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Sample records for positive mood increased

  1. Positive mood can increase or decrease message scrutiny: the hedonic contingency view of mood and message processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, D T; Petty, R E; Smith, S M

    1995-07-01

    Currently dominant explanations of mood effects on persuasive message processing (i.e., cognitive capacity and feelings as information) predict that happy moods lead to less message scrutiny than neutral or sad moods. The hedonic contingency view (D. T. Wegener & R. E. Petty, 1994) predicts that happy moods can sometimes be associated with greater message processing activity because people in a happy mood are more attentive than neutral or sad people to the hedonic consequences of their actions. Consistent with this view, Experiment 1 finds that a happy mood can lead to greater message scrutiny than a neutral mood when the message is not mood threatening. Experiment 2 finds that a happy mood leads to greater message scrutiny than a sad mood when an uplifting message is encountered, but to less message scrutiny when a depressing message is encountered.

  2. Positive mood effects on delay discounting.

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    Hirsh, Jacob B; Guindon, Alex; Morisano, Dominique; Peterson, Jordan B

    2010-10-01

    Delay discounting is the process by which the value of an expected reward decreases as the delay to obtaining that reward increases. Individuals with higher discounting rates tend to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Previous research has indicated that personality can influence an individual's discounting rates, with higher levels of Extraversion predicting a preference for immediate gratification. The current study examined how this relationship would be influenced by situational mood inductions. While main effects were observed for both Extraversion and cognitive ability in the prediction of discounting rates, a significant interaction was also observed between Extraversion and positive affect. Extraverted individuals were more likely to prefer an immediate reward when first put in a positive mood. Extraverts thus appear particularly sensitive to impulsive, incentive-reward-driven behavior by temperament and by situational factors heightening positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli.

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    Wadlinger, Heather A; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2006-03-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states.

  4. The power of extraverts: testing positive and negative mood regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervas

    Full Text Available Extraversion is a personality trait which has been systematically related to positive affect and well-being. One of the mechanisms that may account for these positive outcomes is the ability to regulate the responses to positive, as well as negative, moods. Prior research has found that extraverts' higher positive mood maintenance could explain their higher levels of positive affect. However, research exploring differences between extraverts and introverts in negative mood regulation has yielded mixed results. The aim of the current study was explore the role of different facets of mood regulation displayed by extraverts, ambiverts, and introverts. After been exposed to a sad vs. happy mood induction, participants underwent a mood regulation task. Extraverts and ambiverts exhibited higher positive mood regulation than introverts, but similar mood repair. Thus, this research highlights the importance of positive mood regulation in the psychological functioning of extraverts, and opens new conceptualizations for developing interventions for introverts to improve their positive mood regulation and, hence, overall positive affect and well-being.

  5. Positive Mood Risk Attitudes, and Investment Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepori, Gabriele

    moodshifting mechanism commonly employed in lab studies. More specifically, I exploit the time-series variation in the domestic theatrical release of comedy movies as a natural experiment for testing the impact that happy mood (proxied by weekend comedy movie attendance) has on investment in risky assets...... (proxied by the performance of the U.S. stock market on the following Monday). My hypothesis rests upon the evidence that individual investors are more likely to ponder trading decisions during the weekend and trade on Mondays. To control for unobserved factors that may contemporaneously affect movie...... attendance and equity returns, I employ the percentage of theater screens dedicated to the comedy genre as an instrument. Using a sample of data from 1995 to 2010, I estimate that an increase in comedy attendance on a given weekend is followed by a decrease in equity returns on the subsequent Monday, which...

  6. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Happiness as alchemy: Positive mood leads to self-serving responses to social comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Camille S.; Stapel, Diederik A.

    2011-01-01

    People in a positive mood process information in ways that reinforce and maintain this positive mood. The current studies examine how positive mood influences responses to social comparisons and demonstrates that people in a positive mood interpret ambiguous information about comparison others in self-benefitting ways. Specifically, four experiments demonstrate that compared to negative mood or neutral mood participants, participants in a positive mood engage in effortful re-interpretations o...

  7. Situated navigational working memory: the role of positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Rogolino, Carmelo; D'Amico, Simonetta; Piccardi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The perspective of situated cognition assumes that cognition is not separated from the context. In the present study, the issue if visuospatial memory and navigational working memory are situated was explored by manipulating participants' mood (positive, negative and neutral) while performing two different tasks. College students were randomly assigned to the group of positive, negative or neutral music. Participants filled out the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) before and after carrying out the Corsi Test and the Walking Corsi Test. Both tasks were performed forward and backward. Music was played throughout the memory tasks. Firstly, comparing pre-mood induction PANAS scores to post-mood induction PANAS scores, results showed that only positive affects were manipulated: After mood induction, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores, whereas the Negative Music Group produced lower scores than before mood induction; the Neutral Music Group produced no effect. Secondly, the Positive Music Group produced higher scores than Negative and Neutral Music Groups both at the Corsi Test and at the Walking Corsi Test. These results show that situational contexts that induce a specific mood can affect visuospatial memory and navigational working memory, and open to the idea that positive emotions may play a crucial role in enhancing navigational strategies.

  8. The illusion of the positive: the impact of natural and induced mood on older adults' false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lisa; Hess, Thomas M; Elliot, Tonya

    2012-11-01

    Recent research suggests that affective and motivational processes can influence age differences in memory. In the current study, we examine the impact of both natural and induced mood state on age differences in false recall. Older and younger adults performed a version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Roediger & McDermott, 1995 , Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803) false memory paradigm in either their natural mood state or after a positive or negative mood induction. Results indicated that, after accounting for age differences in basic cognitive function, age-related differences in positive mood during the testing session were related to increased false recall in older adults. Inducing older adults into a positive mood also exacerbated age differences in false memory. In contrast, veridical recall did not appear to be systematically influenced by mood. Together, these results suggest that positive mood states can impact older adults' information processing and potentially increase underlying cognitive age differences.

  9. Conflict adaptation in positive and negative mood: Applying a success-failure manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Stefanie; Zweerings, Jana; Hirsch, Patricia; Koch, Iring

    2017-05-01

    Conflict adaptation is a cognitive mechanism denoting increased cognitive control upon detection of conflict. This mechanism can be measured by the congruency sequence effect, indicating the reduction of congruency effects after incongruent trials (where response conflict occurs) relative to congruent trials (without response conflict). Several studies have reported increased conflict adaptation under negative, as compared to positive, mood. In these studies, sustained mood states were induced by film clips or music combined with imagination techniques; these kinds of mood manipulations are highly obvious, possibly distorting the actual mood states experienced by the participants. Here, we report two experiments where mood states were induced in a less obvious way, and with higher ecological validity. Participants received success or failure feedback on their performance in a bogus intelligence test, and this mood manipulation proved highly effective. We largely replicated previous findings of larger conflict adaptation under negative mood than under positive mood, both with a Flanker interference paradigm (Experiment 1) and a Stroop-like interference paradigm (Experiment 2). Results are discussed with respect to current theories on affective influences on cognitive control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Svaldi

    Full Text Available Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation.In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12 and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12 were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded.After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG.The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.

  11. I want to be creative: exploring the role of hedonic contingency theory in the positive mood-cognitive flexibility link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Edward R; Devers, Erin E; McCrea, Sean M

    2008-02-01

    Three studies explored the role of hedonic contingency theory as an explanation for the link between positive mood and cognitive flexibility. Study 1 examined the determinants of activity choice for participants in happy, sad, or neutral moods. Consistent with hedonic contingency theory, happy participants weighted potential for creativity as well as the pleasantness of the task more heavily in their preference ratings. In Study 2, participants were given either a neutral or mood-threatening item generation task to perform. Results illustrated that happy participants exhibited greater cognitive flexibility in all cases; when confronted with a potentially mood-threatening task, happy participants were able to creatively transform the task so as to maintain positive mood and interest. Finally, Study 3 manipulated participants' beliefs that moods could or could not be altered. Results replicated the standard positive mood-increased cognitive flexibility effect in the nonmood-freezing condition, but no effects of mood on creativity were found in the mood-freezing condition. These studies indicate that the hedonic contingency theory may be an important contributing mechanism behind the positive mood-cognitive flexibility link. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Stress-related clinical pain and mood in women with chronic pain: moderating effects of depression and positive mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary C; Thummala, Kirti; Zautra, Alex J

    2014-08-01

    Chronic pain with comorbid depression is characterized by poor mood regulation and stress-related pain. This study aims to compare depressed and non-depressed pain patients in mood and pain stress reactivity and recovery, and test whether a post-stress positive mood induction moderates pain recovery. Women with fibromyalgia and/or osteoarthritis (N = 110) underwent interpersonal stress and were then randomly assigned by pain condition and depression status, assessed via the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, to positive versus neutral mood induction. Depression did not predict stress-related reactivity in despondency, joviality, or clinical pain. However, depression × mood condition predicted recovery in joviality and clinical pain; depressed women recovered only in the positive mood condition, whereas non-depressed women recovered in both mood conditions. Depression does not alter pain and mood stress reactivity, but does impair recovery. Boosting post-stress jovial mood ameliorates pain recovery deficits in depressed patients, a finding relevant to chronic pain interventions.

  13. The Effect of Positive Mood on Flexible Processing of Affective Information.

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    Grol, Maud; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-07-17

    Recent efforts have been made to understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying psychological resilience. Cognitive flexibility in the context of affective information has been related to individual differences in resilience. However, it is unclear whether flexible affective processing is sensitive to mood fluctuations. Furthermore, it remains to be investigated how effects on flexible affective processing interact with the affective valence of information that is presented. To fill this gap, we tested the effects of positive mood and individual differences in self-reported resilience on affective flexibility, using a task switching paradigm (N = 80). The main findings showed that positive mood was related to lower task switching costs, reflecting increased flexibility, in line with previous findings. In line with this effect of positive mood, we showed that greater resilience levels, specifically levels of acceptance of self and life, also facilitated task set switching in the context of affective information. However, the effects of resilience on affective flexibility seem more complex. Resilience tended to relate to more efficient task switching when negative information was preceded by positive information, possibly because the presentation of positive information, as well as positive mood, can facilitate task set switching. Positive mood also influenced costs associated with switching affective valence of the presented information. This latter effect was indicative of a reduced impact of no longer relevant negative information and more impact of no longer relevant positive information. Future research should confirm these effects of individual differences in resilience on affective flexibility, considering the affective valence of the presented information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Effects of Positive and Negative Mood on Cognition and Motivation in Multimedia Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Tze Wei; Tan, Su-Mae

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Theory of Learning with Media framework posits that the multimedia learning process is mediated by the learner's mood. Recent studies have shown that positive mood has a facilitating effect on multimedia learning. Though literature has shown that negative mood encourages an individual to engage in a more systematic,…

  15. Psilocybin-Induced Decrease in Amygdala Reactivity Correlates with Enhanced Positive Mood in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Preller, Katrin H; Scheidegger, Milan; Pokorny, Thomas; Bosch, Oliver G; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2015-10-15

    The amygdala is a key structure in serotonergic emotion-processing circuits. In healthy volunteers, acute administration of the serotonin 1A/2A/2C receptor agonist psilocybin reduces neural responses to negative stimuli and induces mood changes toward positive states. However, it is little-known whether psilocybin reduces amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli and whether any change in amygdala reactivity is related to mood change. This study assessed the effects of acute administration of the hallucinogen psilocybin (.16 mg/kg) versus placebo on amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli in 25 healthy volunteers using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Mood changes were assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used with volunteers counterbalanced to receive psilocybin and placebo in two separate sessions at least 14 days apart. Amygdala reactivity to negative and neutral stimuli was lower after psilocybin administration than after placebo administration. The psilocybin-induced attenuation of right amygdala reactivity in response to negative stimuli was related to the psilocybin-induced increase in positive mood state. These results demonstrate that acute treatment with psilocybin decreased amygdala reactivity during emotion processing and that this was associated with an increase of positive mood in healthy volunteers. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of amygdala hyperactivity and negative mood states in patients with major depression. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decision making under uncertainty and information processing in positive and negative mood states.

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    Mohanty, Sachi Nandan; Suar, Damodar

    2014-08-01

    This study examines whether mood states (a) influence decision making under uncertainty and (b) affect information processing. 200 students at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur participated in this study. Positive mood was induced by showing comedy movie clips to 100 participants and negative mood was induced by showing tragedy movie clips to another 100 participants. The participants were administered a questionnaire containing hypothetical situations of financial gains and losses, and a health risk problem. The participants selected a choice for each situation, and stated the reasons for their choice. Results suggested that the participants preferred cautious choices in the domain of gain and in health risk problems and risky choices in the domain of loss. Analysis of the reasons for the participants' choices suggested more fluency, originality, and flexibility of information in a negative mood compared to a positive mood. A negative (positive) mood state facilitated systematic (heuristic) information processing.

  17. Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Scholey, Andrew B; Pipingas, Andrew; Kras, Marni; Nolidin, Karen; Gibbs, Amy; Wesnes, Keith; Stough, Con

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the acute and sub-chronic effects of cocoa polyphenols on cognition and mood. In a randomized, double-blind study, healthy middle-aged participants received a dark chocolate drink mix standardized to contain 500 mg, 250 mg or 0 mg of polyphenols (placebo) in a parallel-groups design. Participants consumed their assigned treatment once daily for 30 days. Cognition was measured with the Cognitive Drug Research system and self-rated mood with the Bond-Lader Visual Analogue Scale. Participants were tested at baseline, at 1, 2.5 and 4 h after a single acute dose and again after receiving 30 days of treatment. In total, 72 participants completed the trial. After 30 days, the high dose of treatment significantly increased self-rated calmness and contentedness relative to placebo. Mood was unchanged by treatment acutely while cognition was unaffected by treatment at all time points. This randomized controlled trial is perhaps the first to demonstrate the positive effects of cocoa polyphenols on mood in healthy participants. This provides a rationale for exploring whether cocoa polyphenols can ameliorate the symptoms associated with clinical anxiety or depression.

  18. Oral contraceptives positively affect mood in healthy PMS-free women: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, Danielle A; de Kloet, E Ronald; de Rover, Mischa; Van der Does, Willem

    2017-12-01

    Menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptives (OC) use influence mood and cognition and these effects may be moderated by the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) genotype. The effect of menstrual cycle phase on mood may be increased if participants know that this is the focus of study. We assessed aspects associated with reproductive depression such as mood, interpersonal sensitivity, affect lability and depressive cognitions in MR-genotyped OC-users and naturally cycling (NC) women in a carefully masked design. A homogenous sample of healthy, PMS-free, pre-menopausal MR-genotyped women (n=92) completed online questionnaires eight times during two consecutive cycles. The masking of the research question was successful. OC-users did not differ significantly from NC women in positive and negative affect at the time of assessment, personality characteristics (e.g. neuroticism) or mental and physical health. Both groups reported more shifts in anger in the first cycle week (pemotional blunting effect, which is in line with previous reports on affect-stabilizing effects of OC. Limitations were loss of cases due to irregularities in the menstrual cycle length and possible confounding by the 'survivor effect', since almost all OC-users took OC for more than a year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The power of positive and negative expectations to influence reported symptoms and mood during exposure to wind farm sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Fiona; Dodd, George; Schmid, Gian; Gamble, Greg; Cundy, Tim; Petrie, Keith J

    2014-12-01

    Wind farm developments have been hampered by claims that sound from wind turbines causes symptoms and negative health reports in nearby residents. As scientific reviews have failed to identify a plausible link between wind turbine sound and health effects, psychological expectations have been proposed as an explanation for health complaints. Building on recent work showing negative expectations can create symptoms from wind turbines, we investigated whether positive expectations can produce the opposite effect, in terms of a reduction in symptoms and improvements in reported health. 60 participants were randomized to either positive or negative expectation groups and subsequently exposed to audible wind farm sound and infrasound. Prior to exposure, negative expectation participants watched a DVD incorporating TV footage about health effects said to be caused by infrasound produced by wind turbines. In contrast, positive expectation participants viewed a DVD that outlined the possible therapeutic effects of infrasound exposure. During exposure to audible windfarm sound and infrasound, symptoms and mood were strongly influenced by the type of expectations. Negative expectation participants experienced a significant increase in symptoms and a significant deterioration in mood, while positive expectation participants reported a significant decrease in symptoms and a significant improvement in mood. The study demonstrates that expectations can influence symptom and mood reports in both positive and negative directions. The results suggest that if expectations about infrasound are framed in more neutral or benign ways, then it is likely reports of symptoms or negative effects could be nullified.

  20. Music-induced positive mood broadens the scope of auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkinen, Vesa; Makkonen, Tommi; Eerola, Tuomas

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that positive mood broadens the scope of visual attention, which can manifest as heightened distractibility. We used event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate whether music-induced positive mood has comparable effects on selective attention in the auditory domain. Subjects listened to experimenter-selected happy, neutral or sad instrumental music and afterwards participated in a dichotic listening task. Distractor sounds in the unattended channel elicited responses related to early sound encoding (N1/MMN) and bottom-up attention capture (P3a) while target sounds in the attended channel elicited a response related to top-down-controlled processing of task-relevant stimuli (P3b). For the subjects in a happy mood, the N1/MMN responses to the distractor sounds were enlarged while the P3b elicited by the target sounds was diminished. Behaviorally, these subjects tended to show heightened error rates on target trials following the distractor sounds. Thus, the ERP and behavioral results indicate that the subjects in a happy mood allocated their attentional resources more diffusely across the attended and the to-be-ignored channels. Therefore, the current study extends previous research on the effects of mood on visual attention and indicates that even unfamiliar instrumental music can broaden the scope of auditory attention via its effects on mood. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Effects of Positive Mood on Generative and Evaluative Thinking in Creative Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Politis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine the role of positive mood on generative and evaluative thinking in creative problem solving. Participants included 89 middle school students who watched either a positive or neutral mood video program. After students watched the video, they completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS scale to determine their current mood. Participants were then divided into three groups and given a divergent thinking task to complete. Group A was asked to generate potential solutions to a problem (generative thinking. Group B was given one solution to the problem that had been offered by participants’ peers in a previous pilot study and then asked to generate possible advantages to this particular solution (evaluative thinking. Group C was given the potential solution but asked to generate potential disadvantages (also evaluative thinking. Students in the positive mood condition were significantly more fluent than those who watched the neutral video. Students in the neutral mood condition generated more disadvantages than advantages, but this difference was significant only at p < .10. Implications and limitations of these results were discussed.

  2. Harnessing members' positive mood for team-directed learning behaviour and team innovation : The moderating role of perceived team feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, Frank; van der Vegt, Gerben S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the role of individual team members' positive mood and perceived team feedback for their team-directed learning behaviour. Results obtained in a sample of 186 members from 27 work teams showed that positive mood was positively associated with team-directed learning behaviour if

  3. Sex hormone manipulation slows reaction time and increases labile mood in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Fisher, P M; Budtz-Jørgensen, E.

    2016-01-01

    : In a randomized controlled double-blinded trial, 61 healthy women (mean age 24.3±4.9 years) were tested with measures of affective verbal memory, reaction time, mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding at baseline and at follow-up after receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or placebo...... intervention. Women also reported daily mood profiles during intervention. We tested direct effects of intervention and indirect effects through changes in serotonin transporter binding on verbal affective memory, simple reaction time and self-reported measures of mental distress, and further effects of Gn......RHa on daily mood. RESULTS: GnRHa induced an increase in simple reaction time (p=0.03) and more pronounced fluctuations in daily self-reported mood in a manner dependent on baseline mood (p=0.003). Verbal affective memory recall, overall self-perceived mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding were...

  4. Mood stabilizer treatment increases serotonin type 1A receptor binding in bipolar depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Allison C; Carlson, Paul J; Bain, Earle E; Eckelman, William; Herscovitch, Peter; Manji, Husseini; Zarate, Carlos A; Drevets, Wayne C

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal serotonin type 1A (5-HT1A) receptor function and binding have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Preclinical studies have consistently shown that stress decreases the gene expression of 5-HT1A receptors in experimental animals, and that the associated increase in hormone secretion plays a crucial role in mediating this effect. Chronic administration of the mood stabilizers lithium and divalproex (valproate semisodium) reduces glucocorticoid signaling and function in the hippocampus. Lithium has further been shown to enhance 5-HT1A receptor function. To assess whether these effects translate to human subject with bipolar disorder (BD), positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]trans-4-fluoro-N-(2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazino]-ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide ([18F]FCWAY) were used to acquire PET images of 5-HT1A receptor binding in 10 subjects with BD, before and after treatment with lithium or divalproex. Mean 5-HT1A binding potential (BPP) significantly increased following mood stabilizer treatment, most prominently in the mesiotemporal cortex (hippocampus plus amygdala). When mood state was also controlled for, treatment was associated with increases in BPP in widespread cortical areas. These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that these mood stabilizers enhance 5-HT1A receptor expression in BD, which may underscore an important component of these agents' mechanism of action. PMID:23926239

  5. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hiebler-Ragger

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD, spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB, and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18 in 481 (76% female young adults (age range: 18-30 years who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being-but not Religious Well-Being-was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being-comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning-seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults' affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended.

  6. PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-11-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU patients (median age 8.5, range 0-35 years) participated (median phenylalanine concentration in total sample 277 (range 89-1171) μmol/l; and in patients introvert or extravert behavior. The interviewer as well as the respondents were blinded with regard to the phenylalanine concentration. Patients reported less deviant behavior compared to close environment. Mood swings were positively associated with phenylalanine concentrations in the total group (P=0.039) and patients introvert and extravert behavior were not statistically significant. there is a positive association between phenylalanine concentrations and mood swings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español 3 Ways to Increase Positive Emotions KidsHealth / For Teens / 3 Ways to Increase Positive ... to give yourself a boost. Track Your Positive Emotions Name the positive emotions you're already familiar ...

  8. Emotional and uncontrolled eating styles and chocolate chip cookie consumption. A controlled trial of the effects of positive mood enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sally Ann; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Warner, Lisa; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    The study tested the effects of positive mood enhancement on chocolate chip cookie consumption in the context of emotional and uncontrolled eating styles. The relationship between emotional eating style and chocolate chip cookie intake was assumed to be mediated by uncontrolled eating style. Further, it was hypothesized that the effectiveness of the positive mood enhancement may be more salient among those who have effective control of their eating. In this experimental study, respondents (N=106, 70% women, aged 16-45 years old) were assigned by means of cluster randomization to the control or positive mood enhancement condition (a comedy movie clip). Compared to the control condition, positive mood enhancement resulted in consuming on average 53.86 kcal less. Relationships between emotional eating style and cookie intake were mediated by uncontrolled eating. Moderated mediation analysis indicated that the effect of a mediator (uncontrolled eating) on cookie intake was moderated by the group assignment. Positive mood enhancement resulted in eating on average 3.3 cookies less among individuals with a more controlled eating style. By contrast, among those who presented uncontrolled eating, positive mood enhancement led to consuming an average of 1.7 cookies more. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. What makes dreams positive or negative: relations to fundamental dimensions of positive and negative mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallmeyer, R J; Chang, E C

    1998-02-01

    The present study examined the general emotional content of dreams reported by individuals who typically experience "positive" versus "negative" dreams. Self-reports of the 153 participants indicated that positive versus negative dreamers (ns = 42 and 24, respectively) generally experienced more positive emotions, e.g., joviality, self-assurance, and fewer negative emotions, e.g., fear, sadness. No differences were found in the self-reports of the participants in the experience of surprise, guilt, fatigue, and shyness between the groups, hence, positive and negative dreams do not appear to reflect simply more positive and fewer negative emotions, respectively.

  10. Mood repair via attention refocusing or recall of positive autobiographical memories by adolescents with pediatric-onset major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; George, Charles J; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kiss, Enikő; Vetró, Ágnes; Kapornai, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Impaired emotion regulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of depressive disorders. Indeed, currently and previously depressed adults both report greater problems in attenuating sadness (mood repair) in daily life than healthy controls. In contrast, studies of various strategies to attenuate sad affect have mostly found that currently or previously depressed adults and controls were similarly successful at mood repair in the laboratory. But few studies have examined mood repair among depression-prone youths or the effects of trait characteristics on mood repair outcomes in the laboratory. Adolescents, whose first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) had onset at age 9, on average (probands), and were either in remission or depressed, and control peers, watched a sad film clip. Then, they were instructed to engage in refocusing attention (distraction) or recalling happy memories. Using affect ratings provided by the youths, we tested two developmentally informed hypotheses about whether the subject groups would be similarly able to attenuate sadness via the two mood repair strategies. We also explored if self-reported habitual (trait) mood repair influenced laboratory performance. Contrary to expectations, attention refocusing and recall of happy memories led to comparable mood benefits across subjects. Control adolescents reported significantly greater reductions in sadness than did depressed (Cohen's d = .48) or remitted (Cohen's d = .32) probands, regardless of mood repair strategy, while currently depressed probands remained the saddest after mood repair. Habitual mood repair styles moderated the effects of instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. Whether depressed or in remission, adolescents with MDD histories are not as efficient at mood repair in the laboratory as controls. But proband-control group differences in mood repair outcomes were modest in scope, suggesting that the abilities that subserve affect regulation have been

  11. Mood repair via attention refocusing or recall of positive autobiographical memories by adolescents with pediatric onset major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; George, Charles J.; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kiss, Enikő; Vetró, Ágnes; Kapornai, Krisztina

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired emotion regulation is increasingly recognized as a core feature of depressive disorders. Indeed, currently and previously depressed adults both report greater problems in attenuating sadness (mood repair) in daily life than healthy controls. In contrast, studies of various strategies to attenuate sad affect have mostly found that currently or previously depressed adults and controls were similarly successful at mood repair in the laboratory. But few studies have examined mood repair among depression-prone youths or the effects of trait characteristics on mood repair outcomes in the laboratory. Methods Adolescents, whose first episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) had onset at age 9, on average (probands), and were either in remission or depressed, and control peers, watched a sad film clip. Then, they were instructed to engage in re-focusing attention (distraction) or recalling happy memories. Using affect ratings provided by the youths, we tested two developmentally informed hypotheses about whether the subject groups would be similarly able to attenuate sadness via the two mood repair strategies. We also explored if self-reported habitual (trait) mood repair influenced laboratory performance. Results Contrary to expectations, attention re-focusing and recall of happy memories led to comparable mood benefits across subjects. Control adolescents reported significantly greater reductions in sadness than did depressed (Cohen’s d=.48) or remitted (Cohen’s d=.32) probands, regardless of mood repair strategy, while currently depressed probands remained the saddest after mood repair. Habitual mood repair styles moderated the effects of instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. Conclusions Whether depressed or in remission, adolescents with MDD histories are not as efficient at mood repair in the laboratory as controls. But proband-control group differences in mood repair outcomes were modest in scope, suggesting that the abilities

  12. Positive mood as a mediator of the relations among musical preference, postconsumption product evaluation, and consumer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ching-I; Tseng, Hsu-Min; Wu, Heng-Hui

    2007-06-01

    This study of how positive mood mediates the influences of musical preference and postconsumption product evaluation on consumer satisfaction focuses specifically on a model in which positive mood fully mediates the influences. The proposed model is compared with two competing models, and a structural equation model is used to test and compare the three theory-driven models. This study sampled 247 students majoring in management at a single university. They had mean age of 23 yr. (SD=2.5). This study used questionnaires to measure subjects' evaluations of a cup of coffee, preference for the music broadcast in the coffee shop, positive mood, and satisfaction after they had the coffee. Analysis indicated that the proposed model outperformed the two competing models in describing the data using chi-square difference tests. Positive mood was identified as a full mediator of the relationship between musical preference and consumer satisfaction. Moreover, the results demonstrate for service managers the importance of creating positive consumer mood.

  13. Mood, music, and caffeine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Lorist, Monicque

    2014-01-01

    What we see is affected by how we feel: in positive moods, we are more sensitive to positive stimuli, such as happy faces, but in negative moods we are more sensitive to negative stimuli, such as sad faces. Caffeine is known to affect mood - a cup of coffee results in a more positive mood, but also

  14. Depressed mood, positive affect, and heart rate variability in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi R; Whitehead, Daisy L; Rakhit, Roby; Steptoe, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    To test associations between heart rate variability (HRV), depressed mood, and positive affect in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Depression is associated with impaired HRV post acute cardiac events, but evidence in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is inconsistent. Seventy-six patients (52 men, 24 women; mean age = 61.1 years) being investigated for suspected CAD on the basis of symptomatology and positive noninvasive tests, completed 24-hour electrocardiograms. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered, and positive and depressed affect was measured over the study period with the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). A total of 46 (60.5%) patients were later found to have definite CAD. HRV was analyzed, using spectral analysis. Typical diurnal profiles of HRV were observed, with greater normalized high frequency (HF) and lower normalized low frequency (LF) power in the night compared with the day. BDI depression scores were not consistently associated with HRV. But positive affect was associated with greater normalized HF power (p = .039) and reduced normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of age, gender, medication with beta blockers, CAD status, body mass index, smoking, and habitual physical activity level. In patients with definite CAD, depressed affect assessed using the DRM was associated with reduced normalized HF power and heightened normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of covariates. Relationships between depression and HRV in patients with CAD may depend on affective experience over the monitoring period. Enhanced parasympathetic cardiac control may be a process through which positive affect protects against cardiovascular disease.

  15. Mood states of soccer players in the english leagues: reflections of an increasing workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Thatcher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to assess whether the demands of the modern English competitive soccer season would be reflected in the mood states of professional soccer players. Sixty-nine male participants either activity competing in English soccer leagues or resident in England were recruited and grouped accordingly as professional soccer players, university level soccer players, Sunday league soccer players, or non-sporting controls. On three separate occasions; at the beginning, at the middle, and finally towards the end of the English soccer season, participants completed both the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire as well as a questionnaire related to their teams’ performance in addition to their perceived life stress. Results showed the POMS scores to differ over the season in relation to the groups’ standard of competition. ANOVAs demonstrated this pattern to be significant for the dependent measures of tension, depression, and confusion with significant group by time interactions (95% level of confidence. At the outset of the season professionals had the most positive POMS profile, however, as the season progressed they showed the greatest change towards a negative profile. These results indicate that English soccer is placing professional players at a predisposition of demonstrating POMS commensurate with negative adaptation to training, having important implications for their long-term performance and health.

  16. A sad mood increases attention to unhealthy food images in women with food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayn, Mallory; Sears, Christopher R; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2016-05-01

    Food addiction and emotional eating both influence eating and weight, but little is known of how negative mood affects the attentional processes that may contribute to food addiction. The purpose of this study was to compare attention to food images in adult women (N = 66) with versus without food addiction, before and after a sad mood induction (MI). Participants' eye fixations were tracked and recorded throughout 8-s presentations of displays with healthy food, unhealthy food, and non-food images. Food addiction was self-reported using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. The sad MI involved watching an 8-min video about a young child who passed away from cancer. It was predicted that: (1) participants in the food addiction group would attend to unhealthy food significantly more than participants in the control group, and (2) participants in the food addiction group would increase their attention to unhealthy food images following the sad MI, due to increased emotional reactivity and poorer emotional regulation. As predicted, the sad MI had a different effect for those with versus without food addiction: for participants with food addiction, attention to unhealthy images increased following the sad MI and attention to healthy images decreased, whereas for participants without food addiction the sad MI did not alter attention to food. These findings contribute to researchers' understanding of the cognitive factors underlying food addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Positive and negative mood in men with advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: considering the role of social support and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Catherine; Dahn, Jason R; Antoni, Michael H; Traeger, Lara; Kava, Bruce; Bustillo, Natalie; Zhou, Eric S; Penedo, Frank J

    2015-08-01

    Advanced prostate cancer patients often undergo androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Advanced disease and adverse ADT side effects are often debilitating and negatively impact mood. Social support has been shown to mitigate detrimental effects of stress on mood. This study sought to characterize positive and negative mood in this select patient population and determine whether social support moderated relations between stress and mood. Participants (N = 80) completed the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, Perceived Stress Scale, and Derogatis Affect Balance Scale at a single time point. Hierarchical regression models evaluated relations among social support, stress, and mood controlling for relevant covariates. Standard moderation analyses were performed. Participants reported higher levels of negative and positive mood compared with published means of localized prostate cancer patients. Overall, mood was more positive than negative. Stress levels were comparable to cancer populations with recurrent disease. Moderated regression analyses showed that social support partially buffered the effects of stress on positive mood; men with high stress and low support reported the lowest levels of positive mood. The model with negative mood as the dependent measure did not support moderation; that is, the relationship between stress and negative mood did not differ by level of social support. Among individuals living with advanced prostate cancer, social support may be an important factor that sustains positive mood in the presence of stress. Future work should examine the extent to which social support prospectively impacts health-related quality of life by promoting positive mood. Limitations include cross-sectional design, which precludes causal inferences. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Psilocybin biases facial recognition, goal-directed behavior, and mood state toward positive relative to negative emotions through different serotonergic subreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Studerus, Erich; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptors have been associated with dysfunctional emotional processing biases in mood disorders. These receptors further predominantly mediate the subjective and behavioral effects of psilocybin and might be important for its recently suggested antidepressive effects. However, the effect of psilocybin on emotional processing biases and the specific contribution of 5-HT2A receptors across different emotional domains is unknown. In a randomized, double-blind study, 17 healthy human subjects received on 4 separate days placebo, psilocybin (215 μg/kg), the preferential 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg), or psilocybin plus ketanserin. Mood states were assessed by self-report ratings, and behavioral and event-related potential measurements were used to quantify facial emotional recognition and goal-directed behavior toward emotional cues. Psilocybin enhanced positive mood and attenuated recognition of negative facial expression. Furthermore, psilocybin increased goal-directed behavior toward positive compared with negative cues, facilitated positive but inhibited negative sequential emotional effects, and valence-dependently attenuated the P300 component. Ketanserin alone had no effects but blocked the psilocybin-induced mood enhancement and decreased recognition of negative facial expression. This study shows that psilocybin shifts the emotional bias across various psychological domains and that activation of 5-HT2A receptors is central in mood regulation and emotional face recognition in healthy subjects. These findings may not only have implications for the pathophysiology of dysfunctional emotional biases but may also provide a framework to delineate the mechanisms underlying psylocybin's putative antidepressant effects. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ironic processes in the mental control of mood and mood-related thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D M; Erber, R; Zanakos, S

    1993-12-01

    The mental control of mood and mood-related thought was investigated. In Experiment 1, Ss reminiscing about a happy or sad event were asked to make their mood positive, were given no instructions, or were asked to make their mood negative. Ss attempting mood control without an imposed cognitive load were successful, whereas those who attempted control while rehearsing a 9-digit number not only failed to control their moods but also showed self-reported mood change opposite the mood they intended to create. In Experiment 2, Ss attempting to control mood-related thoughts under cognitive load showed increased accessibility of those thoughts contrary to the direction of intended control in a Stroop-type color-naming task.

  20. Whether you are smart or kind depends on how I feel: The influence of positive and negative mood on agency and communion perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymkow Aleksandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Feelings-as-information theory states that feelings inform us about the nature of our current situation and we rely on them to make our judgments. Beyond that, feelings tune our cognitive processes to meet situational requirements. Positive feelings result in relying on pre-existing knowledge structures and default strategies, whereas negative feelings hamper relying on routines and results in adapting systematic processing. Based on this premise, it was hypothesized that positive mood, elicited either by the perceived target or by the independent source, would lead to relying on accessible agentic or communal content in perceiving strangers, as well as familiar others, whereas negative mood would weaken these tendencies. Specifically, the three studies showed initial evidence that (a positive mood leads to focusing on agencyrelated qualities in perception of unknown men to a greater extent than negative mood, (b positive mood leads to focusing on communion-related qualities in perception of unknown women more than negative mood, and(c positive mood leads to relying on communal content in perception of familiar others comparing to negative mood.

  1. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-03-29

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress.

  2. Low Mood Leads to Increased Empathic Distress at Seeing Others’ Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown changes in empathy in patients with depression, including an elevated level of trait personal distress. This study examined if low mood causes changes in self-reported empathic distress when seeing others in pain. To test this, we conducted an initial (n = 26 and close replication study (n = 46 in which sad mood was induced in healthy participants (overall mean age M = 21, SD = 5, range = 18–41 years. Participants viewed and rated video stimuli inferring pain experienced by other people. Results showed that participants perceived the videos depicting others’ pain (versus no-pain to be more distressing under a sad mood compared to a neutral mood condition, implying that sadness enhances one’s emotional reactivity toward others’ distress. This supports previous depression literature suggesting an impaired emotional processing ability, and could contribute to some of the unhelpful behaviors seen in depression such as social withdrawal and avoidance.

  3. Resveratrol prevents age-related memory and mood dysfunction with increased hippocampal neurogenesis and microvasculature, and reduced glial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Maheedhar; Parihar, Vipan K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Mishra, Vikas; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K

    2015-01-28

    Greatly waned neurogenesis, diminished microvasculature, astrocyte hypertrophy and activated microglia are among the most conspicuous structural changes in the aged hippocampus. Because these alterations can contribute to age-related memory and mood impairments, strategies efficacious for mitigating these changes may preserve cognitive and mood function in old age. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in the skin of red grapes having angiogenic and antiinflammatory properties, appears ideal for easing these age-related changes. Hence, we examined the efficacy of resveratrol for counteracting age-related memory and mood impairments and the associated detrimental changes in the hippocampus. Two groups of male F344 rats in late middle-age having similar learning and memory abilities were chosen and treated with resveratrol or vehicle for four weeks. Analyses at ~25 months of age uncovered improved learning, memory and mood function in resveratrol-treated animals but impairments in vehicle-treated animals. Resveratrol-treated animals also displayed increased net neurogenesis and microvasculature, and diminished astrocyte hypertrophy and microglial activation in the hippocampus. These results provide novel evidence that resveratrol treatment in late middle age is efficacious for improving memory and mood function in old age. Modulation of the hippocampus plasticity and suppression of chronic low-level inflammation appear to underlie the functional benefits mediated by resveratrol.

  4. Virtual reality for the induction of positive emotions in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a pilot study over acceptability, satisfaction, and the effect of virtual reality on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Rocio; García-Palacios, Azucena; Castilla, Diana; Molinari, Guadalupe; Botella, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    One of the most important aspects of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is its impact on quality of life, increasing negative emotions and dysfunctional coping strategies. One of these strategies is to avoid activities, especially meaningful activities, which reduces positive reinforcement. Commencing significant daily activities could enable chronic patients to experience a more fulfilling life. However, the main difficulty found in FMS patients is their willingness to start those activities. Promoting positive emotions could enhance activity management. The aim of this paper is to present a description of a system along with data regarding the acceptability, satisfaction, and preliminary efficacy of a virtual reality (VR) environment for the promotion of positive emotions. The VR environment was especially designed for chronic pain patients. Results showed significant increases in general mood state, positive emotions, motivation, and self-efficacy. These preliminary findings show the potential of VR as an adjunct to the psychological treatment of such an important health problem as chronic pain.

  5. Health and mood among HIV-positive outpatients attending an ART Clinic of a University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dilar; Mendes, Aida; Abreu, Wilson

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate how individuals at different stages of infection with HIV perceive their health status and its association with mood states. With the introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in 1996, the quality of life of people living with HIV has improved. However, the literature emphasises the negative effects of the disease on the mental health of individuals suffering from this condition and the high incidence of depression among infected individuals. Although people diagnosed and living with HIV are overwhelmed by emotions, we found that various emotional manifestations are understudied within this group of patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient unit of a University Hospital (antiretroviral therapy clinic), with a consecutive sample composed of 152 patients. Data were collected through a questionnaire used to assess the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, the Short Form (36) Health Survey, and the Profile of Mood States scale. The health status negatively affects the role at the emotional and mental health dimensions. The participants showing a worse health condition than in the previous year had higher levels of tension/anxiety, depression/dejection, fatigue/inertia and confusion/bewilderment. The stage of disease and the profile of mood state emerged as independent phenomena. The results of this study indicate that nurses worldwide should be aware of the emotional aspects (negative emotions strongly impact health) related to the subjective perception of a worsening health status, regardless of the stage of the disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Changes in Allergy Symptoms and Depression Scores Are Positively Correlated In Patients With Recurrent Mood Disorders Exposed to Seasonal Peaks in Aeroallergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor T. Postolache

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although growing evidence supports an association between allergy, allergens and depression, it remains unknown if this relationship is between “states” (possible triggers or “traits” (possible vulnerabilities. We hypothesized that patients with recurrent mood disorders who are sensitized to tree pollen (as determined by allergen specific IgE antibodies, in comparison to those who are not sensitized, would report larger negative changes in mood during exposure to tree pollen in spring. We also hypothesized that differences between high and low tree pollen periods in self reported allergy symptoms would correlate positively with differences in self reported depression scores. We present 1-year preliminary data on the first 51 patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder (age: 19-63 years, 65% female, twelve patients were tree-pollen IgE positive. Ratings of mood and allergic disease status were performed once during the peak airborne pollen counts and once during the period of low airborne pollen counts, as reported by two local pollen counting stations. Linear regression models were developed to examine associations of changes in depression scores (dependent variable with tree pollen sensitization, changes in the allergy symptom severity score, adjusted for gender and order of testing. We did not confirm the hypothesized relationship between a specific tree pollen sensitization and changes in mood during tree pollen exposure. We did confirm the hypothesized positive relationship between the changes in allergy symptoms and changes in subjects' depression scores (adjusted p<0.05. This result is consistent with previous epidemiological evidence connecting allergy with depression, as well as our recent reports of increased expression of cytokines in the prefrontal cortex in victims of suicide and in experimental animals sensitized and exposed to tree pollen. A relationship between changes in allergy symptom scores and changes in depression

  7. Allopregnanolone and mood disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäckström, T.; Bixo, M.; Johansson, M.; Nyberg, S.; Ossewaarde, L.; Ragagnin, G.; Savic, I.; Strömberg, J.; Timby, E.; van Broekhoven, F.; van Wingen, G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain women experience negative mood symptoms during the menstrual cycle and progesterone addition in estrogen treatments. In women with PMDD increased negative mood symptoms related to allopregnanolone increase during the luteal phase of ovulatory menstrual cycles. In anovulatory cycles no

  8. The impact of induced positive mood on symptomatic behaviour in eating disorders. An experimental, AB/BA crossover design testing a multimodal presentation during a test-meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Valentina; Esposito, Mirko; Clarke, Ariana; Schifano, Sylvia; Treasure, Janet

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the impact of a multimodal positive mood vodcast including pleasant images, background uplifting music and a script designed to elicit positive mood on eating disorders-related symptoms in participants suffering from an Eating Disorder (ED) and healthy controls (HCs). Forty-two women with an ED (Anorexia Nervosa [AN]: N = 19; Bulimia Nervosa [BN]: N = 23) and 36 HCs were included in an AB/BA cross-over design which compared the use of a positive mood induction procedure ("positive mood vodcast") with a control condition (i.e. blue static background, neutral music, and script describing objective facts) during a test-meal. Self-report measures and behavioural tasks were completed before and after the test-meal. The positive mood vodcast was associated with greater consumption of the test meal in the AN group; reduced vigilance to food stimuli and lower anxiety in the BN sample; and no significant changes in the HC group. The use of a positive mood vodcast was associated with some beneficial effects in the context of an experimental test-meal in participants with an ED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mood and Behavior Perception: Dysphoria Can Increase and Decrease Effortful Processing of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, G. Daniel; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Five studies examined the effect of dysphoric mood on perceivers' subjective unitization of an observed other's ongoing behavior into discrete meaningful actions. Dysphoria generally reduced unitization rate (i.e., number of actions discriminated). Additional evidence indicates this reduction results from failure to initiate a higher (more…

  10. Daily Stressors and Adult Day Service Use by Family Caregivers: Effects on Depressive Symptoms, Positive Mood and DHEA-S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarit, Steven H.; Whetzel, Courtney A.; Kim, Kyungmin; Femia, Elia E.; Almeida, David M.; Rovine, Michael J.; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examines effects of daily use of adult day services (ADS) programs by caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) on a salivary biomarker of stress reactivity, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and whether these effects on DHEA-S are associated with daily variability in positive mood and depressive symptoms. Design We used a daily diary design of 8 consecutive days with alternation of intervention (ADS) and non-intervention days to evaluate within- and between-person effects of the intervention. Setting Caregivers were interviewed daily by telephone at home. Participants 151 family caregivers of IWD who were using ADS. Measurements Saliva samples were collected from caregivers 5 times a day for 8 consecutive days and were assayed for DHEA-S. Daily telephone interviews assessed daily stressors and mood. Results DHEA-S levels were significantly higher on days following ADS use. Daily DHEA-S levels covaried significantly with daily positive mood, but not depressive symptoms. Conclusions These results demonstrate an association of ADS use by family caregivers and higher DHEA-S levels on the next day. Prior research has found that higher DHEA-S levels are protective against the physiological damaging effects of stressor exposure and may reduce risks of illness. Regular use of ADS may help reduce depletion of DHEA-S and allow the body to mount a protective and restorative response to the physiological demands of caregiving. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine DHEA-S levels across the day in connection with an intervention that affected daily exposure to stressors. PMID:24566240

  11. Fancy citrus, feel good: Positive judgment of citrus odor, but not the odor itself, is associated with elevated mood during experienced helplessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eHoenen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aromatherapy claims that citrus essential oils exert mood lifting effects. Controlled studies, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Notably, studies so far did not control for odor pleasantness, although pleasantness is a critical determinant of emotional responses to odors. This study investigates mood lifting effects of d-(+-limonene, the most prominent substance in citrus essential oils, with respect to odor quality judgments.Negative mood was induced within 78 participants using a helplessness paradigm (unsolvable social discrimination task. During this task, participants were continuously (mean duration: 19.5 min exposed to d-(+-limonene (n = 25, vanillin (n = 26, or diethyl phthalate (n = 27. Participants described their mood (Self-Assessment-Manikin, basic emotion ratings and judged the odors’ quality (intensity, pleasantness, unpleasantness, familiarity prior to and following the helplessness induction. The participants were in a less positive mood after the helplessness induction (p < .001, irrespective of the odor condition. Still, the more pleasant the participants judged the odors, the less effective the helplessness induction was in reducing happiness (p = .019.The results show no odor specific mood lifting effect of d-(+-limonene, but indicate a positive effect of odor pleasantness on mood. The study highlights the necessity to evaluate odor judgments in aromatherapy research.

  12. Investigating the effects of tea, water and a positive affect induction on mood and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einöther, S.J.L.; Baas, M.; Rowson, M.; Giesbrecht, T.

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has been shown to be predictive of improved creativity. This study investigated the immediate effect of the tea experience on positive affect and creativity, compared to both a neutral and positive control condition. Regular tea drinkers (N = 150) were allocated to three conditions:

  13. Chocolate: food for moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S Y; Lua, P L

    2011-08-01

    Chocolate is a popular food and its consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. The effect of chocolate on mood too has long been recognised. Chocolate is thought to have interactions with neurotransmitters which contribute to mood modulation and appetite regulation. However, the evidence in chocolate and mood studies remains highly controversial. As more is known about the influence of chocolate on mood, the reasons for these effects appear increasingly complex and inter-related. We reviewed chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its mood altering propensities. The relationship between chocolate and mood are highly complex, combining psychopharmacological components, nutritional and sensory characteristics of the food. Individual and situational differences on chocolate consumption may also exert influence on mood and the mixed results in previous research indicate that the direction of the association remains unclear. The association between chocolate consumption and emotions warrants further multi-prong investigations to substantiate chocolate's mood alterating propensity.

  14. Mood Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. Methods A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, ≥16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, ≥22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Results Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score ≥16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (≥22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study. PMID:20421555

  15. Lowered quality of life in mood disorders is associated with increased neuro-oxidative stress and basal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and use of anticonvulsant mood stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Caroline Sampaio; Maes, Michael; Roomruangwong, Chutima; Moraes, Juliana Brum; Bonifacio, Kamila Landucci; Vargas, Heber Odebrecht; Barbosa, Decio Sabbatini; Anderson, George; de Melo, Luiz Gustavo Piccoli; Drozdstoj, Stoyanov; Moreira, Estefania; Carvalho, André F; Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas

    2018-04-17

    Major affective disorders including bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Oxidative stress and subtle thyroid abnormalities may play a pathophysiological role in both disorders. Thus, the current study was performed to examine whether neuro-oxidative biomarkers and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels could predict HRQoL in BD and MDD. This cross-sectional study enrolled 68 BD and 37 MDD patients and 66 healthy controls. The World Health Organization (WHO) QoL-BREF scale was used to assess 4 QoL subdomains. Peripheral blood malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products, paraoxonaxe/CMPAase activity, a composite index of nitro-oxidative stress, and basal TSH were measured. In the total WHOQoL score, 17.3% of the variance was explained by increased advanced oxidation protein products and TSH levels and lowered CMPAase activity and male gender. Physical HRQoL (14.4%) was associated with increased MDA and TSH levels and lowered CMPAase activity. Social relations HRQoL (17.4%) was predicted by higher nitro-oxidative index and TSH values, while mental and environment HRQoL were independently predicted by CMPAase activity. Finally, 73.0% of the variance in total HRQoL was explained by severity of depressive symptoms, use of anticonvulsants, lower income, early lifetime emotional neglect, MDA levels, the presence of mood disorders, and suicidal ideation. These data show that lowered HRQoL in major affective disorders could at least in part result from the effects of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, lowered antioxidant enzyme activities, and higher levels of TSH. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Good mood food. Positive emotion as a neglected trigger for food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Witt Huberts, Jessie C

    2013-09-01

    Research on emotions as a trigger for food intake has mainly been focused on the role of negative emotions. In the present studies the role of positive emotions as a trigger for food intake is investigated in a sample of healthy participants with a normal weight. Two laboratory studies were conducted in which positive emotions or no emotions were induced (Study 1) or in addition negative emotions were induced (Study 2) after which unhealthy food intake was assessed by bogus taste tests. In Study 3, food intake was assessed by registering snack intake in a 7-day diary study together with the emotions accompanying each snacking episode to provide a more ecologically valid test of our hypothesis. Studies 1 and 2 showed that positive emotions, compared to the control conditions, evoked more caloric intake. Dietary restraint did not moderate this effect. Study 2 additionally showed that positive emotions evoked caloric intake to the same extent as negative emotions. Study 3 showed that snack intake in daily life was reported to result from positive emotions more frequently than from negative emotions. Positive emotions serve as an important but under-investigated trigger for unhealthy food intake that deserves further scrutiny. Future research should further investigate whether food intake results from emotional arousal in general, or from emotional valence in particular. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Verbal makes it positive, spatial makes it negative: working memory biases judgments, attention, and moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Watson, Philip

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has suggested that emotion and working memory domains are integrated, such that positive affect enhances verbal working memory, whereas negative affect enhances spatial working memory (Gray, 2004; Storbeck, 2012). Simon (1967) postulated that one feature of emotion and cognition integration would be reciprocal connectedness (i.e., emotion influences cognition and cognition influences emotion). We explored whether affective judgments and attention to affective qualities are biased by the activation of verbal and spatial working memory mind-sets. For all experiments, participants completed a 2-back verbal or spatial working memory task followed by an endorsement task (Experiments 1 & 2), word-pair selection task (Exp. 3), or attentional dot-probe task (Exp. 4). Participants who had an activated verbal, compared with spatial, working memory mind-set were more likely to endorse pictures (Exp. 1) and words (Exp. 2) as being more positive and to select the more positive word pair out of a set of word pairs that went 'together best' (Exp. 3). Additionally, people who completed the verbal working memory task took longer to disengage from positive stimuli, whereas those who completed the spatial working memory task took longer to disengage from negative stimuli (Exp. 4). Interestingly, across the 4 experiments, we observed higher levels of self-reported negative affect for people who completed the spatial working memory task, which was consistent with their endorsement and attentional bias toward negative stimuli. Therefore, emotion and working memory may have a reciprocal connectedness allowing for bidirectional influence.

  18. Bulimia nervosa: mood changes do have an impact on body width estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbartz-Klatt, Y J; Florin, I; Pook, M

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of mood changes on body width estimation in women with bulimia nervosa. A pre-post controlled experimental design was chosen. Mood changes were induced in 40 women with bulimia nervosa, 20 women with panic disorder and 40 women with no diagnosis of a psychological disorder. A combination of autobiographical memory method and music induction method was used to induce positive and negative mood, respectively. Before and after mood induction a video distorting technique was used for body width estimation. Induction of negative mood increased and induction of positive mood decreased the body width estimations of women with bulimia. Patients with panic disorder and 'healthy' controls did not show these changes after mood induction. The findings suggest that change in mood state rather than the more habitual mood quality are relevant for bulimic women's body perception.

  19. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions: Validation of the Danish Global Mood Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual...

