged four to seven years) from three different families. A multifaceted exploration of sibling relationships was…

  15. When parents face the death of their child: a nationwide cross-sectional survey of parental perspectives on their child's end-of life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Karin; Bergstraesser, Eva; Engberg, Sandra; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Marfurt-Russenberger, Katrin; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Grandjean, Chantal; Fahrni-Nater, Patricia; Cignacco, Eva

    2016-03-09

    Parents facing the death of their child have a strong need for compassionate professional support. Care services should be based on empirical evidence, be sensitive to the needs of the families concerned, take into account the heterogeneity within the medical field of paediatrics, and fit into the local health care system. We need to better understand the perspectives of parents facing the death of their child in order to guide further development and evaluation of specialised paediatric palliative and end-of-life (EOL) care services. Questionnaire survey to assess the EOL care perspectives of a Swiss population-based sample of bereaved parents who had lost a child due to a cardiac, neurological or oncological condition, or during the neonatal period in the years 2011 or 2012. The parental perspective was assessed with a newly developed and tested instrument that was structured according to six evidence-based quality domains. Responses regarding parental experiences and perceived satisfaction are described. Differences between the four diagnostic groups are analysed using a generalized estimation equation to account for the dyadic data structure. Of 307 eligible families, 267 could be contacted and 135 (51%) consented to participate in this questionnaire survey. Our findings show positive parental experiences of their child's EOL care and high perceived satisfaction with the care their child received. Parents of a child with cancer rated their experiences highest in most of the six quality domains and reported the highest satisfaction with care. The lowest scores were mainly reported by parents from the neurology group, with the exception of the shared decision making domain, where parents of neonates reported significantly less positive experiences. Although positive in general, our study results suggest some areas for improvement. The integration of specialised paediatric palliative care has the potential to minimise lost opportunities to support and assist

  16. Child behavior and sibling relationship quality: A cross-lagged analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Alison; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2017-03-01

    Bidirectional associations between sibling relationships and children's problem behaviors are robust, and links with prosocial behavior have also been reported. Using cross-lagged models, we were able to conservatively test temporal directions of links between positive and negative aspects of sibling relationships and children's prosocial behavior and conduct problems across a 3-year time span in middle childhood. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; http://www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/data-access/data-dictionary/) is an ongoing population-based study designed to investigate the effects of a wide range of factors on children's health and development. For the purposes of the current analyses, we included 2,043 ALSPAC families who had just 1 older sibling as well as the target child, with an age gap of no more than 5 years. Mothers reported about the quality of the sibling relationship and both children's prosocial behavior and conduct problems when the target child was 4 years of age and again when the target child was 7 years old. Confirming our hypothesis, individual child behavior was predictive of sibling relationship quality, and sibling relationship quality was predictive of later child behavior, providing robust evidence of bidirectionality for both prosocial behavior and conduct problems. It would be consistent to expect that an improvement in either sibling relationship quality or individual children's behavior could have a positive spill over effect. We also found evidence of older sibling dominance in the domain of prosocial behavior and the positive aspects of sibling interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Concern about Child Weight among Parents of Children At-Risk for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Senso, Meghan M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Langer, Shelby L.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between parental concern about child weight and weight-related child behaviors, parenting practices, and household characteristics. Methods: Parent-child dyads (N=421) enrolled in a randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial were evaluated at baseline. Results: Parental concern regarding child weight was associated with greater use of restrictive and monitoring feeding practices and lower total child energy intake. Conclusions: Parents expressing greater concern about child weight were more likely to report engaging in strategies to regulate their child’s dietary intake, some of which may inadvertently have negative consequences. Intervention strategies that activate parental concern about child weight should include guidance and support for engaging in feeding practices that support healthful child eating patterns and growth. PMID:25364770

  18. Bidirectional Associations Between Sibling Relationships and Parental Support During Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkman, M.M.S.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Vorst, H. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents' development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent-child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental

  19. Associations between Parental Anxiety/Depression and Child Behavior Problems Related to Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Roles of Parenting Stress and Parenting Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Rezendes, Debra L.; Scarpa, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been shown to experience increases in stress, depression, and anxiety, which are also associated with child behavior problems related to ASDs. Literature-examining potential mechanisms that underlie the relationship of child behavior problems and parental anxiety/depression in this population are scarce. The current study sought to examine the roles of parenting stress and parenting self-efficacy as mediators between child behavio...

  20. Relationship between parent knowledge of child sleep, and child sleep practices and problems: A pilot study in a children's hospital cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowall, Philippa S; Elder, Dawn E; Campbell, Angela J

    2017-08-01

    To describe parent reports of sleep practices, and examine associations with parent knowledge of child sleep, and whether children's sleep practices differ between parents who underestimated, overestimated or accurately estimated children's sleep needs. Parents of children aged 2-12 years (n = 115) attending hospital inpatient or day wards were approached and asked to report child sleep routines, sleep problems, parent education, household income and parent knowledge of child sleep via questionnaire. Younger age was associated with earlier bedtimes and wake times, shorter sleep latencies, longer sleep durations and greater sleep problems (P child sleep reported earlier weekday and weekend bedtimes (r s  ≥ 0.26) and wake times (r s  ≥ 0.21) and greater consistency between their child's weekend and weekday sleep routines (P child's sleep needs: parents who underestimated reported later weekday bedtimes (on average, 46 min), and longer sleep latencies (17 min); parents who overestimated reported longer sleep latencies (22 min). These findings remained significant when controlling for child age (P Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. The Relationship between the Broader Autism Phenotype, Child Severity, and Stress and Depression in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Hambrick, David Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between child symptom severity, parent broader autism phenotype (BAP), and stress and depression in parents of children with ASD. One hundred and forty-nine parents of children with ASD completed a survey of parenting stress, depression, broader autism phenotype, coping styles, perceived social support, and…

  2. Dynamics of Identity Development and Separation-Individuation in Parent-Child Relationships during Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood--A Conceptual Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Sabrina; Denissen, Jaap J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Identity development and separation-individuation in parent-child relationships are widely perceived as related tasks of psychosocial maturation. However, a dynamic, developmental perspective that explains how intra-personal change in identity evolves from transactions between parents and children is not sufficiently represented in the literature.…

  3. Child, parent, and parent-child emotion narratives: implications for developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, David

    2006-01-01

    Studies using narratives with children and parents offer ways to study affective meaning-making processes that are central in many theories of developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews theory regarding affective meaning making, and argues that narratives are particularly suited to examine such processes. The review of narrative studies and methods is organized into three sections according to the focus on child, parent, and parent-child narratives. Within each focus three levels of analysis are considered: (a) narrative organization and coherence, (b) narrative content, and (c) the behavior/interactions of the narrator(s). The implications of this research for developmental psychopathology and clinical work are discussed with an emphasis on parent-child jointly constructed narratives as the meeting point of individual child and parent narratives.

  4. Marital Satisfaction, Parental Stress, and Child Behavior Problems among Parents of Young Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Merideth; Neece, Cameron L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have found that low marital satisfaction, parenting stress, and child behavior problems are linked in families of children with developmental delays (DD). However, previous investigations examining the relationships between parenting stress, child behavior problems, and marital satisfaction rarely examine the interrelationships of these…

  5. Parenting Stress in CHARGE Syndrome and the Relationship with Child Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulffaert, Josette; Scholte, Evert M.; Dijkxhoorn, Yvette M.; Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    This study investigates the parental perception of stress related to the upbringing of children with CHARGE syndrome and its association with behavioral and physical child characteristics. Parents of 22 children completed the Nijmegen Parenting Stress Index-Short, Developmental Behavior Checklist,

  6. The Role of Parenting Styles and Socio-Economic Status in Parents' Knowledge of Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    September, Shiron Jade; Rich, Edna Grace; Roman, Nicolette Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) has been recognised to be the most important contributor to long-term social and emotional development. Therefore, positive parenting is paramount to foster quality parent-child interaction. Previous research shows that for parents to adopt a positive parenting style, some degree of parental knowledge is required.…

  7. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rosa M; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M

    Understanding children's health after a sibling's death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children's and their parents' perceptions of children's health and identified relationships of children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling's cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. 64 children and 48 parents rated the child's health "now" and "now vs before" the sibling's death in an ICU or ER or at home shortly after withdrawal of life-prolonging technology. Children completed the Child Depression Inventory and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. Sibling cause of death was collected from hospital records. At 2 and 4 months, 45% to 54% of mothers' and 53% to 84% of fathers' ratings of their child's health "now" were higher than their children's ratings. Child health ratings were lower for: children with greater depression; fathers whose children reported greater anxiety; mothers whose child died of a chronic condition. Children's ratings of their health "now vs before" their sibling's death did not differ significantly from mothers' or fathers' ratings at 2 or 4 months. Black fathers were more likely to rate the child's health better "now vs before" the death; there were no significant differences by child gender and cause of death in child's health "now vs before" the death. Children's responses to a sibling's death may not be visually apparent or become known by asking parents. Parents often perceive their children as healthier than children perceive themselves at 2 and 4 months after sibling death, so talking with children separately is important. Children's perceptions of their health may be influenced by depression, fathers' perceptions by children's anxiety, and mother's perceptions by the cause of sibling death.

