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Sample records for positive linear relation

  1. Characterization of the order relation on the set of completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we characterize the order relation on the set of all nondegenerate completely n-positive linear maps between C*-algebras in terms of a self-dual Hilbert module induced by each completely n-positive linear map.

  2. Linear positivity and virtual probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the quantum theory of closed systems based on the linear positivity decoherence condition of Goldstein and Page. The objective of any quantum theory of a closed system, most generally the universe, is the prediction of probabilities for the individual members of sets of alternative coarse-grained histories of the system. Quantum interference between members of a set of alternative histories is an obstacle to assigning probabilities that are consistent with the rules of probability theory. A quantum theory of closed systems therefore requires two elements: (1) a condition specifying which sets of histories may be assigned probabilities and (2) a rule for those probabilities. The linear positivity condition of Goldstein and Page is the weakest of the general conditions proposed so far. Its general properties relating to exact probability sum rules, time neutrality, and conservation laws are explored. Its inconsistency with the usual notion of independent subsystems in quantum mechanics is reviewed. Its relation to the stronger condition of medium decoherence necessary for classicality is discussed. The linear positivity of histories in a number of simple model systems is investigated with the aim of exhibiting linearly positive sets of histories that are not decoherent. The utility of extending the notion of probability to include values outside the range of 0-1 is described. Alternatives with such virtual probabilities cannot be measured or recorded, but can be used in the intermediate steps of calculations of real probabilities. Extended probabilities give a simple and general way of formulating quantum theory. The various decoherence conditions are compared in terms of their utility for characterizing classicality and the role they might play in further generalizations of quantum mechanics

  3. Stanford Linear Collider magnet positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, B.T.

    1991-08-01

    For the installation of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) the positioning and alignment of the beam line components was performed in several individual steps. In the following the general procedures for each step are outlined. The calculation of ideal coordinates for the magnets in the entire SLC will be discussed in detail. Special emphasis was given to the mathematical algorithms and geometry used in the programs to calculate these ideal positions. 35 refs., 21 figs

  4. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  5. Positive Quasi Linear Operator Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Jaeger, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expressions for the RF quasi-linear operator are biquadratic sums over the Fourier modes (or FLR equivalent) that describe the RF electric field with a kernel that is a function of the two wave vectors, k-vector L and k-vector R , in the sum. As a result of either an implicit or explicit average over field lines or flux surfaces, this kernel only depends on one parallel wave vector, conventionally k R -vector. When k-vector is an independent component of the representation for E, the sums are demonstrably positive. However, except for closed field line systems, k-vector is dependent on the local direction of the equilibrium magnetic field, and, empirically, the absorbed energy and quasi-linear diffusion coefficients are observed to have negative features. We have formally introduced an independent k-vector sum by Fourier transforming the RF electric field (assuming straight field lines) using a field-line-length coordinate. The resulting expression is positive. We have modeled this approach by calculating the quasi linear operator for 'modes' with fixed k-vector. We form these modes by discretizing k-vector and then assigning all of the Fourier components with k-vectorthat fall within a given k-vector bin to that k-vector mode. Results will be shown as a function of the number of bins. Future work will involve implementing the expressions derived from the Fourier transform and evaluating the dependence on field line length

  6. Linear quadratic optimization for positive LTI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhafzan, Yenti, Syafrida Wirma; Zulakmal

    2017-05-01

    Nowaday the linear quadratic optimization subject to positive linear time invariant (LTI) system constitute an interesting study considering it can become a mathematical model of variety of real problem whose variables have to nonnegative and trajectories generated by these variables must be nonnegative. In this paper we propose a method to generate an optimal control of linear quadratic optimization subject to positive linear time invariant (LTI) system. A sufficient condition that guarantee the existence of such optimal control is discussed.

  7. a Continuous-Time Positive Linear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsup Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a computational method to construct positive realizations with sparse matrices for continuous-time positive linear systems with multiple complex poles. To construct a positive realization of a continuous-time system, we use a Markov sequence similar to the impulse response sequence that is used in the discrete-time case. The existence of the proposed positive realization can be analyzed with the concept of a polyhedral convex cone. We provide a constructive algorithm to compute positive realizations with sparse matrices of some positive systems under certain conditions. A sufficient condition for the existence of a positive realization, under which the proposed constructive algorithm works well, is analyzed.

  8. Positivity of linear maps under tensor powers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander, E-mail: muellerh@ma.tum.de; Wolf, Michael M., E-mail: m.wolf@tum.de [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Reeb, David, E-mail: reeb.qit@gmail.com [Zentrum Mathematik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate linear maps between matrix algebras that remain positive under tensor powers, i.e., under tensoring with n copies of themselves. Completely positive and completely co-positive maps are trivial examples of this kind. We show that for every n ∈ ℕ, there exist non-trivial maps with this property and that for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces there is no non-trivial map for which this holds for all n. For higher dimensions, we reduce the existence question of such non-trivial “tensor-stable positive maps” to a one-parameter family of maps and show that an affirmative answer would imply the existence of non-positive partial transpose bound entanglement. As an application, we show that any tensor-stable positive map that is not completely positive yields an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity, which for the transposition map gives the well-known cb-norm bound. We, furthermore, show that the latter is an upper bound even for the local operations and classical communications-assisted quantum capacity, and that moreover it is a strong converse rate for this task.

  9. Positivity of linear maps under tensor powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander; Wolf, Michael M.; Reeb, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate linear maps between matrix algebras that remain positive under tensor powers, i.e., under tensoring with n copies of themselves. Completely positive and completely co-positive maps are trivial examples of this kind. We show that for every n ∈ ℕ, there exist non-trivial maps with this property and that for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces there is no non-trivial map for which this holds for all n. For higher dimensions, we reduce the existence question of such non-trivial “tensor-stable positive maps” to a one-parameter family of maps and show that an affirmative answer would imply the existence of non-positive partial transpose bound entanglement. As an application, we show that any tensor-stable positive map that is not completely positive yields an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity, which for the transposition map gives the well-known cb-norm bound. We, furthermore, show that the latter is an upper bound even for the local operations and classical communications-assisted quantum capacity, and that moreover it is a strong converse rate for this task

  10. Entanglement witnesses arising from exposed positive linear maps

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2011-01-01

    We consider entanglement witnesses arising from positive linear maps which generate exposed extremal rays. We show that every entanglement can be detected by one of these witnesses, and this witness detects a unique set of entanglement among those. Therefore, they provide a minimal set of witnesses to detect all entanglement in a sense. Furthermore, if those maps are indecomposable then they detect large classes of entanglement with positive partial transposes which have nonempty relative int...

  11. Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostin, Georgy V

    2012-01-01

    This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.

  12. Position sensor for linear synchronous motors employing halbach arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2014-12-23

    A position sensor suitable for use in linear synchronous motor (LSM) drive systems employing Halbach arrays to create their magnetic fields is described. The system has several advantages over previously employed ones, especially in its simplicity and its freedom from being affected by weather conditions, accumulated dirt, or electrical interference from the LSM system itself.

  13. Ideal Convergence of k-Positive Linear Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Gadjiev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study some ideal convergence results of k-positive linear operators defined on an appropriate subspace of the space of all analytic functions on a bounded simply connected domain in the complex plane. We also show that our approximation results with respect to ideal convergence are more general than the classical ones.

  14. Ascent, descent, nullity, defect, and related notions for linear relations in linear spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandovici, Adrian; de Snoo, Henk; Winkler, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    For a linear relation in a linear space the concepts of ascent, descent, nullity, and defect are introduced and studied. It is shown that the results of A.E. Taylor and M.A. Kaashoek concerning the relationship between ascent, descent, nullity, and defect for the case of linear operators remain

  15. Linear position sensitive neutron detector using fiber optic encoded scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, P.L.; Wroe, H.

    1983-01-01

    A linear position sensitive slow neutron detector with 3 mm resolution is described. It uses the fiber optic coding principle in which the resolution elements are separate pieces of lithium loaded glass scintillator each coupled by means of flexible polymer optical fibers to a unique combination of 3 photo multipliers (PM's) out of a bank of 12. A decoder circuit repsponds to a triple coincidence between PM outputs and generates a 12 bit work which identifies the scintillator element which stopped the incident neutron. Some details of the construction and decoding electronics are given together with test results obtained using a laboratory isotope neutron source and a monochomated, collimated neutron beam from a reactor. The count rate in the absence of neutron sources is 2 to 3 c min - 1 per element; the element to element variation in response to a uniform flux is a few percent for 95% of the elements; the resolution as measured by a 1 mm wide prode neutron beam is 3 mm; the relative long term stability is about 0.1% over 3 days and the detection efficiency measured by comparison with an end windowed, high pressure gas counter is about 65% at a neutron wavelength of 0.9A 0

  16. Linear time relational prototype based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbrecht, Andrej; Mokbel, Bassam; Schleif, Frank-Michael; Zhu, Xibin; Hammer, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Prototype based learning offers an intuitive interface to inspect large quantities of electronic data in supervised or unsupervised settings. Recently, many techniques have been extended to data described by general dissimilarities rather than Euclidean vectors, so-called relational data settings. Unlike the Euclidean counterparts, the techniques have quadratic time complexity due to the underlying quadratic dissimilarity matrix. Thus, they are infeasible already for medium sized data sets. The contribution of this article is twofold: On the one hand we propose a novel supervised prototype based classification technique for dissimilarity data based on popular learning vector quantization (LVQ), on the other hand we transfer a linear time approximation technique, the Nyström approximation, to this algorithm and an unsupervised counterpart, the relational generative topographic mapping (GTM). This way, linear time and space methods result. We evaluate the techniques on three examples from the biomedical domain.

  17. Linear micromechanical stepping drive for pinhole array positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Hoffmann, Martin; Grewe, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    A compact linear micromechanical stepping drive for positioning a 7 × 5.5 mm 2 optical pinhole array is presented. The system features a step size of 13.2 µm and a full displacement range of 200 µm. The electrostatic inch-worm stepping mechanism shows a compact design capable of positioning a payload 50% of its own weight. The stepping drive movement, step sizes and position accuracy are characterized. The actuated pinhole array is integrated in a confocal chromatic hyperspectral imaging system, where coverage of the object plane, and therefore the useful picture data, can be multiplied by 14 in contrast to a non-actuated array. (paper)

  18. A linear actuator for precision positioning of dual objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yuxin; Cao, Jie; Guo, Zhao; Yu, Haoyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a linear actuator for precision positioning of dual objects is proposed based on a double friction drive principle using a single piezoelectric element (PZT). The linear actuator consists of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet, which are connected by the PZT. The electromagnet serves as an object 1, and another object (object 2) is attached on the permanent magnet by the magnetic force. For positioning the dual objects independently, two different friction drive modes can be alternated by an on–off control of the electromagnet. When the electromagnet releases from the guide way, it can be driven by impact friction force generated by the PZT. Otherwise, when the electromagnet clamps on the guide way and remains stationary, the object 2 can be driven based on the principle of smooth impact friction drive. A prototype was designed and constructed and experiments were carried out to test the basic performance of the actuator. It has been verified that with a compact size of 31 mm (L) × 12 mm (W) × 8 mm (H), the two objects can achieve long strokes on the order of several millimeters and high resolutions of several tens of nanometers. Since the proposed actuator allows independent movement of two objects by a single PZT, the actuator has the potential to be constructed compactly. (paper)

  19. Gravitational Wave in Linear General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    General relativity is the best theory currently available to describe the interaction due to gravity. Within Albert Einstein's field equations this interaction is described by means of the spatiotemporal curvature generated by the matter-energy content in the universe. Weyl worked on the existence of perturbations of the curvature of space-time that propagate at the speed of light, which are known as Gravitational Waves, obtained to a first approximation through the linearization of the field equations of Einstein. Weyl's solution consists of taking the field equations in a vacuum and disturbing the metric, using the Minkowski metric slightly perturbed by a factor ɛ greater than zero but much smaller than one. If the feedback effect of the field is neglected, it can be considered as a weak field solution. After introducing the disturbed metric and ignoring ɛ terms of order greater than one, we can find the linearized field equations in terms of the perturbation, which can then be expressed in terms of the Dalambertian operator of the perturbation equalized to zero. This is analogous to the linear wave equation in classical mechanics, which can be interpreted by saying that gravitational effects propagate as waves at the speed of light. In addition to this, by studying the motion of a particle affected by this perturbation through the geodesic equation can show the transversal character of the gravitational wave and its two possible states of polarization. It can be shown that the energy carried by the wave is of the order of 1/c5 where c is the speed of light, which explains that its effects on matter are very small and very difficult to detect.

  20. Incomplete factorization technique for positive definite linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manteuffel, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for solving the large sparse symmetric linear systems that arise from the application of finite element methods. The technique combines an incomplete factorization method called the shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization with the method of generalized conjugate gradients. The shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization produces a splitting of the matrix A that is dependent upon a parameter α. It is shown that if A is positive definite, then there is some α for which this splitting is possible and that this splitting is at least as good as the Jacobi splitting. The method is shown to be more efficient on a set of test problems than either direct methods or explicit iteration schemes

  1. Reliability and Validity Assessment of a Linear Position Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel V.; López-Lastra, Silvia; Maté-Muñoz, José L.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the validity and reliability of peak velocity (PV), average velocity (AV), peak power (PP) and average power (AP) measurements were made using a linear position transducer. Validity was assessed by comparing measurements simultaneously obtained using the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi and T-Force Dynamic Measurement Systemr (Ergotech, Murcia, Spain) during two resistance exercises, bench press (BP) and full back squat (BS), performed by 71 trained male subjects. For the reliability study, a further 32 men completed both lifts using the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemz in two identical testing sessions one week apart (session 1 vs. session 2). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicating the validity of the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi were high, with values ranging from 0.853 to 0.989. Systematic biases and random errors were low to moderate for almost all variables, being higher in the case of PP (bias ±157.56 W; error ±131.84 W). Proportional biases were identified for almost all variables. Test-retest reliability was strong with ICCs ranging from 0.922 to 0.988. Reliability results also showed minimal systematic biases and random errors, which were only significant for PP (bias -19.19 W; error ±67.57 W). Only PV recorded in the BS showed no significant proportional bias. The Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi emerged as a reliable system for measuring movement velocity and estimating power in resistance exercises. The low biases and random errors observed here (mainly AV, AP) make this device a useful tool for monitoring resistance training. Key points This study determined the validity and reliability of peak velocity, average velocity, peak power and average power measurements made using a linear position transducer The Tendo Weight-lifting Analyzer Systemi emerged as a reliable system for measuring movement velocity and power. PMID:25729300

  2. Linear electrostatic micromotors for nano- and micro-positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginsky, I. L.; Kostsov, Edvard G.

    2004-05-01

    The functioning of the linear step electrostatic film micromotors with the short controlling pulse (less then 100-200 ´s) is studied to create nano- and micro-positioners. The theoretical study of the step movement of the given mass in this time frame is carried out. The results of the experimental studies of the multipetal reciprocal micromotors created on the basis of La modified Ba0.5Sr0.5Nb2O6 ferroelectric films with 1-3 μm thickness are shown. The petals were made of beryllium bronze. It is shown that the electrostatic rolling can last less than 50 μs, and the process of separating two surfaces (the metal and the ferroelectric) can last less than 1 μs. These parameters allow one to operate the micromotor at 1-10 kHz frequency, and the propulsion force in the beginning (the first 20-100 μs) of the electrostatic rolling can be as high as 1-10 N per 1 mm2 of the rolling surface with the voltage pulse amplitude of 40-50 V. The possibility of obtaining moving plate (MP) step in the nanometer range is studied, as well as the precision of these steps during the continuous MP movement with the different clock frequencies and durations of the voltage pulses. The recommendations are given to improve the accuracy and the speed of the positioning in the nano- and micro-movement range. Possible fields of micromotor application are micromechanics, including precision micromechanics, microelectronics, microrobots, microoptics, microscanners, micropumps (e.g. in the jet printers), micro flying vehicles etc.

  3. Reliability and Validity Assessment of a Linear Position Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel V. Garnacho-Castaño

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to determine the validity and reliability of peak velocity (PV, average velocity (AV, peak power (PP and average power (AP measurements were made using a linear position transducer. Validity was assessed by comparing measurements simultaneously obtained using the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi and T-Force Dynamic Measurement Systemr (Ergotech, Murcia, Spain during two resistance exercises, bench press (BP and full back squat (BS, performed by 71 trained male subjects. For the reliability study, a further 32 men completed both lifts using the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemz in two identical testing sessions one week apart (session 1 vs. session 2. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs indicating the validity of the Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi were high, with values ranging from 0.853 to 0.989. Systematic biases and random errors were low to moderate for almost all variables, being higher in the case of PP (bias ±157.56 W; error ±131.84 W. Proportional biases were identified for almost all variables. Test-retest reliability was strong with ICCs ranging from 0.922 to 0.988. Reliability results also showed minimal systematic biases and random errors, which were only significant for PP (bias -19.19 W; error ±67.57 W. Only PV recorded in the BS showed no significant proportional bias. The Tendo Weightlifting Analyzer Systemi emerged as a reliable system for measuring movement velocity and estimating power in resistance exercises. The low biases and random errors observed here (mainly AV, AP make this device a useful tool for monitoring resistance training.

  4. Evaluation of the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikneshan, Sima; Emadi, Naghmeh [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharafi, Mohamad [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study assessed the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions in vitro. Two acrylic models were fabricated from a cast with normal occlusion. Straight and 75 degree mesially and lingually angulated pins were placed, and standardized panoramic radiographs were taken at standard position, at an 8 degree downward tilt of the occlusal plane compared to the standard position, at an 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior occlusal plane, and at a 10 degree downward tilt of the right and left sides of the model. On the radiographs, the length of the pins above (crown) and below (root) the occlusal plane, total pin length, crown-to-root ratio, and angulation of pins relative to the occlusal plane were calculated. The data were subjected to repeated measures ANOVA and LSD multiple comparisons tests. Significant differences were noted between the radiographic measurements and true values in different positions on both models with linear (P<0.001) and those with angulated pins (P<0.005). No statistically significant differences were observed between the angular measurements and baselines of the natural head posture at different positions for the linear and angulated pins. Angular measurements on panoramic radiographs were sufficiently accurate and changes in the position of the occlusal plane equal to or less than 10 degree had no significant effect on them. Some variations could exist in the pin positioning (head positioning), and they were tolerable while taking panoramic radiographs. Linear measurements showed the least errors in the standard position and 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior part of the occlusal plane compared to other positions.

  5. Linearization of Positional Response Curve of a Fiber-optic Displacement Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaev, O. G.; Matyunin, S. A.; Paranin, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the creation of optical measuring instruments and sensors for measuring linear displacement is one of the most relevant problems in the area of instrumentation. Fiber-optic contactless sensors based on the magneto-optical effect are of special interest. They are essentially contactless, non-electrical and have a closed optical channel not subject to contamination. The main problem of this type of sensors is the non-linearity of their positional response curve due to the hyperbolic nature of the magnetic field intensity variation induced by moving the magnetic source mounted on the controlled object relative to the sensing element. This paper discusses an algorithmic method of linearizing the positional response curve of fiber-optic displacement sensors in any selected range of the displacements to be measured. The method is divided into two stages: 1 - definition of the calibration function, 2 - measurement and linearization of the positional response curve (including its temperature stabilization). The algorithm under consideration significantly reduces the number of points of the calibration function, which is essential for the calibration of temperature dependence, due to the use of the points that randomly deviate from the grid points with uniform spacing. Subsequent interpolation of the deviating points and piecewise linear-plane approximation of the calibration function reduces the microcontroller storage capacity for storing the calibration function and the time required to process the measurement results. The paper also presents experimental results of testing real samples of fiber-optic displacement sensors.

  6. Spectral analysis of linear relations and degenerate operator semigroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskakov, A G; Chernyshov, K I

    2002-01-01

    Several problems of the spectral theory of linear relations in Banach spaces are considered. Linear differential inclusions in a Banach space are studied. The construction of the phase space and solutions is carried out with the help of the spectral theory of linear relations, ergodic theorems, and degenerate operator semigroups

  7. Positivity and job burnout in emergency personnel: examining linear and curvilinear relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basińska Beata Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between the ratio of job-related positive to negative emotions (positivity ratio and job burnout is best described as linear or curvilinear. Participants were 89 police officers (12% women and 86 firefighters. The positivity ratio was evaluated using the Job-related Affective Wellbeing Scale (Van Katwyk, Fox, Spector, & Kelloway, 2000. Exhaustion and disengagement, two components of job burnout, were measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (Demerouti, Mostert, & Bakker, 2010. The results of regression analysis revealed that curvilinear relationships between the positivity ratio and two components of job burnout appeared to better fit the data than linear relationships. The relationship between the positivity ratio and exhaustion was curvilinear with a curve point at around 2.1. A similar curvilinear relationship, but with a lower curve point, i.e., around 1.8, was observed for disengagement. It seems that beyond certain values there may be hidden costs of maintaining positive emotions at work. Also, the unequal curve points for subscales suggest that different dimensions of work-related functioning are variously prone to such costs.

  8. The mathematical structure of the approximate linear response relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Muneki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the mathematical structures of the linear response relation based on Plefka's expansion and the cluster variation method in terms of the perturbation expansion, and we show how this linear response relation approximates the correlation functions of the specified system. Moreover, by comparing the perturbation expansions of the correlation functions estimated by the linear response relation based on these approximation methods with exact perturbative forms of the correlation functions, we are able to explain why the approximate techniques using the linear response relation work well

  9. Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.

  10. Stability Tests of Positive Fractional Continuous-time Linear Systems with Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kaczorek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of positive fractional continuous-time linear systems with many delays are established. It is shown that: 1 the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional system is independent of their delays, 2 the checking of the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional systems with delays can be reduced to checking of the asymptotic stability of positive standard linear systems without delays.

  11. POSITIVE SOLUTIONS TO SEMI-LINEAR SECOND-ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN BANACH SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we study the existence of positive periodic solution to some second- order semi-linear differential equation in Banach space.By the fixed point index theory, we prove that the semi-linear differential equation has two positive periodic solutions.

  12. Subcellular localization for Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial proteins using linear interpolation smoothing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Harsh; Raicar, Gaurav; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil; Sharma, Alok

    2015-12-07

    Protein subcellular localization is an important topic in proteomics since it is related to a protein׳s overall function, helps in the understanding of metabolic pathways, and in drug design and discovery. In this paper, a basic approximation technique from natural language processing called the linear interpolation smoothing model is applied for predicting protein subcellular localizations. The proposed approach extracts features from syntactical information in protein sequences to build probabilistic profiles using dependency models, which are used in linear interpolation to determine how likely is a sequence to belong to a particular subcellular location. This technique builds a statistical model based on maximum likelihood. It is able to deal effectively with high dimensionality that hinders other traditional classifiers such as Support Vector Machines or k-Nearest Neighbours without sacrificing performance. This approach has been evaluated by predicting subcellular localizations of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Time signal filtering by relative neighborhood graph localized linear approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1994-01-01

    A time signal filtering algorithm based on the relative neighborhood graph (RNG) used for localization of linear filters is proposed. The filter is constructed from a training signal during two stages. During the first stage an RNG is constructed. During the second stage, localized linear filters...

  14. Relation of deformed nonlinear algebras with linear ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, A; Tkachuk, V M

    2014-01-01

    The relation between nonlinear algebras and linear ones is established. For a one-dimensional nonlinear deformed Heisenberg algebra with two operators we find the function of deformation for which this nonlinear algebra can be transformed to a linear one with three operators. We also establish the relation between the Lie algebra of total angular momentum and corresponding nonlinear one. This relation gives a possibility to simplify and to solve the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian in a nonlinear case using the reduction of this problem to the case of linear algebra. It is demonstrated in an example of a harmonic oscillator. (paper)

  15. Development of a sub-nanometer positioning device: combining a new linear motor with linear motion ball guide ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, J; Tanaka, T; Masuda, I

    2010-01-01

    A new type of linear motor described in this note has some advantages compared with conventional motors. The attractive magnetic force between the stator (permanent magnets) and mover (armature) is diminished almost to zero. The efficiency is better because the magnetic flux leakage is very small, the size of motor is smaller and detent (force ripple) is smaller than for conventional motors. Therefore, we think that this motor is greatly suitable for ultra-precision positioning as an actuator. An ultra-precision positioning device using this motor and linear motion ball guide ways is newly developed by making the device very rigid and using a suitable control method. Moreover, the positioning performance is evaluated by a positioning resolution, and deviation and dispersion errors. As a result of repeated step response tests, the positioning resolution is 0.3 nm, with the deviation error and dispersion error (3σ) being sub-nanometer. Consequently, the positioning device achieves sub-nanometer positioning. (technical design note)

  16. A 3D Printed Linear Pneumatic Actuator for Position, Force and Impedance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Krause

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Although 3D printing has the potential to provide greater customization and to reduce the costs of creating actuators for industrial applications, the 3D printing of actuators is still a relatively new concept. We have developed a pneumatic actuator with 3D-printed parts and placed sensors for position and force control. So far, 3D printing has been used to create pneumatic actuators of the bellows type, thus having a limited travel distance, utilizing low pressures for actuation and being capable of only limited force production and response rates. In contrast, our actuator is linear with a large travel distance and operating at a relatively higher pressure, thus providing great forces and response rates, and this the main novelty of the work. We demonstrate solutions to key challenges that arise during the design and fabrication of 3D-printed linear actuators. These include: (1 the strategic use of metallic parts in high stress areas (i.e., the piston rod; (2 post-processing of the inner surface of the cylinder for smooth finish; (3 piston head design and seal placement for strong and leak-proof action; and (4 sensor choice and placement for position and force control. A permanent magnet placed in the piston head is detected using Hall effect sensors placed along the length of the cylinder to measure the position, and pressure sensors placed at the supply ports were used for force measurement. We demonstrate the actuator performing position, force and impedance control. Our work has the potential to open new avenues for creating less expensive, customizable and capable actuators for industrial and other applications.

  17. On the Linearized Darboux Equation Arising in Isometric Embedding of the Alexandrov Positive Annulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhe LI

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper,the solvability condition of the linearized Gauss-Codazzi system and the solutions to the homogenous system are given.In the meantime,the Solvability of a relevant linearized Darboux equation is given.The equations are arising in a geometric problem which is concerned with the realization of the Alexandrov's positive annulus in R3.

  18. Analytical expression for position sensitivity of linear response beam position monitor having inter-electrode cross talk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshk@rrcat.gov.in [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ojha, A.; Garg, A.D.; Puntambekar, T.A. [Beam Diagnostics Section, Indus Operations, Beam Dynamics & Diagnostics Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India); Senecha, V.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Ion Source Lab., Proton Linac & Superconducting Cavities Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452013 MP (India)

    2017-02-01

    According to the quasi electrostatic model of linear response capacitive beam position monitor (BPM), the position sensitivity of the device depends only on the aperture of the device and it is independent of processing frequency and load impedance. In practice, however, due to the inter-electrode capacitive coupling (cross talk), the actual position sensitivity of the device decreases with increasing frequency and load impedance. We have taken into account the inter-electrode capacitance to derive and propose a new analytical expression for the position sensitivity as a function of frequency and load impedance. The sensitivity of a linear response shoe-box type BPM has been obtained through simulation using CST Studio Suite to verify and confirm the validity of the new analytical equation. Good agreement between the simulation results and the new analytical expression suggest that this method can be exploited for proper designing of BPM.

  19. Non-monotone positive solutions of second-order linear differential equations: existence, nonexistence and criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervan Pašić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We study non-monotone positive solutions of the second-order linear differential equations: $(p(tx'' + q(t x = e(t$, with positive $p(t$ and $q(t$. For the first time, some criteria as well as the existence and nonexistence of non-monotone positive solutions are proved in the framework of some properties of solutions $\\theta (t$ of the corresponding integrable linear equation: $(p(t\\theta''=e(t$. The main results are illustrated by many examples dealing with equations which allow exact non-monotone positive solutions not necessarily periodic. Finally, we pose some open questions.

  20. Linear quadratic Gaussian controller design for plasma current, position and shape control system in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, V.; Kavin, A.; Rumyantsev, E.; Kharitonov, V.; Misenov, B.; Ovsyannikov, A.; Ovsyannikov, D.; Veremei, E.; Zhabko, A.; Mitrishkin, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is focused on the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller synthesis methodology for the ITER plasma current, position and shape control system as well as power derivative management system. It has been shown that some poloidal field (PF) coils have less influence on reference plasma-wall gaps control during plasma disturbances and hence they have been used to reduce total control power derivative by means of the additional non-linear feedback. The design has been done on the basis of linear models. Simulation was provided for non-linear model and results are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  1. A characterization of positive linear maps and criteria of entanglement for quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jinchuan

    2010-01-01

    Let H and K be (finite- or infinite-dimensional) complex Hilbert spaces. A characterization of positive completely bounded normal linear maps from B(H) into B(K) is given, which particularly gives a characterization of positive elementary operators including all positive linear maps between matrix algebras. This characterization is then applied to give a representation of quantum channels (operations) between infinite-dimensional systems. A necessary and sufficient criterion of separability is given which shows that a state ρ on HxK is separable if and only if (ΦxI)ρ ≥ 0 for all positive finite-rank elementary operators Φ. Examples of NCP and indecomposable positive linear maps are given and are used to recognize some entangled states that cannot be recognized by the PPT criterion and the realignment criterion.

  2. A characterization of positive linear maps and criteria of entanglement for quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinchuan

    2010-09-01

    Let H and K be (finite- or infinite-dimensional) complex Hilbert spaces. A characterization of positive completely bounded normal linear maps from {\\mathcal B}(H) into {\\mathcal B}(K) is given, which particularly gives a characterization of positive elementary operators including all positive linear maps between matrix algebras. This characterization is then applied to give a representation of quantum channels (operations) between infinite-dimensional systems. A necessary and sufficient criterion of separability is given which shows that a state ρ on HotimesK is separable if and only if (ΦotimesI)ρ >= 0 for all positive finite-rank elementary operators Φ. Examples of NCP and indecomposable positive linear maps are given and are used to recognize some entangled states that cannot be recognized by the PPT criterion and the realignment criterion.

  3. Giant negative linear compression positively coupled to massive thermal expansion in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weizhao; Katrusiak, Andrzej

    2014-07-04

    Materials with negative linear compressibility are sought for various technological applications. Such effects were reported mainly in framework materials. When heated, they typically contract in the same direction of negative linear compression. Here we show that this common inverse relationship rule does not apply to a three-dimensional metal-organic framework crystal, [Ag(ethylenediamine)]NO3. In this material, the direction of the largest intrinsic negative linear compression yet observed in metal-organic frameworks coincides with the strongest positive thermal expansion. In the perpendicular direction, the large linear negative thermal expansion and the strongest crystal compressibility are collinear. This seemingly irrational positive relationship of temperature and pressure effects is explained and the mechanism of coupling of compressibility with expansivity is presented. The positive coupling between compression and thermal expansion in this material enhances its piezo-mechanical response in adiabatic process, which may be used for designing new artificial composites and ultrasensitive measuring devices.

  4. A linearized dispersion relation for orthorhombic pseudo-acoustic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xiaolei; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation in acoustic orthorhombic anisotropic media suffers from wave-mode coupling and stability limitations in the parameter range. We introduce a linearized form of the dispersion relation for acoustic orthorhombic media to model acoustic wavefields. We apply the lowrank approximation approach to handle the corresponding space-wavenumber mixed-domain operator. Numerical experiments show that the proposed wavefield extrapolator is accurate and practically free of dispersions. Further, there is no coupling of qSv and qP waves, because we use the analytical dispersion relation. No constraints on Thomsen's parameters are required for stability. The linearized expression may provide useful application for parameter estimation in orthorhombic media.

  5. Refueling machine with relative positioning capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challberg, R.C.; Jones, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    A refueling machine is disclosed having relative positioning capability for refueling a nuclear reactor. The refueling machine includes a pair of articulated arms mounted on a refueling bridge. Each arm supports a respective telescoping mast. Each telescoping mast is designed to flex laterally in response to application of a lateral thrust on the end of the mast. A pendant mounted on the end of the mast carries an air-actuated grapple, television cameras, ultrasonic transducers and waterjet thrusters. The ultrasonic transducers are used to detect the gross position of the grapple relative to the bail of a nuclear fuel assembly in the fuel core. The television cameras acquire an image of the bail which is compared to a pre-stored image in computer memory. The pendant can be rotated until the television image and the pre-stored image match within a predetermined tolerance. Similarly, the waterjet thrusters can be used to apply lateral thrust to the end of the flexible mast to place the grapple in a fine position relative to the bail as a function of the discrepancy between the television and pre-stored images. 11 figs

  6. Refueling machine with relative positioning capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challberg, R.C.; Jones, C.R.

    1998-12-15

    A refueling machine is disclosed having relative positioning capability for refueling a nuclear reactor. The refueling machine includes a pair of articulated arms mounted on a refueling bridge. Each arm supports a respective telescoping mast. Each telescoping mast is designed to flex laterally in response to application of a lateral thrust on the end of the mast. A pendant mounted on the end of the mast carries an air-actuated grapple, television cameras, ultrasonic transducers and waterjet thrusters. The ultrasonic transducers are used to detect the gross position of the grapple relative to the bail of a nuclear fuel assembly in the fuel core. The television cameras acquire an image of the bail which is compared to a pre-stored image in computer memory. The pendant can be rotated until the television image and the pre-stored image match within a predetermined tolerance. Similarly, the waterjet thrusters can be used to apply lateral thrust to the end of the flexible mast to place the grapple in a fine position relative to the bail as a function of the discrepancy between the television and pre-stored images. 11 figs.

  7. A study on virtual source position for electron beams from a Mevatron MD linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    The virtual source position (VSP) for electron beams of energies 5, 7, 9 10, 12 and 14 MeV and for the applicators (cones) available in the department have been measured for a Mevatron MD class linear accelerator. Different methods of obtaining the virtual source position for electron beams have been investigated in the present study. The results obtained have been compared with those of other workers. It is observed that the VSP is very much machine dependent and needs to be measured for each linear accelerator. The effect of shielding on virtual source position for the type of applicators available in the department has also been investigated. (author)

  8. Modeling patterns in data using linear and related models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    This report considers the use of linear models for analyzing data related to reliability and safety issues of the type usually associated with nuclear power plants. The report discusses some of the general results of linear regression analysis, such as the model assumptions and properties of the estimators of the parameters. The results are motivated with examples of operational data. Results about the important case of a linear regression model with one covariate are covered in detail. This case includes analysis of time trends. The analysis is applied with two different sets of time trend data. Diagnostic procedures and tests for the adequacy of the model are discussed. Some related methods such as weighted regression and nonlinear models are also considered. A discussion of the general linear model is also included. Appendix A gives some basic SAS programs and outputs for some of the analyses discussed in the body of the report. Appendix B is a review of some of the matrix theoretic results which are useful in the development of linear models

  9. Relative controllability and null controllability of linear delay systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are established for the relative, absolute controllability and null controllability of the generalized linear delay system and its discrete prototype. The paper presents illuminating examples on previous controllability results by Manitius and Olbrot [7] and carries over the results of Onwuatu [8] ...

  10. Dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Dobrowolny, M [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleaire, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Plasma Spazio

    1975-12-15

    A numerical study is presented of the dispersion relation of linearly polarized strong electromagnetic waves in a cold electron plasma. The nonlinear effects introduced by the relativistic motion of electrons are: (1) the dispersion relation depends explicitly on the field strength ..cap alpha..=eE/sub 0//mc..omega../sub 0/, and (2) the propagation of modes with frequencies below the formal electron plasma frequency is allowed.

  11. Relative Importance for Linear Regression in R: The Package relaimpo

    OpenAIRE

    Groemping, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    Relative importance is a topic that has seen a lot of interest in recent years, particularly in applied work. The R package relaimpo implements six different metrics for assessing relative importance of regressors in the linear model, two of which are recommended - averaging over orderings of regressors and a newly proposed metric (Feldman 2005) called pmvd. Apart from delivering the metrics themselves, relaimpo also provides (exploratory) bootstrap confidence intervals. This paper offers a b...

  12. Design and performance of vacuum capable detector electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, R.A.; Cooper, R.G.; Funk, L.L.; Clonts, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors. The eight tube assembly requires 10 W of power and can be controlled via digital communication links. The electronics can be used without modification in vacuum. Using a transimpedance amplifier and gated integration, we achieve a highly linear system with coefficient of determinations of 0.9999 or better. Typical resolution is one percent of tube length.