  20. Positive and Negative Affect as Links Between Social Anxiety and Depression: Predicting Concurrent and Prospective Mood Symptoms in Unipolar and Bipolar Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonah N; Taylor Dryman, M; Morrison, Amanda S; Gilbert, Kirsten E; Heimberg, Richard G; Gruber, June

    2017-11-01

    The co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression is associated with increased functional impairment and a more severe course of illness. Social anxiety disorder is unique among the anxiety disorders in sharing an affective profile with depression, characterized by low levels of positive affect (PA) and high levels of negative affect (NA). Yet it remains unclear how this shared affective profile contributes to the covariation of social anxiety and depressive symptoms. We examined whether self-reported PA and NA accounted for unique variance in the association between social anxiety and depressive symptoms across three groups (individuals with remitted bipolar disorder, type I [BD; n = 32], individuals with remitted major depressive disorder [MDD; n = 31], and nonpsychiatric controls [n = 30]) at baseline and follow-ups of 6 and 12 months. Low levels of PA, but not NA, accounted for unique variance in both concurrent and prospective associations between social anxiety and depression in the BD group; in contrast, high levels of NA, but not PA, accounted for unique variance in concurrent and prospective associations between social anxiety and depression in the MDD group. Limitations include that social anxiety and PA/NA were assessed concurrently and all measurement was self-report. Few individuals with MDD/BD met current diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder. There was some attrition at follow-up assessments. Results suggest that affective mechanisms may contribute to the high rates of co-occurrence of social anxiety and depression in both MDD and BD. Implications of the differential role of PA and NA in the relationship between social anxiety and depression in MDD and BD and considerations for treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The relationship between mood state, interpersonal attitudes and psychological distress in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Margaret A; Andrewes, David G

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated whether increasing positive mood improved interpersonal attitudes and relieved depression in depressed stroke patients despite levels of cognitive and emotional dysfunction. Depressed stroke (n = 30) and rheumatic/orthopaedic controls (n = 30) were compared on the effect of verbal and nonverbal positive and neutral mood induction on mood state, interpersonal attitudes, psychological distress and related cognitive and emotional processing deficits. Compared with the neutral mood induction condition, the positive mood induction significantly improved mood state, interpersonal attitudes and psychological distress, irrespective of cognitive and emotional processing deficits. The nonverbal material was effective for all patients but was more marked for the left hemisphere stroke group. There was no obvious influence of humour appreciation despite reduced understanding in the right hemisphere stroke group. Although the effect is likely to be short-lived, these results support the trial of positive mood induction within therapy programmes to relieve depression.

  2. Manic thinking: independent effects of thought speed and thought content on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Wegner, Daniel M

    2006-09-01

    This experiment found that the speed of thought affects mood. Thought speed was manipulated via participants' paced reading of statements designed to induce either an elated or a depressed mood. Participants not only experienced more positive mood in response to elation than in response to depression statements, but also experienced an independent increase in positive mood when they had been thinking fast rather than slow--for both elation and depression statements. This effect of thought speed extended beyond mood to other experiences often associated with mania (i.e., feelings of power, feelings of creativity, a heightened sense of energy, and inflated self-esteem or grandiosity).

  3. Individual Differences in the Effects of Mood on Sexuality: The Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Erick; Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Mustanski, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This paper presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1983) produced 8 factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22963331

  4. Academic psychiatry's responsibility for increasing the recognition of mood disorders and risk for suicide in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Charles R; Baumer, Joanie

    2010-03-01

    The authors seek solutions to better meet the healthcare needs of depressed patients in primary care by improving the recognition of depression, other mood disorders and of a risk for suicide. For 25 years academic psychiatry and primary care have known that only 10-50% of depressed patients are adequately treated, primarily because of the failure to recognize depression. There are substantial negative consequences including suicide. Suicide occurs during depression so the recognition of depression is the critical first step to preventing suicide. Recently noted is that one barrier to recognition is the traditional, comprehensive, psychiatric interview taught in academic departments of psychiatry that is impractical in primary care settings because it takes too much time. Some brief, initial psychiatric techniques have been developed but these typically have been introduced in primary care training programs and not by departments of psychiatry. A verbal four-question, 90 s screen for depression may be acceptable for routine use in primary care because it typically requires only seconds to a few minutes. Introduction of such a screening instrument to medical students on psychiatry and primary care clerkships could increase the recognition of depression and reduce death by suicide.

  5. Testing an mHealth momentary assessment Routine Outcome Monitoring application: a focus on restoration of daily life positive mood states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim van Os

    Full Text Available Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM is used as a means to enrich the process of treatment with feedback on patient outcomes, facilitating patient involvement and shared decision making. While traditional ROM measures focus on retrospective accounts of symptoms, novel mHealth technology makes it possible to collect real life, in-the-moment ambulatory data that allow for an ecologically valid assessment of personalized and contextualized emotional and behavioural adjustment in the flow daily life (mROM.In a sample of 34 patients with major depressive disorder, treated with antidepressants, the combined effect of treatment and natural course was examined over a period of 18 weeks with Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA. EMA consisted of repeated, within-subject, mini-measurements of experience (eg positive affect, negative affect, medication side effects and context (eg stressors, situations, activities at 10 unselected semi-random moments per day, for a period of six days, repeated three times over the 18-week period (baseline, week 6 and week 18.EMA measures of emotional and behavioural adjustment were sensitive to the effects of treatment and natural course over the 18-week period, particularly EMA measures focussing on positive mood states and the ability to use natural rewards (impact of positive events on positive mood states, with standardized effect sizes of 0.4-0.5. EMA measures of activities, social interaction, stress-sensitivity and negative mood states were also sensitive to change over time.This study supports the use of mROM as a means to involve the patient in the process of needs assessment and treatment. EMA data are meaningful to the patient, as they reflect daily life circumstances. Assessment of treatment response with mROM data allows for an interpretation of the effect of treatment at the level of daily life emotional and social adjustment--as an index of health, obviating the need for an exclusive focus on traditional measures

  6. Accurate decisions in an uncertain world: collective cognition increases true positives while decreasing false positives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, M.; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Ward, A.J.W.; Krause, S.; Krause, J.

    2013-01-01

    In a wide range of contexts, including predator avoidance, medical decision-making and security screening, decision accuracy is fundamentally constrained by the trade-off between true and false positives. Increased true positives are possible only at the cost of increased false positives;

  7. Increased physical activity improves sleep and mood outcomes in inactive people with insomnia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2015-10-01

    While high levels of activity and exercise training have been associated with improvements in sleep quality, minimum levels of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes have not been explored. A two-armed parallel randomized controlled trial (N=41; 30 females) was designed to assess whether increasing physical activity to the level recommended in public health guidelines can improve sleep quality among inactive adults meeting research diagnostic criteria for insomnia. The intervention consisted of a monitored program of ≥150 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity per week, for 6 months. The principal end-point was the Insomnia Severity Index at 6 months post-baseline. Secondary outcomes included measures of mood, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. Activity and light exposure were monitored throughout the trial using accelerometry and actigraphy. At 6 months post-baseline, the physical activity group showed significantly reduced insomnia symptom severity (F(8,26) = 5.16, P = 0.03), with an average reduction of four points on the Insomnia Severity Index; and significantly reduced depression and anxiety scores (F(6,28) = 5.61, P = 0.02; and F(6,28) = 4.41, P = 0.05, respectively). All of the changes were independent of daily light exposure. Daytime fatigue showed no significant effect of the intervention (F(8,26) = 1.84, P = 0.18). Adherence and retention were high. Internationally recommended minimum levels of physical activity improve daytime and night-time symptoms of chronic insomnia independent of daily light exposure levels. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. [Mood induction procedures: a critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilet, A-L

    2008-06-01

    ée. Université de Nantes, Nantes] or combined inductions [Gilet AL. Etude des effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur l'organisation des connaissances en mémoire sémantique. Thèse de doctorat non publiée, Université de Nantes, Nantes, J Ment Imagery 19 (1995) 133-150]. In music or film clip inductions, subjects are asked to listen or view some mood-suggestive pieces of material determined by the experimenter according to standardized music or film sets [J Ment Imagery 19 (1995) 133-150, Cogn Emotion 7 (1993) 171-193] and selected to elicit target moods. According to many authors, these two mood induction procedures seem to be among the most effective manners to induce moods [Br J Psychol 85 (1994) 55-78, Eur J Soc Psychol 26 (1996) 557-580] in an individual or in a group setting [Jallais C. Effets des humeurs positives et négatives sur les structures de connaissances de type script. Thèse de doctorat non publiée. Université de Nantes, Nantes]. As it is believed that multiple inductions contribute additively to a mood [Am Psychol 36 (1981) 129-148], researchers proposed to combine two or more techniques at the same time. Thus, the Velten Mood Induction Procedure has been successively associated with the hypnosis mood induction procedure [J Pers Soc Psychol 42 (1982) 927-934], the music mood induction procedure [Behav Res Ther 21 (1983) 233-239, J Exp Soc Psychol 26 (1990) 465-480] or the imagination mood induction procedure [Br J Clin Psychol 21 (1982) 111-117]. Successful combinations of inductions usually use a first induction that occupies foreground attention and a second one that contributes to congruent background atmosphere. One of the most successful combined mood induction procedures has been developed by Mayer, Allen and Beauregard [J Ment Imagery 19 (1995) 133-150]. This technique associates guided imagery with music and is supposed to increase effectiveness of the induction. In the second part of this paper the aim is to present the usefulness of

  9. Positive modulation of mood and cognitive performance following administration of acute doses of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil to healthy young volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tildesley, N T J; Kennedy, D O; Perry, E K; Ballard, C G; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2005-01-17

    Members of the Sage family, such as Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia, have a long history of use as memory-enhancing agents coupled with cholinergic properties that may potentially be relevant to the amelioration of the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. The current study utilised a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover design in order to comprehensively assess any mood and cognition modulation by S. lavandulaefolia. Twenty-four participants received single doses of placebo, 25 microl and 50 microl of a standardised essential oil of S. lavandulaefolia in an order dictated by a Latin square. Doses were separated by a 7-day washout period. Cognitive performance was assessed prior to the day's treatment and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery. Subjective mood ratings were measured using Bond-Lader visual analogue scales. The primary outcome measures were scores on the five cognitive factors that can be derived by factor analysis of the task outcomes from the CDR battery. The results showed that administration of S. lavandulaefolia resulted in a consistent improvement for both the 25- and 50-microl dose on the 'Speed of Memory' factor. There was also an improvement on the 'Secondary Memory' factor for the 25-microl dose. Mood was consistently enhanced, with increases in self-rated 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' following the 50-microl dose and elevated 'calmness' following 25 microl. These results represent further evidence that Salvia is capable of acute modulation of mood and cognition in healthy young adults. The data also suggest that previous reports of memory enhancement by Salvia may be due to more efficient retrieval of target material.

  10. The psychophysiology of parenting: Individual differences in autonomic reactivity to positive and negative mood inductions and observed parental affect during dyadic interactions with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Arin M; Dawson, Glen C; Danzo, Sarah; McKillop, Hannah N

    2017-02-01

    Parenting is a complex activity driven, in part, by parental emotional and physiological responses. However, work examining the physiological underpinnings of parenting behavior is still in its infancy, and very few studies have examined such processes beyond early childhood. The current study examines associations between Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) indices of parents' physiological reactivity to positive and negative mood states and observed parental affect during a series of discussion tasks with their adolescent child. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA) was measured as an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activation while viewing film clips designed to induce neutral, sad, and amused mood states. Parental positive affect, anger, and distress were observed during a series of parent-child discussion tasks, which included an ambiguous discussion regarding adolescent growth, a conflict discussion, and a fun-activity planning discussion. Results supported the association between aspects of parental physiological reactivity and observed affect during dyadic interactions. Further, RSA interacted with maternal depression to predict observed positive affect, anger, and distress, although differences across tasks and specific emotions were found regarding the nature of the interaction effects. Overall, results suggest that such neurobiological processes may be particularly important predictors of parental behavior, particularly in at-risk populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Can Neurochemical Changes of Mood Disorders Explain the Increase Risk of Epilepsy or its Worse Seizure Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Andres M

    2017-07-01

    The existence of a bidirectional relation between mood disorders and epilepsy has been suggested by six population-based studies. Furthermore, three studies have associated a higher risk of treatment-resistant epilepsy with a history of depression preceding the onset of epilepsy. Common pathogenic mechanisms operant in depression and epilepsy may provide a possible explanation of these observations. This article reviews some of the leading pathogenic mechanisms of depression with respect to potential proconvulsant properties that may provide explanations for these phenomena.

  12. Accurate decisions in an uncertain world: collective cognition increases true positives while decreasing false positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Max; Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Ward, Ashley J W; Krause, Stefan; Krause, Jens

    2013-04-07

    In a wide range of contexts, including predator avoidance, medical decision-making and security screening, decision accuracy is fundamentally constrained by the trade-off between true and false positives. Increased true positives are possible only at the cost of increased false positives; conversely, decreased false positives are associated with decreased true positives. We use an integrated theoretical and experimental approach to show that a group of decision-makers can overcome this basic limitation. Using a mathematical model, we show that a simple quorum decision rule enables individuals in groups to simultaneously increase true positives and decrease false positives. The results from a predator-detection experiment that we performed with humans are in line with these predictions: (i) after observing the choices of the other group members, individuals both increase true positives and decrease false positives, (ii) this effect gets stronger as group size increases, (iii) individuals use a quorum threshold set between the average true- and false-positive rates of the other group members, and (iv) individuals adjust their quorum adaptively to the performance of the group. Our results have broad implications for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of group-living animals and lend themselves for applications in the human domain such as the design of improved screening methods in medical, forensic, security and business applications.

  13. Effects of a best-possible-self mental imagery exercise on mood and dysfunctional attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, F.; Schwarz, P.; Peters, M.L.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Dispositional optimism has been related to positive physical and mental health outcomes, increased positive mood ratings and cognitions about the future. In order to determine the causal relation between optimism and mood and cognitions optimism should be manipulated experimentally. The current

  14. Associations of multicultural status with depressive mood and suicidality among Korean adolescents: the roles of parental country of birth and socioeconomic position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwook Bahk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mental health of the offspring of immigrants is a major public health concern. In this study, we examined associations of multicultural status and parental country of birth with adolescent mental health in South Korea, and assessed the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP on these associations. Methods We used four waves of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS between 2011 and 2014, including 294,324 participants (149,219 boys and 145,105 girls aged 13–18 years as study subjects. KYRBS is a cross-sectional survey conducted annually by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The participants in the KYRBS were drawn as stratified multistage clustered samples from Korean middle schools and high schools. We calculated the age-adjusted 12-month prevalence of depressive mood and suicidal behaviors by parental country of birth, and estimated the effects of SEP indicators on the relationship. Results The age-standardized prevalence of suicidality (suicide ideation, plans, and attempts was significantly different between multicultural and non-multicultural boys. The impact of multicultural status on mental health varied with parental foreign-born status and maternal country of birth. Compared with non-multicultural counterparts, boys with Japan-born mothers showed lower prevalence ratios (PRs of suicidal plans (PR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.16–0.70. Girls with Japan-born mothers also showed lower PRs of depressive mood (PR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.63–0.95 and suicidal ideation (PR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.41–0.83, while adolescents with Korean-Chinese mothers showed similar PRs. Boys with foreign-born fathers as well as boys with two foreign-born parents were at a greater risk of suicidality than non-multicultural boys. The magnitude of the relationship between multicultural status and mental health outcomes was generally attenuated after adjusting for SEP indicators. Conclusions In general, adolescents

  15. Associations of multicultural status with depressive mood and suicidality among Korean adolescents: the roles of parental country of birth and socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Jinwook; Kim, Agnus M; Khang, Young-Ho

    2017-01-25

    The mental health of the offspring of immigrants is a major public health concern. In this study, we examined associations of multicultural status and parental country of birth with adolescent mental health in South Korea, and assessed the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP) on these associations. We used four waves of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS) between 2011 and 2014, including 294,324 participants (149,219 boys and 145,105 girls aged 13-18 years) as study subjects. KYRBS is a cross-sectional survey conducted annually by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The participants in the KYRBS were drawn as stratified multistage clustered samples from Korean middle schools and high schools. We calculated the age-adjusted 12-month prevalence of depressive mood and suicidal behaviors by parental country of birth, and estimated the effects of SEP indicators on the relationship. The age-standardized prevalence of suicidality (suicide ideation, plans, and attempts) was significantly different between multicultural and non-multicultural boys. The impact of multicultural status on mental health varied with parental foreign-born status and maternal country of birth. Compared with non-multicultural counterparts, boys with Japan-born mothers showed lower prevalence ratios (PRs) of suicidal plans (PR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.16-0.70). Girls with Japan-born mothers also showed lower PRs of depressive mood (PR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.95) and suicidal ideation (PR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.83), while adolescents with Korean-Chinese mothers showed similar PRs. Boys with foreign-born fathers as well as boys with two foreign-born parents were at a greater risk of suicidality than non-multicultural boys. The magnitude of the relationship between multicultural status and mental health outcomes was generally attenuated after adjusting for SEP indicators. In general, adolescents with Japan-born mothers showed lower PRs of depressive mood and

  16. Positive effects of Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy for patients with unipolar mood disorders with suicidal ideation in Malaysia: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, Aishvarya; Oei, T P S; Maniam, T; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) in treating patients with mood disorders with suicidal ideation. A total of 69 patients (48 females, 21 males) with the diagnoses above were randomly allocated to either the group of Treatment As Usual (TAU)+ICBT (n=33) or the TAU group (n=36). All participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS), Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation Inventory (PANSI), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). These questionnaires were administered at pre-treatment, midway through treatment (week 4), post-treatment (week 8), and at follow-ups after three months (week 20) and six months (week 32). Factorial ANOVA results showed that the TAU+ICBT patients improved significantly and at faster rate as compared to the TAU group, which showed improvement only from pre to mid treatment on DASS-D and BHS-T measures. The effect size (Cohen's d), for the TAU+ICBT group showed large effect (1.47) for depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation (1.00). These findings suggest that ICBT used in addition to the TAU, was effective in enhancing treatment outcome of patients with unipolar mood disorders as well as, reducing risk for suicide behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  18. Tobacco point of sale advertising increases positive brand user imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, R J; Jancey, J; Jones, S

    2002-09-01

    To determine the potential impact of point of sale advertising on adolescents so as to inform changes to the Tobacco Control Act. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control condition, students were exposed to a photograph of a packet of cigarettes; in the intervention condition, students were exposed to an ad for cigarettes, typical of point of sale advertising posters. All students then rated the brand user on a set of 12 bipolar adjectives. Two brands were used in the study: Benson & Hedges, and Marlboro. One hundred year (grade) 6 and 7 students (age range 10-12 years), from four Western Australian metropolitan primary schools, participated in the study. In a majority of the brand user descriptions, the cigarette advertisements increased brand user imagery in a positive way, especially for Benson & Hedges. For example, participants viewing the Benson & Hedges advertisement, as distinct from those viewing the Benson & Hedges pack only, were more likely to describe the Benson & Hedges user as relaxed, interesting, cool, rich, adventurous, and classy. Relative to the Marlboro pack only, the Marlboro ad increased positive perceptions of the Marlboro user on adventurous, interesting, and relaxed. The results presented here support restrictions being placed on advertising at point of sale, since such ads have the potential to increase positive brand user imagery directly in the situation where a product purchase can take place, and hence the potential to increase the likelihood of impulse purchasing.

  19. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  20. Positive feedback between increasing atmospheric CO2 and ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Robertson, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will likely affect both the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem productivity. Current assumptions that increasing CO2 will lead to increased ecosystem productivity and plant water use efficiency (WUE) are driving optimistic predictions of higher crop yields as well as greater availability of freshwater resources due to a decrease in evapotranspiration. The plant physiological response that drives these effects is believed to be an increase in carbon uptake either by (a) stronger CO2 gradient between the stomata and the atmosphere, or by (b) reduced CO2 limitation of enzymatic carboxylation within the leaf. The (a) scenario will lead to increased water use efficiency (WUE) in plants. However, evidence for increased WUE is mostly based on modeling studies, and experiments producing a short duration or step-wise increase in CO2 concentration (e.g. free-air CO2 enrichment). We hypothesize that the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration is having a positive effect on ecosystem productivity and WUE. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed meteorological, ANPP, and soil CO2 flux datasets together with carbon isotopic ratio (13C/12C) of archived plant samples from the long term ecological research (LTER) program at Kellogg Biological Station. The datasets were collected between 1989 and 2007 (corresponding to an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration of ~33 ppmv at Mauna Loa). Wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples taken from 1989 and 2007 show a significant decrease in the C isotope discrimination factor (Δ) over time. Stomatal conductance is directly related to Δ, and thus Δ is inversely related to plant intrinsic WUE (iWUE). Historical changes in the 13C/12C ratio (δ13C) in samples of a perennial forb, Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), taken from adjacent successional fields, indicate changes in Δ upon uptake of CO2 as well. These temporal trends in Δ suggest a positive feedback between the increasing CO2 concentration in the

  1. Endocannabinoid and Mood Responses to Exercise in Adults with Varying Activity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brellenthin, Angelique G; Crombie, Kevin M; Hillard, Cecilia J; Koltyn, Kelli F

    2017-08-01

    Acute aerobic exercise improves mood and activates the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in physically active individuals; however, both mood and eCB responses to exercise may vary based on habitual levels of physical activity. This study aimed to examine eCB and mood responses to prescribed and preferred exercises among individuals with low, moderate, and high levels of physical activity. Thirty-six healthy adults (21 ± 4 yr) were recruited from low (≤60 min moderate-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] per week), moderate (150-299 min MVPA per week), and high (≥300 MVPA per week) physical activity groups. Participants performed both prescribed (approximately 70%-75% max) and preferred (i.e., self-selected) aerobic exercise on separate days. Mood states and eCB concentrations were assessed before and after exercise conditions. Both preferred and prescribed exercise resulted in significant increases (P exercise elicited positive mood improvements compared with preexercise values, but changes in state anxiety, total mood disturbance, and confusion were greater in the preferred condition (P mood disturbance in the preferred condition (P mood or eCB outcomes. These results indicate that eCB and mood responses to exercise do not differ significantly between samples with varying physical activity levels. This study also demonstrates that in addition to prescribed exercise, preferred exercise activates the eCB system, and this activation may contribute to positive mood outcomes with exercise.

  2. Mood and sexual arousal in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Berlo, R.; Rijs, L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a positive 'mood for sex' on genital and subjective sexual arousal in functional women, using a musical mood induction procedure. Fifty-one female Ss were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: erotic film preceded by mood induction;

  3. Technique for Increasing Accuracy of Positioning System of Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to improve the accuracy of positioning and processing system using a technique for optimization of pressure diagrams of guides in machine tools. The machining quality is directly related to its accuracy, which characterizes an impact degree of various errors of machines. The accuracy of the positioning system is one of the most significant machining characteristics, which allow accuracy evaluation of processed parts.The literature describes that the working area of the machine layout is rather informative to characterize the effect of the positioning system on the macro-geometry of the part surfaces to be processed. To enhance the static accuracy of the studied machine, in principle, two groups of measures are possible. One of them points toward a decrease of the cutting force component, which overturns the slider moments. Another group of measures is related to the changing sizes of the guide facets, which may lead to their profile change.The study was based on mathematical modeling and optimization of the cutting zone coordinates. And we find the formula to determine the surface pressure of the guides. The selected parameters of optimization are vectors of the cutting force and values of slides and guides. Obtained results show that a technique for optimization of coordinates in the cutting zone was necessary to increase a processing accuracy.The research has established that to define the optimal coordinates of the cutting zone we have to change the sizes of slides, value and coordinates of applied forces, reaching the pressure equalization and improving the accuracy of positioning system of machine tools. In different points of the workspace a vector of forces is applied, pressure diagrams are found, which take into account the changes in the parameters of positioning system, and the pressure diagram equalization to provide the most accuracy of machine tools is achieved.

  4. Presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight increases risks of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in outpatients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Midori; Kimijima, Michio; Muto, Takashi; Kimura, Kazumoto

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that the presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight increases the risks of lifestyle-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease) in outpatients with mood disorders. In this cross-sectional survey, using data from 213 outpatients with mood disorders (95 men, 118 women), we calculated the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipedemia, and cardiovascular disease, using a binary logistic regression model; we then calculated the adjusted OR values for smokers and non-smokers with body mass indexes (BMIs) of <25 or ≥25 kg/m². Next, we examined the data for the presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight, using three measures of additive interaction: relative excess risk due to the interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to the interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S). Smokers with BMI <25 kg/m² had a significantly lower risk of hypertension (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.81) than non-smokers with BMI <25 kg/m² (reference group). Compared with the reference group, overweight non-smokers had a significantly higher risk (2.82, 1.34-6.19) of hypertension, and overweight smokers had a higher risk (4.43, 1.28-15.26) of hypertension and very high risks of diabetes (8.24, 2.47-27.42) and cardiovascular disease (13.12, 1.95-88.41). The highest RERI was derived from the relation with cardiovascular disease. The highest AP and S were derived from the relation with type 2 diabetes. There was no interaction of smoking and being overweight with dyslipidemia. The presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight exacerbates the risks of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in outpatients with mood disorders.

  5. Physical Exercise for Treatment of Mood Disorders: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearing, CM; Chang, WC; Szuhany, KL; Deckersbach, T; Nierenberg, AA; Sylvia, LG

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review The purpose of this review is to critically assess the evidence for exercise as an adjunct intervention for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, chronic conditions characterized by frequent comorbid conditions as well as interepisodic symptoms with poor quality of life and impaired functioning. Individuals with these mood disorders are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death in part because of increased rates of obesity, inactivity, and diabetes mellitus compared to the general population. Exercise may not only mitigate the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but could also potentially improve the long term outcomes of mood disorders. Recent findings We conducted a literature review on the impact of exercise on mood disorders and associated comorbid conditions as well as possible biological mechanisms. We found that exercise impacts both the physical health parameters of mood disorders as well as mental health outcomes. Exercise also positively impacts conditions frequently comorbid with mood disorders (i.e. anxiety, pain, and insomnia). There are multiple candidate biomarkers for exercise, with brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oxidative stress as two main promising components of exercise’s anti-depressant effect. Summary Exercise appears to be a promising adjunct treatment for mood disorders. We conclude with recommendations for future research of exercise as an adjunct intervention for mood disorders. PMID:28503402

  6. Recalling happy memories in remitted depression: a neuroimaging investigation of the repair of sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C; Cooney, Rebecca E; Joormann, Jutta; Henry, Melissa L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2014-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent mood disorder. The high rate of recurrence of MDD suggests the presence of stable vulnerability factors that place individuals with a history of major depression at an increased risk for the onset of another episode. Previous research has linked the remitted state, and therefore increased vulnerability for depressive relapse, with difficulties in the use of pleasant autobiographical memories to repair sad mood. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates of these difficulties. Groups of 16 currently euthymic, remitted depressed individuals and 16 healthy (control) women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sad mood induction and during recovery from a sad mood state through recall of mood-incongruent positive autobiographical memories. Sad mood was induced in participants by using film clips; participants then recalled positive autobiographical memories, a procedure previously shown to repair negative affect. During both the sad mood induction and automatic mood regulation, control participants exhibited activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and cuneus; in contrast, remitted participants exhibited a decrease in activation in these regions. Furthermore, exploratory analyses revealed that reduced activation levels during mood regulation predicted a worsening of depressive symptoms at a 20-month follow-up assessment. These findings highlight a dynamic role of the vlPFC and cuneus in the experience and modulation of emotional states and suggest that functional anomalies of these brain regions are associated with a history of, and vulnerability to, depression.

  7. Mood, food, and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minati eSingh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  8. Mood, food, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  9. Mood, food, and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  10. Negative mood state enhances the susceptibility to unpleasant events: neural correlates from a music-primed emotion classification task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various affective disorders are linked with enhanced processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, this link is likely a result of the dominant negative mood derived from the disorder, rather than a result of the disorder itself. Additionally, little is currently known about the influence of mood on the susceptibility to emotional events in healthy populations. METHOD: Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded for pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures while subjects performed an emotional/neutral picture classification task during positive, neutral, or negative mood induced by instrumental Chinese music. RESULTS: Late Positive Potential (LPP amplitudes were positively related to the affective arousal of pictures. The emotional responding to unpleasant pictures, indicated by the unpleasant-neutral differences in LPPs, was enhanced during negative compared to neutral and positive moods in the entire LPP time window (600-1000 ms. The magnitude of this enhancement was larger with increasing self-reported negative mood. In contrast, this responding was reduced during positive compared to neutral mood in the 800-1000 ms interval. Additionally, LPP reactions to pleasant stimuli were similar across positive, neutral and negative moods except those in the 800-900 ms interval. IMPLICATIONS: Negative mood intensifies the humans' susceptibility to unpleasant events in healthy individuals. In contrast, music-induced happy mood is effective in reducing the susceptibility to these events. Practical implications of these findings were discussed.

  11. Positive effects of soy lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine plus phosphatidic acid on memory, cognition, daily functioning, and mood in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Margret I; Freitas, Ulla; Rutenberg, David

    2014-12-01

    We report previously unpublished, early pilot studies performed with a brain-health food supplement containing a proprietary blend of 100 mg phosphatidylserine (PS) and 80 mg phosphatidic acid (PA) produced from soy lecithin. Serum analysis after single PS+PA ingestion was performed in healthy volunteers. A 3-month double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the influence of three PS+PA capsules/day, (300 mg PS + 240 mg PA/day) or placebo on memory and mood in functioning, non-depressive elderly people with memory problems, using the Wechsler Memory Scale and the List of Depressive Symptoms. Furthermore, a 2-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the effect of three PS+PA capsules/day (300 mg PS + 240 mg PA/day) or placebo on daily functioning, mental health, emotional state, and self-reported general condition in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Serum PS peaked 90 min after ingestion, returning to baseline after 180 min. In the elderly, PS+PA [per protocol (PP) n = 31], unlike placebo (PP n = 26), significantly improved memory and prevented "winter blues" in a pre-post comparison. In the patients with AD, daily functioning (i.e., 7 activities of daily living) under PS+PA (PP n = 53) remained unchanged, but declined from 5.62 to 4.90 under placebo (PP n = 39; P = 0.035), with significant group difference (P = 0.021). The PS+PA group had 3.8% deterioration and 90.6% stability in daily functioning, compared to 17.9% and 79.5% under placebo, respectively (P = 0.066). Forty-nine percent of the PS+PA patients reported an improved general condition, compared to 26.3% under placebo (P = 0.084). Approximately, 43% of the PS+PA patients, but none under placebo, continued post-trial supplementation (while double-blinded). No negative side effects were observed. PS is efficiently absorbed after oral consumption. A positive influence of PS+PA on memory, mood, and cognition was demonstrated among elderly test

  12. Motivated prediction of future feelings: effects of negative mood and mood orientation on affective forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Roger; McFarland, Cathy; Spyropoulos, Vassili; Lam, Kent C H

    2007-09-01

    This article examines the role of motivational factors in affective forecasting. The primary hypothesis was that people predict positive emotional reactions to future events when they are motivated to enhance their current feelings. Three experiments manipulated participants' moods (negative vs. neutral) and orientation toward their moods (reflective vs. ruminative) and then assessed the positivity of their affective predictions for future events. As hypothesized, when participants adopted a reflective orientation, and thus should have been motivated to engage in mood-regulation processes, they predicted more positive feelings in the negative than in the neutral mood condition. This pattern of mood-incongruent affective prediction was not exhibited when participants adopted a ruminative orientation. Additionally, within the negative mood condition, generating affective forecasts had a more positive emotional impact on reflectors than on ruminators. The findings suggest that affective predictions are sometimes driven by mood-regulatory motives.

  13. Epilepsy and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.

  14. Stigma and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Claire M; Jorm, Anthony F

    2007-01-01

    To update the reader on current research on stigmatizing attitudes towards people suffering from mood disorders and to describe recent interventions in this area. The public generally feels their own attitudes are more favourable to people with depression than 'most other people's' attitudes are. Among those with depressive symptoms, self-stigma in relation to depression is higher than perceived stigma from others, including professionals, thus hindering help seeking. The main factor that seems to improve the attitudes towards people with any mental illness is personal contact. Moderate improvements in attitudes have been achieved with an online intervention. Caution must be taken when ensuring that improvements in knowledge about mental disorders do not lead to increased social distance. There exists little research on stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mood disorders. Most of the literature on the stigma towards people with mental illness relates to people with more severe disorders such as schizophrenia. When research has been done on mood disorders, the focus has been on perceived stigma and self-stigma. No up-to-date research exists on discrimination experienced by people with mood disorders, and very little research exists on interventions designed to decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards them.

  15. Report: Management Alert - Salary Increases for Certain Administratively Determined Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #18-N-0154, April 16, 2018. The purpose of this alert is to notify the EPA of certain factual info while our audit of the Office of the Administrator's (present and prior administrations) use of administratively determined positions continues.

  16. Age and Gender Differences in Relationships Among Emotion Regulation, Mood, and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei Masumoto PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were more likely to use cognitive reappraisal, further enhancing positive mood and reducing negative mood, whereas, age did not affect expressive suppression. Moreover, expressive suppression had a smaller impact on mood than cognitive reappraisal. A multi-group analysis showed significant gender differences. In men, cognitive reappraisal increased with age and influenced mood more positively than in women. Discussion: Our findings indicated gender differences in aging effects on emotion regulation. We discussed about these results from the cognitive process, motivation to emotion regulation, and cultural differences.

  17. Age and Gender Differences in Relationships Among Emotion Regulation, Mood, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Kouhei; Taishi, Nozomi; Shiozaki, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the effects of age on mood and mental health-mediated emotion regulation, such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and examined whether these relationships differ according to gender. Method: We recruited 936 Japanese participants. They comprised six age groups ranging from 20 to 70 years old, with 156 participants in each age group and equal numbers of men and women. Results: Structural equation model analysis showed that older participants were more likely to use cognitive reappraisal, further enhancing positive mood and reducing negative mood, whereas, age did not affect expressive suppression. Moreover, expressive suppression had a smaller impact on mood than cognitive reappraisal. A multi-group analysis showed significant gender differences. In men, cognitive reappraisal increased with age and influenced mood more positively than in women. Discussion: Our findings indicated gender differences in aging effects on emotion regulation. We discussed about these results from the cognitive process, motivation to emotion regulation, and cultural differences.

  18. Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Becca R; Slade, Martin D; Kunkel, Suzanne R; Kasl, Stanislav V

    2002-08-01

    This research found that older individuals with more positive self-perceptions of aging, measured up to 23 years earlier, lived 7.5 years longer than those with less positive self-perceptions of aging. This advantage remained after age, gender, socioeconomic status, loneliness, and functional health were included as covariates. It was also found that this effect is partially mediated by will to live. The sample consisted of 660 individuals aged 50 and older who participated in a community-based survey, the Ohio Longitudinal Study of Aging and Retirement (OLSAR). By matching the OLSAR to mortality data recently obtained from the National Death Index, the authors were able to conduct survival analyses. The findings suggest that the self-perceptions of stigmatized groups can influence longevity.

  19. Food and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, C

    A number of specific nutrients and other active substances in foods are thought to have a direct impact on mood. Carol Ottley explores the evidence linking food with aspects of mood and behaviour. Areas covered include premenstrual syndrome, chocolate craving, mood swings, and how we eat in relation to specific mood states such as fear, happiness and anxiety.

  20. Mobile Phone-Based Mood Ratings Prospectively Predict Psychotherapy Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Aguilera, Adrian; Schueller, Stephen M

    2017-09-01

    Psychotherapy nonattendance is a costly and pervasive problem. While prior research has identified stable patient-level predictors of attendance, far less is known about dynamic (i.e., time-varying) factors. Identifying dynamic predictors can clarify how clinical states relate to psychotherapy attendance and inform effective "just-in-time" interventions to promote attendance. The present study examines whether daily mood, as measured by responses to automated mobile phone-based text messages, prospectively predicts attendance in group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Fifty-six Spanish-speaking Latino patients with elevated depressive symptoms (46 women, mean age=50.92years, SD=10.90years), enrolled in a manualized program of group CBT, received daily automated mood-monitoring text messages. Patients' daily mood ratings, message response rate, and delay in responding were recorded. Patients' self-reported mood the day prior to a scheduled psychotherapy session significantly predicted attendance, even after controlling for patients' prior attendance history and age (OR=1.33, 95% CI [1.04, 1.70], p=.02). Positive mood corresponded to a greater likelihood of attendance. Our results demonstrate the clinical utility of automated mood-monitoring text messages in predicting attendance. These results underscore the value of text messaging, and other mobile technologies, as adjuncts to psychotherapy. Future work should explore the use of such monitoring to guide interventions to increase attendance, and ultimately the efficacy of psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Daily life negative mood and exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Kullowatz, Antje; Bill, Michelle N; Rosenfield, David

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial stress and negative affect have been linked to asthma exacerbations, but longitudinal studies demonstrating a daily life association between negative affect and airway nitric oxide are missing. The longitudinal association between negative mood fluctuations, exhaled nitric oxide, and lung function in asthma was examined. Self-assessments of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), spirometry (forced expiratory volume in the first second, FEV1), negative mood, and daily activities were obtained from 20 patients with asthma for 2 months, resulting in 1108 assessments for the analyses (approximately 55 per patient). Concurrent and prospective associations between FeNO, FEV1, and negative mood were analyzed using mixed effects regression models for longitudinal data. Negative mood was positively associated with changes in FeNO during the same day, and to a stronger extent when prior day negative mood was included in the prediction. FeNO and negative mood were positively associated with same-day FEV1, with the latter relation being partially mediated by changes in FeNO. Associations between FeNO and FEV1 were stronger in younger patients, with earlier onset of asthma, or with lower asthma control. Findings were not changed when controlling for physical activity, medication, cold symptoms, air pollution, and hours spent outside. Daily life changes of negative mood in asthma are positively associated with FeNO changes and FeNO increases are associated with a mild bronchodilation. These findings indicate that psychological influences need to be considered when using FeNO as indicator of airway inflammation and guide for treatment decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing Positive Perceptions of Counseling: The Importance of Repeated Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Scott A.; Vogel, David L.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of repeated exposures to a video intervention based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model. The video was designed to increase help-seeking attitudes and perceptions of peer norms and to decrease the stigma associated with seeking counseling. Participants were 290 undergraduates who were randomly assigned to a…

  3. Living alone, obesity, and smoking increase risk for suicide independently of depressive mood findings from the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara; Lukaschek, Karoline; Baumert, Jens; Meisinger, Christa; Erazo, Natalia; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is strongly associated with mental disorders, particularly with depression. There is insufficient knowledge to what extent sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics contribute to suicide risk. A population-based cohort study on three independent cross-sectional MONICA/KORA Augsburg surveys with 12,888 subjects (6456 men, 6432 women) was followed up on average for 12.0 years. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, chronic disease conditions, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, personality type, and other psychodiagnostic parameters was assessed by standardized interviews. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) as estimates of relative risks for suicide mortality. Additionally, population-attributable risks were calculated. Within the follow-up period, a total of 1449 persons had died, 38 of them by suicide. Although several variables were associated with increased risk in the basic analyses, only obesity (HR=2.73), smoking (HR=2.23), and living alone (HR=2.19) remained significantly associated with suicide additionally to male sex (HR=3.57) and depressed mood (HR=2.01) in a multivariate analysis. The generalization of our findings to countries with different social, economic or cultural conditions may be questioned. Our findings extend the knowledge about sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors for suicide in the general population: Suicide prevention measures should not consider only subjects with mental disorders but also address other adverse conditions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fenproporex increases locomotor activity and alters energy metabolism, and mood stabilizers reverse these changes: a proposal for a new animal model of mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Furlanetto, Camila B; Scaini, Giselli; Valvassori, Samira S; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Jeremias, Isabela C; Resende, Wilson R; Cardoso, Mariane R; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-04-01

    Fenproporex (Fen) is converted in vivo into amphetamine, which is used to induce mania-like behaviors in animals. In the present study, we intend to present a new animal model of mania. In order to prove through face, construct, and predictive validities, we evaluated behavioral parameters (locomotor activity, stereotypy activity, and fecal boli amount) and brain energy metabolism (enzymes citrate synthase; malate dehydrogenase; succinate dehydrogenase; complexes I, II, II-III, and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; and creatine kinase) in rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of fenproporex, treated with lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA). The administration of Fen increased locomotor activity and decreased the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, and creatine kinase, in most brain structures evaluated. In addition, treatment with mood stabilizers prevented and reversed this effect. Our results are consistent with the literature that demonstrates behavioral changes and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by psychostimulants. These findings suggest that chronic administration of Fen may be a potential animal model of mania.

  5. Happier, faster: Developmental changes in the effects of mood and novelty on responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Positive mood ameliorates several cognitive processes: It can enhance cognitive control, increase flexibility, and promote variety seeking in decision making. These effects of positive mood have been suggested to depend on frontostriatal dopamine, which is also associated with the detection of novelty. This suggests that positive mood could also affect novelty detection. In the present study, children and adults saw either a happy or a neutral movie to induce a positive or neutral mood. After that, they were shown novel and familiar images. On some trials a beep was presented over headphones either at the same time as the image or at a 200-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), and the task of the participant was to detect these auditory targets. Children were slower in responding than adults. Positive mood, however, speeded responses, especially in children, and induced facilitatory effects of novelty. These effects were consistent with increased arousal. Although effects of novelty were more consistent with an attentional response, in children who had watched a happy movie the novel images evoked a more liberal response criterion, suggestive of increased arousal. This suggests that mood and novelty may affect response behaviour stronger in children than in adults.

  6. Imagining a brighter future: the effect of positive imagery training on mood, prospective mental imagery and emotional bias in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susannah E; Clare O'Donoghue, M; Drazich, Erin H S; Blackwell, Simon E; Christina Nobre, Anna; Holmes, Emily A

    2015-11-30

    Positive affect and optimism play an important role in healthy ageing and are associated with improved physical and cognitive health outcomes. This study investigated whether it is possible to boost positive affect and associated positive biases in this age group using cognitive training. The effect of computerised imagery-based cognitive bias modification on positive affect, vividness of positive prospective imagery and interpretation biases in older adults was measured. 77 older adults received 4 weeks (12 sessions) of imagery cognitive bias modification or a control condition. They were assessed at baseline, post-training and at a one-month follow-up. Both groups reported decreased negative affect and trait anxiety, and increased optimism across the three assessments. Imagery cognitive bias modification significantly increased the vividness of positive prospective imagery post-training, compared with the control training. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no difference between the training groups in negative interpretation bias. This is a useful demonstration that it is possible to successfully engage older adults in computer-based cognitive training and to enhance the vividness of positive imagery about the future in this group. Future studies are needed to assess the longer-term consequences of such training and the impact on affect and wellbeing in more vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Many people who go back to smoking ... story: Time Out Times 10 >> share What Causes Stress? Read full story: What Causes Stress? >> share The ...

  8. Mood state effects of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Parker, Isabella; Brotchie, Heather

    2006-06-01

    Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The last claim stimulated this review. We review chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its claimed mood altering propensities. We distinguish between food craving and emotional eating, consider their psycho-physiological underpinnings, and examine the likely 'positioning' of any effect of chocolate to each concept. Chocolate can provide its own hedonistic reward by satisfying cravings but, when consumed as a comfort eating or emotional eating strategy, is more likely to be associated with prolongation rather than cessation of a dysphoric mood. This review focuses primarily on clarifying the possibility that, for some people, chocolate consumption may act as an antidepressant self-medication strategy and the processes by which this may occur. Any mood benefits of chocolate consumption are ephemeral.

  9. Both chronic treatments by epothilone D and fluoxetine increase the short-term memory and differentially alter the mood status of STOP/MAP6 KO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, Vincent; de Lavilléon, Gaetan; Schweitzer, Annie; Giros, Bruno; Andrieux, Annie; Martres, Marie-Pascale

    2012-12-01

    Recent evidence underlines the crucial role of neuronal cytoskeleton in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases. In this line, the deletion of STOP/MAP6 (Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide), a microtubule-stabilizing protein, triggers various neurotransmission and behavioral defects, suggesting that STOP knockout (KO) mice could be a relevant experimental model for schizoaffective symptoms. To establish the predictive validity of such a mouse line, in which the brain serotonergic tone is dramatically imbalanced, the effects of a chronic fluoxetine treatment on the mood status of STOP KO mice were characterized. Moreover, we determined the impact, on mood, of a chronic treatment by epothilone D, a taxol-like microtubule-stabilizing compound that has previously been shown to improve the synaptic plasticity deficits of STOP KO mice. We demonstrated that chronic fluoxetine was either antidepressive and anxiolytic, or pro-depressive and anxiogenic, depending on the paradigm used to test treated mutant mice. Furthermore, control-treated STOP KO mice exhibited paradoxical behaviors, compared with their clear-cut basal mood status. Paradoxical fluoxetine effects and control-treated STOP KO behaviors could be because of their hyper-reactivity to acute and chronic stress. Interestingly, both epothilone D and fluoxetine chronic treatments improved the short-term memory of STOP KO mice. Such treatments did not affect the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter densities in cerebral areas of mice. Altogether, these data demonstrated that STOP KO mice could represent a useful model to study the relationship between cytoskeleton, mood, and stress, and to test innovative mood treatments, such as microtubule-stabilizing compounds. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Expected Evaluation, Goals, and Performance: Mood as Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Research indicates effortful performances are reduced when participants cannot be evaluated. Hypothesized mood interacts with goals to attenuate such reduction in performance. As predicted, when participants' tried to do as much as they could, those in negative moods put forth more effort and persisted longer than those in positive moods,…

  11. Dispositional and Situational Autonomy as Moderators of Mood and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Wang, Ling; Chen, Yinghe; Zheng, Zhiwei; Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that mood can influence creativity, the controversy about the effects of positive and negative moods has raged for years. This study investigated how the relationship between induced mood and creativity is moderated by dispositional and situational autonomy. It contrasted the different moderating effects of the…

  12. Chronobiology and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.

  13. Effects of blue light and caffeine on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Johan G; Beaven, C Martyn

    2014-09-01

    Both short wavelength (blue) light and caffeine have been studied for their mood enhancing effects on humans. The ability of blue light to increase alertness, mood and cognitive function via non-image forming neuropathways has been suggested as a non-pharmacological countermeasure for depression across a range of occupational settings. This experimental study compared blue light and caffeine and aimed to test the effects of blue light/placebo (BLU), white light/240-mg caffeine (CAF), blue light/240-mg caffeine (BCAF) and white light/placebo (PLA), on mood. A randomised, controlled, crossover design study was used, in a convenience population of 20 healthy volunteers. The participants rated their mood on the Swedish Core Affect Scales (SCAS) prior to and after each experimental condition to assess the dimensions of valence and activation. There was a significant main effect of light (p = 0.009), and the combination of blue light and caffeine had clear positive effects on core effects (ES, ranging from 0.41 to 1.20) and global mood (ES, 0.61 ± 0.53). The benefits of the combination of blue light and caffeine should be further investigated across a range of applications due to the observed effects on the dimensions of arousal, valence and pleasant activation.

  14. Effects of theobromine and caffeine on mood and vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, Daniel A; Preston, Amy G; Miller, Debra L; Muñoz, Colleen X; Kellogg, Mark D; Lieberman, Harris R

    2013-08-01

    Like caffeine, theobromine crosses the blood-brain barrier and binds to adenosine receptors, suggesting it might share caffeine's beneficial effects on mood and vigilance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of theobromine doses commonly found in foods on mood and vigilance parameters sensitive to caffeine. Caffeine was tested as a positive control. Twenty-four men (age, 23 [3] years) completed 6 double-blind trials during which they consumed experimental beverages, assessed their mood using standardized self-report questionnaires, and completed a 2-hour visual vigilance task. Three experimental doses (100, 200, and 400 mg theobromine) were delivered in a cocoa-based beverage; 3 matched control treatments (0 mg theobromine, 400 mg theobromine, and 100 mg caffeine) were delivered in a non-cocoa beverage. Mean salivary concentrations of theobromine exhibited significant dose-dependent differences (400 mg trials > 200 mg trial > 100 mg trial > 0 mg trials; P affect mood state or vigilance (P > 0.05), but 100-mg caffeine significantly decreased lethargy/fatigue and increased vigor (P = 0.006 and 0.011, respectively). These findings indicate theobromine does not influence mood and vigilance when administered in nutritionally relevant doses, despite sharing many of caffeine's structural characteristics.

  15. The dynamics of mood and coping in bipolar disorder: longitudinal investigations of the inter-relationship between affect, self-esteem and response styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Varese, Filippo; Smith, Angela; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Turnbull, Oliver H; Emsley, Richard; Bentall, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48) reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally) instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction) was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on subsequent mood but some of these effects are modulated by

  16. The dynamics of mood and coping in bipolar disorder: longitudinal investigations of the inter-relationship between affect, self-esteem and response styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Pavlickova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. METHODS: In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48 reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on

  17. Mood and threat to attitudinal freedom: delineating the role of mood congruency and hedonic contingency in counterattitudinal message processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian; Aydinli, Arzu

    2013-08-01

    The present research examined when happy individuals' processing of a counterattitudinal message is guided by mood-congruent expectancies versus hedonic considerations. Recipients in positive, neutral, or negative mood read a strong or weak counterattitudinal message which either contained a threat to attitudinal freedom or did not contain such a threat. As expected, a freedom-threatening counterattitudinal message was more mood threatening than a counterattitudinal message not threatening freedom. Furthermore, as predicted by the mood-congruent expectancies approach, people in positive mood processed a nonthreatening counterattitudinal message more thoroughly than people in negative mood. Message processing in neutral mood lay in between. In contrast, as predicted by the hedonic-contingency view, a threatening counterattitudinal message was processed less thoroughly in positive mood than in neutral mood. In negative mood, processing of a threatening counterattitudinal message was as low as in positive mood. These findings suggest that message processing is determined by mood congruency unless hedonic considerations override expectancy-based processing inclinations.

  18. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  19. A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, M.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r = .15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral

  20. A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research : Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r =.15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral

  1. A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research : Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 102 effect sizes reflecting the relation between specific moods and creativity. Effect sizes overall revealed that positive moods produce more creativity than mood-neutral controls (r =.15), but no significant differences between negative moods and mood-neutral

  2. Your Morals are Your Moods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchsteiger, G.; Rigotti, L.; Rustichini, A.

    2000-01-01

    We test the effect of players' moods on their behavior in a gift-exchange game.In the first stage of the game, player 1 chooses a transfer to player 2.In the second stage, player 2 chooses an effort level.Higher effort is more costly for player 2, but it increases player 1's payoff.We say that

  3. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; He, Zhimin; Chase, Henry W; Wills, Andy J; Troisi, Joseph; Leventhal, Adam M; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus-response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to produce that outcome. One differential prediction is that whereas the incentive learning account anticipates that negative mood induction could augment a novel tobacco-seeking response in an extinction test, the S-R account could not explain this effect because the extinction test prevents S-R learning by omitting experience of the reinforcer. To test this, overnight-deprived daily smokers (n = 44) acquired two instrumental responses for tobacco and chocolate points, respectively, before smoking to satiety. Half then received negative mood induction to raise the expected value of tobacco, opposing satiety, whilst the remainder received positive mood induction. Finally, a choice between tobacco and chocolate was measured in extinction to test whether negative mood could augment tobacco choice, opposing satiety, in the absence of direct experience of tobacco reinforcement. Negative mood induction not only abolished the devaluation of tobacco choice, but participants with a significant increase in negative mood increased their tobacco choice in extinction, despite satiety. These findings suggest that negative mood augments drug-seeking by raising the expected value of the drug through incentive learning, rather than through automatic S-R control.

  4. The sweet life: The effect of mindful chocolate consumption on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Noll, Sabrina W; Molokwu, Oluwatobi J

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate consumption is anecdotally associated with an increase in happiness, but little experimental work has examined this effect. We combined a food type manipulation (chocolate vs. crackers) with a mindfulness manipulation (mindful consumption vs. non-mindful consumption) and examined the impact on positive mood. Participants (N = 258) were randomly assigned to eat a small portion (75 calories) of chocolate or a control food (crackers) in a mindful or non-mindful way. Participants who were instructed to mindfully eat chocolate had a greater increase in positive mood compared to participants who were instructed to eat chocolate non-mindfully or crackers either mindfully or non-mindfully. Additional analyses revealed that self-reported liking of the food partially mediated this effect. Chocolate appears to increase positive mood, but particularly when it is eaten mindfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of second and third generations combined oral contraceptive pills' effect on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Ranjbar Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Gaza Banoi, Kamal; Nahaee, Jila; Bayati Payan, Somayeh

    2014-08-01

    Most women taking combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are satisfied with their contraceptive method. However, one of the most common reasons reported for discontinuation of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is mood deterioration. This study aimed to compare effects of the second and third generation oral contraceptive pills on the mood of reproductive women. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in reproductive women at health centers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were randomized into the second and third generation oral contraceptive groups. Positive and negative moods were recorded using positive affect, negative affect scale (PANAS) tools at the end the second and fourth months of the study. Data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and P Values pills. The second generation oral contraceptive pills resulted in a decrease in positive mood (95% CI: 43.39 to 38.32 in second month and 43.39 to 26.05 in four month) and increase in negative mood (95% CI: 14.23 to 22.04 in second month and 14.23 to 32.26 in four month - P pills have a better effect on mood in women in reproductive ages than the second generation pills. It can be recommended as a proper combined oral contraceptive in Iran.