  8. Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...

  9. Bidirectional associations between mothers' and fathers' parenting consistency and child BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W; Giallo, Rebecca; Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    Research suggests that general parenting dimensions and styles are associated with children's BMI, but directionality in this relationship remains unknown. Moreover, there has been little attention to the influences of both mothers' and fathers' parenting. We aimed to examine reciprocal relationships between maternal and paternal parenting consistency and child BMI. Participants were 4002 children and their parents in the population-based Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Mothers and fathers self-reported parenting consistency, and children's BMI was measured at 4 biennial waves starting at age 4 to 5 years in 2004. Bidirectionality between parenting and child BMI was examined by using regression analyses in cross-lagged models. The best-fitting models indicated a modest influence from parenting to child BMI, whereas no support was found for bidirectional influences. For mothers, higher levels of parenting consistency predicted lower BMI in children from Waves 1 to 2 and 3 to 4; for example, for every SD increase in mothers' parenting consistency at Wave 1, child BMIz fell by 0.025 in Wave 2 (95% confidence interval: -0.05 to -0.003). For fathers, higher levels of parenting consistency were associated with lower child BMI from Waves 1 to 2 and 2 to 3. Parenting inconsistency of mothers and fathers prospectively predicted small increases in offspring BMI over 2-year periods across middle childhood. However, child BMI did not appear to influence parenting behavior. These findings support recent calls for expanding childhood overweight interventions to address the broad parenting context while involving both mothers and fathers.

  10. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over six years: The contribution of each parent’s depressive history to the other’s parenting styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E.S.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents’ depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. Results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent’s permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering both parents’ depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms. PMID:28414019

  11. Changes in parents after the death of a child from cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Mary Jo; Foster, Terrah L; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru; Davies, Betty; Dietrich, Mary S; Fairclough, Diane L; Grollman, Jamie; Gerhardt, Cynthia A

    2012-10-01

    Few studies have compared multiple perspectives of changes experienced by parents after a child's death. This study used interviews with bereaved parents and siblings to examine changes in parents during the first year after the death of a child from cancer. Mothers (n=36), fathers (n=24), and siblings (n=39) from 40 families were recruited from three hospitals in the U.S. and Canada three to 12 months after the death (M=10.7, SD=3.5). Semistructured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted in the home with each participating parent and sibling separately. Content analysis identified emerging themes, and frequencies were compared between each paired set of reports (mother vs. sibling, father vs. sibling, and mother vs. father). Parents and siblings identified two major categories of change experienced by bereaved parents. These changes occurred in their personal lives (e.g., emotions, perspectives and priorities, physical state, work habits, coping/behaviors, spiritual beliefs, and feeling something is missing) and relationships (e.g., family, others). Ninety-four percent of the mothers, 87% of the fathers, and 69% of the siblings reported parental changes in at least one of these categories. Parents were more likely to report changes in priorities, whereas siblings reported more sadness in parents after the death. Positive and negative changes in parents after the death of a child from cancer occur in both personal and relational domains. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of a child's death on bereaved parents over time and to develop strategies to promote healthy adjustment. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS OF PARENTING PRACTICES, COUPLE SATISFACTION, AND CHILD BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Linville, Deanna; Chronister, Krista; Dishion, Tom; Todahl, Jeff; Miller, John; Shaw, Daniel; Gardner, Francis; Wilson, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship between couple relationship satisfaction, parenting practices, parent depression, and child problem behaviors. The study participants (n = 148) were part of a larger experimental study that examined the effectiveness of a brief family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up model. Regression analysis results indicated that our proposed model accounted for 38% of the variance in child problem behavior at Time 2, with child problem behavior a...

  13. Parent-child cultural orientations and child adjustment in Chinese American immigrant families

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, SH; Hua, M; Zhou, Q; Tao, A; Lee, EH; Ly, J; Main, A

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and their own Chinese and American orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social relationships. Parents and teachers rated children's externaliz...

  14. Spillover between interparental conflict and parent-child conflict within and across days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Rachel Baden; Lochman, John E; DeCoster, Jamie; Stromeyer, Sara L

    2017-10-01

    The present study used a daily reporting design to examine the bidirectional spillover in conflict and conflict strategies between the interparental relationship and the parent-child relationship. Participants were 60 parents with a preadolescent child at risk for aggressive behavior. Parents reported on their experience of interparental and parent-child conflict and their use of constructive and destructive conflict strategies through daily telephone interviews over 7 days. Each day was divided into 3 equal time periods roughly corresponding to early morning, daytime, and evening. Time-lagged analyses investigated the spillover in conflict within and across days. Results revealed that the presence of interparental conflict significantly predicted the presence of parent-child conflict 1 time period later and 1 full day later. Likewise, the presence of parent-child conflict significantly predicted the presence of interparental conflict 1 full day later. In terms of conflict strategy use, results revealed that parents who engaged in constructive patterns of interparental conflict were more likely to engage in constructive patterns of parent-child conflict 1 time period later and 1 full day later. Reciprocal effects for constructive parent-child conflict predicting subsequent interparental conflict were significant across all 3 time lags assessed. There were no significant, bidirectional effects for the spillover in destructive conflict. Findings have important clinical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  16. Parental Schooling and Child Development: Learning from Twin Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers' schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers' does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers' schooling has...

  17. The impact of the social and physical environments on parent-healthcare provider relationships when a child dies in PICU: Findings from a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashleigh E; Copnell, Beverley; Hall, Helen

    2017-12-30

    This study explores the influences of the paediatric intensive care environment on relationships between parents and healthcare providers when children are dying. It forms part of a larger study, investigating parental experiences of the death of their child in intensive care. Constructivist grounded theory. Four Australian paediatric intensive care units. Audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-six bereaved parents. Data were analysed using the constant comparison and memoing techniques common to grounded theory. The physical and social environment of the intensive care unit influenced the quality of the parent-healthcare provider relationship. When a welcoming, open environment existed, parents tended to feel respected as equal and included members of their child's care team. In contrast, environments that restricted parental presence or lacked resources for parental self-care could leave parents feeling like 'watchers', excluded from their child's care. The paediatric intensive care unit environment either welcomes and includes parents of dying children into the care team, or demotes them to the status of 'watcher'. Such environments significantly influence the relationships parents form with healthcare staff, their ability to engage in elements of their parental role, and their experiences as a whole. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. STRENGTHENING THE REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING CAPACITIES OF PARENTS WHO HAVE A CHILD WITH A NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY THROUGH A BRIEF, RELATIONSHIP-FOCUSED INTERVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, Julie; Glovinsky, Ira P

    2016-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the reflective functioning capacities of caregivers who have a child with a neurodevelopmental disorder between the ages of 2 years 0 months and 6 years 11 months. Children with a neurodevelopmental disorder receive a range of diagnoses, including sutism; however, they all exhibit social communication challenges that can derail social relationships. Forty parent-child dyads in Barbados were randomly assigned to either a developmental individual-difference, relationship-based/floortime(DIR/FT) group (n = 20), or a psychoeducational (wait-list) group (n = 20) with parental reflective functioning measured before and after a 12-week DIR/FT treatment intervention. Results revealed significant gains in parental reflective functioning in the treatment group, as compared to the psychoeducational (wait-list) group, after the 12-week relationship-focused intervention. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Disciplinary Practices, Metaparenting, and the Quality of Parent-Child Relationships in African-American, Mexican-American, and European-American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W; Hawk, Carol Kozak; Smith, Margaret M; Singh, Jimmy; Ashraf, Rose

    2017-01-01

    Coercive responses to children's behavior are well recognized to be problematic for children's adjustment. Less well understood is how parental social cognition is linked to discipline. In this study we sought to link metaparenting - parents' thoughts about their parenting - to the use of coercive discipline. We predicted that mothers who engaged in more metaparenting, thus reflecting more deliberate parenting, would use corporal punishment less frequently and instead engage in non-coercive discipline. We also expected that mothers who engaged in more metaparenting would report closer relationships with their children. In order to assess a diverse sample, data were collected from approximately equal numbers of African-American, European-American, and Mexican-American mothers. Participants included 113 mothers with target children in three age groups, ranging from 2 to 12 years. The results indicated reports of corporal punishment as well as non-coercive discipline did not significantly differ across child sex and child age groups, but did differ significantly across race/ethnicity. Reports of frequency of metaparenting also differed across racial/ethnic groups; African-American mothers reported more metaparenting than European-American mothers on three of four subscales. Metaparenting was significantly related to reports of the mother-child relationship but in the opposite direction than predicted. Based on these results, future research directions linking parental social cognition to discipline are proposed.