  13. Design and performance of vacuum capable detector electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, R.A., E-mail: riedelra@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Cooper, R.G.; Funk, L.L.; Clonts, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We describe the design and performance of electronics for linear position sensitive neutron detectors. The eight tube assembly requires 10 W of power and can be controlled via digital communication links. The electronics can be used without modification in vacuum. Using a transimpedance amplifier and gated integration, we achieve a highly linear system with coefficient of determinations of 0.9999 or better. Typical resolution is one percent of tube length.

  14. Position Control of Linear Synchronous Motor Drives with Exploitation of Forced Dynamics Control Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters. Outer position control loop is closed via simple feedback with proportional gain. Simulations of the design control sysstem, including the drive with power electronic switching, predict the intended drive performance.

  15. Relative Importance for Linear Regression in R: The Package relaimpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Gromping

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Relative importance is a topic that has seen a lot of interest in recent years, particularly in applied work. The R package relaimpo implements six different metrics for assessing relative importance of regressors in the linear model, two of which are recommended - averaging over orderings of regressors and a newly proposed metric (Feldman 2005 called pmvd. Apart from delivering the metrics themselves, relaimpo also provides (exploratory bootstrap confidence intervals. This paper offers a brief tutorial introduction to the package. The methods and relaimpo’s functionality are illustrated using the data set swiss that is generally available in R. The paper targets readers who have a basic understanding of multiple linear regression. For the background of more advanced aspects, references are provided.

  16. A linearized dispersion relation for orthorhombic pseudo-acoustic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xiaolei

    2012-11-04

    Wavefield extrapolation in acoustic orthorhombic anisotropic media suffers from wave-mode coupling and stability limitations in the parameter range. We introduce a linearized form of the dispersion relation for acoustic orthorhombic media to model acoustic wavefields. We apply the lowrank approximation approach to handle the corresponding space-wavenumber mixed-domain operator. Numerical experiments show that the proposed wavefield extrapolator is accurate and practically free of dispersions. Further, there is no coupling of qSv and qP waves, because we use the analytical dispersion relation. No constraints on Thomsen\\'s parameters are required for stability. The linearized expression may provide useful application for parameter estimation in orthorhombic media.

  17. Mover Position Detection for PMTLM Based on Linear Hall Sensors through EKF Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Leyang; Zhang, Hui; Ye, Peiqing

    2017-04-06

    Accurate mover position is vital for a permanent magnet tubular linear motor (PMTLM) control system. In this paper, two linear Hall sensors are utilized to detect the mover position. However, Hall sensor signals contain third-order harmonics, creating errors in mover position detection. To filter out the third-order harmonics, a signal processing method based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is presented. The limitation of conventional processing method is first analyzed, and then EKF is adopted to detect the mover position. In the EKF model, the amplitude of the fundamental component and the percentage of the harmonic component are taken as state variables, and they can be estimated based solely on the measured sensor signals. Then, the harmonic component can be calculated and eliminated. The proposed method has the advantages of faster convergence, better stability and higher accuracy. Finally, experimental results validate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

  18. [Relations between biomedical variables: mathematical analysis or linear algebra?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucher, M; Berlie, J; Brunet, M

    1977-01-01

    The authors, after a short reminder of one pattern's structure, stress on the possible double approach of relations uniting the variables of this pattern: use of fonctions, what is within the mathematical analysis sphere, use of linear algebra profiting by matricial calculation's development and automatiosation. They precise the respective interests on these methods, their bounds and the imperatives for utilization, according to the kind of variables, of data, and the objective for work, understanding phenomenons or helping towards decision.

  19. Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, R.; Pavlenko, Yu.G.

    1986-01-01

    Canonical perturbation theory in linearized general relativity theory is developed. It is shown that the evolution of arbitrary dynamic value, conditioned by the interaction of particles, gravitation and electromagnetic fields, can be presented in the form of a series, each member of it corresponding to the contribution of certain spontaneous or induced process. The main concepts of the approach are presented in the approximation of a weak gravitational field

  20. Correction of X-ray diffraction profiles in linear-type PSPC by position factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    PSPC (Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) makes it possible to obtain one-dimentional diffraction profiles without mechanical scanning. In a linear-type PSPC, the obtained profiles need correcting, because the position factor influences the intensity of the diffracted X-ray beam and the counting rate at each position on PSPC. The distances from the specimen are not the same at the center and at the edge of the detector, and the intensity decreases at the edge because of radiation and absorption. The counting rate varies with the incident angle of the diffracted beam at each position on PSPC. The position factor f i at channel i of the multichannel-analyser is given by f i = cos 4 α i ·exp{-μR(1/cosα i -1)} where R is the distance between the specimen and the center of PSPC, μ is the linear absorption coefficient and α i is the incident angle of the diffracted beam at channel i. The background profiles of silica gel powder were measured with CrKα and CuKα. The parameters of the model function were fitted to the profiles by the non-linear least squares method. The agreement between these parameters and the calculated values shows that the position factor can correct the measured profiles properly. (author)

  1. Approximation of functions in two variables by some linear positive operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Skorupka

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some linear positive operators of the Szasz-Mirakjan type in the weighted spaces of continuous functions in two variables. We study the degree of the approximation of functions by these operators. The similar results for functions in one variable are given in [5]. Some operators of the Szasz-Mirakjan type are examined also in [3], [4].

  2. An exact linear dispersion relation for CRM instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choyal, Y; Minami, K

    2011-01-01

    An exact self-consistent linear dispersion relation of a large orbit electron beam including two principles of cyclotron emission with oscillation frequencies above and below the relativistic electron frequency is derived and analyzed numerically for the first time in the literature. The two principles are cyclotron resonance maser (CRM) instability and Cherenkov instability in the azimuthal direction. Self-consistency in the formulation and inclusion of proper boundary conditions have removed the unphysical instability existing for infinitely large k z observed in conventional dispersion relations of CRM instability.

  3. Opportunity's Sol 446 Position, with Relative Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Coding for Information About Relative Elevations This mosaic of navigation-camera frames from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, presented in a vertical projection, shows the rover's position after it dug itself to wheel-hub depth in a small dune during its 446th martian day, or sol (April 26, 2005). In figure 1, the colors are coding for information about relative elevations in the surrounding area. Red areas are the highest in the image, green areas the lowest. The difference between red and green is about 70 centimeters (28 inches). The elongated dune, or ripple, is about one-third of a meter (one foot) tall and 2.5 meters (8 feet) wide. Opportunity had completed nearly 40 meters (131 feet) of a planned 90-meter (295-foot) drive that sol when its wheels began slipping. The rover was driving backwards at the time. The rover team frequently alternates between backwards and forwards driving to keep wheel lubrication well distributed. The wheels kept rotating enough times to have covered the rest of the distance if they hadn't been slipping, but the rover eventually barely inched forward. After a turn at the end of the planned drive, Opportunity sensed that it had not turned properly and stopped moving. The rover team spent more than a week designing and conducting tests under simulated Mars conditions on Earth before choosing the best way for Opportunity to drive out of the dune.

  4. Predictive IP controller for robust position control of linear servo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaowu; Zhou, Fengxing; Ma, Yajie; Tang, Xiaoqi

    2016-07-01

    Position control is a typical application of linear servo system. In this paper, to reduce the system overshoot, an integral plus proportional (IP) controller is used in the position control implementation. To further improve the control performance, a gain-tuning IP controller based on a generalized predictive control (GPC) law is proposed. Firstly, to represent the dynamics of the position loop, a second-order linear model is used and its model parameters are estimated on-line by using a recursive least squares method. Secondly, based on the GPC law, an optimal control sequence is obtained by using receding horizon, then directly supplies the IP controller with the corresponding control parameters in the real operations. Finally, simulation and experimental results are presented to show the efficiency of proposed scheme. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical networks with inflows and outflows: a positive linear differential inclusions approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, David; De Leenheer, Patrick; Sontag, Eduardo D

    2009-01-01

    Certain mass-action kinetics models of biochemical reaction networks, although described by nonlinear differential equations, may be partially viewed as state-dependent linear time-varying systems, which in turn may be modeled by convex compact valued positive linear differential inclusions. A result is provided on asymptotic stability of such inclusions, and applied to a ubiquitous biochemical reaction network with inflows and outflows, known as the futile cycle. We also provide a characterization of exponential stability of general homogeneous switched systems which is not only of interest in itself, but also plays a role in the analysis of the futile cycle. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  6. Some computer simulations based on the linear relative risk model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report presents the results of computer simulations designed to evaluate and compare the performance of the likelihood ratio statistic and the score statistic for making inferences about the linear relative risk mode. The work was motivated by data on workers exposed to low doses of radiation, and the report includes illustration of several procedures for obtaining confidence limits for the excess relative risk coefficient based on data from three studies of nuclear workers. The computer simulations indicate that with small sample sizes and highly skewed dose distributions, asymptotic approximations to the score statistic or to the likelihood ratio statistic may not be adequate. For testing the null hypothesis that the excess relative risk is equal to zero, the asymptotic approximation to the likelihood ratio statistic was adequate, but use of the asymptotic approximation to the score statistic rejected the null hypothesis too often. Frequently the likelihood was maximized at the lower constraint, and when this occurred, the asymptotic approximations for the likelihood ratio and score statistics did not perform well in obtaining upper confidence limits. The score statistic and likelihood ratio statistics were found to perform comparably in terms of power and width of the confidence limits. It is recommended that with modest sample sizes, confidence limits be obtained using computer simulations based on the score statistic. Although nuclear worker studies are emphasized in this report, its results are relevant for any study investigating linear dose-response functions with highly skewed exposure distributions. 22 refs., 14 tabs

  7. Relating Reasoning Methodologies in Linear Logic and Process Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Deng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that the proof-theoretic notion of logical preorder coincides with the process-theoretic notion of contextual preorder for a CCS-like calculus obtained from the formula-as-process interpretation of a fragment of linear logic. The argument makes use of other standard notions in process algebra, namely a labeled transition system and a coinductively defined simulation relation. This result establishes a connection between an approach to reason about process specifications and a method to reason about logic specifications.

  8. Relatively Inexact Proximal Point Algorithm and Linear Convergence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram U. Verma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a notion of relatively maximal (m-relaxed monotonicity, the approximation solvability of a general class of inclusion problems is discussed, while generalizing Rockafellar's theorem (1976 on linear convergence using the proximal point algorithm in a real Hilbert space setting. Convergence analysis, based on this new model, is simpler and compact than that of the celebrated technique of Rockafellar in which the Lipschitz continuity at 0 of the inverse of the set-valued mapping is applied. Furthermore, it can be used to generalize the Yosida approximation, which, in turn, can be applied to first-order evolution equations as well as evolution inclusions.

  9. Wireless Positioning Based on a Segment-Wise Linear Approach for Modeling the Target Trajectory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiras, Joao; Pedersen, Troels; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Positioning solutions in infrastructure-based wireless networks generally operate by exploiting the channel information of the links between the Wireless Devices and fixed networking Access Points. The major challenge of such solutions is the modeling of both the noise properties of the channel...... measurements and the user mobility patterns. One class of typical human being movement patterns is the segment-wise linear approach, which is studied in this paper. Current tracking solutions, such as the Constant Velocity model, hardly handle such segment-wise linear patterns. In this paper we propose...... a segment-wise linear model, called the Drifting Points model. The model results in an increased performance when compared with traditional solutions....

  10. Approximation Theorems for q- Analouge of a Linear Positive Operator by A. Lupas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunesh Kumar Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to introduce $q-$ analouge of a sequence of linear and positive operators which was introduced by A. Lupas [2]. First, we estimate moments of the operators and then prove a basic convergence theorem. Next, a local direct approximation theorem is established. Further, we study the rate of convergence and point-wise estimate using the Lipschitz type maximal function.

  11. The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensor for gravitational wave interferometer low-frequency controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Hareem E-mail: htariq@ligo.caltech.edu; Takamori, Akiteru; Vetrano, Flavio; Wang Chenyang; Bertolini, Alessandro; Calamai, Giovanni; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Gennai, Alberto; Holloway, Lee; Losurdo, Giovanni; Marka, Szabolcs; Mazzoni, Massimo; Paoletti, Federico; Passuello, Diego; Sannibale, Virginio; Stanga, Ruggero

    2002-08-21

    Low-power, ultra-high-vacuum compatible, non-contacting position sensors with nanometer resolution and centimeter dynamic range have been developed, built and tested. They have been designed at Virgo as the sensors for low-frequency modal damping of Seismic Attenuation System chains in Gravitational Wave interferometers and sub-micron absolute mirror positioning. One type of these linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) has been designed to be also insensitive to transversal displacement thus allowing 3D movement of the sensor head while still precisely reading its position along the sensitivity axis. A second LVDT geometry has been designed to measure the displacement of the vertical seismic attenuation filters from their nominal position. Unlike the commercial LVDTs, mostly based on magnetic cores, the LVDTs described here exert no force on the measured structure.

  12. Asynchronous L1-gain control of uncertain switched positive linear systems with dwell time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Hongbin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, dwell time (DT) stability, L 1 -gain performance analysis and asynchronous L 1 -gain controller design problems of uncertain switched positive linear systems (SPLSs) are investigated. Via a time-scheduled multiple linear co-positive Lyapunov function (TSMLCLF) approach, convex sufficient conditions of DT stability and L 1 -gain performance of SPLSs with interval and polytopic uncertainties are presented. Furthermore, by utilizing the feature that the TSMLCLF keeps decreasing even if the controller is running asynchronously with the system, the asynchronous L 1 -gain controller design problem of SPLSs with interval and polytopic uncertainties is investigated. Convex sufficient conditions of the existence of time-varying asynchronous state-feedback controller which can ensure the closed-loop system's positivity, stability and L 1 -gain performance are established, and the controller gain matrices can be calculated instantaneously online. The obtained L 1 -gain in the paper is standard. All the results are presented in terms of linear programming. A practical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the results. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative null controllability of linear systems with multiple delays in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    varying multiple delays in state and control are developed. If the uncontrolled system is uniformly asymptotically stable, and if the linear system is controllable, then the linear system is null controllable. Journal of the Nigerian Association of ...

  14. New Inequalities and Uncertainty Relations on Linear Canonical Transform Revisit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guanlei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty principle plays an important role in mathematics, physics, signal processing, and so on. Firstly, based on definition of the linear canonical transform (LCT and the traditional Pitt's inequality, one novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains is obtained, which is connected with the LCT parameters a and b. Then one novel logarithmic uncertainty principle is derived from this novel Pitt's inequality in the LCT domains, which is associated with parameters of the two LCTs. Secondly, from the relation between the original function and LCT, one entropic uncertainty principle and one Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in the LCT domains are derived, which are associated with the LCT parameters a and b. The reason why the three lower bounds are only associated with LCT parameters a and b and independent of c and d is presented. The results show it is possible that the bounds tend to zeros.

  15. Effects of socioeconomic position and social mobility on linear growth from early childhood until adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Muraro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. Methods: Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years, and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child’s family as low, medium, or high. Social mobility was categorized as upward mobility or no upward mobility. Linear mixed models were used. Results: We evaluated 1,716 children (71.4% of baseline after 10 years, and 60.6% of the families showed upward mobility, with a higher percentage among the lowest economic classes. A higher height-for-age was also observed among those from families with a high SEP both in childhood (low SEP= -0.35 z-score; high SEP= 0.15 z-score, p < 0.01 and adolescence (low SEP= -0.01 z-score; high SEP= 0.45 z-score, p < 0.01, whereas upward mobility did not affect their linear growth. Conclusion: Expressive social mobility was observed, but SEP in childhood and social mobility did not greatly influence linear growth through childhood in this central-western Brazilian cohort.

  16. Solar receiver heliostat reflector having a linear drive and position information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Richard H.

    1980-01-01

    A heliostat for a solar receiver system comprises an improved drive and control system for the heliostat reflector assembly. The heliostat reflector assembly is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e., heat receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The improved drive system includes linear stepping motors which comprise low weight, low cost, electronic pulse driven components. One embodiment comprises linear stepping motors controlled by a programmed, electronic microprocessor. Another embodiment comprises a tape driven system controlled by a position control magnetic tape.

  17. An adaptive feedback controller for transverse angle and position jitter correction in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    It is desired to design a position and angle jitter control system for pulsed linear accelerators that will increase the accuracy of correction over that achieved by currently used standard feedback jitter control systems. Interpulse or pulse-to-pulse correction is performed using the average value of each macropulse. The configuration of such a system resembles that of a standard feedback correction system with the addition of an adaptive controller that dynamically adjusts the gain-phase contour of the feedback electronics. The adaptive controller makes changes to the analog feedback system between macropulses. A simulation of such a system using real measured jitter data from the Stanford Linear Collider was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by over two and a half times. The system also increased and stabilized the correction at high frequencies; a typical problem with standard feedback systems

  18. An adaptive feedback controller for transverse angle and position jitter correction in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    It is desired to design a position and angle jitter control system for pulsed linear accelerators that will increase the accuracy of correction over that achieved by currently used standard feedback jitter control systems. Interpulse or pulse-to-pulse correction is performed using the average value of each macropulse. The configuration of such a system resembles that of a standard feedback correction system with the addition of an adaptive controller that dynamically adjusts the gain-phase contour of the feedback electronics. The adaptive controller makes changes to the analog feedback system between macropulses. A simulation of such a system using real measured jitter data from the Stanford Linear Collider was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by over two and a half times. The system also increased and stabilized the correction at high frequencies; a typical problem with standard feedback systems

  19. Linear rate-equilibrium relations arising from ion channel-bilayer energetic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Per Junior; Lum, Kevin; Ashrafuzzaman, Md

    2011-01-01

    Linear rate-equilibrium (RE) relations, also known as linear free energy relations, are widely observed in chemical reactions, including protein folding, enzymatic catalysis, and channel gating. Despite the widespread occurrence of linear RE relations, the principles underlying the linear relatio...

  20. Position and out-of-straightness measurement of a precision linear air-bearing stage by using a two-degree-of-freedom linear encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihide; Gao, Wei; Lijiang, Zeng

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents measurement of the X-directional position and the Z-directional out-of-straightness of a precision linear air-bearing stage with a two-degree-of-freedom (two-DOF) linear encoder, which is an optical displacement sensor for simultaneous measurement of the two-DOF displacements. The two-DOF linear encoder is composed of a reflective-type one-axis scale grating and an optical sensor head. A reference grating is placed perpendicular to the scale grating in the optical sensor head. Two-DOF displacements can be obtained from interference signals generated by the ±1 order diffracted beams from two gratings. A prototype two-DOF linear encoder employing the scale grating with the grating period of approximately 1.67 µm measured the X-directional position and the Z-directional out-of-straightness of the linear air-bearing stage

  1. Sliding-Mode Observer for Speed and Position Sensorless Control of Linear-PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazraji Saeed Masoumi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a sliding-mode observer that utilizes sigmoid function for speed and position sensorless control of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM. In conventional sliding mode observer method there are the chattering phenomenon and the phase lag. Thus, in order to avoid the usage of the low pass filter and the phase compensator based on back EMF, in this paper a sliding mode observer with sigmoid function for detecting the back EMF in a PMLSM is designed to estimate the speed and the position of the rotor. Most of conventional sliding mode observers use sign or saturation functions which need low pass filter in order to detect back electromotive force (back EMF. In this paper a sigmoid function is used instead of discontinuous sign function to decrease undesirable chattering phenomenon. By reducing the chattering, detecting of the back EMF can be made directly from switching signal without any low pass filter. Thus the delay time in the proposed observer is eliminated because of the low pass filter. Furthermore, there is no need to compensate phase fault in position and speed estimating of linear-PMSM. Advantages of the proposed observer have been shown by simulation with MATLAB software.

  2. Long bunch trains measured using a prototype cavity beam position monitor for the Compact Linear Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Cullinan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC requires beam position monitors (BPMs with 50 nm spatial resolution for alignment of the beam line elements in the main linac and beam delivery system. Furthermore, the BPMs must be able to make multiple independent measurements within a single 156 ns long bunch train. A prototype cavity BPM for CLIC has been manufactured and tested on the probe beam line at the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3 at CERN. The transverse beam position is determined from the electromagnetic resonant modes excited by the beam in the two cavities of the pickup, the position cavity and the reference cavity. The mode that is measured in each cavity resonates at 15 GHz and has a loaded quality factor that is below 200. Analytical expressions for the amplitude, phase and total energy of signals from long trains of bunches have been derived and the main conclusions are discussed. The results of the beam tests are presented. The variable gain of the receiver electronics has been characterized using beam excited signals and the form of the signals for different beam pulse lengths with the 2/3  ns bunch spacing has been observed. The sensitivity of the reference cavity signal to charge and the horizontal position signal to beam offset have been measured and are compared with theoretical predictions based on laboratory measurements of the BPM pickup and the form of the resonant cavity modes as determined by numerical simulation. Finally, the BPM was calibrated so that the beam position jitter at the BPM location could be measured. It is expected that the beam jitter scales linearly with the beam size and so the results are compared to predicted values for the latter.

  3. Long bunch trains measured using a prototype cavity beam position monitor for the Compact Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, F. J.; Boogert, S. T.; Farabolini, W.; Lefevre, T.; Lunin, A.; Lyapin, A.; Søby, L.; Towler, J.; Wendt, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires beam position monitors (BPMs) with 50 nm spatial resolution for alignment of the beam line elements in the main linac and beam delivery system. Furthermore, the BPMs must be able to make multiple independent measurements within a single 156 ns long bunch train. A prototype cavity BPM for CLIC has been manufactured and tested on the probe beam line at the 3rd CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN. The transverse beam position is determined from the electromagnetic resonant modes excited by the beam in the two cavities of the pickup, the position cavity and the reference cavity. The mode that is measured in each cavity resonates at 15 GHz and has a loaded quality factor that is below 200. Analytical expressions for the amplitude, phase and total energy of signals from long trains of bunches have been derived and the main conclusions are discussed. The results of the beam tests are presented. The variable gain of the receiver electronics has been characterized using beam excited signals and the form of the signals for different beam pulse lengths with the 2 /3 ns bunch spacing has been observed. The sensitivity of the reference cavity signal to charge and the horizontal position signal to beam offset have been measured and are compared with theoretical predictions based on laboratory measurements of the BPM pickup and the form of the resonant cavity modes as determined by numerical simulation. Finally, the BPM was calibrated so that the beam position jitter at the BPM location could be measured. It is expected that the beam jitter scales linearly with the beam size and so the results are compared to predicted values for the latter.

  4. Characterization and linear array LA48 Commissioner for measuring the position of the multi leaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conles Picos, I.; Cenizo de Castro, E.; Aparicio martin, A. R.; Barrio Lazo, F.; Cesteros Morante, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    The protocol of Quality Control of electron accelerators for medical use of SEFM proposed for multi leaf collimation system (MLC) to verify the positioning of the blades connect. To do this you must find a system with sufficient accuracy and precision and, if possible, easy to assemble and offers real-time results. One of these teams is the Linear Array of PTW-Freiburg (LA48), which consists of a row of 47 ionization chambers, of 0008 cc and 8 mm apart from each other. In this paper, we describe our process of characterization and LA48 commissioner. (Author)

  5. Minimum Energy Control of 2D Positive Continuous-Discrete Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczorek Tadeusz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The minimum energy control problem for the 2D positive continuous-discrete linear systems is formulated and solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the reachability at the point of the systems are given. Sufficient conditions for the existence of solution to the problem are established. It is shown that if the system is reachable then there exists an optimal input that steers the state from zero boundary conditions to given final state and minimizing the performance index for only one step (q = 1. A procedure for solving of the problem is proposed and illustrated by a numerical example.

  6. The development of an algebraic multigrid algorithm for symmetric positive definite linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanek, P.; Mandel, J.; Brezina, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An algebraic multigrid algorithm for symmetric, positive definite linear systems is developed based on the concept of prolongation by smoothed aggregation. Coarse levels are generated automatically. We present a set of requirements motivated heuristically by a convergence theory. The algorithm then attempts to satisfy the requirements. Input to the method are the coefficient matrix and zero energy modes, which are determined from nodal coordinates and knowledge of the differential equation. Efficiency of the resulting algorithm is demonstrated by computational results on real world problems from solid elasticity, plate blending, and shells.

  7. Accretion of Fat-Free Mass Rather Than Fat Mass in Infancy Is Positively Associated with Linear Growth in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C K; Girma, Tsinuel; Andersen, Gregers S; Belachew, Tefera; Owino, Victor; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abera, Mubarek; Wibaek, Rasmus; Friis, Henrik; Kæstel, Pernille

    2018-04-01

    We have previously shown that fat-free mass (FFM) at birth is associated with height at 2 y of age in Ethiopian children. However, to our knowledge, the relation between changes in body composition during early infancy and later linear growth has not been studied. This study examined the associations of early infancy fat mass (FM) and FFM accretion with linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age in Ethiopian children. In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) study, a prospective cohort study was carried out in children in Jimma, Ethiopia, followed from birth to 5 y of age. FM and FFM were measured ≤6 times from birth to 6 mo by using air-displacement plethysmography. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify associations between standardized FM and FFM accretion rates during early infancy and linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age. Standardized accretion rates were obtained by dividing FM and FFM accretion by their respective SD. FFM accretion from 0 to 6 mo of age was positively associated with length at 1 y (β = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.09; P = 0.005) and linear growth from 1 to 5 y (β = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.07; P = 0.005). The strongest association with FFM accretion was observed at 1 y. The association with linear growth from 1 to 5 y was mainly engendered by the 1-y association. FM accretion from 0 to 4 mo was positively associated with linear growth from 1 to 5 y (β = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.88; P = 0.038) in the fully adjusted model. In Ethiopian children, FFM accretion was associated with linear growth at 1 y and no clear additional longitudinal effect from 1 to 5 y was observed. FM accretion showed a weak association from 1 to 5 y. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN46718296.

  8. The Validity and Reliability of the Gymaware Linear Position Transducer for Measuring Counter-Movement Jump Performance in Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Shannon; Tavares, Francisco; McMaster, Daniel; Chambers, Samuel; Driller, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of a linear position transducer when compared to a force plate through a counter-movement jump in female participants. Twenty-seven female recreational athletes (19 ± 2 years) performed three counter-movement jumps simultaneously using the linear position transducer and…

  9. Ordinal Position Research Related to Vocational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1974-01-01

    Birth order studies directly related to vocational interest were reviewed to discern support for certain theoretical susumptions: firstborns are more directing, controlling, and organizing than later borns and later borns are more sociable, empathic, and sympathetic than firstborns. The research was inconsistent, contradictory, and speculative.…

  10. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  11. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  12. Effects of socioeconomic position and social mobility on linear growth from early childhood until adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and social mobility on linear growth through adolescence in a population-based cohort. Children born in Cuiabá-MT, central-western Brazil, were evaluated during 1994 - 1999. They were first assessed during 1999 - 2000 (0 - 5 years) and again during 2009 - 2011 (10 - 17 years), and their height-for-age was evaluated during these two periods.Awealth index was used to classify the SEP of each child's family as low, medium, or high. Social mobility was categorized as upward mobility or no upward mobility. Linear mixed models were used. We evaluated 1,716 children (71.4% of baseline) after 10 years, and 60.6% of the families showed upward mobility, with a higher percentage among the lowest economic classes. A higher height-for-age was also observed among those from families with a high SEP both in childhood (low SEP= -0.35 z-score; high SEP= 0.15 z-score, p childhood and social mobility did not greatly influence linear growth through childhood in this central-western Brazilian cohort.

  13. Development of an ultrasonic linear motor with ultra-positioning capability and four driving feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Yuan, Songmei; Zhong, Zuojin; Zhao, Yanqiang; Gao, Shuning

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel linear piezoelectric motor which is suitable for rapid ultra-precision positioning. The finite element analysis (FEA) was applied for optimal design and further analysis, then experiments were conducted to investigate its performance. By changing the input signal, the proposed motor was found capable of working in the fast driving mode as well as in the precision positioning mode. When working in the fast driving mode, the motor acts as an ultrasonic motor with maximum no-load speed up to 181.2mm/s and maximum thrust of 1.7N at 200Vp-p. Also, when working in precision positioning mode, the motor can be regarded as a flexible hinge piezoelectric actuator with arbitrary motion in the range of 8μm. The measurable minimum output displacement was found to be 0.08μm, but theoretically, can be even smaller. More importantly, the motor can be quickly and accurately positioned in a large stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental dead time corrections for a linear position-sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Tompson, C.W.; Mildner, D.F.R.; Berliner, R.; Missouri Univ., Columbia

    1984-01-01

    Two simple counters included in the charge-digitization circuitry of a position-sensitive proportional counter using the charge division method for position encoding have enabled us to determine the dead time losses for the system. An interesting positional dependence of the dead time tau is observed, which agrees with a simple model. The system enables us to correct the experimental data for dead time and to be indifferent to the relatively slow analog-to-digital converters used in the system. (orig.)

  15. Markov Jump Linear Systems-Based Position Estimation for Lower Limb Exoskeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel L. Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with Markov Jump Linear Systems-based filtering applied to robotic rehabilitation. The angular positions of an impedance-controlled exoskeleton, designed to help stroke and spinal cord injured patients during walking rehabilitation, are estimated. Standard position estimate approaches adopt Kalman filters (KF to improve the performance of inertial measurement units (IMUs based on individual link configurations. Consequently, for a multi-body system, like a lower limb exoskeleton, the inertial measurements of one link (e.g., the shank are not taken into account in other link position estimation (e.g., the foot. In this paper, we propose a collective modeling of all inertial sensors attached to the exoskeleton, combining them in a Markovian estimation model in order to get the best information from each sensor. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, simulation results regarding a set of human footsteps, with four IMUs and three encoders attached to the lower limb exoskeleton, are presented. A comparative study between the Markovian estimation system and the standard one is performed considering a wide range of parametric uncertainties.

  16. Definition of a reference metrology network for the positioning of a large linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, F.

    2003-12-01

    This thesis is a study of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) alignment system, a project of linear accelerator of about 30 km long of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The pre-alignment tolerance on the transverse positions of the components of the CLIC linacs is typically ten microns over distances of 200 m. This research is a consequence of 10 years work, where several sets of special sensors dedicated to metrology have been adapted for the CLIC project. Most of these sensors deliver measurements linked to geometric references sensitive to gravity fluctuation. An important part of this work is therefore dedicated to study the gravity disruptions as a high level of accuracy is required. The parameters to take into account in the use of the hydrostatic leveling have thus been highlighted. A proposal of configuration of the system alignment based on a selection of sensors has also been given in this research. Computer models of different possible configurations have been presented. As the existing computing software was inappropriate, a new object oriented software package has been developed, to ensure future upgrades. An optimized configuration of the network has been defined from a set of simulations. Finally, due to problems in the use of hydrostatic leveling systems, a solution based on the use of a long laser beam as an alternative solution is discussed. (author)

  17. LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology: An inclusive and systemic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Daniela G; Bobele, Monte; Coppock, Jacqueline; Peña, Ezequiel

    2015-05-01

    Positive psychologists have contributed to our understandings of how positive emotions and flexible cognition enhance resiliency. However, positive psychologists' research has been slow to address the relational resources and interactions that help nonheterosexual families overcome adversity. Addressing overlooked lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) and systemic factors in positive psychology, this article draws on family resilience literature and LGBTQ literature to theorize a systemic positive psychology framework for working with nonheterosexual families. We developed the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework that integrates positive psychology's strengths-based perspective with the systemic orientation of Walsh's (1996) family resilience framework along with the cultural considerations proposed by LGBTQ family literature. We theorize that the LGBTQ relationally based positive psychology framework takes into consideration the sociopolitical adversities impacting nonheterosexual families and sensitizes positive psychologists, including those working in organized care settings, to the systemic interactions of same-sex loving relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Longitudinal Relations among Positivity, Perceived Positive School Climate, and Prosocial Behavior in Colombian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Thartori, Eriona; Pastorelli, Concetta; Uribe Tirado, Liliana M.; Gerbino, Maria; Caprara, Gian V.

    2017-01-01

    Bidirectional relations among adolescents' positivity, perceived positive school climate, and prosocial behavior were examined in Colombian youth. Also, the role of a positive school climate in mediating the relation of positivity to prosocial behaviors was tested. Adolescents (N = 151; M[subscript age] of child in Wave 1 = 12.68, SD = 1.06; 58.9%…

  19. An Automated Magnet Positioning System For Use in the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) is conceived as the world's most powerful electron-positron particle accelerator. Throughout the NLC, the beam itself will be used to measure errors in the positions of the lattice elements. This beam-based alignment strategy is an essential element of the NLC's design and precision adjustment systems have been identified as a critical enabling technology. Square One proposes a new type of precision manipulator that could be adapted for applications throughout the accelerator. As envisioned, this ''Tri-Sphere'' Adjustment System will possess up to six, non-redundant degrees of freedom, be capable of sub-micron resolutions and have ultimate load capacities in excess of 10,000 kg. The system will accommodate thermal expansions and contractions of the objects being supported and can be either motorized or manually actuated. Phase I development tasks will include detailed manipulator design, solution of the associated kinematic equations of motion and evaluation of actuators, gear reducers and transmission systems. The Phase I effort will culminate in the fabrication and full evaluation of a system prototype. A successfully developed Tri-Sphere manipulator could also be used to actively position critical fusion optics, adjust communication dishes or perform parts handling tasks in harsh manufacturing environments

  20. Data acquisition system for linear position sensitive detector based neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Behere, A.; Prafulla, S.; Srivastava, V.D.; Mukhopadhyaya, P.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Kataria, S.K.

    2003-03-01

    This data acquisition system is developed to serve the requirements of various linear 1PSD based neutron diffractometers. A neutron diffractometer uses a neutron beam as a probe to study the crystallographic properties of materials. Presently two multi-PSD and two single-PSD diffractometers are commissioned and a few more are being installed in Dhruva. This data acquisition system is installed at each of these - diffractometers. Different requirements of individual diffractometers were studied and reconciled to design a single data acquisition system, which can be easily configured or customized for individual setups. The charge division in a linear PSD is converted to a position output with the help of an RDC (Ratio ADC). The ftont-end electronics, which consist of preamplifiers and shaping amplifiers, provide an interface between a PSD and an RDC. A PC add-on card is designed around a Transputer. It can interface 16 RDCs, a few motor controls and on/off controls. Data acquisition and other controls are implemented in the Transputer program. A front-end Windows98 application merges the raw data of different RDCs to obtain the equiangular data. Through software the data acquisition system can be configured for diffetent diffractometers. Commercially available hardware is also integrated as,a part of the data acquisition system in some of the setups. The data acquisition system is working reliably as a part of two single PSD and two multi-PSD diffractometers. It can handle data rates upto 15 K/Sec without any loss of counts. It has played a significant role in providing improved throughput and utilization ofvarious diffractometers. The'data acquisition system and its different applications are presented in this report. (author)

  1. Variability of centric relation position in TMD patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonnenberg, A.J.J.; Mulder, J.

    2006-01-01

    Reproducibility of the centric relation position for patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is not documented in the current literature. It was the objective of this study to assess clinical variability of the centric relation position for TMD patients with a muscle-determined technique by

  2. Optoelectronic device for the measurement of the absolute linear position in the micrometric displacement range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlanes, Tomas; de la Pena, Jose L.; Sanchez-Brea, Luis M.; Alonso, Jose; Crespo, Daniel; Saez-Landete, Jose B.; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2005-07-01

    In this work, an optoelectronic device that provides the absolute position of a measurement element with respect to a pattern scale upon switch-on is presented. That means that there is not a need to perform any kind of transversal displacement after the startup of the system. The optoelectronic device is based on the process of light propagation passing through a slit. A light source with a definite size guarantees the relation of distances between the different elements that constitute our system and allows getting a particular optical intensity profile that can be measured by an electronic post-processing device providing the absolute location of the system with a resolution of 1 micron. The accuracy of this measuring device is restricted to the same limitations of any incremental position optical encoder.

  3. Positive solution of non-square fully Fuzzy linear system of equation in general form using least square method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ezzati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose the least square method for computing the positive solution of a non-square fully fuzzy linear system. To this end, we use Kaffman' arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers \\cite{17}. Here, considered existence of exact solution using pseudoinverse, if they are not satisfy in positive solution condition, we will compute fuzzy vector core and then we will obtain right and left spreads of positive fuzzy vector by introducing constrained least squares problem. Using our proposed method, non-square fully fuzzy linear system of equations always has a solution. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of proposed method by solving some numerical examples.