  6. A Comparison of Second and Third Generations Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills’ Effect on Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Ranjbar Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Gaza Banoi, Kamal; Nahaee, Jila; Bayati Payan, Somayeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most women taking combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are satisfied with their contraceptive method. However, one of the most common reasons reported for discontinuation of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) is mood deterioration. Objectives: This study aimed to compare effects of the second and third generation oral contraceptive pills on the mood of reproductive women. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in reproductive women at health centers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were randomized into the second and third generation oral contraceptive groups. Positive and negative moods were recorded using positive affect, negative affect scale (PANAS) tools at the end the second and fourth months of the study. Data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and P Values pills. The second generation oral contraceptive pills resulted in a decrease in positive mood (95% CI: 43.39 to 38.32 in second month and 43.39 to 26.05 in four month) and increase in negative mood (95% CI: 14.23 to 22.04 in second month and 14.23 to 32.26 in four month - P pills have a better effect on mood in women in reproductive ages than the second generation pills. It can be recommended as a proper combined oral contraceptive in Iran. PMID:25389478

  7. Affective and cognitive reactivity to mood induction in chronic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Anne; Sterzer, Philipp; Haack, Friderike H; Köhler, Stephan

    2018-03-15

    Chronic depression (CD) is strongly associated with childhood maltreatment, which has been proposed to lead to inefficient coping styles that are characterized by abnormal affective responsiveness and dysfunctional cognitive attitudes. However, while this notion forms an important basis for psychotherapeutic strategies in the treatment of CD, there is still little direct empirical evidence for a role of altered affective and cognitive reactivity in CD. The present study therefore experimentally investigated affective and cognitive reactivity to two forms of negative mood induction in CD patients versus a healthy control sample (HC). For the general mood induction procedure, a combination of sad pictures and sad music was used, while for individualized mood induction, negative mood was induced by individualized scripts with autobiographical content. Both experiments included n = 15 CD patients versus n = 15 HC, respectively. Interactions between affective or cognitive reactivity and group were analyzed by repeated measurements ANOVAs. General mood induction neither revealed affective nor cognitive reactivity in the patient group while the control group reported the expected decrease of positive affect [interaction (IA) affective reactivity x group: p = .011, cognitive reactivity x group: n.s.]. In contrast, individualized mood induction specifically increased affective reactivity (IA: p = .037) as well as the amount of dysfunctional cognitions in patients versus controls (IA: p = .014). The experiments were not balanced in a crossover design, causal conclusions are thus limited. Additionally, the differences to non-chronic forms of depression are still outstanding. The results suggest that in patients with CD, specific emotional activation through autobiographical memories is a key factor in dysfunctional coping styles. Psychotherapeutic interventions aimed at modifying affective and cognitive reactivity are thus of high relevance in the treatment of CD. Copyright

  8. Mood and the Market: Can Press Reports of Investors' Mood Predict Stock Prices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices. PMID:24015202

  9. Mood and the market: can press reports of investors' mood predict stock prices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Scherbaum, Charles A; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Staw, Barry M

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether press reports on the collective mood of investors can predict changes in stock prices. We collected data on the use of emotion words in newspaper reports on traders' affect, coded these emotion words according to their location on an affective circumplex in terms of pleasantness and activation level, and created indices of collective mood for each trading day. Then, by using time series analyses, we examined whether these mood indices, depicting investors' emotion on a given trading day, could predict the next day's opening price of the stock market. The strongest findings showed that activated pleasant mood predicted increases in NASDAQ prices, while activated unpleasant mood predicted decreases in NASDAQ prices. We conclude that both valence and activation levels of collective mood are important in predicting trend continuation in stock prices.

  10. Acute and medium term effects of a ten-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eWalter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants´ physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can impact results. In addition the transition from mood enhancement induced by acute exercise to medium or long-term effects due to regular exercise is not yet determined.The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the acute effects of an aerobic running training on mood and trends in medium term changes of mood in everyday life of young adults. We conducted a 10-week aerobic endurance training with frequent mood assessments and continuous activity monitoring. 23 apprentices, separated into experimental and control group, were monitored over 12 weeks.To control the effectiveness of the aerobic exercise program, participants completed a progressive treadmill test pre and post the intervention period. The three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness were assessed via electronic diaries. Participants had to rate their mood state frequently on three days a week at five times of measurement within twelve weeks. Participants´ physical activity was assessed with accelerometers. All mood dimensions increased immediately after acute endurance exercise but results were not significant. The highest acute mood change could be observed in valence (p=.07; η2=.27. However, no medium term effects in mood states could be observed after a few weeks of endurance training.Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the

  11. Change in drawing placement: A measure of change in mood state reflective of hemispheric lateralization of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R; O'Mara, Erin M; Wilson, Josephine F

    2018-04-26

    The Valence Hypothesis of cerebral lateralization of emotion suggests greater right hemisphere activation during negative mood and greater left hemisphere activation during positive mood. This can manifest as visual field attentional bias. Here, study participants completed an assessment of current mood state (PANAS) and made a drawing (Drawing 1). To induce positive or negative mood, participants played a game; then, the winner read a script depicting a positive interpersonal interaction and the loser read a script depicting a negative interpersonal interaction. Participants then drew a second picture (Drawing 2) and completed the PANAS. We hypothesized that the game outcome would change current mood state and hemispheric activation, which would be reflected in drawing placement. The placement of Drawing 2 moved right for winners and left for losers. Winners experienced a greater increase in positive affect from Time 1 to Time 2 than losers and had decreased negative affect from Time 1. Losers had decreased positive affect from Time 1 and had a greater increase in negative affect from Time 1 to Time 2 than winners. Our results suggest that change in current mood state may be objectively observed by evaluating hemispatial bias reflective of brain hemispheric activation with drawings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Turning lemonade into lemons: Dampening appraisals reduce positive affect and increase negative affect during positive activity scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Leigh-Anne; Javiad, Mahmood; Jell, Grace; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Dunn, Barnaby D

    2017-04-01

    The way individuals appraise positive emotions may modulate affective experience during positive activity scheduling. Individuals may either engage in dampening appraisals (e.g., think "this is too good to last") or amplifying appraisals (e.g., think "I deserve this"). A cross-over randomized design was used to examine the consequences of these appraisal styles. Participants (N = 43) rated positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) during four daily walks in pleasant locations, whilst following dampening, emotion-focus amplifying (focusing on how good one feels), self-focus amplifying (focusing on positive self qualities), or control instructions. There was no difference between the two amplifying and control conditions, which all increased PA and reduced NA during the walks. However, the dampening condition significantly differed from all other conditions, reducing PA and increasing NA during the walk. Individual differences in anhedonia symptoms did not significantly moderate the pattern of findings. This evidence supports the view that dampening appraisals may be one mechanism driving anhedonia and may account for why positive activity scheduling can sometimes backfire when utilized in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Musical feedback during exercise machine workout enhances mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Music making has a number of beneficial effects for motor tasks compared to passive music listening. Given that recent research suggests that high energy musical activities elevate positive affect more strongly than low energy musical activities, we here investigated a recent method that combined music making with systematically increasing physiological arousal by exercise machine workout. We compared mood and anxiety after two exercise conditions on non-cyclical exercise machines, one with passive music listening and the other with musical feedback (where participants could make music with the exercise machines. The results showed that agency during exercise machine workout (an activity we previously labeled jymmin—a cross between jammin and gym had an enhancing effect on mood compared to workout with passive music listening. Furthermore, the order in which the conditions were presented mediated the effect of musical agency for this subscale When participants first listened passively, the difference in mood between the two conditions was greater, suggesting that a stronger increase in hormone levels (e.g. endorphins during the active condition may have caused the observed effect. Given an enhanced mood after training with musical feedback compared to passively listening to the same type of music during workout, the results suggest that exercise machine workout with musical feedback (jymmin makes the act of exercise machine training more desirable.

  14. Diagnosis of Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda; Moore, Bonita Marcus

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of mood disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (fourth edition) criteria and other relevant information. Differential diagnosis is facilitated through discussion of differences and similarities among mental disorders, age and gender-related patterns of mood disorders, and useful diagnostic tools. (Author)

  15. Investor mood, herding and the Ramadan effect

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriilidis, Konstantinos; Kallinterakis, Vasileios; Tsalavoutas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In view of evidence linking herding and social mood, we examine whether the positive mood documented during Ramadan translates into higher herding compared to non-Ramadan days. Drawing on a sample of seven majority Muslim countries, we report significant herding during Ramadan in most of our sample markets. Additionally, we show that herding appears significantly stronger within rather than outside Ramadan for most tests whereby its significance is manifested on both Ramadan- and non-Ramadan-...

  16. Mood disorders in intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Anne D

    2006-09-01

    This article examines reviews and research on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in people with intellectual disability published from September 2004 to December 2005. Patients with intellectual disability have limitations in verbal ability, and with increasing levels of disability may have an atypical clinical presentation. Thus, methods to diagnose mood disorders were a major research focus. Informant-rating scales and two self-report instruments provided data on thought patterns, aberrant behavior, appetite, and suicidality. Behavioral symptoms such as aggression were frequently associated with mood disorders. Pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy were found to be effective treatments. Mood disorders were frequently identified in people with intellectual disability, although suicide was still quite rare. Patients with milder levels of disability can use self-report measures and can be diagnosed using standard criteria with little modification. For those with more severe disability, diagnosis is challenging and often requires the use of residual categories. Atypical clinical presentation, including maladaptive behaviors, lent support for 'behavioral equivalent' substitutes of standard criteria. Typical pharmacological agents were effective for depression and electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant bipolar disorder.

  17. Mood disorders: neurocognitive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Baune, Bernhard T; Porter, Richard J; Outhred, Tim

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, a number of neurocognitive models stemming from psychiatry and psychology schools of thought have conceptualized the pathophysiology of mood disorders in terms of dysfunctional neural mechanisms that underpin and drive neurocognitive processes. Though these models have been useful for advancing our theoretical understanding and facilitating important lines of research, translation of these models and their application within the clinical arena have been limited-partly because of lack of integration and synthesis. Cognitive neuroscience provides a novel perspective for understanding and modeling mood disorders. This selective review of influential neurocognitive models develops an integrative approach that can serve as a template for future research and the development of a clinically meaningful framework for investigating, diagnosing, and treating mood disorders. A selective literature search was conducted using PubMed and PsychINFO to identify prominent neurobiological and neurocognitive models of mood disorders. Most models identify similar neural networks and brain regions and neuropsychological processes in the neurocognition of mood, however, they differ in terms of specific functions attached to neural processes and how these interact. Furthermore, cognitive biases, reward processing and motivation, rumination, and mood stability, which play significant roles in the manner in which attention, appraisal, and response processes are deployed in mood disorders, are not sufficiently integrated. The inclusion of interactions between these additional components enhances our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of mood disorders. Through integration of key cognitive functions and understanding of how these interface with neural functioning within neurocognitive models of mood disorders, a framework for research can be created for translation to diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  18. Closing the Gender Gap in Leadership Positions: Can Expanding the Pipeline Increase Parity?

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ryan; Mansour, Hani; O'Connell, Stephen D.

    2018-01-01

    Gender gaps in leadership roles may be reduced by increasing the number of women in career stages that typically precede high-status positions. This can occur by increasing the supply of experienced women, inspiring new female candidates for these positions, and/or changing beliefs about women as leaders. In this study, we investigate whether and how adding women to a career pipeline can reduce gender gaps in higher-ranking positions over time. Specifically, we examine the effects of women's ...

  19. Effects of intentionally enhanced chocolate on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dean; Hayssen, Gail; Walsh, James

    2007-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment investigated whether chocolate exposed to "good intentions" would enhance mood more than unexposed chocolate. Individuals were assigned to one of four groups and asked to record their mood each day for a week by using the Profile of Mood States. For days three, four and five, each person consumed a half ounce of dark chocolate twice a day at prescribed times. Three groups blindly received chocolate that had been intentionally treated by three different techniques. The intention in each case was that people who ate the chocolate would experience an enhanced sense of energy, vigor, and well-being. The fourth group blindly received untreated chocolate as a placebo control. The hypothesis was that mood reported during the three days of eating chocolate would improve more in the intentional groups than in the control group. Stratified random sampling was used to distribute 62 participants among the four groups, matched for age, gender, and amount of chocolate consumed on average per week. Most participants lived in the same geographic region to reduce mood variations due to changes in weather, and the experiment was conducted during one week to reduce effects of current events on mood fluctuations. On the third day of eating chocolate, mood had improved significantly more in the intention conditions than in the control condition (P = .04). Analysis of a planned subset of individuals who habitually consumed less than the grand mean of 3.2 ounces of chocolate per week showed a stronger improvement in mood (P = .0001). Primary contributors to the mood changes were the factors of declining fatigue (P = .01) and increasing vigor (P = .002). All three intentional techniques contributed to the observed results. The mood-elevating properties of chocolate can be enhanced with intention.

  20. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, M.C.W.; Wingen, G.A. van; Wittwer, J.; Mohajeri, M.H.; Kloek, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport

  1. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, Marijn C. W.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M. Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, hyptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across

  2. The path to presence in performance through movement, physiological response, and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis Preeshl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Presence may occur when actors are alert and relaxed in performance. A positive mood is associated with physical activity, but little is known about how movement qualities affect mood and vital signs of actors. This study examined the effects of vibratory, pendular, abrupt, and sustained movement qualities on the Brief Mood Introspection Scale, and physiology. Undergraduate theatre (n = 25 and non-theatre majors (n = 24 engaged in protocols of four movement qualities: vibratory, pendular, abrupt and sustained. Mood and heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and temperature were measured before and after four different movement protocols. The hypothesis that the sequence of vibratory, pendular, sustained, and abrupt increased the alert, relaxed state of Presence and Arousal was rejected. It was found that systolic blood pressure increased in men across protocols. A significant interaction was found between the participants’ major and “Tired.” Because Tired and Arousal indicate mental and/or physical energy, a relationship between MAJOR and “Tired,” combined with significant correlation between subjects and major, suggests that the protocols resulted in fatigue. Half of the mood variance is explained by the factor “major.” These two significant findings suggest a relationship between mood and major as well as blood pressure and gender.

  3. Temporal mood changes associated with different levels of adolescent drinking: using mobile phones and experience sampling methods to explore motivations for adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Alexander H D; Reid, Sophie C; Kauer, Sylvia D; McKenzie, Dean P; Hearps, Stephen J C; Khor, Angela S; Forbes, Andrew B

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol use during adolescence is associated with the onset of alcohol use disorders, mental health disorders, substance abuse as well as socially and physically damaging behaviours, the effects of which last well into adulthood. Nevertheless, alcohol use remains prevalent in this population. Understanding motivations behind adolescent alcohol consumption may help in developing more appropriate and effective interventions. This study aims to increase this understanding by exploring the temporal relationship between mood and different levels of alcohol intake in a sample of young people. Forty-one secondary school students used a purpose-designed mobile phone application to monitor their daily mood and alcohol use for 20 random days within a 31 day period. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between differing levels of alcohol consumption (light, intermediate and heavy) and positive and negative mood three days before and after drinking episodes. While there was no relationship between light and heavy drinking and positive mood, there was an increase in positive mood before and after the drinking event for those that drank intermediate amounts. No statistically significant relationships were found between negative mood and any of the three drinking categories. Adolescents who drank in intermediate amounts on a single drinking occasion experienced an increase in positive mood over the three days leading up to and three days following a drinking event. These findings contribute to an understanding of the motivations that underpin adolescent alcohol use, which may help inform future interventions. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Visual analog rating of mood by people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L; Womack, Jennifer L; Harmon, Tyson G; Williams, Sharon W

    2015-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the identification of depression in stroke survivors with aphasia, but there is more limited information about other mood states. Visual analog scales are often used to collect subjective information from people with aphasia. However, the validity of these methods for communicating about mood has not been established in people with moderately to severely impaired language. The dual purposes of this study were to characterize the relative endorsement of negative and positive mood states in people with chronic aphasia after stroke and to examine congruent validity for visual analog rating methods for people with a range of aphasia severity. Twenty-three left-hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia were asked to indicate their present mood by using two published visual analog rating methods. The congruence between the methods was estimated through correlation analysis, and scores for different moods were compared. Endorsement was significantly stronger for "happy" than for mood states with negative valence. At the same time, several participants displayed pronounced negative mood compared to previously published norms for neurologically healthy adults. Results from the two rating methods were moderately and positively correlated. Positive mood is prominent in people with aphasia who are in the chronic stage of recovery after stroke, but negative moods can also be salient and individual presentations are diverse. Visual analog rating methods are valid methods for discussing mood with people with aphasia; however, design optimization should be explored.

  5. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  6. Emotion word processing: does mood make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, Sara C.; Scott, Graham G.; Yao, Bo; Thaden, Elske J.; O'Donnell, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Visual emotion word processing has been in the focus of recent psycholinguistic research. In general, emotion words provoke differential responses in comparison to neutral words. However, words are typically processed within a context rather than in isolation. For instance, how does one's inner emotional state influence the comprehension of emotion words? To address this question, the current study examined lexical decision responses to emotionally positive, negative, and neutral words as a function of induced mood as well as their word frequency. Mood was manipulated by exposing participants to different types of music. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions—no music, positive music, and negative music. Participants' moods were assessed during the experiment to confirm the mood induction manipulation. Reaction time results confirmed prior demonstrations of an interaction between a word's emotionality and its frequency. Results also showed a significant interaction between participant mood and word emotionality. However, the pattern of results was not consistent with mood-congruency effects. Although positive and negative mood facilitated responses overall in comparison to the control group, neither positive nor negative mood appeared to additionally facilitate responses to mood-congruent words. Instead, the pattern of findings seemed to be the consequence of attentional effects arising from induced mood. Positive mood broadens attention to a global level, eliminating the category distinction of positive-negative valence but leaving the high-low arousal dimension intact. In contrast, negative mood narrows attention to a local level, enhancing within-category distinctions, in particular, for negative words, resulting in less effective facilitation. PMID:26379570

  7. The informational impact of mood on effort mobilization: a study of cardiovascular and electrodermal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendolla, G H; Abele, A E; Krüsken, J

    2001-03-01

    The impact of mood on effort quantified as autonomic adjustments was investigated in an experiment. The authors induced positive versus negative moods with either 1 of 2 mood induction procedures (music vs. autobiographical recollection) that differed in the extent of required effort. Then participants performed an achievement task after demand appraisals were made. Results were as predicted. During the mood inductions, autonomic reactivity (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance responses) was stronger in the relatively effortful recollection conditions than in the relatively effortless music conditions. Mood valence had no impact here. But in the context of task performance, the authors found (a) mood congruency effects on the demand appraisals that reflected subjectively higher demand in a negative than in a positive mood, and (b) stronger SBP reactivity in a negative mood compared with a positive mood. Furthermore, SBP reactivity during task performance was correlated with achievement.

  8. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... Chat on Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (Archived Transcript) Research and ... Journal Articles: References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  9. A closer look at the relationship between the default network, mind wandering, negative mood, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjedi, Shaghayegh; Maleeh, Reza

    2017-08-01

    By a systematic analysis of the current literature on the neural correlates of mind wandering, that is, the default network (DN), and by shedding light on some determinative factors and conditions which affect the relationship between mind wandering and negative mood, we show that (1) mind wandering per se does not necessarily have a positive correlation with negative mood and, on the higher levels, depression. We propose that negative mood as a consequence of mind wandering generally depends on two determinative conditions, that is, whether mind wandering is with or without meta-awareness and whether mind wandering occurs during high or low vigilance states; (2) increased activity of the DN is not necessarily followed by an increase in unhappiness and depression. We argue that while in some kinds of meditation practices we witness an increase in the structure and in the activity of the DN, no increase in unhappiness and depression is observed.

  10. Frontal EEG Asymmetry of Mood: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Palmiero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present mini-review was aimed at exploring the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood. With respect to emotion, interpreted as a discrete affective process, mood is more controllable, more nebulous, and more related to mind/cognition; in addition, causes are less well-defined than those eliciting emotion. Therefore, firstly, the rational for the distinction between emotion and mood was provided. Then, the main frontal EEG asymmetry models were presented, such as the motivational approach/withdrawal, valence/arousal, capability, and inhibition asymmetric models. Afterward, the frontal EEG asymmetry of mood was investigated following three research lines, that is considering studies involving different mood induction procedures, dispositional mood (positive and negative affect, and mood alterations in both healthy and clinical populations. In general, results were found to be contradictory, no model is unequivocally supported regardless the research line considered. Different methodological issues were raised, such as: the composition of samples used across studies, in particular, gender and age were found to be critical variables that should be better addressed in future studies; the importance of third variables that might mediate the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetries and mood, for example bodily states and hormonal responses; the role of cognition, namely the interplay between mood and executive functions. In light of these issues, future research directions were proposed. Amongst others, the need to explore the neural connectivity that underpins EEG asymmetries, and the need to include both positive and negative mood conditions in the experimental designs have been highlighted.

  11. Mood, media experiences and advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; van Velthoven, S.; Costa Pereira, F.; Veríssimo, J.; Neijens, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Studying moods and the effects that a mood has is an important topic in research into advertising. But nearly all data on mood effects are gathered in a forced exposure and lab context. In a real-life study we relate in this contribution mood to moments of media consumption. So we analyze at the

  12. Effect of acute tryptophan depletion on emotions in individuals with personal and family history of depression following a mood induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Sarah E; Shankman, Stewart A; Spring, Bonnie

    2010-08-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) has shown depletion-specific increases in depressed mood and overall depressive symptoms, especially in those with a family history and in remitted patients. However, its effect on a broad range of emotions beyond depressed mood has been inconsistent, and studies have rarely employed a negative mood induction. The present double-blind study administered tryptophan-depleted and taste-matched placebo challenge drinks to individuals with a past diagnosis and family history of depression (i.e. depression-vulnerable subjects) and controls in order to investigate the effect of ATD on positive affect, anxiety, anger and depressed mood following a negative mood induction. Certain aspects of positive affect decreased due to ATD in the depression vulnerables but not in the controls. No differential effects were found on depressed mood and anxiety. A stress-induced blunted hedonic capacity may increase vulnerability to ATD and may be a core emotional abnormality in depression. Additionally, serotonin may have a stronger influence on positive affect than on other depression-related emotions during periods of stress. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Food can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits via a serotonergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Marijn C W; van Wingen, Guido A; Wittwer, Jonas; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Kloek, Joris; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that food can affect mood. One prevalent notion is that food containing tryptophan increases serotonin levels in the brain and alters neural processing in mood-regulating neurocircuits. However, tryptophan competes with other long-neutral-amino-acids (LNAA) for transport across the blood-brain-barrier, a limitation that can be mitigated by increasing the tryptophan/LNAA ratio. We therefore tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study (N=32) whether a drink with a favourable tryptophan/LNAA ratio improves mood and modulates specific brain processes as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We show that one serving of this drink increases the tryptophan/LNAA ratio in blood plasma, lifts mood in healthy young women and alters task-specific and resting-state processing in brain regions implicated in mood regulation. Specifically, Test-drink consumption reduced neural responses of the dorsal caudate nucleus during reward anticipation, increased neural responses in the dorsal cingulate cortex during fear processing, and increased ventromedial prefrontal-lateral prefrontal connectivity under resting-state conditions. Our results suggest that increasing tryptophan/LNAA ratios can lift mood by affecting mood-regulating neurocircuits. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brief Online Self-help Exercises for Postnatal Women to Improve Mood: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Susan; Fitzgerald, Gemima; Thompson, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Giving birth and adjusting to a new baby can be difficult and stressful for new mothers. Negative mood may occur during this time and can affect women, their parenting and the infant's development. This pilot study evaluated a brief online self-help intervention designed to promote positive mood in mothers of babies and toddlers. Women in the UK who had given birth within the previous 18 months were randomly allocated to the online self-help intervention (n = 40) or active comparison group exercise (n = 40) which was matched for time and structure. Mood was measured before and after the intervention. Acceptability was examined at the end of the trial. The self-help intervention was acceptable to the majority of women and significantly increased positive mood compared to the comparison condition. This effect persisted after controlling for self-esteem, anxiety and depression. These results suggest that a simple self-help intervention focused on changing beliefs about oneself as a mother can have an immediate impact on women's mood. Further research is need to see whether these improvements continue long-term and what processes underlie these improvements.

  15. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise Improves Mood State in Normobaric Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; Fennell, Curtis; Burns, Keith; Pollock, Brandon S; Gunstad, John; McDaniel, John; Glickman, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the efficacy of using exercise to alleviate the impairments in mood state associated with hypoxic exposure. Nineteen young, healthy men completed Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4(th) Edition (ANAM4) versions of the mood state test before hypoxia exposure, after 60 min of hypoxia exposure (12.5% O(2)), and during and after two intensities of cycling exercise (40% and 60% adjusted Vo(2max)) under the same hypoxic conditions. Peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo(2)) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSo(2)) were continuously monitored. At rest in hypoxia, Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) was significantly increased compared to baseline in both the 40% and 60% groups. TMD was significantly decreased during exercise compared to rest in hypoxia. TMD was also significantly decreased during recovery compared to rest in hypoxia. Spo(2) significantly decreased at 60 min rest in hypoxia, during exercise, and recovery compared to baseline. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation was also reduced at 60 min rest in hypoxia, during exercise, and recovery compared to baseline. The current study demonstrated that exercise at 40% and 60% of adjusted Vo(2max) attenuated the adverse effects of hypoxia on mood. These findings may have significant applied value, as negative mood states are known to impair performance in hypoxia. Further studies are needed to replicate the current finding and to clarify the possible mechanisms associated with the potential benefits of exercise on mood state in normobaric hypoxia.

  17. Engaging in an experiential processing mode increases positive emotional response during recall of pleasant autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeikis, Darius; Bos, Nikita; Schweizer, Susanne; Murphy, Fionnuala; Dunn, Barnaby

    2017-05-01

    It is important to identify effective emotion regulation strategies to increase positive emotion experience in the general population and in clinical conditions characterized by anhedonia. There are indications that engaging in experiential processing (direct awareness of sensory and bodily experience) bolsters positive emotion experience but this has not been extensively tested during memory recall. To further test this notion, 99 community participants recalled two positive autobiographical memories. Prior to the second recall, participants either underwent an experiential, analytical, or distraction induction (n = 33 per condition). Subjective happiness and sadness ratings and heart rate variability (HRV) response were measured during each recall. Greater spontaneous use of experiential processing during the first memory was associated with greater happiness experience, but was unrelated to HRV and sadness experience. Inducing experiential processing increased happiness experience relative to both the analytical and distraction conditions (but had no impact on sadness experience). There was a significant difference in HRV between conditions. The experiential condition led to a trend-significant increase, and the other conditions a non-significant decrease, in HRV from the first to the second memory. These results suggest that engaging in experiential processing is an effective way to up-regulate positive emotion experience during positive memory recall. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The Relationship among Leisure Interests, Personality Traits, Affect, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Todd J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between leisure interests and the Big Five personality traits, positive and negative affect, and moods. Regression analysis identified particular personality but not mood or affect variables as significant predictors of leisure factor scores. Further exploration through factor analysis revealed factor…

  19. Crying and Mood Change : a Cross-Cultural Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, M.C.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of crying-related variables and country characteristics on mood change after crying. It was hypothesized that mood improvement would be positively associated to crying frequency, Individualism-Collectivism, and the extent of gender empowerment in a

  20. The effects of sad mood on memory in older adults: a test of the mood congruence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Bob G; Maines, Michele L; Robinson, Gia S

    2002-12-01

    Mood congruence effects have long been studied in younger adults, but not in older adults. Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) suggests that mood congruence could operate differently in older adults. One hundred and nineteen younger and 78 older adults were randomly assigned to sad or neutral mood inductions, using combined Velten and music induction procedures. Results indicated that during sad mood induction both older and younger adults showed enhanced recall of sad words on delayed word list recall task and in autobiographical memory. However, only older adults displayed mood congruence effects on lexical ambiguity and lower recall of positive words in the word list task. Results provided partial support for developmental effects on mood congruence derived from SST.

  1. Effect of Maryland's 2011 Alcohol Sales Tax Increase on Alcohol-Positive Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Langenberg, Patricia; Villaveces, Andres; Dischinger, Patricia C; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Hoke, Kathleen; Smith, Gordon S

    2017-07-01

    The 2011 Maryland alcohol sales tax increase from 6% to 9% provided an opportunity to evaluate the impact on rates of alcohol-positive drivers involved in injury crashes. Maryland police crash reports from 2001 to 2013 were analyzed using an interrupted time series design and a multivariable analysis employing generalized estimating equations models with a negative binomial distribution. Data were analyzed in 2014-2015. There was a significant gradual annual reduction of 6% in the population-based rate of all alcohol-positive drivers (ptax increase. There were no significant changes in rates of alcohol-positive drivers aged 35-54 years (rate ratio, 0.98; 95% CI=0.89, 1.09). Drivers aged ≥55 years had a significant immediate 10% increase in the rate of alcohol-positive drivers (rate ratio, 1.10; 95% CI=1.04, 1.16) and a gradual increase of 4.8% per year after the intervention. Models using different denominators and controlling for multiple factors including a proxy for unmeasured factors found similar results overall. The 2011 Maryland alcohol sales tax increase led to a significant reduction in the rate of all alcohol-positive drivers involved in injury crashes especially among drivers aged 15-34 years. This is the first study to examine the impact of alcohol sales taxes on crashes; previous research focused on excise tax. Increasing alcohol taxes is an important but often neglected intervention to reduce alcohol-impaired driving. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A note on age differences in mood-congruent versus mood-incongruent emotion processing in faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel C. Voelkle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses four interrelated research questions: (1 Does experienced mood affect emotion perception in faces and is this perception mood-congruent or mood-incongruent? (2 Are there age-group differences in the interplay between experienced mood and emotion perception? (3 Does emotion perception in faces change as a function of the temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation, and (4 does emotion perception in faces serve a mood-regulatory function? One hundred fifty-four adults of three different age groups (younger: 20–31 years; middle-aged: 44–55 years; older adults: 70–81 years were asked to provide multidimensional emotion ratings of a total of 1,026 face pictures of younger, middle-aged, and older men and women, each displaying six different prototypical (primary emotional expressions. By analyzing the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression to a face whose primary emotion had been correctly recognized, the multidimensional rating approach permits the study of emotion perception while controlling for emotion recognition. Following up on previous research on mood responses to recurring unpleasant situations using the same dataset (Voelkle, Ebner, Lindenberger, & Riediger, 2013, crossed random effects analyses supported a mood-congruent relationship between experienced mood and perceived emotions in faces. In particular older adults were more likely to perceive happiness in faces when being in a positive mood and less likely to do so when being in a negative mood. This did not apply to younger adults. Temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation had a strong effect on the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression. In contrast to previous findings, however, there was neither evidence for a change from mood-congruent to mood-incongruent responses over time nor evidence for a mood-regulatory effect.

  3. A note on age differences in mood-congruent vs. mood-incongruent emotion processing in faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C; Ebner, Natalie C; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    (1) Does experienced mood affect emotion perception in faces and is this perception mood-congruent or mood-incongruent?(2) Are there age-group differences in the interplay between experienced mood and emotion perception? (3) Does emotion perception in faces change as a function of the temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation, and (4) does emotion perception in faces serve a mood-regulatory function? One hundred fifty-four adults of three different age groups (younger: 20-31 years; middle-aged: 44-55 years; older adults: 70-81 years) were asked to provide multidimensional emotion ratings of a total of 1026 face pictures of younger, middle-aged, and older men and women, each displaying six different prototypical (primary) emotional expressions. By analyzing the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression to a face whose primary emotion had been correctly recognized, the multidimensional rating approach permits the study of emotion perception while controlling for emotion recognition. Following up on previous research on mood responses to recurring unpleasant situations using the same dataset (Voelkle et al., 2013), crossed random effects analyses supported a mood-congruent relationship between experienced mood and perceived emotions in faces. In particular older adults were more likely to perceive happiness in faces when being in a positive mood and less likely to do so when being in a negative mood. This did not apply to younger adults. Temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation had a strong effect on the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression. In contrast to previous findings, however, there was neither evidence for a change from mood-congruent to mood-incongruent responses over time nor evidence for a mood-regulatory effect.

  4. Postnatal Depression Symptoms are Associated with Increased Diarrhea among Infants of HIV-Positive Ghanaian Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Okronipa, Harriet E.T.; Marquis, Grace S.; Lartey, Anna; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection is linked to increased prevalence of depression which may affect maternal caregiving practices and place young infants at increased risk of illness. We examined the incidence and days ill with diarrhea among infants of HIV positive (HIV-P), HIV negative (HIV-N), and unknown HIV status (HIV-U) women, and determined if symptoms of maternal postnatal depression (PND) modulated the risk of diarrhea. Pregnant women (n=492) were recruited from 3 antenatal clinics; mothers and infants ...

  5. Effects of Acute Blueberry Flavonoids on Mood in Children and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundus Khalid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of flavonoids (usually via fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of developing depression. One plausible explanation for this association is the well-documented beneficial effects of flavonoids on executive function (EF. Impaired EF is linked to cognitive processes (e.g., rumination that maintain depression and low mood; therefore, improved EF may reduce depressionogenic cognitive processes and improve mood. Study 1: 21 young adults (18–21 years old consumed a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink and a matched placebo in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Study 2: 50 children (7–10 years old were randomly assigned to a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink or a matched placebo. In both studies, participants and researchers were blind to the experimental condition, and mood was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before and 2 h after consumption of the drinks. In both studies, the blueberry intervention increased positive affect (significant drink by session interaction but had no effect on negative affect. This observed effect of flavonoids on positive affect in two independent samples is of potential practical value in improving public health. If the effect of flavonoids on positive affect is replicated, further investigation will be needed to identify the mechanisms that link flavonoid interventions with improved positive mood.

  6. Positive Portrayals of Feminist Men Increase Men's Solidarity with Feminists and Collective Action Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Shaun; Srinivasan, Ruhi; Finke, Elizabeth; Firnhaber, Joseph; Shilinsky, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether positive portrayals of feminist men could increase men's sense of solidarity with feminists and, through it, their intentions to engage in collective action in support of women. A sample of 102 mostly White men between the ages of 18 and 63 was recruited from Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing marketplace.…

  7. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  8. Mood-Congruent Memory and Natural Mood: New Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents new evidence that everyday mood does bring about a hypothesized effect on memory, termed mood-congruent memory (MCM). Results of three studies provided evidence for MCM among normal individuals (n=614). Findings support prior studies and bolster notions that mood and memory constantly covary in everyday experience. (RJM)

  9. Happiness cools the glow of familiarity: Psychophysiological evidence that mood modulates the familiarity-affect link

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marieke; Holland, Rob W.; Chenier, Troy; Starr, Mark J.; Winkielman, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    People often prefer familiar stimuli, presumably because familiarity signals safety. This preference can occur with merely repeated “old” stimuli, but it is most robust with “new” but highly familiar prototypes of a known category (beauty-in-averages effect). However, is familiarity always warm? Tuning accounts of mood hold that positive mood signals a safe environment whereas negative mood signals an unsafe environment. Thus, the value of familiarity should depend on mood. We show that compared to a sad mood, a happy mood eliminates the preference for familiar stimuli, as shown in measures of self-reported liking and physiological measures of affect (EMG indicator of spontaneous smiling). The basic effect of exposure on preference and its modulation by mood were most robust on prototypes (category averages). All this occurs even though prototypes might be more familiar in a happy mood. We conclude that mood changes the hedonic implications of familiarity cues. PMID:20424063

  10. Cases requiring increased number of repositioning maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder Korkmaz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a clinical syndrome that is proposed to be caused by dislocated utricular debris into semicircular canals. Although the majority of patients are treated by one or two repositioning maneuvers, some of the patients need repeated maneuvers for relief. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the factors associated with patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who required multiple repositioning procedures for treatment. METHODS: Data were obtained from the clinical records of 153 patients diagnosed with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Patients were treated by repositioning maneuvers. Demographic data and the factors including age, sex, canal type, duration of symptoms, comorbidities and number of repositioning maneuvers for relief were documented for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Age, sex, canal type and the duration of symptoms had no impact on the number of maneuvers. The most common comorbidity was spine problems. Hypertension was the only comorbidity that significantly associated with increased number of maneuvers. CONCLUSION: The presence of hypertension is a risk factor for repeated maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo treatment. Physicians should be aware of the increased probability of repeated repositioning maneuvers in these group of patients. The role of comorbidities and vascular factors need to be further clarified in the course of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

  11. Cases requiring increased number of repositioning maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Mukadder; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a clinical syndrome that is proposed to be caused by dislocated utricular debris into semicircular canals. Although the majority of patients are treated by one or two repositioning maneuvers, some of the patients need repeated maneuvers for relief. The goal of this study was to investigate the factors associated with patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who required multiple repositioning procedures for treatment. Data were obtained from the clinical records of 153 patients diagnosed with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Patients were treated by repositioning maneuvers. Demographic data and the factors including age, sex, canal type, duration of symptoms, comorbidities and number of repositioning maneuvers for relief were documented for statistical analysis. Age, sex, canal type and the duration of symptoms had no impact on the number of maneuvers. The most common comorbidity was spine problems. Hypertension was the only comorbidity that significantly associated with increased number of maneuvers. The presence of hypertension is a risk factor for repeated maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo treatment. Physicians should be aware of the increased probability of repeated repositioning maneuvers in these group of patients. The role of comorbidities and vascular factors need to be further clarified in the course of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder. PMID

  13. Increased risk of breast cancer in women with false-positive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Kuchiki, Megumi; Vejborg, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    of misclassification, i.e. women who were actually false-negatives instead of false-positives. METHOD: We used data from the Copenhagen Mammography Screening Programme, Denmark. The study population was the 295 women, out of 4743 recalled women from a total of 58,003 participants, with a false-positive test during...... the women with misclassified tests had been excluded, there was an excess risk of breast cancer of 27% (RR=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.46) among the women with a false-positive test compared to women with only negative tests. Women with a false-positive test determined at assessment had...... an excess risk of 27%, while false-positives determined at surgery had an excess risk of 30%. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the increased risk is not explained only by misclassification. The excess risk remains for false-positives determined at assessment as well as at surgery, which favours some...

  14. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  15. Mood Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Mood Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Trastornos del estado de ánimo: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Bipolar Disorder (An Introduction) - English PDF Bipolar Disorder (An ...

  16. Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment Rates of Mood Disorders among Opioid Users under Criminal Justice Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaba, Mary; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Wooditch, Alese; Kiss, Marissa; Murphy, Amy; Kumari, Suneeta; Taxman, Faye; Altice, Frederick; Lawson, William B; Springer, Sandra A

    2018-01-15

    Individuals involved in the criminal justice system have disproportionately high rates of psychiatric disorders when compared to the general U.S. If left untreated, the likelihood of subsequent arrest increases and risk for adverse health consequences is great, particularly among opioid users. To explore the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of mood disorders among justice involved opioid-dependent populations. The current study enrolled 258 treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals under community-based criminal justice supervision (e.g., probation, parole) screened from the larger parent study, Project STRIDE, a seek/test/treat randomized control trial (RCT) examining HIV and opioid use treatment. During baseline, individuals were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and screened for bipolar disorder using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) tool. Overall, 78 (30%) participants screened positive for moderate to severe depression and 54 (21%) screened positive for bipolar disorder. Participants self-reported mood disorders at higher rates than they screened positive for these conditions. Participants screening positive for these conditions experienced significantly greater family, legal, and medical problems on the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite) than those who did not screen positive. Incidence of a lifetime suicide attempt was found to be associated with a positive screen for both mood disorders. Prescribed psychotropic treatment utilization was similar among those who screened positive for depression or bipolar disorder with approximately 38% reporting taking medication. Findings suggest universal mood disorder screening to improve comprehensive psychiatric care and treatment of opioid-dependent justice-involved individuals.

  17. The effects of nutrients on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D; Donohoe, R T

    1999-09-01

    A recent major theory was that a meal high in carbohydrate increased the rate that tryptophan enters the brain, leading to an increase in the level of the neurotransmitter serotonin that modulates mood. Although such a mechanism may be important under laboratory conditions it is unlikely to be of significance following the eating of any typical meal. As little as 2-4% of the calories of a meal as protein will prevent an increased availability of tryptophan. Arguably the food with the greatest impact on mood is chocolate. Those who crave chocolate tend to do so when they feel emotionally low. There have been a series of suggestions that chocolate's mood elevating properties reflect 'drug-like' constituents including anandamines, caffeine, phenylethylamine and magnesium. However, the levels of these substances are so low as to preclude such influences. As all palatable foods stimulate endorphin release in the brain this is the most likely mechanism to account for the elevation of mood. A deficiency of many vitamins is associated with psychological symptoms. In some elderly patients folate deficiency is associated with depression. In four double-blind studies an improvement in thiamine status was associated with improved mood. Iron deficiency anaemia is common, particularly in women, and is associated with apathy, depression and rapid fatigue when exercising.

  18. Subliminal presentation of emotionally negative vs positive primes increases the perceived beauty of target stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Vanessa; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-11-01

    Emotions have a profound influence on aesthetic experiences. Studies using affective priming procedures demonstrate, for example, that inducing a conscious negative emotional state biases the perception of abstract stimuli towards the sublime (Eskine et al. Emotion 12:1071-1074, 2012. doi: 10.1037/a0027200). Moreover, subliminal happy facial expressions have a positive impact on the aesthetic evaluation of abstract art (Flexas et al. PLoS ONE 8:e80154, 2013). Little is known about how emotion influences aesthetic perception of non-abstract, representational stimuli, especially those that are particularly relevant for social behaviour, like human bodies. Here, we explore whether the subliminal presentation of emotionally charged visual primes modulates the explicit subjective aesthetic judgment of body images. Using a forward/backward masking procedure, we presented subliminally positive and negative, arousal-matched, emotional or neutral primes and measured their effect on the explicit evaluation of perceived beauty (high vs low) and emotion (positive vs negative) evoked by abstract and body images. We found that negative primes increased subjective aesthetic evaluations of target bodies or abstract images in comparison with positive primes. No influence of primes on the emotional dimension of the targets was found, thus ruling out an unspecific arousal effect and strengthening the link between emotional valence and aesthetic appreciation. More specifically, that subliminal negative primes increase beauty ratings compared to subliminal positive primes indicates a clear link between negative emotions and positive aesthetic evaluations and vice versa, suggesting a possible link between negative emotion and the experience of sublime in art. The study expands previous research by showing the effect of subliminal negative emotions on the subjective aesthetic evaluation not only of abstract but also of body images.

  19. Skin irritability to sodium lauryl sulfate is associated with increased positive patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitulla, J; Brasch, J; Löffler, H; Schnuch, A; Geier, J; Uter, W

    2014-07-01

    As previous observations have indicated an inter-relationship between irritant and allergic skin reactions we analysed data of synchronous allergen and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) patch tests in terms of a relationship between SLS responsiveness and allergic patch test reactions. To analyse differences in terms of allergen-specific and overall reaction profiles between patients with vs. those without an irritant reaction to SLS. Clinical data of 26 879 patients patch tested from 2008 to 2011 by members of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology were analysed. After descriptive analyses, including the MOAHLFA index, the positivity ratio and the reaction index, a negative binomial hurdle model was adopted to investigate the correlation between SLS reactivity and positive patch test reactions. Men, patients aged ≥ 40 years and patients with an occupational dermatitis background were over-represented in the SLS-reactive group. Patients with an irritant reaction to SLS showed a higher proportion of weak positive reactions, as well as more questionable and irritant reactions to contact allergens than patients not reactive to SLS. The risk of an additional positive patch test reaction increased by 22% for SLS-reactive patients compared with those who were SLS negative. The marked association between SLS reactivity and the number of positive reactions in patch test patients may be due to nonspecific increased skin reactivity at the moment of patch testing only. However, increased SLS reactivity could also be due to longer-lasting enhanced skin irritability, which may have promoted (poly-)sensitization. Further studies, for example with longitudinal data on patients repeatedly patch tested with SLS and contact allergens, are necessary. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. The neural basis of attaining conscious awareness of sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan; Braden, B Blair; Chen, Kewei; Ponce, Francisco A; Lane, Richard D; Baxter, Leslie C

    2015-09-01

    The neural processes associated with becoming aware of sad mood are not fully understood. We examined the dynamic process of becoming aware of sad mood and recovery from sad mood. Sixteen healthy subjects underwent fMRI while participating in a sadness induction task designed to allow for variable mood induction times. Individualized regressors linearly modeled the time periods during the attainment of self-reported sad and baseline "neutral" mood states, and the validity of the linearity assumption was further tested using independent component analysis. During sadness induction the dorsomedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices, and anterior insula exhibited a linear increase in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal until subjects became aware of a sad mood and then a subsequent linear decrease as subjects transitioned from sadness back to the non-sadness baseline condition. These findings extend understanding of the neural basis of conscious emotional experience.

  1. Does lying in the recovery position increase the likelihood of not delivering cardiopulmonary resuscitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Tellado, Miguel; Navarro-Patón, Rubén; Pavón-Prieto, Maria Del Pilar; Fernández-López, Marta; Mateos-Lorenzo, Javier; López-Fórneas, Ivan

    2017-06-01

    Resuscitation guidelines endorse unconscious and normally breathing out-of-hospital victims to be placed in the recovery position to secure airway patency, but recently a debate has been opened as to whether the recovery position threatens the cardiac arrest victim's safety assessment and delays the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. To compare the assessment of the victim's breathing arrest while placed in the recovery position versus maintaining an open airway with the continuous head tilt and chin lift technique to know whether the recovery position delays the cardiac arrest victim's assessment and the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Basic life support-trained university students were randomly divided into two groups: one received a standardized cardiopulmonary resuscitation refresher course including the recovery position and the other received a modified cardiopulmonary resuscitation course using continuous head tilt and chin lift for unconscious and spontaneously breathing patients. A human simulation test to evaluate the victim's breathing assessment was performed a week later. In total, 59 participants with an average age of 21.9 years were included. Only 14 of 27 (51.85%) students in the recovery position group versus 23 of 28 (82.14%) in the head tilt and chin lift group p=0.006 (OR 6.571) detected breathing arrest within 2min. The recovery position hindered breathing assessment, delayed breathing arrest identification and the initiation of cardiac compressions, and significantly increased the likelihood of not starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation when compared to the results shown when the continuous head tilt and chin lift technique was used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Keiko; Kimura, Yurika; Matsuda, Yoko; Takahashi, Masatoki; Honjyou, Motomu; Arai, Tomio; Tsutsumi, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    High levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells were observed in tissue samples from ∼30% of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who satisfied the comprehensive diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease. Detection of increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses might not be sufficient to make a diagnosis of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis, and a comprehensive evaluation is required. This study aimed to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of IgG4-positive plasma cells in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. This study examined nasal mucosal specimens from 35 patients and assigned them to high-IgG4 and low-IgG4 groups based on infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. It compared the pathological characteristics of the two groups, including the presence of fibrosis, phlebitis, hyperplasia of the nasal glands and infiltration of inflammatory cells. No cases of chronic rhinosinusitis showed storiform fibrosis or obliterative phlebitis. The mean number of IgG4-positive plasma cells in samples from all patients was 29.8 ± 40.3/high-power field. Eleven of the 35 cases (31.4%) were classified as high-IgG4. Hyperplasia of the nasal glands was observed significantly more frequently in the high-IgG4 group than in the low-IgG4 group (p = .03).

  3. Be active and become happy: an ecological momentary assessment of physical activity and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanning, Martina; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    The positive effects of physical activity on mood are well documented in cross-sectional studies. To date there have been only a few studies analyzing within-subject covariance between physical activity and mood in everyday life. This study aims to close this gap using an ambulatory assessment of mood and physical activity. Thirteen participants completed a standardized diary over a 10-week period, resulting in 1,860 measurement points. Valence, energetic arousal, and calmness are the three subscales of mood that were assessed. Participants rated their mood promptly after self-selected activities. A multilevel analysis indicates that the three dimensions of mood were positively affected by episodes of physical activity, such as walking or gardening-valence: t(12) = 5.6, p affected by the individual baseline mood level, with the greatest effect seen when mood is depressed.

  4. The effects of alcohol on mood induced by an emotional film. A study among women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, M.A.L.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol on women's reactions to a negative mood-inducing stimulus. It is hypothesized that, like in men, alcohol also reduces tension or induces positive mood in women. In addition, we explored whether different mood states were

  5. The Path to Presence in Performance through Movement, Physiological Response, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preeshl, Artemis; George, Gwen; Hicks, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Presence may occur when actors are alert and relaxed in performance. A positive mood is associated with physical activity, but little is known about how movement qualities affect mood and vital signs of actors. This study examined the effects of vibratory, pendular, abrupt, and sustained movement qualities on the Brief Mood Introspection Scale,…

  6. Feeling bad, but satisfied : the effects of upward and downward comparison upon mood and marital satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, B.P.; Ybema, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    In a sample of 135 women from rural areas, the effects of social comparison with the marriage of another woman upon mood, identification and relationship evaluation were examined. Upward targets evoked a more positive mood, and a less negative mood than downward targets, while, in contrast, the

  7. Glancing up or down: Mood management and selective social comparisons on social networking sites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, B.K.; Knobloch-Westerwick, S.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) provide opportunities for mood management through selective exposure. This study tested the prediction that negative mood fosters self-enhancing social comparisons to SNS profiles. Participants were induced into positive or negative moods and then browsed manipulated

  8. Clinical, physical and lifestyle indicators and relationship with cognition and mood in aging: a cross-sectional analysis of distinct educational groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Correia Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function. Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educational groups categorized by the number of completed formal school years: less than 4, 4, completed primary education, and more than 4. Participants (n = 1051 were randomly selected from local health registries and representative of the Portuguese population for age and gender. Neurocognitive and clinical assessments were conducted in local health care centers. Structural equation modeling was used to derive a cognitive score, and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for each educational group. Education, age and depressed mood were significant variables in directly explaining the obtained cognitive score, while gender was found to be an indirect variable. In all educational groups, mood was the most significant factor with effect on cognitive performance. Specifically, a depressed mood led to lower cognitive performance. The clinical disease indices cardiac and stroke associated with a more negative mood, while moderate increases in BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity associated positively with improved mood and thus benefitted cognitive performance. Results warrant further research on the cause-effect (longitudinal relationship between clinical indices of disease and risk factors and mood and cognition throughout aging.

  9. Incidental mood state before dissonance induction affects attitude change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Amélie Martinie

    Full Text Available The way that incidental affect impacts attitude change brought about by controlled processes has so far been examined when the incidental affective state is generated after dissonance state induction. We therefore investigated attitude change when the incidental mood occurs prior to dissonance state induction. We expected a negative mood to induce systematic processing, and a positive mood to induce heuristic processing. Given that both systematic processing and attitude change are cognitively costly, we expected participants who experienced the dissonance state in a negative mood to have insufficient resources to allocate to attitude change. In our experiment, after mood induction (negative, neutral or positive, participants were divided into low-dissonance and high-dissonance groups. They then wrote a counterattitudinal essay. Analysis of their attitudes towards the essay topic indicated that attitude change did not occur in the negative incidental mood condition. Moreover, written productivity-one indicator of cognitive resource allocation-varied according to the type of incidental mood, and only predicted attitude change in the high-dissonance group. Our results suggest that incidental mood before dissonance induction influences the style of information processing and, by so doing, affects the extent of attitude change.

  10. Can reflecting on personal values online increase positive beliefs about counseling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannin, Daniel G; Vogel, David L; Heath, Patrick J

    2017-04-01

    This research developed and tested an online values-affirmation exercise to attenuate threat and enhance positive beliefs about counseling among individuals struggling with mental health concerns. There is evidence that reflecting on personal values (values-affirmation) is an effective approach to eliciting self-affirmation-a psychological process that temporarily bolsters self-worth in order to forestall maladaptive, self-protective responses to counseling information. The present study utilized a randomized 2-group between-subjects design to test the effectiveness of a values-affirmation exercise with an online sample (N = 186) of adults who reported struggling with a mental health concern. It was predicted that values-affirmation would reduce threat related to reading mental health information and increase positive beliefs about counseling. Results indicated that those in the values-affirmation condition reported fewer negative emotions such as feeling upset, irritable, hostile, and scared after reading mental health information, indicating that the information was perceived as less threatening. There was also evidence that engaging in values-affirmation was associated with greater anticipated growth in counseling and greater intent to seek counseling, reflecting greater positive beliefs about counseling. Overall, the results suggest that reflecting on personal values may have the potential to enhance the positive effects of online psychoeducation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Mood-dependent integration in discourse comprehension: happy and sad moods affect consistency processing via different brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Giovanna; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2014-12-01

    According to recent research on language comprehension, the semantic features of a text are not the only determinants of whether incoming information is understood as consistent. Listeners' pre-existing affective states play a crucial role as well. The current fMRI experiment examines the effects of happy and sad moods during comprehension of consistent and inconsistent story endings, focusing on brain regions previously linked to two integration processes: inconsistency detection, evident in stronger responses to inconsistent endings, and fluent processing (accumulation), evident in stronger responses to consistent endings. The analysis evaluated whether differences in the BOLD response for consistent and inconsistent story endings correlated with self-reported mood scores after a mood induction procedure. Mood strongly affected regions previously associated with inconsistency detection. Happy mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions specific for inconsistency detection (e.g., left IFG, left STS), whereas sad mood increased sensitivity to inconsistency in regions less specific for language processing (e.g., right med FG, right SFG). Mood affected more weakly regions involved in accumulation of information. These results show that mood can influence activity in areas mediating well-defined language processes, and highlight that integration is the result of context-dependent mechanisms. The finding that language comprehension can involve different networks depending on people's mood highlights the brain's ability to reorganize its functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychotherapeutical effects of stimulate positive connotation in the increase of forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fernando López Pell

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents different aspects that have been related to the aptitude to forgive, emphasizing its importance for the psychotherapeutic practice in order to promote an increase of such capacity. Existing empirical evidence tends to relate forgiveness to emotional, physical and psychological well-being of the persons, and shows that the way of providing sense to the experiences influences the process of forgiveness. An alternative to increase the aptitude to forgive is proposed and results of an experimental study with 60 patients demonstrate the psychotherapeutic effects of stimulating positive connotation in the increase of forgiveness. The independent variable was the type of psychotherapeutic approach applied and the dependant variables were measured with the Aptitude to Forgive Scale (CAPER that evaluates the general predisposition of a subject to forgive, across four independent constructs: a Self, b Others, c Situation, and d Beliefs.