  20. Quality of Parent-Child Relationship, Family Conflict, Peer Pressure, and Drinking Behaviors of Adolescents in an Asian Context: The Case of Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung; Shek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing data from a probability sample representative of secondary school students in Singapore (N = 1,599), this study examined the independent impact between the quality of mother-child relationship, the quality of father-child relationship and family conflict on the frequency of drinking and drunkenness, and whether each dyadic parent-child…

  1. Authoritative parenting, child competencies, and initiation of cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C; Bee-Gates, D J; Henriksen, L

    1994-01-01

    School-based social influence programs to prevent adolescent smoking are having limited success in the long term. Intervening earlier in the process of smoking onset, during the childhood years, may be required to prevent adolescent smoking. Child socialization variables, specifically parenting behaviors and child competencies, may be important to understanding the earliest phase of smoking onset. This study tested hypotheses of association between authoritative parenting behaviors, enhanced child competencies, and relatively low rates of initiation of cigarette smoking. Analyzing cross-sectional survey data from 937 students in Grades 3 to 8, we found general support for the study hypotheses: Authoritative parenting was positively associated with child competencies; children's competency levels were inversely related to their rates of smoking intention, initiation, and experimentation; authoritative parenting was inversely related to rates of child smoking intention and behaviors; and authoritative parenting and parent smoking status had independent associations with child initiation of cigarette smoking. These results indicate that child socialization variables merit further investigation for their potential role in the development of early intervention programs for smoking prevention.

  2. Parent Predictors of Changes in Child Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Tichovolsky, Marianne H.; Arnold, David H.; Baker, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether ineffective discipline, single parent status, social support, parent involvement, and parent depression predicted changes in preschoolers’ (N = 129) behavior problems. This study also evaluated whether child sex and ethnicity moderated the relationships between these variables and changes in problem behavior. Parents completed questionnaires at the beginning of the study, and parent, teacher, and observational ratings of children’s behavior problems were col...

  3. The Bi-Directional Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Treatment Outcome in Treatment-Resistant Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Manivel; Mansoor, Brandon M.; Hilton, Robert; Porta, Giovanna; He, Jiayan; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Keller, Martin B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the bidirectional relationship between parent-child discord and treatment outcome for adolescent treatment-resistant depression. Method: Depressed youth who had not responded to an adequate course of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were randomized to either a switch to another SSRI or venlafaxine, with or…

  4. Children's adjustment to their divorced parents' new relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Ar

    2002-08-01

    With new relationships common after divorce, researchers have tried to determine the factors that predict how well children adjust to their stepfamily. The many potential factors are often grouped into the categories of family process, individual risk and vulnerability, and ecological variables. Family process is concentrated on the impact of disrupted family relationships; positive outcomes are associated with low conflict and authoritative parenting. Individual risk and vulnerability includes attributes of the child and the adults; positive outcomes are associated with children who have an easy temperament. Adolescents and girls may have particular difficulty adjusting. Ecological perspectives include the larger social environment such as peers and school.

  5. MOTHER-CHILD AND FATHER-CHILD PLAY INTERACTION: THE IMPORTANCE OF PARENTAL PLAYFULNESS AS A MODERATOR OF THE LINKS BETWEEN PARENTAL BEHAVIOR AND CHILD NEGATIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashe-Grinberg, Atara; Atzaba-Poria, Naama

    2017-11-01

    Based on the premise that father-child play is an important context for children's development and that fathers "specialize" in play, similarities and differences in the role of playfulness in the father-child and mother-child relationship were examined. Participants in this study included 111 families (children's age: 1-3 years). Father-child and mother-child play interactions were videotaped and coded for parental playfulness, sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness as well as child negativity. Results indicated that mothers and fathers did not differ in playfulness and that mothers and fathers who were higher in playfulness had children with lower levels of negativity. However, playfulness differently moderated the links between parents' and children's behaviors for mothers and fathers. A double-risk pattern was found for mothers, such that the links between child negativity and maternal sensitivity, structuring, and nonintrusiveness were significant only for the subgroup of mothers with low levels of playfulness. When mothers had high levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. For fathers, a double-buffer pattern was revealed, indicating that the links between child negativity and paternal sensitivity and structuring were significant only for fathers with high levels of playfulness. When fathers had low levels of playfulness, these effects were negligible. These findings demonstrate the important role that parental playfulness has on parent-child interaction as well as the need to examine moderation patterns separately for fathers and mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Examining the impact of child parent relationship therapy (CPRT) on family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, Nick; Bratton, Sue C

    2014-07-01

    Research supports that child parent relationship therapy (CPRT), a filial therapy approach, has strong effects on participating parents and children. Some speculate that filial therapy improves the family system; however, minimal research exists to support this claim. Using a single-case design, researchers examined CPRT's impact on the functioning of 8 families. Results revealed that 6 families experienced statistically significant improvements in targeted areas of family functioning. Results from self-reported measures indicated that 7 families improved in family satisfaction, 4 in cohesion, 3 in communication, and 1 in flexibility. Observational measures also revealed improvements: 5 families in flexibility, 4 families in cohesion, and 4 families in communication. The results support that the benefits of CPRT may extend to the family system. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  7. Disentangling the effects of parental food restriction on child's risk of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroy, Valérie; Champel, Camille; Trinchera, Laura; Rigal, Natalie

    2018-04-01

    The links between parental restriction of food intake, child's eating behaviour and child's adiposity are still unclear. Our aim was to validate a model suggesting an underlying mechanism for the impact of parental restriction on child's adiposity through a broad dimension of child's eating temperament entitled the appetite reactivity (including both appetite arousal and appetite persistence). Using an online questionnaire administered at home to children aged between 8 and 11 years (N = 414) with one or both of their parents, we measured: based on child's reports, the perceived maternal restriction of child's food intake, the appetite reactivity and both the desired and the eaten mean food portion sizes; based on parental reports, the mean food portion size given to the child and the child's BMI. Structural equation modelling was used to test a model linking measured variables. A well-fitting structural model (AGFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.07; SRMR = 0.08) was identified, showing that: (i) perceived maternal restriction of child's food intake negatively impacts child's appetite arousal and food portion size but positively influences child's appetite persistence; (ii) the two components of appetite reactivity have a positive effect on child's adiposity which is partly mediated by child's actual food portion size. Results suggest an explanation for the controversy surrounding the links between parental food restriction and child's adiposity: through its negative impact on child's appetite arousal and food portion size, parental control may protect against overweight, but because of its positive effect on appetite persistence, it can also be detrimental. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bidirectional Associations between Sibling Relationships and Parental Support during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkman, Marleen M. S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; van der Vorst, Haske; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents' development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent-child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental support to be associated with each other.…

  9. Perceived parental control processes, parent-child relational qualities, and psychological well-being in chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2005-06-01

    The author assessed the relationships between poverty and perceived parenting style, parent-child relationships, and adolescent psychological well-being in Chinese secondary school students (N = 3,017). Participants completed questionnaires designed to assess (a) the degree to which their parents used monitoring, discipline, and other techniques to control their behavior; (b) the extent to which their parents attempted to control them in a way that undermined their psychological development; (c) the parent-child relational qualities, such as the child's readiness to communicate with the parents and perceived mutual trust; and (d) the child's psychological well-being. Although adolescents with economic disadvantage did not differ from adolescents without economic disadvantage on the maternal variables (except on parental knowledge and parental monitoring), adolescents whose families were receiving public assistance generally perceived paternal behavioral control and father-child relational qualities to be more negative than did adolescents who were not receiving public assistance. The author found psychological well-being (shown by hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, self-esteem) of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage to be weaker than that of adolescents not experiencing economic disadvantage.

  10. Parent-Child Relationships during Middle Childhood: Gender Differences in Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Beth A.; Zboyan, Holly A.

    This study examined gender differences in interactional style between parents and children, focusing on gender socialization and emotional expression. The subjects were 38 mother-child and father-child dyads from intact families, of which about 75 percent were Caucasian; 15 percent, Hispanic; and 10 percent, African American or Asian. Parents…

  11. Direct and indirect effects of parent stress on child obesity risk and added sugar intake in a sample of Southern California adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Dunton, Genevieve F; Chou, Chih-Ping; Leventhal, Adam M; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2017-12-01

    Research indicates that children are at higher risk for obesity if their parents have been exposed to a larger number of stressors, yet little is known about effects of parents' subjective, perceived experience of stress on children's eating behaviours and adiposity and whether weight-related parenting practices (i.e. parent rules and positive family meal practices) mediate this relationship. The present study evaluated the direct and mediated relationship between parent perceived stress and child waist circumference and parent stress and child consumption of added sugars one year later. Longitudinal panel data. Eleven communities in Southern California, USA. Data were collected over two waves from parent-child dyads (n 599). Most parents were female (81 %) and Hispanic (51 %); children were 11 years old on average (sd 1·53; range 7-15 years) and 31 % received free school lunch. Perceived parent stress was not significantly associated with child waist circumference or consumption of added sugars one year later, and mediating pathways through parenting practices were not significant. However, parent rules were significantly associated with lower child consumption of added sugars (β=-0·14, Pchild consumption of added sugars but not necessarily lead to changes in obesity risk. Parent- and family-based interventions that support development of healthy rules about child eating have the potential to improve child dietary nutrient intake.