  4. Quantifying the linear and nonlinear relations between the urban form fragmentation and the carbon emission distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, S.; Dai, S.; Ren, Y.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Scientifically revealing the spatial heterogeneity and the relationship between the fragmentation of urban landscape and the direct carbon emissions are of great significance to land management and urban planning. In fact, the linear and nonlinear effects among the various factors resulted in the carbon emission spatial map. However, there is lack of the studies on the direct and indirect relations between the carbon emission and the city functional spatial form changes, which could not be reflected by the land use change. The linear strength and direction of the single factor could be calculated through the correlation and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) analysis, the nonlinear power of one factor and the interaction power of each two factors could be quantified by the Geodetector analysis. Therefore, we compared the landscape fragmentation metrics of the urban land cover and functional district patches to characterize the landscape form and then revealed the relations between the landscape fragmentation level and the direct the carbon emissions based on the three methods. The results showed that fragmentation decreased and the fragmented patches clustered at the coarser resolution. The direct CO2 emission density and the population density increased when the fragmentation level aggregated. The correlation analysis indicated the weak linear relation between them. The spatial variation of GWR output indicated the fragmentation indicator (MESH) had the positive influence on the carbon emission located in the relatively high emission region, and the negative effects regions accounted for the small part of the area. The Geodetector which explores the nonlinear relation identified the DIVISION and MESH as the most powerful direct factor for the land cover patches, NP and PD for the functional district patches, and the interactions between fragmentation indicator (MESH) and urban sprawl metrics (PUA and DIS) had the greatly increased explanation powers on the

  5. Relating Cohesive Zone Model to Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The conditions required for a cohesive zone model (CZM) to predict a failure load of a cracked structure similar to that obtained by a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) analysis are investigated in this paper. This study clarifies why many different phenomenological cohesive laws can produce similar fracture predictions. Analytical results for five cohesive zone models are obtained, using five different cohesive laws that have the same cohesive work rate (CWR-area under the traction-separation curve) but different maximum tractions. The effect of the maximum traction on the predicted cohesive zone length and the remote applied load at fracture is presented. Similar to the small scale yielding condition for an LEFM analysis to be valid. the cohesive zone length also needs to be much smaller than the crack length. This is a necessary condition for a CZM to obtain a fracture prediction equivalent to an LEFM result.

  6. Uncertainty relations, zero point energy and the linear canonical group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, E. C. G.

    1993-01-01

    The close relationship between the zero point energy, the uncertainty relations, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group-theoretic perspective enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. In particular the generalized Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty relations are analyzed. An elementary method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented.

  7. High precision relative position sensing system for formation flying spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test an optical sensing system that provides high precision relative position sensing for formation flying spacecraft.  A high precision...

  8. Extrapolations of nuclear binding energies from new linear mass relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, D.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to extrapolate nuclear binding energies from known values for neighboring nuclei. We select four specific mass relations constructed to eliminate smooth variation of the binding energy as function nucleon numbers. The fast odd-even variations are avoided by comparing nuclei...

  9. Assessment of preschoolers’ positive empathy: concurrent and longitudinal relations with positive emotion, social competence, and sympathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sallquist, Julie; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Gaertner, Bridget M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a new measure of children’s dispositional positive empathy (i.e., reactions to others’ positive emotions) and its concurrent and longitudinal relations with positive emotion, social competence, and empathy/sympathy with negative emotions. At Time 1, 192 3.5-year-olds (88 girls) participated; at Time 2, 1 year later, 168 4.5-year-olds (79 girls) participated. Children’s positive empathy was reported by mothers and observed in the laboratory at Time 2. A...

  10. Determination of the Relative Positions of Three Planes: Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Ada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore how a more effective lesson plan and teaching environment can be achieved so as to improve elementary mathematics teacher candidates’ achievement in analytical examination of planes in space. In order to improve achievement in expressing the relative positions of three planes not only algebraically but also visually the study used an action research approach as planned by the researchers. In Implementation 1, the teacher candidates were given the equations of three planes and they were asked to determine the relative positions of the planes so that their prior knowledge could be identified. In this stage, the candidate teachers tried to determine the relative positions of the planes in one direction by examining the plane equations in pairs. In Implementation 2, the candidate teachers were asked to find the solution set of the linear equation system consisting of three equations with three unknowns and to come up with geometric interpretation of this solution. In this stage, some of the candidate teachers were able to solve the equation, but they couldn’t interpret it geometrically. In Implementation 3, Maple, a computer algebra system, was used so that the candidate teachers could visualize and observe the relative positions of the three planes by using the plane equations. In this stage, the candidate teachers associated the set of solutions of the plane equations with the three-dimensional images obtained with Maple. The results of the implementation showed that the proposed plan improved the mathematics teacher candidates’ visualization of the relative positions of the three planes.Keywords: planes in space, analytic geometry, Maple, action researchÜç Düzlemin Birbirine Göre Konumunun Belirlenmesi: Eylem AraştırmasıÖzBu çalışmanın amacı, ilköğretim Matematik öğretmen adaylarının uzayda düzlemlerin analitik incelenmesi konusundaki başarısını arttırmak için daha etkili

  11. Relational interaction in occupational therapy: Conversation analysis of positive feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiste, Elina

    2018-01-01

    The therapeutic relationship is an important factor for good therapy outcomes. The primary mediator of a beneficial therapy relationship is clinician-client interaction. However, few studies identify the observable interactional attributes of good quality relational interactions, e.g. offering the client positive feedback. The present paper aims to expand current understanding of relational interaction by analyzing the real-time interactional practices therapists use for offering positive feedback, an important value in occupational therapy. The analysis is based on the conversation analysis of 15 video-recorded occupational therapy encounters in psychiatric outpatient clinics. Two types of positive feedback were identified. In aligning feedback, therapists encouraged and complimented clients' positive perspectives on their own achievements in adopting certain behaviour, encouraging and supporting their progress. In redirecting feedback, therapists shifted the perspective from clients' negative experiences to their positive experiences. This shift was interactionally successful if they laid the foundation for the shift in perspective and attuned their expressions to the clients' emotional states. Occupational therapists routinely provide their clients with positive feedback. Awareness of the interactional attributes related to positive feedback is critically important for successful relational interaction.

  12. Kalman filter with a linear state model for PDR+WLAN positioning and its application to assisting a particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitoharju, Matti; Nurminen, Henri; Piché, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Indoor positioning based on wireless local area network (WLAN) signals is often enhanced using pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) based on an inertial measurement unit. The state evolution model in PDR is usually nonlinear. We present a new linear state evolution model for PDR. In simulated-data and real-data tests of tightly coupled WLAN-PDR positioning, the positioning accuracy with this linear model is better than with the traditional models when the initial heading is not known, which is a common situation. The proposed method is computationally light and is also suitable for smoothing. Furthermore, we present modifications to WLAN positioning based on Gaussian coverage areas and show how a Kalman filter using the proposed model can be used for integrity monitoring and (re)initialization of a particle filter.

  13. Positioning and role of public relations in large Belgian organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, B. van; Pauwels, L.M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the position and role of public relations in the hierarchical structure of Belgian organizations of at least 50 employees. Empirical data was collected from a web survey (n = 750) to find out to what extent principles of excellence in public relations are applied in Belgium. The

  14. Linear antenna of an arbitrary orientation and position in cylindric screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prijmenko, S.D.; Papkovich, V.G.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    An equation of the linear antenna in cylindric screen is formulated. Using the averaging method a solution of this equation for the antenna of arbitrary orientation which does not contact the screen walls or contacts them in one or two ends is received. The obtained asymptotic expression for stream permits to describe in a single manner the case of resonance and non-resonance scattering. These results may be applied in design of UHF and accelerating installations using cylindric screens charged with linear vibrators. 9 refs. (author)

  15. Linear relations between leaf mass per area (LMA) and seasonal climate discovered through Linear Manifold Clustering (LMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, N. Y.; Haralick, R. M.; Diky, A.; Kattge, J.; Su, X.

    2016-12-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a critical variable in plant carbon allocation, correlates with leaf activity traits (photosynthetic activity, respiration), and is a controller of litterfall mass and hence carbon substrate for soil biogeochemistry. Recent advances in understanding the leaf economics spectrum (LES) show that LMA has a strong correlation with leaf life span, a trait that reflects ecological strategy, whereas physiological traits that control leaf activity scale with each other when mass-normalized (Osnas et al., 2013). These functional relations help reduce the number of independent variables in quantifying leaf traits. However, LMA is an independent variable that remains a challenge to specify in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), when vegetation types are classified into a limited number of plant functional types (PFTs) without clear mechanistic drivers for LMA. LMA can range orders of magnitude across plant species, as well as vary within a single plant, both vertically and seasonally. As climate relations in combination with alternative ecological strategies have yet to be well identified for LMA, we have assembled 22,000 records of LMA spanning 0.004 - 33 mg/m2 from the numerous contributors to the TRY database (Kattge et al., 2011), with observations distributed over several climate zones and plant functional categories (growth form, leaf type, phenology). We present linear relations between LMA and climate variables, including seasonal temperature, precipitation, and radiation, as derived through Linear Manifold Clustering (LMC). LMC is a stochastic search technique for identifying linear dependencies between variables in high dimensional space. We identify a set of parsimonious classes of LMA-climate groups based on a metric of minimum description to identify structure in the data set, akin to data compression. The relations in each group are compared to Köppen-Geiger climate classes, with some groups revealing continuous linear relations

  16. Implications of a positive cosmological constant for general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2017-10-01

    Most of the literature on general relativity over the last century assumes that the cosmological constant [Formula: see text] is zero. However, by now independent observations have led to a consensus that the dynamics of the universe is best described by Einstein's equations with a small but positive [Formula: see text]. Interestingly, this requires a drastic revision of conceptual frameworks commonly used in general relativity, no matter how small [Formula: see text] is. We first explain why, and then summarize the current status of generalizations of these frameworks to include a positive [Formula: see text], focusing on gravitational waves.

  17. The theory behind the age-related positivity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The positivity effect refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather & Carstensen, 2005 scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision-making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.

  18. Promoting a Positive Image: Public Relations Strategies for Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kathleen B.; Miller, April D.; Brennan, J. Patrick, II

    2000-01-01

    A positive public relations campaign specific to special education can stimulate teacher cooperation and principal support, improve community perceptions of special education students, and increase hiring of special education students by local businesses. A monthly calendar of suggested activities and guidelines for starting a public relations…

  19. The influence of nationality and playing position on relative age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    for this phenomenon, termed the relative age effect (RAE), is that children born in the ... of countries have introduced modified games or weight categories in some ... A review of an online database (http://www.itsrugby.co.uk/) revealed the names ... positive SR indicated a higher than expected number of births in that quarter.

  20. Accretion of fat-free mass rather than fat mass in infancy is positively associated with linear growth in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu Wossen, Bitiya; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2018-01-01

    Background: We have previously shown that fat-free mass (FFM) at birth is associated with height at 2 y of age in Ethiopian children. However, to our knowledge, the relation between changes in body composition during early infancy and later linear growth has not been studied. Objective: This study...... examined the associations of early infancy fat mass (FM) and FFM accretion with linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age in Ethiopian children. Methods: In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) study, a prospective cohort study was carried out in children in Jimma, Ethiopia, followed from birth...... to 5 y of age. FM and FFM were measured ≤6 times from birth to 6 mo by using air-displacement plethysmography. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify associations between standardized FM and FFM accretion rates during early infancy and linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age. Standardized...

  1. Positioning of the rf potential minimum line of a linear Paul trap with micrometer precision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Albert, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a general technique to achieve a precise radial displacement of the nodal line of the radiofrequency (rf) field in a linear Paul trap. The technique relies on the selective adjustment of the load capacitance of the trap electrodes, achieved through the addition of capacitors...... to the basic resonant rf circuit used to drive the trap. Displacements of up to ~100 µm with micrometer precision are measured using a combination of fluorescence images of ion Coulomb crystals and coherent coupling of such crystals to a mode of an optical cavity. The displacements are made without measurable...

  2. Age-related positivity enhancement is not universal: older Chinese look away from positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Lu, Alice Y; Goren, Deborah; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Wadlinger, Heather A; Wilson, Hugh R

    2008-06-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that with age, people are motivated to derive emotional meaning from life, leading them to pay more attention to positive relative to negative/neutral stimuli. The authors argue that cultures that differ in what they consider to be emotionally meaningful may show this preference to different extents. Using eye-tracking techniques, the authors compared visual attention toward emotional (happy, fearful, sad, and angry) and neutral facial expressions among 46 younger and 57 older Hong Kong Chinese. In contrast to prior Western findings, older but not younger Chinese looked away from happy facial expressions, suggesting that they do not show attentional preferences toward positive stimuli.

  3. Hamiltonian Dynamics and Positive Energy in General Relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deser, S. [Physics Department, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1969-07-15

    A review is first given of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; the gravitational field is a self-interacting massless spin-two system within the framework of ordinary Lorentz covariant field theory. The recently solved problem of positive-definiteness of the field energy is then discussed. The latter, a conserved functional of the dynamical variables, is shown to have only one extremum, a local minimum, which is the vacuum state (flat space). This implies positive energy for the field, with the vacuum as ground-state. Similar results hold when minimally coupled matter is present. (author)

  4. The reliability of linear position transducer, force plate and combined measurement of explosive power-time variables during a loaded jump squat in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Newton, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the between day reliability of power-time measures calculated with data collected using the linear position transducer or the force plate independently, or a combination of the two technologies. Twenty-five male rugby union players performed three jump squats on two occasions one week apart. Ground reaction forces were measured via a force plate and position data were collected using a linear position transducer. From these data, a number of power-time variables were calculated for each method. The force plate, linear position transducer and a combined method were all found to be a reliable means of measuring peak power (ICC = 0.87-0.95, CV = 3.4%-8.0%). The absolute consistency of power-time measures varied between methods (CV = 8.0%-53.4%). Relative consistency of power-time measures was generally comparable between methods and measures, and for many variables was at an acceptable level (ICC = 0.77-0.94). Although a number of time-dependent power variables can be reliably calculated from data acquired from the three methods investigated, the reliability of a number of these measures is below that which is acceptable for use in research and for practical applications.

  5. Successful use of a linear position-sensitive neutron detector in solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefer, J.; Fischer, P.; Heer, H.; Isacson, A.; Koch, M.; Thut, R.

    1991-01-01

    The double axis multicounter diffractometer (DMC) installed at the 10 MW reactor SAPHIR (PSI) has been designed as a good flux-good resolution (presently Δd/d≥4x10 -3 ) neutron poder diffractometer. The detector bank is based on a commercial position-sensitive linear BF 3 detector which may be automatically and precisely positioned on air cushions on inexpensive floors. This detector type has an 80deg angular opening, not allowing any standard collimation in front of the detector. We therefore developed an oscillating collimator system allowing easy use of the instrument even with sample environments such as a dilution cryostat. (orig.)

  6. A complex linear least-squares method to derive relative and absolute orientations of seismic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    F. Grigoli; Simone Cesca; Torsten Dahm; L. Krieger

    2012-01-01

    Determining the relative orientation of the horizontal components of seismic sensors is a common problem that limits data analysis and interpretation for several acquisition setups, including linear arrays of geophones deployed in borehole installations or ocean bottom seismometers deployed at the seafloor. To solve this problem we propose a new inversion method based on a complex linear algebra approach. Relative orientation angles are retrieved by minimizing, in a least-squares sense, the l...

  7. A Linear Programming Approach to Routing Control in Networks of Constrained Nonlinear Positive Systems with Concave Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Heather M.; Dousse, Nicholas; Langbort, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    We consider control design for positive compartmental systems in which each compartment's outflow rate is described by a concave function of the amount of material in the compartment.We address the problem of determining the routing of material between compartments to satisfy time-varying state constraints while ensuring that material reaches its intended destination over a finite time horizon. We give sufficient conditions for the existence of a time-varying state-dependent routing strategy which ensures that the closed-loop system satisfies basic network properties of positivity, conservation and interconnection while ensuring that capacity constraints are satisfied, when possible, or adjusted if a solution cannot be found. These conditions are formulated as a linear programming problem. Instances of this linear programming problem can be solved iteratively to generate a solution to the finite horizon routing problem. Results are given for the application of this control design method to an example problem. Key words: linear programming; control of networks; positive systems; controller constraints and structure.

  8. Linear relations in microbial reaction systems: a general overview of their origin, form, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorman, H J; Heijnen, J J; Ch A M Luyben, K

    1991-09-01

    In microbial reaction systems, there are a number of linear relations among net conversion rates. These can be very useful in the analysis of experimental data. This article provides a general approach for the formation and application of the linear relations. Two type of system descriptions, one considering the biomass as a black box and the other based on metabolic pathways, are encountered. These are defined in a linear vector and matrix algebra framework. A correct a priori description can be obtained by three useful tests: the independency, consistency, and observability tests. The independency are different. The black box approach provides only conservations relations. They are derived from element, electrical charge, energy, and Gibbs energy balances. The metabolic approach provides, in addition to the conservation relations, metabolic and reaction relations. These result from component, energy, and Gibbs energy balances. Thus it is more attractive to use the metabolic description than the black box approach. A number of different types of linear relations given in the literature are reviewed. They are classified according to the different categories that result from the black box or the metabolic system description. Validation of hypotheses related to metabolic pathways can be supported by experimental validation of the linear metabolic relations. However, definite proof from biochemical evidence remains indispensable.

  9. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark

    2016-01-01

    workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217......) was mounted for 24-h measurements of ABP, and an Actiheart was mounted for 24-h heart rate measurements to calculate relative aerobic workload as percentage of relative heart rate reserve. A repeated-measure multi-adjusted mixed model was applied for analysis. RESULTS: A fully adjusted mixed model...... of measurements throughout the day showed significant positive relations (p ABP and 0.30 ± 0.04 mmHg (95 % CI 0.22-0.38 mmHg) in diastolic ABP. Correlations between...

  10. Non-linear elasticity of extracellular matrices enables contractile cells to communicate local position and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessamine P Winer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Most tissue cells grown in sparse cultures on linearly elastic substrates typically display a small, round phenotype on soft substrates and become increasingly spread as the modulus of the substrate increases until their spread area reaches a maximum value. As cell density increases, individual cells retain the same stiffness-dependent differences unless they are very close or in molecular contact. On nonlinear strain-stiffening fibrin gels, the same cell types become maximally spread even when the low strain elastic modulus would predict a round morphology, and cells are influenced by the presence of neighbors hundreds of microns away. Time lapse microscopy reveals that fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells on fibrin deform the substrate by several microns up to five cell lengths away from their plasma membrane through a force limited mechanism. Atomic force microscopy and rheology confirm that these strains locally and globally stiffen the gel, depending on cell density, and this effect leads to long distance cell-cell communication and alignment. Thus cells are acutely responsive to the nonlinear elasticity of their substrates and can manipulate this rheological property to induce patterning.

  11. A program to compute geographical positions of underwater artifact based on linear measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.

    System) or any hydrographic post processing software, excellent site plans and other related maps can be prepared on any convenient scale. This user friendly program enables the marine archaeologists to process their field measurements much faster...

  12. Compact very low temperature scanning tunneling microscope with mechanically driven horizontal linear positioning stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderow, H; Guillamon, I; Vieira, S

    2011-03-01

    We describe a scanning tunneling microscope for operation in a dilution refrigerator with a sample stage which can be moved macroscopically in a range up to a cm and with an accuracy down to the tens of nm. The position of the tip over the sample as set at room temperature does not change more than a few micrometers when cooling down. This feature is particularly interesting for work on micrometer sized samples. Nanostructures can be also localized and studied, provided they are repeated over micrometer sized areas. The same stage can be used to approach a hard single crystalline sample to a knife and cleave it, or break it, in situ. In situ positioning is demonstrated with measurements at 0.1 K in nanofabricated samples. Atomic resolution down to 0.1 K and in magnetic fields of 8 T is demonstrated in NbSe(2). No heat dissipation nor an increase in mechanical noise has been observed at 0.1 K when operating the slider.

  13. About a Class of Positive Hybrid Dynamic Linear Systems and an Associate Extended Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov Lemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an “ad hoc” robust version under parametrical disturbances of the discrete version of the Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov Lemma for a class of positive hybrid dynamic linear systems which consist of a continuous-time system coupled with a discrete-time or a digital one. An extended discrete system, whose state vector contains both the digital one and the discretization of the continuous-time one at sampling instants, is a key analysis element in the formulation. The hyperstability and asymptotic hyperstability properties of the studied class of positive hybrid systems under feedback from any member of a nonlinear (and, eventually, time-varying class of controllers, which satisfies a Popov’s-type inequality, are also investigated as linked to the positive realness of the associated transfer matrices.

  14. Distributed transition-edge sensors for linearized position response in a phonon-mediated X-ray imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Blas; Brink, Paul L.; Leman, Steven W.; Castle, Joseph P.; Tomada, Astrid; Young, Betty A.; Martínez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Stern, Robert A.; Deiker, Steve; Irwin, Kent D.

    2004-03-01

    For future solar X-ray satellite missions, we are developing a phonon-mediated macro-pixel composed of a Ge crystal absorber with four superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) distributed on the backside. The X-rays are absorbed on the opposite side and the energy is converted into phonons, which are absorbed into the four TES sensors. By connecting together parallel elements into four channels, fractional total energy absorbed between two of the sensors provides x-position information and the other two provide y-position information. We determine the optimal distribution for the TES sub-elements to obtain linear position information while minimizing the degradation of energy resolution.

  15. A new amplifier for improving piezoelectric actuator linearity based on current switching in precision positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, Changhai; Chen, Liguo; Shao, Bing; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Lining

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuators have traditionally been driven by voltage amplifiers. When driven at large voltages these actuators exhibit a significant amount of distortion, known as hysteresis, which may reduce the stability robustness of the system in feedback control applications. Piezoelectric transducers are known to exhibit less hysteresis when driven with current or charge rather than voltage. Despite this advantage, such methods have found little practical application due to the poor low frequency response of present current and charge driver designs. In this paper, a new piezoelectric amplifier based on current switching is presented which can reduce hysteresis. Special circuits and a hybrid control algorithm realize quick and precise positioning. Experimental results demonstrate that the amplifier can be used for dynamic and static applications and low frequency bandwidths can also be achieved

  16. Undecidability of the Logic of Overlap Relation over Discrete Linear Orderings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    . Still, decidability is the rule for the fragments of HS with only one modal operator, based on an Allen’s relation. In this paper, we show that the logic O of the Overlap relation, when interpreted over discrete linear orderings, is an exception. The proof is based on a reduction from the undecidable...

  17. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  18. Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child...... parent-child relationship....

  19. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  20. On Sequences of Numbers and Polynomials Defined by Linear Recurrence Relations of Order 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Xiao He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a new method to construct the explicit formula of a sequence of numbers and polynomials generated by a linear recurrence relation of order 2. The applications of the method to the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers, Chebyshev polynomials, the generalized Gegenbauer-Humbert polynomials are also discussed. The derived idea provides a general method to construct identities of number or polynomial sequences defined by linear recurrence relations. The applications using the method to solve some algebraic and ordinary differential equations are presented.

  1. Linear trend and climate response of five-needle pines in the western United States related to treeline proximity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipfmueller, K.F. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geography; Salzer, M.W. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated sixty-six 5-needle pine growth chronologies from 1896 to their end years in order to identify potential patterns related to linear trends in ring width. Individual chronology responses to climate were also evaluated by comparing the chronologies with seasonal temperature and precipitation data from 1896 to the present date. Chronologies exhibiting similar patterns of climate response were grouped in order to examine the role of treeline proximity on climate-growth relationships. Ring width measurements for pine sites located in the western United States were obtained from the International Tree Ring Data Bank. Growth indices were compared among all sites in order to assess the relative strength of common signals with increasing distance. Pearson correlations were used to calculate linear trends for each chronology. A cluster analysis of climate response patterns indicated that most chronologies positively associated with temperatures were located near upper treeline and contained significant positive linear trends. The study suggested that 5-needle pine treeline chronologies may be used as predictors in temperature reconstructions. However, care must be taken to determine that collection sites have not been impacted by disturbances such as fire or insect outbreaks. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. A Non-linear Model for Predicting Tip Position of a Pliable Robot Arm Segment Using Bending Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth I. SKLAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using pliable materials for the construction of robot bodies presents new and interesting challenges for the robotics community. Within the EU project entitled STIFFness controllable Flexible & Learnable manipulator for surgical Operations (STIFF-FLOP, a bendable, segmented robot arm has been developed. The exterior of the arm is composed of a soft material (silicone, encasing an internal structure that contains air-chamber actuators and a variety of sensors for monitoring applied force, position and shape of the arm as it bends. Due to the physical characteristics of the arm, a proper model of robot kinematics and dynamics is difficult to infer from the sensor data. Here we propose a non-linear approach to predicting the robot arm posture, by training a feed-forward neural network with a structured series of pressures values applied to the arm's actuators. The model is developed across a set of seven different experiments. Because the STIFF-FLOP arm is intended for use in surgical procedures, traditional methods for position estimation (based on visual information or electromagnetic tracking will not be possible to implement. Thus the ability to estimate pose based on data from a custom fiber-optic bending sensor and accompanying model is a valuable contribution. Results are presented which demonstrate the utility of our non-linear modelling approach across a range of data collection procedures.

  3. Relation between linear and nonlinear N=3,4 supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevrin, A.; Thielemans, K.; Troost, W.

    1993-01-01

    The effective actions for d=2, N=3,4 chiral supergravities with a linear and a nonlinear gauge algebra are related to each other by a quantum reduction; the latter is obtained from the former by putting quantum currents equal to zero. This implies that the renormalization factors for the quantum actions are identical

  4. A Non-linear "Inflation-Relative Prices Variability" Relationship: Evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Ángeles Caraballo Pou; Carlos Dabús; Diego Caramuta

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on a non-linear "inflation-relative prices variability" relationship in three Latin American countries with very high inflation experiences: Argentina, Brazil and Peru. More precisely, and in contrast to results found in previous literature for similar countries, we find a non-concave relation at higher inflation regimes, i.e. when inflation rate surpasses certain threshold. This non-concavity is mainly explained by the unexpected component of inflation, which sug...

  5. Influence of depressive symptoms on distress related to positive psychotic-like experiences in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas, Antía; Barrigón, María Luisa; Lahera, Guillermo; Canal-Rivero, Manuel; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) is an effective instrument for detection of the presence of psychotic symptoms and associated distress in the general population. However, little research has studied distress associated with positive psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Our aim is to study PLE-related distress using the CAPE. In this study we analysed factors associated with differences in PLE-related distress in a sample of 200 non-clinical participants recruited by snowball sampling. Presence of PLEs and related psychological distress was measured using the CAPE questionnaire. The influence of age, gender, educational level and drug use was studied. In univariate analysis we found that gender and CAPE positive, depressive and negative scores, were associated with CAPE positive distress. Using multiple linear regression, we found that only the effect of gender, and the interaction between frequency of depression and gender, remained statistically significant. In our sample interaction between gender and depressive symptoms is a determining factor in distress associated with positive PLEs. The results of this study may be useful for the implementation of prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. What makes dreams positive or negative: relations to fundamental dimensions of positive and negative mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallmeyer, R J; Chang, E C

    1998-02-01

    The present study examined the general emotional content of dreams reported by individuals who typically experience "positive" versus "negative" dreams. Self-reports of the 153 participants indicated that positive versus negative dreamers (ns = 42 and 24, respectively) generally experienced more positive emotions, e.g., joviality, self-assurance, and fewer negative emotions, e.g., fear, sadness. No differences were found in the self-reports of the participants in the experience of surprise, guilt, fatigue, and shyness between the groups, hence, positive and negative dreams do not appear to reflect simply more positive and fewer negative emotions, respectively.

  7. On the use of iterative techniques for feedforward control of transverse angle and position jitter in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    It is possible to use feedforward predictive control for transverse position and trajectory-angle jitter correction. The control procedure is straightforward, but creation of the predictive filter is not as obvious. The two process tested were the least mean squares (LMS) and Kalman filter methods. The controller parameters calculated offline are downloaded to a real-time analog correction system between macropulses. These techniques worked well for both interpulse (pulse-to-pulse) correction and intrapulse (within a pulse) correction with the Kalman filter method being the clear winner. A simulation based on interpulse data taken at the Stanford Linear Collider showed an improvement factor of almost three in the average rms jitter over standard feedback techniques for the Kalman filter. An improvement factor of over three was found for the Kalman filter on intrapulse data taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The feedforward systems also improved the correction bandwidth. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. On the use of iterative techniques for feedforward control of transverse angle and position jitter in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    It is possible to use feedforward predictive control for transverse position and trajectory-angle jitter correction. The control procedure is straightforward, but creation of the predictive filter is not as obvious. The two processes tested were the least mean squares (LMS) and Kalman inter methods. The controller parameters calculated offline are downloaded to a real-time analog correction system between macropulses. These techniques worked well for both interpulse (pulse-to-pulse) correction and intrapulse (within a pulse) correction with the Kalman filter method being the clear winner. A simulation based on interpulse data taken at the Stanford Linear Collider showed an improvement factor of almost three in the average rms jitter over standard feedback techniques for the Kalman filter. An improvement factor of over three was found for the Kalman filter on intrapulse data taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The feedforward systems also improved the correction bandwidth

  9. Large, Linear, and Tunable Positive Magnetoresistance of Mechanically Stable Graphene Foam-Toward High-Performance Magnetic Field Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Rizwan Ur Rehman; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Wan, Caihua; Shehzad, Khurram; Navale, Sachin T; Anwar, Tauseef; Mane, Rajaram S; Piao, Hong-Guang; Ali, Abid; Stadler, Florian J

    2017-01-18

    Here, we present the first observation of magneto-transport properties of graphene foam (GF) composed of a few layers in a wide temperature range of 2-300 K. Large room-temperature linear positive magnetoresistance (PMR ≈ 171% at B ≈ 9 T) has been detected. The largest PMR (∼213%) has been achieved at 2 K under a magnetic field of 9 T, which can be tuned by the addition of poly(methyl methacrylate) to the porous structure of the foam. This remarkable magnetoresistance may be the result of quadratic magnetoresistance. The excellent magneto-transport properties of GF open a way toward three-dimensional graphene-based magnetoelectronic devices.

  10. Online Kidney Position Verification Using Non-Contrast Radiographs on a Linear Accelerator with on Board KV X-Ray Imaging Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, David J.; Kron, Tomas; Hubbard, Patricia; Haworth, Annette; Wheeler, Greg; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2009-01-01

    The kidneys are dose-limiting organs in abdominal radiotherapy. Kilovoltage (kV) radiographs can be acquired using on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerators with better soft tissue contrast and lower radiation doses than conventional portal imaging. A feasibility study was conducted to test the suitability of anterior-posterior (AP) non-contrast kV radiographs acquired at treatment time for online kidney position verification. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to evaluate image quality and radiation dose. Institutional Review Board approval was given for a pilot study that enrolled 5 adults and 5 children. Customized digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated to provide a priori information on kidney shape and position. Radiotherapy treatment staff performed online evaluation of kidney visibility on OBI radiographs. Kidney dose measured in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom was 0.1 cGy for kV imaging and 1.7 cGy for MV imaging. Kidneys were rated as well visualized in 60% of patients (90% confidence interval, 34-81%). The likelihood of visualization appears to be influenced by the relative AP separation of the abdomen and kidneys, the axial profile of the kidneys, and their relative contrast with surrounding structures. Online verification of kidney position using AP non-contrast kV radiographs on an OBI-equipped linear accelerator appears feasible for patients with suitable abdominal anatomy. Kidney position information provided is limited to 2-dimensional 'snapshots,' but this is adequate in some clinical situations and potentially advantageous in respiratory-correlated treatments. Successful clinical implementation requires customized partial DRRs, appropriate imaging parameters, and credentialing of treatment staff.

  11. Ventricular shape and relative position abnormalities in preterm neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Paquette

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging findings have highlighted the impact of premature birth on subcortical development and morphological changes in the deep grey nuclei and ventricular system. To help characterize subcortical microstructural changes in preterm neonates, we recently implemented a multivariate tensor-based method (mTBM. This method allows to precisely measure local surface deformation of brain structures in infants. Here, we investigated ventricular abnormalities and their spatial relationships with surrounding subcortical structures in preterm neonates. We performed regional group comparisons on the surface morphometry and relative position of the lateral ventricles between 19 full-term and 17 preterm born neonates at term-equivalent age. Furthermore, a relative pose analysis was used to detect individual differences in translation, rotation, and scale of a given brain structure with respect to an average. Our mTBM results revealed broad areas of alterations on the frontal horn and body of the left ventricle, and narrower areas of differences on the temporal horn of the right ventricle. A significant shift in the rotation of the left ventricle was also found in preterm neonates. Furthermore, we located significant correlations between morphology and pose parameters of the lateral ventricles and that of the putamen and thalamus. These results show that regional abnormalities on the surface and pose of the ventricles are also associated with alterations on the putamen and thalamus. The complementarity of the information provided by the surface and pose analysis may help to identify abnormal white and grey matter growth, hinting toward a pattern of neural and cellular dysmaturation.

  12. Cambodia–China Relations: A Positive-Sum Game?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pheakdey Heng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China has re-emerged to become a dominant foreign player in Cambodia. Politically, Cambodia is one of China’s oldest and closest allies. Economically, China is Cambodia’s top foreign investor, a major donor, and an increasingly important trading partner. Culturally, Chinese values are deeply embedded in many aspects of Cambodian society. However, China’s dominance is surrounded by renewed controversies. While the government warmly welcomes Chinese aid, saying that it comes with no strings attached, many experts are concerned that China is providing aid for more nefarious reasons. Critics also accuse Chinese investment and aid of having exacerbated corruption, weakened governance and harmed human rights, and of ruining Cambodia’s natural resources and environment. With such controversies, it is relevant and significant to assess the roles that China has played and continues to play in Cambodia’s socio-economic development. Using expert interviews, media analysis and an extensive literature review, this paper uniquely contributes to the existing discussion on China–Cambodia relations by closely examining the controversies of China’s investment and aid, critically analysing China’s interests in Cambodia, and asking if the relationship between the two nations is a positive-sum game.

  13. Relative positions of the hydroxyl and water vapor astrophysical masers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    The 22 GHz H 2 O and the 1.6 GHz OH emission from W3(OH), W49N, W51 and VY Canis Majoris were simultaneously observed with a very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) in order to accurately determine the relative positions of these masering regions in each source. By observing the OH and H 2 O emission simultaneously, the effects of frequency standard instability and of the troposphere were eliminated and the effects of the ionosphere were minimized. The observing and data reduction techniques as well as the modifications to existing equipment and the construction of new equipment are described. The OH observations include the 1665-MHz line in both left and right circular polarization in W49N and W3(OH), the 1667-MHz RCP line in W3(OH), the 1667-MHz LCP line in W49N, and the 1665-MHz LCP line in W51. VY CMa was observed at 1667-MHz RCP and 1612-MHz LCP

  14. Dimensions of socioeconomic position related to body mass index and obesity among Danish women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different dimensions of socioeconomic position, body mass index (BMI) and obesity in the Danish population. Possible interactions between the different dimensions and gender differences were also investigated. Methods....... Associations between dimensions of socioeconomic position and weight status were examined by use of linear multiple regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Results: BMI and prevalence of obesity were significantly associated with education for both men and women. Odds ratios (ORs) for obesity...... adjustment for educational level. Conclusions: Education was the dimension most consistently associated with BMI and obesity, indicating the importance of cultural capital for weight status. The gender-specific pattern showed a stronger social gradient for women, and indicated that a high relative body...

  15. Resilience and positive affect contribute to lower cancer-related fatigue among Chinese patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Ye; Xu, Ruicai; Li, Ping

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of cancer-related fatigue and explore the relationship between resilience, positive affect, and fatigue among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Cancer-related fatigue is the most distressing symptom reported frequently by cancer patients during both treatment and survival phases. Resilience and positive affect as vital protective factors against cancer-related fatigue have been examined, but the underlying psychological mechanisms are not well understood. A cross-sectional study. Two hundred and three gastric cancer patients were enrolled from three hospitals in China. The Cancer Fatigue Scale, the positive affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10) were administered. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was conducted to examine the association between resilience and cancer-related fatigue, and the mediating effect of positive affect. The incidence of clinically relevant fatigue among patients with gastric cancer was 91.6%. Regression analysis showed that resilience was negatively associated with cancer-related fatigue, explaining 15.4% of variance in cancer-related fatigue. Mediation analysis showed that high resilience was associated with increased positive affect, which was associated with decreased cancer-related fatigue. Cancer-related fatigue is prevalent among patients with gastric cancer. Positive affect may mediate the relationship between resilience and cancer-related fatigue. Interventions that attend to resilience training and promotion of positive affect may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Relation of Student Social Position to Consumer Attitudes and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litro, Robert Frank

    1970-01-01

    A study of Connecticut high school students from different social positions found differences in consumer attitudes and understandings of money management, credit, insurance, and savings and investments. (CH)

  17. The influence of nationality and playing position on relative age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that late maturing players have been disproportionately lost to the South African system across all positions. Conclusion: Nation-specific youth sport culture appears to be more important than playing position for determining who is at risk of RAEs in rugby union. Keywords: birth date, team sport, talent ...