  13. Positive family history of aortic dissection dramatically increases dissection risk in family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Guo; Chou, Alan S; Mok, Salvior C M; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Charilaou, Paris; Zafar, Mohammad A; Sieller, Richard S; Tranquilli, Maryann; Rizzo, John A; Elefteriades, John A

    2017-08-01

    Although family members of patients with aortic dissection (AoD) are believed to be at higher risk of AoD, the prognostic value of family history (FH) of aortic dissection (FHAD) in family members of patients with AoD has not been studied rigorously. We seek examine how much a positive FHAD increases the risk of developing new aortic dissection (AoD) among first-degree relatives. Patients with AoD at our institution were analyzed for information of FHAD. Positive FHAD referred to that AoD occurred in index patient and one or more first-degree relatives. Negative FHAD was defined as the condition in which only one case of AoD (the index patient) occurred in the family. The age at AoD, exposure years in adulthood before AoD, and annual probability of AoD among first-degree relatives were compared between patients with negative and positive FHADs. FHAD was positive in 32 and negative in 68 among the 100 AoD patients with detailed family history information. Mean age at dissection was 59.9±14.7years. Compared to negative FHAD, patients with positive FHAD dissected at significantly younger age (54.7±16.8 vs 62.4±13.0years, p=0.013), had more AoD events in first-degree relatives (2.3±0.6 vs 1.0±0.0, pfamily members, with a higher annual probability of aortic dissection, a shorter duration of "exposure time" before dissection occurs and a lower mean age at time of dissection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Caffeine effects on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, R S

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of the present research was to assess whether a psychoactive dose of caffeine would have differential affects on the mood dimensions of arousal versus feelings of pleasantness and whether these mood alterations would influence memory either by (1) the experience of arousal at learning and/or (2) altered and congruent mood states at learning and recall. To address these questions, the administration of 5 mg/kg caffeine or placebo at learning and retrieval sessions was manipulated and subjects' mood was evaluated by several different self-report measures. Sixteen words were incidentally studied during the learning session and memory was evaluated by the number of words correctly recalled at the retrieval session two days later. Results revealed that caffeine reliably increased arousal, but did not affect any emotion dimensions related to feelings of pleasure. Subjects who received caffeine at learning and retrieval were also in equivalent mood states at both sessions. Moreover, caffeine did not produce any effects on memory; thus, neither hypothesis concerning the influence of arousal on memory was supported. These data show that caffeine is a useful method for manipulating arousal in the laboratory without influencing feelings of pleasantness or learning and memory performance.

  15. Parkinson's disease motor subtypes and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, David J; Landau, Sabine; Hindle, John V; Samuel, Michael; Wilson, Kenneth C; Hurt, Catherine S; Brown, Richard G

    2012-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is heterogeneous, both in terms of motor symptoms and mood. Identifying associations between phenotypic variants of motor and mood subtypes may provide clues to understand mechanisms underlying mood disorder and symptoms in Parkinson's disease. A total of 513 patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and separately classified into anxious, depressed, and anxious-depressed mood classes based on latent class analysis of a semistructured interview. Motor subtypes assessed related to age-of-onset, rate of progression, presence of motor fluctuations, lateralization of motor symptoms, tremor dominance, and the presence of postural instability and gait symptoms and falls. The directions of observed associations tended to support previous findings with the exception of lateralization of symptoms, for which there were no consistent or significant results. Regression models examining a range of motor subtypes together indicated increased risk of anxiety in patients with younger age-of-onset and motor fluctuations. In contrast, depression was most strongly related to axial motor symptoms. Different risk factors were observed for depressed patients with and without anxiety, suggesting heterogeneity within Parkinson's disease depression. Such association data may suggest possible underlying common risk factors for motor subtype and mood. Combined with convergent evidence from other sources, possible mechanisms may include cholinergic system damage and white matter changes contributing to non-anxious depression in Parkinson's disease, while situational factors related to threat and unpredictability may contribute to the exacerbation and maintenance of anxiety in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Lateralized effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, A; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone Pascual, A

    1996-02-01

    We studied the effects of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of different scalp positions on mood. Ten normal volunteers rated themselves before and after rTMS on five analog scales labeled "Tristeza" (Sadness), "Ansiedad" (Anxiety), "Alegria" (Happiness), "Cansancio" (Tiredness), and "Dolor/Malestar" (Pain/Discomfort). rTMS was applied to the right lateral prefrontal, left prefrontal, or midline frontal cortex in trains of 5 seconds' duration at 10 Hz and 110% of the subject's motor threshold intensity. Each stimulation position received 10 trains separated by a 25-second pause. No clinically apparent mood changes were evoked by rTMS to any of the scalp positions in any subject. However, left prefrontal rTMS resulted in a significant increase in the Sadness ratings (Tristeza) and a significant decrease in the Happiness ratings ("Alegria") as compared with right prefrontal and midfrontal cortex stimulation. These results show differential effects of rTMS of left and right prefrontal cortex stimulation on mood and illustrate the lateralized control of mood in normal volunteers.

  17. Pinus contorta invasions increase wildfire fuel loads and may create a positive feedback with fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kimberley T; Maxwell, Bruce D; McWethy, David B; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñez, Martín A; Whitlock, Cathy

    2017-03-01

    Invasive plant species that have the potential to alter fire regimes have significant impacts on native ecosystems. Concern that pine invasions in the Southern Hemisphere will increase fire activity and severity and subsequently promote further pine invasion prompted us to examine the potential for feedbacks between Pinus contorta invasions and fire in Patagonia and New Zealand. We determined how fuel loads and fire effects were altered by P. contorta invasion. We also examined post-fire plant communities across invasion gradients at a subset of sites to assess how invasion alters the post-fire vegetation trajectory. We found that fuel loads and soil heating during simulated fire increase with increasing P. contorta invasion age or density at all sites. However, P. contorta density did not always increase post-fire. In the largest fire, P. contorta density only increased significantly post-fire where the pre-fire P. contorta density was above an invasion threshold. Below this threshold, P. contorta did not dominate after fire and plant communities responded to fire in a similar manner as uninvaded communities. The positive feedback observed at high densities is caused by the accumulation of fuel that in turn results in greater soil heating during fires and high P. contorta density post-fire. Therefore, a positive feedback may form between P. contorta invasions and fire, but only above an invasion density threshold. These results suggest that management of pine invasions before they reach the invasion density threshold is important for reducing fire risk and preventing a transition to an alternate ecosystem state dominated by pines and novel understory plant communities. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Mood And Decision-Making: A Diary Study Among Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, Marjan; Delden, Martijn

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this diary study with a three-month follow up among 67 business starters was to test the influence of positive and negative mood on self-reported decision effectiveness and goal attainment. Intrinsic motivation and scope of attention were included as possible mediating variables. Results of mixed linear model analyses showed a strong positive relationship between mood and motivation at the time of decision making. However, no relationship between motivation and deci...

  19. Increasing positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities through community service learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Janelle E; Cruz, Rebecca A; Knollman, Gregory A

    2017-10-01

    Providing equal-status contact between those with and without disabilities can improve attitudes and reduce discrimination toward individuals with disabilities. This study investigated community service learning as a means by which to provide college students with equal-status contact with individuals with disabilities and increase their positive attitudes toward those with disabilities. A total of 166 college students in one university in the United States enrolled in an Introduction to Disability course received content on disability in society and participated in community service involving 20h of direct contact with individuals with disabilities. Findings indicated that college students who had prior contact with individuals with disabilities had more positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities than college students who did not have prior contact at the start of the course. For the college students who did not have any prior contact, their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities became significantly more positive at the end of the community service learning course. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mood disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Botter Maio Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and treatment of mood disorders in children and adolescents has grown over the last decades. Major depression is one of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, imposing a massive burden to the youth population. Bipolar disorder is being increasingly recognized as having its roots early in life, and its presentation during childhood and adolescence has been submitted to extensive research. This review aims to highlight clinical aspects of the current knowledge on mood disorders in the pediatric population, presenting updated information on epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and management strategies. Limitations of available evidence and future directions of research in the field are also discussed.

  1. The effects of experimentally-induced sad and happy mood on sexual arousal in sexually healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Kuile, Moniek M; Both, Stephanie; van Uden, Janneke

    2010-03-01

    In depressed women, common sexual difficulties include decreased sexual desire, sexual arousal and orgasmic difficulties, reduced sexual satisfaction, and reduced sexual pleasure. Experimental research on the influence of depressed mood on genital and subjective sexual arousal in women is scarce. To investigate the effects of sad mood on genital and subjective sexual arousal in sexually healthy women, using a mood induction procedure. Thirty-two subjects received a sad mood and a happy mood induction, on two different days, using a within subjects design. The mood induction procedure was a combination of the Velten procedure and music. In the Velten procedure, the subject is asked to read sad or happy self-referent sentences and to experience the mood suggested by these sentences. Immediately following mood induction, the subjects were exposed to an erotic film clip. Genital arousal was assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography. Self-report ratings of sad and happy mood, subjective sexual arousal and affective reactions were collected before and after the erotic clip. The sad and happy mood ratings indicated that the mood inductions affected mood as intended. No difference in genital sexual arousal was found between the sad and happy mood conditions. Subjects reported significantly less subjective sexual arousal and positive affect and marginally significant fewer genital sensations and more negative affect in the sad mood condition than in the happy mood condition. The results provide empirical support for the idea that mood can impact on subjective sexual arousal in women.

  2. Social Identity in People with Multiple Sclerosis: An Examination of Family Identity and Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alex B; Lincoln, Nadina B; Hunt, Nigel; dasNair, Roshan

    2018-01-01

    Mood disorders are highly prevalent in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). MS causes changes to a person's sense of self. The Social Identity Model of Identity Change posits that group membership can have a positive effect on mood during identity change. The family is a social group implicated in adjustment to MS. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether family identity can predict mood in people with MS and to test whether this prediction was mediated by social support and connectedness to others. This cross-sectional survey of 195 participants comprised measures of family identity, family social support, connectedness to others, and mood. Family identity predicted mood both directly and indirectly through parallel mediators of family social support and connectedness to others. Family identity predicted mood as posited by the Social Identity Model of Identity Change. Involving the family in adjustment to MS could reduce low mood.

  3. A positive feedback-based gene circuit to increase the production of a membrane protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennis Robert B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins are an important class of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes, and are a promising target in pharmaceutical development. However, membrane proteins are often difficult to produce in large quantities for the purpose of crystallographic or biochemical analyses. Results In this paper, we demonstrate that synthetic gene circuits designed specifically to overexpress certain genes can be applied to manipulate the expression kinetics of a model membrane protein, cytochrome bd quinol oxidase in E. coli, resulting in increased expression rates. The synthetic circuit involved is an engineered, autoinducer-independent variant of the lux operon activator LuxR from V. fischeri in an autoregulatory, positive feedback configuration. Conclusions Our proof-of-concept experiments indicate a statistically significant increase in the rate of production of the bd oxidase membrane protein. Synthetic gene networks provide a feasible solution for the problem of membrane protein production.

  4. Are there age differences in attention to emotional images following a sad mood induction? Evidence from a free-viewing eye-tracking paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Calandra; Belchev, Zorry; Fernandez, Amanda; Korol, Stephanie; Sears, Christopher

    2017-10-30

    Two experiments examined age differences in the effect of a sad mood induction (MI) on attention to emotional images. Younger and older adults viewed sets of four images while their eye gaze was tracked throughout an 8-s presentation. Images were viewed before and after a sad MI to assess the effect of a sad mood on attention to positive and negative scenes. Younger and older adults exhibited positively biased attention after the sad MI, significantly increasing their attention to positive images, with no evidence of an age difference in either experiment. A test of participants' recognition memory for the images indicated that the sad MI reduced memory accuracy for sad images for younger and older adults. The results suggest that heightened attention to positive images following a sad MI reflects an affect regulation strategy related to mood repair. The implications for theories of the positivity effect are discussed.

  5. Increased numbers of P63-positive/CD117-positive cells in advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma give a poorer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Quan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study consisted of two parts. One part was to analyze the survival rates of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC in Chinese and explain the difference between our data and the literature. The other was to analyze the relationship between the expression of CD117 and the histological grade and the prognosis. Methods A retrospective study of 80 ACC patients was performed. Clinical data were collected, and p63, CD117 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results Eighty patients received follow-ups 3 to 216 months after initial diagnosis. ACC occurred in the lacrimal gland (26.3%, n = 21, nasal cavity and parasinus (33.8%, n = 27 and other sites (40.0%, n = 33. The 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 66.41% and 10.16%, respectively. Over expression of CD117 was detected in p63-negative cells in 94.3% of cases and in p63-positive cells in 45.8%. The expression of CD117 in p63-positive cells was significantly associated with the histological grade (P Conclusions ACC had a good 5-year survival but poor 10-year survival in Chinese, which differed from the occidental data. More p63+/CD117+ cells were associated with a higher histological grade and poorer outcome. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1701457278762097

  6. Increased sensitivity to positive social stimuli in monozygotic twins at risk of bipolar vs. unipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kærsgaard, S; Meluken, I; Kessing, L V; Vinberg, M; Miskowiak, K W

    2018-05-01

    Abnormalities in affective cognition are putative endophenotypes for bipolar and unipolar disorders but it is unclear whether some abnormalities are disorder-specific. We therefore investigated affective cognition in monozygotic twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder relative to those at risk of unipolar disorder and to low-risk twins. Seventy monozygotic twins with a co-twin history of bipolar disorder (n = 11), of unipolar disorder (n = 38) or without co-twin history of affective disorder (n = 21) were included. Variables of interest were recognition of and vigilance to emotional faces, emotional reactivity and -regulation in social scenarios and non-affective cognition. Twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder showed increased recognition of low to moderate intensity of happy facial expressions relative to both unipolar disorder high-risk twins and low-risk twins. Bipolar disorder high-risk twins also displayed supraliminal attentional avoidance of happy faces compared with unipolar disorder high-risk twins and greater emotional reactivity in positive and neutral social scenarios and less reactivity in negative social scenarios than low-risk twins. In contrast with our hypothesis, there was no negative bias in unipolar disorder high-risk twins. There were no differences between the groups in demographic characteristics or non-affective cognition. The modest sample size limited the statistical power of the study. Increased sensitivity and reactivity to positive social stimuli may be a neurocognitive endophenotype that is specific for bipolar disorder. If replicated in larger samples, this 'positive endophenotype' could potentially aid future diagnostic differentiation between unipolar and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Depressed Mood and Drinking Occasions across High School: Comparing the Reciprocal Causal Structures of a Panel of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Timothy J.; Shippee, Nathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Does adolescent depressed mood portend increased or decreased drinking? Is frequent drinking positively or negatively associated with emotional well-being? Do the dynamic relations between depression and drinking differ by gender? Using block-recursive structural equation models, we explore the reciprocal short-term effects (within time, "t") and…

  8. Mood congruity and episodic memory in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Joan; Burke, Deborah M

    2016-02-01

    Although mood congruity effects on episodic memory have been reported extensively in adults, they have not been reported for children younger than 10 years. The current research investigated mood congruity effects in story recall using an embodied approach to mood induction involving a facial manipulation task with 3- and 4-year-old children. Participants held a chopstick or a popsicle stick in their mouths in a way to either produce or inhibit a smile while they listened to a story featuring happy events for a happy character and sad events for a sad character. Children's mood ratings before and after mood induction indicated that mood became more positive in the smile condition, with no change in the no smile condition. Children in the smile condition, but not in the no smile condition, remembered more about the happy character than the sad character in the story. These results extend mood congruity effects to 3- and 4-year olds, suggesting that at this age representations of emotion interact with basic memory processes. Moreover, the efficacy of reenactment of sensorimotor components of emotion in modifying mood is consistent with embodied representation of emotion during early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. PREFERRED MODALITY INFLUENCES ON EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested, both retrospectively and prospectively, exercise-induced mood changes among regular exercisers. Specifically, it examined the extent to which preferred exercise modality promoted greater mood benefits. A group of 25 exercise participants (M = 35.5 yr., SD = 10.5 yr. took part in the study. All participants had exercised at least three times a week (M = 3.5, SD = 2.3 during the previous year. Participants completed a 14-item Exercise Preference Questionnaire to provide retrospective evaluations of their most- and least-preferred type of exercise. For the prospective investigation, participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS 15 minutes before and immediately after their most- and least-preferred exercise sessions. One week separated completion of each exercise session. Retrospective assessment of exercise-induced mood changes showed strong support for enhanced mood following the preferred mode of exercise. Also, as hypothesized, prospective results showed that mood enhancement was greater following the preferred exercise modality, but significant mood enhancement also occurred following the least-preferred modality among experienced exercisers. In conclusions, findings support the principle that exercise can provide psychological benefits to its participants, in the form of positive affective outcomes, something that appears to be enhanced by preferred exercise modality. Given the important public health implications of exercise adherence, future research should seek to further investigate the mechanisms of exercise-induced mood enhancement

  10. Exercise performed at hypoxia influences mood state and anxiety symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Tavares de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During hypoxia conditions, psychological states can be worsened. However, little information is available regarding the effect of physical exercise performed in hypoxia conditions on mood state and anxiety symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the acute effect of moderate physical exercise performed at hypoxia on mood states and anxiety symptoms in healthy young subjects. Ten volunteers were subjected to the following conditions: a normoxic condition (NC and a hypoxic condition (HC. They performed 45 min of physical exercise. Their anxiety symptoms and mood states were evaluated at the initial time point as well as immediately following and 30 and 60 min after the exercise session. Our results showed a significant increase in post-exercise anxiety symptoms and a significant decrease in mood scores immediately after and 30 min after exercise performed in the HC. Moderate physical activity performed at hypoxia condition increased post-exercise anxiety and worsened mood state.

  11. Mood and its association with metabolic health in adolescents: a longitudinal study, EarlyBird 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alison N; Hyland, Michael E; Hosking, Joanne; Wilkin, Terence J

    2014-12-01

    Mood comprises two main traits - positive and negative affect, both associated with depression and anxiety. Studies in children have linked depression with obesity, but the association with metabolic health is unclear. To explore the relationship between mood and metabolic health in adolescents. We studied 208 healthy children (115 boys) enrolled in the longitudinal EarlyBird Diabetes Study, and reviewed at 7 and 16 yr. Participants completed the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule - Child Form (PANAS-C) at 16yr to assess positive and negative affect, together representing mood. Measures at 7 and 16 yr: body mass index (BMI), fat (%; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical activity (accelerometer), metabolic risk z-score comprising homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides, total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio and blood pressure. Pubertal development was determined by age at peak height velocity. Positive affect was higher in boys than girls, (50 vs. 46, p = 0.001), negative affect higher in girls than boys (26 vs. 22, p active (r = 0.20, p = 0.003) and had earlier pubertal development (r = 0.19, p = 0.004). Inverse associations between mood and metabolic risk z-score and change in metabolic risk z-score 7-16yr (β = -0.26, p = 0.006, and -0.40, p = 0.004, respectively) were independent of adiposity, physical activity and puberty and sex. Low mood in healthy children is associated with poorer metabolic health independently of adiposity. These findings may have implications for the physical and mental health of contemporary youngsters, given their increasing obesity and cardiometabolic risk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Emotions, Mood and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes Virlics

    2014-01-01

    Decisions are made according to a complex cognitive and emotional evaluation of the situation. The aim of the paper is to examine the effect of mood on risky investment decision making by using a mood induction procedure. The paper investigates how happy and sad mood affects risky investment decision making and whether there is a difference between the perception of fix investments and monetary investments. The analysis has been conducted focusing on individual investment decisions. Data for ...

  13. Enrichment methodology to increase the positivity of cultures from body fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Valle Daur

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of etiological agents found in body fluids can be of critical importance for the recovery of patients suffering from potentially-severe infections, which are often followed by serious sequels. Eighty-two samples of different body fluids were analyzed using two different methods: (1 the conventional culture method (agar plating and (2 the enrichment culture technique, using the Bact/Alert® blood culture bottle. The number of positive cultures increased on average from 9.7% to 23.1% with the enrichment culture technique. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were the most frequently isolated bacteria. The enrichment method could provide a more accurate means the identifying etiological agents.

  14. Mood induction in depressive patients: a comparative multidimensional approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Falkenberg

    Full Text Available Anhedonia, reduced positive affect and enhanced negative affect are integral characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD. Emotion dysregulation, e.g. in terms of different emotion processing deficits, has consistently been reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate mood changes in depressive patients using a multidimensional approach for the measurement of emotional reactivity to mood induction procedures. Experimentally, mood states can be altered using various mood induction procedures. The present study aimed at validating two different positive mood induction procedures in patients with MDD and investigating which procedure is more effective and applicable in detecting dysfunctions in MDD. The first procedure relied on the presentation of happy vs. neutral faces, while the second used funny vs. neutral cartoons. Emotional reactivity was assessed in 16 depressed and 16 healthy subjects using self-report measures, measurements of electrodermal activity and standardized analyses of facial responses. Positive mood induction was successful in both procedures according to subjective ratings in patients and controls. In the cartoon condition, however, a discrepancy between reduced facial activity and concurrently enhanced autonomous reactivity was found in patients. Relying on a multidimensional assessment technique, a more comprehensive estimate of dysfunctions in emotional reactivity in MDD was available than by self-report measures alone and this was unsheathed especially by the mood induction procedure relying on cartoons. The divergent facial and autonomic responses in the presence of unaffected subjective reactivity suggest an underlying deficit in the patients' ability to express the felt arousal to funny cartoons. Our results encourage the application of both procedures in functional imaging studies for investigating the neural substrates of emotion dysregulation in MDD patients. Mood induction via cartoons appears to

  15. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment increases bronchial reactivity in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczynski, Piotr; Gorska, Katarzyna; Przybylowski, Tadeusz; Bielicki, Piotr; Zielinski, Jan; Chazan, Ryszarda

    2009-01-01

    The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on the function of the lower airways are poorly understood. One of the methods used to determine the influence of positive pressure breathing on lower airways is the bronchial hyperreactivity test. Some authors report that CPAP increases bronchial hyperreactivity, while others report decreases. To assess the influence of CPAP treatment on bronchial reactivity and the effects of bronchial hyperreactivity on compliance to CPAP treatment. The study group consisted of 101 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (88 men and 13 women) with a mean age of 51 ± 11 years, mean apnea-hypopnea index of 53 ± 20 and mean body mass index of 32.6 ± 5.4. Patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group that received 3 weeks of CPAP therapy (group 1) or to a nontreatment control group (group 2). Pulmonary function tests and the methacholine bronchial provocation test were performed at baseline and 3 weeks later. There were no statistically significant differences between treated and control groups in anthropometry and polysomnography variables. At baseline, bronchial hyperreactivity was found in 6 patients from group 1 and 5 patients from group 2. A significant increase in bronchial reactivity was observed after CPAP treatment. Log PC20M decreased from 1.38 ± 0.30 at baseline to 1.26 ± 0.50 (p bronchial hyperreactivity during CPAP treatment were characterized by significantly lower FEV1, FVC and MEF50 values. CPAP produces statistically significant bronchial hyperreactivity. However, there were no clinical symptoms and it is not necessary to withdraw previous therapies. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effects of changes in water intake on mood of high and low drinkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pross

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a change in water intake on mood and sensation in 22 habitual high-volume (HIGH; 2-4 L/d and 30 low-volume (LOW; <1.2 L/d drinkers who were asked to respectively decrease and increase their daily water intake. METHOD: During baseline HIGH consumed 2.5 L and LOW 1 L of water/day. During 3 controlled intervention days HIGH's water intake was restricted to 1 L/day whereas LOW's was increased to 2.5 L water/day. Several mood scales (Bond & Lader Visual Analog Scale (VAS, Profile of Mood States, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Thirst & Emotional VAS were administered at different time points during the study. ANOVA including intervention, time point and intervention by time point as fixed effects on mean values (i.e.; baseline data vs. mean of 3 intervention days for each mood scale was performed. RESULTS: At baseline HIGH and LOW were comparable in mood state, except for thirst scores (estimate = 17.16, p<0.001 and POMS depression-dejection scores (estimate = 0.55, p<0.05 which were both higher in the HIGH vs. LOW. In HIGH the restricted water intake resulted in a significant increase in thirst (p<0.001 and a decrease in contentedness (p<0.05, calmness (p<0.01, positive emotions (p<0.05 and vigor/activity (p<0.001. In LOW, increased water consumption resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue/inertia (p<0.001, confusion/bewilderment (p = 0.05 and thirst (p<0.001 and a trend to lower sleepiness (p = 0.07 compared to baseline. CONCLUSION: Increasing water intake has beneficial effects in LOW, especially sleep/wake feelings, whereas decreasing water intake has detrimental effects on HIGH's mood. These deleterious effects in HIGH were observed in some sleep/wake moods as well as calmness, satisfaction and positive emotions.

  17. Directing physiology and mood with music : validation of an affective music player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaag, van der M.D.; Janssen, J.H.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Music is important in everyday life, as it provides entertainment and influences our moods. As music is widely available, it is becoming increasingly difficult to select songs to suit our mood. An affective music player can remove this obstacle by taking a desired mood as input and then selecting

  18. Familial risk for mood disorder and the personality risk factor, neuroticism, interact in their association with frontolimbic serotonin 2A receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Vibe Gedsø; Vinberg, Maj; Erritzoe, David

    2010-01-01

    Life stress is a robust risk factor for later development of mood disorders, particularly for individuals at familial risk. Likewise, scoring high on the personality trait neuroticism is associated with an increased risk for mood disorders. Neuroticism partly reflects stress vulnerability...... stress reactivity in individuals at high familial risk for mood disorders might enhance the effect of neuroticism in shaping the impact of potential environmental stress and thereby influence serotonergic neurotransmission....... and is positively correlated to frontolimbic serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor binding. Here, we investigate whether neuroticism interacts with familial risk in relation to frontolimbic 5-HT(2A) receptor binding. Twenty-one healthy twins with a co-twin history of mood disorder and 16 healthy twins without a co...

  19. Physical exercise ameliorates mood disorder-like behavior on high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sang; Lee, Jae-Min; Cho, Han-Sam; Park, Sang-Seo; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is associated with mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treadmill exercise had any benefits on mood disorder by high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, control and exercise, high fat diet (HFD), and HFD and exercise. Obesity was induced by a 20-week HFD (60%). In the exercise groups, exercise was performed 6 times a week for 12 weeks, with the exercise duration and intensity gradually increasing at 4-week intervals. Mice were tested in tail suspension and elevated plus maze tasks in order to verify the mood disorder like behavior such as depression and anxiety on obesity. In the present study, the number of 5-HT- and TPH-positive cells, and expression of 5-HT 1A and 5-HTT protein decreased in dorsal raphe, and depression and anxiety like behavior increased in HFD group compared with the CON group. In contrast, treadmill exercise ameliorated mood disorder like behavior by HFD induced obesity and enhanced expression of the serotonergic system in the dorsal raphe. We concluded that exercise increases the capacity of the serotonergic system in the dorsal raphe, which improves the mood disorders associated with HFD-induced obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Working memory load reduces the late positive potential and this effect is attenuated with increasing anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Ferri, Jamie; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-09-01

    Emotion regulation decreases the processing of arousing stimuli, as indexed by the late positive potential (LPP), an electrocortical component that varies in amplitude with emotional arousal. Emotion regulation increases activity in the prefrontal areas associated with cognitive control, including the dosolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The present study manipulated working memory load, known to activate the DLPFC, and recorded the LPP elicited by aversive and neutral IAPS pictures presented during the retention interval. The LPP was larger on low-load compared to high-load trials, and on trials with aversive compared to neutral pictures. These LPP data suggest that emotional content and working memory load have opposing effects on attention to distracting stimuli. State anxiety was associated with reduced modulation of the LPP by working memory load. Results are discussed in terms of competition for attention between emotion and cognition and suggest a relationship between DLPFC activation and the allocation of attentional resources to distracting visual stimuli-a relationship that may be disrupted with increasing anxiety.

  1. Increased airway reactivity in a neonatal mouse model of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Catherine A.; Martin, Richard J.; MacFarlane, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a primary form of respiratory support used in the intensive care of preterm infants, but its long-term effects on airway (AW) function are unknown. Methods We developed a neonatal mouse model of CPAP treatment to determine whether it modifies later AW reactivity. Un-anesthetized spontaneously breathing mice were fitted with a mask to deliver CPAP (6cmH2O, 3hrs/day) for 7 consecutive days starting at postnatal day 1. Airway reactivity to methacholine was assessed using the in vitro living lung slice preparation. Results One week of CPAP increased AW responsiveness to methacholine in male, but not female mice, compared to untreated control animals. The AW hyper-reactivity of male mice persisted for 2 weeks (at P21) after CPAP treatment ended. 4 days of CPAP, however, did not significantly increase AW reactivity. Females also exhibited AW hyper-reactivity at P21, suggesting a delayed response to early (7 days) CPAP treatment. The effects of 7 days of CPAP on hyper-reactivity to methacholine were unique to smaller AWs whereas larger ones were relatively unaffected. Conclusion These data may be important to our understanding of the potential long-term consequences of neonatal CPAP therapy used in the intensive care of preterm infants. PMID:25950451

  2. Baboons' response speed is biased by their moods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri Marzouki

    Full Text Available The affect-as-information hypothesis (e.g., Schwarz & Clore, 2003, predicts that the positive or negative valence of our mood differentially affects our processing of the details of the environment. However, this hypothesis has only been tested with mood induction procedures and fairly complex cognitive tasks in humans. Here, six baboons (Papio papio living in a social group had free access to a computerized visual search task on which they were over-trained. Trials that immediately followed a spontaneously expressed emotional behavior were analyzed, ruling out possible biases due to induction procedures. RTs following negatively valenced behaviors are slower than those following neutral and positively valenced behaviors, respectively. Thus, moods affect the performance of nonhuman primates tested in highly automatized tasks, as it does in humans during tasks with much higher cognitive demands. These findings reveal a presumably universal and adaptive mechanism by which moods influence performance in various ecological contexts.

  3. PERSONALITY DOES NOT INFLUENCE EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD ENHANCEMENT AMONG FEMALE EXERCISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25, stable extroverts (n = 20, neurotic introverts (n = 26, and neurotic extroverts (n = 19. Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood

  4. Dimensions in Expressed Music Mood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinker, A.C. den; Van Dinther, C.H.B.A.; Skowronek, J.

    2013-01-01

    Mood is an important aspect of music and knowledge on mood can be used as a basic ingredient in music recommender and retrieval systems.A music experiment was carried out establishing ratings for variousmoods and a number of attributes like valence and arousal. The analysis of these data is

  5. Mood disorders and season ofpresentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Srarisrical Manual of Menral Disorders (DSM-III-R)), were looked at, and no attempt was made to delineate the occurrence of specific mood disorders. Reviewing publications on the association between season and its impact on mood, the findings are generally inconsistent but highly suggestive of an association.' However ...

  6. Does nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy increase the risk of positive surgical margins and biochemical progression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhateeb Sultan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the introduction of nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP, there have been concerns about the increased risks of positive surgical margins (PSM and biochemical progression (BP. We examined the relationship of NSRP with PSM and BP using a large, mature dataset. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer at our center between 1997 and 2008 were identified. Patients who received neoadjuvant therapy were excluded. We examined the relation of NSRP to the rate of PSM and BP in univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for clinical and pathological variables including age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels and doubling time, and pathological stage and grade. Results: In total, 856 patients were included, 70.9% underwent NSRP and 29.1% had non-NSRP. PSM rates were 13.5% in the NSRP group compared to 17.7% in non-NSRP (P=0.11. In a multivariate analysis, non-NSRP was preformed in patients with a higher pathological stage (HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.25-3.04, P=0.003 and a higher baseline PSA level (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, P=0.005. With a median follow-up of 41 months, BP-free survival was 88% for non-NSRP compared to 92% for the NSRP group (log rank P=0.018; this difference was not significant in a multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.28-1.06, P=0.09. Conclusion: When used in properly selected patients, NSRP does not seem to increase the risk of PSM and disease progression. The most effective way of resolving this issue is through a randomized clinical trial; however, such a trial is not feasible.

  7. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  8. Breast cancer risk is increased in the years following false-positive breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Mathijs C; De Brabander, Isabel; De Greve, Jacques; Vaes, Evelien; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Van Herck, Koen; Kellen, Eliane

    2017-09-01

    A small number of studies have investigated breast cancer (BC) risk among women with a history of false-positive recall (FPR) in BC screening, but none of them has used time-to-event analysis while at the same time quantifying the effect of false-negative diagnostic assessment (FNDA). FNDA occurs when screening detects BC, but this BC is missed on diagnostic assessment (DA). As a result of FNDA, screenings that detected cancer are incorrectly classified as FPR. Our study linked data recorded in the Flemish BC screening program (women aged 50-69 years) to data from the national cancer registry. We used Cox proportional hazards models on a retrospective cohort of 298 738 women to assess the association between FPR and subsequent BC, while adjusting for potential confounders. The mean follow-up was 6.9 years. Compared with women without recall, women with a history of FPR were at an increased risk of developing BC [hazard ratio=2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.92-2.31)]. However, 22% of BC after FPR was due to FNDA. The hazard ratio dropped to 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.52-1.87) when FNDA was excluded. Women with FPR have a subsequently increased BC risk compared with women without recall. The risk is higher for women who have a FPR BI-RADS 4 or 5 compared with FPR BI-RADS 3. There is room for improvement of diagnostic assessment: 41% of the excess risk is explained by FNDA after baseline screening.

  9. Mood Dependent Music Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Music is one of the most expressive media to show and manipulate emotions, but there have been few studies on how to generate music connected to emotions. Such studies have always been shunned upon by musicians affirming that a machine cannot create expressive music, as it's the composer......'s and player's experiences and emotions that get poured into the piece. At the same time another problem is that music is highly complicated (and subjective) and finding out which elements transmit certain emotions is not an easy task. This demo wants to show how the manipulation of a set of features can...... actually change the mood the music transmits, hopefully awakening an interest in this area of research....

  10. Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases cranial spread of sensory blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection of lidocaine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.; Eerd, M.J. van; Seventer, R. van; Gielen, M.J.M.; Giele, J.L.P.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) increases the caudad spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine. We hypothesized that CPAP would increase cephalad spread of blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection. METHODS: Twenty patients with an

  11. Increasing the bit rate in OCDMA systems using pulse position modulation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Vahid R; Saghari, Poorya; Haghi, Mahta; Ebrahimi, Paniz; Willner, Alan E

    2007-09-17

    We have experimentally demonstrated two novel pulse position modulation techniques, namely Double Pulse Position Modulation (2-PPM) and Differential Pulse Position Modulation (DPPM) in Time-Wavelength OCDMA systems that will operate at a higher bit rate compared to traditional OOK-OCDMA systems with the same bandwidth. With 2-PPM technique, the number of active users will be more than DPPM while their bit rate is almost the same. Both techniques provide variable quality of service in OCDMA networks.

  12. Eyes on the prize or nose to the grindstone? The effects of level of goal evaluation on mood and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser-Marko, Linda; Sheldon, Kennon M

    2008-11-01

    These studies tested the hypothesis that evaluating goal feedback in terms of a primary, longer term goal can be risky for future motivation. Study 1 was a 2 x 2 experiment in which framing level (primary goal/subgoal) and feedback valence (success/failure) were manipulated for participants during a verbal skills task. In the primary goal failure condition, there was increased negative mood and decreased positive mood and expectancy for subsequent trials, even while controlling for goal difficulty and importance. Study 2 was an 8-week study throughout which participants were asked to evaluate their progress regarding a primary goal (class grade goal) or subgoal (weekly study hours goal), and success or failure varied naturally. When progress was lacking, participants in the primary goal condition experienced the largest decreases in mood and expectancy. These results suggest that it is optimal to evaluate goal progress at the lower, subgoal level, particularly after failure feedback.

  13. [Negative bias on self-referent processing in depression: focused on mood congruent effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Kyoko

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate negative bias on self-referent processing in depression, focused on the mood congruent effects in a natural depressed state and an experimentally induced transient depressed mood state. In Experiment 1, autobiographical memories and self-relevant ratings of personality trait words were examined in a natural depressed state or non-depressed state, which were measured by Beck Depression Inventory. Results revealed the mood congruent effects on both tasks. In Experiment 2, the same tasks as Experiment 1 were conducted in a transient depressed mood state or non-depressed mood state, which were induced through listening music. Unlike Experiment 1, there were no effects in both tasks, and a positive bias was observed in both mood states. It was suggested that transient mood state did not bias self-referent processing in depression, and Beck's schema hypothesis was supported.

  14. A novel concurrent pictorial choice model of mood-induced relapse in hazardous drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lorna; Hogarth, Lee

    2017-12-01

    This study tested whether a novel concurrent pictorial choice procedure, inspired by animal self-administration models, is sensitive to the motivational effect of negative mood induction on alcohol-seeking in hazardous drinkers. Forty-eight hazardous drinkers (scoring ≥7 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Inventory) recruited from the community completed measures of alcohol dependence, depression, and drinking coping motives. Baseline alcohol-seeking was measured by percent choice to enlarge alcohol- versus food-related thumbnail images in two alternative forced-choice trials. Negative and positive mood was then induced in succession by means of self-referential affective statements and music, and percent alcohol choice was measured after each induction in the same way as baseline. Baseline alcohol choice correlated with alcohol dependence severity, r = .42, p = .003, drinking coping motives (in two questionnaires, r = .33, p = .02 and r = .46, p = .001), and depression symptoms, r = .31, p = .03. Alcohol choice was increased by negative mood over baseline (p choice was not related to gender, alcohol dependence, drinking to cope, or depression symptoms (ps ≥ .37). The concurrent pictorial choice measure is a sensitive index of the relative value of alcohol, and provides an accessible experimental model to study negative mood-induced relapse mechanisms in hazardous drinkers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Interactions between mood and the structure of semantic memory: event-related potentials evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; del Re, Elisabetta; Nestor, Paul G; McCarley, Robert W; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2013-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that affect acts as modulator of cognitive processes and in particular that induced mood has an effect on the way semantic memory is used on-line. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine affective modulation of semantic information processing under three different moods: neutral, positive and negative. Fifteen subjects read 324 pairs of sentences, after mood induction procedure with 30 pictures of neutral, 30 pictures of positive and 30 pictures of neutral valence: 108 sentences were read in each mood induction condition. Sentences ended with three word types: expected words, within-category violations, and between-category violations. N400 amplitude was measured to the three word types under each mood induction condition. Under neutral mood, a congruency (more negative N400 amplitude for unexpected relative to expected endings) and a category effect (more negative N400 amplitude for between- than to within-category violations) were observed. Also, results showed differences in N400 amplitude for both within- and between-category violations as a function of mood: while positive mood tended to facilitate the integration of unexpected but related items, negative mood made their integration as difficult as unexpected and unrelated items. These findings suggest the differential impact of mood on access to long-term semantic memory during sentence comprehension.

  16. Helminths and skewed cytokine profiles increase tuberculin skin test positivity in Warao Amerindians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L. M.; Hermans, P. W. M.; Warris, A.; de Groot, R.; Maes, M.; Villalba, J. A.; del Nogal, B.; van den Hof, S.; Mughini Gras, L.; van Soolingen, D.; Pinelli, E.; de Waard, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The immune regulatory mechanisms involved in the acquisition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children are largely unknown. We investigated the influence of parasitic infections, malnutrition and plasma cytokine profiles on tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity in Warao Amerindians in

  17. Cases requiring increased number of repositioning maneuvers in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Mukadder; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a clinical syndrome that is proposed to be caused by dislocated utricular debris into semicircular canals. Although the majority of patients are treated by one or two repositioning maneuvers, some of the patients need repeated maneuvers for relief. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the factors associated with patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who required multiple repositioning proced...

  18. How are mood and exercise related? Results from the Finnmark study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, H; Søgaard, A J; Olstad, R

    2001-07-01

    Recreational exercise and mood have frequently been correlated in population studies. Although it is often assumed that recreational exercise improves mood, this has not been consistently demonstrated in population studies. The relationship between mood and exercise was studied prospectively in a community sample. A series of synchronous panel models was constructed in two samples (2798 paired observations; sample I = 1219, sample II = 1498) to examine this relationship in the entire population, for women and men separately, for those with sedentary occupations, for those performing physical labour, and for those who initially showed a more dysphoric mood. Although mood and exercise were correlated, the only directional relationship that could be demonstrated was that recreational exercise had an inconsistently positive effect upon mood in those with sedentary occupations. There was no such relationship between doing physical work and mood. Analyses of those who initially showed higher levels of dysphoria did not uncover any directional relationship between mood and exercise. None of the other subgroups showed any directional effects between mood and recreational exercise, nor did the population as a whole. The relationship between exercise and mood in this population sample appears to be largely correlational in nature. This result suggests the need to take a cautious view of the role played by exercise in promoting mood in the general population.

  19. Social Anxiety Disorder and Mood Disorders Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Binbay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Social Anxiety Disorder is a common disorder leading functional impairment. The comorbidity between mood disorders with social anxiety disorder is relatively common. This comorbidity impacts the clinical severity, resistance and functionality of patients. The systematic evaluation of the comorbidity in both patient groups should not be ignored and be carefully conducted. In general, social anxiety disorder starts at an earlier age than mood disorders and is reported to be predictor for subsequent major depression. The absence of comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder is a predictor of good response to treatment. In bipolar disorder patients with comorbid social anxiety disorder, there is an increased level of general psychopathology. Besides, they have poor outcome and increased risk of suicide. In this article, comorbidity between these two disorders has been evaluated in detail.

  20. "I'm worth more than that": trait positivity predicts increased rejection of unfair financial offers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby D Dunn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans react strongly to unfairness, sometimes rejecting inequitable proposals even if this sacrifices personal financial gain. Here we explored whether emotional dispositions--trait tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings--shape the rejection of unfair financial offers. Participants played an Ultimatum Game, where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Individuals high in trait positivity and low in trait negativity rejected more unfair offers. These relationships could not be explained by existing accounts which argue that rejection behaviour results from a failure to regulate negative emotions, or serves to arbitrate social relationships and identity. Instead, the relationship between dispositional affect and rejection behaviour may be underpinned by perceived self worth, with those of a positive disposition believing that they are "worth more than that" and those of a negative disposition resigning themselves to "taking the crumbs from under the table".

  1. "I'm worth more than that": trait positivity predicts increased rejection of unfair financial offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Barnaby D; Makarova, Dasha; Evans, David; Clark, Luke

    2010-12-08

    Humans react strongly to unfairness, sometimes rejecting inequitable proposals even if this sacrifices personal financial gain. Here we explored whether emotional dispositions--trait tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings--shape the rejection of unfair financial offers. Participants played an Ultimatum Game, where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Individuals high in trait positivity and low in trait negativity rejected more unfair offers. These relationships could not be explained by existing accounts which argue that rejection behaviour results from a failure to regulate negative emotions, or serves to arbitrate social relationships and identity. Instead, the relationship between dispositional affect and rejection behaviour may be underpinned by perceived self worth, with those of a positive disposition believing that they are "worth more than that" and those of a negative disposition resigning themselves to "taking the crumbs from under the table".

  2. Play Practices and Play Moods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop a view of play as a relation between play practices and play moods based on an empirical study of children's everyday life and by using Bateson's term of ‘framing’ [(1955/2001). In Steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 75–80). Chicago: University of Chicago Press......], Schmidt's notion of ‘commonness’ [(2005). Om respekten. København: Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitets Forlag; (2011). On respect. Copenhagen: Danish School of Education University Press] and Heidegger's term ‘mood’ [(1938/1996). Time and being. Cornwall: Wiley-Blackwell.]. Play mood is a state of being...... in which we are open and ready, both to others and their production of meaning and to new opportunities for producing meaning. This play mood is created when we engage with the world during play practices. The article points out four types of play moods – devotion, intensity, tension and euphorica – which...

  3. How to Promote a Technology Education Program: An Effective Campaign Will Increase Student Enrollment, Spread Goodwill, Reflect a Positive Image, and Grow Positive Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The advertising, marketing, promotion, and positioning of technology education programs have become increasingly important. Yet the rewards of promoting a program will not only bring more students and resources to the classroom, it will also bring support on a larger scale, resulting in added resources to help all students become more successful.…

  4. Increasing Humidity Blocks Continuous Positive Airflow-induced Apnea Responses in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ting Tan

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Laryngeal cold dry air stimulation triggered an apneic response, which could be eliminated by humidification but not by the heating of air. These results suggest that using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP with humidified air decreases CPAP-induced apnea.

  5. Evaluation of Increasing Antecedent Specificity in Goal Statements on Adherence to Positive Behavior-Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Corey M.; Shriver, Mark D.; Burke, Raymond V.; Allen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of antecedent specificity in goal statements on adherence to positive behavior-management strategies. Teaching staff were recruited from 2 different school settings where there were routine expectations to use behavior-specific praise in the classroom, but adherence was poor. In a concurrent multiple baseline design, the…

  6. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  7. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Rocha, Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy. Os ...

  8. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Fábio Lopes; Rocha,Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  9. Mood Predicts Response to Placebo CPAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Stepnowsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy is efficacious for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, but recent studies with placebo CPAP (CPAP administered at subtherapeutic pressure have revealed nonspecific (or placebo responses to CPAP treatment. This study examined baseline psychological factors associated with beneficial effects from placebo CPAP treatment. Participants. Twenty-five participants were studied with polysomnography at baseline and after treatment with placebo CPAP. Design. Participants were randomized to either CPAP treatment or placebo CPAP. Baseline mood was assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Total mood disturbance (POMS-Total was obtained by summing the six POMS subscale scores, with Vigor weighted negatively. The dependent variable was changed in apnea-hypopnea index (ΔAHI, calculated by subtracting pre- from post-CPAP AHI. Negative values implied improvement. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed, with pre-CPAP AHI added as a covariate to control for baseline OSA severity. Results. Baseline emotional distress predicted the drop in AHI in response to placebo CPAP. Highly distressed patients showed greater placebo response, with a 34% drop (i.e., improvement in AHI. Conclusion. These findings underscore the importance of placebo-controlled studies of CPAP treatment. Whereas such trials are routinely included in drug trials, this paper argues for their importance even in mechanical-oriented sleep interventions.

  10. Acute exercise attenuates negative affect following repeated sad mood inductions in persons who have recovered from depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Hogan, Candice L; Joormann, Jutta; Waugh, Christian E; Gotlib, Ian H

    2013-02-01

    Identifying factors that may protect individuals from developing Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in the face of stress is critical. In the current study we experimentally tested whether such a potentially protective factor, engaging in acute exercise, reduces the adverse effects of repeated sad mood inductions in individuals who have recovered from depression. We hypothesized that recovered depressed participants who engage in acute exercise report a smaller increase in negative affect (NA) and a smaller decrease in positive affect (PA) when exposed to a repeated sad mood induction (i.e., habituation), whereas participants who do not exercise show sensitization (i.e., increased NA and decreased PA in response to a repeated adverse stimulus). Forty-one women recovered from MDD and 40 healthy control women were randomly assigned to either exercise for 15 minutes or quiet rest. Afterward, participants were exposed to two sad mood inductions and reported their levels of affect throughout the study. Recovered depressed participants who had not exercised exhibited higher NA after the second sad mood induction, a finding consistent with sensitization. In contrast, both recovered depressed participants who had engaged in acute exercise and healthy control participants showed no increase in NA in response to the repeated sad mood induction. Participants who exercised reported higher PA after the exercise bout; however, our hypothesis concerning reported PA trajectories following the sad mood inductions was not supported. Results suggest that exercise can serve as a protective factor in the face of exposure to repeated emotional stressors, particularly concerning NA in individuals who have recovered from depression. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Increasing Gender Diversity in Senior Roles in HE: Who Is Afraid of Positive Action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Manfredi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that Higher Education Institutions should adopt positive action in recruitment and promotion to tackle women’s under-representation in senior leadership roles. In a tie-break situation where two candidates are “as qualified as each other”, section 159 of the UK Equality Act 2010 allows employers to give preference to a candidate from an under-represented group. The use of this measure, however, is often contested on the grounds that it is a form of reverse discrimination, it is tokenistic and that it can undermine meritocracy. This article seeks to challenge these objections and suggests that, far from undermining meritocracy, the use of positive action in recruitment and promotion could prove a useful tool to tackle gender bias, unpack stereotypes and re-appraise how merit is defined and assessed.

  12. Unlocking past emotion: verb use affects mood and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, William

    2013-01-01

    In the research reported here, I examined whether the verbs applied to descriptions of past emotional experiences influence present mood and happiness. Participants who described a positive experience using the imperfective aspect, which implies ongoing progression, subsequently reported more positive mood and greater happiness than did participants who described a positive experience using the perfective aspect, which implies completion; likewise, participants who described a negative experience using the imperfective aspect subsequently reported more negative mood and less happiness than did participants who described a negative experience using the perfective aspect. These effects were traced to enhanced memory for the described emotional experience in the imperfective condition relative to the perfective condition. The findings demonstrate how formal features of language shape both the reinstatement of past affective reactions and happiness judgments, and may have practical applications for improving subjective well-being.

  13. Will online chat help alleviate mood loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mu

    2009-04-01

    The present study examines the relationship between social Internet use and loneliness and reviews the studies about this topic from both social psychology and computer-mediated communication literature, as a response to the call for interdisciplinary research from scholars in these two areas. Two hundred thirty-four people participated in both the survey testing trait loneliness and a 5-condition (face-to-face chatting, instant message chatting, watching video, writing assignments, and "do nothing") experiment. Participants reported increase of mood loneliness after chatting online. The level of mood loneliness after online chat was higher than that in face-to-face communication. For people with high trait loneliness, the mood loneliness increase in the computer-mediated communication condition was significantly higher than in the face-to-face communication condition. The author of the current study hopes to help clarify the mixed research findings in previous social Internet use literature about this topic and reminds communication researchers of the need to explore the constructs included in "psychological well-being" in terms of their nature, mechanism, causes, consequences, and furthermore, how they are related to communication.

  14. Mood, Method and Affect: Current Shifts in Feminist Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Mortensen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Epistemic habits in feminist research are constantly changing in scope and emphasis. One of the most striking ruptures that we can observe these days, at least in the humanities, is a renewed epistemic interest among feminists in the question of mood, where both positive and negative affects come into play. Mood figures in a number of theoretical traditions, ranging from the hermeneutics of Heidegger, Gadamer and Ricoeur, as well as in phenomenology, psychoanalytic theories of affect and in Deleuzian affect theory. In the article I want to explore two different approaches to the question of mood in feminist theory. In the first part, I will investigate Rita Felski’s treatment of mood in her recent attack on ‘critique’ as well as in her proposed alternative, her ‘post-critical’ approach to reading and interpretation. In so doing, I will formulate some questions that have emerged in my attempt to grapple with Felski’s post-critical approach. In the second part of this essay, I will delve into another understanding of the concept of mood, namely Deleuzian affect, and more specifically, as it has been embraced by feminist theorists such as Rosi Braidotti and Elizabeth Grosz in their respective theoretical works. In the concluding part of this article, I will discuss some of the implications of the different takes on mood for feminist epistemic habits.

  15. Memory and mood during MDMA intoxication, with and without memantine pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Heckman, P; de la Torre, R; Farre, M; Ramaekers, J G

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that single doses of MDMA can affect mood and impair memory in humans. The neuropharmacological mechanisms involved in MDMA-induced memory impairment are not clear. Memantine, an NMDA and alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor antagonist, was able to reverse MDMA-induced memory impairment in rats. This study investigated whether treatment with memantine can prevent MDMA-induced memory impairment in humans. 15 subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo controlled, within-subject design. Subjects received both pre-treatment (placebo/memantine 20 mg) (T1) and treatment (placebo/MDMA 75 mg) (T2) on separate test days. T1 preceded T2 by 120 min. Memory function was assessed 90 min after T2 by means of a Visual Verbal Learning Task, a Prospective Memory Task, the Sternberg Memory Task and the Abstract Visual Pattern Learning Task. Profile of Mood State and psychomotor performance were also assessed to control whether MDMA and memantine interactions would selectively pertain to memory or transfer to other domains as well. MDMA significantly impaired performance in the visual verbal learning task and abstract visual pattern learning task. Pre-treatment with memantine did not prevent MDMA-induced memory impairment in these two tasks. Both positive (vigour, arousal, elation) and negative mood effects (anxiety) were increased by MDMA. The responses were not altered by pretreatment with memantine which had no effect on memory or mood when given alone. These preliminary results suggest that memantine does not reverse MDMA-induced memory impairment and mood in humans. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of work environment on mood disorders and suicide: Evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Min; Postolache, Teodor T

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence estimating an impact of occupational factors on mood disorders and suicide, and the efficacy of interventions. This review is based on literature searches using Medline and Psych INFO from 1966 to 2007 (keywords: work stress, job insecurity, job strain, shift work, violence, occupational health, mood disorders, depression, and suicide). To establish the relationship between occupational variables and mood disorders, we focused on clinically significant disorders rather than depressive symptoms. During the last decade, prospective epidemiological studies have suggested a predictive association between the work environment and mood disorders. Recently, increasing numbers of clinical trials have shown favorable effect size of intervention and suggested preferable return-on-investment results. However, low awareness and social stigma still decrease workers access to treatment. Mental health professionals in conjunction with employers have to devise a creative system to make the quality care being offered more accessible to employees. In addition, further outcome data is needed to evaluate the benefit of managing mood disorders in the workplace, and to foster awareness of positive implications for employees, employers, their families, and the society at large. In addition, the work environment, with its chemical (e.g. chemosensory factors, pollutants), physical (e.g. lighting, noise, temperature, outdoor views and activities), biological (e.g., chronobiological factors, allergens, infectious agents), psychological (e.g. demand-control, effort-reward balance), social (e.g. cohesiveness, support), and organizational (e.g. leadership styles) component should meet minimal standards, and may improve with striving towards the optimum.