  12. Maternal Parenting Stress and Child Perception of Family Functioning Among Families Affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya T; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D; Payne, Diana L; Goodrum, Nada M; Murphy, Debra A

    Mothers living with HIV (MLWH) experience stressors inherent to parenting, often within a context characterized by poverty, stigma, and/or limited social support. Our study assessed the relationship between parenting stress and child perceptions of family functioning in families with MLWH who have healthy school-age children. MLWH and their children (N = 102 pairs) completed measures addressing parenting stress and perceptions of family functioning (i.e., parent-child communication, family routines, and family cohesion). We used covariance structural modeling to evaluate the relationship between these factors, with results showing greater maternal parenting stress associated with poorer family functioning outcomes (reported by both the child and the mother). Findings offer support for the parenting stress-family functioning relationship by providing the child perspective along with the maternal perspective, and point to the need for interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of maternal parenting stress on family functioning. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Cognitive, Psychological and Social Characteristics, between Parents Who Have More Than One Exceptional Child with Parents of Normal Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mousavy-Khatat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal" mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0 mso-tstyle-colband-size:0 mso-style-noshow:yes mso-style-priority:99 mso-style-parent:"" mso-padding-alt:0mm 5.4pt 0mm 5.4pt mso-para-margin-top:0mm mso-para-margin-right:0mm mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt mso-para-margin-left:0mm line-height:115% mso-pagination:widow-orphan font-size:11.0pt font-family:"Times New Roman","serif" mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman" mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman" mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin mso-bidi-font-family:"XB Niloofar" mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi} Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive, psychological and social characteristics between parents who have more than one exceptional child and those parents with normal child. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, 80 families who had more than one exceptional child were conveniently selected and 53 families with normal child were selected using multi-stage sampling in schools of Uromia city, western Iran. The Cognitive, Psychological and Social Characteristics of Parents with more than One Special Child Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Evaluation and Nurturing Relationship Issues Communication and Happiness (ENRICH were used. Compromise Xi Chi, Yu-Man Whitney and t tests were used for data analysis. Results: Among cognitive, psychological and social variables, job (Father and Mother (P<0.001 education (Father & Mother time of disability awareness (P<0.001 parents' level of interest to marriage (P<0.001 parents' relationship before birth (P<0.001 parents' relationship during pregnancy (P<0.001 Mothers' mental health (physical symptoms P=0.037, depression P=0.041, social dysfunction P=0.04, anxiety and insomnia P=0.001 and marital satisfaction (P=0.030 were statistically significant between the two

  14. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g...

  15. Improving positive parenting skills and reducing harsh and abusive parenting in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerr, Wendy; Gardner, Frances; Cluver, Lucie

    2013-08-01

    Family and youth violence are increasingly recognized as key public health issues in developing countries. Parenting interventions form an important evidence-based strategy for preventing violence, both against and by children, yet most rigorous trials of parenting interventions have been conducted in high-income countries, with far fewer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review, conducted in line with Cochrane Handbook guidelines, investigated the effectiveness of parenting interventions for reducing harsh/abusive parenting, increasing positive parenting practices, and improving parent-child relationships in LMICs. Attitudes and knowledge were examined as secondary outcomes. A range of databases were systematically searched, and randomized trials included. High heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis, but characteristics of included studies were described according to type of delivery mode and outcome. Twelve studies with 1580 parents in nine countries reported results favoring intervention on a range of parenting measures. The validity of results for most studies is unclear due to substantial or unclear risks of bias. However, findings from the two largest, highest-quality trials suggest parenting interventions may be feasible and effective in improving parent-child interaction and parental knowledge in relation to child development in LMICs, and therefore may be instrumental in addressing prevention of child maltreatment in these settings. Given the well-established evidence base for parenting interventions in high-income countries, and increasingly good evidence for their applicability across cultures and countries, there is now an urgent need for more rigorously evaluated and reported studies, focusing on youth outcomes as well as parenting, adapted for contexts of considerable resource constraints.

  16. Ebb and Flow in Parent-Child Interactions: Shifts from Early through Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; Pennar, Amy; Iida, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study documents the strength of relations between key parent and child behaviors as they occur during typical encounters for both mothers and fathers and determines whether there were shifts in the strength of relations between parent and child behaviors during early and middle childhood. Design Multivariate multi-level modeling was used to examine associations between three parent behaviors (respect for autonomy, stimulation of development, hostility) and two child behaviors (agency, negativity) as they occurred in typical parent-child activities at four time points from 54 months through 5th grade for 817 families. Results For mothers and fathers, respect for autonomy and stimulation were associated with child agency. Paternal hostility was negatively associated with child agency, but for mothers the relation became more positive with age. Parental respect for autonomy and hostility were associated with child negativity for both mothers and fathers; however, for mothers, relations between autonomy support and child negativity became more positive, and relations between hostility and child negativity became less positive. Conclusions There are clear shifts in the strength of relations between some parenting behaviors and child behaviors from early to middle childhood, indicative of a changing dialectic as children become more independent and different dialectics for mothers and fathers. Parenting behavior links to child competence and adaptive behavior, and the findings may help resolve some uncertainties about relations between parental behavior and children's developmental trajectories. PMID:26877717

  17. Trajectories of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict during pediatric cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Lavi, Iris; King, Kevin; Kawamura, Joy; Friedman, Debra; Compas, Bruce; Breiger, David; Lengua, Liliana; Gurtovenko, Kyrill; Stettler, Nicole

    2018-05-28

    The stress of having a child with cancer can impact the quality of relationships within the family. The current study describes the longitudinal trajectory of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict beginning around the time of diagnosis through the first year of treatment. We examined the average level of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict at each monthly time point in the first year of treatment; the proportion of families that fall into the distressed range of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict at each time point; the typical trajectory of conflict during the first year of treatment and whether there are differences in trajectories across families. A total of 160 families of children newly diagnosed with cancer (Mage = 5.6 years; range = 2-18 years) participated in a short-term prospective longitudinal study. Primary caregivers provided monthly reports of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), most families showed stability in quality of family relationships, although considerable between-family variability was observed. For married couples, 25-36% of couples were in the distressed range at one time point over the first year of treatment. For married couples, more distress occurred at earlier months, particularly month 3. For parent-child and sibling dyads, the most difficult time periods were during later months. Implications for development of interventions that target at-risk family relationships are discussed. Identifying processes that predict between-family variability in trajectories of family relationships is an important next step, particularly for the marital relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Parent-Child Co-Viewing of Television and Cognitive Development of the Chinese Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinqiu, Zhao; Xiaoming, Hao

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child co-viewing of television and the cognitive development of the child. Both survey and experiment methods were employed to determine the participants' television viewing habits and their cognitive achievements after watching a pre-recorded programme under different conditions. The…

  19. Externalizing Behavior Trajectories: The Role of Parenting, Sibling Relationships and Child Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie; van de Moortele, Gaelle; Browne, Dillon T.; Kumar, Aarti

    2011-01-01

    Based on longitudinal multilevel modeling and using a multi-informant strategy, this study examines trajectories of externalizing problem behavior (EPB) in childhood as predicted by parental behavior (absolute level of parenting [ALP] and parental differential treatment [PDT]), parental self-efficacy (PSE), child personality and sibling…

  20. Parent-child picture-book reading, mothers' mental state language and children's theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Juan E; Clemente, Rosa A; Villanueva, Lidon; Rieffe, Carolien

    2005-08-01

    This study focuses on parent-child book reading and its connection to the development of a theory of mind. First, parents were asked to report about frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home. Second, mothers were asked to read four picture-books to thirty-four children between 4;0 and 5;0. Both frequency of parent-child storybook reading at home, and mother's use of mental state terms in picture-books reading tasks were significantly associated with success on false belief tasks, after partialling out a number of potential mediators such as age of children, verbal IQ, paternal education, and words used by mothers in joint picture-book reading. Among the different mental state references (cognitive terms, desires, emotions and perceptions), it was found that the frequency and variety of cognitive terms, but also the frequency of emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Relationships between mental state language and theory of mind are discussed.

  1. The Interaction Between Child Behavioral Inhibition and Parenting Behaviors: Effects on Internalizing and Externalizing Symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Sarah M; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2018-02-20

    Both child temperament and parenting have been extensively researched as predictors of child outcomes. However, theoretical models suggest that specific combinations of temperament styles and parenting behaviors are better predictors of certain child outcomes such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms than either temperament or parenting alone. The current qualitative review examines the interaction between one childhood temperamental characteristic (child behavioral inhibition) and parenting behaviors, and their subsequent impact on child psychopathology. Specifically, the moderating role of parenting on the relationship between child behavioral inhibition and both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is examined, and the methodological variations which may contribute to inconsistent findings are explored. Additionally, support for the bidirectional relations between behavioral inhibition and parenting behaviors, as well as for the moderating role of temperament on the relationships between parenting and child outcomes, is briefly discussed. Finally, the clinical applicability of this overall conceptual model, specifically in regard to future research directions and potential clinical interventions, is considered.