  18. Relative position of the mandibular foramen in different age groups of children: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonacha K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the relative position of the mandibular foramen (MF and to evaluate the measurement of gonial angle (GoA and its relationship with distances between different mandibular borders in growing children between 3 and 13years of dental age. Materials and methods: The radiographs were traced to arrive at six linear and two angular measurements from which the relative position of the MF was assessed and compared in different age groups to determine the growth pattern of the mandible and changes in the location of the MF. Results: The distances between the MF and the anterior plane of the ramus were greater than that between MF and posterior plane of the ramus through all stages. There was a maximum increase in the vertical dimensions of the mandible compared with the horizontal dimensions, particularly in the late mixed dentition period. Conclusion: The mandible and its growth did not alter the position of the MF, both vertically and horizontally, in relation to different landmarks, and more obtuse GoA indicated an increased growth potential of the mandible. This has major implications in the inferior alveolar nerve block technique when used in children.

  19. The availability of relatively cheap hand-held Global Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    conditions, so the approach failed to produce results ... Hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provide opportunities for detailed and rapid mapping of features ..... TICKELL, W. L. N. 1968 — The biology of the great albatrosses,.

  20. Enchanced total dose damage in junction field effect transistors and related linear integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, O.; Autran, J.L.; Roche, P.; Leray, J.L.; Musseau, O.

    1996-01-01

    Enhanced total dose damage of Junction Field-effect Transistors (JFETs) due to low dose rate and/or elevated temperature has been investigated for elementary p-channel structures fabricated on bulk and SOI substrates as well as for related linear integrated circuits. All these devices were fabricated with conventional junction isolation (field oxide). Large increases in damage have been revealed by performing high temperature and/or low dose rate irradiations. These results are consistent with previous studies concerning bipolar field oxides under low-field conditions. They suggest that the transport of radiation-induced holes through the oxide is the underlying mechanism. Such an enhanced degradation must be taken into account for low dose rate effects on linear integrated circuits

  1. Modulation of Quorum Sensing in a Gram-Positive Pathogen by Linear Molecularly Imprinted Polymers with Anti-infective Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motib, Anfal; Guerreiro, Antonio; Al-Bayati, Firas; Piletska, Elena; Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kadam, Anagha; Kuipers, Oscar; Hiller, Luisa; Cowen, Todd; Piletsky, Sergey; Andrew, Peter W; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2017-12-22

    We describe the development, characterization, and biological testing of a new type of linear molecularly imprinted polymer (LMIP) designed to act as an anti-infective by blocking the quorum sensing (QS) mechanism and so abrogating the virulence of the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. The LMIP is prepared (polymerized) in presence of a template molecule, but unlike in traditional molecular imprinting approaches, no cross-linker is used. This results in soluble low-molecular-weight oligomers that can act as a therapeutic agent in vitro and in vivo. The LMIP was characterized by mass spectrometry to determine its monomer composition. Fragments identified were then aligned along the peptide template by computer modeling to predict the possible monomer sequence of the LMIP. These findings provide a proof of principle that LMIPs can be used to block QS, thus setting the stage for the development of LMIPs a novel drug-discovery platform and class of materials to target Gram-positive pathogens. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Leadership Is Positively Related to Athletic Training Students' Clinical Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Leadership development by health professionals positively affects patient outcomes. Objective: To 1) determine if there is any relationship between demonstrated leadership behaviors and clinical behaviors among entry-level AT students (ATS); 2) to explore if the level of leadership behavior changes between ATS level; and 3) to determine…

  3. Positive equilibrium in USA - China relations: durable or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sutter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated episodes of Chinese public pressure against the United States during 2009 and 2010 on a wide range of issues involving seas near China, Taiwan, Tibet, and economic disputes are subject to different interpretations but on balance they do not seem to seriously upset the prevailing positive equilibrium between the US and Chinese governments.

  4. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children's Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…

  5. HbA1c Measured in Stored Erythrocytes Is Positively Linearly Associated with Mortality in Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Montonen, Jukka; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Sandbaek, Annelli; Overvad, Kim; Arriola, Larraitz; Ardanaz, Eva; Saieva, Calogero; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; van der A, Daphne L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van Dieren, Susan; Nilsson, Peter M.; Groop, Leif C.; Franks, Paul W.; Rolandsson, Olov; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Nöthlings, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have shown that glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is related to mortality, but the shape of the association is less clear. Furthermore, disease duration and medication may modify this association. This observational study explored the association between HbA1c measured in stored erythrocytes and mortality. Secondly, it was assessed whether disease duration and medication use influenced the estimates or were independently associated with mortality. Methods Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition a cohort was analysed of 4,345 individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of diabetes at enrolment. HbA1c was measured in blood samples stored up to 19 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models for all-cause mortality investigated HbA1c in quartiles as well as per 1% increment, diabetes medication in seven categories of insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents, and disease duration in quartiles. Results After a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 460 participants died. Higher HbA1c was associated with higher mortality: Hazard Ratio for 1%-increase was 1.11 (95% CI 1.06, 1.17). This association was linear (P-nonlinearity =0.15) and persistent across categories of medication use, disease duration, and co-morbidities. Compared with metformin, other medication types were not associated with mortality. Longer disease duration was associated with mortality, but not after adjustment for HbA1c and medication. Conclusion This prospective study showed that persons with lower HbA1c had better survival than those with higher HbA1c. The association was linear and independent of disease duration, type of medication use, and presence of co-morbidities. Any improvement of HbA1c appears to be associated with reduced mortality risk. PMID:22719972

  6. Development of Bundle Position-Wise Linear Model for Predicting the Pressure Tube Diametral Creep in CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Yong; Na, Man Gyun

    2011-01-01

    Diametral creep of the pressure tube (PT) is one of the principal aging mechanisms governing the heat transfer and hydraulic degradation of a heat transport system. PT diametral creep leads to diametral expansion that affects the thermal hydraulic characteristics of the coolant channels and the critical heat flux. Therefore, it is essential to predict the PT diametral creep in CANDU reactors, which is caused mainly by fast neutron irradiation, reactor coolant temperature and so forth. The currently used PT diametral creep prediction model considers the complex interactions between the effects of temperature and fast neutron flux on the deformation of PT zirconium alloys. The model assumes that long-term steady-state deformation consists of separable, additive components from thermal creep, irradiation creep and irradiation growth. This is a mechanistic model based on measured data. However, this model has high prediction uncertainty. Recently, a statistical error modeling method was developed using plant inspection data from the Bruce B CANDU reactor. The aim of this study was to develop a bundle position-wise linear model (BPLM) to predict PT diametral creep employing previously measured PT diameters and HTS operating conditions. There are twelve bundles in a fuel channel and for each bundle, a linear model was developed by using the dependent variables, such as the fast neutron fluxes and the bundle temperatures. The training data set was selected using the subtractive clustering method. The data of 39 channels that consist of 80 percent of a total of 49 measured channels from Units 2, 3 and 4 were used to develop the BPLM models. The remaining 10 channels' data were used to test the developed BPLM models. The BPLM was optimized by the maximum likelihood estimation method. The developed BPLM to predict PT diametral creep was verified using the operating data gathered from the Units 2,3 and 4 in Korea. Two error components for the BPLM, which are the epistemic

  7. Positivity in healthcare: relation of optimism to performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthans, Kyle W; Lebsack, Sandra A; Lebsack, Richard R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the linkage between nurses' levels of optimism and performance outcomes. The study sample consisted of 78 nurses in all areas of a large healthcare facility (hospital) in the Midwestern United States. The participants completed surveys to determine their current state of optimism. Supervisory performance appraisal data were gathered in order to measure performance outcomes. Spearman correlations and a one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. The results indicated a highly significant positive relationship between the nurses' measured state of optimism and their supervisors' ratings of their commitment to the mission of the hospital, a measure of contribution to increasing customer satisfaction, and an overall measure of work performance. This was an exploratory study. Larger sample sizes and longitudinal data would be beneficial because it is probable that state optimism levels will vary and that it might be more accurate to measure state optimism at several points over time in order to better predict performance outcomes. Finally, the study design does not imply causation. Suggestions for effectively developing and managing nurses' optimism to positively impact their performance are provided. To date, there has been very little empirical evidence assessing the impact that positive psychological capacities such as optimism of key healthcare professionals may have on performance. This paper was designed to help begin to fill this void by examining the relationship between nurses' self-reported optimism and their supervisors' evaluations of their performance.

  8. Exact asymptotic relations for the effective response of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallican, Valentin; Brenner, Renald; Suquet, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    This article addresses the asymptotic response of viscoelastic heterogeneous media in the frequency domain, at high and low frequencies, for different types of elementary linear viscoelastic constituents. By resorting to stationary principles for complex viscoelasticity and adopting a classification of the viscoelastic behaviours based on the nature of their asymptotic regimes, either elastic or viscous, four exact relations are obtained on the overall viscoelastic complex moduli in each case. Two relations are related to the asymptotic uncoupled heterogeneous problems, while the two remaining ones result from the viscoelastic coupling that manifests itself in the transient regime. These results also provide exact conditions on certain integrals in time of the effective relaxation spectrum. This general setting encompasses the results obtained in preceding studies on mixtures of Maxwell constituents [1,2]. xml:lang="fr"

  9. General formulae for polarization observables in deuteron electrodisintegration and linear relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.; Leidemann, W.; Tomusiak, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    Formal expressions are derived for all possible polarization observables in deuteron electrodisintegration with longitudinally polarized incoming electrons, oriented deuteron targets and polarization analysis of outgoing nucleons. They are given in terms of general structure functions which can be determined experimentally. These structure functions are Hermitean forms of the T-matrix elements which, in principle, allow the determination of all T-matrix elements up to an arbitrary common phase. Since the set of structure functions is overcomplete, linear relations among various structure functions exist which are derived explicitly

  10. Positive, Neutral, and Negative Mass-Charges in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As shown, any four-dimensional proper vector has two observable projections onto time line, attributed to our world and the mirror world (for a mass-bearing particle, the projections posses are attributed to positive and negative mass-charges. As predicted, there should be a class of neutrally mass-charged particles that inhabit neither our world nor the mirror world. Inside the space-time area (membrane the space rotates at the light speed, and all particles move at as well the light speed. So, the predicted particles of the neutrally mass-charged class should seem as light-like vortices.

  11. Integrative techniques related to positive processes in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Thomas D

    2013-09-01

    This review compiles and evaluates a number of therapist interventions that have been found to significantly contribute to positive psychotherapy processes (i.e., increased alliance, patient engagement/satisfaction, and symptomatic improvement). Four forms of intervention are presented: Affect-focused, Supportive, Exploratory, and Patient-Therapist Interaction. The intention of this review is to link specific interventions to applied practice so that integrative clinicians can potentially use these techniques to improve their clinical work. To this end, there is the inclusion of theory and empirical studies from a range of orientations including Emotionally Focused, Psychodynamic, Client-Centered, Cognitive-Behavioral, Interpersonal, Eclectic, and Motivational Interviewing. Each of the four sections will include the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism of change for the intervention, research that supports its positive impact on psychotherapy processes, and conclude with examples demonstrating its use in actual practice. Clinical implications and considerations regarding the use of these interventions will also be presented. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Properties of linear integral equations related to the six-vertex model with disorder parameter II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, Hermann; Göhmann, Frank

    2012-01-01

    We study certain functions arising in the context of the calculation of correlation functions of the XXZ spin chain and of integrable field theories related to various scaling limits of the underlying six-vertex model. We show that several of these functions that are related to linear integral equations can be obtained by acting with (deformed) difference operators on a master function Φ. The latter is defined in terms of a functional equation and of its asymptotic behavior. Concentrating on the so-called temperature case, we show that these conditions uniquely determine the high-temperature series expansions of the master function. This provides an efficient calculation scheme for the high-temperature expansions of the derived functions as well. (paper)

  13. A superconducting linear motor drive for a positive displacement bellows pump for use in the g-2 cryogenics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forced two-phase cooling of indirectly cooled magnets requires circulation of liquid helium through the magnet cooling channel. A bellows helium pump is one possible way of providing helium flow to a magnet cooling system. Since the bellows type of helium pump is immersed in liquid helium, a superconducting linear motor drive appears to be an attractive option. This report describes a linear motor drive that employs oriented permanent magnet materials such as samarium-cobalt as the stator magnet system and a superconducting loud speaker voice coil type of drive as the armature of the linear motor. This report examines drive motor requirements for a helium pump

  14. Age-Related Decline of Wrist Position Sense and its Relationship to Specific Physical Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Van de Winckel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of limb and body positions is known as proprioception. Sensory feedback, especially from proprioceptive receptors, is essential for motor control. Aging is associated with a decline in position sense at proximal joints, but there is inconclusive evidence of distal joints being equally affected by aging. In addition, there is initial evidence that physical activity attenuates age-related decline in proprioception. Our objectives were, first, to establish wrist proprioceptive acuity in a large group of seniors and compare their perception to young adults, and second, to determine if specific types of training or regular physical activity are associated with preserved wrist proprioception. We recruited community-dwelling seniors (n = 107, mean age, 70 ± 5 years, range, 65–84 years without cognitive decline (Mini Mental State Examination-brief version ≥13/16 and young adult students (n = 51, mean age, 20 ± 1 years, range, 19–26 years. Participants performed contralateral and ipsilateral wrist position sense matching tasks with a bimanual wrist manipulandum to a 15° flexion reference position. Systematic error or proprioceptive bias was computed as the mean difference between matched and reference position. The respective standard deviation over five trials constituted a measure of random error or proprioceptive precision. Current levels of physical activity and previous sport, musical, or dance training were obtained through a questionnaire. We employed longitudinal mixed effects linear models to calculate the effects of trial number, sex, type of matching task and age on wrist proprioceptive bias and precision. The main results were that relative proprioceptive bias was greater in older when compared to young adults (mean difference: 36% ipsilateral, 88% contralateral, p < 0.01. Proprioceptive precision for contralateral but not for ipsilateral matching was smaller in older than in young adults (mean difference: 38

  15. Impurity-related linear and nonlinear optical response in quantum-well wires with triangular cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Kasapoglu, E.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey); Sari, H. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, I. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)

    2013-11-15

    The 1s-like and 2p-like donor impurity energy states are studied in a semiconductor quantum wire of equilateral triangular cross section as functions of the impurity position and the geometrical size of the structure. Linear and nonlinear coefficients for the optical absorption and relative refractive index change associated with 1s→2p transitions are calculated for both the x-polarization and y-polarization of the incident light. The results show a mixed effect of redshift and blueshift depending on the location of the donor atom. Also, strong nonlinear contributions to the optical absorption coefficient are obtained for both polarizations in the on-center impurity case. -- Highlights: • The 1s- and 2p-like impurity states in triangular quantum-well wires. • Optical absorption and relative refractive index changes are calculated. • Redshift and blueshift in the optical structures depend on the donor position. • Strong nonlinear contributions to the absorption coefficient have been obtained.

  16. Detecting measurement-induced relative-position localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, P A; Sindt, J; Dunningham, J A

    2013-01-01

    The theory of decoherence explains how classicality emerges from an underlying quantum reality. An additional interpretation to this has been proposed in which scattering events induce the localization of relative observables (Rau et al 2003 Science 301 1081). An interesting consequence of this process is that it involves the build-up of certain robust entanglements between the observables being localized. To date the weakness of this interpretation has been the lack of a clear experimental signature that allows it to be tested. Here we provide a simple experimentally accessible scheme that enables just that. We also discuss a Bayesian technique that could, in principle, allow experiments to confirm the localization to any desired degree of accuracy and we present precision requirements that are achievable with current experiments. Finally, we extend the scheme from its initial one dimensional proof of principle to the more real world scenario of three dimensional localization. (paper)

  17. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Fall, C.H.D.; Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear.Methods:Of 5551 children with collected

  18. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Fall, C. H. D.; van Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear. Of 5551 children with collected growth and

  19. Imagined futures in living with multiple conditions: Positivity, relationality and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Lindsay-Ann; Atkinson, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    Hope serves as an overarching concept for a range of engagements that demonstrate the benefits of a positive outlook for coping with chronic conditions of ill-health and disability. A dominant engagement through medicine has positioned hope as a desirable attribute and its opposite, hopelessness, as pathological. In this engagement hope is individual, internally located and largely cognitive and able to be learned. Attaining hope reflects a process of coming to terms with the losses associated with long-term conditions and of imagining new meanings and purposes for the future ahead. This process is characterised by a set of linear temporal stages, from loss and denial to acceptance and reappraising the life-course, by an emphasis on the morally desirable exercise of self-care and by a desired outcome that, in the absence of cure, is hope. Through interviews, we aim to unsettle the privileged status given to a positive outlook through examining the expressions, contexts and negotiations of hopelessness of people living with multiple conditions of ill-health and/or disability. These narratives of hopelessness disclose the ways in which realistic imagined possibilities for the future are constrained by external structures of time and function that demand complex negotiations with places, bodies and other people. As a situated and relational narrative, hopelessness draws our attention to the need to rebalance the exclusive attention to individual, internal resources with a renewed attention to contexts and settings. Moreover, hopelessness can be generative for those living with multiple conditions in shaping alternatively framed priorities with respect to their temporal and interpersonal relations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 21149 - Certain Linear Actuators; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2949] Certain Linear Actuators; Notice of Receipt of... received a complaint entitled Certain Linear Actuators, DN 2949; the Commission is soliciting comments on... States after importation of certain linear actuators. The complaint names as respondents Changzhou Kaidi...

  1. Tangent Orbital Rendezvous Using Linear Relative Motion with J2 Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tangent-impulse coplanar orbit rendezvous problem is studied based on the linear relative motion for J2-perturbed elliptic orbits. There are three cases: (1 only the first impulse is tangent; (2 only the second impulse is tangent; (3 both impulses are tangent. For a given initial impulse point, the first two problems can be transformed into finding all roots of a single variable function about the transfer time, which can be done by the secant method. The bitangent rendezvous problem requires the same solution for the first two problems. By considering the initial coasting time, the bitangent rendezvous solution is obtained with a difference function. A numerical example for two coplanar elliptic orbits with J2 perturbations is given to verify the efficiency of these proposed techniques.

  2. Consequences of Laughter Upon Trunk Compression and Cortical Activation: Linear and Polynomial Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svebak, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Results from two studies of biological consequences of laughter are reported. A proposed inhibitory brain mechanism was tested in Study 1. It aims to protect against trunk compression that can cause health hazards during vigorous laughter. Compression may be maximal during moderate durations and, for protective reasons, moderate in enduring vigorous laughs. Twenty-five university students volunteered to see a candid camera film. Laughter responses (LR) and the superimposed ha-responses were operationally assessed by mercury-filled strain gauges strapped around the trunk. On average, the thorax compression amplitudes exceeded those of the abdomen, and greater amplitudes were seen in the males than in the females after correction for resting trunk circumference. Regression analyses supported polynomial relations because medium LR durations were associated with particularly high thorax amplitudes. In Study 2, power changes were computed in the beta and alpha EEG frequency bands of the parietal cortex from before to after exposure to the comedy “Dinner for one” in 56 university students. Highly significant linear relations were calculated between the number of laughs and post-exposure cortical activation (increase of beta, decrease of alpha) due to high activation after frequent laughter. The results from Study 1 supported the hypothesis of a protective brain mechanism that is activated during long LRs to reduce the risk of harm to vital organs in the trunk cavity. The results in Study 2 supported a linear cortical activation and, thus, provided evidence for a biological correlate to the subjective experience of mental refreshment after laughter. PMID:27547260

  3. EMG-Torque Relation in Chronic Stroke: A Novel EMG Complexity Representation With a Linear Electrode Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dongqing; Yu, Zaiyang; Chen, Xiang; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the electromyogram (EMG)-torque relation for chronic stroke survivors using a novel EMG complexity representation. Ten stroke subjects performed a series of submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks using their affected and contralateral arms, respectively, while a 20-channel linear electrode array was used to record surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscles. The sample entropy (SampEn) of surface EMG signals was calculated with both global and local tolerance schemes. A regression analysis was performed between SampEn of each channel's surface EMG and elbow flexion torque. It was found that a linear regression can be used to well describe the relation between surface EMG SampEn and the torque. Each channel's root mean square (RMS) amplitude of surface EMG signal in the different torque level was computed to determine the channel with the highest EMG amplitude. The slope of the regression (observed from the channel with the highest EMG amplitude) was smaller on the impaired side than on the nonimpaired side in 8 of the 10 subjects, regardless of the tolerance scheme (global or local) and the range of torques (full or matched range) used for comparison. The surface EMG signals from the channels above the estimated muscle innervation zones demonstrated significantly lower levels of complexity compared with other channels between innervation zones and muscle tendons. The study provides a novel point of view of the EMG-torque relation in the complexity domain, and reveals its alterations post stroke, which are associated with complex neural and muscular changes post stroke. The slope difference between channels with regard to innervation zones also confirms the relevance of electrode position in surface EMG analysis.

  4. Existence of 2m-1 Positive Solutions for Sturm-Liouville Boundary Value Problems with Linear Functional Boundary Conditions on the Half-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Leggett-Williams fixed theorem, we establish the existence of multiple positive solutions for second-order nonhomogeneous Sturm-Liouville boundary value problems with linear functional boundary conditions. One explicit example with singularity is presented to demonstrate the application of our main results.

  5. Relating Linear and Volumetric Variables Through Body Scanning to Improve Human Interfaces in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Ferrer, Mike A.; Young, Karen S.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Designing space suits and vehicles for the diverse human population present unique challenges for the methods of traditional anthropometry. Space suits are bulky and allow the operator to shift position within the suit and inhibit the ability to identify body landmarks. Limited suit sizing options also cause variability in fit and performance between similarly sized individuals. Space vehicles are restrictive in volume in both the fit and the ability to collect data. NASA's Anthropometric and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) has utilized 3D scanning to shift from traditional linear anthropometry to explore and examine volumetric capabilities to provide anthropometric solutions for design. Overall, the key goals are to improve the human-system performance and develop new processes to aid in the design and evaluation of space systems. Four case studies are presented that illustrate the shift from purely linear analyses to an augmented volumetric toolset to predict and analyze the human within the space suit and vehicle. The first case study involves the calculation of maximal head volume to estimate total free volume in the helmet for proper air exchange. Traditional linear measurements resulted in an inaccurate representation of the head shape, yet limited data exists for the determination of a large head volume. Steps were first taken to identify and classify a maximum head volume and the resulting comparisons to the estimate are presented in this paper. This study illustrates the gap between linear components of anthropometry and the need for overall volume metrics in order to provide solutions. A second case study examines the overlay of the space suit scans and components onto scanned individuals to quantify fit and clearance to aid in sizing the suit to the individual. Restrictions in space suit size availability present unique challenges to optimally fit the individual within a limited sizing range while maintaining performance. Quantification of the clearance and

  6. Relative Physical Position as an Impression-Management Strategy: Sex Differences in Its Use and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhanova, Anastasia; McNulty, James K; Maner, Jon K

    2017-05-01

    People's physical position relative to others may shape how those others perceive them. The research described here suggests that people use relative physical position to manage impressions by strategically positioning themselves either higher or lower relative to ostensible observers. Five studies supported the prediction that women take and display photographs portraying themselves in a low relative physical position to highlight their youthful features and appear attractive, whereas men take and display photographs portraying themselves in a high relative physical position to highlight their size and appear dominant. The effectiveness of these strategies was confirmed in two studies that measured social perceptions of male and female targets who varied in their relative position. In sum, as do members of other social species, people use relative physical position to manage social impressions, and although these impression-management strategies may have deep ancestral roots, they appear to manifest themselves through a contemporary human modality-photographs.

  7. Automatic control system of a linear actuator for positioning samples to neutron irradiation using low cost open-hardware boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunya, Eduardo; Chan, Renzo; Pacheco, Adison

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design criteria and implementation of an automatic control system based on embedded electronic circuits (microcontrollers) of different architectures (RISC, ARM) and open source framework software CanFestival, to develop user applications. Electronic devices are autonomous and support the functionality required for communication and remote control of the linear actuator. (author)

  8. Modulation of Quorum Sensing in a Gram Positive Pathogen by Linear Imprinted Copolymers with anti-Infective Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motib, Anfal; Guerreiro, Antonio; Al-Bayati, Firas; Piletska, Elena; Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kadam, Anagha; Kuipers, Oscar; Hiller, Luisa; Cowen, Todd; Piletsky, Sergey; Andrew, Peter; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe the development, characterization and biological testing of a new type of linear molecularly imprinted polymer (LMIP) designed to act as anti-infective by blocking the quorum sensing (QS) mechanism and so preventing virulence of the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. The LMIP is

  9. Network position and related power : how they affect and are affected by network management and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oukes, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    In network position and related power you learn more about how network position and related power affect and are affected by network management and outcomes. First, I expand our present understanding of how startups with a fragile network position manage business relationships by taking an

  10. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  11. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Role of size on the relative importance of fluid dynamic losses in linear cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkconnell, Carl; Ghavami, Ali; Ghiaasiaan, S. Mostafa; Perrella, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Thermodynamic modeling results for a novel small satellite (SmallSat) Stirling Cryocooler, capable of delivering over 200 mW net cooling power at 80 K for less than 6 W DC input power, are used in this paper as the basis for related pulse tube computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Industry and government requirements for SmallSat infrared sensors are driving the development of ever-more miniaturized cryocooler systems. Such cryocoolers must be extremely compact and lightweight, a challenge met by this research team through operating a Stirling cryocooler at a frequency of approximately 300 Hz. The primary advantage of operating at such a high frequency is that the required compression and expansion swept volumes are reduced relative to linear coolers operating at lower frequencies, which evidently reduces the size of the motor mechanisms and the thermodynamic components. In the case of a pulse tube cryocooler, this includes a reduction in diameter of the pulse tube itself. This unfortunately leads to high boundary layer losses, as the presented results demonstrate. Using a Stirling approach with a mechanical moving expander piston eliminates this small pulse tube loss mechanism, but other challenges are introduced, such as maintaining very tight clearance gaps between moving and stationary elements. This paper focuses on CFD modelling results for a highly miniaturized pulse tube cooler.

  13. Positive detection of exfoliated colon cancer cells on linear stapler cartridges was associated with depth of tumor invasion and preoperative bowel preparation in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kishiko; Endo, Shungo; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Hidaka, Eiji; Ishida, Fumio; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Kudo, Shin-Ei

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate exfoliated cancer cells (ECCs) on linear stapler cartridges used for anastomotic sites in colon cancer. We prospectively analyzed ECCs on linear stapler cartridges used for anastomosis in 100 colon cancer patients who underwent colectomy. Having completed the functional end-to-end anastomosis, the linear stapler cartridges were irrigated with saline, which was collected for cytological examination and cytological diagnoses were made by board-certified pathologists based on Papanicolaou staining. The detection rate of ECCs on the linear stapler cartridges was 20 %. Positive detection of ECCs was significantly associated with depth of tumor invasion (p = 0.012) and preoperative bowel preparation (p = 0.003). There were no marked differences between ECC-positive and ECC-negative groups in terms of the operation methods, tumor location, histopathological classification, and surgical margins. Since ECCs were identified on the cartridge of the linear stapler used for anastomosis, preoperative mechanical bowel preparation using polyethylene glycol solution and cleansing at anastomotic sites using tumoricidal agents before anastomosis may be necessary to decrease ECCs in advanced colon cancer.

  14. Optimal design of a double-sided linear motor with a multi-segmented trapezoidal magnet array for a high precision positioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moon G.; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2004-01-01

    A comparative analysis is performed for linear motors adopting conventional and multi-segmented trapezoidal (MST) magnet arrays, respectively, for a high-precision positioning system. The proposed MST magnet array is a modified version of a Halbach magnet array. The MST array has trapezoidal magnets with variable shape and dimensions while the Halbach magnet array generally has a rectangular magnet with identical dimensions. We propose a new model that can describe the magnetic field resulting from the complex-shaped magnets. The model can be applied to both MST and conventional magnet arrays. Using the model, a design optimization of the two types of linear motors is performed and compared. The magnet array with trapezoidal magnets can produce more force than one with rectangular magnets when they are arrayed in a linear motor where there is a yoke with high permeability. After the optimization and comparison, we conclude that the linear motor with the MST magnet array can generate more actuating force per volume than the motor with the conventional array. In order to satisfy the requirements of next generation systems such as high resolution, high speed, and long stroke, the use of a linear motor with a MST array as an actuator in a high precision positioning system is recommended from the results obtained here

  15. On the effect of ionospheric delay on geodetic relative GPS positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadou, P.Y.; Kleusberg, A.

    1988-01-01

    Uncorrected ionospheric delay is one of the factors limiting the accuracy in geodetic relative positioning with single frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) carrier phase observations. Dual frequency measurements can be combined to eliminate the ionospheric delay in the observations. A

  16. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY 11973 (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao, E-mail: xiahuang@slac.stanford.edu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  17. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. Furthermore, the fitting results are used for lattice correction. Our method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  18. Review of relative biological effectiveness dependence on linear energy transfer for low-LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Nezahat; Muirhead, Colin R

    2009-01-01

    Information on Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to gamma radiation has been used to estimate cancer risks for the whole range of photon (x-rays) and electron energies which are commonly encountered by radiation workers in the work place or by patients and workers in diagnostic radiology. However, there is some uncertainty regarding the radiation effectiveness of various low-linear energy transfer (low-LET) radiations (x-rays, gamma radiation and electrons). In this paper we review information on the effectiveness of low-LET radiations on the basis of epidemiological and in vitro radiobiological studies. Data from various experimental studies for chromosome aberrations and cell transformation in human lymphocytes and from epidemiological studies of the Japanese A-bomb survivors, patients medically exposed to radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and occupational exposures of nuclear workers are considered. On the basis of in vitro cellular radiobiology, there is considerable evidence that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-energy low-LET radiation (gamma radiation, electrons) is less than that of low-energy low-LET radiation (x-rays, betas). This is a factor of about 3 to 4 for 29 kVp x-rays (e.g. as in diagnostic radiation exposures of the female breast) and for tritium beta-rays (encountered in parts of the nuclear industry) relative to Co-60 gamma radiation and 2-5 MeV gamma-rays (as received by the Japanese A-bomb survivors). In epidemiological studies, although for thyroid and breast cancer there appears to be a small tendency for the excess relative risks to decrease as the radiation energy increases for low-LET radiations, it is not statistically feasible to draw any conclusion regarding an underlying dependence of cancer risk on LET for the nominally low-LET radiations. (review)

  19. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  20. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size

  1. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060. Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size.

  2. Statistical distributions of earthquakes and related non-linear features in seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, B.-F.

    2006-01-01

    A few basic facts in the science of the earthquakes are briefly reviewed. An accumulation, or growth, model is put forward for the focal mechanisms and the critical focal zone of the earthquakes, which relates the earthquake average recurrence time to the released seismic energy. The temporal statistical distribution for average recurrence time is introduced for earthquakes, and, on this basis, the Omori-type distribution in energy is derived, as well as the distribution in magnitude, by making use of the semi-empirical Gutenberg-Richter law relating seismic energy to earthquake magnitude. On geometric grounds, the accumulation model suggests the value r = 1/3 for the Omori parameter in the power-law of energy distribution, which leads to β = 1,17 for the coefficient in the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence law, in fair agreement with the statistical analysis of the empirical data. Making use of this value, the empirical Bath's law is discussed for the average magnitude of the aftershocks (which is 1.2 less than the magnitude of the main seismic shock), by assuming that the aftershocks are relaxation events of the seismic zone. The time distribution of the earthquakes with a fixed average recurrence time is also derived, the earthquake occurrence prediction is discussed by means of the average recurrence time and the seismicity rate, and application of this discussion to the seismic region Vrancea, Romania, is outlined. Finally, a special effect of non-linear behaviour of the seismic waves is discussed, by describing an exact solution derived recently for the elastic waves equation with cubic anharmonicities, its relevance, and its connection to the approximate quasi-plane waves picture. The properties of the seismic activity accompanying a main seismic shock, both like foreshocks and aftershocks, are relegated to forthcoming publications. (author)

  3. Interacting Effects Induced by Two Neighboring Pits Considering Relative Position Parameters and Pit Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For pre-corroded aluminum alloy 7075-T6, the interacting effects of two neighboring pits on the stress concentration are comprehensively analyzed by considering various relative position parameters (inclination angle θ and dimensionless spacing parameter λ and pit depth (d with the finite element method. According to the severity of the stress concentration, the critical corrosion regions, bearing high susceptibility to fatigue damage, are determined for intersecting and adjacent pits, respectively. A straightforward approach is accordingly proposed to conservatively estimate the combined stress concentration factor induced by two neighboring pits, and a concrete application example is presented. It is found that for intersecting pits, the normalized stress concentration factor Ktnor increases with the increase of θ and λ and always reaches its maximum at θ = 90°, yet for adjacent pits, Ktnor decreases with the increase of λ and the maximum value appears at a slight asymmetric location. The simulations reveal that Ktnor follows a linear and an exponential relationship with the dimensionless depth parameter Rd for intersecting and adjacent cases, respectively.

  4. SOME STATISTICAL ISSUES RELATED TO MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION MODELING OF BEACH BACTERIA CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a fast and effective technique, the multiple linear regression (MLR) method has been widely used in modeling and prediction of beach bacteria concentrations. Among previous works on this subject, however, several issues were insufficiently or inconsistently addressed. Those is...

  5. A Maple package for computing Groebner bases for linear recurrence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, Vladimir P.; Robertz, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A Maple package for computing Groebner bases of linear difference ideals is described. The underlying algorithm is based on Janet and Janet-like monomial divisions associated with finite difference operators. The package can be used, for example, for automatic generation of difference schemes for linear partial differential equations and for reduction of multiloop Feynman integrals. These two possible applications are illustrated by simple examples of the Laplace equation and a one-loop scalar integral of propagator type

  6. A Maple package for computing Groebner bases for linear recurrence relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdt, Vladimir P. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: gerdt@jinr.ru; Robertz, Daniel [Lehrstuhl B fuer Mathematik, RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 64, D-52062 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: daniel@momo.math.rwth-aachen.de

    2006-04-01

    A Maple package for computing Groebner bases of linear difference ideals is described. The underlying algorithm is based on Janet and Janet-like monomial divisions associated with finite difference operators. The package can be used, for example, for automatic generation of difference schemes for linear partial differential equations and for reduction of multiloop Feynman integrals. These two possible applications are illustrated by simple examples of the Laplace equation and a one-loop scalar integral of propagator type.

  7. 78 FR 31847 - Designation of National Security Positions in the Competitive Service, and Related Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...) Positions requiring eligibility for access to Top Secret or ``Q'' classified information; (ii) Positions... information classified at the Top Secret or ``Q'' level; (xix) Positions working with significant life... intelligence-related Special Sensitive information, requiring involvement in Top Secret Special Access Programs...

  8. EEG sensorimotor rhythms' variation and functional connectivity measures during motor imagery: linear relations and classification approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano Filho, Carlos A; Attux, Romis; Castellano, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Hands motor imagery (MI) has been reported to alter synchronization patterns amongst neurons, yielding variations in the mu and beta bands' power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. These alterations have been used in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), in an attempt to assign distinct MI tasks to commands of such a system. Recent studies have highlighted that information may be missing if knowledge about brain functional connectivity is not considered. In this work, we modeled the brain as a graph in which each EEG electrode represents a node. Our goal was to understand if there exists any linear correlation between variations in the synchronization patterns-that is, variations in the PSD of mu and beta bands-induced by MI and alterations in the corresponding functional networks. Moreover, we (1) explored the feasibility of using functional connectivity parameters as features for a classifier in the context of an MI-BCI; (2) investigated three different types of feature selection (FS) techniques; and (3) compared our approach to a more traditional method using the signal PSD as classifier inputs. Ten healthy subjects participated in this study. We observed significant correlations ( p  < 0.05) with values ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 between PSD variations and functional network alterations for some electrodes, prominently in the beta band. The PSD method performed better for data classification, with mean accuracies of (90 ± 8)% and (87 ± 7)% for the mu and beta band, respectively, versus (83 ± 8)% and (83 ± 7)% for the same bands for the graph method. Moreover, the number of features for the graph method was considerably larger. However, results for both methods were relatively close, and even overlapped when the uncertainties of the accuracy rates were considered. Further investigation regarding a careful exploration of other graph metrics may provide better alternatives.