  17. Increased airway reactivity in a neonatal mouse model of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Catherine A.; Martin, Richard J.; MacFarlane, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a primary form of respiratory support used in the intensive care of preterm infants, but its long-term effects on airway (AW) function are unknown. Methods We developed a neonatal mouse model of CPAP treatment to determine whether it modifies later AW reactivity. Un-anesthetized spontaneously breathing mice were fitted with a mask to deliver CPAP (6cmH2O, 3hrs/day) for 7 consecutive days starting at postnatal day 1. Airway reactivity to...

  18. Mood Components in Cocoa and Chocolate: The Mood Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuenter, Emmy; Foubert, Kenn; Pieters, Luc

    2018-03-14

    Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids. In this review a critical appraisal is made of recent studies on mood and cognition, with a special emphasis on analytical characterization of the test samples. It is concluded that the mood and cognition-enhancing effects of cocoa and chocolate can be ranked from more general activities associated with flavanols and methylxanthines, to more specific activities related to minor constituents such as salsolinol, with on top the orosensory properties of chocolate. Therefore, the "mood pyramid" of cocoa and chocolate is proposed as a new concept. To understand the role and interactions of the different major and minor constituents of cocoa, it is recommended that all test samples used in future in vitro, in vivo , or human studies should be phytochemically characterized in much more detail than is common practice today. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Effects of acute systemic inflammation on the interplay between sad mood and affective cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sven; Brinkhoff, Alexandra; Lueg, Larissa; Roderigo, Till; Kribben, Andreas; Wilde, Benjamin; Witzke, Oliver; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2017-12-11

    Experimental endotoxemia is a translational model to study inflammatory mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including depression. Disturbed affective cognition constitutes a core aspect in depression, but has never been studied in the context of inflammation. We combined experimental endotoxemia with an established experimental mood induction procedure to assess the interaction between acute inflammation and sad mood and their effects on affective cognition. In this randomized cross-over study, N = 15 healthy males received endotoxin (0.8 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide iv) on one study day and placebo an otherwise identical study day. The affective Go/Nogo task was conducted after experimental induction of neutral and sad mood. Inflammatory markers were assessed hourly. Endotoxin application induced a transient systemic inflammation, characterized by increased leukocyte counts, TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 plasma concentrations (all p sadness ratings, with highest ratings when sad mood was induced during inflammation (p sad vs. neutral mood) × 2 (sad vs. happy Go/Nogo target words) factorial design, we observed a significant target × endotoxin condition interaction (p sad targets during endotoxemia. Additionally, we found a valence × mood interaction (p sad targets in sad mood. In summary, acute inflammation and sad mood are risk factors for disturbed affective cognition. The results may reflect a mood-congruency effect, with prolonged and sustained processing of mood-congruent information during acute inflammation, which may contribute to depression risk.

  20. Music-induced Mood Biases Decision Strategies during the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwanjun; Lee, Eun Jung; Jung, You Jin; Kim, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an increasing attempt has been made to understand the influence of mood on socioeconomic decision-making. We tested in this study whether an unpleasant mood would lead to unfavorable decisions more frequently than a pleasant mood, and whether decisions under different moods can be explained in different ways. Healthy volunteers were assigned to either a pleasant or unpleasant mood group and listened to musical excerpts to induce pleasant or unpleasant mood. Both groups completed the ultimatum game as a responder with an unacquainted partner who was actually a confederate. The proposer’s offers were made in six different ratios of split (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4) in a preprogramed manner unbeknownst to the participants. After the completion of the task as a responder, the participant rated subjectively perceived fairness and emotional feelings about each split of offer. The statistical results showed that the unpleasant mood group rejected unfair offers more often compared to the pleasant mood group. Self-reported ratings of perceived fairness and emotional feelings did not statistically differ between the two groups. Interestingly, however, only in the unpleasant mood group, rejection rates of unfair offers were negatively correlated with perceived fairness. Both the pleasant and unpleasant mood groups showed a negative correlation between rejection rates of unfair offers and self-reported happiness. These results suggest a possibility that different decision strategies operate under different mood during a socioeconomic exchange. PMID:27065921

  1. Music-induced mood biases decision strategies during the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanjun eChung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing attempt has been made to understand the influence of mood on socioeconomic decision-making. We tested in this study whether an unpleasant mood would lead to unfavorable decisions more frequently than a pleasant mood, and whether decisions under different moods can be explained in different ways. Healthy volunteers were assigned to either a pleasant or unpleasant mood group and listened to musical excerpts to induce pleasant or unpleasant mood. Both groups completed the ultimatum game as a responder with an unacquainted partner who was actually a confederate. The proposer’s offers were made in six different ratios of split (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 in a preprogramed manner unbeknownst to the participants. After the completion of the task as a responder, the participant rated subjectively perceived fairness and emotional feelings about each split of offer. The statistical results showed that the unpleasant mood group rejected unfair offers more often compared to the pleasant mood group. Self-reported ratings of perceived fairness and emotional feelings did not statistically differ between the two groups. Interestingly, however, only in the unpleasant mood group, rejection rates of unfair offers were negatively correlated with perceived fairness. Both the pleasant and unpleasant mood groups showed a negative correlation between rejection rates of unfair offers and self-reported happiness. These results suggest a possibility that different decision strategies operate under different mood during a socioeconomic exchange.

  2. Mood-congruent false memories persist over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Lauren M; Thorley, Craig

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of mood-congruency and retention interval on the false recognition of emotion laden items using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Previous research has shown a mood-congruent false memory enhancement during immediate recognition tasks. The present study examined the persistence of this effect following a one-week delay. Participants were placed in a negative or neutral mood, presented with negative-emotion and neutral-emotion DRM word lists, and administered with both immediate and delayed recognition tests. Results showed that a negative mood state increased remember judgments for negative-emotion critical lures, in comparison to neutral-emotion critical lures, on both immediate and delayed testing. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of spreading activation and emotion-enhanced memory, with consideration of the applied forensic implications of such findings.

  3. Happily distracted: mood and a benefit of attention dysregulation in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée K. Biss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive mood states are believed to broaden the focus of attention in younger adults, but it is unclear whether the same is true for older adults. Here we examined one consequence of broader attention that has been shown in young adults: that memory for distraction is greater for those in a positive mood. In the current study, positive and neutral moods were induced in older adults (mean age = 67.9 prior to a 1-back task in which participants were instructed to attend to relevant pictures and ignore distracting words. Following a 10-min filled interval, participants performed a word fragment completion task that tested implicit memory for the distracting words from the 1-back task. Older adults in the positive mood group showed greater implicit memory for previous distraction compared to those in the neutral mood group. These findings suggest that affect influences the ability to regulate attention in a similar manner for younger and older adults.

  4. Prediction of Positions of Active Compounds Makes It Possible To Increase Activity in Fragment-Based Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a computational method that predicts the positions of active compounds, making it possible to increase activity as a fragment evolution strategy. We refer to the positions of these compounds as the active position. When an active fragment compound is found, the following lead generation process is performed, primarily to increase activity. In the current method, to predict the location of the active position, hydrogen atoms are replaced by small side chains, generating virtual compounds. These virtual compounds are docked to a target protein, and the docking scores (affinities are examined. The hydrogen atom that gives the virtual compound with good affinity should correspond to the active position and it should be replaced to generate a lead compound. This method was found to work well, with the prediction of the active position being 2 times more efficient than random synthesis. In the current study, 15 examples of lead generation were examined. The probability of finding active positions among all hydrogen atoms was 26%, and the current method accurately predicted 60% of the active positions.

  5. Vitamin D is positively associated with sperm motility and increases intracellular calcium in human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Bjerrum, Poul J; Jessen, Torben E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human spermatozoa, and VDR-knockout mice and vitamin D (VD) deficiency in rodents results in impaired fertility, low sperm counts and a low number of motile spermatozoa. We investigated the role of activated VD (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) in human...... spermatozoa and whether VD serum levels are associated with semen quality. METHODS Cross-sectional association study of semen quality and VD serum level in 300 men from the general population, and in vitro studies on spermatozoa from 40 men to investigate the effects of VD on intracellular calcium, sperm......M). 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased intracellular calcium concentration in human spermatozoa through VDR-mediated calcium release from an intracellular calcium storage, increased sperm motility and induced the acrosome reaction in vitro. CONCLUSIONS 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased intracellular calcium...

  6. Dynamic loop gain increases upon adopting the supine body position during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Simon A; Landry, Shane A; Sands, Scott A; Terrill, Philip I; Mann, Dwayne; Andara, Christopher; Skuza, Elizabeth; Turton, Anthony; Berger, Philip; Hamilton, Garun S; Edwards, Bradley A

    2017-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is typically worse in the supine versus lateral sleeping position. One potential factor driving this observation is a decrease in lung volume in the supine position which is expected by theory to increase a key OSA pathogenic factor: dynamic ventilatory control instability (i.e. loop gain). We aimed to quantify dynamic loop gain in OSA patients in the lateral and supine positions, and to explore the relationship between change in dynamic loop gain and change in lung volume with position. Data from 20 patients enrolled in previous studies on the effect of body position on OSA pathogenesis were retrospectively analysed. Dynamic loop gain was calculated from routinely collected polysomnographic signals using a previously validated mathematical model. Lung volumes were measured in the awake state with a nitrogen washout technique. Dynamic loop gain was significantly higher in the supine than in the lateral position (0.77 ± 0.15 vs 0.68 ± 0.14, P = 0.012). Supine functional residual capacity (FRC) was significantly lower than lateral FRC (81.0 ± 15.4% vs 87.3 ± 18.4% of the seated FRC, P = 0.021). The reduced FRC we observed on moving to the supine position was predicted by theory to increase loop gain by 10.2 (0.6, 17.1)%, a value similar to the observed increase of 8.4 (-1.5, 31.0)%. Dynamic loop gain increased by a small but statistically significant amount when moving from the lateral to supine position and this may, in part, contribute to the worsening of OSA in the supine sleeping position. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Liquid natural gas occupies an increasing position in the energy mix of the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the profitability of using liquid natural gas (LNG) depends on the fluctuations of the gas price, LNG will play an increasing role in the ''energy mix'' of the USA. The amount of LNG imported by the USA rose by 175% from 1998 to 2001. There are at present four receiving stations for LNG in the USA and they will probably be extended. Plans to build gas-powered power stations in California will increase the demand for natural gas in the coming years. Several companies have announced their desire to build receiving stations for LNG. There is, however, some opposition from environmentalists

  9. Mood and implicit alcohol expectancy processes: predicting alcohol consumption in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Curtin, John J; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-01-01

    Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAE) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli-including mood states-and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, this study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. College students (N = 146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the laboratory, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the laboratory. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak blood alcohol concentration in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the laboratory for females. The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs-as indicated by longer RTs-predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores the need for

  10. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Dettmer, Dorothee

    2006-05-01

    Emotional changes after eating chocolate were examined in everyday life. Thirty-seven healthy, normal-weight women ate a chocolate bar, an apple or nothing and rated their subjective state 5, 30, 60 and 90min after eating. Both chocolate and the apple reduced hunger, elevated mood and increased activation, but the effects of the chocolate were stronger. Eating chocolate was also followed by joy and, in some women, by guilt. Guilt responders experienced less intense positive emotions. Whereas positive emotional responses appear to be due to sensory pleasure and it's anticipation and may also be related to reduced hunger, guilt responses are probably induced by negative food-related cognitions.

  11. Increased stem density and competition may diminish the positive effects of warming at alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafeng; Pederson, Neil; Ellison, Aaron M; Buckley, Hannah L; Case, Bradley S; Liang, Eryuan; Julio Camarero, J

    2016-07-01

    The most widespread response to global warming among alpine treeline ecotones is not an upward shift, but an increase in tree density. However, the impact of increasing density on interactions among trees at treeline is not well understood. Here, we test if treeline densification induced by climatic warming leads to increasing intraspecific competition. We mapped and measured the size and age of Smith fir trees growing in two treelines located in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We used spatial point-pattern and codispersion analyses to describe the spatial association and covariation among seedlings, juveniles, and adults grouped in 30-yr age classes from the 1860s to the present. Effects of competition on tree height and regeneration were inferred from bivariate mark-correlations. Since the 1950s, a rapid densification occurred at both sites in response to climatic warming. Competition between adults and juveniles or seedlings at small scales intensified as density increased. Encroachment negatively affected height growth and further reduced recruitment around mature trees. We infer that tree recruitment at the studied treelines was more cold-limited prior to 1950 and shifted to a less temperature-constrained regime in response to climatic warming. Therefore, the ongoing densification and encroachment of alpine treelines could alter the way climate drives their transitions toward subalpine forests. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Increasing Direct Care Staff Compliance to Individualized Physical Therapy Body Positioning Prescriptions: Prescriptive Checklists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Jennifer; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The study confirmed previous research indicating that workshop training by itself is an ineffective method of increasing direct care staff compliance to treatment prescriptions, and that providing direct staff supervisors with a training and management tool (prescriptive checklists) may be an effective alternative for serving multihandicapped…

  13. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with age in HIV-positive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, K; Reiss, P; Ryom, L

    2014-01-01

    equations. METHODS: We analysed three endpoints: myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD: MI or invasive coronary procedure) and CVD (CHD or stroke). We fitted a number of parametric age effects, adjusting for known risk factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. The best-fitting age...... rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40-45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60-65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age(2) for CHD and CVD. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD...... and CVD per year older, which appeared to be only modest yet was consistently raised compared with the risk in the general population. The relative risk of MI with age was not different between D:A:D and the general population. CONCLUSIONS: We found only limited evidence of accelerating increased risk...

  14. Increase of the positive ion source power in JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mikito; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru

    1998-09-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) heating experiment in JT-60 started in 1986, and the rated injection power of 20MW at 75keV with hydrogen was achieved after several month operation. In 1991, the ion sources and power supply had been upgraded for a higher beam energy up to 120keV with deuterium, following which the ion source operation re-started aiming for an injection power of 40MW at 110keV. In the operation, the beam acceleration voltage was tried to increase by modifying the ion source structure against the break-down which occurred frequently in the ion source. The beam acceleration was, however, unstable in a beam energy range of more than 105keV because of voltage-holding deterioration in the accelerator. Therefore we changed the strategy to increase the injection power: i.e. we tried to increase the beam current with keeping the beam energy. The structure of the source has been modified to be operated in a high current regime. As a result, the deuterium neutral beam injection of 40MW at 91-96keV was achieved in July 1996. (author)

  15. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Lindh, Christian [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Keneba, MRC Laboratories (Gambia); Kabir, Iqbal [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: karin.broberg_palmgren@med.lu.se [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  16. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11–17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 μg/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 μg/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  17. Looking at food in sad mood: do attention biases lead emotional eaters into overeating after a negative mood induction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Renner, Fritz; Roefs, Anne; Huibers, Marcus J H; Plumanns, Lana; Krott, Nora; Jansen, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Emotional eating is associated with overeating and the development of obesity. Yet, empirical evidence for individual (trait) differences in emotional eating and cognitive mechanisms that contribute to eating during sad mood remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to test if attention bias for food moderates the effect of self-reported emotional eating during sad mood (vs neutral mood) on actual food intake. It was expected that emotional eating is predictive of elevated attention for food and higher food intake after an experimentally induced sad mood and that attentional maintenance on food predicts food intake during a sad versus a neutral mood. Participants (N = 85) were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental mood induction conditions (sad/neutral). Attentional biases for high caloric foods were measured by eye tracking during a visual probe task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli. Self-reported emotional eating was assessed with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and ad libitum food intake was tested by a disguised food offer. Hierarchical multivariate regression modeling showed that self-reported emotional eating did not account for changes in attention allocation for food or food intake in either condition. Yet, attention maintenance on food cues was significantly related to increased intake specifically in the neutral condition, but not in the sad mood condition. The current findings show that self-reported emotional eating (based on the DEBQ) might not validly predict who overeats when sad, at least not in a laboratory setting with healthy women. Results further suggest that attention maintenance on food relates to eating motivation when in a neutral affective state, and might therefore be a cognitive mechanism contributing to increased food intake in general, but maybe not during sad mood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Mood-congruent effect in self-relevant information processing: a study using an autobiographical memory recall task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, M

    2000-10-01

    The pattern of the mood-congruent effect in an autobiographical memory recall task was investigated. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: positive mood, negative mood (induced with music), and control groups (no specific mood). Subjects were then presented with a word at a time from a list of trait words, which were pleasant or unpleasant. They decided whether they could recall any of their autobiographical memories related to the word, and responded with "yes" or "no" buttons as rapidly and accurately as possible. After the task, they were given five minutes for an incidental free recall test. Results indicated that the mood-congruent effect was found regardless of whether there was an autobiographical memory related to the word or not in both positive and negative mood states. The effect of moods on self-relevant information processing was discussed.

  19. Highlighting the positive impact of increasing feeding frequency on metabolism and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis-Sylvestre, Jeanine; Lluch, Anne; Neant, Françoise; Blundell, John E

    2003-01-01

    Research on feeding frequency started more than 20 years ago and some studies have shown evidence of nutritional benefits, especially on metabolism and body weight management. Advice on feeding frequency could play an important role in public health policies by reducing levels of overweight and obesity, the prevalence of which has dangerously increased in most countries over the last few decades. The 17th International Congress of Nutrition brought to the forefront the benefits of increasing feeding frequency (i.e. keeping the same total daily energy intake but dividing it into more frequent meals than usual). Recent epidemiological studies, mostly carried out in France, have provided evidence on the beneficial effects of a fourth meal for those individuals who habitually choose this pattern. Supported by metabolic data, these findings have now been supported by experimental studies. The "goûter", commonly eaten in the afternoon in France by most children and many adults, has the biological characteristics of a meal because it is eaten in response to hunger. Suppressing the "goûter" in "habitual fourth meal eaters" soon leads to an increase in Body Mass Index (BMI). Further, people who are regular "goûter" eaters have a higher carbohydrate intake and better metabolic profile than other adults, even though their total energy intake is not greater. Increased feeding frequency leads to a reduction in the total secretion of insulin, an improvement in insulin resistance and a better blood glucose control, as well as an improvement in the blood lipid profile. The experts agreed that, as long as we do not consume more energy than we use up and we only eat when we are hungry, it may be useful to split our total energy intake into as many meals as our social pattern allows. However, the pattern of eating cannot be completely dissociated from the composition of foods consumed. Therefore within this energy intake, we must take care to consume not only a good balance of

  20. Verbal and facial-emotional Stroop tasks reveal specific attentional interferences in sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Linda; Vrijsen, Janna N; Eling, Paul; van Oostrom, Iris; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S

    2012-01-01

    Mood congruence refers to the tendency of individuals to attend to information more readily when it has the same emotional content as their current mood state. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether attentional interference occurred for participants in sad mood states for emotionally relevant stimuli (mood-congruence), and to determine whether this interference occurred for both valenced words and valenced faces. A mood induction procedure was administered to 116 undergraduate females divided into two equal groups for the sad and happy mood condition. This study employed three versions of the Stroop task: color, verbal-emotional, and a facial-emotional Stroop. The two mood groups did not differ on the color Stroop. Significant group differences were found on the verbal-emotional Stroop for sad words with longer latencies for sad-induced participants. Main findings for the facial-emotional Stroop were that sad mood is associated with attentional interference for angry-threatening faces as well as longer latencies for neutral faces. Group differences were not found for positive stimuli. These findings confirm that sad mood is associated with attentional interference for mood-congruent stimuli in the verbal domain (sad words), but this mood-congruent effect does not necessarily apply to the visual domain (sad faces). Attentional interference for neutral faces suggests sad mood participants did not necessarily see valence-free faces. Attentional interference for threatening stimuli is often associated with anxiety; however, the current results show that threat is not an attentional interference observed exclusively in states of anxiety but also in sad mood.

  1. The psychological costs and benefits of being highly persistent: personality profiles distinguish mood disorders from anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C Robert; Zohar, Ada H; Hirschmann, Schmuel; Dahan, Dana

    2012-02-01

    The personality trait of Persistence is highly valued by conscientious overachievers, but it has both psychological costs and benefits. The interactions among multiple personality factors influencing the development of mood and anxiety disorders have been confounded in prior clinical samples, but can be disentangled in terms of their underlying brain circuitry and influence on perception of emotional stimuli. 285 individuals who represented the full range of personality variation in a large sample of adult volunteers from the general community of Israel were selected for follow-up by psychiatric interviews, cognitive testing, and medical examinations. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) measured profiles of traits that distinguished individuals with diagnoses of mood and/or anxiety disorders using linear discriminant analysis and non-linear profile analysis. High Harm Avoidance and low Self-directedness strongly distinguished people with mood and/or anxiety disorders from those with neither. High Persistence distinguished people with only anxiety disorders from those with mood disorders. High Persistence was associated with greater health and happiness overall, but also led to more negative emotions than in people with low Persistence unless they were both unusually tolerant of frustration (i.e., low in Harm Avoidance) and self-accepting of personal limitations (i.e. high in Self-directedness). Subjects were volunteers over 40 years of age at assessment. People who are highly persistent (i.e., persevering, ambitious, perfectionistic) are more likely to have anxiety disorders than mood disorders, even when they have other traits increasing risk for both (i.e., high Harm Avoidance and low Self-directedness). High Persistence increases both positive and negative emotions in most people. However, high Persistence reduces negative emotions and increases positive emotions if a person is easy-going (i.e., "happy-go-lucky" when low in both Harm Avoidance and Self

  2. Gut microbes in correlation with mood: case study in a closed experimental human life support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Su, Q; Xie, B; Duan, L; Zhao, W; Hu, D; Wu, R; Liu, H

    2016-08-01

    Gut microbial community, which may influence our mood, can be shaped by modulating the gut ecosystem through dietary strategies. Understanding the gut-brain correlationship in healthy people is important for maintenance of mental health and prevention of mental illnesses. A case study on the correlation between gut microbial alternation and mood swing of healthy adults was conducted in a closed human life support system during a 105-day experiment. Gut microbial community structures were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing every 2 weeks. A profile of mood states questionnaire was used to record the mood swings. Correlation between gut microbes and mood were identified with partial least squares discrimination analysis. Microbial community structures in the three healthy adults were strongly correlated with mood states. Bacterial genera Roseburia, Phascolarctobacterium, Lachnospira, and Prevotella had potential positive correlation with positive mood, while genera Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and Anaerostipes were correlated with negative mood. Among which, Faecalibacterium spp. had the highest abundance, and showed a significant negative correlation with mood. Our results indicated that the composition of microbial community could play a role in emotional change in mentally physically healthy adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Increased numbers of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Tseng, Guan-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Wang, Hung-Jung; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Wang, Wen-Ching

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of gastric antrum biopsy specimens from healthy controls (n = 22) and patients with gastritis (n = 30), peptic ulcer (n = 83), or gastric cancer (n = 32). Expression of CD4, CD25 and Foxp3 was determined by immunohistochemistry in three consecutive sections per sample. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, there was an increased number of CD25+ and Foxp3+ cells in patients with gastritis (P = 0.004 and P = 0.008), peptic ulcer (P gastritis (P gastritis and peptic ulcer groups. PMID:22228968

  4. Increased sensitivity to positive social stimuli in monozygotic twins at risk of bipolar vs. unipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærsgaard, S; Meluken, I; Kessing, L V

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in affective cognition are putative endophenotypes for bipolar and unipolar disorders but it is unclear whether some abnormalities are disorder-specific. We therefore investigated affective cognition in monozygotic twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder relative...... to those at risk of unipolar disorder and to low-risk twins. METHODS: Seventy monozygotic twins with a co-twin history of bipolar disorder (n = 11), of unipolar disorder (n = 38) or without co-twin history of affective disorder (n = 21) were included. Variables of interest were recognition of and vigilance...... to emotional faces, emotional reactivity and -regulation in social scenarios and non-affective cognition. RESULTS: Twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder showed increased recognition of low to moderate intensity of happy facial expressions relative to both unipolar disorder high-risk twins and low...

  5. Use of Preservative Agents and Antibiotics for Increased Poliovirus Survival on Positively Charged Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnant, Christine Susan; Kossik, Alexandra Lynn; Zhou, Nicolette Angela; Sánchez-Gonzalez, Liliana; Falman, Jill Christin; Keim, Erika Karen; Linden, Yarrow; Scheibe, Alana; Barnes, Kilala Sayisha; Beck, Nicola Koren; Boyle, David S; Meschke, John Scott

    2017-12-01

    Environmental surveillance of poliovirus (PV) and other non-enveloped viruses can help identify silent circulation and is necessary to certify eradication. The bag-mediated filtration system is an efficient method to filter large volumes of environmental waters at field sites for monitoring the presence of viruses. As filters may require long transit times to off-site laboratories for processing, viral inactivation or overgrowth of bacteria and fungi can interfere with virus detection and quantification (Miki and Jacquet in Aquatic Microb Ecol 51(2):195-208, 2008). To evaluate virus survival over time on ViroCap ™ filters, the filters were seeded with PV type 1 (PV1) and/or MS2 and then dosed with preservatives or antibiotics prior to storage and elution. These filters were stored at various temperatures and time periods, and then eluted for PV1 and MS2 recovery quantification. Filters dosed with the preservative combination of 2% sodium benzoate and 0.2% calcium propionate had increased virus survival over time when stored at 25 °C, compared to samples stored at 25 °C with no preservatives. While elution within 24 h of filtration is recommended, if storage or shipping is required then this preservative mixture can help preserve sample integrity. Addition of an antibiotic cocktail containing cephapirin, gentamicin, and Proclin ™ 300 increased recovery after storage at 4 and 25 °C, when compared to storage with no antibiotics. The antibiotic cocktail can aid sample preservation if access to appropriate antibiotics storage is available and sample cold chain is unreliable. This study demonstrated that the use of preservatives or antibiotics is a simple, cost-effective method to improve virus detection from ViroCap cartridge filters over time.

  6. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E M; Griffiths, F E; House, T

    2015-08-22

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6-12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Female peer mentors early in college increase women's positive academic experiences and retention in engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Tara C; Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2017-06-06

    Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women's experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended. Incoming women engineering students ( n = 150) were randomly assigned to female or male peer mentors or no mentors for 1 y. Their experiences were assessed multiple times during the intervention year and 1-y postintervention. Female (but not male) mentors protected women's belonging in engineering, self-efficacy, motivation, retention in engineering majors, and postcollege engineering aspirations. Counter to common assumptions, better engineering grades were not associated with more retention or career aspirations in engineering in the first year of college. Notably, increased belonging and self-efficacy were significantly associated with more retention and career aspirations. The benefits of peer mentoring endured long after the intervention had ended, inoculating women for the first 2 y of college-the window of greatest attrition from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Thus, same-gender peer mentoring for a short period during developmental transition points promotes women's success and retention in engineering, yielding dividends over time.

  8. Positive smoking cessation-related interactions with HIV care providers increase the likelihood of interest in cessation among HIV-positive cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Rass, Olga; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-10-01

    Smoking cessation has proven to be a challenge for HIV-positive smokers. Patient and provider characteristics may provide barriers to smoking cessation. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with interest in cessation as well as characterize use of, current interest in, and provider recommendations for smoking cessation modalities. Data came from 275 HIV-positive smokers recruited online. Half (49.1%) of the sample was interested in quitting; daily smoking was associated with decreased likelihood of interest in cessation, whereas making a lifetime quit attempt, receiving encouragement to quit from an HIV care provider, and greater frequency of discussions regarding cessation with HIV care providers were associated with increased likelihood of interest in cessation. Nicotine replacement therapy was the most commonly used (42.9%), generated the most interest (59.1%), and was the most commonly clinician-recommended (70.7%) cessation modality. Findings emphasize the importance of the healthcare provider-patient relationship for smoking cessation promotion in HIV-positive smokers.

  9. The effects of acute exercise on executive functioning, mood and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It is internationally recognised that exercise is beneficial—both physically and mentally. However, only a minority of published research has explored the unique contribution of the exercise task itself. We tested the effect an ‘acute bout of moderate exercise’ had on selective attention, executive function and mood. We hypothesised that acute exercise would improve mood and cognitive performance compared to the controls. Method: 29 females and 11 males aged between 18-50 (M=26.5, SD=8.8 were administered the Stroop Colour-Interference Test, Erikson Flanker Task and Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS.  Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (exercise or relaxation. The experimental group (N=20 performed 20 minutes of exercise on a treadmill. The control group (N=20 relaxed for 20 minutes. Measures were taken before and after the intervention. Results: An independent samples t-test compared the differences between post-test and pre-test for the two groups. Results revealed a significant difference between the exercise group and control group on the measures of mood. The exercise group reported increased positive affect (t(38 = 3.10, p = .004, d = .99 and decreased negative affect (t(38 = -3.24, p = .003, d = 1.0 on the post-test. No significant differences between the exercise and control groups were obtained for the two tasks of cognitive performance. Conclusions: A significant difference in the PANAS ratings following exercise offers strong support to earlier research demonstrating that acute exercise improves mood. Although no significant improvement in performance was observed in the two cognitive tasks following acute exercise, it is possible that fitness levels could be the relevant factor, rather than acute exercise as a task. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that acute exercise improves cognitive performance.

  10. Effects of caffeine in chewing gum on mood and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Recent research has shown that even small doses (attention tasks. Previous studies have given the caffeine in a variety of beverages or in capsules and it was of interest to see whether similar effects could be observed when the caffeine was given in gum. In addition, chewing gum has been shown to have behavioural effects and the present study extended our knowledge of this topic. To compare the effects of caffeinated gum (40 mg), placebo gum and no gum conditions on mood and attention. A double blind placebo controlled study was conducted with volunteers being randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Baseline measures of mood and attention were taken prior to chewing and a test session was then conducted. One hundred and eighteen young adults participated in the study. Caffeinated gum was associated with a more positive mood and better performance on tasks requiring sustained attention. The caffeine improved the speed of encoding of new information which is consistent with previous findings. Chewing placebo gum was also found to be associated with more positive mood, both shortly after chewing and at the end of the study. The implications of the present study are that chewing caffeinated gum has been shown to improve performance efficiency and mood by its alerting and energising effects. The profile of caffeine effects is what one would predict from the existing caffeine literature and such effects may be extremely beneficial in real-life situations. Prior chewing of placebo gum was associated with a more positive mood and this also confirms previous findings.

  11. The inter-relationship between mood, self-esteem and response styles in adolescent offspring of bipolar parents: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver H; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-02-28

    The response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991) proposes three main strategies individuals employ in response to low mood: rumination, active coping (distraction and problem-solving) and risk taking. Although recent research has suggested this theory has utility in understanding the symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD), the role of these processes in conferring vulnerability to the condition is poorly understood. Twenty-three adolescent children of patients with BD and 25 offspring of well parents completed the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; Csikszentmihalyi and Larson, 1987) diary for six days. Longitudinal analyses were carried out to examine inter-relationships between mood, self-esteem and response styles. Increased negative as well as positive mood resulted in greater rumination in both groups. Low self-esteem triggered greater risk-taking at the subsequent time point in the at-risk group, while negative affect instigated increased active coping in the control group. In both groups, engagement in risk-taking improved mood at the subsequent time point, whilst rumination dampened self-esteem. Differential longitudinal associations between mood, self-esteem and response styles between at-risk and control children suggest early psychological vulnerability in the offspring of BD parents, with important indications for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inglise mood ja foto Kunstihoones

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    5. nov.-st Tallinna Kunstihoones näitus "Look at me", Suurbritannia mood ja fotograafia 1960ndatest tänapäevani. Kuraatorid Val Willams, Brett Rogers. Osalejaid. 6. XI samas eesti moekunstnike britiaineline moeshow. Osalevad Anu Lensment, Eve Hanson, Marit Ahven, Jaanus Vahtra, Marju Tammik, Anu Samarüütel

  13. Mood, food, and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Th...

  14. Mood And Decision-Making : A Diary Study Among Entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); M. van Delden (Martijn)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this diary study with a three-month follow up among 67 business starters was to test the influence of positive and negative mood on self-reported decision effectiveness and goal attainment. Intrinsic motivation and scope of attention were included as possible mediating

  15. Positive Peer-Pressured Productivity (P-QUAD): Novel Use of Increased Transparency and a Weighted Lottery to Increase a Division's Academic Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael B; Furnival, Ronald A; Zhang, Lei; Weber-Main, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Jacob, Abraham K

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate a dual incentive model combining positive peer pressure through increased transparency of peers' academic work with a weighted lottery where entries are earned based on degree of productivity. We developed a dual-incentive peer mentoring model, Positive Peer-Pressured Productivity (P-QUAD), for faculty in the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Division at the University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital. This model provided relative value-based incentives, with points assigned to different scholarly activities (eg. 1 point for abstract submission, 2 points for poster presentation, 3 points for oral presentation, etc.). These points translated into to lottery tickets for a semi-annual drawing for monetary prizes. Productivity was compared among faculty for P-QUAD year to the preintervention year. Fifteen (83%) of 18 eligible faculty members participated. Overall annual productivity per faculty member as measured by total P-QUAD score increased from a median of 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 0-14) in the preintervention year to 4 (IQR 0-27) in the P-QUAD year (P = .051). Submissions and acceptances increased in all categories except posters which were unchanged. Annual abstract submissions per faculty member significantly increased from a median of 1 (IQR 0-2) to 2 (IQR 0-2; P = .047). Seventy-three percent (8 of 11) of post-survey respondents indicated that the financial incentive motivated them to submit academic work; 100% indicated that increased awareness of their peers' work was a motivator. The combination of increased awareness of peers' academic productivity and a weighted lottery financial incentive appears to be a useful model for stimulating academic productivity in early-career faculty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Design for mood : Twenty activity-based opportunities to design for mood regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a theory-based approach to design for mood regulation. The main proposition is that design can best influence mood by enabling and stimulating people to engage in a broad range of mood-regulating activities. The first part of the manuscript reviews state-of-the art mood-focused

  17. Repetitive thinking, executive functioning, and depressive mood in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, Pierre; Agrigoroaei, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Previous findings and the depressive-executive dysfunction hypothesis suggest that the established association between executive functioning and depression is accounted for by repetitive thinking. Investigating the association between executive functioning, repetitive thinking, and depressive mood, the present study empirically tested this mediational model in a sample of older adults, while focusing on both concrete and abstract repetitive thinking. This latter distinction is important given the potential protective role of concrete repetitive thinking, in contrast to the depletive effect of abstract repetitive thinking. A sample of 43 elderly volunteers, between 75 and 95 years of age, completed tests of executive functioning (the Stroop test, the Trail Making test, and the Fluency test), and questionnaires of repetitive thinking and depression. Positive correlations were observed between abstract repetitive thinking and depressive mood, and between concrete repetitive thinking and executive functioning; a negative correlation was observed between depressive mood and executive functioning. Further, mediational analysis evidenced that the relation between executive functioning and depressive mood was mediated by abstract repetitive thinking. The present data provide, for the first time, empirical support to the depressive-executive dysfunction hypothesis: the lack of executive resources would favor a mode of abstract repetitive thinking, which in turn would deplete mood. It suggests that clinical intervention targeting depression in the elderly should take into consideration repetitive thinking modes and the executive resources needed to disengage from rumination.

  18. [The use of mood stabilizers in preventive treatment of patients with schizoaffective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chritinin, D F; Sumarokova, M A

    2014-01-01

    To study an effect of combination therapy consisting of mood stabilizers on the quality of remission in patients with schizoaffective disorders. Authors examined 56 outpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder (F25). Patients in remission received anti-relapse therapy with antipsychotics and were not treated with mood stabilizers for at least two years, and then they received a combined anti-relapse therapy, including both antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. The combined use of pharmacotherapy creates a better remission. No statistically significant differences in the effect of different groups of mood stabilizers on the average duration of remission are identified. The inclusion of mood stabilizers in the scheme of preventive treatment has no effect on the average duration of subsequent hospitalization. Mood stabilizers are effective in the prevention of suicidal behavior in patients with schizoaffective disorder, they reduce the risk of disability in patients with schizoaffective disorder and increase compliance.

  19. Nitrogen Cycling from Increased Soil Organic Carbon Contributes Both Positively and Negatively to Ecosystem Services in Wheat Agro-Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeda Palmer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions. Given this uncertainty, progress is needed in quantifying the impact of increased SOC concentration on agro-ecosystems. Increased SOC concentration affects both N cycling and soil physical properties (i.e., water holding capacity. Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the contribution, both positive and negative, of increased SOC concentration on ecosystem services provided by wheat agro-ecosystems. We used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM to represent the effect of increased SOC concentration on N cycling and soil physical properties, and used model outputs as proxies for multiple ecosystem services from wheat production agro-ecosystems at seven locations around the world. Under increased SOC, we found that N cycling had a larger effect on a range of ecosystem services (food provision, filtering of N, and nitrous oxide regulation than soil physical properties. We predicted that food provision in these agro-ecosystems could be significantly increased by increased SOC concentration when N supply is limiting. Conversely, we predicted no significant benefit to food production from increasing SOC when soil N supply (from fertiliser and soil N stocks is not limiting. The effect of increasing SOC on N cycling also led to significantly higher nitrous oxide emissions, although the relative increase was small. We also found that N losses via deep drainage were

  20. Nitrogen Cycling from Increased Soil Organic Carbon Contributes Both Positively and Negatively to Ecosystem Services in Wheat Agro-Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeda; Thorburn, Peter J; Biggs, Jody S; Dominati, Estelle J; Probert, Merv E; Meier, Elizabeth A; Huth, Neil I; Dodd, Mike; Snow, Val; Larsen, Joshua R; Parton, William J

    2017-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions. Given this uncertainty, progress is needed in quantifying the impact of increased SOC concentration on agro-ecosystems. Increased SOC concentration affects both N cycling and soil physical properties (i.e., water holding capacity). Thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the contribution, both positive and negative, of increased SOC concentration on ecosystem services provided by wheat agro-ecosystems. We used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to represent the effect of increased SOC concentration on N cycling and soil physical properties, and used model outputs as proxies for multiple ecosystem services from wheat production agro-ecosystems at seven locations around the world. Under increased SOC, we found that N cycling had a larger effect on a range of ecosystem services (food provision, filtering of N, and nitrous oxide regulation) than soil physical properties. We predicted that food provision in these agro-ecosystems could be significantly increased by increased SOC concentration when N supply is limiting. Conversely, we predicted no significant benefit to food production from increasing SOC when soil N supply (from fertiliser and soil N stocks) is not limiting. The effect of increasing SOC on N cycling also led to significantly higher nitrous oxide emissions, although the relative increase was small. We also found that N losses via deep drainage were minimally

  1. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Médhi Gilson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24 listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  2. REM-Enriched Naps Are Associated with Memory Consolidation for Sad Stories and Enhance Mood-Related Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-29

    Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Väänänen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the physiological responses to daily repeated acute but non-competitive prolonged exercise during a 4-day march and a 2-day cross-country ski event to the cardiorespiratory, autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Mood states were also evaluated after these repeated exercises. The data of these short-term follow-up (reversal field trials was collected from healthy, 23 to 48 year old Finnish male soldiers in 1993 (n=6 and 1994 (n=15 during the "International Four-Day Long-Distance March" in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and from ten healthy, 22 to 48 year old Finnish male participants in 1995 during a 2-day Finlandia Ski Race in Lahti, Finland. Acute cardiovascular responses were estimated by measuring the heart rate during exercise. The responses of the autonomic nervous system were estimated by measuring the heart rates during the orthostatic test. The musculoskeletal responses were estimated by measuring the perceived pains, flexibility, functional strength, use of elastic energy and oedemic changes of the lower extremities. Hormonal responses were estimated from the urinary excretion of catecholamines, and the concentrations of serum cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. Mood states were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. Daily walking time was 7-10 hours while the skiing time was 3 hours. Average heart rate during walking was 59% and skiing 87% of maximum heart rate. Morning heart rate in the supine position increased progressively through the marching period but not through the skiing experiment. After the first day, perceived pain increased significantly and remained at a similarly increased level until the end of the exercise period. Leg measurements showed no signs of oedema, decreases in flexibility, or functional strength. Catecholamine excretion rates during marches indicated cumulatively increased

  4. Feeling happy and thinking about food. Counteractive effects of mood and memory on food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca; Stafford, Lorenzo D

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have demonstrated the role of mood and memory in the amount of food we consume. However, no work has examined these factors in a single study and given their combined effects beyond food research, this would seem important. In this study, the interactive effect of these factors was investigated. Unrestrained female participants (n = 64) were randomly assigned to either a positive or neutral mood induction, and were subject to a lunch cue (recalling their previously eaten meal) or no lunch cue, followed by a snack taste/intake test. We found that in line with prediction that food intake was lower in the lunch cue versus no cue condition and in contrast, food intake was higher in the positive versus neutral mood condition. We also found that more food was consumed in the lunch cue/positive mood compared to lunch cue/neutral mood condition. This suggests that positive mood places additional demands on attentional resources and thereby reduces the inhibitory effect of memory on food consumption. These findings confirm that memory cue and positive mood exert opposing effects on food consumption and highlight the importance of both factors in weight control interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effectiveness of mental rehabilitation based on positive thinking skills training on increasing happiness in hearing impaired adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rostami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing impairment can have an impact on adolescents’ quality of life and can lead to their isolation and depression. The main purpose of this research was to study the effectiveness of a mental rehabilitation program based on positive thinking skills training on increasing happiness in a group of hearing impaired girls and boys.Methods: In this experimental study, pre- and post-test plan with a control group was used. All of the hearing impaired students (girls and boys in all high schools of southern parts of Tehran, Iran, in year 2012-13 were our statistical research community. 48 hearing impaired girls and boys were selected by multistage sampling including stratified, purposive, and random sampling. They were randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. Each group consists of 12 boys and 12 girls. Positive thinking skills were trained to experimental groups during eight 45-minutes sessions, twice a week. We used the Oxford happiness questionnaire to assess the level of happiness.Results: Using analysis of covariance showed that positive thinking skills training had meaningful and positive effect on increasing happiness of hearing impaired boys and girls in the experimental groups (p<0.01. Also, the mean happiness scores of boys and girls were meaningfully different (p<0.01.Conclusion: Positive thinking skills training increases the happiness scores of hearing impaired adolescents. So, the approach taken in this study can be considered as an appropriate method for psychological-education interventions, counseling and treatment in hearing impaired adolescent.

  6. Increased visfatin levels are associated with higher disease activity in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejová, Hana; Kryštůfková, Olga; Mann, Heřman; Klein, Martin; Pavlíčková, Klára; Zámečník, Josef; Vencovský, Jiří; Šenolt, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of visfatin in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients, its expression in muscle tissue and to investigate potential relationships between visfatin, B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF), disease activity and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody levels. Serum levels of visfatin and BAFF were measured in 38 anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients and 35 healthy subjects. Disease activity was evaluated by myositis disease activity assessment tool (MYOACT) using visual analogue scales (VAS) and by serum muscle enzymes. Visfatin expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in muscle tissue of myositis patients (n=10) and compared with non-inflammatory control muscle tissue samples from patients with myasthenia gravis (n=5). Serum visfatin and BAFF levels were significantly higher in myositis patients compared to healthy subjects and were associated with clinical muscle activity assessed by VAS. Only serum BAFF levels, but not visfatin levels, positively correlated with muscle enzyme concentrations and anti-Jo1 antibody levels. There was a positive correlation between visfatin and BAFF serum levels in myositis patients but a negative correlation was observed in healthy subjects. Visfatin expression was up-regulated in endomysial and perimysial inflammatory infiltrates of muscle tissue from myositis patients. Up-regulation of visfatin in myositis muscle tissue and an association between increased visfatin levels and muscle disease activity evaluated by MYOACT in anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients could support possible role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of myositis.

  7. Episode forecasting in bipolar disorder: Is energy better than mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Abigail; Bradler, Kamil; Hintze, Arend

    2018-01-22

    Bipolar disorder is a severe mood disorder characterized by alternating episodes of mania and depression. Several interventions have been developed to decrease high admission rates and high suicides rates associated with the illness, including psychoeducation and early episode detection, with mixed results. More recently, machine learning approaches have been used to aid clinical diagnosis or to detect a particular clinical state; however, contradictory results arise from confusion around which of the several automatically generated data are the most contributory and useful to detect a particular clinical state. Our aim for this study was to apply machine learning techniques and nonlinear analyses to a physiological time series dataset in order to find the best predictor for forecasting episodes in mood disorders. We employed three different techniques: entropy calculations and two different machine learning approaches (genetic programming and Markov Brains as classifiers) to determine whether mood, energy or sleep was the best predictor to forecast a mood episode in a physiological time series. Evening energy was the best predictor for both manic and depressive episodes in each of the three aforementioned techniques. This suggests that energy might be a better predictor than mood for forecasting mood episodes in bipolar disorder and that these particular machine learning approaches are valuable tools to be used clinically. Energy should be considered as an important factor for episode prediction. Machine learning approaches provide better tools to forecast episodes and to increase our understanding of the processes that underlie mood regulation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cognitive Performance, Sleepiness, and Mood in Partially Sleep Deprived Adolescents: The Need for Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Ong, Ju Lynn; Leong, Ruth L F; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of sleep restriction (7 nights of 5 h time in bed [TIB]) on cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood in adolescents. A parallel-group design was adopted in the Need for Sleep Study. Fifty-six healthy adolescents (25 males, age = 15-19 y) who studied in top high schools and were not habitual short sleepers were randomly assigned to Sleep Restriction (SR) or Control groups. Participants underwent a 2-w protocol consisting of 3 baseline nights (TIB = 9 h), 7 nights of sleep opportunity manipulation (TIB = 5 h for the SR and 9 h for the control groups), and 3 nights of recovery sleep (TIB = 9 h) at a boarding school. A cognitive test battery was administered three times each day. During the manipulation period, the SR group demonstrated incremental deterioration in sustained attention, working memory and executive function, increase in subjective sleepiness, and decrease in positive mood. Subjective sleepiness and sustained attention did not return to baseline levels even after 2 recovery nights. In contrast, the control group maintained baseline levels of cognitive performance, subjective sleepiness, and mood throughout the study. Incremental improvement in speed of processing, as a result of repeated testing and learning, was observed in the control group but was attenuated in the sleep-restricted participants, who, despite two recovery sleep episodes, continued to perform worse than the control participants. A week of partial sleep deprivation impairs a wide range of cognitive functions, subjective alertness, and mood even in high-performing high school adolescents. Some measures do not recover fully even after 2 nights of recovery sleep. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 497. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Effect of singing on respiratory function, voice, and mood after quadriplegia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Grocke, Denise; Brazzale, Danny J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Ruehland, Warren R; Buttifant, Mary; Brown, Douglas J; Berlowitz, David J

    2013-03-01

    To explore the effects of singing training on respiratory function, voice, mood, and quality of life for people with quadriplegia. Randomized controlled trial. Large, university-affiliated public hospital, Victoria, Australia. Participants (N=24) with chronic quadriplegia (C4-8, American Spinal Injury Association grades A and B). The experimental group (n=13) received group singing training 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. The control group (n=11) received group music appreciation and relaxation for 12 weeks. Assessments were conducted pre, mid-, immediately post-, and 6-months postintervention. Standard respiratory function testing, surface electromyographic activity from accessory respiratory muscles, sound pressure levels during vocal tasks, assessments of voice quality (Perceptual Voice Profile, Multidimensional Voice Profile), and Voice Handicap Index, Profile of Mood States, and Assessment of Quality of Life instruments. The singing group increased projected speech intensity (P=.028) and maximum phonation length (P=.007) significantly more than the control group. Trends for improvements in respiratory function, muscle strength, and recruitment were also evident for the singing group. These effects were limited by small sample sizes with large intersubject variability. Both groups demonstrated an improvement in mood (P=.002), which was maintained in the music appreciation and relaxation group after 6 months (P=.017). Group music therapy can have a positive effect on not only physical outcomes, but also can improve mood, energy, social participation, and quality of life for an at-risk population, such as those with quadriplegia. Specific singing therapy can augment these general improvements by improving vocal intensity. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The mood variation in mothers of preterm infants in Kangaroo mother care and conventional incubator care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho; Cruvinel, Fernando; Lukasova, Katerina; D'Antino, Maria Eloisa Famá

    2007-10-01

    Preterm babies are more prone to develop disorders and so require immediate intensive care. In the conventional neonatal intensive care, the baby is kept in the incubator, separated from the mother. Some actions have been taken in order to make this mother-child separation less traumatic. One of these actions is the Kangaroo mother care (KMC) characterized by skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn. The objective of this study was to compare the mood variation of mothers enrolled in the KMC program to those in the conventional incubator care. In one general hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 90 mothers were evaluated before and after contact with the baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. The participants were divided into three groups: 30 mothers of term newborns (TG), 30 mothers of preterm infants included in KMC program (PGK) and 30 preterms with incubator placement (PGI). The Brazilian version of the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) was used for the assessment before and after the infant's visit. Results showed that TG mothers reported fewer occurrences of depressive states than PGK and PGI mothers. A significant mood variation was observed for PGK and PGI after the infant's visit. PGK mothers reported feeling calmer, stronger, well-coordinated, energetic, contented, tranquil, quick-witted, relaxed, proficient, happy, friendly and clear-headed. The only variation showed by PGI mothers was an increase in feeling clumsy. This study shows a positive effect of the KMC on the mood variation of preterm mothers and points to the need of a more humane experience during the incubator care.

  11. Caffeine deprivation affects vigilance performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J D; Phillips-Bute, B G

    1998-08-01

    The effects of brief caffeine deprivation on vigilance performance, mood, and symptoms of caffeine withdrawal were studied in habitual coffee drinkers. Thirty male and female coffee drinkers were tested twice at midday (1130 to 1330 hours) after mornings in which they either consumed caffeinated beverages ad lib or abstained. Vigilance performance was tested with a 30-min computerized visual monitoring task. Mood and withdrawal symptom reports were collected by questionnaires. Caffeine deprivation was associated with impaired vigilance performance characterized by a reduction in the percentage of targets detected and an increase in response time, and by subjective reports of decreased vigor and increased fatigue and symptoms characterized by sleepiness, headache, and reduced ability to work. Even short periods of caffeine deprivation, equivalent in length to skipping regular morning coffee, can produce deficits in sustained attention and noticeable unpleasant caffeine-withdrawal symptoms in habitual coffee drinkers. Such symptoms may be a common side-effect of habitual caffeine consumption that contributes to the maintenance of this behavior.

  12. Immune-based strategies for mood disorders: facts and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpo, Gabriela D; Leboyer, Marion; Dantzer, Robert; Trivedi, Mahdukar H; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2018-02-01

    Inflammation seems to play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In the last years several studies have shown increased levels of inflammatory and/or immune markers in patients with mood disorders. Accordingly, the immune system has become a target of interest for the development of biomarkers and therapeutics for mood disorders. Areas covered: Here, we review the evidence showing low-grade inflammation in mood disorders and the studies evaluating immune-based strategies for the treatment of these conditions. Expert commentary: Clinical trials with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, polyunsaturated acids, N-acetylcysteine, anti-cytokines, physical activity and probiotics have provided promising results in terms of antidepressant efficacy in patients with MDD and BD. Regarding stem cells, only studies with animal models have been performed so far with interesting pre-clinical results. Due to the preliminary nature of the results, most of the clinical studies need to be replicated and/or confirmed in larger clinical settings, embracing the highly heterogeneous pathophysiology of mood disorders.

  13. Non-response to sad mood induction: implications for emotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria; Yaroslavsky, Ilya

    2018-05-01

    Experimental induction of sad mood states is a mainstay of laboratory research on affect and cognition, mood regulation, and mood disorders. Typically, the success of such mood manipulations is reported as a statistically significant pre- to post-induction change in the self-rated intensity of the target affect. The present commentary was motivated by an unexpected finding in one of our studies concerning the response rate to a well-validated sad mood induction. Using the customary statistical approach, we found a significant mean increase in self-rated sadness intensity with a moderate effect size, verifying the "success" of the mood induction. However, that "success" masked that, between one-fifth and about one-third of our samples (adolescents who had histories of childhood-onset major depressive disorder and healthy controls) reported absolutely no sadness in response to the mood induction procedure. We consider implications of our experience for emotion research by (1) commenting upon the typically overlooked phenomenon of nonresponse, (2) suggesting changes in reporting practices regarding mood induction success, and (3) outlining future directions to help scientists determine why some subjects do not respond to experimental mood induction.

  14. This mood is familiar and I don't deserve to feel better anyway: mechanisms underlying self-esteem differences in motivation to repair sad moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne V; Heimpel, Sara A; Manwell, Laurie A; Whittington, Elizabeth J

    2009-02-01

    Why are people with low self-esteem (LSE) less motivated than people with high self-esteem (HSE) to improve sad moods? The present research examined whether feelings of personal deservingness contribute to this difference. Four experiments with undergraduate participants involved a sad mood induction, a manipulation of personal deservingness, or both. Results suggested that (a) LSEs feel less deserving of positive outcomes and of positive moods than do HSEs, (b) feelings of personal deservingness can vary with the situation, and be lowered through reminders of social rejection and personal flaws, and (c) feeling relatively undeserving dampens LSEs', but not HSEs', motivation to repair sad moods. These results have implications for the emotion regulation, self-esteem, and social justice literatures.