  2. Parents' experiences of parental groups in Swedish child health-care: Do they get what they want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Åsa; Lundqvist, Pia; Drevenhorn, Eva; Hallström, Inger

    2016-03-01

    Almost all parents in Sweden are invited to parental groups organized by the child health service (CHS) during their child's first year, but only 40% chose to attend. The aim of this study was to describe parents' experiences of participating in these parental groups. A total of 143 parents from 71 different parental groups at 27 child health-care (CHC) centres in one Swedish county completed an online questionnaire. A majority of the parents found the parental groups to be meaningful and more than 60% met someone in the group who they socialized with outside the meetings. Parents wanted a greater focus on child-related community information, existential questions, relationships and parenting in general. Group leadership seems to be of significance to how parents in a group connect and whether the parental role is affected. Making CHC nurses more aware of the topics parents desire could help them meet parents' needs. Education and training in group dynamics and group leadership could be of value in further improving the high-quality service CHC nurses already offer parents. More knowledge is needed about what would attract those parents who do not participate. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Avoidant coping moderates the relationship between paternal involvement in the child's type 1 diabetes (T1D) care and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Ashley; Limbers, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Fathers may experience greater parenting stress and anxiety when they are more involved in their child's type 1 diabetes (T1D) care. The present study evaluated whether seeking social support and avoidant coping strategies moderate the relationship between paternal involvement in the child's T1D care and parenting stress in an international sample. Two hundred forty-nine fathers of young children with T1D completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP), Dads' Active Disease Support scale (DADS), COPE Inventory, Self-Care Inventory (SCI-R), and a demographic questionnaire online. Pearson's product moment correlations were computed, and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with three separate models in which the PSI Child Domain, PIP Frequency, and PIP Difficulty scores represented different parenting stress outcomes. The interaction between use of denial coping and DADS Involvement was significantly correlated with general parenting stress ( p diabetes treatment regimen ( p management.

  4. Parenting a child with a traumatic brain injury: experiences of parents and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Felicity L; Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-01-01

    To qualitatively explore the experiences, challenges and needs of parents of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to inform future intervention research through incorporation of participant knowledge and experience. Parents of children with TBI (n = 10) and experienced health professionals in paediatric rehabilitation (n = 5) took part in focus groups or individual interviews. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and an inductive thematic analysis performed. Participants reported that, beyond the impact of the injury on the child, TBI affects the entire family. Parents need to adjust to and manage their child's difficulties and can also experience significant emotional distress, relationship discord and burden of care, further adding to the challenges of the parenting role. Parents can feel isolated and the importance of empowerment, support and information was emphasized. Coping styles of disengagement and avoidance were often reported, despite acknowledgement that these were not beneficial. Parenting interventions may provide essential support for parents in adjusting to and managing their child's difficulties and the efficacy of existing programmes needs evaluation. Addressing parent emotional adjustment and coping strategies is vital following paediatric TBI, given the impact on parent well-being and the potential negative effects on child outcomes through reduced parenting effectiveness. Group programmes may enable connection and support.

  5. Quality of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence and Later Adult Parenting Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with…

  6. The birth of a child with disability. Coping by parents and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2003-08-20

    When a child is born, the life of the family changes significantly and each of its members must adapt to the new situation. When the child is born with a disability, in addition to regular adaptation, the family must cope with stress, grief, disappointments, and challenges, which may lead to a serious crisis or even disruption of family life. Parents must coordinate assessments, evaluations, and various treatments while maintaining contact with many professionals and numerous institutions or services. They find themselves faced with important decisions on behalf of the child, decisions on management of the child with disability, and economic decisions that will affect the whole family. This paper reviews the literature on the topic of coping when a child with disability is born and also studies the question as to whether a connection exists between parental orientation toward feelings of guilt and the family relationships system. The event of a child born with a disability is always a tragedy for the family, but early intervention and support may help the family to adjust and become positively involved in the care and development of the child, even if that child is different and in need of special treatment.

  7. A systematic review investigating associations between parenting style and child feeding behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C; Duncanson, K; Burrows, T

    2014-12-01

    A direct association between parenting style and child feeding behaviours has not been established. This review explores whether an authoritative, authoritarian or permissive parenting style is associated with parental pressure to eat, responsibility, monitoring or restriction of child dietary intake. A search of eight electronic health databases was conducted. Inclusion criteria were children aged parenting style and child feeding behaviours. Seven studies (n = 1845) were identified in the review. An authoritarian parenting style was associated with pressuring a child to eat and having restrictive parental food behaviours. Authoritative parenting was associated with parental monitoring of child food intake. A permissive parenting style was inversely related to monitoring of child dietary intake. Parenting styles showed only weak to moderate associations with individual domains of child feeding. The most consistent relationship found was a negative association between permissive parenting and monitoring for both mothers and fathers in two studies. Progress in this field could be achieved by conducting studies targeting fathers and culturally diverse populations, and development of a tool which could reflect overall child feeding behaviour rather than individual domains. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Bidirectional associations between sibling relationships and parental support during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkman, M.M.S.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Vorst, H. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents’ development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent–child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental

  9. Parental divorce and developmental progression: an inquiry into their relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, J; Resnikoff, D

    1997-02-01

    The authors argue that the patterning of conscious and unconscious needs, wishes, and expectations that parents and children bring to each other is often profoundly altered under the impact of divorce and the parents' subsequent adult relationships. These changes, which are inherent in the divorce experience, have the power to modify significantly or derail the young child's developmental course. Clinical observations from an ongoing longitudinal research project show striking changes in the child's image of his parents, as portrayed here in the vivid play and fantasy of a psychologically sturdy child, concurrent with psychological changes in both parents and in their parenting. A follow-up, twelve years later, is reported. The authors suggest that the stable parenting of this child's first three years represented an internalised template of good relationships, which enabled him, despite the father's subsequent abandonment, the mother's grave acting out and the stepfather's rejection, to turn away from his disappointment in his parents, to wrest what was available from school, friends and others, and to propel himself forward at each point to the next developmental stage, moving increasingly away from his family towards independence and competence. The consistency of the child's inner life and integrity is contrasted with the depression of his parents and the instability of their parenting.

  10. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over six years: The contribution of each parent’s depressive history to the other’s parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E.S.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents’ depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fa...

  11. Parental Cognitive Impairment and Child Maltreatment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, David; Feldman, Maurice; Aunos, Marjorie; Prasad, Narasimha

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of parental cognitive impairment in cases opened for child maltreatment investigation in Canada, and to examine the relationship between parental cognitive impairment and maltreatment investigation outcomes including substantiation, case disposition and court application. Methods:…

  12. Parents' perception of their influence on their child's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerworp, Gwendolyn Kay; Ryan, Sarah-Jane

    2016-03-01

    Childhood physical activity (PA) has declined in the western world recently. To combat child inactivity, government programs have been organized to promote PA within families. It is important for physiotherapists to understand the influence parents perceive to have on their child's PA habits in order to better encourage a positive parental influence. The purpose of this study is to explore how parents perceive their influence on their child/children's PA through an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach with semi-structured interviews conducted with five participants. The interviews were analyzed using elements of IPA. Master themes developed with their corresponding subthemes: creating an environment of opportunity--logistics, opportunities through encouragement and PA within the family, barriers to PA--barriers created by parents and barriers created by external factors, and parent and child interactions--children communicating interest and disinterest in PA and parent's attitudes toward children's disinterest. The findings suggest that parents perceive themselves to have a greater positive influence on their children rather than negative. The barriers that parents create are not perceived to prevent their child's PA but rather restrict it. Many participants reported enjoying doing PA with their children and used PA as an opportunity for family time, indicating a dual purpose for PA. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Parental alcohol use disorders and child delinquency: the mediating effects of executive functioning and chronic family stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R; Brennan, Patricia A; Hammen, Constance

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and child violent and nonviolent delinquency. It also explores the mediating effects of executive functioning and chronic family stress on the parental AUD/child delinquency relationship. Participants were 816 families with children (414 boys and 402 girls) born between 1981 and 1984 at Mater Misericordiae Mother's Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Parents and children completed semistructured interviews, questionnaires and neuropsychological tests that assessed parental alcohol use, family psychiatric history, chronic family stress, child delinquency and child executive functioning. Paternal (but not maternal) AUDs predicted child violent and nonviolent delinquency. Executive functioning mediated the relationship between paternal AUDs and violent delinquency, whereas family stress mediated the relationship between paternal AUDs and both violent and nonviolent delinquency. Results support a biosocial conceptualization of the paternal AUD/delinquency relationship. They suggest that paternal AUDs may be associated with child executive functioning and family stress, which may in turn lead to child delinquency.