  9. lme4qtl: linear mixed models with flexible covariance structure for genetic studies of related individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, Andrey; Vázquez-Santiago, Miquel; Brunel, Helena; Martinez-Perez, Angel; Aschard, Hugues; Soria, Jose Manuel

    2018-02-27

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in genetic data often involves analysis of correlated observations, which need to be accounted for to avoid false association signals. This is commonly performed by modeling such correlations as random effects in linear mixed models (LMMs). The R package lme4 is a well-established tool that implements major LMM features using sparse matrix methods; however, it is not fully adapted for QTL mapping association and linkage studies. In particular, two LMM features are lacking in the base version of lme4: the definition of random effects by custom covariance matrices; and parameter constraints, which are essential in advanced QTL models. Apart from applications in linkage studies of related individuals, such functionalities are of high interest for association studies in situations where multiple covariance matrices need to be modeled, a scenario not covered by many genome-wide association study (GWAS) software. To address the aforementioned limitations, we developed a new R package lme4qtl as an extension of lme4. First, lme4qtl contributes new models for genetic studies within a single tool integrated with lme4 and its companion packages. Second, lme4qtl offers a flexible framework for scenarios with multiple levels of relatedness and becomes efficient when covariance matrices are sparse. We showed the value of our package using real family-based data in the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia 2 (GAIT2) project. Our software lme4qtl enables QTL mapping models with a versatile structure of random effects and efficient computation for sparse covariances. lme4qtl is available at https://github.com/variani/lme4qtl .

  10. Integrating positive psychology into health-related quality of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L

    2015-07-01

    Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.

  11. Linear versus non-linear measures of temporal variability in finger tapping and their relation to performance on open- versus closed-loop motor tasks: comparing standard deviations to Lyapunov exponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Stephen D; Weaver, Ryan

    2008-05-01

    The nature of temporal variability during speeded finger tapping was examined using linear (standard deviation) and non-linear (Lyapunov exponent) measures. Experiment 1 found that right hand tapping was characterised by lower amounts of both linear and non-linear measures of variability than left hand tapping, and that linear and non-linear measures of variability were often negatively correlated with one another. Experiment 2 found that increased non-linear variability was associated with relatively enhanced performance on a closed-loop motor task (mirror tracing) and relatively impaired performance on an open-loop motor task (pointing in a dark room), especially for left hand performance. The potential uses and significance of measures of non-linear variability are discussed.

  12. Design and Parametric Study of the Magnetic Sensor for Position Detection in Linear Motor Based on Nonlinear Parametric model order reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sarbajit; Chang, Junghwan

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a design approach for a magnetic sensor module to detect mover position using the proper orthogonal decomposition-dynamic mode decomposition (POD-DMD)-based nonlinear parametric model order reduction (PMOR). The parameterization of the sensor module is achieved by using the multipolar moment matching method. Several geometric variables of the sensor module are considered while developing the parametric study. The operation of the sensor module is based on the principle of the airgap flux density distribution detection by the Hall Effect IC. Therefore, the design objective is to achieve a peak flux density (PFD) greater than 0.1 T and total harmonic distortion (THD) less than 3%. To fulfill the constraint conditions, the specifications for the sensor module is achieved by using POD-DMD based reduced model. The POD-DMD based reduced model provides a platform to analyze the high number of design models very fast, with less computational burden. Finally, with the final specifications, the experimental prototype is designed and tested. Two different modes, 90° and 120° modes respectively are used to obtain the position information of the linear motor mover. The position information thus obtained are compared with that of the linear scale data, used as a reference signal. The position information obtained using the 120° mode has a standard deviation of 0.10 mm from the reference linear scale signal, whereas the 90° mode position signal shows a deviation of 0.23 mm from the reference. The deviation in the output arises due to the mechanical tolerances introduced into the specification during the manufacturing process. This provides a scope for coupling the reliability based design optimization in the design process as a future extension.

  13. Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight among Mothers Exposed to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Mateus; Gouveia, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Background Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods and findings Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (<2,500 g) and 5,814 controls matched by sex and month of birth selected from the birth registration system. Mothers’ addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10). Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP. Conclusions This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers. PMID:25426640

  14. Characterization and linear array LA48 Commissioner for measuring the position of the multi leaf collimator; Caracterizacion y comisionado del linear array LA48 para medir el posicionamiento del colimador multilaminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conles Picos, I.; Cenizo de Castro, E.; Aparicio martin, A. R.; Barrio Lazo, F.; Cesteros Morante, M. J.

    2011-07-01

    The protocol of Quality Control of electron accelerators for medical use of SEFM proposed for multi leaf collimation system (MLC) to verify the positioning of the blades connect. To do this you must find a system with sufficient accuracy and precision and, if possible, easy to assemble and offers real-time results. One of these teams is the Linear Array of PTW-Freiburg (LA48), which consists of a row of 47 ionization chambers, of 0008 cc and 8 mm apart from each other. In this paper, we describe our process of characterization and LA48 commissioner. (Author)

  15. What is shared, what is different? Core relational themes and expressive displays of eight positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Belinda; Shiota, Michelle N; Keltner, Dacher; Gonzaga, Gian C; Goetz, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding positive emotions' shared and differentiating features can yield valuable insight into the structure of positive emotion space and identify emotion states, or aspects of emotion states, that are most relevant for particular psychological processes and outcomes. We report two studies that examined core relational themes (Study 1) and expressive displays (Study 2) for eight positive emotion constructs--amusement, awe, contentment, gratitude, interest, joy, love, and pride. Across studies, all eight emotions shared one quality: high positive valence. Distinctive core relational theme and expressive display patterns were found for four emotions--amusement, awe, interest, and pride. Gratitude was associated with a distinct core relational theme but not an expressive display. Joy and love were each associated with a distinct expressive display but their core relational themes also characterised pride and gratitude, respectively. Contentment was associated with a distinct expressive display but not a core relational theme. The implications of this work for the study of positive emotion are discussed.

  16. Accessing 3D Location of Standing Pelvis: Relative Position of Sacral Plateau and Acetabular Cavities versus Pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthonnaud, E.; Hilmi, R.; Berthonnaud, E.; Berthonnaud, E.; Dimnet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to access to pelvis position and morphology in standing posture and to determine the relative locations of their articular surfaces. This is obtained from coupling bi planar radiography and bone modeling. The technique involves different successive steps. Punctual landmarks are first reconstructed, in space, from their projected images, identified on two orthogonal standing X-rays. Geometric models, of global pelvis and articular surfaces, are determined from punctual landmarks. The global pelvis is represented as a triangle of summits: the two femoral head centers and the sacral plateau center. The two acetabular cavities are modeled as hemispheres. The anterior sacral plateau edge is represented by an hemi-ellipsis. The modeled articular surfaces are projected on each X-ray. Their optimal location is obtained when the projected contours of their models best fit real outlines identified from landmark images. Linear and angular parameters characterizing the position of global pelvis and articular surfaces are calculated from the corresponding sets of axis. Relative positions of sacral plateau, and acetabular cavities, are then calculated. Two hundred standing pelvis, of subjects and scoliotic patients, have been studied. Examples are presented. They focus upon pelvis orientations, relative positions of articular surfaces, and pelvis asymmetries.

  17. On the rank 1 convexity of stored energy functions of physically linear stress-strain relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav; Bertram, A.; Böhlke, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 3 (2007), s. 235-243 ISSN 0374-3535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : generalized linear elastic law s * generalized strain measures * rank 1 convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.743, year: 2007

  18. Child Temperamental Flexibility Moderates the Relation between Positive Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jill A.; Drabick, Deborah A.G.; Reynolds, Maureen D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Olino, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Temperamental flexibility and lower positive parenting are associated with internalizing and externalizing problems; however, youth varying in flexibility may be differentially affected by positive parenting in the prediction of symptoms. We examined whether children's flexibility moderated prospective relations between maternal and paternal positive parenting and youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms during adolescence. Participants (N =775, 71% male) and their caregivers completed measures when youth were 10-12 and 12-14 years old. Father positive parenting interacted with child flexibility to predict father-reported internalizing and externalizing problems. Consistent with the diathesis-stress model, children lower in flexibility experienced greater symptoms than children higher in flexibility in lower positive parenting contexts. Among children lower in flexibility, lower paternal positive parenting was associated with greater internalizing and externalizing symptoms compared to higher paternal positive parenting. However, among youth higher in flexibility, symptom levels were similar regardless of whether youth experienced lower or higher paternal positive parenting. PMID:26834305

  19. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection method to improve structure of the normal equation, because condition number can indicate the ill condition of the normal equation. The experimental results show that the new method can improve positioning accuracy and reliability in precise relative positioning.

  20. Physical Demands of Top-Class Soccer Friendly Matches in Relation to a Playing Position Using Global Positioning System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallo, Javier; Mena, Esteban; Nevado, Fabio; Paredes, Víctor

    2015-09-29

    The aim of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on professional soccer players during 11-a-side friendly matches in relation to their playing position, using global positioning system (GPS) technology. One hundred and eleven match performances of a Spanish "La Liga" team during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 pre-seasons were selected for analysis. The activities of the players were monitored using GPS technology with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz. Total distance covered, distance in different speed categories, accelerations, and heart rate responses were analyzed in relation to five different playing positions: central defenders (n=23), full-backs (n=20), central midfielders (n=22), wide midfielders (n=26), and forwards (n=20). Distance covered during a match averaged 10.8 km, with wide and central midfielders covering the greatest total distance. Specifically, wide midfielders covered the greatest distances by very high-intensity running (>19.8 km·h-1) and central midfielders by jogging and running (7.2-19.7 km·h-1). On the other hand, central defenders covered the least total distance and at high intensity, although carried out more (pwork rate profile of the players obtained with the GPS was very similar to that obtained with semi-automatic image technologies. However, when comparing results from this study with data available in the literature, important differences were detected in the amount of distance covered by sprinting, which suggests that caution should be taken when comparing data obtained with the GPS with other motion analysis systems, especially regarding high-intensity activities.

  1. Physical Demands of Top-Class Soccer Friendly Matches in Relation to a Playing Position Using Global Positioning System Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallo Javier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on professional soccer players during 11-a-side friendly matches in relation to their playing position, using global positioning system (GPS technology. One hundred and eleven match performances of a Spanish “La Liga” team during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 pre-seasons were selected for analysis. The activities of the players were monitored using GPS technology with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz. Total distance covered, distance in different speed categories, accelerations, and heart rate responses were analyzed in relation to five different playing positions: central defenders (n=23, full-backs (n=20, central midfielders (n=22, wide midfielders (n=26, and forwards (n=20. Distance covered during a match averaged 10.8 km, with wide and central midfielders covering the greatest total distance. Specifically, wide midfielders covered the greatest distances by very high-intensity running (>19.8 km·h-1 and central midfielders by jogging and running (7.2-19.7 km·h-1. On the other hand, central defenders covered the least total distance and at high intensity, although carried out more (p<0.05-0.01 accelerations than forwards, wide midfielders, and fullbacks. The work rate profile of the players obtained with the GPS was very similar to that obtained with semi-automatic image technologies. However, when comparing results from this study with data available in the literature, important differences were detected in the amount of distance covered by sprinting, which suggests that caution should be taken when comparing data obtained with the GPS with other motion analysis systems, especially regarding high-intensity activities.

  2. Methodology to reduce 6D patient positional shifts into a 3D linear shift and its verification in frameless stereotactic radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Ray, Jyotirmoy; Ganesh, Tharmarnadar; Manikandan, Arjunan; Munshi, Anusheel; Rathinamuthu, Sasikumar; Kaur, Harpreet; Anbazhagan, Satheeshkumar; Giri, Upendra K.; Roy, Soumya; Jassal, Kanan; Kalyan Mohanti, Bidhu

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this article is to derive and verify a mathematical formulation for the reduction of the six-dimensional (6D) positional inaccuracies of patients (lateral, longitudinal, vertical, pitch, roll and yaw) to three-dimensional (3D) linear shifts. The formulation was mathematically and experimentally tested and verified for 169 stereotactic radiotherapy patients. The mathematical verification involves the comparison of any (one) of the calculated rotational coordinates with the corresponding value from the 6D shifts obtained by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The experimental verification involves three sets of measurements using an ArcCHECK phantom, when (i) the phantom was not moved (neutral position: 0MES), (ii) the position of the phantom shifted by 6D shifts obtained from CBCT (6DMES) from neutral position and (iii) the phantom shifted from its neutral position by 3D shifts reduced from 6D shifts (3DMES). Dose volume histogram and statistical comparisons were made between ≤ft and ≤ft . The mathematical verification was performed by a comparison of the calculated and measured yaw (γ°) rotation values, which gave a straight line, Y  =  1X with a goodness of fit as R 2  =  0.9982. The verification, based on measurements, gave a planning target volume receiving 100% of the dose (V100%) as 99.1  ±  1.9%, 96.3  ±  1.8%, 74.3  ±  1.9% and 72.6  ±  2.8% for the calculated treatment planning system values TPSCAL, 0MES, 3DMES and 6DMES, respectively. The statistical significance (p-values: paired sample t-test) of V100% were found to be 0.03 for the paired sample ≤ft and 0.01 for ≤ft . In this paper, a mathematical method to reduce 6D shifts to 3D shifts is presented. The mathematical method is verified by using well-matched values between the measured and calculated γ°. Measurements done on the ArcCHECK phantom also proved that the proposed methodology is correct. The post-correction of the

  3. Portraying a Positive Image: A Guide to Effective Public Relations for Educational Office Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania School Boards Association, New Cumberland.

    Suggestions for improving communication and public relations are offered in this guidebook for school office personnel. Because of the high visibility and accessibility of their positions, such staff serve important public relations functions for the school. Chapter 1 examines the public relations role of school office personnel, and chapter 2…

  4. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junbo; Wang, Gaojing; Han, Xianquan; Guo, Jiming

    2017-06-12

    Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS) predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm-dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  5. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm–dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  6. Econometric testing on linear and nonlinear dynamic relation between stock prices and macroeconomy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Sumuya; Yang, Yating; Yang, Xiaoguang; Sun, Leilei

    2018-03-01

    Many researchers have realized that there is a strong correlation between stock prices and macroeconomy. In order to make this relationship clear, a lot of studies have been done. However, the causal relationship between stock prices and macroeconomy has still not been well explained. A key point is that, most of the existing research adopts linear and stable models to investigate the correlation of stock prices and macroeconomy, while the real causality of that may be nonlinear and dynamic. To fill this research gap, we investigate the nonlinear and dynamic causal relationships between stock prices and macroeconomy. Based on the case of China's stock prices and acroeconomy measures from January 1992 to March 2017, we compare the linear Granger causality test models with nonlinear ones. Results demonstrate that the nonlinear dynamic Granger causality is much stronger than linear Granger causality. From the perspective of nonlinear dynamic Granger causality, China's stock prices can be viewed as "national economic barometer". On the one hand, this study will encourage researchers to take nonlinearity and dynamics into account when they investigate the correlation of stock prices and macroeconomy; on the other hand, our research can guide regulators and investors to make better decisions.

  7. Effects of positive relative accommodation on adolescent pseudomyopia with visual training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the changes of the positive relative accommodation in adolescent pseudomyopia with visual training.METHODS: A total of 42 cases(84 eyeswere randomly divided into the visual training group and the control group. Visual acuity, average refraction of two groups 4wk after the training were measured, as well as positive relative accommodation(5mwere checked before the training and repeated 1, 2, 4wk after the training. Correlation analysis were given.RESULTS: There was statistically significant difference in visual acuity 4wk after the training between the two groups(PP>0.05. There was statistically significant difference in positive relative accommodation(5m1, 2, 4wk after the training between the two groups(PPCONCLUSION: Visual training has significant effect on the positive relative accommodation on adolescent pseudomyopia.

  8. Localization of the relative position of two atoms induced by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Sun, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    We reexamine the back-action of emitted photons on the wave packet evolution about the relative position of two cold atoms. We show that photon recoil resulting from the spontaneous emission can induce the localization of the relative position of the two atoms through the entanglement between the spatial motion of individual atoms and their emitted photons. The obtained result provides a more realistic model for the analysis of the environment-induced localization of a macroscopic object

  9. Model linear absolute and relative risk estimates for cancer induced by ionizing radiation in Mexican cohort of occupationally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.J.T.; Trovar, M.V.M; González, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    From the rate of natural mortality m s cancer (t) for every 100 thousand habitants, modeled by a fourth-degree polynomial function of the age data of the Mexican population (2008), and assuming: a) a relationship 1: 5 of cancer induced radiation respect to presented spontaneously, b) a size of initial cohort No = 100 k SOPs, c) a speed of H E = (2 ± 1) mSv / received by the SOPs from 18 to 65 years, d) a latency of 8 years for cancer induction after irradiation, e) a time tracking cohort to 75 years, f) and taking the coefficients absolute and relative risk BEIRs induction of cancer models II and VII (excluding leukemia); It determined: BEIR II for a total of 125 and 400 deaths from cancer for absolute and relative linear models respectively. For BEIR VII has a number of fatal cases of 345 and 927 deaths respectively for absolute and relative linear model cancer. [es

  10. The emotional content of life stories: Positivity bias and relation to personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette

    2014-01-01

    . Three hundred ten students and 160 middle-aged adults completed a measure of personality traits and identified chapters as well as past and future events in their life story. All life story components were rated on emotion and age. Negative future events were less likely to be a continuation of chapters...... and were more temporally distant than positive future events. Extraversion and Conscientiousness were related to more positive life stories, and Neuroticism was related to more negative life stories. This suggests that the life story is positively biased by minimising the negative future...

  11. The 1 Repetition Maximum Mechanics of a High-Handle Hexagonal Bar Deadlift Compared With a Conventional Deadlift as Measured by a Linear Position Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Lazar, Adrina; Risso, Fabrice G; Liu, Tricia M; Stage, Alyssa A; Birmingham-Babauta, Samantha A; Torne, Ibett A; Stokes, John J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Davis, DeShaun L; Orjalo, Ashley J; Callaghan, Samuel J

    2018-01-01

    Lockie, RG, Moreno, MR, Lazar, A, Risso, FG, Liu, TM, Stage, AA, Birmingham-Babauta, SA, Torne, IA, Stokes, JJ, Giuliano, DV, Davis, DL, Orjalo, AJ, and Callaghan, SJ. The 1 repetition maximum mechanics of a high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift compared with a conventional deadlift as measured by a linear position transducer. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 150-161, 2018-The high-handle hexagonal bar deadlift (HHBD), a variation of the conventional deadlift (CD), is said to reduce the lift range of motion, which may change the mechanics of the lift. However, no research has investigated this. This study compared the mechanics between a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) CD and HHBD. Thirty-one strength-trained subjects (21 men, 10 women) completed a 1RM CD and HHBD. A linear position transducer measured lift distance, duration, and work; and peak and mean power, velocity, and force. The presence of a sticking region (SR) was determined for each lift. A repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) calculated differences between 1RM CD and HHBD mechanics. A one-way ANOVA compared the mechanics of each lift between subjects who exhibited an SR or not, and the SR between the CD and HHBD. Significance was set at p mechanics between subjects with or without an SR, and no differences in SR region distance or duration between the CD and HHBD. Greater force can be generated in the HHBD, which could have implications for strength-training adaptations over time.

  12. Does a Positive Bias Relate to Social Behavior in Children with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnea, Kate; Hoza, Betsy; Tomb, Meghan; Kaiser, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether positively biased self-perceptions relate to social behaviors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared to control children. The social behaviors of children with ADHD (n = 87) were examined relative to control children (CTL; n = 38) during a laboratory-based dyadic social interaction…

  13. The energy and the linear momentum of space-times in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, R.; Yau, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    We extend our previous proof of the positive mass conjecture to allow a more general asymptotic condition proposed by York. Hence we are able to prove that for an isolated physical system, the energy momentum four vector is a future timelike vector unless the system is trivial. Furthermore, we allow singularities of the type of black holes. (orig.)

  14. Fiber-wise linear Poisson structures related to W∗-algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odzijewicz, Anatol; Jakimowicz, Grzegorz; Sliżewska, Aneta

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of Banach differential geometry we investigate the fiber-wise linear Poisson structures as well as the Lie groupoid and Lie algebroid structures which are defined in the canonical way by the structure of a W∗-algebra (von Neumann algebra) M. The main role in this theory is played by the complex Banach-Lie groupoid G(M) ⇉ L(M) of partially invertible elements of M over the lattice L(M) of orthogonal projections of M. The Atiyah sequence and the predual Atiyah sequence corresponding to this groupoid are investigated from the point of view of Banach Poisson geometry. In particular we show that the predual Atiyah sequence fits in a short exact sequence of complex Banach sub-Poisson V B-groupoids with G(M) ⇉ L(M) as the side groupoid.

  15. Attention to irrelevant cues is related to positive symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard; Griffiths, Oren; Le Pelley, Michael E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    Many modern learning theories assume that the amount of attention to a cue depends on how well that cue predicted important events in the past. Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in attention and recent theories of psychosis have argued that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are related to a failure of selective attention. However, evidence demonstrating that attention to irrelevant cues is related to positive symptoms in schizophrenia is lacking. We used a novel method of measuring attention to nonpredictive (and thus irrelevant) cues in a causal learning test (Le Pelley ME, McLaren IP. Learned associability and associative change in human causal learning. Q J Exp Psychol B. 2003;56:68-79) to assess whether healthy adults and people with schizophrenia discriminate previously predictive and nonpredictive cues. In a series of experiments with independent samples, we demonstrated: (1) when people with schizophrenia who had severe positive symptoms successfully distinguished between predictive and nonpredictive cues during training, they failed to discriminate between predictive and nonpredictive cues relative to healthy adults during subsequent testing and (2) learning about nonpredictive cues was correlated with more severe positive symptoms scores in schizophrenia. These results suggest that positive symptoms of schizophrenia are related to increased attention to nonpredictive cues during causal learning. This deficit in selective attention results in learning irrelevant causal associations and may be the basis of positive symptoms in schizophrenia.

  16. Decision-Related Activity in Macaque V2 for Fine Disparity Discrimination Is Not Compatible with Optimal Linear Readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Stephane; Cumming, Bruce G; Nienborg, Hendrikje

    2017-01-18

    Fine judgments of stereoscopic depth rely mainly on relative judgments of depth (relative binocular disparity) between objects, rather than judgments of the distance to where the eyes are fixating (absolute disparity). In macaques, visual area V2 is the earliest site in the visual processing hierarchy for which neurons selective for relative disparity have been observed (Thomas et al., 2002). Here, we found that, in macaques trained to perform a fine disparity discrimination task, disparity-selective neurons in V2 were highly selective for the task, and their activity correlated with the animals' perceptual decisions (unexplained by the stimulus). This may partially explain similar correlations reported in downstream areas. Although compatible with a perceptual role of these neurons for the task, the interpretation of such decision-related activity is complicated by the effects of interneuronal "noise" correlations between sensory neurons. Recent work has developed simple predictions to differentiate decoding schemes (Pitkow et al., 2015) without needing measures of noise correlations, and found that data from early sensory areas were compatible with optimal linear readout of populations with information-limiting correlations. In contrast, our data here deviated significantly from these predictions. We additionally tested this prediction for previously reported results of decision-related activity in V2 for a related task, coarse disparity discrimination (Nienborg and Cumming, 2006), thought to rely on absolute disparity. Although these data followed the predicted pattern, they violated the prediction quantitatively. This suggests that optimal linear decoding of sensory signals is not generally a good predictor of behavior in simple perceptual tasks. Activity in sensory neurons that correlates with an animal's decision is widely believed to provide insights into how the brain uses information from sensory neurons. Recent theoretical work developed simple

  17. A Family of Symmetric Linear Multistep Methods for the Numerical Solution of the Schroedinger Equation and Related Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassi, Z. A.; Simos, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new family of explicit symmetric linear multistep methods for the efficient numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation and related problems with oscillatory solution. The new methods are trigonometrically fitted and have improved intervals of periodicity as compared to the corresponding classical method with constant coefficients and other methods from the literature. We also apply the methods along with other known methods to real periodic problems, in order to measure their efficiency.

  18. Equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analysis for design and risk assessment of safety-related nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Mason, H. Benjamin; Almufti, Ibrahim; Willford, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performed equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analyses using industry-standard numerical programs. • Considered a wide range of sites and input ground motions. • Noted the practical issues encountered while using these programs. • Examined differences between the responses calculated from different programs. • Results of biaxial and uniaxial analyses are compared. - Abstract: Site response analysis is a precursor to soil-structure interaction analysis, which is an essential component in the seismic analysis of safety-related nuclear structures. Output from site response analysis provides input to soil-structure interaction analysis. Current practice in calculating site response for safety-related nuclear applications mainly involves the equivalent linear method in the frequency-domain. Nonlinear time-domain methods are used by some for the assessment of buildings, bridges and petrochemical facilities. Several commercial programs have been developed for site response analysis but none of them have been formally validated for large strains and high frequencies, which are crucial for the performance assessment of safety-related nuclear structures. This study sheds light on the applicability of some industry-standard equivalent linear (SHAKE) and nonlinear (DEEPSOIL and LS-DYNA) programs across a broad range of frequencies, earthquake shaking intensities, and sites ranging from stiff sand to hard rock, all with a focus on application to safety-related nuclear structures. Results show that the equivalent linear method is unable to reproduce the high frequency acceleration response, resulting in almost constant spectral accelerations in the short period range. Analysis using LS-DYNA occasionally results in some unrealistic high frequency acceleration ‘noise’, which can be removed by smoothing the piece-wise linear backbone curve. Analysis using DEEPSOIL results in abrupt variations in the peak strains of consecutive soil layers

  19. Relational aggression, positive urgency and negative urgency: predicting alcohol use and consequences among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions.

  20. Real-time measurement of relative sensor position changes using ultrasonic signal evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yastrebova, O.; Bulavinov, A.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer Institute Nondestructive Testing IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Ultrasonic testing is considered to be one of the most commonly applied nondestructive testing techniques for flaw detection and material characterization. Traditional Nondestructive Testing (NDT) provides detection of material discontinuities that may cause failure within the designed lifetime of a part or component. In addition, Quantitative Nondestructive Testing (QNDT) provides means to obtain required information about type, size and location of deficiencies to the integrity of the inspected structure and further use under specific, given load conditions. The ''Acoustic Mouse'' technique has been developed as a tool for manual ultrasonic inspection to provide test results that can be evaluated quantitatively. The ultrasonic data are processed by real-time variation methods to extract position information from backscattered acoustic noise and geometric scatter signals in the inspection volume. The position and positional changes of the ''Acoustic Mouse'' sensor (transducer) are determined by the sequential analysis of ultrasonic data (highresolution sector-scans), which are acquired and reconstructed using the Sampling Phased Array technique. The results of first experiments conducted with linear scanning and intentional lift-offs demonstrate sufficient accuracy in position measurements. (orig.)

  1. On the reciprocity-like relations in linear neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, R.S.; Sahni, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The existence of certain reciprocity-like relations in neutron transport theory was shown earlier under some quite restrictive conditions. Here, these relations are shown to be valid in more general situations by using a different approach based on individual neutron trajectories. (author)

  2. Age and breeding success related to nest position in a White stork Ciconia ciconia colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Pablo; Aguirre, José I.

    2006-11-01

    Coloniality is a breeding system that may produce benefits in terms of breeding success, although these advantages could vary according to factors such as colony size or nest position. We studied breeder's age in relation to nest position (peripheral or central) within the colony. In addition, we studied the relationship between breeding success and nest position, controlling for breeder's age, a highly correlated factor, in a White Stork Ciconia ciconia colony over a 7-year period. Our results show that central nests are mainly occupied by adult birds and had lower failure rates. However, controlling for breeder's age, nest position per se did not explain breeding success. The scarce predation and the lack of human disturbance in the study colony could explain the absence of differences in breeding success between different nest positions within the colony.

  3. Galaxy bias and non-linear structure formation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uroš; Senatore, Leonardo; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2011-01-01

    Length scales probed by the large scale structure surveys are becoming closer and closer to the horizon scale. Further, it has been recently understood that non-Gaussianity in the initial conditions could show up in a scale dependence of the bias of galaxies at the largest possible distances. It is therefore important to take General Relativistic effects into account. Here we provide a General Relativistic generalization of the bias that is valid both for Gaussian and for non-Gaussian initial conditions. The collapse of objects happens on very small scales, while long-wavelength modes are always in the quasi linear regime. Around every small collapsing region, it is therefore possible to find a reference frame that is valid for arbitrary times and where the space time is almost flat: the Fermi frame. Here the Newtonian approximation is applicable and the equations of motion are the ones of the standard N-body codes. The effects of long-wavelength modes are encoded in the mapping from the cosmological frame to the local Fermi frame. At the level of the linear bias, the effect of the long-wavelength modes on the dynamics of the short scales is all encoded in the local curvature of the Universe, which allows us to define a General Relativistic generalization of the bias in the standard Newtonian setting. We show that the bias due to this effect goes to zero as the square of the ratio between the physical wavenumber and the Hubble scale for modes longer than the horizon, confirming the intuitive picture that modes longer than the horizon do not have any dynamical effect. On the other hand, the bias due to non-Gaussianities does not need to vanish for modes longer than the Hubble scale, and for non-Gaussianities of the local kind it goes to a constant. As a further application of our setup, we show that it is not necessary to perform large N-body simulations to extract information about long-wavelength modes: N-body simulations can be done on small scales and long

  4. Circulating CD34-positive cells, glomerular filtration rate and triglycerides in relation to hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Sato, Shimpei; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kadota, Koichiro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Serum triglycerides have been reported to be independently associated with the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is known to play a role in vascular disturbance. On the other hand, circulating CD34-positve cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, are reported to contribute to vascular repair. However, no studies have reported on the correlation between triglycerides and the number of CD34-positive cells. Since hypertension is well known factor for vascular impairment, the degree of correlation between serum triglycerides and circulating CD34-positve cells should account for hypertension status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 274 elderly Japanese men aged ≥ 60 years (range 60-79 years) undergoing general health checkups. Multiple linear regression analysis of non-hypertensive subjects adjusting for classical cardiovascular risk factors showed that although triglyceride levels (1SD increments; 64 mg/dL) did not significantly correlate with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (β = -2.06, p = 0.163), a significant positive correlation was seen between triglycerides and the number of circulating CD34-positive cells (β = 0.50, p = 0.004). In hypertensive subjects, a significant inverse correlation between triglycerides and GFR was observed (β = -2.66, p = 0.035), whereas no significant correlation between triglycerides and the number of circulating CD34-positive cells was noted (β = -0.004, p = 0.974). Since endothelial progenitor cells (CD34-positive cells) have been reported to contribute to vascular repair, our results indicate that in non-hypertensive subjects, triglycerides may stimulate an increase in circulating CD34-positive cells (vascular repair) by inducing vascular disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Approach Motivation as Incentive Salience: Perceptual Sources of Evidence in Relation to Positive Word Primes

    OpenAIRE

    Ode, Scott; Winters, Patricia L.; Robinson, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments (total N = 391) examined predictions derived from a biologically-based incentive salience theory of approach motivation. In all experiments, judgments indicative of enhanced perceptual salience were exaggerated in the context of positive, relative to neutral or negative, stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, positive words were judged to be of a larger size (Experiment 1) and led individuals to judge subsequently presented neutral objects as larger in size (Experiment 2). In Exper...

  6. Position-momentum uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furrer, Fabian; Berta, Mario; Tomamichel, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A prominent formulation of the uncertainty principle identifies the fundamental quantum feature that no particle may be prepared with certain outcomes for both position and momentum measurements. Often the statistical uncertainties are thereby measured in terms of entropies providing a clear oper....... As an illustration, we evaluate the uncertainty relations for position and momentum measurements, which is operationally significant in that it implies security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on homodyne detection of squeezed Gaussian states....

  7. Processing Distracting Non-face Emotional Images: No Evidence of an Age-Related Positivity Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Mark; Murray, Janice E

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive aging may be accompanied by increased prioritization of social and emotional goals that enhance positive experiences and emotional states. The socioemotional selectivity theory suggests this may be achieved by giving preference to positive information and avoiding or suppressing negative information. Although there is some evidence of a positivity bias in controlled attention tasks, it remains unclear whether a positivity bias extends to the processing of affective stimuli presented outside focused attention. In two experiments, we investigated age-related differences in the effects of to-be-ignored non-face affective images on target processing. In Experiment 1, 27 older (64-90 years) and 25 young adults (19-29 years) made speeded valence judgments about centrally presented positive or negative target images taken from the International Affective Picture System. To-be-ignored distractor images were presented above and below the target image and were either positive, negative, or neutral in valence. The distractors were considered task relevant because they shared emotional characteristics with the target stimuli. Both older and young adults responded slower to targets when distractor valence was incongruent with target valence relative to when distractors were neutral. Older adults responded faster to positive than to negative targets but did not show increased interference effects from positive distractors. In Experiment 2, affective distractors were task irrelevant as the target was a three-digit array and did not share emotional characteristics with the distractors. Twenty-six older (63-84 years) and 30 young adults (18-30 years) gave speeded responses on a digit disparity task while ignoring the affective distractors positioned in the periphery. Task performance in either age group was not influenced by the task-irrelevant affective images. In keeping with the socioemotional selectivity theory, these findings suggest that older adults preferentially

  8. On the relation between flexibility analysis and robust optimization for linear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qi

    2016-03-05

    Flexibility analysis and robust optimization are two approaches to solving optimization problems under uncertainty that share some fundamental concepts, such as the use of polyhedral uncertainty sets and the worst-case approach to guarantee feasibility. The connection between these two approaches has not been sufficiently acknowledged and examined in the literature. In this context, the contributions of this work are fourfold: (1) a comparison between flexibility analysis and robust optimization from a historical perspective is presented; (2) for linear systems, new formulations for the three classical flexibility analysis problems—flexibility test, flexibility index, and design under uncertainty—based on duality theory and the affinely adjustable robust optimization (AARO) approach are proposed; (3) the AARO approach is shown to be generally more restrictive such that it may lead to overly conservative solutions; (4) numerical examples show the improved computational performance from the proposed formulations compared to the traditional flexibility analysis models. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 62: 3109–3123, 2016

  9. Approach Motivation as Incentive Salience: Perceptual Sources of Evidence in Relation to Positive Word Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Scott; Winters, Patricia L.; Robinson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments (total N = 391) examined predictions derived from a biologically-based incentive salience theory of approach motivation. In all experiments, judgments indicative of enhanced perceptual salience were exaggerated in the context of positive, relative to neutral or negative, stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, positive words were judged to be of a larger size (Experiment 1) and led individuals to judge subsequently presented neutral objects as larger in size (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, similar effects were observed in a mock subliminal presentation paradigm. In Experiment 4, positive word primes were perceived to have been presented for a longer duration of time, again relative to both neutral and negative word primes. Results are discussed in relation to theories of approach motivation, affective priming, and the motivation-perception interface. PMID:21875189

  10. Approach motivation as incentive salience: perceptual sources of evidence in relation to positive word primes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ode, Scott; Winters, Patricia L; Robinson, Michael D

    2012-02-01

    Four experiments (total N = 391) examined predictions derived from a biologically based incentive salience theory of approach motivation. In all experiments, judgments indicative of enhanced perceptual salience were exaggerated in the context of positive, relative to neutral or negative, stimuli. In Experiments 1 and 2, positive words were judged to be of a larger size (Experiment 1) and led individuals to judge subsequently presented neutral objects as larger in size (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, similar effects were observed in a mock subliminal presentation paradigm. In Experiment 4, positive word primes were perceived to have been presented for a longer duration of time, again relative to both neutral and negative word primes. Results are discussed in relation to theories of approach motivation, affective priming, and the motivation-perception interface. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  11. FIRE: an SPSS program for variable selection in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J

    2011-03-01

    We provide an SPSS program that implements currently recommended techniques and recent developments for selecting variables in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors. The approach consists of: (1) optimally splitting the data for cross-validation, (2) selecting the final set of predictors to be retained in the equation regression, and (3) assessing the behavior of the chosen model using standard indices and procedures. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  12. Income and Well-Being: Relative Income and Absolute Income Weaken Negative Emotion, but Only Relative Income Improves Positive Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghuo; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Whether relative income or absolute income could affect subjective well-being has been a bone of contention for years. Life satisfaction and the relative frequency of positive and negative emotions are parts of subjective well-being. According to the prospect theory, hedonic adaptation helps to explain why positive emotion is often so hard to be maintained, and negative emotion wouldn't be easy to be eliminated. So we expect the relationship between income and positive emotion is different from that between income and negative emotion. Given that regional reference is the main comparison mechanism, effects of regional average income on regional average subjective well-being should be potentially zero if only relative income matters. Using multilevel analysis, we tested the hypotheses with a dataset of 30,144 individuals from 162 counties in China. The results suggested that household income at the individual level is associated with life satisfaction, happiness and negative emotions. On the contrary, at a county level, household income is only associated with negative emotion. In other words, happiness and life satisfaction was only associated with relative income, but negative emotion was associated with relative income and absolute income. Without social comparison, income doesn't improve happiness, but it could weaken negative emotion. Therefore, it is possible for economic growth to weaken negative emotion without improving happiness. These findings also contribute to the current debate about the "Esterling paradox."