  15. Differential risk for late adolescent conduct problems and mood dysregulation among children with early externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.

  16. Enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis of the cecal pole and appendix vermiformis with increase of IgG4-positive plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtesse, Sarah; Friemel, Juliane; Fankhauser, René; Weber, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the clinicopathological course of a 20-year-old female patient with enterocolic lymphocytic phlebitis (ELP) of the appendix vermiformis and cecal pole with increase of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The patient presented with acute abdomen, suspicious of acute appendicitis. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed tumefaction of the cecal pole and appendix vermiformis. Histologic examination revealed mural thickening and a dense lymphoplasmocytic, partly obliterative infiltrate of the veins with sparing of the arteries, diagnostic of ELP. In addition, we found an elevated number of IgG4-positive plasma cells blended in with the lymphocytes. The IgG4-to-IgG ratio accounted for >40 %. This case meets the histopathological criteria requested for IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and thus opens the possibility that ELP might be part of the IgG4-RD spectrum.

  17. Effects of sad mood on facial emotion recognition in Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tatia M C; Ng, Emily H H; Tang, S W; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2008-05-30

    This study examined the influence of sad mood on the judgment of ambiguous facial emotion expressions among 47 healthy volunteers who had been induced to feel sad (n=13), neutral (n=15), or happy (n=19) emotions by watching video clips. The findings suggest that when the targets were ambiguous, participants who were in a sad mood tended to classify them in the negative emotional categories rather than the positive emotional categories. Also, this observation indicates that emotion-specific negative bias in the judgment of facial expressions is associated with a sad mood. The finding argues against a general impairment in decoding facial expressions. Furthermore, the observed mood-congruent negative bias was best predicted by spatial perception. The findings of this study provide insights into the cognitive processes underlying the interpersonal difficulties experienced by people in a sad mood, which may be predisposing factors in the development of clinical depression.

  18. Palmitate-induced ER stress increases trastuzumab sensitivity in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Jan; Wong, Jason; Sun, Yan; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells have recently been shown to use a unique Warburg-like metabolism for survival and aggressive behavior. These cells exhibit increased fatty acid synthesis and storage compared to normal breast cells or other tumor cells. Disruption of this synthetic process results in apoptosis. Since the addition of physiological doses of exogenous palmitate induces cell death in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells, the pathway is likely operating at its limits in these cells. We have studied the response of HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells to physiological concentrations of exogenous palmitate to identify lipotoxicity-associated consequences of this physiology. Since epidemiological data show that a diet rich in saturated fatty acids is negatively associated with the development of HER2/neu-positive cancer, this cellular physiology may be relevant to the etiology and treatment of the disease. We sought to identify signaling pathways that are regulated by physiological concentrations of exogenous palmitate specifically in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells and gain insights into the molecular mechanism and its relevance to disease prevention and treatment. Transcriptional profiling was performed to assess programs that are regulated in HER2-normal MCF7 and HER2/neu-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells in response to exogenous palmitate. Computational analyses were used to define and predict functional relationships and identify networks that are differentially regulated in the two cell lines. These predictions were tested using reporter assays, fluorescence-based high content microscopy, flow cytometry and immunoblotting. Physiological effects were confirmed in HER2/neu-positive BT474 and HCC1569 breast cancer cell lines. Exogenous palmitate induces functionally distinct transcriptional programs in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells. In the lipogenic HER2/neu-positive SKBR3 cell line, palmitate induces a G2 phase cell cycle delay and

  19. Subclinical hypothyroidism, mood, and cognition in older adults: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Russell T; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Hennessey, James V; Ryan, Joseph J; Stern, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    To perform a critical review of the literature on the mood and cognitive changes associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), with an emphasis on older adults. To evaluate these data against the Consensus Statement on the management of SCH from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American Thyroid Association, and The Endocrine Society. A comprehensive literature review. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be associated with an increased risk of mood and cognitive dysfunction, although the strength of this association and the efficacy of replacement hormone therapy require further investigation. It remains unclear whether SCH leads to significant mood and cognitive impairments in most older patients. More research is required to determine the nature and extent of this association and whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy is appropriate and effective in treating SCH-associated neurobehavioral impairments. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Expectation of having consumed caffeine can improve performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Lynne; Shahzad, Fatima-Zahra; Ahmed, Suada S; Edmonds, Caroline J

    2011-12-01

    We explored whether caffeine, and expectation of having consumed caffeine, affects attention, reward responsivity and mood using double-blinded methodology. 88 participants were randomly allocated to 'drink-type' (caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee) and 'expectancy' (told caffeinated/told decaffeinated coffee) manipulations. Both caffeine and expectation of having consumed caffeine improved attention and psychomotor speed. Expectation enhanced self-reported vigour and reward responsivity. Self-reported depression increased at post-drink for all participants, but less in those receiving or expecting caffeine. These results suggest caffeine expectation can affect mood and performance but do not support a synergistic effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of frontal transcranial direct current stimulation on emotional processing and mood in healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Nitsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex is involved in mood and emotional processing. In patients suffering from depression, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is hypoactive, while activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is enhanced. Counterbalancing these pathological excitability alterations by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves mood in these patients. In healthy subjects, however, rTMS of the same areas has no major effect, and the effects of tDCS are mixed. We aimed to evaluate the effects of prefrontal tDCS on mood and mood-related cognitive processing in healthy humans. In a first study, we administered excitability-enhancing anodal, excitability-diminishing cathodal and placebo tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, combined with antagonistic stimulation of the right frontopolar cortex, and tested acute mood changes by an adjective checklist. Subjective mood was not influenced by tDCS. Emotional face identification, however, which was explored in a second experiment, was subtly improved by a tDCS-driven excitability modulation of the prefrontal cortex, markedly by anodal tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for positive emotional content. We conclude that tDCS of the prefrontal cortex improves mood processing in healthy subjects, but does not influence subjective mood state.

  2. Examining the Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Training on Increasing Hope and Life Satisfaction in Mothers of Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Omid Sotoudeh Navroodi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders are exposed to mental distress because of having a disabled child more than parents with children with other psychological disorders, and their children's disorder has a negative effect on their hope and life satisfaction. The present study aimed to examining the effectiveness of group positive parenting training on increasing hope and life satisfaction in mothers of children with autism.Method: This was a quasi-experimental study with pretest, posttest, and control and experimental groups. Mothers with autistic children (6-15 years in Rasht consisted the statistical population of the study. All the children had a medical record and autism diagnosis based on DSM-IV-TR by a psychiatrist. Hope Questionnaires by Snyder and Life Satisfaction Questionnaire by Diener were implemented. Participants of the experimental group received positive parenting training for 8 sessions, and participants of the control group were put in the state of waiting. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage and inferential statistics (univariate and multivariate covariance analysis were used for data analysis.Results: In this study, 27 mothers of children with autism were examined. The mean and standard deviation of the age of mothers in the experimental group was 36.14± 2.47 years and it was 37± 3.62 years for mothers in the control group. The results of univariate covariance analysis revealed a significant difference between the scores of pretest and posttest of the experimental and control groups in life satisfaction (Sum of square = 16.558, F = 13.534, DF = 1, P = 0.002, 〖=ƞ〗^2 = 0.361.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that using group positive parenting training can have a positive effect on dimensions of hope and life satisfaction in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

  3. Closing the gap: increases in life expectancy among treated HIV-positive individuals in the United States and Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Samji

    Full Text Available Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART has significantly increased survival among HIV-positive adults in the United States (U.S. and Canada, but gains in life expectancy for this region have not been well characterized. We aim to estimate temporal changes in life expectancy among HIV-positive adults on ART from 2000-2007 in the U.S. and Canada.Participants were from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD, aged ≥20 years and on ART. Mortality rates were calculated using participants' person-time from January 1, 2000 or ART initiation until death, loss to follow-up, or administrative censoring December 31, 2007. Life expectancy at age 20, defined as the average number of additional years that a person of a specific age will live, provided the current age-specific mortality rates remain constant, was estimated using abridged life tables.The crude mortality rate was 19.8/1,000 person-years, among 22,937 individuals contributing 82,022 person-years and 1,622 deaths. Life expectancy increased from 36.1 [standard error (SE 0.5] to 51.4 [SE 0.5] years from 2000-2002 to 2006-2007. Men and women had comparable life expectancies in all periods except the last (2006-2007. Life expectancy was lower for individuals with a history of injection drug use, non-whites, and in patients with baseline CD4 counts <350 cells/mm(3.A 20-year-old HIV-positive adult on ART in the U.S. or Canada is expected to live into their early 70 s, a life expectancy approaching that of the general population. Differences by sex, race, HIV transmission risk group, and CD4 count remain.

  4. The positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing of increasing methane emissions from a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Kljun, NatasCha; Quinton, William L; Treat, Claire C; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    At the southern margin of permafrost in North America, climate change causes widespread permafrost thaw. In boreal lowlands, thawing forested permafrost peat plateaus ('forest') lead to expansion of permafrost-free wetlands ('wetland'). Expanding wetland area with saturated and warmer organic soils is expected to increase landscape methane (CH 4 ) emissions. Here, we quantify the thaw-induced increase in CH 4 emissions for a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains, Canada, and evaluate its impact on net radiative forcing relative to potential long-term net carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchange. Using nested wetland and landscape eddy covariance net CH 4 flux measurements in combination with flux footprint modeling, we find that landscape CH 4 emissions increase with increasing wetland-to-forest ratio. Landscape CH 4 emissions are most sensitive to this ratio during peak emission periods, when wetland soils are up to 10 °C warmer than forest soils. The cumulative growing season (May-October) wetland CH 4 emission of ~13 g CH 4  m -2 is the dominating contribution to the landscape CH 4 emission of ~7 g CH 4  m -2 . In contrast, forest contributions to landscape CH 4 emissions appear to be negligible. The rapid wetland expansion of 0.26 ± 0.05% yr -1 in this region causes an estimated growing season increase of 0.034 ± 0.007 g CH 4  m -2  yr -1 in landscape CH 4 emissions. A long-term net CO 2 uptake of >200 g CO 2  m -2  yr -1 is required to offset the positive radiative forcing of increasing CH 4 emissions until the end of the 21st century as indicated by an atmospheric CH 4 and CO 2 concentration model. However, long-term apparent carbon accumulation rates in similar boreal forest-wetland landscapes and eddy covariance landscape net CO 2 flux measurements suggest a long-term net CO 2 uptake between 49 and 157 g CO 2  m -2  yr -1 . Thus, thaw-induced CH 4 emission increases likely exert a positive net radiative greenhouse gas

  5. Increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Laurent B; Reyes, Alvaro; Tran, Tai T; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Haff, G Gregory

    2014-12-01

    Although lower-body strength is correlated with sprint performance, whether increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance remain unclear. This meta-analysis determined whether increases in lower-body strength (measured with the free-weight back squat exercise) transfer positively to sprint performance, and identified the effects of various subject characteristics and resistance-training variables on the magnitude of sprint improvement. A computerized search was conducted in ADONIS, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, MEDLINE and PubMed databases, and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. The analysis comprised 510 subjects and 85 effect sizes (ESs), nested with 26 experimental and 11 control groups and 15 studies. There is a transfer between increases in lower-body strength and sprint performance as indicated by a very large significant correlation (r = -0.77; p = 0.0001) between squat strength ES and sprint ES. Additionally, the magnitude of sprint improvement is affected by the level of practice (p = 0.03) and body mass (r = 0.35; p = 0.011) of the subject, the frequency of resistance-training sessions per week (r = 0.50; p = 0.001) and the rest interval between sets of resistance-training exercises (r = -0.47; p ≤ 0.001). Conversely, the magnitude of sprint improvement is not affected by the athlete's age (p = 0.86) and height (p = 0.08), the resistance-training methods used through the training intervention, (p = 0.06), average load intensity [% of 1 repetition maximum (RM)] used during the resistance-training sessions (p = 0.34), training program duration (p = 0.16), number of exercises per session (p = 0.16), number of sets per exercise (p = 0.06) and number of repetitions per set (p = 0.48). Increases in lower-body strength transfer positively to sprint performance. The magnitude of sprint improvement is affected by numerous subject characteristics and resistance

  6. Joint positions matter for ultrasound examination of RA patients-increased power Doppler signal in neutral versus flat position of hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husic, Rusmir; Lackner, Angelika; Stradner, Martin H; Hermann, Josef; Dejaco, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Position of joints might influence the result of US examination in patients with RA. The purpose of this work was to compare grey-scale (GS) and power Doppler (PWD) findings obtained in neutral vs flat position of hands. A cross-sectional study of 42 RA patients with active disease. Two dimensional and 3D sonography of wrists and MCP joints were conducted in two different joint positions: neutral position, which is a slight flexion of the fingers with relaxed extensor muscles; and flat position, where all palm and volar sides of fingers touch the Table. Two dimensional GS synovitis (GSS) and PWD signals were scored semi-quantitatively (0-3). For 3D sonography, the percentage of PWD voxels within a region of interest was calculated. GSS was not quantified using 3D sonography. Compared with neutral position, 2D PWD signals disappeared in 28.3% of joints upon flattening. The median global 2D PWD score (sum of all PWD scores of an individual patient) decreased from 8 to 3 ( P < 0.001), and the global 3D PWD voxel score from 3.8 to 0.9 ( P < 0.001). The reduction of PWD scores was similar in all joints (2D: minus 50%, 3D: minus 66.4-80.1%). Inter- and intrareader agreement of PWD results was good (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.75-0.82). In RA, a neutral position of the hands is linked to a higher sensitivity of 2D and 3D sonography in detecting PWD signals at wrists and MCP joints, compared with a flat position. Standardization of the scanning procedure is essential for obtaining comparable US results in RA patients in trials and clinical routines. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Premenstrual mood and empathy after a single light therapy session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aan Het Rot, Marije; Miloserdov, Kristina; Buijze, Anna L F; Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2017-10-01

    To examine whether acute changes in cognitive empathy might mediate the impact of light therapy on mood, we assessed the effects of a single light-therapy session on mood and cognitive empathy in 48 premenstrual women, including 17 who met Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool criteria for moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome / premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD). Using a participant-blind between-groups design, 23 women underwent 30min of morning light therapy (5,000lx; blue-enriched polychromatic light, 17,000K) while 25 women had a sham session (200lx, polychromatic light, 5,000K). We administered the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule and the Affect Grid right before and after the intervention, and 60min later upon completion of a computerized empathic accuracy task. There were no significant effects of light condition on cognitive empathy as assessed using the computer task. Nonetheless, bright light reduced negative affect, specifically in women not using hormonal contraceptives. No effects of bright light on mood were observed in women who were using contraceptives. If a single light-therapy session does not alter cognitive empathy, then cognitive empathy may not mediate the impact of light therapy on mood in premenstrual women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulkin Jay

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased behavior. Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets, and then separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue with free sucrose pellets. On test days, rats received microinjections of vehicle, CRF (250 or 500 ng/0.2 μl or amphetamine (20 μg/0.2 μl. Lever pressing was assessed in the presence or absence of the Pavlovian cues during a half-hour test. Results Microinjections of the highest dose of CRF (500 ng or amphetamine (20 μg selectively enhanced the ability of Pavlovian reward cues to trigger phasic peaks of increased instrumental performance for a sucrose reward, each peak lasting a minute or so before decaying after the cue. Lever pressing was not enhanced by CRF microinjections in the baseline absence of the Pavlovian cue or during the presentation without a cue, showing that the CRF enhancement could not be explained as a result of generalized motor arousal, frustration or stress

  9. Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peciña, Susana; Schulkin, Jay; Berridge, Kent C

    2006-04-13

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased behavior). Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets, and then separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue with free sucrose pellets. On test days, rats received microinjections of vehicle, CRF (250 or 500 ng/0.2 microl) or amphetamine (20 microg/0.2 microl). Lever pressing was assessed in the presence or absence of the Pavlovian cues during a half-hour test. Microinjections of the highest dose of CRF (500 ng) or amphetamine (20 microg) selectively enhanced the ability of Pavlovian reward cues to trigger phasic peaks of increased instrumental performance for a sucrose reward, each peak lasting a minute or so before decaying after the cue. Lever pressing was not enhanced by CRF microinjections in the baseline absence of the Pavlovian cue or during the presentation without a cue, showing that the CRF enhancement could not be explained as a result of generalized motor arousal, frustration or stress, or by persistent attempts to

  10. Endocrine and mood responses to two working days in female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Miguel Angel; Moya-Albiol, Luís; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Currently, a considerable amount of work stress is present in school teachers, one of the occupational groups with the highest levels of job strain and burnout. As chronic stress produces significant modifications in emotional adjustment and neuroendocrine functioning, we aimed to investigate the role of these work stress constructs in the endocrine and mood responses of a group of female teachers during two working days (WD) at different moments in the academic year. We studied mood as well as levels of cortisol and testosterone, representative of a predominant catabolic or anabolic balance. Our results showed that higher "control" was associated with higher positive mood (p = .028 on WD1 and p = .057 on WD2) and salivary testosterone (Tsal) (p = .022 on WD1), whereas "demands" and "total job strain" were related to negative mood (p = .011 and p = .015, respectively). Participants with higher scores on "total burnout" and "emotional exhaustion" also had higher negative mood (p < .05 in all cases). Depersonalization correlated positively with negative mood (p = .019 and p = .006 on WD1 and WD2, respectively). Finally, personal accomplishment showed an inverse relationship with negative mood (p = .038 on WD2). These results are useful for job risk prevention and interventions that should focus on the control dimension of the job strain questionnaire and on personal accomplishment from the burnout scale.

  11. Negative moods correlate with craving in female methamphetamine users enrolled in compulsory detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wenwen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methamphetamine (METH use, especially in females, has become a growing public health concern in China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the factors that contributed to drug craving in female METH users under isolated compulsory detoxification. We characterized factors contributing to craving such as duration of detoxification, history of drug use and self-reported mood state. Methods Subjects (N=113 undergoing a 1- to 3-year METH detoxification program were recruited from the Zhejiang Compulsory Detoxification Center for Women. The Questionnaire of METH-use Urge (QMU was used to evaluate the level of craving for METH. The Abbreviate Profile of Mood States (A-POMS was applied as an assessment for the negative mood disturbances. Results The participants were at a mean age of 25.2, primarily lowly educated and unemployed, and single. Smoking was the only route of METH administration at an average dose of 0.5 g/day, and 4 times/week. The reported craving level was positively correlated with the negative mood disturbances and the weekly dose of METH, but independent of the duration of detoxification. Furthermore, all five aspects of negative mood disturbances, including fatigue, bewilderment, anxiety, depression and hostility, were shown to positively correlate to the self-reported craving level after controlling for weekly dose of METH. Conclusions The data demonstrate a robust correlation between mood distress and craving for METH. Our results call for close evaluation of mood distress in treatment of METH users in China.

  12. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  13. Length of stay for patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring with stereoelectroencephalography and subdural grids correlates positively with increased institutional profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alvin Y; Kharrat, Sohayla; Lundeen, Kelly; Mnatsakanyan, Lilit; Sazgar, Mona; Sen-Gupta, Indranil; Lin, Jack J; Hsu, Frank P K; Vadera, Sumeet

    2017-06-01

    Lowering the length of stay (LOS) is thought to potentially decrease hospital costs and is a metric commonly used to manage capacity. Patients with epilepsy undergoing intracranial electrode monitoring may have longer LOS because the time to seizure is difficult to predict or control. This study investigates the effect of economic implications of increased LOS in patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy. We retrospectively collected and analyzed patient data for 76 patients who underwent invasive monitoring with either subdural grid (SDG) implantation or stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) over 2 years at our institution. Data points collected included invasive electrode type, LOS, profit margin, contribution margins, insurance type, and complication rates. LOS correlated positively with both profit and contribution margins, meaning that as LOS increased, both the profit and contribution margins rose, and there was a low rate of complications in this patient group. This relationship was seen across a variety of insurance providers. These data suggest that LOS may not be the best metric to assess invasive monitoring patients (i.e., SEEG or SDG), and increased LOS does not necessarily equate with lower or negative institutional financial gain. Further research into LOS should focus on specific specialties, as each may differ in terms of financial implications. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Increased gray matter volume of left pars opercularis in male orchestral musicians correlate positively with years of musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Kareem, Ihssan A; Stancak, Andrej; Parkes, Laura M; Sluming, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    To compare manual volumetry of gray matter (GM) / white matter (WM) of Broca's area subparts: pars opercularis (POP) and pars triangularis (PTR) in both hemispheres between musicians and nonmusician, as it has been shown that these regions are crucial for musical abilities. A previous voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study conducted in our laboratory reported increased GM density in Broca's area of left hemisphere in male orchestral musicians. Functional segregation of POP/PTR justified separate volumetric analysis of these parts. We used the same cohort for the VBM study. Manual morphometry (stereology) was used to compare volumes between 26/26 right-handed orchestral musicians/nonmusicians. As expected, musicians showed significantly increased GM volume in the Broca's area, specifically in the left POP. No significant results were detected in right POP, left/right PTR GM volumes, and WM volumes for all regions. Results were positively correlated with years of musical performance (r = 0.7, P = 0.0001). This result corroborates the VBM study and is in line with the hypothesis of critical involvement of POP in hearing-action integration being an integral component of frontoparietotemporal mirror neuron network. We hypothesize that increased size of musicians' left POP represent use-dependent structural adaptation in response to intensive audiomotor skill acquisition. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. State Anxiety Carried Over From Prior Threat Increases Late Positive Potential Amplitude During an Instructed Emotion Regulation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Walker S.; Larson, Christine L.

    2018-01-01

    Emotion regulation has important consequences for emotional and mental health (Saxena, Dubey & Pandey, 2011) and is dependent on executive function (Eisenberg, Smith & Spinrad, 2011). Because state anxiety disrupts executive function (Robinson, Vytal, Cornwell & Grillon, 2013), we tested whether state anxiety disrupts emotion regulation by having participants complete an instructed emotion regulation task, while under threat of unpredictable shock and while safe from shock. We used the late positive potential (LPP) component of the event related potential to measure emotion regulation success. We predicted that LPP responses to negatively valenced images would be modulated by participants’ attempts to increase and decrease their emotions when safe from shock, but not while under threat of shock. Our manipulation check revealed an order effect such that for participants who completed the threat of shock condition first self-reported state anxiety carried over into the subsequent safe condition. Additionally, we found that although instructions to regulate affected participants’ ratings of how unpleasant the images made them feel, instructions to regulate had no effect on LPP amplitude regardless of threat condition. Instead we found that participants who received the threat condition prior to safe had greater LPP responses to all images in the safe condition. We posit that the carryover of anxiety resulted in misattribution of arousal and potentiation of neural responses to the images in the safe condition. Thus, our results imply that physiological arousal and cognition combine to influence the basic neural response to emotional stimuli. PMID:27055095

  16. The number of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells is increased in Helicobacter pylori gastritis and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae Jung

    2010-01-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection is not removed, a state of chronic active gastritis persists for life if untreated. Recent studies have shown that CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress the immune response to H. pylori. Persistent H. pylori-associated gastritis is closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis. We investigated the number of Tregs in the context of H. pylori colonization in chronic gastritis, examined the relationship between it and histopathological findings and compared it with that of gastric dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. This study was based on the analysis of gastric biopsy specimens from 126 cases of H. pylori-associated gastritis, 16 cases of H. pylori-negative gastritis, 17 cases of gastric dysplasia, and 25 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma. The number of Tregs was elevated in H. pylori-associated gastritis, where it was positively correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation and the number of lymphoid follicles. It was significantly elevated in adenocarcinomas compared to chronic gastritis and gastric dysplasia. In summary, the number of Tregs is increased in H. pylori-associated gastritis and gastric cancer. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural resistance to experimental feline infectious peritonitis virus infection is decreased rather than increased by positive genetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Durden, Monica; Lyons, Leslie A

    2016-03-01

    A previous study demonstrated the existence of a natural resistance to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) among 36% of randomly bred laboratory cats. A genome wide association study (GWAS) on this population suggested that resistance was polygenic but failed to identify any strong specific associations. In order to enhance the power of GWAS or whole genome sequencing to identify strong genetic associations, a decision was made to positively select for resistance over three generations. The inbreeding experiment began with a genetically related parental (P) population consisting of three toms and four queens identified from among the survivors of the earlier study and belonging to a closely related subgroup (B). The subsequent effects of inbreeding were measured using 42 genome-wide STR markers. P generation cats produced 57 first filial (F1) kittens, only five of which (9.0%) demonstrated a natural resistance to FIPV infection. One of these five F1 survivors was then used to produce six F1/P-backcrosses kittens, only one of which proved resistant to FIP. Six of eight of the F1 and F1/P survivors succumbed to a secondary exposure 4-12 months later. Therefore, survival after both primary and secondary infection was decreased rather than increased by positive selection for resistance. The common genetic factor associated with this diminished resistance was a loss of heterozygosity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of caregiver singing and background music on vocally expressed emotions and moods in dementia care: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götell, Eva; Brown, Steven; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Music and singing are considered to have a strong impact on human emotions. Such an effect has been demonstrated in caregiving contexts with dementia patients. The aim of the study was to illuminate vocally expressed emotions and moods in the communication between caregivers and persons with severe dementia during morning care sessions. Three types of caring sessions were compared: the "usual" way, with no music; with background music playing; and with the caregiver singing to and/or with the patient. Nine persons with severe dementia living in a nursing home in Sweden and five professional caregivers participated in this study. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine videotaped recordings of morning care sessions, with a focus on vocally expressed emotions and moods during verbal communication. Compared to no music, the presence of background music and caregiver singing improved the mutuality of the communication between caregiver and patient, creating a joint sense of vitality. Positive emotions were enhanced, and aggressiveness was diminished. Whereas background music increased the sense of playfulness, caregiver singing enhanced the sense of sincerity and intimacy in the interaction. Caregiver singing and background music can help the caregiver improve the patient's ability to express positive emotions and moods, and to elicit a sense of vitality on the part of the person with severe dementia. The results further support the value of caregiver singing as a method to improve the quality of dementia care.

  19. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders in childhood and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    history of any anxiety and mood disorder, parental history of self-harming behaviour, advanced paternal age, gender, urban dwelling, economic deprivation, family dissolution, and childhood adversity were used to predict diagnosis of both anxiety and mood disorders from ages 10 to 21 years. Results: Binary...... logistic regression analysis showed that being female and a parental history of a mood or anxiety disorder are the strongest predictors of both disorders. Economic deprivation, and family dissolution also increase likelihood of both disorders. Urban dwelling and childhood adversity are predictors...... of anxiety disorders but not mood disorders. Conclusion: Between the ages of 10 and 21 years, anxiety and mood disorders share many common risk factors. However, urban dwelling and childhood adversity appear to be unique predictors of anxiety disorders. Results suggest there is no dominant factor...

  20. Interaction between emotional state and learning underlies mood instability

    OpenAIRE

    Eldar, Eran; Niv, Yael

    2015-01-01

    Intuitively, good and bad outcomes affect our emotional state, but whether the emotional state feeds back onto the perception of outcomes remains unknown. Here, we use behaviour and functional neuroimaging of human participants to investigate this bidirectional interaction, by comparing the evaluation of slot machines played before and after an emotion-impacting wheel-of-fortune draw. Results indicate that self-reported mood instability is associated with a positive-feedback effect of emotion...

  1. Evidence for endogenous opioid release in the amygdala during positive emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepp, M J; Hammers, A; Lawrence, A D; Asselin, M C; Grasby, P M; Bench, C J

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous opioid release has been linked to relief from aversive emotional memories, thereby promoting a euphoric state and subsequent interactions towards social stimuli resulting in the formation of social preferences. However, this theory remains controversial. Using positron emission tomography and [(11)C]diprenorphine (DPN) in healthy volunteers, we found significantly reduced DPN binding to opioid receptor in the hippocampus during positive mood induction compared to neutral mood. Furthermore, the magnitude of positive mood change correlated negatively with DPN binding in the amygdala bilaterally. Our finding of reduced DPN binding is consistent with increased release of endogenous opioids, providing direct evidence that localised release of endogenous opioids is involved in the regulation of positive emotion in humans.

  2. Clinical application of brain imaging for the diagnosis of mood disorders: the current state of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, J B; Rauch, S L; Drevets, W C

    2013-05-01

    In response to queries about whether brain imaging technology has reached the point where it is useful for making a clinical diagnosis and for helping to guide treatment selection, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recently written a position paper on the Clinical Application of Brain Imaging in Psychiatry. The following perspective piece is based on our contribution to this APA position paper, which specifically emphasized the application of neuroimaging in mood disorders. We present an introductory overview of the challenges faced by researchers in developing valid and reliable biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, followed by a synopsis of the extant neuroimaging findings in mood disorders, and an evidence-based review of the current research on brain imaging biomarkers in adult mood disorders. Although there are a number of promising results, by the standards proposed below, we argue that there are currently no brain imaging biomarkers that are clinically useful for establishing diagnosis or predicting treatment outcome in mood disorders.

  3. Clinical application of brain imaging for the diagnosis of mood disorders: the current state of play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, J B; Rauch, S L; Drevets, W C

    2013-01-01

    In response to queries about whether brain imaging technology has reached the point where it is useful for making a clinical diagnosis and for helping to guide treatment selection, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recently written a position paper on the Clinical Application of Brain Imaging in Psychiatry. The following perspective piece is based on our contribution to this APA position paper, which specifically emphasized the application of neuroimaging in mood disorders. We present an introductory overview of the challenges faced by researchers in developing valid and reliable biomarkers for psychiatric disorders, followed by a synopsis of the extant neuroimaging findings in mood disorders, and an evidence-based review of the current research on brain imaging biomarkers in adult mood disorders. Although there are a number of promising results, by the standards proposed below, we argue that there are currently no brain imaging biomarkers that are clinically useful for establishing diagnosis or predicting treatment outcome in mood disorders. PMID:23546169

  4. Rapid temperature increase near the anode and cathode in the afterglow of a pulsed positive streamer discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo

    2018-06-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of the temperature in the afterglow of point-to-plane, pulsed positive streamer discharge was measured near the anode tip and cathode surface using laser-induced predissociation fluorescence of OH radicals. The temperature exhibited a rapid increase and displayed a steep spatial gradient after a discharge pulse. The rate of temperature rise reached 84 K μs‑1 at mm, where z represents the distance from the anode tip. The temperature rise was much faster than in the middle of the gap; it was only 2.8 K μs‑1 at mm. The temperature reached 1700 K near the anode tip at s and 1500 K near the cathode surface at s, where t represents the postdischarge time. The spatial gradient reached 1280 K mm‑1 near the anode tip at s. The mechanism responsible for the rapid temperature increase was discussed, including rapid heating of the gas in the early postdischarge phase (s), and vibration-to-translation energy transfer in the later postdischarge phase (s). The high temperatures near the anode tip and cathode surface are particularly important for the ignition of combustible mixtures and for surface treatments, including solid-surface treatments, water treatments, and plasma medicine using pulsed streamer discharges.

  5. Reduced positive affect (anhedonia) is independently associated with 7-year mortality in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Pelle, Aline J; Boersma, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Negative mood states (e.g., anxiety and depression) have been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD), but little is known about the impact of positive emotions on these health outcomes. We examined whether anhedonia (i.e., reduced positive...

  6. Exercise versus Nonexercise Activity: E-diaries Unravel Distinct Effects on Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Markus; Tost, Heike; Reinhard, Iris; Schlotz, Wolff; Zipf, Alexander; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2017-04-01

    The association between physical activity and mood is of major importance to increase physical activity as a prevention strategy for noncommunicable diseases and to improve mental health. Unfortunately, existing studies examining how physical activity and mood wax and wane within persons over time in everyday life do show ambiguous findings. Taking a closer look at these studies reveals that the aggregation levels differ tremendously. Whereas mood is conceptualized as a three-dimensional construct, physical activity is treated as a global construct not taking into account its distinct components like exercise (such as jogging) and nonexercise activity (NEA; such as climbing stairs). To overcome these limitations, we conducted an ambulatory assessment study on the everyday life of 106 adults over 7 d continuously measuring NEA via accelerometers and repeatedly querying for mood in real time via GPS-triggered e-diaries. We used multilevel modeling to derive differential within-subject effects of exercise versus NEA on mood and to conduct analyses on the temporal course of effects. Analyses revealed that exercise increased valence (beta = 0.023; P Exercise and NEA differed regarding their within-subject effects on mood, whereas exercise increased valence and calmness, NEA increased energetic arousal and decreased calmness. Therefore, it appears necessary to clearly differentiate between exercise and NEA regarding their within-subject effects on mood dimensions in both research and treatment.

  7. Variations in the Circumplex Structure of Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Lisa A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers have emphasized the similarity of the semantic and self-report mood circumplexes. Study investigated systematic differences in theses structures. Demonstrated that when making judgments of their mood, people weigh the arousal dimension less than the valence dimension. Dimensions are weighed equally in semantic structure. (JBJ)

  8. Mood and the evaluation of leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit; Sanders, Karin

    2003-01-01

    Research on the evaluation of leaders has shown that evaluation ratings are prone to several biases. The present study deals with one possible bias, namely, the relationship between mood and the perception or evaluation of a leader. The affect-as-information framework, which indicates that mood

  9. [Mood disorders in the DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; Claes, S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The DSM-5 was published in May, 2013. AIM: To discuss and comment on the important changes that appear in the sections of DSM-5 dealing with mood disorders. METHOD: The DSM-5 chapters on mood disorders are reviewed. RESULTS: Bipolar disorders and depressive disorders are now dealt with

  10. Optimizing the ingredients for imagery-based interpretation bias modification for depressed mood: Is self-generation more effective than imagination alone?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Heike; Blackwell, Simon E.; Holmes, Emily A.; Reinecke, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Negative interpretation is thought to be crucial in the development and maintenance of depression. Recently developed cognitive bias modification paradigms, intending to change these biases towards a more optimistic interpretation tendency (CBM-I), seem to offer new promising implications for cognitive therapy innovation. This study aimed to increase our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of action of imagery-based CBM-I in the context of depressed mood. We therefore compared the efficacy of CBM-I requiring participants to imagine standardized positive resolutions to a novel, more active training version that required participants to generate the positive interpretations themselves. Fifty-four participants were randomly allocated to (1) standardized CBM-I, (2) self-generation CBM-I or (3) a control group. Outcome measures included self-report mood measures and a depression-related interpretation bias measure. Both positive training variants significantly increased the tendency to interpret fresh ambiguous material in an optimistic manner. However, only the standardized imagery CBM-I paradigm positively influenced mood. PMID:24113076

  11. Optimizing the ingredients for imagery-based interpretation bias modification for depressed mood: is self-generation more effective than imagination alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Heike; Blackwell, Simon E; Holmes, Emily A; Reinecke, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Negative interpretation is thought to be crucial in the development and maintenance of depression. Recently developed cognitive bias modification paradigms, intending to change these biases towards a more optimistic interpretation tendency (CBM-I), seem to offer new promising implications for cognitive therapy innovation. This study aimed to increase our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of action of imagery-based CBM-I in the context of depressed mood. We therefore compared the efficacy of CBM-I requiring participants to imagine standardized positive resolutions to a novel, more active training version that required participants to generate the positive interpretations themselves. Fifty-four participants were randomly allocated to (1) standardized CBM-I, (2) self-generation CBM-I or (3) a control group. Outcome measures included self-report mood measures and a depression-related interpretation bias measure. Both positive training variants significantly increased the tendency to interpret fresh ambiguous material in an optimistic manner. However, only the standardized imagery CBM-I paradigm positively influenced mood. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Increased Toxoplasma gondii positivity relative to age in 125 Scottish sheep flocks; evidence of frequent acquired infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was determined in 3333 sheep sera from 125 distinct sheep flocks in Scotland, with the majority of flocks being represented by 27 samples, which were collected between July 2006 and August 2008. The selected farms give a representative sample of 14 400 sheep holdings identified in the Scottish Government census data from 2004. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence, at individual sheep level, was determined to be 56.6%; each flock tested, had at least a single positive animal and in four flocks all ewes tested positive. The seroprevalence of sheep increased from 37.7% in one year old stock to 73.8% in ewes that were older than six years, showing that acquired infections during the life of the animals is frequent and that environmental contamination by T. gondii oocysts must be significant. The median within-flock seroprevalence varied significantly across Scotland, with the lowest seroprevalence of 42.3% in the South and the highest seroprevalence of 69.2% in the far North of Scotland and the Scottish Islands, while the central part of Scotland had a seroprevalence of 57.7%. This distribution disequilibrium may be due to the spread and survival of oocysts on pasture and lambing areas. A questionnaire accompanying sampling of flocks identified farms that used Toxovax®, a commercial vaccine that protects sheep from abortion due to T. gondii infection. Only 24.7% of farmers used the vaccine and the vaccine did not significantly affect the within flock seroprevalence for T. gondii. The implications for food safety and human infection are discussed. PMID:22189159

  13. Physical exercise, salivary IgA and mood states of elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    R. Martins; F. Rosado; M.R. Cunha; M. Martins; A.M. Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the aging process is associated with immunosenescence. On the other hand, physical activity has been consistently associated with positive states of affection and mood which also implies gains on psychological well-being. However, more studies are needed to support the benefit effect of exercise on specific population groups like the elderly. The purpose of the present work is to study the functional fitness, mood states and salivary IgA chronic adaptations after...

  14. Stress Biomarkers, Mood States, and Sleep during a Major Competition: "Success" and "Failure" Athlete's Profile of High-Level Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Bougard, Clément; Drogou, Catherine; Langrume, Christophe; Miller, Christian; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vergnoux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate stress markers, mood states, and sleep indicators in high-level swimmers during a major 7-days competition according to the outcomes. Nine swimmers [six men and three women (age: 22 ± 2 and 22 ± 4 years, respectively)] were examined. Before (PRE) and after (POST) each race (series, semi-finals, and finals), salivary concentrations of cortisol, α-amylase (sAA), and chromogranin-A (CgA) were determined. Mood states were assessed by the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire completed before and after the 7-days, and self-reported sleep diaries were completed daily. In the "failure" group, cortisol and sAA significantly increased between PRE-POST measurements (p failure group." In this group, fatigue, confusion and depression scores, and sleep duration before the finals increased. The results in the "success" group show tendencies for increased cortisol and sCgA concentrations in response to competition, while sAA was not changed. Cortisol levels before the semi-finals and finals and sCgA levels before the finals were positively correlated to the fatigue score in the "failure" group only (r = 0.89). sAA levels before and after the semi-finals were negatively correlated to sleep duration measured in the subsequent night (r = -0.90). In conclusion, the stress of the competition could trigger a negative mood profile and sleep disturbance which correspond to different responses of biomarkers related to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, cortisol, sAA, and CgA.

  15. Acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite, energy intake and mood. Is there a time of day effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, M; Tsofliou, F; Pitsiladis, Y P; Malkova, D; Mutrie, N; Higgins, S

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite sensations, energy intake and mood, and to determine if there was a time of day effect. Twelve healthy, young, normal weight females, who were non-regular exercisers, participated in four trials: morning control, morning exercise, evening control and evening exercise. Exercise trials were a one-hour class of aerobic and muscle conditioning exercise of varying intensities, to music. Control trials were a one-hour rest. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the warm-up and muscle conditioning parts of the morning exercise trial compared to those of the evening exercise trial. Although both exercise trials, compared to control trials, produced an increase in appetite sensations, they did not alter energy intake and produced a decrease in 'relative' energy intake. In relation to mood, both exercise trials increased positive affect and decreased negative affect. These results suggest that a single exercise class, representative of that offered by many sports centres, regardless of whether it is performed in the morning or evening produces a short-term negative energy balance and improves mood in normal weight women. However, when this type of exercise was performed in the morning it was perceived to require more effort.

  16. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  17. Modeling Avoidance in Mood and Anxiety Disorders Using Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchian, Anahit; Aylward, Jessica; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2017-10-01

    Serious and debilitating symptoms of anxiety are the most common mental health problem worldwide, accounting for around 5% of all adult years lived with disability in the developed world. Avoidance behavior-avoiding social situations for fear of embarrassment, for instance-is a core feature of such anxiety. However, as for many other psychiatric symptoms the biological mechanisms underlying avoidance remain unclear. Reinforcement learning models provide formal and testable characterizations of the mechanisms of decision making; here, we examine avoidance in these terms. A total of 101 healthy participants and individuals with mood and anxiety disorders completed an approach-avoidance go/no-go task under stress induced by threat of unpredictable shock. We show an increased reliance in the mood and anxiety group on a parameter of our reinforcement learning model that characterizes a prepotent (pavlovian) bias to withhold responding in the face of negative outcomes. This was particularly the case when the mood and anxiety group was under stress. This formal description of avoidance within the reinforcement learning framework provides a new means of linking clinical symptoms with biophysically plausible models of neural circuitry and, as such, takes us closer to a mechanistic understanding of mood and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Local cerebral glucose metabolism (LCMRGlc) in mood disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Baxter, L.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    PET studies (LCMRGlc units of μ moles/min/100g and errors in std. dev.) were performed in patients with unipolar depression (n=11), bipolar depression (n=8), hypomania (n=8) and bipolar mixed states (n=3) in drug free states as well as during spontaneous or drug induced changes in mood, and age/sex matched normals (n=9). The major findings were: bipolar depressed patients had lower (P<0.001) supratentorial CMRGlc (16.7 +- 3.7) than normals (23.6 +- 1.9), hypomanic bipolars (24.7 + 44.6) or unipolars (24.5 +- 3.0). Bipolar mixed (16.4 +- 4.8) were not different from bipolar depressed but were different from all other states (P<0.02). Bipolar depressed and mixed showed increased (30%) supratentorial CMRGlc (P<0.05) with elevated mood (euthymic or hypomanic). Three rapid cycling bipolar patients (2 studies depressed and 1 hypomanic) also showed consistent increases (35%) in supratentorial CMRGlc from depressed to elevated mood state. Unipolar depressed patients had a low LCMRGlc ratio of caudate to hemispheric (c/Hem) (1.18 +- 0.09) compared to bipolar depression (1.30 +- 0.13) or normals (1.32 +- 0.07). Four unipolar patients studied after drug induced recovery showed corresponding return of Cd/Hem ratio to normal. Results of these studies show; delineation of bipolar depressed from unpolar depressed and normals. Separation of mixed biopolar from unipolar and correspondence of the former with bipolar rather than unipolar depression (controversial characterization by other diagnostic criteria), separation of unipolar from normal and bipolar by reduced LCMRGlc of caudate, and direct correspondence of changes in mood state with changes in LCMRGlc independent of whether changes in mood were drug induced or spontaneous

  19. Choir versus Solo Singing: Effects on Mood, and Salivary Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schladt, T Moritz; Nordmann, Gregory C; Emilius, Roman; Kudielka, Brigitte M; de Jong, Trynke R; Neumann, Inga D

    2017-01-01

    The quantification of salivary oxytocin (OXT) concentrations emerges as a helpful tool to assess peripheral OXT secretion at baseline and after various challenges in healthy and clinical populations. Both positive social interactions and stress are known to induce OXT secretion, but the relative influence of either of these triggers is not well delineated. Choir singing is an activity known to improve mood and to induce feelings of social closeness, and may therefore be used to investigate the effects of positive social experiences on OXT system activity. We quantified mood and salivary OXT and cortisol (CORT) concentrations before, during, and after both choir and solo singing performed in a randomized order in the same participants (repeated measures). Happiness was increased, and worry and sadness as well as salivary CORT concentrations were reduced, after both choir and solo singing. Surprisingly, salivary OXT concentrations were significantly reduced after choir singing, but did not change in response to solo singing. Salivary OXT concentrations showed high intra-individual stability, whereas salivary CORT concentrations fluctuated between days within participants. The present data indicate that the social experience of choir singing does not induce peripheral OXT secretion, as indicated by unchanged salivary OXT levels. Rather, the reduction of stress/arousal experienced during choir singing may lead to an inhibition of peripheral OXT secretion. These data are important for the interpretation of future reports on salivary OXT concentrations, and emphasize the need to strictly control for stress/arousal when designing similar experiments.

  20. The effect of mood on false memory for emotional DRM word lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Gross, Julien; Hayne, Harlene

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of participants' mood on true and false memories of emotional word lists in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In Experiment 1, we constructed DRM word lists in which all the studied words and corresponding critical lures reflected a specified emotional valence. In Experiment 2, we used these lists to assess mood-congruent true and false memory. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three induced-mood conditions (positive, negative, or neutral) and were presented with word lists comprised of positive, negative, or neutral words. For both true and false memory, there was a mood-congruent effect in the negative mood condition; this effect was due to a decrease in true and false recognition of the positive and neutral words. These findings are consistent with both spreading-activation and fuzzy-trace theories of DRM performance and have practical implications for our understanding of the effect of mood on memory.

  1. With sadness comes accuracy; with happiness, false memory: mood and the false memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L

    2005-10-01

    The Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm lures people to produce false memories. Two experiments examined whether induced positive or negative moods would influence this false memory effect. The affect-as-information hypothesis predicts that, on the one hand, positive affective cues experienced as task-relevant feedback encourage relational processing during encoding, which should enhance false memory effects. On the other hand, negative affective cues are hypothesized to encourage item-specific processing at encoding, which should discourage such effects. The results of Experiment 1 are consistent with these predictions: Individuals in negative moods were significantly less likely to show false memory effects than those in positive moods or those whose mood was not manipulated. Experiment 2 introduced inclusion instructions to investigate whether moods had their effects at encoding or retrieval. The results replicated the false memory finding of Experiment 1 and provide evidence that moods influence the accessibility of lures at encoding, rather than influencing monitoring at retrieval of whether lures were actually presented.

  2. Positive association between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis: is OA also part of the metabolic syndrome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Sharma, Ruby; Geest, Rob J. van der; Lamb, Hildo J.; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Hellio le Graverand, Marie-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if a positive association exists between arterial vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis (OA). Our hypothesis is that generalized OA is another facet of the metabolic syndrome. The medical ethical review board of our institution approved the study. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to the study. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained in 42 patients who had been diagnosed with generalized OA at multiple joint sites. Another 27 MR images of the knee were obtained from a matched normal (non-OA) reference population. Vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was quantitatively measured by dedicated software. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between vessel wall thickness and generalized OA. Adjustments were made for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Confidence intervals (CI) were computed at the 95% level and a significance level of α = 0.05 was used. Patients in the generalized OA population had a significant higher average vessel wall thickness than persons from the normal reference population (p ≤ α), even when correction was made for sex, age, and BMI. The average vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was 1.09 mm in patients with generalized OA, and 0.96 mm in the matched normal reference population. The association found between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis suggests that generalized OA might be another facet of the metabolic syndrome. (orig.)

  3. Positive association between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis: is OA also part of the metabolic syndrome?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Sharma, Ruby; Geest, Rob J. van der; Lamb, Hildo J.; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Hellio le Graverand, Marie-Pierre [Pfizer Global Research and Development, New London, CT (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine if a positive association exists between arterial vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis (OA). Our hypothesis is that generalized OA is another facet of the metabolic syndrome. The medical ethical review board of our institution approved the study. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to the study. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained in 42 patients who had been diagnosed with generalized OA at multiple joint sites. Another 27 MR images of the knee were obtained from a matched normal (non-OA) reference population. Vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was quantitatively measured by dedicated software. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between vessel wall thickness and generalized OA. Adjustments were made for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Confidence intervals (CI) were computed at the 95% level and a significance level of {alpha} = 0.05 was used. Patients in the generalized OA population had a significant higher average vessel wall thickness than persons from the normal reference population (p {<=} {alpha}), even when correction was made for sex, age, and BMI. The average vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was 1.09 mm in patients with generalized OA, and 0.96 mm in the matched normal reference population. The association found between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis suggests that generalized OA might be another facet of the metabolic syndrome. (orig.)

  4. affective, schizophrenic and mood disorders in patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Schizoaffective Disorder; Schizophrenia; Mood disorders; Epidemiology; Africa. Received: 17-05-2011 .... performance, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, ...... mixed mania with mood-incongruent psychotic features. Eur.

  5. Soccer training: high-intensity interval training is mood disturbing while small sided games ensure mood balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Okba; Haddad, Monoem; Majed, Lina; Ben Khalifa, Wissam; Hamza, Marzougui; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-09

    BACKGROUNDː The aim of the study was to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) versus small-sided games (SSG) in soccer on both the physiological responses and the mood state of players. Sixteen professional soccer players took part in the study (age: 24.1±0.9 years). Testing of players was conducted on separate days in a randomized and counter-balanced order (each training session: 28-min: 4x4 minutes work with 3-min of passive recovery in-between). Effort: HIIT: intermittent 15-s runs at 110% maximal aerobic speed with 15-s of passive recovery in-between. SSG: 4 versus 4 players on a 25x35m pitch size with full-involvement play. Psychological responses before- and after- each training-session were assessed using the profile of mood-state (POMS: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion). The players' heart rate (HR) was continuously measured, whereas ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration ([La]) were collected ~3-min after each training-session. HIIT and SSG showed no significant difference in HR, RPE and [La] responses. The HIIT compared with SSG resulted in: an increased total mood disturbance (pmind the mood-related advantages of the SSG shown in the present study.

  6. A Concerted Action Of Estradiol And Insulin Like Growth Factor I Underlies Sex Differences In Mood Regulation By Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munive, Victor; Santi, Andrea; Torres-Aleman, Ignacio

    2016-05-12

    Mood homeostasis present sexually dimorphic traits which may explain sex differences in the incidence of mood disorders. We explored whether diverse behavioral-setting components of mood may be differentially regulated in males and females by exercise, a known modulator of mood. We found that exercise decreases anxiety only in males. Conversely, exercise enhanced resilience to stress and physical arousal, two other important components of mood, only in females. Because exercise increases brain input of circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a potent modulator of mood, we explored whether sex-specific actions of exercise on mood homeostasis relate to changes in brain IGF-I input. We found that exercise increased hippocampal IGF-I levels only in cycling females. Underlying mechanism involved activation of estrogen (E2) receptors in brain vessels that led to increased uptake of serum IGF-I as E2 was found to stimulate IGF-I uptake in brain endothelial cells. Indeed, modulatory effects of exercise on mood were absent in female mice with low serum IGF-I levels or after either ovariectomy or administration of an E2 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that sex-specific brain IGF-I responses to physiological stimuli such as exercise contribute to dimorphic mood homeostasis that may explain sex differences in affective disorders.

  7. Anxiety and mood disorders in narcolepsy: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuyn, H.A.; Lappenschaar, M.A.; Furer, J.W.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Renier, W.O.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Overeem, S.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Narcolepsy is a primary sleeping disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as core symptoms. There is increasing interest in the psychiatric phenotype of narcolepsy. Although many authors suggest an overrepresentation of mood disorders, few systematic studies have been

  8. Anxiety and mood disorders in narcolepsy: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Lappenschaar, G.A.M.; Furer, J.W.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Renier, W.O.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Overeem, S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Narcolepsy is a primary sleeping disorder with excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy as core symptoms. There is increasing interest in the psychiatric phenotype of narcolepsy. Although many authors suggest an overrepresentation of mood disorders, few systematic studies have been

  9. How to Predict Mood? Delving into Features of Smartphone-Based Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Dennis; Bremer, Vincent; Funk, Burkhardt; Asselbergs, Joost; Riper, Heleen; Ruwaard, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are increasingly utilized in society and enable scientists to record a wide range of behavioral and environmental information. These information, referred to as Unobtrusive Ecological Momentary Assessment Data, might support prediction procedures regarding the mood level of users and

  10. Military Personnel: Improvements Needed to Increase Effectiveness of DOD's Programs to Promote Positive Working Relationships between Reservists and Their Employers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Brenda S; Schmitt, David; Anderson, Bonita; Brown, Renee; Cantin, Janine; Chatlos, Rudy; Harms, Nicole; McMurdie, Tobin; Richardson, Terry; Wallace, Shana; Williams, Tracy; Young, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    .... As demobilized reservists return to civilian life and their civilian employment, the difficulties some face in maintaining positive working relationships with their employers is an area of interest...