  14. Replication of Child-Parent Psychotherapy in Community Settings: Models for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Patricia; Osofsky, Joy D.; Henderson, Dorothy; Korfmacher, Jon; Thomas, Kandace; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2012-01-01

    Child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), an evidence-based dyadic therapeutic intervention for very young children exposed to trauma, is becoming the go-to therapeutic intervention for infant mental health practitioners. Although CPP has been shown to be effective for rebuilding the parent-child relationship, reducing trauma symptoms, and reducing…

  15. A Qualitative Exploration Into the Parent-Child Feeding Relationship: How Parents of Preschoolers Divide the Responsibilities of Feeding with Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Katie A; Nogueira de Brito, Junia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Berge, Jerica M

    2018-04-05

    To explore the extent to which parents divide responsibilities of feeding (what, when, where, how much, and whether) with their children and the factors that influence parents' approach to feeding. Individual interviews. Parents (n = 40) of preschoolers. Division of feeding responsibilities; motivation for feeding approach; challenges to feeding. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using deductive and inductive content analysis. Parent's approaches to feeding varied widely. A few parents followed the Division of Responsibility approach closely. Instead, many parents gave their child more than the recommended amount of influence over what foods were served and offered children less than the recommended amount of autonomy over the whether and how much of eating. Meals and snacks were approached differently; parents exhibited less control over the timing of snacks as well as the types and amounts of foods eaten during snacks, compared with the control exhibited during meals. This data supports future research to understand the impact of this framework on child health outcomes when it is adhered to on all eating occasions, including snacks. Researchers and clinicians should collaborate to explore alternative frameworks that encourage parents to provide the structure and autonomy support shown to yield positive outcomes in children. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships with parents and adult children's substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Kissling, Alexandra; Liu, Hui

    2017-02-01

    Previous research has indicated that parents impact minor children's health behaviors and adult children's self-rated health and psychological well-being. However, little is known about the long-term consequences of the parent-child relationship for adult children's substance (i.e., smoking levels, low to moderate alcohol use) as adult children age. The present study uses growth curve analysis on longitudinal survey data (Americans' Changing Lives, N=907) to examine how multiple dimensions of the parent-child tie influence adult children's substance use. Findings show that contact with mothers in adulthood has a health-enhancing effect on sons' smoking. Fathers' support is related to a decline in alcohol use for sons and daughters, but also an increase in smoking for sons only. Our findings for strain from parents are complex, suggesting that the ways in which adult children cope and manage strain with parents may result in multiple pathways of substance use. Our study raises new questions about whether and when family ties are "good" or "bad" for health and calls for a more multifaceted view of the long-lasting parent-child tie. We spotlight the need to look at the parent-child relationship as a dynamic social tie that changes over the life course and has consequences for health in adulthood. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Parenting and Children's Internalizing Symptoms: How Important are Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Cathy M; van Steensel, Francisca J A; Bögels, Susan M

    Parenting behaviors are associated with children's internalizing symptoms, however, it is not often examined which factors could possibly influence this relationship. The goals of this study were twofold. One goal was to examine whether the association between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms would increase if parenting behaviors were assessed behaviorally and in a context where the child displayed specific anxious behaviors. Another goal was to examine whether this relationship was influenced by the age and gender of the child, and by possible parenting differences between mothers and fathers. These questions were examined in a sample of 211 children aged 4-12 years; 140 community children and 71 clinically referred anxious children. Parents completed questionnaires regarding children's internalizing symptoms and parenting behaviors (positive reinforcement, punishment, force, reinforcement of dependency, and modeling/reassurance). In line with expectations, more punishment and less modeling/reassurance by parents were related to more internalizing symptoms in children. Child gender, child age, parent gender and clinical anxiety status were not found to influence the relationship between parenting and children's internalizing symptoms. Our results suggest that paternal parenting is as important as maternal parenting with respect to children's internalizing symptoms, and therefore, fathers could be included in child treatment as well.

  18. The Prospective Links Between Hyperactive/Impulsive, Inattentive, and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors in Childhood and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: The Moderating Influence of Gender and the Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-12-01

    We prospectively investigated the effect of child hyperactive/impulsive, inattentive, and oppositional/defiant behaviors on the development of youth antisocial behaviors, and the moderating influence of gender and the parent-child relationship quality in a normative sample. Participants (N = 673, 50 % girls) were assessed at 10 years of age (parent reports) and at age 15 (parent and adolescent reports). Using latent change models, we found that initial levels of, as well as increases in, hyperactivity/impulsivity and oppositional behaviors and initial levels of inattention behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors. The increase in oppositional behaviors was predictive of youth antisocial behaviors in girls only. Child hyperactive/impulsive behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors only in children for whom the quality of the parent-child relationship deteriorated from childhood to adolescence. Thus, both initial levels of and increases in disruptive behaviors as well as gender are important for understanding the development of antisocial behaviors in adolescence. We received partial support for the hypothesized, moderating role of a high-quality parent-child relationship.

  19. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullsperger, Josie M; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD's) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6-17 years (N = 498; 50.4 % ADHD, 55 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment that included parent, child, and teacher report measures of parenting practices, child temperament, and ADHD symptoms. Statistical models examined the direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal involvement, poor supervision, and inconsistent discipline on inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity via child temperament and personality traits. Results indicated differential patterns of effect for negative and positive parenting dimensions. First, inconsistent discipline exerted indirect effects on both ADHD symptom dimensions via child conscientiousness, such that higher levels of inconsistency predicted lower levels of conscientiousness, which in turn, predicted greater ADHD symptomatology. Similarly, poor supervision also exerted indirect effects on inattention via child conscientiousness as well as significant indirect effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity via its impact on both child reactive control and conscientiousness. In contrast, primarily direct effects of positive parenting (i.e., involvement) on ADHD emerged. Secondary checks revealed that similar pathways may also emerge for comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. Current findings extend upon past work by examining how parenting practices influence child ADHD via with-in child mechanisms and provide support for multi-pathway models accounting for heterogeneity in the disorder.

  20. [The impact of cleft lip and palate on the parent-child relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollemund, B; Galliani, E; Soupre, V; Vazquez, M-P; Guedeney, A; Danion, A

    2010-09-01

    Cleft lips and palates (CLPs) are the most common human facial malformations. Depending on the ethnic and/or geographical origin of the studied populations, they can affect up to 1/500 newborns. The treatment of these patients is multidisciplinary because these malformations have not only aesthetic consequences but also functional consequences as the phonation, hearing, deglutition, mastication and ventilation are altered. These consequences can also be psychological since the building of the body image, the way others perceive it, is likely to be seriously altered. In Europe there are over 210 reference hospitals for children affected by CLP. Besides, about 190 different protocols were identified. So far no generic protocol was recognized by the medical community as a whole. This discrepancy can be explained by the fact that the aesthetic and functional result of a protocol cannot be accurately assessed before adulthood when the child's growth is complete. Patients presenting with CLP don't usually seem to present with any serious psychological or psychiatric pathology. Yet a close review of the related literature shows that disorders are actually described: behavioural troubles, anxiety, depression and esthetic dissatisfaction with one's face in children as well as in adults. The difficulty in interpreting these disorders lies in the various factors that are likely to impact this condition (family setting, importance and type of the cleft, surgery protocol, growth, social environment). A multidisciplinary examination of the face and a careful consideration of concerned families show the importance of the psychological context and the risks of a dis-harmonious structuring of the parents-child relationships on the child's development. The identification of the difficulties faced by these families, depending on the child's age, can be easily identified. Of course they can be identified at birth when the family first sees the child and later on at each stage of the

  1. Relationships between Stressors and Parenting Attitudes in a Child Welfare Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estefan, Lianne Fuino; Coulter, Martha L.; VandeWeerd, Carla L.; Armstrong, Mary; Gorski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Families involved with child welfare services often experience a range of stressors in addition to maltreatment, including intimate partner violence, substance abuse, and mental health problems. Children in these families are at risk for developing a myriad of problems. Although parenting education programs are among the most routine interventions…

  2. Family child care providers' self-perceived role in obesity prevention: working with children, parents, and external influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Crowley, Angela A; Curry, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    To describe the perspective and strategies of family child care providers (FCCPs) to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. In-person, in-depth interviews with FCCPs. Family child care homes. Seventeen FCCPs caring for children 6 weeks to 9 years old; 94% caring for children paying with a state subsidy. Strategies of FCCP to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. Constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Family child care providers described 3 core strategies: (1) improving children's behavior, (2) engaging and educating parents, and (3) leveraging influences external to their relationship with parents to effect positive change and to avoid parental conflict. These strategies were framed within their knowledge of child development, parental communication, and community services. The findings suggest that FCCPs' role in obesity prevention may be framed within knowledge that may be commonly expected of a child care provider. Partnerships between public health policy makers and FCCP may reduce obesigenic environments by employing training and resources that link obesity prevention and child care provider expertise. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms & improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training is mediated by change in negative parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A; Clarke, Tana L; Raggi, Veronica L; Rooney, Mary E; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6-10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent training program. Before and after treatment, parenting was assessed via maternal reports and observations and child disruptive behavior was measured via maternal report. Controlling for pre-treatment levels, maternal ADHD symptomatology predicted post-treatment child disruptive behavior problems. The relation between maternal ADHD symptomatology and improvement in child behavior was mediated by change in observed maternal negative parenting. This study replicated findings linking maternal ADHD symptoms with attenuated child improvement following parent training, and is the first to demonstrate that negative parenting at least partially explains this relationship. Innovative approaches combining evidence-based treatment for adult ADHD with parent training may therefore be necessary for families in which both the mother and child have ADHD. Larger-scale studies using a full evidence-based parent training program are needed to replicate these findings.