  13. Prospective assessment of positioning-related pain in robotic urologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Kevin B; Pape, Kelsey; Heilbronn, Chase; Levin, Michael; Cher, Michael L

    2018-03-01

    This was a prospective study to assess positioning-related pain in 20 awake volunteers in the dorsal lithotomy (DL) and lateral decubitus (LD) positions. Each volunteer was put through the series of discrete, sequential steps used to achieve a final position; each step had two options. The Wong-Baker scale (WB) was used to rate pain for each option and the preferred option and ad lib comments were recorded. We found that awake volunteers could clearly and immediately distinguish differences in pain levels between position options. For the DL position, volunteers favored having the arms slightly flexed and pronated as opposed to being straight and supinated reflected by statistically less painful WB scores and option preference. Volunteers preferred having the neck flexed as opposed to being flat. For the LD position, volunteers reported statistically lower pain scores and preference for a foam roll for axilla support as opposed to a rolled blanket, the table flexed without the kidney rest as opposed to a raised kidney rest, and the over arm board as oppose to stacked blankets for contralateral arm support. Ad lib comments from the volunteers supported the above findings. To our knowledge, ours is the first study to demonstrate objective preferences for variations in surgical positioning using awake volunteers. This exercise with awake volunteers resulted in immediate changes in positioning for real robotic surgery patients in our practice.

  14. Design, construction, and in vivo feasibility of a positioning device for irradiation of mice brains using a clinical linear accelerator and intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancilio, Nicholas J; Dahl, Shaun; Athanasiadi, Ilektra; Perez-Torres, Carlos J

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to design a positioning device that would allow for selective irradiation of the mouse brain with a clinical linear accelerator. We designed and fabricated an immobilization fixture that incorporates three functions: head stabilizer (through ear bars and tooth bar), gaseous anesthesia delivery and scavenging, and tissue mimic/bolus. Cohorts of five mice were irradiated such that each mouse in the cohort received a unique dose between 1000 and 3000 cGy. DNA damage immunohistochemistry was used to validate an increase in biological effect as a function of radiation dose. Mice were then followed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There was evidence of DNA damage throughout the brain proportional to radiation dose. Radiation-induced damage at the prescribed doses, as depicted by H&E, appeared to be constrained to the white matter consistent with radiological observation in human patients. The severity of the damage correlated with the radiation dose as expected. We have designed and manufactured a device that allows us to selectively irradiate the mouse brain with a clinical linear accelerator. However, some off-target effects are possible with large prescription doses.

  15. Effects of positive relative accommodation on adolescent pseudomyopia with visual training

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Yue; Hui Yue; Qiu-Jin Ren; Qing Zhou; Jing Huang

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the changes of the positive relative accommodation in adolescent pseudomyopia with visual training.METHODS: A total of 42 cases(84 eyes)were randomly divided into the visual training group and the control group. Visual acuity, average refraction of two groups 4wk after the training were measured, as well as positive relative accommodation(5m)were checked before the training and repeated 1, 2, 4wk after the training. Correlation analysis were given.RESULTS: There was statist...

  16. On the use of the autocorrelation and covariance methods for feedforward control of transverse angle and position jitter in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    It is desired to design a predictive feedforward transverse jitter control system to control both angle and position jitter in pulsed linear accelerators. Such a system will increase the accuracy and bandwidth of correction over that of currently available feedback correction systems. Intrapulse correction is performed. An offline process actually ''learns'' the properties of the jitter, and uses these properties to apply correction to the beam. The correction weights calculated offline are downloaded to a real-time analog correction system between macropulses. Jitter data were taken at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) telescope experiment at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The experiment consisted of the LANL telescope connected to the ANL ZGS proton source and linac. A simulation of the correction system using this data was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by a factor of two over that of a comparable standard feedback correction system. The system also improved the correction bandwidth

  17. On the use of the autocorrelation and covariance methods for feedforward control of transverse angle and position jitter in linear particle beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    It is desired to design a predictive feedforward transverse jitter control system to control both angle and position jitter in pulsed linear accelerators. Such a system will increase the accuracy and bandwidth of correction over that of currently available feedback correction systems. Intrapulse correction is performed. An offline process actually open-quotes learnsclose quotes the properties of the jitter, and uses these properties to apply correction to the beam. The correction weights calculated offline are downloaded to a real-time analog correction system between macropulses. Jitter data were taken at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) telescope experiment at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The experiment consisted of the LANL telescope connected to the ANL ZGS proton source and linac. A simulation of the correction system using this data was shown to decrease the average rms jitter by a factor of two over that of a comparable standard feedback correction system. The system also improved the correction bandwidth

  18. Correlation of results obtained by in-vivo optical spectroscopy with measured blood oxygen saturation using a positive linear regression fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Patrick W.; Lewis, Gary D.; Dujovny, Manuel; Ausman, James I.; Stewart, Mick; Widman, Ronald A.

    1992-05-01

    Near infrared light generated by specialized instrumentation was passed through artificially oxygenated human blood during simultaneous sampling by a co-oximeter. Characteristic absorption spectra were analyzed to calculate the ratio of oxygenated to reduced hemoglobin. A positive linear regression fit between diffuse transmission oximetry and measured blood oxygenation over the range 23% to 99% (r2 equals .98, p signal was observed in the patient over time. The procedure was able to be performed clinically without difficulty; rSO2 values recorded continuously demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Using the same instrumentation, arterial input and cerebral response functions, generated by IV tracer bolus, were deconvoluted to measure mean cerebral transit time. Date collected over time provided a sensitive index of changes in cerebral blood flow as a result of therapeutic maneuvers.

  19. Perceived positive and negative consequences after surviving cancer and their relation to quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco-José; Pérez-Campdepadrós, Marta; Capdevila, Lluís; Sánchez de Toledo, José; Blasco-Blasco, Tomás

    2015-06-01

    Surviving childhood cancer has multiple implications on both physical and psychological domains of the individual. However, its study and possible effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes of adolescent survivors has been understudied. The objective of this study was twofold; to assess positive and negative cancer-related consequences (psychosocial and physical) in a sample of adolescent cancer survivors and to explore their relationship with HRQoL outcomes. Forty-one participants answered two questions about positive and negative consequences in the aftermath of cancer and filled in the KIDSCREEN-52 self-reported version. Data were analysed using mixed methods approach. Overall, 87.8% of the studied sample identified positive consequences and 63.4% negative consequences in survivorship. Four positive categories and five negative categories with regard to cancer-related consequences were found. Changed perspectives in life narratives seem to be the positive consequence more related to HRQoL (physical well-being, mood & emotions, autonomy, social support & peers), followed by useful life experience (physical well-being, autonomy, social support & peers). Psychological impact was the most referred negative consequence with a significant detrimental effect on social support and peers HRQoL dimension. Even if the majority of survivors reported benefit finding in the aftermath of cancer, concomitant positive and negative consequences have been found. However, findings only reveal a significant relationship between positive narratives and HRQoL, and negative consequences do not seem to have a significant influence on overall HRQoL in survivorship. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A non-linear σ-model related to the fine structure of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Lima Santos, A.

    1986-07-01

    It is shown that a σ-model related to the strings via Polyakov's construction is classically (but not quantum mechanically) integrable. When fermions are suitably introduced the exact on shell solution is discussed. In the locally supersymmetric case the 1/D expansion is used to integrate out the σ-model fields leaving an effective action for graviton and gravitino. (author)

  1. PSP: rapid identification of orthologous coding genes under positive selection across multiple closely related prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Ou, Hong-Yu; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2013-12-27

    With genomic sequences of many closely related bacterial strains made available by deep sequencing, it is now possible to investigate trends in prokaryotic microevolution. Positive selection is a sub-process of microevolution, in which a particular mutation is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction. Wide scanning of prokaryotic genomes has shown that positive selection at the molecular level is much more frequent than expected. Genes with significant positive selection may play key roles in bacterial adaption to different environmental pressures. However, selection pressure analyses are computationally intensive and awkward to configure. Here we describe an open access web server, which is designated as PSP (Positive Selection analysis for Prokaryotic genomes) for performing evolutionary analysis on orthologous coding genes, specially designed for rapid comparison of dozens of closely related prokaryotic genomes. Remarkably, PSP facilitates functional exploration at the multiple levels by assignments and enrichments of KO, GO or COG terms. To illustrate this user-friendly tool, we analyzed Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus genomes and found that several genes, which play key roles in human infection and antibiotic resistance, show significant evidence of positive selection. PSP is freely available to all users without any login requirement at: http://db-mml.sjtu.edu.cn/PSP/. PSP ultimately allows researchers to do genome-scale analysis for evolutionary selection across multiple prokaryotic genomes rapidly and easily, and identify the genes undergoing positive selection, which may play key roles in the interactions of host-pathogen and/or environmental adaptation.

  2. Fish positions relative to neighbours modulate the hydrodynamic advantages of schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    ) and Paolo Domenici (CNR, Italy) Schooling behaviour is a widespread phenomenon shared by a large number of fish species. One of the most common benefits of swimming in a school is the hydrodynamic and energetic advantage obtained by its members. Fish occupying non-frontal positions can benefit from the flow...... generated by the caudal movement of fish swimming in the front. While previous work has demonstrated that trailing fish show a lower tail beat frequency (TBF) than leading fish , the extent to which schooling provides hydrodynamic advantages compared to swimming alone has not been quantified. We quantified...... of distances along the direction of locomotion, spanning one body length (BL) in the front (+1 BL) and behind (-1 BL) a neighbouring fish. We found a significant reduction in the mean TBF of fish when swimming in a school versus solitary fish . Furthermore, the TBF of the focal fish decreased linearly between...

  3. Age related neuromuscular changes in sEMG of m. Tibialis Anterior using higher order statistics (Gaussianity & linearity test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2016-08-01

    Age-associated changes in the surface electromyogram (sEMG) of Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle can be attributable to neuromuscular alterations that precede strength loss. We have used our sEMG model of the Tibialis Anterior to interpret the age-related changes and compared with the experimental sEMG. Eighteen young (20-30 years) and 18 older (60-85 years) performed isometric dorsiflexion at 6 different percentage levels of maximum voluntary contractions (MVC), and their sEMG from the TA muscle was recorded. Six different age-related changes in the neuromuscular system were simulated using the sEMG model at the same MVCs as the experiment. The maximal power of the spectrum, Gaussianity and Linearity Test Statistics were computed from the simulated and experimental sEMG. A correlation analysis at α=0.05 was performed between the simulated and experimental age-related change in the sEMG features. The results show the loss in motor units was distinguished by the Gaussianity and Linearity test statistics; while the maximal power of the PSD distinguished between the muscular factors. The simulated condition of 40% loss of motor units with halved the number of fast fibers best correlated with the age-related change observed in the experimental sEMG higher order statistical features. The simulated aging condition found by this study corresponds with the moderate motor unit remodelling and negligible strength loss reported in literature for the cohorts aged 60-70 years.

  4. Firm Size as Moderator to Non-Linear Leverage-Performance Relation: An Emerging Market Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    2017-08-01

    such losses are more prominent for small size firms. Results also show that the leverage-performance relation is nonlinear for medium and large size firms. However, these firms are not targeting optimal level and overleveraging that ultimately decrease their profits. So, financial managers of small size firms should avoid debt financing while for large and medium size firms, managers need to adjust their debt ratio to its optimal level.

  5. How social position of origin relates to intelligence and level of education when adjusting for attained social position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo

    2011-06-01

    Intelligence and its relationship to achievement is a classical question within psychology. In accordance with earlier British studies, the present study, based on conscription data and follow-ups for Swedish men born 1949-51 (N = 36,156), found that when adjusting for attained social position, people with a high social position of origin tend to have higher intelligence and level of education than people with a lower social position of origin. These results could be seen to contradict the claim that more merit, at least when operationalized as intelligence or education, is required from people with a low social position of origin in order to attain a certain social level. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. The relation between gastro-oesophageal reflux, sleeping-position and sudden infant death and its impact on positional therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Y.; Belli, D. C.; Dupont, C.; Kneepkens, C. M.; Heymans, H. S.

    1997-01-01

    Many infants do regurgitate. The recommended therapeutic approach starts with postural and dietary measures, followed by antacids and prokinetics. However, the recent findings regarding the increased risk for sudden infant death (SID) in the prone sleeping position challenge the current

  7. A Lexical Framework for Semantic Annotation of Positive and Negative Regulation Relations in Biomedical Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Lassen, Tine

    presented here, we analyze 6 frequently used verbs denoting the regulation relations regulates, positively regulates and negatively regulates through corpus analysis, and propose a formal representation of the acquired knowledge as domain speci¯c semantic frames. The acquired knowledge patterns can thus...

  8. Visible dormant buds as related to tree diameter and log position

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1967-01-01

    Red oaks and yellow-poplars in a stand of second-growth cove hardwoods in West Virginia were studied to determine whether visible dormant buds are related to tree size or log position. No correlation was found between dormant buds and tree size, for either species; but yellow-poplars had a significantly greater number of buds on the upper log.

  9. The Relationship between Identity-Related Constructs and Positive Mental Health in Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushonga, Dawnsha R.

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, exploratory study examined positive mental health (PMH) in 156 Black college students, ages 18-25, attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). In addition, identity-related constructs such as spirituality, self-esteem, social support, life satisfaction, racial…

  10. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Cuijpers, P.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal

  11. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  12. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  13. An apparatus for high speed measurements of small-angle x-ray scattering profiles with a linear position sensitive detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takeji; Suehiro, Shoji; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro; Saijo, Kenji; Kawai, Hiromichi

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus for high speed measurements of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is described. This apparatus utilizes a 12 kW rotating anode X-ray generator, a linear position sensitive proportional counter (multicathode delay line PSPC), and a two-parameter multichannel pulse height analyzer (MCA) with 12 kwords (16 bits/word) memory area available for SAXA intensity data as a function of position (scattering angles) and time slice. The two-parameter MCA is constructed within a microcomputer system, by utilizing its R/W memory for data storage, and the memory incrementing and real-time CRT display is implemented by using two direct memory access (DMA) controllers. The cycle time of the access is about 10 μs. The measuring time for SAXS profiles with this apparatus can be shortened approximately by three orders of magnitude in comparison with the measuring time with SAXS apparatuses utilizing a conventional step-scanning goniometer and a conventional X-ray tube, thus permitting time-resolved analyses of SAXS profiles. Some applications of the apparatus to dynamic SAXS measurements are presented for polymeric systems, the preliminary results of which seem to indicate the possibility of obtaining a new class of data on dynamics in structural transformation, deformation, formation and annihilation in the scale of a few tens to several hundred Angstroms. (author)

  14. Characterization of Non-Linearized Spacecraft Relative Motion using Nonlinear Normal Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    the HCW equation (Eq. (2) expressed in terms of relative orbit elements (ROEs) [17], x(t) = −ae 2 cos(β) + xd y(t) = ae sin(β) + yd z(t) = zm cos(ψ...30) where ae, xd , zm are constant and yd(t) = yd0− 32nxdt, β(t) = β0 +nt and ψ(t) = ψ0 +nt are time dependent. It is clear that (ae, zm, xd , yd0, β0...quantities correspond to the ambiguous orbit. It is noted that if the non- drifting condition xd = 0 is satisfied, Eqs. (37-40) will vanish. In the

  15. Guaiacol hydrodeoxygenation mechanism on Pt(111): insights from density functional theory and linear free energy relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungtae; Gu, Geun Ho; Mullen, Charles A; Boateng, Akwasi A; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to study the adsorption of guaiacol and its initial hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions on Pt(111). Previous Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) correlations for small open-chain molecules are inadequate in estimating the reaction barriers of phenolic compounds except for the side group (methoxy) carbon-dehydrogenation. New BEP relations are established using a select group of phenolic compounds. These relations are applied to construct a potential-energy surface of guaiacol-HDO to catechol. Analysis shows that catechol is mainly produced via dehydrogenation of the methoxy functional group followed by the CHx (x<3) removal of the functional group and hydrogenation of the ring carbon, in contrast to a hypothesis of a direct demethylation path. Dehydroxylation and demethoxylation are slow, implying that phenol is likely produced from catechol but not through its direct dehydroxylation followed by aromatic carbon-ring hydrogenation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Gyro-viscosity and linear dispersion relations in pair-ion magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, M. [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo 192-0393 (Japan); Vranjes, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife E38205 (Spain); Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife E38205 (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    A fluid theory has been developed by taking account of gyro-viscosity to study wave propagation characteristics in a homogeneous pair-ion magnetized plasma with a cylindrical symmetry. The exact dispersion relations derived by the Hankel-Fourier transformation are shown comparable with those observed in the experiment by Oohara and co-workers. The gyro-viscosity is responsible for the change in propagation characteristics of the ion cyclotron wave from forward to backward by suppressing the effect of the thermal pressure which normally causes the forward nature of dispersion. Although the experiment has been already explained by a kinetic theory by the present authors, the kinetic derivations are so involved because of exact particle orbits in phase space, finite Lamor radius effects, and higher order ion cyclotron resonances. The present fluid theory provides a simple and transparent structure to the dispersion relations since the gyro-viscosity is renormalized into the ion cyclotron frequency which itself indicates the backward nature of dispersion. The usual disadvantage of a fluid theory, which treats only fundamental modes of eigen-waves excited in a system and is not able to describe higher harmonics that a kinetic theory does, is compensated by simple derivations and clear picture based on the renormalization of the gyro-viscosity.

  17. [Effects of a Positive Psychotherapy Program on Positive Affect, Interpersonal Relations, Resilience, and Mental Health Recovery in Community-Dwelling People with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Na, Hyunjoo

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the interest in positive psychotherapy is growing, which can help to encourage positive relationships and develop strengths of people. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a positive psychotherapy program on positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery in community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. The research was conducted using a randomized control group pretest-posttest design. A total of 57 adults with schizophrenia participated in this study. The study participants in experimental group received a positive psychotherapy program (n=28) and the participants in control group received only the usual treatment in community centers (n=29). The positive psychotherapy program was provided for 5 weeks (of 10 sessions, held twice/week, for 60 minutes). The study outcomes included positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery. The collected data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for examining study hypothesis. Results showed that interpersonal relations (F=11.83, p=.001) and resilience (F=9.62, p=.003) significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. Although experimental group showed a slight increase in positive affect, it was not significant. The study findings confirm that the positive psychotherapy program is effective for improving interpersonal relations and resilience of community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. Based on the findings, we believe that the positive psychotherapy program would be acceptable and helpful to improve recovery of mental health in schizophrenia. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  18. HIV-positive patients’ and their families’ comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedina E. de Wet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite acknowledgement of the importance of sharing HIV- and AIDS-related information with people living with HIV, it is still unclear as to what their actual comprehension is of this information. This research was part of a larger project, Tswaragano, conducted in the North-West Province, South Africa, which explored and described the competence, ability and strengths of the family of the HIV-positive patient during home support. This research focused on Potchefstroom in the North-West Province. This article focuses on research with the objective being to explore and describe the comprehension of HIV-positive patients and their families with regard to HIV- and AIDS-related information, and to formulate recommendations to improve their comprehension of this information. A quantitative, explorative and descriptive survey design was followed. Data were collected by means of questionnaires completed by HIV-positive patients (n = 79 and their family members (n = 34. Descriptive statistical analysis by means of frequency analysis was conducted. Ethical considerations and mechanisms to enhance validity and reliability are discussed. The results indicated that both HIV-positive respondents and their families face social and financial challenges due to unemployment and low income. A strength found in this research is that the majority of respondents are linked to a church, which can be a valuable platform to share information on HIV and AIDS. With regards to sharing, sources and comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information, it is apparent that respondents perceived that pre- and post-counselling provided an opportunity for information sharing, but that they need health care workers to spend more time with them, to be non-judgemental and to make more use of visual aids. It furthermore seems that the majority of HIV-positive respondents in this study did comprehend the need for and negotiate for safer sexual practices. It was concluded that

  19. HIV-positive patients’ and their families’ comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedina E. de Wet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite acknowledgement of the importance of sharing HIV- and AIDS-related information with people living with HIV, it is still unclear as to what their actual comprehension is of this information. This research was part of a larger project, Tswaragano, conducted in the North-West Province, South Africa, which explored and described the competence, ability and strengths of the family of the HIV-positive patient during home support. This research focused on Potchefstroom in the North-West Province. This article focuses on research with the objective being to explore and describe the comprehension of HIV-positive patients and their families with regard to HIV- and AIDS-related information, and to formulate recommendations to improve their comprehension of this information. A quantitative, explorative and descriptive survey design was followed. Data were collected by means of questionnaires completed by HIV-positive patients (n= 79 and their family members (n= 34. Descriptive statistical analysis by means of frequency analysis was conducted. Ethical considerations and mechanisms to enhance validity and reliability are discussed. The results indicated that both HIV-positive respondents and their families face social and financial challenges due to unemployment and low income. A strength found in this research is that the majority of respondents are linked to a church, which can be a valuable platform to share information on HIV and AIDS. With regards to sharing, sources and comprehension of HIV- and AIDS-related information, it is apparent that respondents perceived that pre- and post-counselling provided an opportunity for information sharing, but that they need health care workers to spend more time with them, to be non-judgemental and to make more use of visual aids. It furthermore seems that the majority of HIV-positive respondents in this study did comprehend the need for and negotiate for safer sexual practices. It was concluded that although

  20. Does the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall reflect differences in appraisal or memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Emily; Ross, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall is the result of age differences in appraisal and memory. In Study 1, older and younger participants reported 1 pleasant and 1 unpleasant event for 5 days. Participants attempted to recall those events a week later. In Study 2, older and younger participants imagined that positive, negative, and neutral hypothetical events had occurred either to themselves or to an acquaintance and were later asked to recall those events. In Study 1, younger adults reported a complete set of positive and negative events. Older adults reported a pleasant event each day, but 38% did not report an unpleasant event on at least 1 day. A week later, older and younger adults were equally likely to recall the events they had reported. In Study 2, older adults who imagined events happened to themselves rated events as more positive in valence than younger adults did. Older and younger adults were equally likely to remember pleasant and unpleasant events at the end of the study. The data suggest that the age-related positivity effect resides in the appraisal rather than the recall of autobiographical events. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Fast Kalman Filtering for Relative Spacecraft Position and Attitude Estimation for the Raven ISS Hosted Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Joseph M.; Van Eepoel, John; D'Souza, Chris; Patrick, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The Raven ISS Hosted Payload will feature several pose measurement sensors on a pan/tilt gimbal which will be used to autonomously track resupply vehicles as they approach and depart the International Space Station. This paper discusses the derivation of a Relative Navigation Filter (RNF) to fuse measurements from the different pose measurement sensors to produce relative position and attitude estimates. The RNF relies on relative translation and orientation kinematics and careful pose sensor modeling to eliminate dependence on orbital position information and associated orbital dynamics models. The filter state is augmented with sensor biases to provide a mechanism for the filter to estimate and mitigate the offset between the measurements from different pose sensors

  2. Relations between the efficiency, power and dissipation for linear irreversible heat engine at maximum trade-off figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyappan, I.; Ponmurugan, M.

    2018-03-01

    A trade of figure of merit (\\dotΩ ) criterion accounts the best compromise between the useful input energy and the lost input energy of the heat devices. When the heat engine is working at maximum \\dotΩ criterion its efficiency increases significantly from the efficiency at maximum power. We derive the general relations between the power, efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion and minimum dissipation for the linear irreversible heat engine. The efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion has the lower bound \

  3. Bateman's dual system revisited: quantization, geometric phase and relation with the ground-state energy of the linear harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr

    2004-01-01

    By using the Feynman-Hibbs prescription for the evolution amplitude, we quantize the system of a damped harmonic oscillator coupled to its time-reversed image, known as Bateman's dual system. The time-dependent quantum states of such a system are constructed and discussed entirely in the framework of the classical theory. The corresponding geometric (Pancharatnam) phase is calculated and found to be directly related to the ground-state energy of the 1D linear harmonic oscillator to which the 2D system reduces under appropriate constraint

  4. Multidimensional entropic uncertainty relation based on a commutator matrix in position and momentum spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Anaelle; Vanbever, Luc; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2018-01-01

    The uncertainty relation for continuous variables due to Byałinicki-Birula and Mycielski [I. Białynicki-Birula and J. Mycielski, Commun. Math. Phys. 44, 129 (1975), 10.1007/BF01608825] expresses the complementarity between two n -tuples of canonically conjugate variables (x1,x2,...,xn) and (p1,p2,...,pn) in terms of Shannon differential entropy. Here we consider the generalization to variables that are not canonically conjugate and derive an entropic uncertainty relation expressing the balance between any two n -variable Gaussian projective measurements. The bound on entropies is expressed in terms of the determinant of a matrix of commutators between the measured variables. This uncertainty relation also captures the complementarity between any two incompatible linear canonical transforms, the bound being written in terms of the corresponding symplectic matrices in phase space. Finally, we extend this uncertainty relation to Rényi entropies and also prove a covariance-based uncertainty relation which generalizes the Robertson relation.

  5. Does positivity mediate the relation of extraversion and neuroticism with subjective happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriola, Marco; Iani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories suggest an important role of neuroticism, extraversion, attitudes, and global positive orientations as predictors of subjective happiness. We examined whether positivity mediates the hypothesized relations in a community sample of 504 adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years old (females = 50%). A model with significant paths from neuroticism to subjective happiness, from extraversion and neuroticism to positivity, and from positivity to subjective happiness fitted the data (Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square (38) = 105.91; Comparative Fit Index = .96; Non-Normed Fit Index = .95; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .060; 90% confidence interval = .046, .073). The percentage of subjective happiness variance accounted for by personality traits was only about 48%, whereas adding positivity as a mediating factor increased the explained amount of subjective happiness to 78%. The mediation model was invariant by age and gender. The results show that the effect of extraversion on happiness was fully mediated by positivity, whereas the effect of neuroticism was only partially mediated. Implications for happiness studies are also discussed.

  6. Measuring implicit attitudes: A positive framing bias flaw in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A

    2016-02-01

    How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. No evidence of XMRV or related retroviruses in a London HIV-1-positive patient cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor R Gray

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated a recently discovered gammaretrovirus, XMRV (Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus, in chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer, though whether as causative agent or opportunistic infection is unclear. It has also been suggested that the virus can be found circulating amongst the general population. The discovery has been controversial, with conflicting results from attempts to reproduce the original studies.We extracted peripheral blood DNA from a cohort of 540 HIV-1-positive patients (approximately 20% of whom have never been on anti-retroviral treatment and determined the presence of XMRV and related viruses using TaqMan PCR. While we were able to amplify as few as 5 copies of positive control DNA, we did not find any positive samples in the patient cohort.In view of these negative findings in this highly susceptible group, we conclude that it is unlikely that XMRV or related viruses are circulating at a significant level, if at all, in HIV-1-positive patients in London or in the general population.

  8. The investigation of the relative position of colon and kidney on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadanaga, Masako; Choji, Taku; Nishikawa, Hiroko; Homma, Yuzuru; Sasai, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Rikuo; Nakada, Taishi; Nakanishi, Takashi.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the relative position of colon and kidney with CT in 93 male and 92 female patients in various age groups. In Japanese, we thought of little influence of the perinephric fat (Hadar, 1984) or renal fascia (Hopper, 1987) on the variation of these positions. As well, the investigation by CT before uroradiological techniques is much more important than Europeans or Americans, because of the remarkable rate of 'retrorenal colon' was 6.4% on the right and 9.5% on the left in our studies. (author)

  9. A fast high-precision six-degree-of-freedom relative position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Macasaet, Van P.; Griswold, Janelle; Sison, Claudia A.; Lubin, Philip; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Brashears, Travis; Zhang, Qicheng; Madajian, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Lasers are commonly used in high-precision measurement and profiling systems. Some laser measurement systems are based on interferometry principles, and others are based on active triangulation, depending on requirements of the application. This paper describes an active triangulation laser measurement system for a specific application wherein the relative position of two fixed, rigid mechanical components is to be measured dynamically with high precision in six degrees of freedom (DOF). Potential applications include optical systems with feedback to control for mechanical vibration, such as target acquisition devices with multiple focal planes. The method uses an array of several laser emitters mounted on one component. The lasers are directed at a reflective surface on the second component. The reflective surface consists of a piecewise-planar pattern such as a pyramid, or more generally a curved reflective surface such as a hyperbolic paraboloid. The reflected spots are sensed at 2-dimensional photodiode arrays on the emitter component. Changes in the relative position of the emitter component and reflective surface will shift the location of the reflected spots within photodiode arrays. Relative motion in any degree of freedom produces independent shifts in the reflected spot locations, allowing full six-DOF relative position determination between the two component positions. Response time of the sensor is limited by the read-out rate of the photodiode arrays. Algorithms are given for position determination with limits on uncertainty and sensitivity, based on laser and spot-sensor characteristics, and assuming regular surfaces. Additional uncertainty analysis is achievable for surface irregularities based on calibration data.

  10. Survey on Ranging Sensors and Cooperative Techniques for Relative Positioning of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian de Ponte Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Future driver assistance systems will rely on accurate, reliable and continuous knowledge on the position of other road participants, including pedestrians, bicycles and other vehicles. The usual approach to tackle this requirement is to use on-board ranging sensors inside the vehicle. Radar, laser scanners or vision-based systems are able to detect objects in their line-of-sight. In contrast to these non-cooperative ranging sensors, cooperative approaches follow a strategy in which other road participants actively support the estimation of the relative position. The limitations of on-board ranging sensors regarding their detection range and angle of view and the facility of blockage can be approached by using a cooperative approach based on vehicle-to-vehicle communication. The fusion of both, cooperative and non-cooperative strategies, seems to offer the largest benefits regarding accuracy, availability and robustness. This survey offers the reader a comprehensive review on different techniques for vehicle relative positioning. The reader will learn the important performance indicators when it comes to relative positioning of vehicles, the different technologies that are both commercially available and currently under research, their expected performance and their intrinsic limitations. Moreover, the latest research in the area of vision-based systems for vehicle detection, as well as the latest work on GNSS-based vehicle localization and vehicular communication for relative positioning of vehicles, are reviewed. The survey also includes the research work on the fusion of cooperative and non-cooperative approaches to increase the reliability and the availability.

  11. Factoring vs linear modeling in rate estimation: a simulation study of relative accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, G; Greenland, S

    1998-07-01

    A common strategy for modeling dose-response in epidemiology is to transform ordered exposures and covariates into sets of dichotomous indicator variables (that is, to factor the variables). Factoring tends to increase estimation variance, but it also tends to decrease bias and thus may increase or decrease total accuracy. We conducted a simulation study to examine the impact of factoring on the accuracy of rate estimation. Factored and unfactored Poisson regression models were fit to follow-up study datasets that were randomly generated from 37,500 population model forms that ranged from subadditive to supramultiplicative. In the situations we examined, factoring sometimes substantially improved accuracy relative to fitting the corresponding unfactored model, sometimes substantially decreased accuracy, and sometimes made little difference. The difference in accuracy between factored and unfactored models depended in a complicated fashion on the difference between the true and fitted model forms, the strength of exposure and covariate effects in the population, and the study size. It may be difficult in practice to predict when factoring is increasing or decreasing accuracy. We recommend, therefore, that the strategy of factoring variables be supplemented with other strategies for modeling dose-response.

  12. Measuring system for correlations of light particles with low relative linear momentum: operation and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, J.

    1988-01-01

    The EMRIC set up (Ensemble de Mesure Rapide pour l'Interferometrie et les Correlations) is devoted to the study of space and time extent of nuclear sources from the measurement of light charged particles correlations. This device, composed of an array of 16 detectors (CsI crystals coupled to phototubes) used in conjunction with a multiwire chamber, is characterised by a smart granulation, a large solid angle and very small detection dead areas. It opens new possibilities in the measurement of the correlation functions (complete determination (modulus and direction) of the relative momenta in the range 1 to 100 MeV/c). This work describes the development and performances of EMRIC. The mechanics and electronics are detailed to enlighten difficulties inherent to this type of detector. An auxiliary monitoring system has been carried out to simplify some of the experimental tasks. A simulation software code has been written (based on Monte-Carlo techniques) to simulate the effect of the detector on the experimental data. The precision and efficiency in detection place EMRIC, which can be operated in the whole intermediate energy range (10-100 MeV/u), among the most powerful existing devices. First results on the 20 Ne + 27 Al system are finally shown [fr

  13. Kinematic parameter calibration method for industrial robot manipulator using the relative position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, In Chul

    2008-01-01

    A new calibration method for industrial robot system calibration on a manufacturing floor is presented in this paper. To calibrate the robot system, a laser sensor to measure the distance between robot tool and measurement surface is attached to the robot end-effector and a grid is established in the floor. Given two position command pulses for a robot manipulator and using the position difference between two command pulses, the relative position measurement calibration method will find the real robot kinematic parameters. The procedures developed have been applied to an industrial robot. Finally, the effects of the models used to calibrate the robot are discussed. This calibration method represents an effective, low cost and feasible technique for the industrial robot calibration in lab. projects and industrial environments

  14. The First Result of Relative Positioning and Velocity Estimation Based on CAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiaojiao; Ge, Jian; Wang, Liang; Wang, Ningbo; Zhou, Kai; Yuan, Hong

    2018-01-01

    The Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) is a new positioning system developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences based on the communication satellites in geosynchronous orbit. The CAPS has been regarded as a pilot system to test the new technology for the design, construction and update of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS). The system structure of CAPS, including the space, ground control station and user segments, is almost like the traditional Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs), but with the clock on the ground, the navigation signal in C waveband, and different principles of operation. The major difference is that the CAPS navigation signal is first generated at the ground control station, before being transmitted to the satellite in orbit and finally forwarded by the communication satellite transponder to the user. This design moves the clock from the satellite in orbit to the ground. The clock error can therefore be easily controlled and mitigated to improve the positioning accuracy. This paper will present the performance of CAPS-based relative positioning and velocity estimation as assessed in Beijing, China. The numerical results show that, (1) the accuracies of relative positioning, using only code measurements, are 1.25 and 1.8 m in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively; (2) meanwhile, they are about 2.83 and 3.15 cm in static mode and 6.31 and 10.78 cm in kinematic mode, respectively, when using the carrier-phase measurements with ambiguities fixed; and (3) the accuracy of the velocity estimation is about 0.04 and 0.11 m/s in static and kinematic modes, respectively. These results indicate the potential application of CAPS for high-precision positioning and velocity estimation and the availability of a new navigation mode based on communication satellites. PMID:29757204

  15. Evaluation of Relative Position of Mandibular Foramen in Children as a Reference for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block using Orthopantamograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Navin Hadadi; Unnikrishnan, Surej; Ramachandra, Jaya Agali; Arali, Veena

    2017-03-01

    The Mandibular Foramen (MF) is a landmark for administering local anaesthetic solution for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB). The position of MF shows considerable variation among different ethnicity, ages and on either sides even within the same individual. Failure to achieve IANB leading to repeated injection of the local anaesthetic solution will not only pose a behaviour problem in children but can also lead to systemic toxic level of anaesthetic solution being administered. To determine the relative position of the mandibular foramen in 7 to 12-year-old children in relation to the mandibular occlusal plane and the deepest point on coronoid notch. Ninety orthopantamograph of 7 to 12-year-old children were selected from the database and were divided into three groups: Group 1 (G1): seven to eight-year-old, Group 2 (G2): 9 to 10-year-old and Group 3 (G3): 11 to 12-year-old. The radiographs were traced on acetate paper, anatomical landmarks were marked and linear measurements were noted from the Mandibular Lingula (ML) to the occlusal plane, and to the deepest point on coronoid notch. The data obtained was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. One way ANOVA test followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis and Student's paired t-test were used. Mandibular foramen is approximately, 2-3 mm above the occlusal plane and 11.6-13.0 mm from deepest point of coronoid notch for seven to eight-year-old children, 3-4 mm above the occlusal plane and 13.0-13.9 mm from deepest point of coronoid notch for 9-10 year age group and 5.5-6.5 mm above the occlusal plane and 11.9-12.2 mm from deepest point of coronoid notch for children of the ages 11-12 years. The linear distance from the deepest point of coronoid notch to the mandibular lingula showed statistical significance in G2 vs G3 on right side G1 vs G2 and G2 vs G3 on the left side. The variance of this distance for either side showed statistical significance for G1 and G2. The distance from the mandibular lingula

  16. The effects of varying contextual demands on age-related positive gaze preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Rim; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    Despite many studies on the age-related positivity effect and its role in visual attention, discrepancies remain regarding whether full attention is required for age-related differences to emerge. The present study took a new approach to this question by varying the contextual demands of emotion processing. This was done by adding perceptual distractions, such as visual and auditory noise, that could disrupt attentional control. Younger and older participants viewed pairs of happy-neutral and fearful-neutral faces while their eye movements were recorded. Facial stimuli were shown either without noise, embedded in a background of visual noise (low, medium, or high), or with simultaneous auditory babble. Older adults showed positive gaze preferences, looking toward happy faces and away from fearful faces; however, their gaze preferences tended to be influenced by the level of visual noise. Specifically, the tendency to look away from fearful faces was not present in conditions with low and medium levels of visual noise but was present when there were high levels of visual noise. It is important to note, however, that in the high-visual-noise condition, external cues were present to facilitate the processing of emotional information. In addition, older adults' positive gaze preferences disappeared or were reduced when they first viewed emotional faces within a distracting context. The current results indicate that positive gaze preferences may be less likely to occur in distracting contexts that disrupt control of visual attention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Strategies to prevent positioning-related complications associated with the lateral suboccipital approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Yuichi; Sasajima, Hiroyasu; Goto, Yukihiro; Taniyama, Ichita; Aita, Kazuyasu; Owada, Kei; Tatsuzawa, Kazunori; Mineura, Katsuyoshi

    2014-02-01

    The lateral positioning used for the lateral suboccipital surgical approach is associated with various pathophysiologic complications. Strategies to avoid complications including an excessive load on the cervical vertebra and countermeasures against pressure ulcer development are needed. We retrospectively investigated positioning-related complications in 71 patients with cerebellopontine angle lesions undergoing surgery in our department between January 2003 and December 2010 using the lateral suboccipital approach. One patient postoperatively developed rhabdomyolysis, and another presented with transient peroneal nerve palsy on the unaffected side. Stage I and II pressure ulcers were noted in 22 and 12 patients, respectively, although neither stage III nor more severe pressure ulcers occurred. No patients experienced cervical vertebra and spinal cord impairments, brachial plexus palsy, or ulnar nerve palsy associated with rotation and flexion of the neck. Strategies to prevent positioning-related complications, associated with lateral positioning for the lateral suboccipital surgical approach, include the following: atraumatic fixation of the neck focusing on jugular venous perfusion and airway pressure, trunk rotation, and sufficient relief of weightbearing and protection of nerves including the peripheral nerves of all four extremities.