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased QT corrected interval dispersion: the effects of continuous positive airway pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Nagihan; Dikmen, Nursel; Bozkus, Fulsen; Sungur, Aylin; Sarica, Selman; Orhan, Israfil; Samur, Anil

    2017-03-31

    Severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased QT corrected interval dispersion (QTcd) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is thought to improve this arrhythmogenic marker. The aim of the study was to determine the decrease of ratio of cardiovascular risk in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The study included 65 patients with severe OSA who had an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) score of >30. Each patient underwent 12-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring and polysomnography. Patients with an AHI score of <5 were used as the control group. The control group also underwent ECG monitoring and polysomnography testing. The QTcd levels of both groups were calculated. Three months after CPAP treatment, ECG recordings were obtained from the 65 patients with severe OSA again, and their QTcd values were calculated. There were 44 male and 21 female patients with severe OSA syndrome. The age, gender, body mass index, initial saturation, minimum saturation, average saturation, and desaturation index were determined in both groups. The QTc intervals of the OSA patients (62.48±16.29ms) were significantly higher (p=0.001) than those of the control group (29.72±6.30ms). There were statistically significant differences between the QTc values before and after the CPAP treatment, with pretreatment QTc intervals of 62.48±16.29ms and 3-month post-treatment values of 41.42±16.96ms (p=0.001). There was a positive and significant correlation between QTcd periods and the AHI and hypopnea index (HI) in OSA patients (p=0.001; r=0.71; p=0.001; r=0.679, respectively). CPAP treatment reduced the QTcd in patients with severe OSA. In addition, shortening the QTcd periods in patients with severe OSA may reduce their risk of arrhythmias and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. How is Workers' Mood Affected by Workplace Lighting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Graciela

    The aim of the study was to investigate to what extent variations in natural daylight, as well as in indoor lighting and decoration, would affect the mood of people working indoor. It was assumed that such an impact would be moderated by the personality characteristics of the individuals. The study was carried out in northern Argentina in workplaces consisting mostly of open plan offices, but also some rooms for one or two persons, and a factory plant were included. About 20 per cent completely lacked windows. In spite of the considerable variations in day length, ranging from ten-and-a-half hours in June to fourteen hours in December, no overall seasonal variations in mood could be established. One obvious reason for this may have been the frequent use of shading devices which reduced the impact of the variations in natural daylight between summer and winter. On the other hand, the differences between the interior environments in terms of lighting and decoration did seem to have at least some impact. Both analyses of regression and variance showed interior decoration to be the most important from the emotional point of view. The participants throughout, reported a more positive mood in the colourful environments. The difference was consistent over the year but became significant only during autumn and winter. Individuals of type B (few signs of tension) reported a more positive emotional status throughout the year than those of type A, which is in line with previous results linking type A to anger and hostility.

  13. Mood and selective attention in the cold: the effect of interval versus continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Matthew D; Muller, Sarah M; Kim, Chul-Ho; Ryan, Edward J; Gunstad, John; Glickman, Ellen L

    2011-07-01

    Both mood and cognitive function are altered in cold environments. Body warming through exercise may improve Stroop interference score and lessen total negative mood. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of equal caloric bouts of interval (INT) and continuous (CONT) exercise on mood and selective attention in the cold. Eleven young men underwent two experimental trials in 5°C air. Both trials consisted of 90 min acute cold exposure (ACE), 30 min exercise (INT vs. CONT), and 60 min recovery (REC). The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) were administered at four time points. Mean body temperature decreased during ACE, increased during exercise, and decreased during REC. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect for time for several of the POMS sub scores. In particular, negative mood was significantly decreased after exercise relative to ACE and then significantly increased during REC. Further, CONT appears to be more effective than INT at decreasing negative mood. Components of the SCWT supported both the arousal and distraction theories for simple perception, but no significant effects were shown for the interference score. In the cold, exercise decreases negative mood but does not appear to affect selective attention. Further mechanistic studies could determine the best mode and intensity of exercise for improving cognitive function in the cold.

  14. The role of the dopaminergic system in mood, motivation and cognition in Parkinson's disease: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled experimental challenge with pramipexole and methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijgers, Rosa L; Verhey, Frans R J; Tissingh, Gerrit; van Domburg, Peter H M F; Aalten, Pauline; Leentjens, Albert F G

    2012-09-15

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) reduced dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway is implied in the pathophysiology of several non-motor symptoms related to mood, motivation and cognition. Insight in the pathophysiology of these syndromes may pave the way for more rational treatments. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design with three arms, we studied the effects of a direct dopaminergic challenge with the dopamine 2 receptor agonist pramipexole, an indirect challenge with the dopamine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate, and placebo on measures of mood, motivation and cognition in 23 agonist-naïve PD patients and 23 healthy controls. Acute challenge with pramipexole had a negative effect on mood and fatigue in both patients and controls. In addition, challenge with pramipexole led to increased anger, fatigue, vigor and tension in healthy control subjects, but not in PD patients. Challenge with methylphenidate had a positive effect on anhedonia and vigor in PD patients. Due to its side effects after a single administration, pramipexole is probably less suitable for acute challenge studies. The acute effects of a methylphenidate challenge on anhedonia and vigor in PD patients make this drug an interesting choice for further studies of the treatment of mood and motivational disorders in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of laughter on mood and heart rate variability in patients awaiting organ transplantation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgoff-Kaspar, Rima; Baldwin, Ann; Johnson, Scott; Edling, Nancy; Sethi, Gulshan K

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that laughter has myriad health benefits, yet the medical community has not implemented it formally as a treatment. Patients awaiting organ transplantation have significant physical disabilities and are at risk for psychological distress. Attenuated heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for a negative long-term outcome in some patients. The study intended to evaluate the clinical utility of laughter yoga in improving psychological and physiological measures in outpatients awaiting organ transplantation. Positive results would indicate promising areas to pursue in a follow-up study. Six participants met for 10 sessions over 4 weeks. The research team measured each participant's heart rate, HRV, blood pressure (BP), and immediate mood before and after the laughter and control interventions. The team assessed participants' longer-term mood (anxiety and depression) at the study's initiation, after a no-treatment control week, and at the end of the study. The study occurred at the Department of Surgery and Medicine at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson. Participants were patients awaiting transplants (three heart and three lung), two women and four men (ages 51-69 y). Participants had received no major surgery in the 3 months prior to the intervention, did not have a hernia or uncontrolled hypertension, and did not fall into the New York Heart Association function class 4. The 20-minute laughter intervention involved breathing and stretching exercises, simulated laughter (ie, unconditional laughter that is not contingent on the environment), chanting, clapping, and a meditation. The 20-minute control intervention involved the study's personnel discussing health and study-related topics with the participants. The research team measured BP, heart rate, and HRV and administered the Profile of Mood States, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II to evaluate immediate and longer-term mood. The team had planned

  16. Effect of laughter yoga on mood and heart rate variability in patients awaiting organ transplantation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgoff-Kaspar, Rima; Baldwin, Ann; Johnson, M Scott; Edling, Nancy; Sethi, Gulshan K

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that laughter has myriad health benefits, yet the medical community has not implemented it formally as a treatment. Patients awaiting organ transplantation have significant physical disabilities and are at risk for psychological distress. Attenuated heart rate variability (HRV) is a risk factor for a negative long-term outcome in some patients. The study intended to evaluate the clinical utility of laughter yoga in improving psychological and physiological measures in outpatients awaiting organ transplantation. Positive results would indicate promising areas to pursue in a follow-up study. Six participants met for 10 sessions over 4 weeks. The research team measured each participant's heart rate, HRV, blood pressure (BP), and immediate mood before and after the laughter and control interventions. The team assessed participants' longer-term mood (anxiety and depression) at the study's initiation, after a no-treatment control week, and at the end of the study. The study occurred at the Department of Surgery and Medicine at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson. Participants were patients awaiting transplants (three heart and three lung), two women and four men (ages 51-69 y). Participants had received no major surgery in the 3 months prior to the intervention, did not have a hernia or uncontrolled hypertension, and did not fall into the New York Heart Association function class 4. The 20-minute laughter intervention involved breathing and stretching exercises, simulated laughter (ie, unconditional laughter that is not contingent on the environment), chanting, clapping, and a meditation. The 20-minute control intervention involved the study's personnel discussing health and study-related topics with the participants. The research team measured BP, heart rate, and HRV and administered the Profile of Mood States, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II to evaluate immediate and longer-term mood. The team had planned

  17. Randomized Crossover Study of the Natural Restorative Environment Intervention to Improve Attention and Mood in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Miyeon; Jonides, John; Northouse, Laurel; Berman, Marc G; Koelling, Todd M; Pressler, Susan J

    In heart failure (HF), attention may be decreased because of lowered cerebral blood flow and increased attentional demands needed for self-care. Guided by the Attention Restoration Theory, the objective was to test the efficacy of the natural restorative environment (NRE) intervention on improving attention and mood among HF patients and healthy adults. A randomized crossover pilot study was conducted among 20 HF patients and an age- and education-matched comparison group of 20 healthy adults to test the efficacy of the NRE intervention compared with an active control intervention. Neuropsychological tests were administered to examine attention, particularly attention span, sustained attention, directed attention, and attention switching, at before and after the intervention. Mood was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. No significant differences were found in attention and mood after the NRE intervention compared with the control intervention among the HF patients and the healthy adults. In analyses with HF patients and healthy adults combined (n = 40), significant differences were found. Compared with the control intervention, sustained attention improved after the NRE intervention (P = .001) regardless of the presence of HF. Compared with the healthy adults, HF patients performed significantly worse on attention switching after the control intervention (P = .045). The NRE intervention may be efficacious in improving sustained attention in HF patients. Future studies are needed to enhance the NRE intervention to be more efficacious and tailored for HF patients and test the efficacy in a larger sample of HF patients.

  18. Mood and Performance in Young Malaysian Karateka

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Rebecca S. K.; Thung, Jin Seng; Pieter, Willy

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1) to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2) to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years). The athletes were divided into winners (medalists) and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) was administered prior to t...

  19. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  20. Mood Detection in Ambiguous Messages: The Interaction Between Text and Emoticons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Aldunate

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Face-to-face communication has several sources of contextual information that enables language comprehension. This information is used, for instance, to perceive mood of interlocutors, clarifying ambiguous messages. However, these contextual cues are absent in text-based communication. Emoticons have been proposed as cues used to stress the emotional intentions on this channel of communication. Most studies have suggested that their role is to contribute to a more accurate perception of emotions. Nevertheless, it is not clear if their influence on disambiguation is independent of their emotional valence and its interaction with text message valence. In the present study, we designed an emotional congruence paradigm, where participants read a set of messages composed by a positive or negative emotional situation sentence followed by a positive or negative emoticon. Participants were instructed to indicate if the sender was in a good or bad mood. With the aim of analyzing the disambiguation process and observing if the role of the emoticons in disambiguation is different according their valence, we measure the rate of responses of perceived mood and the reaction times (RTs for each condition. Our results showed that the perceived mood in ambiguous messages tends to be more negative regardless of emotion valence. Nonetheless, we observed that this tendency was not the same for positive and negative emoticons. Specifically, negative mood perception was higher for incongruent positive emoticons. On the other hand, RTs for positive emoticons were faster than for the negative ones. Responses for incongruent messages were slower than for the congruent ones. However, the incongruent condition showed different RTs depending on the emoticons’ valence. In the incongruent condition, responses for negative emoticons was the slowest. Results are discussed taking into account previous observations about the potential role of emoticons in mood perception and

  1. Relationship between cardiac vagal activity and mood congruent memory bias in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ronald G; Valenza, Gaetano; Tomaz, Carlos A; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-01-15

    Previous studies suggest that autonomic reactivity during encoding of emotional information could modulate the neural processes mediating mood-congruent memory. In this study, we use a point-process model to determine dynamic autonomic tone in response to negative emotions and its influence on long-term memory of major depressed subjects. Forty-eight patients with major depression and 48 healthy controls were randomly assigned to either neutral or emotionally arousing audiovisual stimuli. An adaptive point-process algorithm was applied to compute instantaneous estimates of the spectral components of heart rate variability [Low frequency (LF), 0.04-0.15 Hz; High frequency (HF), 0.15-0.4 Hz]. Three days later subjects were submitted to a recall test. A significant increase in HF power was observed in depressed subjects in response to the emotionally arousing stimulus (p=0.03). The results of a multivariate analysis revealed that the HF power during the emotional segment of the stimulus was independently associated with the score of the recall test in depressed subjects, after adjusting for age, gender and educational level (Coef. 0.003, 95%CI, 0.0009-0.005, p=0.008). These results could only be interpreted as responses to elicitation of specific negative emotions, the relationship between HF changes and encoding/recall of positive stimuli should be further examined. Alterations on parasympathetic response to emotion are involved in the mood-congruent cognitive bias observed in major depression. These findings are clinically relevant because it could constitute the mechanism by which depressed patients maintain maladaptive patterns of negative information processing that trigger and sustain depressed mood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Single test isolated lupus anticoagulant positivity is associated with increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers and dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, S A; Nybo, M; Laustrup, H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single positive test for lupus anticoagulant (LA) is associated with levels of inflammatory markers and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, independent of autoimmune disease, thrombophilia and occurrence of other antiphospholipid antibodies. METHODS: In a ...

  3. Side effects of being blue: influence of sad mood on visual statistical learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bertels

    Full Text Available It is well established that mood influences many cognitive processes, such as learning and executive functions. Although statistical learning is assumed to be part of our daily life, as mood does, the influence of mood on statistical learning has never been investigated before. In the present study, a sad vs. neutral mood was induced to the participants through the listening of stories while they were exposed to a stream of visual shapes made up of the repeated presentation of four triplets, namely sequences of three shapes presented in a fixed order. Given that the inter-stimulus interval was held constant within and between triplets, the only cues available for triplet segmentation were the transitional probabilities between shapes. Direct and indirect measures of learning taken either immediately or 20 minutes after the exposure/mood induction phase revealed that participants learned the statistical regularities between shapes. Interestingly, although participants from the sad and neutral groups performed similarly in these tasks, subjective measures (confidence judgments taken after each trial revealed that participants who experienced the sad mood induction showed increased conscious access to their statistical knowledge. These effects were not modulated by the time delay between the exposure/mood induction and the test phases. These results are discussed within the scope of the robustness principle and the influence of negative affects on processing style.

  4. Association of Mood Disorders with Serum Zinc Concentrations in Adolescent Female Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-08-01

    Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.

  5. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aches and pains Recurring thoughts of death or suicide Other resources: Symptom checklist Learn more about finding a mental health professional. Education Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring ...

  6. Cytokines and mood in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Van De Loo, A.J.A.E.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A link between chronic inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders has been demonstrated previously. For example, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have shown to impact neurocircuits relevant to mood regulation. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines have been associated with the

  7. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood.

  8. Acute changes in mood induced by subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease are modulated by psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Sarah A; Dewispelaere, William B; Campbell, Meghan C; Lugar, Heather M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Black, Kevin J; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) reduces Parkinson disease (PD) motor symptoms but has unexplained, variable effects on mood. The study tested the hypothesis that pre-existing mood and/or anxiety disorders or increased symptom severity negatively affects mood response to STN DBS. Thirty-eight PD participants with bilateral STN DBS and on PD medications were interviewed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID) and completed Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SSAI) self-reports. Subsequently, during OFF and optimal ON (clinical settings) STN DBS conditions and while off PD medications, motor function was assessed with the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, part III), and participants rated their mood with Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), and again completed SSAI. VAS mood variables included anxiety, apathy, valence and emotional arousal. STN DBS improved UPDRS scores and mood. Unexpectedly, PD participants diagnosed with current anxiety or mood disorders experienced greater STN DBS-induced improvement in mood than those diagnosed with remitted disorders or who were deemed as having never met threshold criteria for diagnosis. BDI and SSAI scores did not modulate mood response to STN DBS, indicating that clinical categorical diagnosis better differentiates mood response to STN DBS than self-rated symptom severity. SCID diagnosis, BDI and SSAI scores did not modulate motor response to STN DBS. PD participants diagnosed with current mood or anxiety disorders are more sensitive to STN DBS-induced effects on mood, possibly indicating altered basal ganglia circuitry in this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of melatonin in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Berardis D

    2015-11-01

    melatonin is often used as an indicator phase position since it is a well-defined, high-amplitude rhythm controlled by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei. Melatonin production is controlled by this endogenous circadian timing system. It peaks during the night and is suppressed by daylight. Mood spectrum disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD, major depressive disorder (MDD, and seasonal affective disorder (SAD, have been observed to be accompanied by circadian dysregulation as well as dysregulation in melatonin secretion. Simultaneously, it has also been documented that disruptions in circadian rhythms, including the sleep/wake cycle, though environmental means can produce mood-related problems in vulnerable individuals. These findings suggested that altered circadian rhythms might be biological markers of these disorders. As melatonin is considered a chronobiotic factor, ie, able to entrain the circadian rhythms of several biological functions (eg, activity/rest, sleep/wake, body temperature, endocrine rhythms, etc, its use may provide a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of affective disorders. However, the available evidence is controversial. This review summarizes the data published so far about reliable evidence on the role of melatonin in affective disorders.Keywords: melatonin, melatonergic system, mood disorders, depression, seasonal affective disorder, bipolar disorder 

  10. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth May Increase the Likelihood of Lactose and Sorbitol but not Fructose Intolerance False Positive Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perets, Tsachi Tsadok; Hamouda, Dalal; Layfer, Olga; Ashorov, Olga; Boltin, Doron; Levy, Sigal; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2017-08-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is defined as a bacterial count of more than 10 5 colony-forming units per milliliter in duodenal aspirate. It shares many symptoms with carbohydrate intolerance, which makes the clinical distinction of the disorders difficult. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between a positive carbohydrate breath test and the presence of SIBO suggested by a positive lactulose hydrogen breath test. The electronic database of the gastroenterology laboratory of a tertiary medical center was searched for all patients clinically tested for SIBO in 2012-2013 for whom previous results for lactose, fructose, and/or sorbitol breath test were available. The correlation between positive findings for carbohydrate intolerance and for SIBO was statistically analyzed. The study group included 349 patients, 231 female and 118 male, of mean age 53±19 years. All had symptoms of abdominal bloating and gas. There was a statistically significant difference in rates of a positive breath test for lactose and sorbitol at ≤90 minutes between patients who were positive and negative for SIBO [χ 2 (1)=12.8, p <0.01 and χ 2 (1)=9.5, p <0.01 respectively]. Findings for fructose were not significant. There was no effect of age or gender. SIBO may represent an important reversible cause of carbohydrate intolerance. It may be especially prudent to exclude SIBO patients with an early peak (≤90 minutes) in H 2 excretion. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  11. The Moderating Role of Mood and Personal Relevance on Persuasive Effects of Gain- and Loss-Framed Health Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, John G; Sar, Sela; Ghuge, Shreyas

    2015-01-01

    We predicted that mood would moderate the relation between message framing and two outcome variables, message evaluation and behavioral intention, when the message was personally relevant to the target audience. Participants (N = 242) were randomly assigned to an experimental condition in which a positive or negative mood was induced. Participants then read and evaluated a health message that emphasized potential benefits or risks associated with a vaccine. As predicted, participants who received a loss-framed message reported higher message evaluation and intention scores but only when the message was personally relevant and they were in a positive mood.

  12. Set-shifting abilities, mood and loss of control over eating in binge eating disorder: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Alexandra E; Visser, Hiske; Paul, Linda; van Furth, Eric F

    2015-12-15

    Executive functions play an important role in problem-solving and self-control. Set-shifting is an aspect of executive functioning and represents cognitive flexibility. The inability to control eating in Binge Eating Disorder (BED) may imply deficits in set-shifting which could be exacerbated by negative mood and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to test whether there is a causal relationship between set-shifting ability, changes in mood and loss of control over eating in BED. Seventy-five participants diagnosed with BED were randomly assigned to a negative or neutral mood induction. Set-shifting abilities, depressive symptoms, current mood and loss of control over eating were assessed. Having depressive symptoms and poorer set-shifting abilities resulted in a more negative mood after a negative mood induction, whereas this was not observed in the neutral mood induction. Post-hoc analyses revealed that individuals with poorer set-shifting abilities and more changes in negative mood, experienced more feelings of loss of control over eating than individuals whose set-shifting abilities were better and whose mood did not change. The results suggest that both depressive symptoms and deficits in set-shifting abilities may decrease an individual's ability to handle negative affect and increase loss of control over eating in individuals with BED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased Age-Dependent Risk of Death Associated With lukF-PV-Positive Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Trine A; Skov, Robert; Petersen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Panton-Valentine leucocidin is a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor encoded by lukF-PV and lukS-PV that is infrequent in S aureus bacteremia (SAB), and, therefore, little is known about risk factors and outcome of lukF-PV/lukS-PV-positive SAB. METHODS: This report is a register......-based nationwide observational cohort study. lukF-PV was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Factors associated with the presence of lukF-PV were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Adjusted 30-day hazard ratios of mortality associated with lukF-PV status were computed by Cox proportional hazards...... regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 9490 SAB cases, 129 were lukF-PV-positive (1.4%), representing 14 different clonal complexes. lukF-PV was associated with younger age, absence of comorbidity, and methicillin-resistant S aureus. In unadjusted analysis, mortality associated with lukF-PV-positive SAB...

  14. Mood Effects of Alcohol and Expectancies during the Menstrual Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Vincent J.; Freitag, Wendy J.

    This research attempted to develop a profile of women's moods across the menstrual cycle and to determine alcohol's effects upon those moods. The Profile of Mood States was used to measure mood in 96 female college students who were heavy drinkers. Subjects were randomly assigned to the cells of the balanced placebo design with equal numbers in…

  15. Diagnostic uncertainty, guilt, mood, and disability in back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Dawson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In the majority of patients a definitive cause for low back pain (LBP) cannot be established, and many patients report feeling uncertain about their diagnosis, accompanied by guilt. The relationship between diagnostic uncertainty, guilt, mood, and disability is currently unknown. This study tested 3 theoretical models to explore possible pathways between these factors. In Model 1, diagnostic uncertainty was hypothesized to correlate with pain-related guilt, which in turn would positively correlate with depression, anxiety and disability. Two alternative models were tested: (a) a path from depression and anxiety to guilt, from guilt to diagnostic uncertainty, and finally to disability; (b) a model in which depression and anxiety, and independently, diagnostic uncertainty, were associated with guilt, which in turn was associated with disability. Structural equation modeling was employed on data from 413 participants with chronic LBP. All 3 models showed a reasonable-to-good fit with the data, with the 2 alternative models providing marginally better fit indices. Guilt, and especially social guilt, was associated with disability in all 3 models. Diagnostic uncertainty was associated with guilt, but only moderately. Low mood was also associated with guilt. Two newly defined factors, pain related guilt and diagnostic uncertainty, appear to be linked to disability and mood in people with LBP. The causal path of these links cannot be established in this cross sectional study. However, pain-related guilt especially appears to be important, and future research should examine whether interventions directly targeting guilt improve outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Association of a behaviorally based high school health education curriculum with increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Trinity, John; Mareno, Nicole; Walsh, Stephanie M

    2015-06-01

    Increasing exercise in children and adolescents through academic classes is an understudied area. Potential benefits include associated improvements in health, psychosocial, and quality-of-life factors. A sample of 98 students (M(age) = 14.3) from high school health education classes received six, 40-min lessons incorporating cognitive-behavioral methods to increase exercise over 6 weeks. Significant within-group improvements in exercise, mood, and body satisfaction were found, with slightly larger effect sizes identified for the boys. Increase in exercise was significantly associated with reduced mood distress (β = -.17, p goal setting and self-regulation within high school health education classes may foster increased exercise and associated improvements in mood and body satisfaction. For girls, the positive effects may reinforce one another. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Adverse mood symptoms with oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Segebladh, Birgitta

    2012-04-01

    In spite of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) having been available for more than 50 years, surprisingly little is known about the prevalence of truly COC-related adverse mood symptoms and about the underlying biological mechanisms of proposed changes in mood and affect. Precise estimates of COC-related adverse mood symptoms are not available due to the lack of placebo-controlled trials. In prospective trials the frequency of women who report deteriorated mood or deteriorated emotional well-being varies between 4 and 10%, but it can be assumed that the causal relation in these prevalence rates is overestimated. Adverse mood symptoms and somatic symptoms are most pronounced during the pill-free interval of the treatment cycles, but whether extended COC regimens would be more favorable in this respect is not known. COCs with anti-androgenic progestagens, such as drospirenone and desogestrel, appear more favorable in terms of mood symptoms than progestagens with a more androgenic profile. Available data suggest that lower doses of ethinylestradiol could be beneficial. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Theoretical approach towards increasing effectiveness of palatal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea: role for concomitant positional therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, J P; Witte, B I; de Vries, N

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study are to evaluate the effect of palatal surgery (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) or Z-palatoplasty (ZPP)) with or without (+/-) concomitant radiofrequent ablation of the base of the tongue (RFTB) on body position-specific apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) values in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to compare this treatment outcome to the theoretical effect of (addition of) positional therapy (PT). Retrospective analysis of pre- and posttreatment polysomnographies in 139 patients who had undergone UPPP/ZPP +/- RFTB was performed. Hypothetical evaluation of the effects of (addition of) ideal PT on AHI in positional OSA (POSA) patients was carried out. Median AHI significantly decreased from 18.0 to 11.2 (p effect of body position needs to be taken into account. PT, either as monotherapy or in addition to surgery, theoretically has shown to improve treatment results dramatically in POSA patients. Prospective, controlled trials focusing on the effects of this combination of treatments should further evaluate this hypothetical conclusion.

  19. Can Appreciative Inquiry Increase Positive Interactions, Student Self-Advocacy and Turn-Taking during IEP Meetings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Peter L.

    2018-01-01

    This comparative research study in the context of action research documents the effects of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) on positive participant interactions, student turn-taking and self-advocacy interactions during IEP meetings that focused on student transition to post-secondary outcomes. AI was implemented as a written protocol for conducting IEP…

  20. Tenure Track Policy Increases Representation of Women in Senior Academic Positions, but Is Insufficient to Achieve Gender Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.M.; Jacobs, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in senior positions is a persistent problem in universities worldwide, and a wide range of strategies to combat this situation is currently being contemplated. One such strategy is the introduction of a tenure track system, in which decisions to promote scientific staff

  1. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  2. A subordinate status position increases the present value of financial resources for low 2D:4D men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Kobe; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th fingers (digit ratio or 2D:4D) is related to prenatal testosterone with lower ratios thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone levels. Accordingly, low 2D:4D has been associated to a number of fitness-related factors, such as high status in competitive sports and in music. Recent evidence suggests that 2D:4D is also related to economic decision making. We combine both streams of research in the present paper. In two studies we manipulated status in two different ways. We found that a subordinate position raises discount rates, consistent with the reasoning that the present utility of money is higher for men in this position. Moreover, the effect was more pronounced for men with a low 2D:4D. There was a significant negative relationship between 2D:4D and level of discounting in a subordinate status position, but no significant relationship emerged in the dominant status position. Our studies add evidence to the recent line of research associating digit ratio and economic decision making. Moreover, our studies show that future 2D:4D research should focus on plausible interactions between 2D:4D and context cues rather than on linear relations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Pet ownership and older women: the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A

    2012-01-01

    Pets can play a positive role in the both the physical and psychological health of older adults. This cross sectional study investigated the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood in a convenience sample of 159 pet-owning older women residing in the community. Participants completed loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood scales. The results supported significant relationships between loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood. No relationship was found between human social support and depressed mood. Pet attachment support, but not human social support, influenced the relationship between loneliness and depressed mood indicating the importance of pet attachment as a greater form of support in this sample. Clinical and social implications for nurses working with the geriatric population were identified and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical exercise, salivary IgA and mood states of elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the aging process is associated with immunosenescence. On the other hand, physical activity has been consistently associated with positive states of affection and mood which also implies gains on psychological well-being. However, more studies are needed to support the benefit effect of exercise on specific population groups like the elderly. The purpose of the present work is to study the functional fitness, mood states and salivary IgA chronic adaptations after a physical exercise program. 28 subjects aged between 65 and 95 years old participated in this study. The experimental group exercised during 16 weeks, 3 times per week. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the data. The results showed positive changes on the functional fitness that reinforce the trainability principle of the older person. The data shows also an improvement in mood states and chronic positive effects on salivary IgA after the exercise program.

  5. Increasing the accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT interpretation of "mildly positive" mediastinal nodes in the staging of non-small cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, F

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify radiological factors that may reduce false-positive results and increase diagnostic accuracy when staging the mediastinum of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).

  6. Coping strategies and mood profiles in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Milanlioglu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies, mood characteristics and the association between these aspects in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects. Method: Fifty consecutive patients who were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis according to McDonald criteria and thirty-one healthy subjects were included in the study. In addition to the sociodemographic form, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale (COPE, and Profile of Mood States (POMS tests were applied to the participants. Results: Non-functional coping strategies were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p≤0.05. Depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia and total POMS scores were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p≤0.05. Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate the importance of rehabilitation programs that encourage exercise among patients with multiple sclerosis to increase vigor-activity levels.

  7. Possibilities of achieving non-positive void reactivity effect in fast sodium-cooled reactors with increased self-protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Zverkov, Yu.A.; Morozov, A.G.; Orlov, V.V.; Slesarev, I.S.; Subbotin, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The problems of self-protection inhancement for the liquid-metal cooled fast reactors with intra-assembly heterogeneity of the core are studied. Possible approaches to arrangement of such reactors with various powers characterized by high levels of coolant natural circulation, minimum reactivity changes during fuel burn-up and non-positive void effect of reactivity are found. 10 refs.; 11 figs

  8. Mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagner, Prune; Kliegel, Matthias; Phillips, Louise H; Ihle, Andreas; Hering, Alexandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M

    2015-01-01

    In the laboratory, studies have shown an inconsistent pattern of whether, and how, mood may affect cognitive functions indicating both mood-related enhancement as well as decline. Surprisingly, little is known about whether there are similar effects in everyday life. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate possible mood effects on memory and executive control in a real-life situation. Mood effects were examined in the context of winning in a sports competition. Sixty-one male handball players were tested with an extensive cognitive test battery (comprising memory and executive control) both after winning a match and after training as neutral baseline. Mood differed significantly between the two testing situations, while physiological arousal and motivation were comparable. Results showed lowered performance after the win compared with training in selected cognitive measures. Specifically, short-term and episodic memory performance was poorer following a win, whereas executive control performance was unaffected by condition. Differences in memory disappeared when emotional states after the match were entered as covariates into the initial analyses. Thus, findings suggest mood-related impairments in memory, but not in executive control processes after a positive real-life event.

  9. Development of a Measure of Sleep, Circadian Rhythms, and Mood: The SCRAM Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E. M. Byrne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep quality, circadian phase, and mood are highly interdependent processes. Remarkably, there is currently no self-report questionnaire that measures all three of these clinically significant functions: The aim of this project was to address this deficit. In Study 1, 720 participants completed a set of potential items was generated from existing questionnaires in each of the three domains and refined to follow a single presentation format. Study 2 used an independent sample (N = 498 to interrogate the latent structure. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify a parsimonious, three-factor latent structure. Following item reduction, the optimal representation of sleep quality, circadian phase, and mood was captured by a questionnaire with three 5-item scales: Depressed Mood, Morningness, and Good Sleep. Confirmatory factor analysis found the three-scale structure provided adequate fit. In both samples, Morningness and Good Sleep were positively associated, and each was negatively associated with the Depressed Mood scale. Further research is now required to quantify the convergent and discriminant validity of its three face-valid and structurally replicated scales. The new sleep, circadian rhythms, and mood (SCRAM questionnaire is the first instrument to conjointly measure sleep quality, circadian phase, and mood processes, and has significant potential as a clinical tool.

  10. The Effect of Dog-Assisted Intervention on Student Well-Being, Mood, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajfoner, Dasha; Harte, Emma; Potter, Lauren M; McGuigan, Nicola

    2017-05-05

    This novel, exploratory study investigated the effect of a short, 20 min, dog-assisted intervention on student well-being, mood, and anxiety. One hundred and thirty-two university students were allocated to either an experimental condition or one of two control conditions. Each participant completed the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMBS), the State Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI), and the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL) both before, and after, the intervention. The participants in the experimental condition interacted with both the dogs and their handlers, whereas the control groups interacted with either the dog only, or the handler only. The analyses revealed a significant difference across conditions for each measure, with those conditions in which a dog was present leading to significant improvements in mood and well-being, as well as a significant reduction in anxiety. Interestingly, the presence of a handler alongside the dog appeared to have a negative, and specific, effect on participant mood, with greater positive shifts in mood being witnessed when participants interacted with the dog alone, than when interacting with both the dog and the handler. These findings show that even a short 20 min session with a therapy dog can be an effective alternative intervention to improve student well-being, anxiety, and mood.

  11. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dialogical Self Theory and the increasing multiplicity of I-positions in a globalizing society: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Hubert J M

    2012-01-01

    Dialogical Self Theory is a recent development in the social sciences, based on a conception of the self as a society of mind. In this conception, the self is considered as extended to significant others in the environment, who populate the self as a dynamic multiplicity of I-positions between which dialogical or monological relationships may emerge. While from a spatial perspective the self is engaged in a process of positioning and counterpositioning in a globalizing society, from a temporal point of view the self is part of a process of positioning and repositioning in collective history and personal development. Some phenomena that are necessary for the understanding of the dialogical self are discussed: dominance and social power, the processes of globalization and localization, the experience of uncertainty and possible reactions to uncertainty in a globalizing world. Finally, the different contributions of this special issue are placed in the context of the presented conceptual framework. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  13. HIV Positive Diagnosis During Pregnancy Increases Risk of IPV Postpartum Among Women with No History of IPV in Their Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

    2017-07-24

    There has been limited study of whether and for whom physical intimate partner violence (IPV) is a consequence of an HIV-positive diagnosis. Per the diathesis stress model, the consequences of HIV infection may be worse for women with a history of IPV. We hypothesize that the positive association between HIV diagnosis in pregnancy and postpartum IPV will be exacerbated for women with a history of IPV. Data come from a prospective cohort study with 1015 participants who completed a baseline antenatal and 9-month postpartum visit. Using logistic regression analyses, we found a statistically significant interaction between HIV diagnosis, history of IPV and postpartum IPV (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.96). The findings were in the opposite direction as expected: HIV-diagnosis was not associated with IPV for women with a history of IPV (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). However, HIV-positive women without a history of IPV faced more than two times the risk of incident postpartum IPV than HIV-negative women (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). Interventions to reduce incident and ongoing IPV during the perinatal period are needed.

  14. Relations of mood with body mass index changes in severely obese women enrolled in a supported physical activity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that physical activity may affect weight reduction outcomes through associated improvements in mood. Relations of physical activity, mood, and weight change are not well understood in persons classified as severely obese (BMI > or = 40 kg/m(2)), however. This research tested these relationships in women with severe obesity. 57 women with a mean BMI of 43.8 kg/m(2) were enrolled in a cognitive-behavioral exercise support treatment with group-based nutrition information. Measurement of depression, tension, overall mood, and BMI was taken at baseline and month 6, and exercise session attendance was recorded. The treatment was associated with significant improvements in depression, tension and total mood disturbance scores as well as in BMI over 6 months. Changes in mood scores that were more positive were correlated with a greater reduction in BMI. Mean attendance in the prescribed 3 session/week exercise regimen was 46.0%, and attendance was significantly correlated with changes in tension and total mood disturbance scores, and approached significance with changes in depression scores. Findings suggested significant relations of mood and weight change as well as of physical activity and mood in severely obese women associated with a treatment of moderate physical activity. With extensions of this research, weight loss theory and treatment may benefit. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Suicidal Behaviour in Mood Disorders—Who, When, and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isometsä, Erkki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: About one-half to two-thirds of all suicides are by people who suffer from mood disorders; preventing suicides among those who suffer from them is thus central for suicide prevention. Understanding factors underlying suicide risk is necessary for rational preventive decisions. Method: The literature on risk factors for completed and attempted suicide among subjects with depressive and bipolar disorders (BDs) was reviewed. Results: Lifetime risk of completed suicide among psychiatric patients with mood disorders is likely between 5% and 6%, with BDs, and possibly somewhat higher risk than patients with major depressive disorder. Longitudinal and psychological autopsy studies indicate suicidal acts usually take place during major depressive episodes (MDEs) or mixed illness episodes. Incidence of suicide attempts is about 20- to 40-fold, compared with euthymia, during these episodes, and duration of these high-risk states is therefore an important determinant of overall risk. Substance use and cluster B personality disorders also markedly increase risk of suicidal acts during mood episodes. Other major risk factors include hopelessness and presence of impulsive–aggressive traits. Both childhood adversity and recent adverse life events are likely to increase risk of suicide attempts, and suicidal acts are predicted by poor perceived social support. Understanding suicidal thinking and decision making is necessary for advancing treatment and prevention. Conclusion: Among subjects with mood disorders, suicidal acts usually occur during MDEs or mixed episodes concurrent with comorbid disorders. Nevertheless, illness factors can only in part explain suicidal behaviour. Illness factors, difficulty controlling impulsive and aggressive responses, plus predisposing early exposures and life situations result in a process of suicidal thinking, planning, and acts. PMID:24881160

  16. Acute tension type headache, cognitive function and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Paul Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Research has shown that migraine is often associated with memory problems. There have, however, been few studies of tension type headache (TTH and cognition. People who report frequent headaches often report high levels of negative affect. However, less is known about the acute effects of tension type headache on mood. To address these gaps in our knowledge, two studies examined the effects of acute TTH on cognitive performance and mood. Methods: Both studies involved one group of participants completing a battery of tasks when they had a TTH and when they had no headache. Another group (the control was headache free on both occasions. Duration of the headache was greater than 30 minutes and less than 4 hours. In the no headache condition the participants were headache free for at least 24 hours. In the first study 12 participants (6 with TTH, 6 controls completed a computerised battery measuring mood and aspects of cognition. In the second study 22 participants (7 TTH, 5 after TTH and10 controls completed paper and pencil mood and cognitive tasks.Results: In the first study having a headache was associated with an increase in negative affect both before and after the tasks. Three performance tasks showed impairments when the participants had headaches: logical reasoning was slower and less accurate; retrieval from semantic memory was slower; and reaction times in the categoric search task were slower. Results from the second study confirmed the global increase in negative affect when the person has a TTH. The results confirmed the impairments in the logical reasoning and semantic processing tasks and also showed that those with a TTH had greater psychomotor slowing and were more easily distracted. Effects did not continue after the headache had gone.Conclusions: Two small-scale studies have shown that TTH is associated with negative affect and impaired cognitive function. It is now of interest to determine whether OTC treatment

  17. How you ask matters: an experimental investigation of the influence of mood on memory self-perceptions and their relationship with objective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, Tara T; Brolsma, Jessica W

    2014-01-01

    Stronger relationships often emerge between mood and memory self-efficacy (MSE) than between MSE and memory abilities. We examined how social desirability, mood congruency and framing influence the mood-MSE relationship. Social desirability correlated with all self-report measures, and covarying social desirability diminished the mood-MSE relationship while enhancing the relationship between MSE and objective memory. Participants rated their memory more harshly on positively than neutrally or negatively worded MSE items. Current mood state did not affect MSE overall or when items were worded positively or neutrally. However, on negatively worded items, participants in a negative mood exhibited lower MSE than participants in a positive mood. Thus, both MSE and the mood-MSE relationship depended upon question wording. These results indicate that controlling social desirability and item framing on MSE questionnaires may reduce their confounding influence on memory self-perceptions and the influence of mood on self-reported abilities, allowing subjective memory to more accurately reflect objective memory in healthy and clinical populations.

  18. Nicotine patches improve mood and response speed in a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, M V; Hammersley, J J; Hale, C R; Nuwer, P K; Meliska, C J

    2000-01-01

    The effects of smoking a cigarette or wearing a transdermal nicotine patch on mood and lexical decision-making were tested in eight smokers. Each participant was tested after 4 hours of smoking abstinence, under 4 conditions: placebo (very low nicotine) cigarette, nicotine cigarette, placebo patch, and nicotine patch. Relative to placebo, wearing the nicotine patch reduced Profile of Mood States (POMS) Total Mood Disturbance and Fatigue/Inertia scores, while increasing the speed of some types of lexical decisions. Smoking a nicotine cigarette did not affect reaction times, but unexpectedly decreased the accuracy of Word/ Nonword lexical decisions. Thus, transdermal nicotine may improve mood and facilitate longterm memory search and/or attentional processes in nicotine-deprived smokers.

  19. Competitive athletes: preinjury and postinjury mood state and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Stuart, M J; Wiese-Bjornstal, D M; Milliner, E K; O'Fallon, W M; Crowson, C S

    1993-10-01

    In a prospective study, we determined whether preinjury and postinjury differences existed in the mood state and self-esteem of competitive athletes. The influence of severity of injury, gender, level of participation in sports, and type of sport on these dependent variables was also measured. Among 238 male and 38 female athletes from hockey, basketball, baseball, and volleyball teams, 36 sustained 43 injuries. Significant postinjury increases were noted for depression (P self-esteem--only level of participation (P < 0.0001) and type of sport (P = 0.0004) were predictors of injury. The significant preinjury and postinjury differences in mood state suggest that postinjury mood disturbances reported in previous studies are likely attributable to the occurrence of injury, are related to the severity of injury, and do not merely reflect a disturbed preinjury mood.

  20. Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, J I; Hetherington, M M

    1995-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that some foods are eaten to alter mood, the relationship between mood and intake of chocolate was investigated in 40 women. Twenty self-identified chocolate 'addicts' and 20 controls rated hunger, mood, intensity of craving and amount of chocolate eaten in a diary for seven consecutive days. The 'addicts' reported a significantly greater number of eating episodes and consumed a larger amount of chocolate than controls. 'Addicts' also rated depression, guilt and craving higher and feeling content and relaxed as lower before eating than controls. However, eating chocolate resulted in increased feelings of guilt in the 'addicts' and no significant changes in feeling depressed or relaxed. On indices of disordered eating and depression, 'addicts' scored significantly higher than controls; however, eating chocolate did not improve mood. Although chocolate is a food which provides pleasure, for those who consider intake of this food to be excessive, any pleasure experienced is short lived and accompanied by feelings of guilt.

  1. Pick-a-mood; development and application of a pictorial mood-reporting instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Vastenburg, M.H.; Van Bel, D.; Romero Herrera, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ‘Pick-A-Mood’ (PAM), a cartoon-based pictorial instrument for reporting and expressing moods. The use of cartoon characters enables people to unambiguously and visually express or report their mood in a rich and easy-to-use way. PAM consists of three characters that each express

  2. Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases the spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.; Gielen, M.J.M.; Giele, J.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting the distribution of sensory blockade after epidural injection of local anesthetics remain incompletely clarified. To evaluate if increasing intrathoracic pressure affects the spread of thoracic epidural anesthesia, we randomized 20 patients who received an epidural catheter at the

  3. Expelling Stress for Primary School Teachers: Self-Affirmation Increases Positive Emotions in Teaching and Emotion Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, James; Atkin, Lisa

    2016-05-13

    The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the effect of a brief work-related self-affirming implementation intention (WS-AII) on the well-being of primary school teachers. Participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: one in which they were asked to create a WS-AII or one in which they were asked to create a control implementation intention (C-II). State anxiety was measured pre- and post-manipulation, self-efficacy at post-manipulation only, and emotions in teaching and emotion regulation at baseline and at a two-week follow-up. There were statistically significant differences between the WS-AII condition and the control. Teachers who created work-related self-affirming implementation intentions reported an immediate reduction in state anxiety. Positive effects extended over the two-week period, with teachers in the WS-AII condition also reporting more positive emotions in teaching and the use of reappraisal emotion regulation strategies rather than emotion suppression. Results suggest that the integration of the WS-AII into existing organisational practice may be of benefit to the well-being of teachers and other highly stressed workers.

  4. Toward Value Co-Creation: Increasing Women’s Presence in Management Positions through Competition against a Set Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Comeig

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite empirical evidence that women’s presence in management positions is a source of value co-creation for firms, these positions are still male-dominated. Some evidence from experimental economics suggests that one reason for this imbalance is that women shy away from competition. However, most of these studies have focused on competition systems that pit individuals against each other. We present an economic laboratory experiment that compares competition against others with competition against a set target. The crucial difference is that whereas the former involves competing against opponents, the latter does not. Our results show that significantly more women are willing to compete against a set target than against others. Furthermore, there is no reduction in men’s participation and no general efficiency reduction. Our findings suggest that firms that aim at value co-creation and sustainability through a gender-neutral promotion mechanism should introduce competition against a set target and reduce competition against others. This paper contributes to dispelling stereotypes about women’s reluctance to compete.

  5. Effects of vitamin C and vitamin D administration on mood and distress in acutely hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Xing Jian; Robitaille, Line; Eintracht, Shaun; MacNamara, Elizabeth; Hoffer, L John

    2013-09-01

    Hypovitaminosis C and D are highly prevalent in acute-care hospitals. Malnutrition with regard to these vitamins has been linked to mood disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. The objective was to determine whether vitamin C or D supplementation improves mood state or reduces psychological distress in acutely hospitalized patients with a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and D. A randomized, double-blind, active-control clinical trial compared the effects of vitamin C (500 mg twice daily) with those of high-dose vitamin D (5000 IU/d) on mood (Profile of Mood States) and psychological distress (Distress Thermometer). Vitamin C provided for a mean of 8.2 d increased plasma vitamin C concentrations to normal (P vitamin D provided for a mean of 8.1 d increased plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations (P vitamin C group were greater than those in the vitamin D group (P = 0.045 for mood; P = 0.009 for distress). Short-term therapy with vitamin C improves mood and reduces psychological distress in acutely hospitalized patients with a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and D. No conclusion is possible regarding the effects of vitamin D because the dose and duration of therapy were insufficient to raise 25(OH)D concentrations into the normal range. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01630720.

  6. Subacute effects of ecstasy on mood: an exploration of associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rebecca M; Hides, Leanne; Allen, J Sabura; Lubman, Dan I

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy use may result in lowered mood, anxiety or aggression in the days following use. Yet, few studies have investigated what factors increase the risk of experiencing such symptoms. Ecstasy users (at least once in the last 12 months) who subsequently took ecstasy (n=35) over the period of one week, were compared on measures of mood, sleep, stress and drug use, with those who abstained from ecstasy (n=21) that week. Measures were administered the week prior to ecstasy use and one and three days following use, or the equivalent day for abstainers. Mood symptoms were assessed using the Kessler-10 self-report psychological distress scale, a subjective mood rating (1-10), and using the depression, anxiety and hostility items from the clinician-rated Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Timeline Followback methods were used to collect information on drug use and life stress in the past month. Self-reported sleep quality was also assessed. Ecstasy use was not associated with subacute depressive, anxiety or aggressive symptoms. Rather, lowered mood and increased psychological distress were associated with self-reported hours and quality of sleep obtained during the three-day follow-up. These findings highlight the importance of considering sleep disruption in understanding the short-term mood effects of ecstasy use.

  7. Mood-congruent true and false memory: effects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Malone, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm was used to investigate the effect of depression on true and false recognition. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls. These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  8. MOOD AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG MALAYSIAN KARATEKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. K. Wong

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1 to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2 to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years. The athletes were divided into winners (medalists and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta2 = 0.133, as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta2 = 0.199. Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p < 0.001, eta2 = 0.215, as was anger (1.43 ± 1.88 vs. 0.25 ± 1.00, p = 0.019, eta2 = 0.076. The highest associations among mood subscales were between anger and depression (r = 0.57, and between depression and fatigue ( r = 0.55 in depressed males. The female winning karateka scored higher on anger (3.08 ± 2.96 vs. 1.29 ± 2.24, p = 0.046, eta2 = 0.109. The highest correlations between mood dimensions in depressed females were between depression and anger (r = 0.85 and between depression and confusion (r = 0.85. Contrary to previous research on the influence of depression on anger, only the female winners scored higher on anger. Several negative mood dimensions were higher in both male and female depressed groups, lending some support to the conceptual model advanced by Lane and Terry

  9. Pharmacological prevention of suicide in patients with major mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltan; Gonda, Xenia

    2013-12-01

    The risk of self-destructive behavior in mood disorders is an inherent phenomenon and suicidal behavior in patients with unipolar or bipolar major mood disorders strongly relates to the presence and severity of depressive episodes. Consequently, early recognition, and successful acute and long-term treatment of depressive disorders is essential for suicide prevention in such patients. Large-scale, retrospective and prospective naturalistic long-term clinical studies, including severely ill, frequently suicidal depressives show that appropriate pharmacotherapy markedly reduces suicide morbidity and mortality even in this high-risk population. Supplementary psycho-social interventions further improve the effect. The slightly elevated (but in absolute sense quite low) risk of suicidal behavior among patients taking antidepressants compared to those taking placebo in randomized controlled antidepressant trials on unipolar major depression might be the consequence of the depression-worsening potential of antidepressant monotherapy in subthreshold and mixed bipolar depressed patients included in these trials and falsely diagnosed as suffering from unipolar major depression. Concurrent depression-focused psychotherapies increase the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and this way contribute to suicide prevention for patients with mood disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implications of Circadian Rhythm in Dopamine and Mood Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongah; Jang, Sangwon; Choe, Han Kyoung; Chung, Sooyoung; Son, Gi Hoon; Kim, Kyungjin

    2017-07-31

    Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm. Specifically, genetic deletion of the circadian nuclear receptor Rev-erbα induces mania-like behavior caused by increased midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) tone at dusk. The association between circadian rhythm and emotion-related behaviors can be applied to pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease (PD), DAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta progressively degenerate leading to motor dysfunction. Patients with PD also exhibit non-motor symptoms, including sleep disorder and neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that link the molecular circadian clock and brain machinery in the regulation of emotional behaviors and related midbrain DAergic neuronal circuits in healthy and pathological states. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the association between circadian rhythm and mood regulation from a chronobiological perspective, and may provide insight into therapeutic approaches to target psychiatric symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases involving circadian rhythm dysfunction.

  11. Parental Mediation in the Digital Era: Increasing Children's Critical Thinking May Help Decrease Positive Attitudes toward Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanielina Hita, Marie Louise; Kareklas, Ioannis; Pinkleton, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate in our research that discussion-based parental mediation may successfully decrease the negative effects that youth's engagement with alcohol brands on social media may have on attitudes toward alcohol through its effects on critical thinking. A clear pattern was found with positive mediation leading to unhealthy outcomes and negative mediation predicting healthier behaviors. Youth whose parents critiqued media messages reported more critical thinking skills, which predicted less interaction with alcohol brands on social media and fewer expectancies toward alcohol. On the other hand, youth whose parents endorsed media portrayals of drinking reported fewer critical thinking skills and were thus more likely to interact with alcohol brands on social media. Including a media literacy component in alcohol education that target parental strategies and that are conducive to discussion may lead to beneficial health outcomes in the digital era.

  12. Hair cortisol concentrations exhibit a positive association with salivary cortisol profiles and are increased in obese prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafotiou, Chrysanthe; Christaki, Eirini; van den Akker, Erica L T; Wester, Vincent L; Apostolakou, Filia; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Pervanidou, Panagiota

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, a key mediator of the stress response, has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome manifestations as early as in childhood. Scalp hair cortisol has been proposed as a reliable index of long-term circulating cortisol. We aimed to investigate whether obese prepubertal girls have higher scalp hair cortisol than normal-weight controls and whether hair cortisol levels are correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations in these groups. In this cross-sectional study, 25 obese girls and 25 normal-weighted, age-matched girls were enrolled. Anthropometric evaluation, blood chemistry and salivary cortisol measurements were performed, and body mass index (BMI) and areas under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were calculated. Hair cortisol determination was performed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both hair cortisol concentrations and salivary cortisol AUCs were higher in the obese than the normal-weight girls (p cortisol and BMI Z-score was found (rho = .327, p = .025), while hair cortisol correlated positively with salivary cortisol AUCg (rho = .3, p = .048). We conclude that obese prepubertal girls have higher hair and salivary cortisol concentrations than their age-matched lean counterparts. Hair cortisol assessment seems to be a sensitive method of evaluating systemic cortisol exposure, which is supported by our finding that hair cortisol is associated with salivary concentrations of the hormone. Lay Summary: Cortisol is the key hormone of the stress response. Childhood obesity has been associated with cortisol production dysregulation. Our findings suggest a positive association between obesity in prepubertal girls and elevated cortisol concentrations, measured in saliva and hair.

  13. Comparison of an increased waist circumference with a positive hydrogen breath test as a clinical predictor of lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Castilleja, Carlos A; Montes-Tapia, Fernando F; Treviño-Garza, Consuelo; Martínez-Cobos, María C; García-Cantú, Jesús; Arenas-Fabbri, Vincenzo; de la O-Escamilla, Norma; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Lactose intolerance is a common disease in pediatrics, and its wrong diagnosis will lead to morbidity. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of an increased waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test as a predictor of lactose intolerance. The secondary objective was to analyze the impact of body mass index, waist circumference measurement, and age on the abdominal distension of patients with lactose intolerance. A total of 138 subjects aged 3 to 15 years were included. They underwent serial measurements of the waist circumference and hydrogen levels in the breath every 30 minutes over 3 hours during the hydrogen breath test. Out of the entire sample, 35 (25.4%) patients had lactose intolerance. An increase of 0.85 cm in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference results in a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 85% to predict lactose intolerance (odds ratio: 42.14, 95% confidence interval: 13.08-135.75, p ≤ 0.001). The body mass index and waist circumference measurement did not affect abdominal distension (p= not significant); however, age modified the time of distension. A 0.85 cm increase in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test is a useful parameter for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in pediatrics. Variations in relation to body mass index and waist circumference did not affect the usefulness of an increased waist circumference, unlike age.

  14. Plasma level of the macrophage-derived soluble CD163 is increased and positively correlates with severity in Gaucher's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; de Fost, Maaike; Aerts, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Recently, soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been identified as a macrophage/monocyte-specific plasma protein and increased concentrations have been measured in patients with infection and myeloid leukaemia. In the present study we investigated the levels of sCD163 in patients with Gaucher's disease...