  4. Three-Year Trajectories of Parenting Behaviors among Physically Abusive Parents and Their Link to Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Haskett, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about how positive and negative parenting practices differ across individuals and change over time in parents with substantiated physical abuse history, and how trajectories of these parenting practices affect child adjustment. Objective: The present study examined latent trajectories of positive and negative…

  5. An exploration of parent-child dyadic asthma management influences on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Sharon D; Brown, Adama

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of childhood asthma management use data from a single family reporter and fail to capture the parent-child dyadic influences. In this descriptive exploratory study with 183 parent-child dyads, data were collected from both parents and children. Using structural equation modeling, the relationships of parents' and children's asthma knowledge, self-efficacy to manage asthma, and asthma management on the child's quality of life were examined. Direct significant relationships from knowledge to self-efficacy to asthma management were found for each member of the dyad. The associations between parents' and children's self-efficacy and asthma management were not statistically significant. Only the children's self-efficacy to manage asthma was significantly associated with children's asthma-related quality of life.

  6. The Intergenerational Transmission of Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Understanding the causal relationship between parental schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes....... By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. We find OLS to be consistently upward biased due to endowments. Further, paternal schooling has no causal effect on infant and early childhood health but increases children...

  7. Change Trajectories for Parent-Child Interaction Sequences during Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakman, Melissa; Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Silovsky, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) has been found to reduce future child abuse reports among physically abusive parents. Reductions in observed negative parenting behaviors mediated this benefit. The current study examined session-by-session interaction sequences in order to identify when during treatment these changes occur and…

  8. Rasch validation of the Chinese parent-child interaction scale (CPCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Ho, Frederick Ka Wing; Chan, Ko Ling; Fu, King Wa; Li, Sophia Ling; Goh, Winnie; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun Bong

    2018-03-15

    Proper parent-child interaction is crucial for child development, but an assessment tool in Chinese is currently lacking. This study aimed to develop and validate a parent-reported parent-child interaction scale for Chinese preschool children. The Chinese parent-child interaction scale (CPCIS) was designed by an expert panel based on the literature and clinical observations in the Chinese context. The initial CPCIS had 14 parent-child interactive activity items. Psychometric properties of the CPCIS were examined using the Rasch model and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Convergent validity was investigated by the associations between CPCIS and family income, maternal education level, and children's school readiness. The study recruited 567 Chinese parent-child pairs from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, who completed the CPCIS. Six out of the 14 items in the initial CPCIS were dropped due to suboptimal fit values. The refined 8-item CPCIS was shown to be valid and reliable by Rasch models and CFA. The person separation reliability and Cronbach's α of the CPCIS were 0.81 and 0.82, respectively. The CPCIS scores were positively associated with family's socioeconomic status (η 2  = 0.05, P parent-child interactions in Chinese families.

  9. The relationship between parenting stress and parent-child interaction with health outcomes in the youngest patients with type 1 diabetes (0-7 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwesteeg, Anke M; Hartman, Esther E; Aanstoot, Henk-Jan; van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Emons, Wilco H M; van Mil, Edgar; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-03-01

    To test whether parenting stress and the quality of parent-child interaction were associated with glycemic control and quality of life (QoL) in young children (0-7 years) with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), we videotaped 77 families with a young child with T1DM during mealtime (including glucose monitoring and insulin administration). Parent-child interactions were scored with a specifically designed instrument. Questionnaires assessed general and disease-related parenting stress and (diabetes-specific (DS)) QoL. HbA(1c) (glycemic control) was extracted from the medical records. Both general and disease-related parenting stress were associated with a lower (DS)QoL (r ranged from -0.39 to -0.70, p child interaction, emotional involvement of parents (r = 0.23, p child (r = 0.23, p child interaction and (DS)QoL. The results support the notion that diabetes does not only affect the child with T1DM: T1DM is a family disease, as parenting factors (like stress and parent-child interactions) are associated with important child outcomes. Therefore, it is important for health-care providers to not only focus on the child with T1DM, but also on the family system.

  10. Balanced parenting style and its impact on the development of child personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes research results of families, who have never applied to psychological counselling. To assess the normality and abnormality of parent and child personality existential criterion was used. In these families a so-called balanced style of parenting was revealed. This style indicates the compromising parental position in the education of their children concerning the existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determinism and self-determination. The study results suggest that this position is developed by parents independently and on a rational basis. In accordance with the existential criterion mentioned above, characteristics of the educational position of parents indicate normality of their personality. It is shown that a balanced style of parenting contributes to developing child personality type with a dual, contradictory orientation for both children and their parents when solving life problems. Children with this type of personality, as well as their parents, manifest inherent willingness to compromise position towards the same existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determinism and self-determination. Thanks to a balanced style of parenting favourable personal prerequisites for the development of normal personality are shown. As balanced style of parenting contributes to the normal development of child personality, these children have lack personal prerequisites for emerging difficulties in social adaptation, and therefore in families with such style of solving parent-child problems, due to these difficulties are completely absent.

  11. Couple Relationship Status and Patterns in Early Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Lee, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,003), we examine the role of parental relationship status at birth on maternal adherence to current recommendations regarding breastfeeding, corporal punishment, and well-child visits. At the bivariate level, parents' union status is almost linearly related to adherence to…

  12. Parent-child interaction in motor speech therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Jethava, Vibhuti; Pukonen, Margit; Huynh, Anna; Goshulak, Debra; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    This study measures the reliability and sensitivity of a modified Parent-Child Interaction Observation scale (PCIOs) used to monitor the quality of parent-child interaction. The scale is part of a home-training program employed with direct motor speech intervention for children with speech sound disorders. Eighty-four preschool age children with speech sound disorders were provided either high- (2×/week/10 weeks) or low-intensity (1×/week/10 weeks) motor speech intervention. Clinicians completed the PCIOs at the beginning, middle, and end of treatment. Inter-rater reliability (Kappa scores) was determined by an independent speech-language pathologist who assessed videotaped sessions at the midpoint of the treatment block. Intervention sensitivity of the scale was evaluated using a Friedman test for each item and then followed up with Wilcoxon pairwise comparisons where appropriate. We obtained fair-to-good inter-rater reliability (Kappa = 0.33-0.64) for the PCIOs using only video-based scoring. Child-related items were more strongly influenced by differences in treatment intensity than parent-related items, where a greater number of sessions positively influenced parent learning of treatment skills and child behaviors. The adapted PCIOs is reliable and sensitive to monitor the quality of parent-child interactions in a 10-week block of motor speech intervention with adjunct home therapy. Implications for rehabilitation Parent-centered therapy is considered a cost effective method of speech and language service delivery. However, parent-centered models may be difficult to implement for treatments such as developmental motor speech interventions that require a high degree of skill and training. For children with speech sound disorders and motor speech difficulties, a translated and adapted version of the parent-child observation scale was found to be sufficiently reliable and sensitive to assess changes in the quality of the parent-child interactions during

  13. Bidirectional associations between mothers' and fathers' parenting consistency and child bmi

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Pauline; Giallo, Rebecca; Westrupp, Elizabeth; Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Research suggests that general parenting dimensions and styles are associated with children's BMI, but directionality in this relationship remains unknown. Moreover, there has been little attention to the influences of both mothers' and fathers' parenting. We aimed to examine reciprocal relationships between maternal and paternal parenting consistency and child BMI. METHODS: Participants were 4002 children and their parents in the population-based Longitudinal Study of...

  14. Building Relationships with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullaj, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Communicating with parents may seem like one more task on top of an overwhelming workload, but creating a positive relationship with parents has many benefits for all involved. The author discusses the steps to creating these relationships and communicating with families.

  15. Maltreatment and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Chinese Children With and Without Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Mediating Role of the Parent-Child Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfeng; Lin, Xiuyun; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fang, Xiaoyi; Du, Hongfei; Wang, Zhonghui

    2016-11-01

    Maltreatment has negative effects on the parent-child relationship and the emotional and behavioral development of children. The current study aimed to examine the associations among maltreatment, parent-child relationship, and emotional and behavioral problems in Chinese children with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Participants in the study included 259 children with ODD and their 269 non-ODD counterparts from northern, eastern, and southwestern China. We also collected data from their teachers and fathers or mothers. The results showed that ODD children suffered more maltreatment and had more emotional and behavioral problems than their non-ODD peers. For all children (both ODD and non-ODD children), emotional abuse predicted emotional problems but not behavioral problems. Physical abuse predicted behavioral problems but not emotional problems. Parent-child relationship mediated the effects of emotional abuse and physical abuse on emotional problems among ODD children but not among non-ODD children. Implications for prevention of emotional and physical abuse and ODD in the Chinese cultural context are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. The perceived influence of childhood cancer on the parents' relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, L; Battles, H; Zadeh, S; Pelletier, W; Arruda-Colli, M N F; Muriel, Anna C