  18. Tracing evolutionary relicts of positive selection on eight malaria-related immune genes in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing-Hong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2015-07-01

    Plasmodium-induced malaria widely infects primates and other mammals. Multiple past studies have revealed that positive selection could be the main evolutionary force triggering the genetic diversity of anti-malaria resistance-associated genes in human or primates. However, researchers focused most of their attention on the infra-generic and intra-specific genome evolution rather than analyzing the complete evolutionary history of mammals. Here we extend previous research by testing the evolutionary link of natural selection on eight candidate genes associated with malaria resistance in mammals. Three of the eight genes were detected to be affected by recombination, including TNF-α, iNOS and DARC. Positive selection was detected in the rest five immunogenes multiple times in different ancestral lineages of extant species throughout the mammalian evolution. Signals of positive selection were exposed in four malaria-related immunogenes in primates: CCL2, IL-10, HO1 and CD36. However, selection signals of G6PD have only been detected in non-primate eutherians. Significantly higher evolutionary rates and more radical amino acid replacement were also detected in primate CD36, suggesting its functional divergence from other eutherians. Prevalent positive selection throughout the evolutionary trajectory of mammalian malaria-related genes supports the arms race evolutionary hypothesis of host genetic response of mammalian immunogenes to infectious pathogens. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Obtaining the intrinsic electron spectrum of linear accelerators using the relation between the current of the bending magnet and the absorbed dose in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Jose M. de la; Guirado, Damian; Vilches, Manuel; Perdices, Jose I.; Lallena, Antonio M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To present a novel methodology to model the intrinsic electron spectra of a linear accelerator and its situation with respect to the energy window. Methods. The spectra are obtained by fitting the variation of R 50 and the maximum dose rate measured in a water phantom with the bending magnet current. The obtained spectra are verified with a realistic Monte Carlo simulation of the accelerator. Results. The intrinsic spectra and their relative position with respect to the energy window of the bending magnet have been obtained for a Siemens Mevatron KDS and an ELEKTA SL20 accelerators. Conclusions. Using this method in the commissioning and scheduled revisions of the accelerator, the tuning of the current of the bending magnet could be done in such a way that both the quality of the beam and the dose rate would reach a better long-term stability

  20. Linear Dispersion Relation and Depth Sensitivity to Swell Parameters: Application to Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging and Bathymetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Boccia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long gravity waves or swell dominating the sea surface is known to be very useful to estimate seabed morphology in coastal areas. The paper reviews the main phenomena related to swell waves propagation that allow seabed morphology to be sensed. The linear dispersion is analysed and an error budget model is developed to assess the achievable depth accuracy when Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data are used. The relevant issues and potentials of swell-based bathymetry by SAR are identified and discussed. This technique is of particular interest for characteristic regions of the Mediterranean Sea, such as in gulfs and relatively close areas, where traditional SAR-based bathymetric techniques, relying on strong tidal currents, are of limited practical utility.

  1. The Test of Inaccurate Position of Renography Detector to Relative UptakeFigure and Individual Excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang-Supardiyono; Prayitno

    2000-01-01

    Accuracy of detector position toward the kidney location (preciseposition) in renography will resulting the maximum count figure, detectorposition change from the precise point (inaccurate) will decreasing the countrate. Therefore for it had been simulated the influence of count figure ofright kidney (fixed left kidney count) ± 5 % to ± 20 % to relativeuptake figure and individual excretion. Based on the calculation it was foundthat the relation of detector position ± 0.5 cm to ± 2 cm from theprecise point will have effect to relative uptake figure ± (1.25 % to 5.00%), the fixed individual excretion figure. The change is still can beaccepted because the qualitative information with 10 % accuracy is stillacceptable. (author)

  2. The relation of electrode voltages to charge position in SLC arc and final focus beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, C.

    1989-01-01

    The position of a charged particle beam can be measured with a Beam Position Monitor (BPM) by converting the voltages induced on its array of electrodes into a position offset from the array's center. Most of the BPMs in the Arcs and Final Focus of the SLC use four stripline electrodes arranged symmetrically around the beam; normalized voltage differences are calculated as the difference divided by the sum of voltages on opposite electrode pairs. The resulting number is multiplied by a conversion factor, denoted in this paper as S b , to give the offset (in millimeters) of the charge from the center of the BPM. Prior to installation in the beam line, the BPMs were calibrated with a charge pulse on a rod. Owing to geometric effects which will be discussed later, a different conversion factor had to be used for calibration. It will be denoted here by S r . This paper gives the results of calculations and measurements of S r and S b for Arc and Final Focus BPMs. This paper also describes the relevant physical properties of the several types of BPMs and calculations of the expected scale factors, the measurement methods used, and gives the results of measurements, which are compared with the theoretical expectations. 2 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Organized Activity Participation and Relational Aggression: The Role of Positive Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisman, Andria B; Stoddard, Sarah A; Bauermeister, José A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2018-02-01

    Relational aggression among early adolescents is a pervasive problem that negatively influences the health and well-being of youth. Strength-based approaches such as positive youth development (PYD) are a promising way to reduce risk of detrimental outcomes such as relational aggression. Participation in organized activities is a key way that youth build assets related to PYD. Yet, few researchers have examined empirically assets related to PYD as a mechanism by which organized activity participation may help reduce risk of relational aggression. In this study, we used structural equation modeling to investigate if assets associated with PYD mediate the relationship between organized activity participation and relational aggression using survey data from a diverse, school-based sample of early adolescents (N = 196; mean age = 12.39 years; SD = 0.52; 60% female; 45% African American, 27% White, 21% multiracial, and 7% other, 71% economically disadvantaged). We tested 2 competing models, 1 with decomposed PYD factors and 1 with an integrated PYD factor. Our results suggest that PYD better fit as an integrated versus decomposed construct, providing support for the notion that youth benefit most from assets related to PYD when they operate collectively. Our results also provide support for PYD-related factors as a mechanism by which participation may reduce risk of relational aggression. Limitations of this study, and implications for prevention are discussed.

  4. Anhedonia reflects impairment in making relative value judgments between positive and neutral stimuli in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Visser, Katherine Frost; Keller, William R; Gold, James M; Buchanan, Robert W

    2018-02-27

    Anhedonia (i.e., diminished capacity to experience pleasure) has traditionally been viewed as a core symptom of schizophrenia (SZ). However, modern laboratory-based studies suggest that this definition may be incorrect, as hedonic capacity may be intact. Alternative conceptualizations have proposed that anhedonia may reflect an impairment in generating mental representations of affective value that are needed to guide decision-making and initiate motivated behavior. The current study evaluated this hypothesis in 42 outpatients with SZ and 19 healthy controls (CN) who completed two tasks: (a) an emotional experience task that required them to indicate how positive, negative, and calm/excited they felt in response to a single emotional or neutral photograph; (b) a relative value judgment task where they selected which of 2 photographs they preferred. Results indicated that SZ and CN reported similar levels of positive emotion and arousal in response to emotional and neutral stimuli; however, SZ reported higher negative affect for neutral and pleasant stimuli than CN. In the relative value judgment task, CN displayed clear preference for stimuli differing in valence; however, SZ showed less distinct preferences for positive over neutral stimuli. Findings suggest that although in-the-moment experiences of positive emotion to singular stimuli may be intact in SZ, the ability to make relative value judgments that are needed to guide decision-making is impaired. Original conceptualizations of anhedonia as a diminished capacity for pleasure in SZ may be inaccurate; anhedonia may more accurately reflect a deficit in relative value judgment that results from impaired value representation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Male and Female Communication, Leadership Styles and the Position of Women in Public Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Topic, M; Tench, R; Moreno, A

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses results of the largest European survey among communication and public relations (PR) practitioners in regards to the position of women in the industry. The survey was conducted online among communication and PR practitioners from 42 European countries. Using communication theories on differences in communication styles among men and women, we present and discuss results on managerial skills, differences in the communication styles, and traditional views on differences b...

  6. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Studying the Relative Positions of the Teeth of Conjugated Wheels in the Double Harmonic Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draghiţa Ianici

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed study of the gearing processes in the two stages of the double harmonic transmission. To highlight the graphics of the relative motion of the conjugates teeth it was developed an original calculation program, written in Visual Basic. By running the calculation program, the relative successive positions of the conjugate teeth were viewed and the basic parameters of the gearing were established: the angle profile (α, the tooth height (h and the size of the deformation of the flexible toothed wheel (w0.

  8. Position-momentum uncertainty relations in the presence of quantum memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furrer, Fabian, E-mail: furrer@eve.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Berta, Mario [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Tomamichel, Marco [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Scholz, Volkher B. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Christandl, Matthias [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-12-15

    A prominent formulation of the uncertainty principle identifies the fundamental quantum feature that no particle may be prepared with certain outcomes for both position and momentum measurements. Often the statistical uncertainties are thereby measured in terms of entropies providing a clear operational interpretation in information theory and cryptography. Recently, entropic uncertainty relations have been used to show that the uncertainty can be reduced in the presence of entanglement and to prove security of quantum cryptographic tasks. However, much of this recent progress has been focused on observables with only a finite number of outcomes not including Heisenberg’s original setting of position and momentum observables. Here, we show entropic uncertainty relations for general observables with discrete but infinite or continuous spectrum that take into account the power of an entangled observer. As an illustration, we evaluate the uncertainty relations for position and momentum measurements, which is operationally significant in that it implies security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on homodyne detection of squeezed Gaussian states.

  9. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A C; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention, or a control condition. Children's acceptance by peers, their number of mutual friends, and their proximity to others were assessed annually through peer ratings. Externalizing behavior was annually rated by teachers. Reductions in children's externalizing behavior and improvements in positive peer relations were found among GBG children, as compared with control-group children. Reductions in externalizing behavior appeared to be partly mediated by the improvements in peer acceptance. This mediating role of peer acceptance was found for boys only. The results suggest that positive peer relations are not just markers, but they are environmental mediators of boys' externalizing behavior development. Implications for research and prevention are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Molecular marker differences relate to developmental position and subsets of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone M Smits

    Full Text Available The development of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA neurons located in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc and ventral tegmental area (VTA follow a number of stages marked by distinct events. After preparation of the region by signals that provide induction and patterning, several transcription factors have been identified, which are involved in specifying the neuronal fate of these cells. The specific vulnerability of SNc neurons is thought to root in these specific developmental programs. The present study examines the positions of young postmitotic mdDA neurons to relate developmental position to mdDA subset specific markers. MdDA neurons were mapped relative to the neuromeric domains (prosomeres 1-3 (P1-3, midbrain, and hindbrain as well as the longitudinal subdivisions (floor plate, basal plate, alar plate, as proposed by the prosomeric model. We found that postmitotic mdDA neurons are located mainly in the floorplate domain and very few in slightly more lateral domains. Moreover, mdDA neurons are present along a large proportion of the anterior/posterior axis extending from the midbrain to P3 in the diencephalon. The specific positions relate to some extent to the presence of specific subset markers as Ahd2. In the adult stage more of such subsets specific expressed genes are present and may represent a molecular map defining molecularly distinct groups of mdDA neurons.

  11. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  12. Impact of relative position vehicle-wind blower in a roller test bench under climatic chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Yáñez, P.; Armas, O.; Martínez-Martínez, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Air simulation model was developed for a vehicle test bench under climatic chamber. • Good accuracy between experimental data and simulated values were obtained. • Wind blower-vehicle relative position alters external cooling of after-treatment devices. • Vehicle emission certification can be affected by wind blower-vehicle relative position. - Abstract: In terms of energy efficiency and exhaust emissions control, an appropriate design of cooling systems of climatic chambers destined to vehicle certification and/or perform scientific research is becoming increasingly important. European vehicle emissions certification (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) establishes the position of the wind-simulation blower at 200 mm above floor level. This height is fixed and kept constant independently of the vehicle tested. The position of the blower with respect to the vehicle can modify the external forced convection under the car, where after-treatment devices are located. Consequently, the performance of such devices could be modified and emission results during the certification cycle could be non-representative of real-world driving conditions. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different wind blower-vehicle relative heights on the air velocity and temperature profiles under the car by means of a simple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. A steady state three-dimensional CFD model was developed and applied to the estimation of the air velocity and temperature profiles inside of a climatic chamber equipped with a vehicle roller (chassis dyno) test bench. The simulations reproduce one steady-state condition from NEDC, specifically the EU17 mode (120 km/h, maximum velocity during the cycle). The cool air propelling temperature was 20 °C (minimum temperature in the NEDC range). Simulations were performed employing the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the realizable k-ε model to provide closure. Air velocity and

  13. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Non-linear models for the relation between cardiovascular risk factors and intake of wine, beer and spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Gareth; Royston, Patrick; Head, Jenny

    2003-02-15

    It is generally accepted that moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). It is not clear however whether this benefit is derived through the consumption of a specific beverage type, for example, wine. In this paper the associations between known CHD risk factors and different beverage types are investigated using a novel approach with non-linear modelling. Two types of model are proposed which are designed to detect differential effects of beverage type. These may be viewed as extensions of Box and Tidwell's power-linear model. The risk factors high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fibrinogen and systolic blood pressure are considered using data from a large longitudinal study of British civil servants (Whitehall II). The results for males suggest that gram for gram of alcohol, the effect of wine differs from that of beer and spirits, particularly for systolic blood pressure. In particular increasing wine consumption is associated with slightly more favourable levels of all three risk factors studied. For females there is evidence of a differential relationship only for systolic blood pressure. These findings are tentative but suggest that further research is required to clarify the similarities and differences between the results for males and females and to establish whether either of the models is the more appropriate. However, having clarified these issues, the apparent benefit of consuming wine instead of other alcoholic beverages may be relatively small. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral manifestations and related factors of HIV positive patients in south-east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Saravani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral manifestations can be the first signs of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS and a useful marker for the progression of this disease. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of oral manifestations and examine their relationship with socio-demographic factors in HIV-positive patients in the health centers affiliated to Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Southeast Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study in addition to determining oral manifestations based on the classification of EC-clearing house (European Commission clearing house, information such as age, gender, marital status, residence, education, occupation, habits, oral hygiene, loss of weight in the last six months. Body Mass Index (BMI, mode of HIV transmission, stage of disease, anti-retroviral therapy (ART, and duration of HIV were gathered through direct question from the patients or the information contained in their records. Then the relationship between various factors and oral manifestations was analyzed using Chi-square, Fisher’s Exact Test, Student T Test, Mann- Whitney tests and logistic regression. Results: Oral examination was performed on 119 HIV-positive patients who were 69.7% male and 30.3% female and had a mean age of 35.4±12.7 years. Oral manifestations were found in 57.1% of the patients. Pseudomembranous candidiasis (34.1% and linear gingival erythema (33% were the most common lesions in these patients. The probability of oral manifestations occurrence increased with age and duration of smoking in smokers with HIV (P=0.036 and P=0.012, respectively. Conclusion: Most oral manifestations were those strongly associated with HIV infection (91%. Timely diagnosis and treatment of oral manifestations in HIV patients should be considered in conjunction with other treatments.

  17. Disclosure Decisions: HIV-Positive Persons Coping With Disease-Related Stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, Lotte; Sodemann, Morten; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to investigate how Danish HIV-positive persons live with their disease, focusing on HIV-related stressors. Using the Glaserian method, we analyzed textual data from in-depth interviews with 16 HIV-positive persons. Decisions about disclosure appeared ...... and plans, and offers a theoretical basis for interventions designed to assist persons living with HIV to make the best possible individual decisions regarding disclosure, and thereby reduce HIV-related stress....... to be a major concern and a determining factor for HIV-related stress. Consequently, we developed a substantive theory about disclosure decisions in which three different strategies could be identified: (a) disclosing to everyone (being open); (b) restricting disclosure (being partly open); and (c) disclosing...... to no one (being closed). Disclosure was a continuum; none of the three strategies automatically relieved HIV-related stress. The theory describes the main determinants and consequences of each strategy. Our study demonstrates the importance of recurrent individual considerations about disclosure choices...

  18. Anterior cingulate activation is related to a positivity bias and emotional stability in successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassen, Stefanie; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian

    2011-07-15

    Behavioral studies consistently reported an increased preference for positive experiences in older adults. The socio-emotional selectivity theory explains this positivity effect with a motivated goal shift in emotion regulation, which probably depends on available cognitive resources. The present study investigates the neurobiological mechanism underlying this hypothesis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in 21 older and 22 young subjects while performing a spatial-cueing paradigm that manipulates attentional load on emotional face distracters. We focused our analyses on the anterior cingulate cortex as a key structure of cognitive control of emotion. Elderly subjects showed a specifically increased distractibility by happy faces when more attentional resources were available for face processing. This effect was paralleled by an increased engagement of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and this frontal engagement was significantly correlated with emotional stability. The current study highlights how the brain might mediate the tendency to preferentially engage in positive information processing in healthy aging. The finding of a resource-dependency of this positivity effect suggests demanding self-regulating processes that are related to emotional well-being. These findings are of particular relevance regarding implications for the understanding, treatment, and prevention of nonsuccessful aging like highly prevalent late-life depression. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Self-reported oral and general health in relation to socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeberg, Magnus; Wide Boman, Ulla

    2017-07-26

    During the past two decades, several scientific publications from different countries have shown how oral health in the population varies with social determinants. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between self-reported oral and general health in relation to different measures of socioeconomic position. Data were collected from a randomly selected sample of the adult population in Sweden (n = 3500, mean age 53.4 years, 53.1% women). The response rate was 49.7%. Subjects were interviewed by telephone, using a questionnaire including items on self-reported oral and general health, socioeconomic position and lifestyle. A significant gradient was found for both oral and general health: the lower the socioeconomic position, the poorer the health. Socioeconomic position and, above all, economic measures were strongly associated with general health (OR 3.95) and with oral health (OR 1.76) if having an income below SEK 200,000 per year. Similar results were found in multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender and lifestyle variables. For adults, there are clear socioeconomic gradients in self-reported oral and general health, irrespective of different socioeconomic measures. Action is needed to ensure greater equity of oral and general health.

  20. Positioning of NORs and NOR-bearing chromosomes in relation to nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmárová, Markéta; Smirnov, Evgeny; Masata, Martin; Koberna, Karel; Ligasová, Anna; Popov, Alexey; Raska, Ivan

    2007-10-01

    It is widely accepted that chromosomes occupy more or less fixed positions in mammalian interphase nucleus. However, relation between large-scale order of chromosome positioning and gene activity remains unclear. We used the model of the human ribosomal genes to address specific aspects of this problem. Ribosomal genes are organized at particular chromosomal sites in clusters termed nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). Only some NORs, called competent are generally accepted to be transcriptionally active during interphase. Importantly in this respect, the regularities in distribution of competent, and non-competent NORs among the specific chromosomes were already established in two human-derived cell lines: transformed HeLa and primary LEP cells. In the present study, using FISH and immunocytochemistry, we found that in HeLa and LEP cells the large-scale positioning of the NOR-bearing chromosomes with regard to nucleoli is linked to the transcription activity of rDNA. Namely, the tendency of rDNA-bearing chromosomes to associate with nucleoli correlates with the number of transcriptionally competent NORs in the respective chromosome homologs. Regarding the position of NORs, we found that not only competent but also most of the non-competent NORs are included in the nucleoli. Some intranucleolar NORs (supposedly non-competent) are situated on elongated chromatin protrusions connecting nucleoli with respective chromosome territories spatially distanced from nucleoli.

  1. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Innovative optical power detection array system for relative positioning of inner-formation flying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    The Inner-formation flying system (IFFS) is conceived to feature a spherical proof mass falling freely within a large cavity for space gravity detection, of which first application focuses on the Earth's gravity field recovery. For the IFFS, it is the relative position of the proof mass to its surrounding cavity that is feedback into thrusters for tracking control, even as part of data to detect gravity. Since the demonstration and verification of demanding technologies using small satellite platforms is a very sensible choice prior to detection mission, an optical power detection array system (OPDAS) is proposed to measure the relative position with advantages of low cost and high adaptability. Besides that, its large dynamic range can reduce the requirement for satellite platform and releasing mechanism, which is also an attracting trait for small satellite application. The concept of the OPDAS is firstly presented, followed by the algorithm to position the proof mass. Then the radiation pressure caused by the measuring beam is modeled, and its disturbance on the proof mass is simulated. The experimental system to test the performance of a prototype of the OPDAS is established, and the preliminary results show that a precision of less than 0.4 mm across a dynamic range of several centimeters can be reached by the prototype of the OPDAS.

  3. Predictable Technique to Register Retruded Contact Position (RCP) Using a Disposable Jaw Relation Recording Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Tony; Lobel, William A; Massad, Joseph; Ahuja, Swati; Danilov, Zarko Jack

    2015-05-01

    The dental literature presents various definitions and techniques to describe and register centric relation (CR) or centric occlusion (CO). Briefly reviewing the literature in relation to CR, this article proposes the use of the term retruded contact position (RCP), clinically defined as retruded, unstrained, repeatable position and where the mandibular movements start when a Gothic arch tracing is used. With this clinical definition, a technique can be easily selected that meets all the requirements of such position. The article discusses the use of a jaw recorder that is an intraorally graphic recording device that results in a tracing of mandibular movements in one plane, with the apex of the tracing indicating the retruded, unstrained, and repeatable relationship. The intersection of the arcs produced by the right and left working movement form the apex of the Gothic arch tracing. Several clinical situations using the jaw recorder are described. Clinicians can now quickly and accurately record RCP, balance complete, partial, or implant dentures, and orthopedically reposition the mandible. The technique achieves highly reliable and reproducible results.

  4. ULTOR(Registered TradeMark) Passive Pose and Position Engine For Spacecraft Relative Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, S. Joel

    2008-01-01

    The ULTOR(Registered TradeMark) Passive Pose and Position Engine (P3E) technology, developed by Advanced Optical Systems, Inc (AOS), uses real-time image correlation to provide relative position and pose data for spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control. Potential data sources include a wide variety of sensors, including visible and infrared cameras. ULTOR(Registered TradeMark) P3E has been demonstrated on a number of host processing platforms. NASA is integrating ULTOR(Registerd TradeMark) P3E into its Relative Navigation System (RNS), which is being developed for the upcoming Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4). During SM4 ULTOR(Registered TradeMark) P3E will perform realtime pose and position measurements during both the approach and departure phases of the mission. This paper describes the RNS implementation of ULTOR(Registered TradeMark) P3E, and presents results from NASA's hardware-in-the-loop simulation testing against the HST mockup.

  5. ABOUT THE LINEARITY OF THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith Castelli, Analia V.; Faifer, Favio R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de La Plata (CCT-La Plata, CONICET-UNLP), Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina); Gonzalez, Nelida M. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, La Plata, B1900FWA (Argentina); Forte, Juan Carlos, E-mail: asmith@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: ngonzalez@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: favio@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: forte@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [CONICET-Planetario de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires ' ' Galileo Galilei' ' , Av. Sarmiento y B. Roldan, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-20

    We revisit the color-magnitude relation of Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies in order to explore its alleged nonlinearity. To this aim, we reanalyze the relation already published from data obtained within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope and perform our own photometry and analysis of the images of 100 early-type galaxies observed as part of this survey. In addition, we compare our results with those reported in the literature from data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have found that when the brightest galaxies and untypical systems are excluded from the sample, a linear relation arises in agreement with what is observed in other groups and clusters. The central regions of the brightest galaxies also follow this relation. In addition, we notice that Virgo contains at least four compact elliptical galaxies besides the well-known object VCC 1297 (NGC 4486B). Their locations in the ({mu}{sub eff})-luminosity diagram define a trend different from that followed by normal early-type dwarf galaxies, setting an upper limit in effective surface brightness and a lower limit in the effective radius for their luminosities. Based on the distribution of different galaxy sub-samples in the color-magnitude and ({mu}{sub eff})-luminosity diagrams, we draw some conclusions on their formation and the history of their evolution.

  6. ABOUT THE LINEARITY OF THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Faifer, Favio R.; González, Nélida M.; Forte, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the color-magnitude relation of Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies in order to explore its alleged nonlinearity. To this aim, we reanalyze the relation already published from data obtained within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope and perform our own photometry and analysis of the images of 100 early-type galaxies observed as part of this survey. In addition, we compare our results with those reported in the literature from data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have found that when the brightest galaxies and untypical systems are excluded from the sample, a linear relation arises in agreement with what is observed in other groups and clusters. The central regions of the brightest galaxies also follow this relation. In addition, we notice that Virgo contains at least four compact elliptical galaxies besides the well-known object VCC 1297 (NGC 4486B). Their locations in the (μ eff )-luminosity diagram define a trend different from that followed by normal early-type dwarf galaxies, setting an upper limit in effective surface brightness and a lower limit in the effective radius for their luminosities. Based on the distribution of different galaxy sub-samples in the color-magnitude and (μ eff )-luminosity diagrams, we draw some conclusions on their formation and the history of their evolution

  7. Reciprocating linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  8. Relative measurements of fast neutron contamination in 18-MV photon beams from two linear accelerators and a betatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, D.; Bukovitz, A.G.; Rosen, J.C.; Holmes, B.G.

    1979-01-01

    Fast neutron contamination in photon beams in the 20 MV range have been reported in recent years. In order to determine if the variations were due mainly to differences in measurement procedures, or inherent in the design of the accelerators, three different 18-MV (BJR) photon beams were compared using identical analytical techniques. The units studied were a Philips SL/75-20 and a Siemens Mevatron-20 linear accelerators and a Schimadzu betatron. Gamma spectroscopy of an activated aluminum foil was the method used. By comparing the relative amounts of neutron contamination, errors associated with absolute measurements such as detector efficiency and differences in activation foils were eliminated. Fast neutron contaminations per rad of x rays in a ratio of 6.7:3.7:1 were found for the Philips, Schimadzu and Siemens accelerators, respectively

  9. Accuracy of velocities from repeated GPS surveys: relative positioning is concerned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Huseyin; Ugur Sanli, D.

    2016-04-01

    Over more than a decade, researchers have been interested in studying the accuracy of GPS positioning solutions. Recently, reporting the accuracy of GPS velocities has been added to this. Researchers studying landslide motion, tectonic motion, uplift, sea level rise, and subsidence still report results from GPS experiments in which repeated GPS measurements from short sessions are used. This motivated some other researchers to study the accuracy of GPS deformation rates/velocities from various repeated GPS surveys. In one of the efforts, the velocity accuracy was derived from repeated GPS static surveys using short observation sessions and Precise Point Positioning mode of GPS software. Velocities from short GPS sessions were compared with the velocities from 24 h sessions. The accuracy of velocities was obtained using statistical hypothesis testing and quantifying the accuracy of least squares estimation models. The results reveal that 45-60 % of the horizontal and none of the vertical solutions comply with the results from 24 h solutions. We argue that this case in which the data was evaluated using PPP should also apply to the case in which the data belonging to long GPS base lengths is processed using fundamental relative point positioning. To test this idea we chose the two IGS stations ANKR and NICO and derive their velocities from the reference stations held fixed in the stable EURASIAN plate. The University of Bern's GNSS software BERNESE was used to produce relative positioning solutions, and the results are compared with those of GIPSY/OASIS II PPP results. First impressions indicate that it is worth designing a global experiment and test these ideas in detail.

  10. Analysis of web-based online services for GPS relative and precise point positioning techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Ocalan

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Global Positioning System (GPS has been used effectively in several engineering applications for the survey purposes by multiple disciplines. Web-based online services developed by several organizations; which are user friendly, unlimited and most of them are free; have become a significant alternative against the high-cost scientific and commercial software on achievement of post processing and analyzing the GPS data. When centimeter (cm or decimeter (dm level accuracies are desired, that can be obtained easily regarding different quality engineering applications through these services. In this paper, a test study was conducted at ISKI-CORS network; Istanbul-Turkey in order to figure out the accuracy analysis of the most used web based online services around the world (namely OPUS, AUSPOS, SCOUT, CSRS-PPP, GAPS, APPS, magicGNSS. These services use relative and precise point positioning (PPP solution approaches. In this test study, the coordinates of eight stations were estimated by using of both online services and Bernese 5.0 scientific GPS processing software from 24-hour GPS data set and then the coordinate differences between the online services and Bernese processing software were computed. From the evaluations, it was seen that the results for each individual differences were less than 10 mm regarding relative online service, and less than 20 mm regarding precise point positioning service. The accuracy analysis was gathered from these coordinate differences and standard deviations of the obtained coordinates from different techniques and then online services were compared to each other. The results show that the position accuracies obtained by associated online services provide high accurate solutions that may be used in many engineering applications and geodetic analysis.

  11. Calculation of relative tube/tube support plate displacements in steam generators under accident condition loads using non-linear dynamic analysis methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.; Waisman, R.; Hu, M.H.; Frick, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    A non-linear analysis has been performed to determine relative motions between tubes and tube support plates (TSP) during a steam line break (SLB) event for steam generators. The SLB event results in blowdown of steam and water out of the steam generator. The fluid blowdown generates pressure drops across the TSPS, resulting in out-of-plane motion. The SLB induced pressure loads are calculated with a computer program that uses a drift-flux modeling of the two-phase flow. In order to determine the relative tube/TSP motions, a nonlinear dynamic time-history analysis is performed using a structural model that considers all of the significant component members relative to the tube support system. The dynamic response of the structure to the pressure loads is calculated using a special purpose computer program. This program links the various substructures at common degrees of freedom into a combined mass and stiffness matrix. The program accounts for structural non-linearities, including potential tube and TSP interaction at any given tube position. The program also accounts for structural damping as part of the dynamic response. Incorporating all of the above effects, the equations of motion are solved to give TSP displacements at the reduced set of DOF. Using the displacement results from the dynamic analysis, plate stresses are then calculated using the detailed component models. Displacements form the dynamic analysis are imposed as boundary conditions at the DOF locations, and the finite element program then solves for the overall distorted geometry. Calculations are also performed to assure that assumptions regarding elastic response of the various structural members and support points are valid

  12. FDG uptake in vaginal tampons is caused by urinary contamination and related to tampon position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Irene A.; Crook, David W.; Treyer, Valerie; Hany, Thomas F.; Schulthess, Gustav K. von; Scheiner, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the aetiology of FDG uptake in vaginal tampons (VT), a known artefact in premenopausal women evaluated by PET/CT. This Institutional Review Board approved study consisted of retrospective and prospective parts. The retrospective analysis included 685 women examined between January 2008 and December 2009 regarding VT presence. PET/CT images were analysed to determine the localization and the standardized uptake value (SUV) of VTs. We prospectively recruited 24 women (20-48 years old) referred for staging or follow-up in an oncology setting between February and April 2010, who were provided a commercial VT to be used during the entire examination after obtaining written informed consent. After image acquisition, VTs were individually analysed for creatinine concentration and blood traces. Statistical significance was tested with the Mann-Whitney U test. In the retrospective part, 38 of 685 women were found to have a VT of which 17 (45%) were FDG positive. A statistically significant correlation was found between FDG activity and VT position below the pubococcygeal line (PCL) (13 ± 11.2 mm). In the prospective study, 7 of 24 (29%) women had increased FDG activity in their VTs (SUV 18.8 ± 11 g/ml) but were not menstruating. FDG-positive VTs were significantly lower in position (14.6 ± 11.4 mm,below the PCL) than FDG-negative VTs (p = 0.039). The creatinine concentration was significantly increased in all seven positive VTs (931 ± 615 μmol/l). FDG uptake in VTs is caused by urine contamination, which is likely related to localization below the PCL resulting in contact with urine during voiding. (orig.)

  13. MDEP Design-Specific Common Position CP-EPRWG-02. Common position addressing Fukushima Daiichi-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    A severe accident involving several units took place in Japan at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) in March 2011. The immediate cause of the accident was an earthquake followed by a tsunami coupled with inadequate provisions against the consequences of such events in the design. Opportunities to improve protection against a realistic design basis tsunami were not taken. As a consequence of the tsunami, safety equipment and the related safety functions were lost at the plant, leading to core damage in three units and subsequently to large radioactive releases (INES 7). Several studies have already been performed to better understand the accident progression and detailed technical studies are still in progress in Japan and elsewhere. In the meantime, on-going studies on the behaviour of NPPs in very severe situations, similar to Fukushima Daiichi, seek to identify potential vulnerabilities in plant design and operation; to suggest reasonably practicable upgrades; or to recommend enhanced regulatory requirements and guidance to address such situations. Likewise, agencies around the world that are responsible for regulating the design, construction and operation of EPR plants are engaged in similar activities. The MDEP EPR Working Group (EPRWG) members consist of members from the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Finland, China, India and Sweden. Because not all of these countries have completed the regulatory review of their EPR applications yet, this paper identifies common preliminary approaches to address potential safety improvements for EPR plants, as well as common general expectations for new nuclear power plants, as related to lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident or Fukushima Daiichi-related issues. After the safety reviews of the EPR design applications that are currently in review are completed, the regulators will update this paper to reflect their safety conclusions regarding the EPR design and how the design could be

  14. Relative preservation of the recognition of positive facial expression "happiness" in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tomoharu; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2013-01-01

    Positivity recognition bias has been reported for facial expression as well as memory and visual stimuli in aged individuals, whereas emotional facial recognition in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients is controversial, with possible involvement of confounding factors such as deficits in spatial processing of non-emotional facial features and in verbal processing to express emotions. Thus, we examined whether recognition of positive facial expressions was preserved in AD patients, by adapting a new method that eliminated the influences of these confounding factors. Sensitivity of six basic facial expressions (happiness, sadness, surprise, anger, disgust, and fear) was evaluated in 12 outpatients with mild AD, 17 aged normal controls (ANC), and 25 young normal controls (YNC). To eliminate the factors related to non-emotional facial features, averaged faces were prepared as stimuli. To eliminate the factors related to verbal processing, the participants were required to match the images of stimulus and answer, avoiding the use of verbal labels. In recognition of happiness, there was no difference in sensitivity between YNC and ANC, and between ANC and AD patients. AD patients were less sensitive than ANC in recognition of sadness, surprise, and anger. ANC were less sensitive than YNC in recognition of surprise, anger, and disgust. Within the AD patient group, sensitivity of happiness was significantly higher than those of the other five expressions. In AD patient, recognition of happiness was relatively preserved; recognition of happiness was most sensitive and was preserved against the influences of age and disease.