  15. Increased Resilience is Associated with Positive Treatment Outcomes for Veterans with Comorbid PTSD and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Adam P; Mota, Natalie P; Sippel, Lauren M; Connolly, Kevin M; Lyons, Judith A

    2018-04-18

    Resilience has been associated with less severe psychiatric symptomatology and better treatment outcomes among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders. However, it remains unknown whether resilience increases during psychotherapy within the comorbid PTSD and substance use disorder population with unique features of dual diagnosis, including trauma cue-related cravings. We tested whether veterans seeking psychotherapy for comorbid PTSD and substance use disorder reported increased resilience from pre- to posttreatment. We also tested whether increased resilience was associated with greater decreases in posttreatment PTSD and substance use disorder symptoms. Participants were 29 male veterans (M age = 49.07 years, SD = 11.24 years) receiving six-week residential day treatment including cognitive processing therapy for PTSD and cognitive behavioral therapy for substance use disorder. Resilience, PTSD symptoms, and trauma cue-related cravings were assessed at pre- and posttreatment. Veterans reported a large, significant increase in resilience posttreatment (M diff = 14.24, t = -4.22, p resilience were significantly associated with fewer PTSD symptoms (β = -0.37, p = .049, sr = -.36) and trauma-cued cravings (β = -0.39, p = .006, sr = -.38) posttreatment when controlling for pretreatment scores and baseline depressive symptoms. Results suggest that evidence-based psychotherapy for comorbid PTSD and substance use disorder may facilitate strength-based psychological growth, which may further promote sustained recovery.

  16. EBV Positive Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients Exhibit Increased Anti-dUTPase Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Williams

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, which is a ubiquitous γ-herpesvirus, establishes a latent infection in more than 90% of the global adult population. EBV-associated malignancies have increased by 14.6% over the last 20 years, and account for approximately 1.5% of all cancers worldwide and 1.8% of all cancer deaths. However, the potential involvement/contribution of lytic proteins to the pathophysiology of EBV-associated cancers is not well understood. We have previously demonstrated that the EBV-deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase modulates innate and adaptive immune responses by engaging the Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2, which leads to the modulation of downstream genes involved in oncogenesis, chronic inflammation, and in effector T-cell function. Furthermore, examination of serum samples from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients revealed the presence of increased levels of anti-dUTPase antibodies in both cohorts compared to controls with the highest levels (3.67-fold increase observed in DLBCL female cases and the lowest (2.12-fold increase in DLBCL males. Using computer-generated algorithms, dUTPase amino acid sequence alignments, and functional studies of BLLF3 mutants, we identified a putative amino acid motif involved with TLR2 interaction. These findings suggest that the EBV-dUTPase: TLR2 interaction is a potential molecular target that could be used for developing novel therapeutics (small molecules/vaccines.

  17. Strategies to Increase Cancer Detection: Review of True-Positive and False-Negative Results at Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Susan P.; McDonald, Elizabeth S.; Conant, Emily F.

    2016-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) represents a valuable addition to breast cancer screening by decreasing recall rates while increasing cancer detection rates. The increased accuracy achieved with DBT is due to the quasi–three-dimensional format of the reconstructed images and the ability to “scroll through” breast tissue in the reconstructed images, thereby reducing the effect of tissue superimposition found with conventional planar digital mammography. The margins of both benign and malignant lesions are more conspicuous at DBT, which allows improved lesion characterization, increased reader confidence, and improved screening outcomes. However, even with the improvements in accuracy achieved with DBT, there remain differences in breast cancer conspicuity by mammographic view. Early data suggest that breast cancers may be more conspicuous on craniocaudal (CC) views than on mediolateral oblique (MLO) views. While some very laterally located breast cancers may be visualized on only the MLO view, the increased conspicuity of cancers on the CC view compared with the MLO view suggests that DBT screening should be performed with two-view imaging. Even with the improved conspicuity of lesions at DBT, there may still be false-negative studies. Subtle lesions seen on only one view may be discounted, and dense and/or complex tissue patterns may make some cancers occult or extremely difficult to detect. Therefore, radiologists should be cognizant of both perceptual and cognitive errors to avoid potential pitfalls in lesion detection and characterization. ©RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27715711

  18. Increasing Parent and Caregiver Understanding of the Power of Positive Interactions in Promoting Prosocial Behaviour in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Pamela

    The goal of the project presented in the practicum was to help parents develop competencies in interacting with their children in ways which foster self esteem and cooperative behavior. The objectives of the practicum included, first, increasing parents' knowledge of: (1) the factors leading to high self esteem and cooperative behavior; (2) the…

  19. Mood states determine the degree of task shielding in dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwosta, Katharina; Hommel, Bernhard; Goschke, Thomas; Fischer, Rico

    2013-01-01

    Current models of multitasking assume that dual-task performance and the degree of multitasking are affected by cognitive control strategies. In particular, cognitive control is assumed to regulate the amount of shielding of the prioritised task from crosstalk from the secondary task. We investigated whether and how task shielding is influenced by mood states. Participants were exposed to two short film clips, one inducing high and one inducing low arousal, of either negative or positive content. Negative mood led to stronger shielding of the prioritised task (i.e., less crosstalk) than positive mood, irrespective of arousal. These findings support the assumption that emotional states determine the parameters of cognitive control and play an important role in regulating dual-task performance.

  20. Emotion regulation and its effects on mood improvement in response to an in vivo peer rejection challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Stegge, Hedy; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Kamphuis, Jan H; Telch, Michael J

    2006-11-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous use of behavioral emotion regulation (ER) strategies and their effects on subsequent mood change in response to an in vivo peer rejection manipulation. Participants (N = 186), ranging between 10 and 13 years of age, played a computer game based on the television show Survivor and were randomized to either peer rejection (being voted out of the game) or nonrejection control. In response to rejection, more than one third of the participants (38%) displayed a marked worsening (i.e., reliable change) in state mood. After receiving feedback, time spent on several behavioral ER strategies during a 5-minute postfeedback period was assessed. At the end of the postfeedback period, children's cognitive activity was also assessed. More time spent on behavioral distraction was positively linked to subsequent increases in positive affect, whereas the reverse pattern was found for disengagement/passive behavior. Moreover, higher endorsement ratings for the strategy of "cognitive analysis" were associated with stronger increases in negative affect. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Contingent negative variation of mood disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhi Lu; Wenbin Zong; Qingtao Ren; Jinyu Pu; Jun Chen; Juan Li; Xingshi Chen; Yong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on brain-evoked potential and contingent negative variation (CNV) in mood disorder remain controversial. To date, no CNV difference between unipolar and bipolar depression has been reported. Brain-evoked potentials were measured in the present study to analyze CNV in three subtypes of mood disorder (mania, unipolar depression, and bipolar depression), and these results were compared with normal controls. In the mania group, CNV amplitude B was greater than in controls, and the depression group exhibited lower CNV amplitude B and smaller A-S'2 area, and prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency. The CNV comparison between unipolar and bipolar depression found that the prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency was only in unipolar depression. These results suggest that prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency is a characteristic of unipolar depression, and CNV amplitude change is a state characteristic of mood disorder patients.

  2. Mood Disorders in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanly, John G; Su, Li; Urowitz, Murray B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency, characteristics, and outcome of mood disorders, as well as clinical and autoantibody associations, in a multiethnic/racial, prospective inception cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Patients were assessed annually for mood...... disorders (4 types, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) and 18 other neuropsychiatric events. Global disease activity scores (SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 [SLEDAI-2K]), damage scores (Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College...... was associated with Asian race/ethnicity (P = 0.01) and treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.003). Mood disorders were associated with lower mental health and mental component summary scores but not with the SLEDAI-2K, SDI, or lupus autoantibodies. Among the 232 patients with depression, 168 (72...

  3. Workplace lighting for improving alertness and mood in daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachito, Daniela V; Eckeli, Alan L; Desouky, Ahmed S; Corbett, Mark A; Partonen, Timo; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw; Riera, Rachel

    2018-03-02

    studies (163 participants) comparing high CCT light with standard illumination. By pooling their results via meta-analysis we found that high CCT light may improve alertness (SMD -0.69, 95% CI -1.28 to -0.10; Columbia Jet Lag Scale and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) when compared to standard illumination. In one of the two CBA studies with 94 participants there was no difference in positive mood (mean difference (MD) 2.08, 95% CI -0.1 to 4.26) or negative mood (MD -0.45, 95% CI -1.84 to 0.94) assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scale. High CCT light may have fewer adverse events than standard lighting (one CBA; 94 participants). Both studies were sponsored by the industry. We graded the quality of evidence as very low.We found no studies comparing light of a particular illuminance and light spectrum or CCT versus another combination of illuminance and light spectrum or CCT.We found no studies comparing daylight versus artificial light.We found one RCT (64 participants) comparing the effects of different proportions of direct and indirect light: 100% direct lighting, 70% direct lighting plus 30% indirect lighting, 30% direct lighting plus 70% indirect lighting and 100% indirect lighting. There was no substantial difference in mood, as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, or in adverse events, such as ocular, reading or concentration problems, in the short or medium term. We graded the quality of evidence as low.We found two RCTs comparing individually administered light versus no treatment. According to one RCT with 25 participants, blue-enriched light individually applied for 30 minutes a day may enhance alertness (MD -3.30, 95% CI -6.28 to -0.32; Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and may improve mood (MD -4.8, 95% CI -9.46 to -0.14; Beck Depression Inventory). We graded the quality of evidence as very low. One RCT with 30 participants compared individually applied morning bright light versus afternoon bright light for subsyndromal seasonal

  4. Mood changes after indoor tanning among college women: associations with psychiatric/addictive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Heckman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor tanning (IT has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction. The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid and positive (feeling interested mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables.

  5. Fewer self-reported depressive symptoms in young adults exposed to maternal depressed mood during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Depressed mood is prevalent during pregnancy, with accumulating evidence suggesting an impact on developmental outcome in the offspring. However, the long-term effects of prenatal maternal depression regarding internalizing psychopathology in the offspring are as yet unclear. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, prenatal maternal depressed mood was assessed at the child's age of 3 months. In a sample of n=307 offspring, depressive symptoms were obtained via questionnaire at the ages of 19, 22, 23 and 25 years. At age 25 years, diagnoses of depressive disorder were obtained using a diagnostic interview. In a subsample of currently healthy participants, voxel-based morphometry was conducted and amygdala volume was assessed. In n=85 young adults exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood, no significantly higher risk for a diagnosis of depressive disorder was observed. However, they reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms. This association was especially pronounced when prenatal maternal depressed mood was present during the first trimester of pregnancy and when maternal mood was depressed pre- as well as postnatally. At an uncorrected level only, prenatal maternal depressed mood was associated with decreased amygdala volume. Prenatal maternal depressed mood was not assessed during pregnancy, but shortly after childbirth. No diagnoses of maternal clinical depression during pregnancy were available. Self-reported depressive symptoms do not imply increased, but rather decreased symptom levels in young adults who were exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood. A long-term perspective may be important when considering consequences of prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Acute effects of beta blockade and exercise on mood and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, A; Kendall, M J; Ferner, R; Eagles, C

    1996-09-01

    To measure the previously reported beta blocker induced adverse changes in mood state and anxiety measures, and to determine if prolonged aerobic exercise attenuates such mood modifications. After 4 days of drug treatment with comparable doses of propranolol (40 and 80 mg), metoprolol (50 and 100 mg), or placebo, mood (POMS) and anxiety states (STAI) were assessed in healthy volunteers, before and after 1 h of treadmill walking exercise at 50% maximum oxygen uptake. Compared to placebo, resting "tension", "depression", and "total mood disturbance" were significantly higher on propranolol 80 mg, but all were reduced with exercise. "Fatigue" and "confusion" were also higher on propranolol, and were unaffected by exercise. "Fatigue" was also higher than placebo after exercise on metoprolol 100 mg. "Anxiety" was unaffected by drug treatment or exercise. The evidence that beta blockers, and particularly propranolol, have adverse effects on mood was confirmed. It would be preferable to prescribe a beta blocker which does not adversely alter mood states. However, exercise significantly reduced the measures of "tension" and "depression" which were adversely increased by propranolol. Exercise prescription may therefore not only be compatible with beta blockade, but a highly desirable adjuvant therapy.

  7. Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis and Increased Radiosensitivity in CD133-Positive Cells Derived From Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.-L.; Huang, P.-I; Tsai, P.-H.; Tsai, M.-L.; Lo, J.-F.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Chen, Y.-J.; Chen, Y.-W.; Chiou, S.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: CD133 has recently been proposed as a marker for cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in brain tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of resveratrol (RV) in radiosensitivity of CD133-positive/-negative cells derived from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT-CD133 +/- ). Materials and Methods: AT/RT-CD133 +/- were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and then treated with RV at different doses. Migratory ability, colony formation, apoptotic activity, and xenotransplantation were assessed for RV alone, ionizing radiation (IR) alone, and IR with RV conditions. Results: AT/RT-CD133 + displayed enhanced self-renewal and highly coexpressed 'stem cell' genes and drug-resistant genes, in addition to showing significant resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy as compared with CD133 - cells. After treatment with 200 μM RV, the in vitro proliferation rates and in vivo tumor restoration abilities of ATRT-CD133 + were dramatically inhibited. Importantly, treatment with 150 μM RV can effectively inhibit the expression of drug-resistant genes in AT/RT-CD133 + , and further facilitate to the differentiation of CD133 + into CD133 - . In addition, treatment with 150 μM RV could significantly enhance the radiosensitivity and IR-mediated apoptosis in RV-treated ATRT-CD133 +/- . Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the mean survival rate of mice with ATRT-CD133 + that were treated with IR could be significantly improved when IR was combined with 150 μM RV treatment. Conclusions: AT/RT-CD133 + exhibit CSC properties and are refractory to IR treatment. Our results suggest that RV treatment plays crucial roles in antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and radiosensitizing effects on treated-CD133 +/- ; RV may therefore improve the clinical treatment of AT/RT.

  8. Negative affect reduces team awareness: the effects of mood and stress on computer-mediated team communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    This article presents research on the effects of varying mood and stress states on within-team communication in a simulated crisis management environment, with a focus on the relationship between communication behaviors and team awareness. Communication plays a critical role in team cognition along with cognitive factors such as attention, memory, and decision-making speed. Mood and stress are known to have interrelated effects on cognition at the individual level, but there is relatively little joint exploration of these factors in team communication in technologically complex environments. Dyadic communication behaviors in a distributed six-person crisis management simulation were analyzed in a factorial design for effects of two levels of mood (happy, sad) and the presence or absence of a time pressure stressor. Time pressure and mood showed several specific impacts on communication behaviors. Communication quantity and efficiency increased under time pressure, though frequent requests for information were associated with poor performance. Teams in happy moods showed enhanced team awareness, as revealed by more anticipatory communication patterns and more detailed verbal responses to teammates than those in sad moods. Results show that the attention-narrowing effects of mood and stress associated with individual cognitive functions demonstrate analogous impacts on team awareness and information-sharing behaviors and reveal a richer understanding of how team dynamics change under adverse conditions. Disentangling stress from mood affords the opportunity to target more specific interventions that better support team awareness and task performance.

  9. Depressed mood in the working population: associations with work schedules and working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesen, Karolien; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, Ijmert; Mohren, Danielle C L; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M

    2010-07-01

    The impact of working time arrangements (WTA) on health has been studied extensively. Still, little is known about the interrelation between work schedules, working hours, and depressed mood. For work schedules, the underlying assumptions regarding depressed mood refer to a disturbance of social and biological rhythms, whereas for working hours, the assumptions relate to workload and work capacity. Conversely, depressed mood may urge an employee to adjust his/her work schedule and/or number of working hours/week (h/wk). The aim of this study was to assess the association between work schedule and working hours with depressed mood. Using baseline data from the Maastricht Cohort Study, depressed mood in day work was compared with depressed mood in different shiftwork schedules (n = 8843). Within day work, several categories of working h/wk were studied in association with depressed mood (n = 7217). The association between depressed mood and several aspects of overtime was assessed separately. Depressed mood was measured with a dichotomous item: "Did you feel down every day over the last two weeks?" Separate logistic regression analyses were conducted for men and women, with adjustments for potential confounders. The odds ratio (OR) for depressed mood was greater for men involved in shiftwork than for men only involved in day work (three-shift OR = 2.05 [95% confidence interval, CI 1.52-2.77]; five-shift OR = 1.34 [95% CI 1.00-1.80]; irregular-shift OR = 1.79 [95% CI 1.27-2.53]). In female employees, five-shift work was associated with a higher prevalence of depressed mood (OR = 5.96 [95% CI 2.83-12.56]). Regarding the number of working h/wk, men working working 36-40 h/wk (OR = 2.73 [95% CI 1.35-5.52]). After conducting trend analyses, a significant decreasing trend was found in men, whereas an increasing trend was found in women working a high number of hours. Furthermore, a dose-response relationship was present in men regarding the number of overtime h/wk. This

  10. Increases in the numerical density of GAT-1 positive puncta in the barrel cortex of adult mice after fear conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Siucinska

    Full Text Available Three days of fear conditioning that combines tactile stimulation of a row of facial vibrissae (conditioned stimulus, CS with a tail shock (unconditioned stimulus, UCS expands the representation of "trained" vibrissae, which can be demonstrated by labeling with 2-deoxyglucose in layer IV of the barrel cortex. We have also shown that functional reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 increases GABAergic markers in the hollows of "trained" barrels of the adult mouse. This study investigated how whisker-shock conditioning (CS+UCS affected the expression of puncta of a high-affinity GABA plasma membrane transporter GAT-1 in the barrel cortex of mice 24 h after associative learning paradigm. We found that whisker-shock conditioning (CS+UCS led to increase expression of neuronal and astroglial GAT-1 puncta in the "trained" row compared to controls: Pseudoconditioned, CS-only, UCS-only and Naïve animals. These findings suggest that fear conditioning specifically induces activation of systems regulating cellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.

  11. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    -term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

  12. The positive bystander effect: passive bystanders increase helping in situations with high expected negative consequences for the helper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The present field study investigated the interplay between the presence of a passive bystander (not present versus present) in a simulated bike theft and expected negative consequences (low versus high) in predicting intervention behavior when no physical victim is present. It was found that an additional bystander increases individual intervention in situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper in case of intervention were high (i.e., when the bike thief looks fierce) compared to situations where the expected negative consequences for the helper were low (i.e., when the bike thief does not look fierce). In contrast, no such effect for high vs. low expected negative consequences was observed when no additional bystander observed the critical situation. The results are discussed in light of previous laboratory findings on expected negative consequences and bystander intervention.

  13. Increased mortality among HIV-positive men on antiretroviral therapy: survival differences between sexes explained by late initiation in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanters S

    2013-05-01

    versus 147 cells/mm3, IQR: 68–212, P-value < 0.0001. Men were at an increased risk of death compared to women (hazard ratio: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.03–1.83. Baseline CD4 cell counts accounted for 43% of the increased risk of death in men (95% CI: 22%–113%. Access to care via antenatal services did not explain differences in outcomes.Conclusion: In this cohort there is a marked increase in risk of mortality for men and approximately half of it can be attributed to their later engagement in care. More effort is required to engage men in care in a timely manner.Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy, gender, Uganda, antenatal care, mortality

  14. Female peer mentors early in college increase women’s positive academic experiences and retention in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2017-01-01

    Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women’s experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended. Incoming women engineering students (n = 150) were randomly assigned to female or male peer mentors or no mentors for 1 y. Their experiences were assessed multiple times during the intervention year and 1-y postintervention. Female (but not male) mentors protected women’s belonging in engineering, self-efficacy, motivation, retention in engineering majors, and postcollege engineering aspirations. Counter to common assumptions, better engineering grades were not associated with more retention or career aspirations in engineering in the first year of college. Notably, increased belonging and self-efficacy were significantly associated with more retention and career aspirations. The benefits of peer mentoring endured long after the intervention had ended, inoculating women for the first 2 y of college—the window of greatest attrition from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Thus, same-gender peer mentoring for a short period during developmental transition points promotes women’s success and retention in engineering, yielding dividends over time. PMID:28533360

  15. Thought Speed, Mood, and the Experience of Mental Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana

    2008-11-01

    This article presents a theoretical account relating thought speed to mood and psychological experience. Thought sequences that occur at a fast speed generally induce more positive affect than do those that occur slowly. Thought speed constitutes one aspect of mental motion. Another aspect involves thought variability, or the degree to which thoughts in a sequence either vary widely from or revolve closely around a theme. Thought sequences possessing more motion (occurring fast and varying widely) generally produce more positive affect than do sequences possessing little motion (occurring slowly and repetitively). When speed and variability oppose each other, such that one is low and the other is high, predictable psychological states also emerge. For example, whereas slow, repetitive thinking can prompt dejection, fast, repetitive thinking can prompt anxiety. This distinction is related to the fact that fast thinking involves greater actual and felt energy than slow thinking does. Effects of mental motion occur independent of the specific content of thought. Their consequences for mood and energy hold psychotherapeutic relevance. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  16. Processing Interrogative Sentence Mood at the Semantic-Syntactic Interface: An Electrophysiological Research in Chinese, German, and Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Shan; Dietrich, Rainer; Sommer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Background Languages differ in the marking of the sentence mood of a polar interrogative (yes/no question). For instance, the interrogative mood is marked at the beginning of the surface structure in Polish, whereas the marker appears at the end in Chinese. In order to generate the corresponding sentence frame, the syntactic specification of the interrogative mood is early in Polish and late in Chinese. In this respect, German belongs to an interesting intermediate class. The yes/no question is expressed by a shift of the finite verb from its final position in the underlying structure into the utterance initial position, a move affecting, hence, both the sentence's final and the sentence's initial constituents. The present study aimed to investigate whether during generation of the semantic structure of a polar interrogative, i.e., the processing preceding the grammatical formulation, the interrogative mood is encoded according to its position in the syntactic structure at distinctive time points in Chinese, German, and Polish. Methodology/Principal Findings In a two-choice go/nogo experimental design, native speakers of the three languages responded to pictures by pressing buttons and producing utterances in their native language while their brain potentials were recorded. The emergence and latency of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) in nogo conditions, in which speakers asked a yes/no question, should indicate the time point of processing the interrogative mood. The results revealed that Chinese, German, and Polish native speakers did not differ from each other in the electrophysiological indicator. Conclusions/Significance The findings suggest that the semantic encoding of the interrogative mood is temporally consistent across languages despite its disparate syntactic specification. The consistent encoding may be ascribed to economic processing of interrogative moods at various sentential positions of the syntactic structures in languages or, more

  17. EOMES-positive CD4+ T cells are increased in PTPN22 (1858T) risk allele carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Karine; Ramsköld, Daniel; Diaz-Gallo, Lina-Marcela; Herrath, Jessica; Houtman, Miranda; Tandre, Karolina; Rönnblom, Lars; Catrina, Anca; Malmström, Vivianne

    2018-04-01

    The presence of the PTPN22 risk allele (1858T) is associated with several autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Despite a number of studies exploring the function of PTPN22 in T cells, the exact impact of the PTPN22 risk allele on T-cell function in humans is still unclear. In this study, using RNA sequencing, we show that, upon TCR-activation, naïve human CD4 + T cells homozygous for the PTPN22 risk allele overexpress a set of genes including CFLAR and 4-1BB, which are important for cytotoxic T-cell differentiation. Moreover, the protein expression of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin (EOMES) was increased in T cells from healthy donors homozygous for the PTPN22 risk allele and correlated with a decreased number of naïve CD4 + T cells. There was no difference in the frequency of other CD4 + T-cell subsets (Th1, Th17, Tfh, Treg). Finally, an accumulation of EOMES + CD4 + T cells was observed in synovial fluid of RA patients with a more pronounced production of Perforin-1 in PTPN22 risk allele carriers. Altogether, we propose a novel mechanism of action of PTPN22 risk allele through the generation of cytotoxic CD4 + T cells and identify EOMES + CD4 + T cells as a relevant T-cell subset in RA pathogenesis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Stress Biomarkers, Mood States, and Sleep during a Major Competition: “Success” and “Failure” Athlete's Profile of High-Level Swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Bougard, Clément; Drogou, Catherine; Langrume, Christophe; Miller, Christian; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vergnoux, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate stress markers, mood states, and sleep indicators in high-level swimmers during a major 7-days competition according to the outcomes. Nine swimmers [six men and three women (age: 22 ± 2 and 22 ± 4 years, respectively)] were examined. Before (PRE) and after (POST) each race (series, semi-finals, and finals), salivary concentrations of cortisol, α-amylase (sAA), and chromogranin-A (CgA) were determined. Mood states were assessed by the profile of mood state (POMS) questionnaire completed before and after the 7-days, and self-reported sleep diaries were completed daily. In the “failure” group, cortisol and sAA significantly increased between PRE-POST measurements (p failure group.” In this group, fatigue, confusion and depression scores, and sleep duration before the finals increased. The results in the “success” group show tendencies for increased cortisol and sCgA concentrations in response to competition, while sAA was not changed. Cortisol levels before the semi-finals and finals and sCgA levels before the finals were positively correlated to the fatigue score in the “failure” group only (r = 0.89). sAA levels before and after the semi-finals were negatively correlated to sleep duration measured in the subsequent night (r = −0.90). In conclusion, the stress of the competition could trigger a negative mood profile and sleep disturbance which correspond to different responses of biomarkers related to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, cortisol, sAA, and CgA. PMID:27014092

  19. Mood States Associated with Induced Defensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaderlund, Natasha Slesnick; Waldron, Holly Barrett

    1994-01-01

    Compared effects of neutral and defensive mood induction in 70 students reporting conflicted versus nonconflicted families for presence of hostility, aggression, fear, anxiety, and sadness. Found that defensive students from high-conflict families reported stronger negative emotions than did neutral high-conflict and defensive low-conflict…

  20. Time Perspective, Mood Disturbance, and Suicide Liberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennings, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Assessed 238 university students and 159 high school students on temporal and personality measures. Found that temporal extension, temporal attitude, and impulsivity had comparatively little effect on suicide ideation after controlling effects of mood disturbance. However, negative temporal attitudes appeared to have significant impact on suicide…

  1. Prevalence of Mood Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Pouretemad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of mood disorders among Iranian adults. Method: In this cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study (age > 18 in Iran, 25180 individuals were selected through a randomized cluster sampling method for a diagnosis using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS. They were then interviewed at home by 250 trained clinical psychologists. Results: The estimated lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and Minor Depressive Disorder (mDD were 3.1% and 0.3% respectively. Also, the estimated lifetime prevalence of Bipolar Mood disorder (BMD type I and type II were 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. The current prevalence of MDD, mDD, BMD-I, and BMD-II were 1.8%, 0.2%, 0.04%, and 0.3% respectively. Mood disorders were associated with female gender, lower education, being married, being middle-aged, living in cities, and not being a homemaker. Conclusion: The prevalence of mood disorders was lower among Iranian adults than reported in Western studies, and a number of demographic associations differed from those reported in Western studies. Important cultural differences in the nature or manifestation of depression are implied by these results.

  2. Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baweja R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Raman Baweja, Susan D Mayes, Usman Hameed, James G Waxmonsky Department of Psychiatry, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD was introduced as a new diagnostic entity under the category of depressive disorders in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5. It was included in DSM-5 primarily to address concerns about the misdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. DMDD does provide a home for a large percentage of referred children with severe persistent irritability that did not fit well into any DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV diagnostic category. However, it has been a controversial addition to the DSM-5 due to lack of published validity studies, leading to questions about its validity as a distinct disorder. In this article, the authors discuss the diagnostic criteria, assessment, epidemiology, criticism of the diagnosis, and pathophysiology, as well as treatment and future directions for DMDD. They also review the literature on severe mood dysregulation, as described by the National Institute of Mental Health, as the scientific support for DMDD is based primarily on studies of severe mood dysregulation. Keywords: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, persistent irritability, temper outbursts 

  3. Assessment of mood: guides for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Toshi A

    2010-06-01

    This article is one of the series of review articles aiming to present a convenient guideline for practicing clinicians in their selection of scales for clinical and research purposes. This article focuses on assessment scales for mood (depression, mania). After reviewing the basic principles of clinical psychometrics, we present a selective review of representative scales measuring depressed or manic mood. We reviewed and reported on reliability, validity, interpretability, and feasibility of the following rating scales: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), K6, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR) as self-report scales for depressed mood; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) as clinician-administered measure for depression; and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) as a clinician-administered instrument for mania. Although the rating scales for mood represent a well-trodden terrain, this brief review of the most frequently used scales in the literature revealed there is still some room for improvement and for further research, especially with regard to their clinical interpretability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of stress and mood on decision making in critical situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rondeel, E.W.M.; Kempen, M.H.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.; Nieuwenhuis, C.H.M.; Holland, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this position paper a number of hypotheses are outlined concerning the effect of three measurable human factors, namely subjective stress, arousal and mood, on human decision making performance; taking into account the amount of risk involved in the decision. The proposed domain of application

  5. Ecological momentary assessment of acute alcohol use disorder symptoms: associations with mood, motives, and use on planned drinking days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Pearson, Matthew R; Day, Anne M

    2014-08-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one's mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes within subjects. The current study used EMA with 74 moderate drinkers who responded to fixed and random mood, motive, alcohol use, and AUD criteria prompts over a 21-day assessment period. A temporal pattern of daytime mood, evening drinking motivation, and nighttime alcohol use and acute AUD symptoms on planned drinking days was modeled to examine how these associations unfold throughout the day. The results suggest considerable heterogeneity in drinking motivation across drinking days. Additionally, an affect regulation model of drinking to cope with negative mood was observed. Specifically, on planned drinking days, the temporal association between daytime negative mood and the experience of acute AUD symptoms was mediated via coping motives and alcohol use. The current study found that motives are dynamic, and that changes in motives may predict differential drinking patterns across days. Further, the study provides evidence that emotion-regulation-driven alcohol involvement may need to be examined at the event level to fully capture the ebb and flow of negative affect motivated drinking.

  6. Beautiful from the Inside Out: A School-Based Programme Designed to Increase Self-Esteem and Positive Body Image among Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Sarah Jane; Murray, Marisa; Nolan, Amanda; Bowker, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to design, implement, and evaluate a school-based programme that aimed to increase self-esteem and positive body image among preadolescent boys and girls. Participants in grades five and six (N = 77; M [subscript age] = 10.86, 53.2% girls) from a public school in Eastern Ontario completed a battery of validated…

  7. Preconception use of cART by HIV-positive pregnant women increases the risk of infants being born small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijdewind, Ingrid J. M.; Smit, Colette; Godfried, Mieke H.; Bakker, Rachel; Nellen, Jeannine F. J. B.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth; Reiss, Peter; Steegers, Eric A. P.; van der Ende, Marchina E.

    2018-01-01

    Background The benefits of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-positive pregnant women (improved maternal health and prevention of mother to child transmission [pMTCT]) currently outweigh the adverse effects due to cART. As the variety of cART increases, however, the question arises as

  8. Cognitive and emotional demands of black humour processing: the role of intelligence, aggressiveness and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Hergovich, Andreas; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Stoettner, Susanne; Bunda, Iris; Witting, Andrea; Seidler, Melanie; Moser, Reinhilde; Kacena, Stefanie; Jaeckle, David; Loader, Benjamin; Mueller, Christian; Auff, Eduard

    2017-05-01

    Humour processing is a complex information-processing task that is dependent on cognitive and emotional aspects which presumably influence frame-shifting and conceptual blending, mental operations that underlie humour processing. The aim of the current study was to find distinctive groups of subjects with respect to black humour processing, intellectual capacities, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. A total of 156 adults rated black humour cartoons and conducted measurements of verbal and nonverbal intelligence, mood disturbance and aggressiveness. Cluster analysis yields three groups comprising following properties: (1) moderate black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence; low mood disturbance and moderate aggressiveness; (2) low black humour preference and moderate comprehension; average nonverbal and verbal intelligence, high mood disturbance and high aggressiveness; and (3) high black humour preference and high comprehension; high nonverbal and verbal intelligence; no mood disturbance and low aggressiveness. Age and gender do not differ significantly, differences in education level can be found. Black humour preference and comprehension are positively associated with higher verbal and nonverbal intelligence as well as higher levels of education. Emotional instability and higher aggressiveness apparently lead to decreased levels of pleasure when dealing with black humour. These results support the hypothesis that humour processing involves cognitive as well as affective components and suggest that these variables influence the execution of frame-shifting and conceptual blending in the course of humour processing.

  9. Factors Mediating Dysphoric Moods and Help Seeking Behaviour Among Australian Parents of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Matthew; Donnelly, James

    2016-06-01

    This study compared levels of state affect, dysphoric mood, and parenting sense of competence in Australian parents of children with or without autism. The effects of personality and location on the parents' experience were also examined, while controlling for current affect. Possible relationships among personality, location factors and help-seeking behavior were also explored in parents of children with autism. Prior findings of higher dysphoric mood levels in parents of children with autism were supported, as was the positive correlation between dysphoric moods and Neuroticism levels. Parenting Sense of Competence did not differ across locations, and there were no parent type by location interactions. Access to services among parents of a child with autism did not moderate dysphoria levels.

  10. Context-dependent effect of mood: the regulatory role of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajusz-Gawędzka Dominika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the influence of the context-dependent effect of mood as well as individual differences in neuroticism and action vs. state/volatility orientation on predecisional processing in a multiattribute choice task. One hundred and twenty participants acquired information about choice options after filling out personality questionnaires. Results showed that participants in a positive mood processed the information longer in enjoy than in done-enough context. In turn, participants in a negative mood processed the information more selectively in enjoy than in done-enough context. It also appeared that this effect is reinforced for participants with low neuroticism and volatility orientation, while it is weakened for those with low neuroticism and action orientation. Results were interpreted in accordance with the differential-processual approach.

  11. Classification of mood disorders in DSM-V and DSM-VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter R

    2008-10-01

    For any diagnostic system to be clinically useful, and go beyond description, it must provide an understanding that informs about aetiology and/or outcome. DSM-III and DSM-IV have provided reliability; the challenge for DSM-V and DSM-VI will be to provide validity. For DSM-V this will not be achieved. Believers in DSM-III and DSM-IV have impeded progress towards a valid classification system, so DSM-V needs to retain continuity with its predecessors to retain reliability and enhance research, but position itself to inform a valid diagnostic system by DSM-VI. This review examines the features of a diagnostic system and summarizes what is really known about mood disorders. The review also questions whether what are called mood disorders are primarily disorders of mood. Finally, it provides suggestions for DSM-VI.

  12. Increased radiosensitivity of HPV-positive head and neck cancer cell lines due to cell cycle dysregulation and induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenz, Andrea; Ziemann, Frank; Wittig, Andrea; Preising, Stefanie; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Mayer, Christina; Wagner, Steffen; Klussmann, Jens-Peter; Wittekindt, Claus; Dreffke, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) respond favourably to radiotherapy as compared to HPV-unrelated HNSCC. We investigated DNA damage response in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC cell lines aiming to identify mechanisms, which illustrate reasons for the increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancers of the oropharynx. Radiation response including clonogenic survival, apoptosis, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, and cell cycle redistribution in four HPV-positive (UM-SCC-47, UM-SCC-104, 93-VU-147T, UPCI:SCC152) and four HPV-negative (UD-SCC-1, UM-SCC-6, UM-SCC-11b, UT-SCC-33) cell lines was evaluated. HPV-positive cells were more radiosensitive (mean SF2: 0.198 range: 0.22-0.18) than HPV-negative cells (mean SF2: 0.34, range: 0.45-0.27; p = 0.010). Irradiated HPV-positive cell lines progressed faster through S-phase showing a more distinct accumulation in G2/M. The abnormal cell cycle checkpoint activation was accompanied by a more pronounced increase of cell death after x-irradiation and a higher number of residual and unreleased DSBs. The enhanced responsiveness of HPV-related HNSCC to radiotherapy might be caused by a higher cellular radiosensitivity due to cell cycle dysregulation and impaired DNA DSB repair. (orig.) [de

  13. Elevated Monoamine Oxidase-A Distribution Volume in Borderline Personality Disorder Is Associated With Severity Across Mood Symptoms, Suicidality, and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J.; Chiuccariello, Lina; Wilson, Alan A.; Houle, Sylvain; Links, Paul; Bagby, R. Michael; McMain, Shelley; Kellow, Charis; Patel, Jalpa; Rekkas, Paraskevi V.; Pasricha, Suvercha; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) is a treatment target in neurodegenerative illness and mood disorders that increases oxidative stress and predisposition toward apoptosis. Increased MAO-A levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) occur in rodent models of depressive behavior and human studies of depressed moods. Extreme dysphoria is common in borderline personality disorder (BPD), especially when severe, and the molecular underpinnings of severe BPD are largely unknown. We hypothesized that MAO-A levels in PFC and ACC would be highest in severe BPD and would correlate with symptom magnitude. METHODS [11C] Harmine positron emission tomography measured MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in severe BPD subjects (n = 14), moderate BPD subjects (n = 14), subjects with a major depressive episode (MDE) only (n = 14), and healthy control subjects (n = 14). All subjects were female. RESULTS Severe BPD was associated with greater PFC and ACC MAO-A VT compared with moderate BPD, MDE, and healthy control subjects (multivariate analysis of variance group effect: F6,102 = 5.6, p MAO-A VT were positively correlated with mood symptoms (PFC: r = .52, p = .005; ACC: r = .53, p = .004) and suicidality (PFC: r = .40, p = .037; ACC: r = .38, p = .046), while hippocampus MAO-A VT was negatively correlated with verbal memory (r = −.44, p = .023). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that elevated MAO-A VT is associated with multiple indicators of BPD severity, including BPD symptomatology, mood symptoms, suicidality, and neurocognitive impairment. PMID:25698585

  14. Exposure to nature gardens has time-dependent associations with mood improvements for people with mid- and late-stage dementia: Innovative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Piran Cl; Wyatt, Jonathan; Chalfont, Garuth; Bland, J Martin; Neale, Christopher; Trepel, Dominic; Graham, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to green space and nature has a potential role to play in the care of people with dementia, with possible benefits including improved mood and slower disease progression. In this observational study at a dementia care facility in the UK, we used carer-assessed measures to evaluate change in mood of residents with mid- to late-stage dementia following exposure to a nature garden. We found that exposure to nature was associated with a beneficial change in patient mood. There was a non-linear relationship between time spent outdoors and mood outcome. Improvements in patient mood were associated with relatively short duration exposures to nature, and no additional measureable increases in mood were found with exposures beyond 80-90 minutes duration. Whilst further investigation is required before causality can be determined, these results raise important questions for policy about the integration of outdoor space into the design of dementia care facilities and programmes.

  15. Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E S; Slettenaar, M; vd Meer, N; Transler, C; Jans, L; Quadt, F; Berry, M

    2011-10-24

    The combination of theobromine and caffeine, methylxanthines found in chocolate, has previously been shown to improve mood and cognition. However, it is unknown whether these molecules act synergistically. This study tested the hypothesis that a combination of caffeine and theobromine has synergistic effects on cognition, mood and blood pressure in 24 healthy female subjects. The effects of theobromine (700 mg), caffeine (120 mg) or the combination of both, or placebo were tested on mood (the Bond-Lader visual analog scale), psychomotor performance (the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)) and blood pressure before and at 1, 2 and 3 h after administration. Theobromine alone decreased self-reported calmness 3h after ingestion and lowered blood pressure relative to placebo 1 h after ingestion. Caffeine increased self-reported alertness 1, 2 and 3h after ingestion and contentedness 1 and 2 h after ingestion, and increased blood pressure relative to placebo (at 1 h). The combination of caffeine+theobromine had similar effects as caffeine alone on mood, but with no effect on blood pressure. There was no treatment effect on DSST performance. Together these results suggest that theobromine and caffeine could have differential effects on mood and blood pressure. It was tentatively concluded that caffeine may have more CNS-mediated effects on alertness, while theobromine may be acting primarily via peripheral physiological changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Highs and lows, ups and downs: Meteorology and mood in bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bullock

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation of manic and depressive symptoms is a controversial topic in bipolar disorder research. Several studies report seasonal patterns of hospital admissions for depression and mania and variation in symptoms that appear to follow a seasonal pattern, whereas others fail to report such patterns. Differences in research methodologies, data analysis strategies, and temporal resolution of data may partly explain the variation in findings between studies. The current study adds a novel perspective to the literature by investigating specific meteorological factors such as atmospheric pressure, hours of sunshine, relative humidity, and daily maximum and minimum temperatures as more proximal predictors of self-reported daily mood change in people diagnosed with bipolar disorder. The results showed that daily maximum temperature was the only meteorological variable to predict clinically-relevant mood change, with increases in temperature associated with greater odds of a transition into manic mood states. The mediating effects of sleep and activity were also investigated and suggest at least partial influence on the prospective relationship between maximum temperature and mood. Limitations include the small sample size and the fact that the number and valence of social interactions and exposure to natural light were not investigated as potentially important mediators of relationships between meteorological factors and mood. The current data make an important contribution to the literature, serving to clarify the specific meteorological factors that influence mood change in bipolar disorder. From a clinical perspective, greater understanding of seasonal patterns of symptoms in bipolar disorder will help mood episode prophylaxis in vulnerable individuals.

  17. Perceived relational evaluation as a predictor of self-esteem and mood in people with a psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ross M G; Windell, Deborah; Lynch, Jill; Manchanda, Rahul

    2012-05-01

    There is evidence that social support predicts self-esteem and related moods for people with psychotic disorders. However, there has been little investigation of relative importance of specific components of social support. Evidence from social psychology suggests that perceived relational evaluation (PRE) or the extent to which people see others as valuing them, is a particularly important determinant of self-esteem and mood. Our study compared the importance of PRE and other types of social support, in predicting self-esteem and depressive mood, anxiety, and anger-hostility in a sample of patients in an early intervention program for psychotic disorders. One hundred and two patients of the Prevention and Early Intervention Program for Psychoses in London, Ontario, completed measures of PRE, appraisal, tangible and general emotional social support, self-esteem, and mood. In addition, ratings of positive and negative symptoms were completed for all participants. In general, perceived relational value was the most important predictor of self-esteem and mood. These relations were not a result of confounding with positive or negative symptoms. PRE appears to be a particularly important aspect of social support in predicting self-esteem and mood states. Possible implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

  18. Pattern of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Failure Dictates the Probability of a Positive Bone Scan in Patients With an Increasing PSA After Radical Prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Zohar A.; Bianco, Fernando J.; Rabbani, Farhang; Eastham, James A.; Fearn, Paul; Scher, Howard I.; Kelly, Kevin W.; Chen, Hui-Ni; Schöder, Heiko; Hricak, Hedvig; Scardino, Peter T.; Kattan, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Physicians often order periodic bone scans (BS) to check for metastases in patients with an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA; biochemical recurrence [BCR]) after radical prostatectomy (RP), but most scans are negative. We studied patient characteristics to build a predictive model for a positive scan. Patients and Methods From our prostate cancer database we identified all patients with detectable PSA after RP. We analyzed the following features at the time of each bone scan for association with a positive BS: preoperative PSA, time to BCR, pathologic findings of the RP, PSA before the BS (trigger PSA), PSA kinetics (PSA doubling time, PSA slope, and PSA velocity), and time from BCR to BS. The results were incorporated into a predictive model. Results There were 414 BS performed in 239 patients with BCR and no history of androgen deprivation therapy. Only 60 (14.5%) were positive for metastases. In univariate analysis, preoperative PSA (P = .04), seminal vesicle invasion (P = .02), PSA velocity (P < .001), and trigger PSA (P < .001) predicted a positive BS. In multivariate analysis, only PSA slope (odds ratio [OR], 2.71; P = .03), PSA velocity (OR, 0.93; P = .003), and trigger PSA (OR, 1.022; P < .001) predicted a positive BS. A nomogram for predicting the bone scan result was constructed with an overfit-corrected concordance index of 0.93. Conclusion Trigger PSA, PSA velocity, and slope were associated with a positive BS. A highly discriminating nomogram can be used to select patients according to their risk for a positive scan. Omitting scans in low-risk patients could reduce substantially the number of scans ordered. PMID:15774789

  19. Frequent screening for syphilis as part of HIV monitoring increases the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissessor, Melanie; Fairley, Christopher K; Leslie, David; Howley, Kerri; Chen, Marcus Y

    2010-10-01

    Syphilis continues to be a significant public health problem among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) internationally. This study aimed to determine whether the routine inclusion of syphilis serology with every blood test performed as part of HIV monitoring increases the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive MSM. We examined the effect of this intervention, implemented in January 2007, on the detection of early asymptomatic syphilis among HIV-positive MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, and compared this with the previous clinic policy of annual syphilis screening. In the 18 months before and after the intervention, the median number of syphilis tests performed per man per year was 1 and 2, respectively. The proportion of MSM diagnosed with early syphilis who were asymptomatic was 21% (3 of 14) and 85% (41 of 48) for the 2 respective periods (P = 0.006). The time between the midpoint since last syphilis serology and diagnosis of syphilis was a median of 107 days (range 9-362) and 45 days (range 23-325) for the 2 periods, respectively (P = 0.018). The inclusion of routine syphilis serology with every blood test performed as part of HIV monitoring in HIV-positive MSM resulted in a large increase in the proportion of men diagnosed with early asymptomatic syphilis. This simple intervention probably also decreased the duration of infectiousness, enhancing syphilis control while also reducing morbidity.

  20. Increasing the Thermostable Sugar-1-Phosphate Nucleotidylyltransferase Activities of the Archaeal ST0452 Protein through Site Saturation Mutagenesis of the 97th Amino Acid Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuki; Zang, Qian; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Dadashipour, Mohammad; Zhang, Zilian; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    The ST0452 protein is a bifunctional protein exhibiting sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidylyltransferase (sugar-1-P NTase) and amino-sugar-1-phosphate acetyltransferase activities and was isolated from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii Based on the previous observation that five single mutations increased ST0452 sugar-1-P NTase activity, nine double-mutant ST0452 proteins were generated with the intent of obtaining enzymes exhibiting a further increase in catalysis, but all showed less than 15% of the wild-type N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlcNAc-1-P UTase) activity. The Y97A mutant exhibited the highest activity of the single-mutant proteins, and thus site saturation mutagenesis of the 97th position (Tyr) was conducted. Six mutants showed both increased GlcNAc-1-P UTase and glucose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase activities, eight mutants showed only enhanced GlcNAc-1-P UTase activity, and six exhibited higher GlcNAc-1-P UTase activity than that of the Y97A mutant. Kinetic analyses of three typical mutants indicated that the increase in sugar-1-P NTase activity was mainly due to an increase in the apparent k cat value. We hypothesized that changing the 97th position (Tyr) to a smaller amino acid with similar electronic properties would increase activity, and thus the Tyr at the corresponding 103rd position of the Escherichia coli GlmU (EcGlmU) enzyme was replaced with the same residues. The Y103N mutant EcGlmU showed increased GlcNAc-1-P UTase activity, revealing that the Tyr at the 97th position of the ST0452 protein (103rd position in EcGlmU) plays an important role in catalysis. The present results provide useful information regarding how to improve the activity of natural enzymes and how to generate powerful enzymes for the industrial production of sugar nucleotides. It is typically difficult to increase enzymatic activity by introducing substitutions into a natural enzyme. However, it was previously found that the ST0452 protein

  1. Sex differences in visuospatial and navigational working memory: the role of mood induced by background music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Rogolino, Carmelo; D'amico, Simonetta; Piccardi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Sex differences in visuospatial abilities are long debated. Men generally outperform women, especially in wayfinding or learning a route or a sequence of places. These differences might depend on women's disadvantage in underlying spatial competences, such as mental rotation, and on the strategies used, as well as on emotions and on self-belief about navigational skills, not related to actual skill-levels. In the present study, sex differences in visuospatial and navigational working memory in emotional contexts were investigated. Participants' mood was manipulated by background music (positive, negative or neutral) while performing on the Corsi Block-tapping Task (CBT) and Walking Corsi (WalCT) test. In order to assess the effectiveness of mood manipulation, participants filled in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule before and after carrying out the visuospatial tasks. Firstly, results showed that after mood induction, only the positive affect changed, whereas the negative affect remained unconfounded by mood and by sex. This finding is in line with the main effect of 'group' on all tests used: the positive music group scored significantly higher than other groups. Secondly, although men outperformed women in the CBT forward condition and in the WalCT forward and backward conditions, they scored higher than women only in the WalCT with the negative background music. This means that mood cannot fully explain sex differences in visuospatial and navigational working memory. Our results suggest that sex differences in the CBT and WalCT can be better explained by differences in spatial competences rather than by emotional contexts.

  2. Validity of prototype diagnosis for mood and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFife, Jared A; Peart, Joanne; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry; Drill, Rebecca; Westen, Drew

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT With growing recognition that most forms of psychopathology are best represented as dimensions or spectra, a central question becomes how to implement dimensional diagnosis in a way that is empirically sound and clinically useful. Prototype matching, which involves comparing a patient's clinical presentation with a prototypical description of the disorder, is an approach to diagnosis that has gained increasing attention with forthcoming revisions to both the DSM and the International Classification of Diseases. OBJECTIVE To examine prototype diagnosis for mood and anxiety disorders. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS In the first study, we examined clinicians' DSM-IV and prototype diagnoses with their ratings of the patients' adaptive functioning and patients' self-reported symptoms. In the second study, independent interviewers made prototype diagnoses following either a systematic clinical interview or a structured diagnostic interview. A third interviewer provided independent ratings of global adaptive functioning. Patients were recruited as outpatients (study 1; N = 84) and from primary care clinics (study 2; N = 143). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Patients' self-reported mood, anxiety, and externalizing symptoms along with independent clinical ratings of adaptive functioning. RESULTS Clinicians' prototype diagnoses showed small to moderate correlations with patient-reported psychopathology and performed as well as or better than DSM-IV diagnoses. Prototype diagnoses from independent interviewers correlated on average r = .50 and showed substantial incremental validity over DSM-IV diagnoses in predicting adaptive functioning. CONCLUSIONS Prototype matching is a viable alternative for psychiatric diagnosis. As in research on personality disorders, mood and anxiety disorder prototypes outperformed DSM-IV decision rules in predicting psychopathology and global functioning. Prototype matching has multiple advantages, including ease of use in clinical practice, reduced

  3. Neurophysiologic Correlates of Post-Stroke Mood and Emotional Control

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    Deniz Doruk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emotional disturbance is a common complication of stroke significantly affecting functional recovery and quality of life. Identifying relevant neurophysiologic markers associated with post-stroke emotional disturbance may lead to a better understanding of this disabling condition, guiding the diagnosis, development of new interventions and the assessments of treatment response. Methods: Thirty-five subjects with chronic stroke were enrolled in this study. The emotion sub-domain of Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-Emotion was used to assess post-stroke mood and emotional control. The relation between SIS-Emotion and neurophysiologic measures was assessed by using covariance mapping and univariate linear regression. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify and adjust for potential confounders. Neurophysiologic measures included power asymmetry and coherence assessed by electroencephalography (EEG; and motor threshold, intracortical inhibition (ICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Results: Lower scores on SIS-Emotion was associated with 1 frontal EEG power asymmetry in alpha and beta bands, 2 central EEG power asymmetry in alpha and theta bands, and 3 lower inter-hemispheric coherence over frontal and central areas in alpha band. SIS-Emotion also correlated with higher ICF and MT in the unlesioned hemisphere as measured by TMS. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study using EEG and TMS to index neurophysiologic changes associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control. Our results suggest that inter-hemispheric imbalance measured by EEG power and coherence, as well as an increased intracortical facilitation in the unlesioned hemisphere measured by TMS might be relevant markers associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control which can guide future studies investigating new diagnostic and treatment modalities in stroke rehabilitation.

  4. In IgA Nephropathy, Glomerulosclerosis Is Associated with Increased Urinary CD80 Excretion and Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor-Positive Podocyturia

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    Hernán Trimarchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Podocyturia may determine the evolution to podocytopenia, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. According to the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN, the S1 lesion describes glomerulosclerosis. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR participates in podocyte attachment, while CD80 increases in glomerulosclerosis. We measured uPAR-positive urinary podocytes and urinary CD80 (uCD80 in controls and in IgAN subjects with M1E0S0T0 and M1E0S1T0 Oxford scores to assess a potential association between podocyturia, inflammation, and glomerulosclerosis. Methods: The groups were as follows: controls (G1, n = 20 and IgAN group (G2, n = 39, subdivided into M1E0S0T0 (G2A, n = 21 and M1E0S1T0 (G2B, n = 18. Among the included variables, we determined uPAR-positive podocytes/gram of urinary creatinine (gUrCr and uCD80 ng/gUrCr. Biopsies with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy <10% were included. Results: Groups were not different in age and gender; urinary protein-creatinine (uP/C ratio, Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation, uPAR-positive podocytes/gUrCr, and uCD80 were significantly increased in G2 versus G1. G2A and G2B were not different in age, gender, hypertension, and follow-up. G2B displayed significantly higher uP/C, uPAR-positive podocytes, uCD80, and lower CKD-EPI versus G2A. Strong significant correlations were encountered between uCD80 and podocyturia in G2A and G2B. However, when G1 was compared to G2A and G2B separately, the differences with respect to uP/C, uPAR-positive podocytes, and podocyturia were significantly stronger versus G2B than versus G2A. Conclusions: IgAN presents elevated uCD80 excretion and uPAR-positive podocyturia, while CD80 correlates with podocyturia. Glomerulosclerosis (S1 at the time of biopsy is associated with higher uP/C, lower renal function, increased uPAR-positive podocyturia, and CD80 excretion, and is independent of M1. In IgAN, uPAR may

  5. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS): activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Nima, Ali; Garcia, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006) shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS) and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants' (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73) responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R (2) = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R (2) = .27). Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument.

  6. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS: activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006 shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS and their relationship to positive and negative affect.Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73 responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule.Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41 and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27.Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give so