    2017-12-01

    When a child is diagnosed with cancer, parents are faced with many practical and emotional challenges that can significantly affect their relationship. This study explores how having a child with cancer affects the quality of the parents' relationship, categorizes time points and events during the child's treatment when the relationship becomes most stressed and/or strengthened, identifies factors that help couples remain emotionally engaged throughout their child's cancer treatment, and assesses parental interest in a counseling intervention. This is a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted via a semistructured self-administered questionnaire that included the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale. One hundred ninety-two parents of children diagnosed between the ages of 1 and 21 participated. Forty percent felt their relationship moved in a negative direction. Diagnosis and relapse of disease were cited as the most individually stressful time points in the disease trajectory, with hospitalizations and relapse being most stressful on the relationship. Participants felt most emotionally connected at diagnosis and least emotionally connected at the start and end of treatment. The majority of couples indicated interest in counseling to address ways to support their relationship. Soon after diagnosis and during treatment was reported as the preferred time to offer these interventions. This study identified specific events and parent behaviors that strain the couples' relationship during the childhood cancer trajectory. This information can inform the development of a couple's intervention. Prospective research is needed to better understand how childhood cancer affects caregivers' partnerships through survivorship and beyond. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Children's responses to low parental mood. II: Associations with family perceptions of parenting styles and child distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solantaus-Simula, Tytti; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Beardslee, William R

    2002-03-01

    In an earlier article (part 1) the authors identified four patterns of children's responses to parental low mood: Active Empathy, Emotional Overinvolvement, Indifference, and Avoidance. They then hypothesized that these response patterns were related to parenting styles and to discrepancies in family members' perceptions of parenting and child mental distress. A normal population sample of 990 twelve-year-old Finnish children and their mothers (843) and fathers (573) was used. Within-family multivariate analyses conducted in mother-father-child triads (470) were used to examine whether quality of parenting varied according to children's responses and whether parents' and children's perceptions of parenting and child distress were different. Children in the Active Empathy and Indifference groups experienced more positive parenting than those in the other two groups. Discrepancies in family members' perceptions of child distress and mothering and fathering were especially characteristic of the Emotional Overinvolvement group. Typical for the Avoidance group was a within-family agreement on poor parenting and severe child distress. Children's response patterns as regards parental low mood are related to family dynamics. The study suggests that discrepancies in parents' and children's perceptions of parenting and child distress can be meaningful in understanding family interactions and child development and well-being.

  18. Predictors of parent-child communication among a nationally representative sample in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Katrina; Sun, Christina J; Babalola, Stella

    2012-01-01

    This study explores what constructs are associated with parent-adolescent communication about AIDS/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sexual relationships in Nigeria. The analyses use data from the 2007 National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey on 2593 men and women who had at least one child over the age of 12 years. The respondents were classified as low, medium, or high communicators. Low communicators were parents who did not talk to their child about either AIDS/STIs or sexual relationships. Medium communicators were parents who discussed only one topic with at least one child. High communicators were parents who discussed both topics with at least one child. Logistic regression was used to compare high communicators with low/medium communicators. There are commonalities and differences among men and women in the factors associated with parent-adolescent communication. Age, religion, and knowing where to obtain information about HIV/AIDS were associated with the extent of communication, regardless of the parent's gender. Perceived social support was an important correlate for fathers, while knowledge of female STI symptoms showed a significant association only for mothers. Programmatic and communication implications of the findings include addressing men and women differently, developing strategies to specifically reach younger parents and Muslims, and increasing general awareness of HIV/AIDS information resources. Further research is needed to understand the context, content, and timing of parent-adolescent conversations about AIDS/STIs and sexual relationships and how these factors affect the sexual behaviors of adolescents.

  19. Autism Severity and Qualities of Parent-Child Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurkens, Nicole M.; Hobson, Jessica A.; Hobson, R. Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how severity of autism affects children's interactions (relatedness) and relationships with their parents. Participants were 25 parent-child dyads that included offspring who were children with autism aged from 4 to 14 years. The severity of the children's autism was assessed using the calibrated severity…

  20. Can teacher-child relationships support human rights to freedom of opinion and expression, education and participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cen; Harrison, Linda J; McLeod, Sharynne; Walker, Sue; Spilt, Jantine L

    2018-02-01

    This study explored how teacher-child relationships change over the early school years, in terms of closeness and conflict, whether these trajectories differ in type and frequency for children with typical development and children with speech and language concern (SLC), and whether the trajectories are associated with school outcomes at 12-13 years. Participants were children, parents and teachers in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parents identified 2890 children with typical communication and 1442 children with SLC. Teacher-rated teacher-child closeness and conflict were collected biennially over six years. Academic and social-emotional outcomes were reported by teachers and children. Growth mixture modelling was conducted to generate teacher-child relationship trajectories and Wald's chi-square analyses were used to test the association between trajectories and school outcomes at 12-13 years, after controlling for a range of covariates including child's sex, language background, Indigenous status, age and socio-economic position. In both groups, the majority of children had teacher-child relationship trajectories with sustained high closeness and low conflict that predicted positive outcomes at age 12-13, but the SLC group was more at risk of less positive trajectories and poorer school outcomes. Close, less conflicted relationships with teachers may provide a supportive context for later language, literacy and social-emotional development. This study highlights the role of teachers in supporting children in their development of communication and academic skills that will optimise their capacity for freedom of opinions and expression, education and participation, as enshrined in Articles 19, 26 and 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

  1. Families as Niches during Communism in East Germany: Consequences for Parent-Child Relationships during Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    This study brings together two main theoretical traditions in order to better understand how parent-child relationships are influenced by the societal conditions around the family. The concept of the ecological niche has been used to describe the way in which East German families dealt with government institutions during communism, while we used…

  2. Parents' perceptions of child abuse and child discipline in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auemaneekul, Naruemon

    2013-12-01

    Violation of a child's right to protection is an issue for children all over the world. In Thailand, the greatest barrier to intervening in child abuse issues is the lack of awareness and the positive attitudes and beliefs on using violence as a way to discipline children. The incongruent definition used amongst Thai society and relevant sectors, causes incidences to be under reported and an obstacle to child survival and development. The present study is a qualitative study and aims to explore the perceptions of child abuse and child discipline definitions amongst parents in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area in order to extend broader knowledge for interpretation, definitions and to differentiate the line between child abuse and child discipline. Focus group discussions were used as the primary data collection method and content analysis was applied as the data analysis. The results produced two categories of parents' perceptions regarding child abuse and discipline. First, was the perception of the causes of child punishment and child discipline, and second was the meaning and difference between child abuse and child discipline. The study results would be beneficial for policy makers, health and related sectors to understand the meaning of the terms used amongst family members in order to apply and promote child protection strategies in culturally appropriate

  3. Beyond deficits: intimate partner violence, maternal parenting, and child behavior over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Megan R; Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah I; Beeble, Marisa; Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has negative consequences for children's well-being and behavior. Much of the research on parenting in the context of IPV has focused on whether and how IPV victimization may negatively shape maternal parenting, and how parenting may in turn negatively influence child behavior, resulting in a deficit model of mothering in the context of IPV. However, extant research has yet to untangle the interrelationships among the constructs and test whether the negative effects of IPV on child behavior are indeed attributable to IPV affecting mothers' parenting. The current study employed path analysis to examine the relationships among IPV, mothers' parenting practices, and their children's externalizing behaviors over three waves of data collection among a sample of 160 women with physically abusive partners. Findings indicate that women who reported higher levels of IPV also reported higher levels of behavior problems in their children at the next time point. When parenting practices were examined individually as mediators of the relationship between IPV and child behavior over time, one type of parenting was significant, such that higher IPV led to higher authoritative parenting and lower child behavior problems [corrected]. On the other hand, there was no evidence that higher levels of IPV contributed to more child behavior problems due to maternal parenting. Instead, IPV had a significant cumulative indirect effect on child behavior via the stability of both IPV and behavior over time. Implications for promoting women's and children's well-being in the context of IPV are discussed.

  4. Parenting and toddler aggression in second-generation immigrant families: the moderating role of child temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the influence of parenting practices in the prediction of child physical aggression in 94 second-generation Turkish immigrant families with 2-year-old toddlers, and the moderating role of child temperament. In a longitudinal study we tested both a dual-risk model and a differential susceptibility model. Observational data were obtained for mothers' positive parenting and authoritarian discipline, and maternal reports for child temperament and physical aggression. All measures were repeated 1 year later. Child temperament at age 2 years was a significant predictor of child aggression 1 year later. We found no main effects of positive parenting or of authoritarian discipline for the prediction of child aggression. However, we found support for the dual-risk hypothesis: Toddlers with difficult temperaments were more adversely affected by a lack of positive parenting than other children, but they did not benefit more from high levels of positive parenting than toddlers with more easy temperaments. We found no interaction effects with child temperament for authoritarian discipline. These findings provide support for the generalizability of the dual-risk model of parenting and temperament to non-Western immigrant families with young children. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Supporting parent-child interactions: music therapy as an intervention for promoting mutually responsive orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiali, Varvara

    2012-01-01

    Music therapists working with families address relationship and interpersonal communication issues. Few controlled studies exist in the literature but a growing body of documented practice is emerging. This study makes a contribution by documenting how music therapy supports mutuality and reciprocity in parent-child interactions. This study investigated mutually responsive orientation (MRO) behaviors of young children (aged 3-5) and their family members during music therapy. Participants were 4 families with low income and history of maternal depression as common risk factors. Data were collected by videotaping sessions, creating field notes and analytic memos, conducting parent interviews and reviewing parent journals. A cross-case analysis using MRO theory as a conceptualizing framework was used for the purpose of data reduction. Greeting and farewell rituals, and the flexibility of music-based therapeutic applications facilitated development of coordinated routines. Therapis