  15. Cancer-related identity and positive affect in survivors of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizzi, Keith M; Blank, Thomas O

    2007-03-01

    Despite a shift in the cancer culture and language used to describe individuals diagnosed with this disease, the extent to which individuals with cancer adopt a particular cancer-related identity and the impact of these identities in relation to their well-being is virtually unknown. Using a cross-sectional study design and a metropolitan tumor registry, a mail questionnaire to examine post-treatment quality of life was sent to prostate cancer (PCa) survivors. The sample consisted of 490 PCa survivors, ranging in age from 49-88 (M = 69.7; SD = 7.8), one to eight years after diagnosis. The outcome measure used in these analyses was the PANAS to assess positive and negative affect. The most frequently reported cancer-related identity was "someone who has had PCa" (57%). The least reported self view was "victim" (1%). Twenty-six percent of men self-identified as "survivors" while 6% thought of themselves as "cancer conquerors." Only 9% self-identified as a "patient." Multivariate analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, show respondents who identified themselves as "survivors" or "cancer conquerors" reported significantly higher scores on positive affect than men who self-identified as "patients" (p < .001). Although the majority of respondents identified themselves as "someone who has had cancer," identifying as a "survivor" or "someone who has conquered cancer" appears to have adaptive value for positive mood. Those who perceive themselves as survivors of prostate cancer may derive some benefit in well-being associated with this self assessment.

  16. Desulfotomaculum spp. and related Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria in deep subsurface environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eAullo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive spore-forming sulfate reducers and particularly members of the genus Desulfotomaculum are commonly found in the subsurface biosphere by culture based and molecular approaches. Due to their metabolic versatility and their ability to persist as endospores. Desulfotomaculum spp. are well adapted for colonizing environments through a slow sedimentation process. Because of their ability to grow autotrophically (H2/CO2 and produce sulfide or acetate, these microorganisms may play key roles in deep lithoautotrophic microbial communities. Available data about Desulfotomaculum spp. and related species from studies carried out from deep freshwater lakes, marine sediments, oligotrophic and organic rich deep geological settings are discussed in this review.

  17. Self-reported oral and general health in relation to socioeconomic position

    OpenAIRE

    Hakeberg, Magnus; Wide Boman, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background During the past two decades, several scientific publications from different countries have shown how oral health in the population varies with social determinants. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between self-reported oral and general health in relation to different measures of socioeconomic position. Methods Data were collected from a randomly selected sample of the adult population in Sweden (n = 3500, mean age 53.4 years, 53.1% women). The r...

  18. Design and evaluation of antimalarial peptides derived from prediction of short linear motifs in proteins related to erythrocyte invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bianchin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood stage of the malaria causing parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to predict potential protein interactions between the parasite merozoite and the host erythrocyte and design peptides that could interrupt these predicted interactions. We screened the P. falciparum and human proteomes for computationally predicted short linear motifs (SLiMs in cytoplasmic portions of transmembrane proteins that could play roles in the invasion of the erythrocyte by the merozoite, an essential step in malarial pathogenesis. We tested thirteen peptides predicted to contain SLiMs, twelve of them palmitoylated to enhance membrane targeting, and found three that blocked parasite growth in culture by inhibiting the initiation of new infections in erythrocytes. Scrambled peptides for two of the most promising peptides suggested that their activity may be reflective of amino acid properties, in particular, positive charge. However, one peptide showed effects which were stronger than those of scrambled peptides. This was derived from human red blood cell glycophorin-B. We concluded that proteome-wide computational screening of the intracellular regions of both host and pathogen adhesion proteins provides potential lead peptides for the development of anti-malarial compounds.

  19. Positioning of the NOR-bearing chromosomes in relation to nucleoli in daughter cells after mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmárová, M; Smirnov, E; Kovácik, L; Popov, A; Raska, I

    2008-01-01

    It is known that chromosomes occupy non-random positions in the cell nucleus. However, it is not clear to what extent their nuclear positions, together with their neighborhood, are conserved in daughter cells. To address specific aspects of this problem, we used the model of the chromosomes carrying ribosomal genes that are organized in clusters termed Nucleolus Organizer Regions (NORs). We compared the association of chosen NOR-bearing chromosomes (NOR-chromosomes) with nucleoli, as well as the numbers of nucleoli, in the pairs of daughter cells, and established how frequently the daughter cells had equal numbers of the homologs of certain NOR-chromosomes associated with individual nucleoli. The daughter cells typically had different numbers of nucleoli. At the same time, using immuno-FISH with probes for chromosomes 14 and 15 in HeLa cells, we found that the cell pairs with identical combinations appeared significantly more frequently than predicted by the random model. Thus, although the total number of chromosomes associated with nucleoli is variable, our data indicate that the position of the NOR-bearing chromosomes in relation to nucleoli is partly conserved through mitosis.

  20. Real-Time Algorithm for Relative Position Estimation Between Person and Robot Using a Monocular Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Uk; Sun, Ju Young; Won, Mooncheol

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a real-time algorithm for estimating the relative position of a person with respect to a robot (camera) using a monocular camera. The algorithm detects the head and shoulder regions of a person using HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradient) feature vectors and an SVM (Support Vector Machine) classifier. The size and location of the detected area are used for calculating the relative distance and angle between the person and the camera on a robot. To increase the speed of the algorithm, we use a GPU and NVIDIA's CUDA library; the resulting algorithm speed is ∼ 15 Hz. The accuracy of the algorithm is compared with the output of a SICK laser scanner

  1. Relative motions of the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates estimated by the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements spanning approximately 3 years have been used to determine velocities for 7 sites on the Australian, Pacific and Antarctic plates. The site velocities agree with both plate model predictions and other space geodetic techniques. We find no evidence for internal deformation of the interior of the Australian plate. Wellington, New Zealand, located in the Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, moves 20 +/- 5 mm/yr west-southwest relative to the Australian plate. Its velocity lies midway between the predicted velocities of the two plates. Relative Euler vectors for the Australia-Antarctica and Pacific-Antarctica plates agree within one standard deviation with the NUVEL-1A predictions.

  2. Relative position control design of receiver UAV in flying-boom aerial refueling phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shuai; Yuan, Suozhong

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes the design of the relative position-keeping control of the receiver unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with the time-varying mass in the refueling phase utilizing an inner-outer loop structure. Firstly, the model of the receiver in the refueling phase is established. And then tank model is set up to analyze the influence of fuel transfer on the receiver. Subsequently, double power reaching law based sliding mode controller is designed to control receiver translational motion relative to tanker aircraft in the outer loop while active disturbance rejection control technique is applied to the inner loop to stabilize the receiver. In addition, the closed-loop stabilities of the subsystems are established, respectively. Finally, an aerial refueling model under various refueling strategies is utilized. Simulations and comparative analysis demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controllers. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-Time Algorithm for Relative Position Estimation Between Person and Robot Using a Monocular Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Uk [Samsung Electroics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Ju Young; Won, Mooncheol [Chungnam Nat' l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we propose a real-time algorithm for estimating the relative position of a person with respect to a robot (camera) using a monocular camera. The algorithm detects the head and shoulder regions of a person using HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradient) feature vectors and an SVM (Support Vector Machine) classifier. The size and location of the detected area are used for calculating the relative distance and angle between the person and the camera on a robot. To increase the speed of the algorithm, we use a GPU and NVIDIA's CUDA library; the resulting algorithm speed is ∼ 15 Hz. The accuracy of the algorithm is compared with the output of a SICK laser scanner.

  4. Material component to non-linear relation between sediment yield and drainage network development: an flume experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the experimental study on influence ofmaterial component to non linear relation between sediment yield and drainage network development completed in the Lab. The area of flume drainage system is 81.2 m2, the longitudinal gradient and cross section slope are from 0.0348 to 0.0775 and from 0.0115 to 0.038, respectively. Different model materials with a medium diameter of 0.021 mm, 0.076 mm and 0.066 mm cover three experiments each. An artificial rainfall equipment is a sprinkler-system composed of 7 downward nozzles, distributed by hexagon type and a given rainfall intensity is 35.56 mm/hr.cm2. Three experiments are designed by process-response principle at the beginning the ψ shaped small network is dug in the flume. Running time spans are 720 m, 1440 minutes and 540 minutes for Runs Ⅰ, Ⅳ and Ⅵ, respectively. Three experiments show that the sediment yield processes are characterized by delaying with a vibration. During network development the energy of a drainage system is dissipated by two ways, of which one is increasing the number of channels (rill and gully), and the other one is enlarging the channel length. The fractal dimension of a drainage network is exactly an index of energy dissipation of a drainage morphological system. Change of this index with time is an unsymmetrical concave curve. Comparison of three experiments explains that the vibration and the delaying ratio of sediment yield processes increase with material coarsening, while the number of channel decreases. The length of channel enlarges with material fining. There exists non-linear relationship between fractal dimension and sediment yield with an unsymmetrical hyperbolic curve. The bsolute value of delaying ratio of the curve reduces with time unning and material fining. It is characterized by substitution of situation to time.

  5. Recall of briefly presented chess positions and its relation to chess skill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Gong

    Full Text Available Individual differences in memory performance in a domain of expertise have traditionally been accounted for by previously acquired chunks of knowledge and patterns. These accounts have been examined experimentally mainly in chess. The role of chunks (clusters of chess pieces recalled in rapid succession during recall of chess positions and their relations to chess skill are, however, under debate. By introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique, this study identified individual chunks for particular chess players. The study not only tested chess players with increasing chess expertise, but also tested non-chess players who should not have previously acquired any chess related chunks in memory. For recall of game positions significant differences between players and non-players were found in virtually all the characteristics of chunks recalled. Size of the largest chunks also correlates with chess skill within the group of rated chess players. Further research will help us understand how these memory encodings can explain large differences in chess skill.

  6. Recall of briefly presented chess positions and its relation to chess skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanfei; Ericsson, K Anders; Moxley, Jerad H

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in memory performance in a domain of expertise have traditionally been accounted for by previously acquired chunks of knowledge and patterns. These accounts have been examined experimentally mainly in chess. The role of chunks (clusters of chess pieces recalled in rapid succession during recall of chess positions) and their relations to chess skill are, however, under debate. By introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique, this study identified individual chunks for particular chess players. The study not only tested chess players with increasing chess expertise, but also tested non-chess players who should not have previously acquired any chess related chunks in memory. For recall of game positions significant differences between players and non-players were found in virtually all the characteristics of chunks recalled. Size of the largest chunks also correlates with chess skill within the group of rated chess players. Further research will help us understand how these memory encodings can explain large differences in chess skill.

  7. High-precision relative position and attitude measurement for on-orbit maintenance of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Chen, Feng; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Ying

    2018-02-01

    In order to realize long-term on-orbit running of satellites, space stations, etc spacecrafts, in addition to the long life design of devices, The life of the spacecraft can also be extended by the on-orbit servicing and maintenance. Therefore, it is necessary to keep precise and detailed maintenance of key components. In this paper, a high-precision relative position and attitude measurement method used in the maintenance of key components is given. This method mainly considers the design of the passive cooperative marker, light-emitting device and high resolution camera in the presence of spatial stray light and noise. By using a series of algorithms, such as background elimination, feature extraction, position and attitude calculation, and so on, the high precision relative pose parameters as the input to the control system between key operation parts and maintenance equipment are obtained. The simulation results show that the algorithm is accurate and effective, satisfying the requirements of the precision operation technique.

  8. [Position of health at international relations. Part II. Organizational dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of some concepts and definitions related with "set up of health", used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of organizational dimensions of health at worldwide agenda. The following organizational dimensions of health were discussed: (a) health for all, (b) health promotion, intersectoral and multisectoral actions, health in all policies, (c) health development, health as an element of human development, (d) investment for health, (e) health diplomacy and (f) mainstreaming of health. The analysis was based on World Health Assembly and UN General Assembly resolutions as well as supranational reports and statements available through conventional channels, not grey literature. It is apparent that some of notions are not in common use in Poland, some seems to be unknown. It was argued that some general and discreet thoughts and statements concerning organizational aspects of health were expressed in the preamble of WHO Constitution. Nevertheless they are not comparable with later propositions and proceedings. The first modern concepts and notions related as process were developed at late seventies. They originated from efforts to realize a vision of health for all and formulate national policies, strategies and plans of action for attaining this goal. The turning point was in 1981, when WHA adopted Global Strategy for Heath for All by the Year 2000. Since then one can observe considerable progress and new concepts came into existence, more and more precise and better reflecting the sense of health actions. The evolution of organizational dimensions of health was described in the context of brand positioning. It was assumed that first step of positioning was concentrated on structural dimensions of health. That served to awareness raise, attitudes change and motivation to action. That made a foundation to the next step--positioning based on process approach to health. Among others the

  9. Food insufficiency, housing and health-related quality of life: results from the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Fielden, Sarah; Globerman, Jason; Koornstra, J J Jay; Hambly, Keith; Walker, Glen; Sobota, Michael; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Watson, James; Bekele, Tsegaye; Greene, Saara; Tucker, Ruthann; Hwang, Stephen W; Rourke, Sean B; Healthy Places Team, The Positive Spaces

    2015-01-01

    Studies of people living with HIV who are homeless or unstably housed show a high prevalence of food insufficiency (>50%) and associated poor health outcomes; however, most evidence is in the form of cross-sectional studies. To better understand this issue, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the impact of food insufficiency and housing instability on overall physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV in Ontario. Six hundred and two adults living with HIV were enrolled in the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study and followed from 2006 to 2009. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used, and generalized linear mixed-effects models constructed to examine longitudinal associations between food insufficiency, housing instability and physical and mental HRQoL. At baseline, 57% of participants were classified as food insufficient. After adjusting for potential confounders, longitudinal analyses revealed a significant, negative association between food insufficiency and physical and mental HRQoL outcomes, respectively [effect size (ES) with 95% confidence interval (CI): (ES = -2.1, CI = -3.9,-0.3); (ES = -3.5, CI = -6.1,-1.5)]. Furthermore, difficulties meeting housing costs were shown to have additional negative impacts on mental HRQoL. Food insufficiency is highly prevalent among people living with HIV in Ontario, particularly for those with unstable housing. This vulnerable group of individuals is in urgent need of changes to current housing programmes, services and policies, as well as careful consideration of their unmet nutritional needs.

  10. Multichannel linear descriptors analysis for event-related EEG of vascular dementia patients during visual detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wutao; Xu, Jin; Sheng, Hengsong; Zhao, Songzhen

    2011-11-01

    Multichannel EEG recorded in a task condition could contain more information about cognition. However, that has not been widely investigated in the vascular-dementia (VaD)- related studies. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences of brain functional states between VaD patients and normal controls while performing a detection task. Three multichannel linear descriptors, i.e. spatial complexity (Ω), field strength (Σ) and frequency of field changes (Φ), were applied to analyse four frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha and beta) of multichannel event-related EEG signals for 12 VaD patients (mean age ± SD: 69.25 ± 10.56 years ; MMSE score ± SD: 22.58 ± 4.42) and 12 age-matched healthy subjects (mean age ± SD: 67.17 ± 5.97 years ; MMSE score ± SD: 29.08 ± 0.9). The correlations between the three measures and MMSE scores were also analysed. VaD patients showed a significant higher Ω value in the delta (p = 0.013) and theta (p = 0.021) frequency bands, a lower Σ value (p = 0.011) and a higher Φ (p = 0.008) value in the delta frequency band compared with normal controls. The MMSE scores were negatively correlated with the Ω (r = -0.52, p = 0.01) and Φ (r = -0.47, p = 0.02) values in the delta frequency band. The results indicated the VaD patients presented a reduction of synchronization in the slow frequency band during target detection, and suggested more neurons might be activated in VaD patients compared with normal controls. The Ω and Φ measures in the delta frequency band might be used to evaluate the degree of cognitive dysfunction. The multichannel linear descriptors are promising measures to reveal the differences in brain functions between VaD patients and normal subjects, and could potentially be used to evaluate the degree of cognitive dysfunction in VaD patients. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adequate sleep among adolescents is positively associated with health status and health-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng Yi-Jong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amount of sleep is an important indicator of health and well-being in children and adolescents. Adequate sleep (AS: adequate sleep is defined as 6–8 hours per night regularly is a critical factor in adolescent health and health-related behaviors. The present study was based on a health promotion project previously conducted on adolescents in Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan. The aim was to examine the relationship between AS during schooldays and excessive body weight, frequency of visiting doctors and health-related behaviors among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study design, categorical and multivariate data analyses were used. The hypotheses investigated were: high frequency of AS is positively associated with lack of obesity and less frequent visits to doctors; and high frequency AS is positively associated with health-related behavior. Results A total of 656 boys (53.2% and girls (46.8%, ranging in age from 13–18 years were studied between January and June 2004. Three hundred and fifty seven subjects (54% reported that they slept less than the suggested 6–8 hours on schooldays. A significant negative association was found between low sleep and of the following health-related behaviors: (1 life appreciation; (2 taking responsibility for health; (3 adopting healthy diet; (4 effective stress management; (5 regular exercise; and (6 total AHP score. High frequency AS was associated with low frequencies of obesity after potential confounding factors were controlled. Junior high school adolescents reported significantly higher frequencies of AS than high school participants. Gender, family structure, home location and frequency of television watching or computer use were not significantly associated with AS. Conclusion These findings support the proposition that AS is associated with good health status and high-frequency adoption of health-related behavior. Furthermore, these findings suggest that inadequate

  12. COVAR: Computer Program for Multifactor Relative Risks and Tests of Hypotheses Using a Variance-Covariance Matrix from Linear and Log-Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif E. Peterson

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available A computer program for multifactor relative risks, confidence limits, and tests of hypotheses using regression coefficients and a variance-covariance matrix obtained from a previous additive or multiplicative regression analysis is described in detail. Data used by the program can be stored and input from an external disk-file or entered via the keyboard. The output contains a list of the input data, point estimates of single or joint effects, confidence intervals and tests of hypotheses based on a minimum modified chi-square statistic. Availability of the program is also discussed.

  13. Anti-TNFα Treatment for HLA-B27-Positive Ankylosing Spondylitis-Related Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mirinae; Won, Jae-Yon; Choi, Seung Yong; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Park, Young-Hoon

    2016-10-01

    To assess the long-term efficacy of the most widely used anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) agents for treatment of HLA-B27-positive ankylosing spondylitis (AS)-related uveitis. Retrospective cohort study. The medical records of 143 patients with HLA-B27-positive AS who visited Seoul St. Mary's Hospital and were taking an anti-TNFα agent for at least 1 year were studied. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to anti-TNFα treatment: Group 1 (infliximab, 66), Group 2 (adalimumab, 45), and Group 3 (etanercept, 32). Mean age was 41.0 ± 13.0 years, and 97 patients (67.8%) were male. Mean follow-up period was 70.6 ± 37.9 months. In cases of active ocular inflammation at the onset of anti-TNFα treatment, patients showed improved activity of uveitis after 24.0 ± 15.0 days (Group 1), 17.9 ± 6.0 days (Group 2), and 25.9 ± 18.0 days (Group 3). After the anti-TNFα treatment, 71 of 94 patients (32 [76.2%] in Group 1, 26 [78.8%] in Group 2, and 13 [68.4%] in Group 3) remained without uveitis relapse. A reduction in the number of systemic medications was achieved in 129 patients (90.2%). Twenty-eight cases of minor side effects were observed, and 4 cases were tuberculosis leading to discontinuation of anti-TNFα treatment. Infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept were effective for treating and reducing the number of uveitis relapses in HLA-B27-positive AS. However, the risk of serious infections was noted, so ophthalmologists should consider the possibility that prolonged use of biologic agents may result in systemic side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relative age effects in Swiss junior soccer and their relationship with playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to age differences between children in the same selection year. The present study investigated the prevalence of RAEs and their link to playing positions in Swiss junior soccer. Swiss male junior soccer players (n=50,581) representing 11% of the age-matched population - members of extra-curricular soccer teams - were evaluated to determine the influence of RAEs on Swiss junior soccer. Subgroups were the national talent development programme (n=2880), and U-15 to U-21 national teams (n=630). While no RAEs were found for the self-selected extra-curricular soccer teams or for the U-20 teams (P>0.05), significant RAEs were found for talent development and the national U-15 to U-19 and U-21 teams (Pborn early in the year were significantly overrepresented compared with goalkeepers, midfielders and strikers (Ptalent identification process for U-15 to U-18 teams, significantly influencing the selection of players in talent development teams already at an early age, but do not influence self-selected participation in extra-curricular soccer. Additionally, the RAE bias may be a predictor of playing positions in national teams. To minimise RAEs in Swiss soccer, systematic education for all coaches regarding RAEs should be established, in addition to a slotting system with rotating calendar cut-off dates.

  15. Extended space expectation values of position related operators for hydrogen-like quantum system evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The expectation value definitions over an extended space from the considered Hilbert space of the system under consideration is given in another paper of the second author in this symposium. There, in that paper, the conceptuality rather than specification is emphasized on. This work uses that conceptuality to investigate the time evolutions of the position related operators' expectation values not in its standard meaning but rather in a new version of the definition over not the original Hilbert space but in the space obtained by extensions via introducing the images of the given initial wave packet under the positive integer powers of the system Hamiltonian. These images may not be residing in the same space of the initial wave packet when certain singularities appear in the structure of the system Hamiltonian. This may break down the existence of the integrals in the definitions of the expectation values. The cure is the use of basis functions in the abovementioned extended space and the sandwiching of the target operator whose expectation value is under questioning by an appropriately chosen operator guaranteeing the existence of the relevant integrals. Work specifically focuses on the hydrogen-like quantum systems whose Hamiltonians contain a polar singularity at the origin

  16. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level.

  17. The Standardization Method of Address Information for POIs from Internet Based on Positional Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As points of interest (POIon the internet, exists widely incomplete addresses and inconsistent literal expressions, a fast standardization processing method of network POIs address information based on spatial constraints was proposed. Based on the model of the extensible address expression, first of all, address information of POI was segmented and extracted. Address elements are updated by means of matching with the address tree layer by layer. Then, by defining four types of positional relations, corresponding set are selected from standard POI library as candidate for enrichment and amendment of non-standard address. At last, the fast standardized processing of POI address information was achieved with the help of backtracking address elements with minimum granularity. Experiments in this paper proved that the standardization processing of an address can be realized by means of this method with higher accuracy in order to build the address database.

  18. Effect of relative nanohole position on colour purity of ultrathin plasmonic subtractive colour filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L B; Hu, X L; Zhang, D X; Zeng, Beibei; Wang, L S; Yang, S M; Tai, R Z; Fecht, H J; Jiang, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic subtractive color filters through patterning periodic nanostructures on ultrathin Ag films deposited on a glass substrate, exhibiting good durability, simple fabrication, and flexible color tunability, have attracted considerable attention due to their tremendous potential applications. While previous studies have mainly focused on their extraordinary physical mechanisms, color purity, which is another key parameter for high quality imaging applications, has been much less investigated. In this work, we demonstrate that the relative position of nanoholes patterned on ultrathin Ag films can largely affect the color purity of plasmonic subtractive color filters. The calculated results agree reasonably well with the experimental data, revealing that the purity of subtractive colors can be improved by changing the nanohole arrays from square lattice to triangular lattice without reducing transmission at visible frequencies. In addition, underlying mechanisms are clarified by systematically analyzing the dominant valley in transmission spectra. (paper)

  19. Neck Circumference Positively Related with Central Obesity and Overweight in Turkish University Students: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, İsmail; Tunçkale, Aydın

    2016-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization, central obesity is increasing alarmingly worldwide. Neck circumference is a relatively new method of differentiating between normal and abnormal fat distribution. The aim of this study is to determine the association between neck circumference and central obesity in young Turkish male and female university students. A community of university students based cross-sectional study was conducted on 319 males and 838 females and investigated the association between neck circumference and other anthropometric variables by gender. In male subjects, the neck circumference revealed a positive correlation with the body mass index (r=0.684, pobesity, is also applicable to university students. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  20. Some history and use of the random positioning machine, RPM, in gravity related research

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.

    The first experiments using machines and instruments to manipulate gravity and thus learn about its impact to this force onto living systems were performed by Sir Thomas Andrew Knight in 1806, exactly two centuries ago. What have we learned from these experiments and in particular what have we learned about the use of instruments to reveal the impact of gravity and rotation on plants and other living systems? In this essay I want to go into the use of instruments in gravity related research with emphases on the Random Positioning Machine, RPM. Going from water wheel via clinostat to RPM, we will address the usefulness and possible working principles of these hypergravity and mostly called microgravity, or better, micro-weight simulation techniques.

  1. Balance in Positive Emotional Expressivity across School Contexts Relates to Kindergartners' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Berger, Rebecca H.; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Southworth, Jody; Silva, Kassondra M.

    2018-01-01

    Positive emotional expressivity has been associated with increased social competence and decreased maladjustment in childhood. However, a few researchers have found null or even positive associations between positive emotional expressivity and maladjustment, which suggests that there may be nuanced associations of positive expressivity, perhaps as…

  2. Quality of life and related factors among HIV-positive spouses from serodiscordant couples under antiretroviral therapy in Henan Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Shan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the quality of life and related factors in HIV-positive spouses undergoing ART from discordant couples. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,009 HIV-positive spouses from serodiscordant couples in Zhumadian, Henan Province, between October 1, 2008 and March 31, 2009. HIV-positive spouses were interviewed by local health professionals. Quality of life was evaluated by WHOQOL (Chinese Version. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the related factors. RESULTS: The majority of subjects were female (56.39%, had received a high school education (44%, were of Han ethnicity (98.41%, and were farmers (90.09%; the median time period of receiving ART was 3.92 years. The physical, psychological, social, and environmental QOL scores of the subjects were 12.91±1.95, 12.35±1.80, 13.96±2.43, and 12.45±1.91 respectively. The multiple linear regression model identified the physical domain related factors to be CD4 count, educational level, and occupation; psychological domain related factors include age, educational level, and reported STD symptom; social domain related factors included education level; and environmental domain related factors included education level, reported STD symptoms, and occupation. CONCLUSION: Being younger, a farmer, having a lower level of education, a reported STD symptom, or lower CD4 count, could decrease one's quality of life, suggesting that the use of blanket ART programs alone may not necessarily improve quality of life. Subjects received lower scores in the psychological domain, suggesting that psychological intervention may also need to be strengthened.

  3. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  4. Some folded issues related to over-shielded and unplanned rooms for medical linear accelerators - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Wazir; Ullah, Asad; Hussain, Amjad; Ali, Nawab; Alam, Khan; Khan, Gulzar; Matiullah; Maeng, Seongjin; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2015-08-01

    A medical linear accelerator (LINAC) room must be properly shielded to limit the outside radiation exposure to an acceptable safe level defined by individual state and international regulations. However, along with this prime objective, some additional issues are also important. The current case-study was designed to unfold the issues related to over-shielded and unplanned treatment rooms for LINACs. In this connection, an apparently unplanned and over-shielded treatment room of 610 × 610 cm2 in size was compared with a properly designed treatment room of 762 × 762 cm2 in size ( i.e., by following the procedures and recommendations of the IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 47 and NCRP 151). Evaluation of the unplanned room indicated that it was over-shielded and that its size was not suitable for total body irradiation (TBI), although the license for such a treatment facility had been acquired for the installed machine. An overall 14.96% reduction in the total shielding volume ( i.e., concrete) for an optimally planned room as compared to a non-planned room was estimated. Furthermore, the inner room's dimensions were increased by 25%, in order to accommodate TBI patients. These results show that planning and design of the treatment rooms are imperative to avoid extra financial burden to the hospitals and to provide enough space for easy and safe handling of the patients. A spacious room is ideal for storing treatment accessories and facilitates TBI treatment.

  5. Linear constraint relations in biochemical reaction systems: I. Classification of the calculability and the balanceability of conversion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, R T; Heijnen, J J; Hellinga, C; Romein, B; Luyben, K C

    1994-01-05

    Measurements provide the basis for process monitoring and control as well as for model development and validation. Systematic approaches to increase the accuracy and credibility of the empirical data set are therefore of great value. In (bio)chemical conversions, linear conservation relations such as the balance equations for charge, enthalpy, and/or chemical elements, can be employed to relate conversion rates. In a pactical situation, some of these rates will be measured (in effect, be calculated directly from primary measurements of, e.g., concentrations and flow rates), as others can or cannot be calculated from the measured ones. When certain measured rates can also be calculated from other measured rates, the set of equations, the accuracy and credibility of the measured rates can indeed be improved by, respectively, balancing and gross error diagnosis. The balanced conversion rates are more accurate, and form a consistent set of data, which is more suitable for further application (e.g., to calculate nonmeasured rates) than the raw measurements. Such an approach has drawn attention in previous studies. The current study deals mainly with the problem of mathematically classifying the conversion rates into balanceable and calculable rates, given the subset of measured rates. The significance of this problem is illustrated with some examples. It is shown that a simple matrix equation can be derived that contains the vector of measured conversion rates and the redundancy matrix R. Matrix R plays a predominant role in the classification problem. In supplementary articles, significance of the redundancy matrix R for an improved gross error diagnosis approach will be shown. In addition, efficient equations have been derived to calculate the balanceable and/or calculable rates. The method is completely based on matrix algebra (principally different from the graph-theoretical approach), and it is easily implemented into a computer program. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons

  6. Biochemical aspects of the neoplastic cell in relation to positive indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, R.

    1975-01-01

    In scintigraphic diagnoses with positive indicators, the capacity of these indicators to fix themselves or to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic tissue is utilized. This selectivity could be due to several biochemical peculiarities of the tumor cells in relation to surrounding cells: the presence on the membrane of particular chemical groups which allow these cells to invade adjacent tissue without being subject to contact inhibition; the presence on these same membranes of antigenic determinants which are particular to these cells and which can be revealed with specific antibodies; a high concentration of nucleic acid in tumor cells, with the associated possibility of fixing substances having a particular tropism for nucleic acids or for their chemical constituents; an elevated rate of nucleic acid synthesis, with an associated increase in the incorporation of precursors and also of substances which specifically interfere with this biochemical pathway; in numerous cases, tumor cells produce high quantities of acidic metabolites which must be neutralized by equivalent quantities of anions, the latter entering the cells by active transport phenomena; in tumors which develop particularly rapidly, there is a development of degenerative processes with an accumulation of degradation products; in metastatic tumors, the cells have metabolic and biosynthetic activities which are a function of the original tissue, with the possiblity of a clear metabolic difference in relation to adjacent tissues [fr

  7. Mapping with MAV: Experimental Study on the Contribution of Absolute and Relative Aerial Position Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Skaloud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the benefit of precise aerial position control in the context of mapping using frame-based imagery taken by small UAVs. We execute several flights with a custom Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV octocopter over a small calibration field equipped with 90 signalized targets and 25 ground control points. The octocopter carries a consumer grade RGB camera, modified to insure precise GPS time stamping of each exposure, as well as a multi-frequency/constellation GNSS receiver. The GNSS antenna and camera are rigidly mounted together on a one-axis gimbal that allows control of the obliquity of the captured imagery. The presented experiments focus on including absolute and relative aerial control. We confirm practically that both approaches are very effective: the absolute control allows omission of ground control points while the relative requires only a minimum number of control points. Indeed, the latter method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified (e.g. the lever-arm between the camera perspective and antenna phase centers does not need to be determined and, second, its principle allows employing a single-frequency antenna and carrier-phase GNSS receiver. This reduces the cost of the system as well as the payload, which in turn increases the flying time.

  8. Not all developmental assets are related to positive health outcomes in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoli Daniel A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this investigation was to model the relationships between developmental assets, life satisfaction, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL among a stratified, random sample (n = 765, 56% response rate of college students. Methods Structural equation modeling techniques were employed to test the relationships using Mplus v4.21; Model evaluations were based on 1 theoretical salience, 2 global fit indices (chi-square goodness of fit, comparative fit index: CFI and Tucker-Lewis Index: TLI, 3 microfit indices (parameter estimates, root mean squared error of approximation: RMSEA and residuals and 4 parsimony. Results The model fit the data well: χ2(n = 581, 515 = 1252.23, CFI = .94, TLI = .93 and RMSEA = .05. First, participants who reported increased Family Communication also reported higher levels of life satisfaction. Second, as participants reported having more Non-Parental Role Models, life satisfaction decreased and poor mental HRQOL days increased. Finally increased Future Aspirations was related to increased poor mental HRQOL days. Results were variant across gender. Conclusions Preliminary results suggest not all developmental assets are related to positive health outcomes among college students, particularly mental health outcomes. While the findings for Family Communication were expected, the findings for Non-Parental Role Models suggest interactions with potential role models in college settings may be naturally less supportive. Future Aspirations findings suggest college students may harbor a greater temporal urgency for the rigors of an increasingly competitive work world. In both cases, these assets appear associated with increased poor mental HRQOL days.

  9. Prostate position relative to pelvic bony anatomy based on intraprostatic gold markers and electronic portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallenkamp, John M.; Herman, Michael G.; Kruse, Jon J.; Pisansky, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the relative positions and motions of the prostate, pelvic bony anatomy, and intraprostatic gold fiducial markers during daily electronic portal localization of the prostate. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate cancer patients were treated supine with definitive external radiotherapy according to an on-line target localization protocol using three or four intraprostatic gold fiducial markers and an electronic portal imaging device. Daily pretherapy and through-treatment electronic portal images (EPIs) were obtained for each of four treatment fields. The patients' pelvic bony anatomy, intraprostatic gold markers, and a best visual match to the target (i.e., prostate) were identified on simulation digitally reconstructed radiographs and during daily treatment setup and delivery. These data provided quantitative inter- and intrafractional analysis of prostate motion, its position relative to the bony anatomy, and the individual intraprostatic fiducial markers. Treatment planning margins, with and without on-line localization, were subsequently compared. Results: A total of 22,266 data points were obtained from daily pretherapy and through-treatment EPIs. The pretherapy three-dimensional (3D) average displacement of the fiducial markers, as a surrogate for the prostate, was 5.6 mm, which improved to 2.8 mm after use of the localization protocol. The bony anatomy 3D average displacement was 4.4 mm both before and after localization to the prostate (p = 0.46). Along the superior-inferior (SI), anterior-posterior (AP), and right-left (RL) axes, the average prostate displacement improved from 2.5, 3.7, and 1.9 mm, respectively, before localization to 1.4, 1.6, and 1.1 mm after (all p < 0.001). The pretherapy to through-treatment position of the bony landmarks worsened from 1.7 to 2.5 mm (p < 0.001) in the SI axis, remained statistically unchanged at 2.8 mm (p = 0.39) in the AP axis, and improved from 2.0 to 1.2 mm in the RL axis (p < 0.001). There

  10. cagA positive Helicobacter pylori in Brazilian children related to chronic gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lobo Gatti

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a spiral-shaped Gram-negative bacterium. It colonizes the gastric mucosa of humans and persists for decades if not treated. Helicobacter pylori infection affects more than half of the world's population and invariably results in chronic gastritis. The cagA gene is present in about 60 to 70% of H. pylori strains; it encodes a high-molecular-weight protein (120 to 140 kDa and several investigators have noted a correlation between strains that possess cagA and the severity of gastric mucosal inflammation. We examined the relation between cagA status in H. pylori strains and chronic gastritis with inflammatory processes in children from Marília, São Paulo, Brazil. One-hundred-twenty-one children were analyzed histopathologically and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect H. pylori and cagA. We then looked for an association between cagA presence and inflammatory infiltration. Using histology and PCR, we found 47% H. pylori positive infection; 29 children were diagnosed with chronic gastritis, while 28 showed normal mucosa by histopathological analysis. CagA presence was genotyped in both groups, and an inflammatory infiltrate was studied in all infected children with chronic gastritis. We found cagA strains in 20 of 29 (69% children with chronic gastritis and 18 of 28 (64% with normal mucosa, demonstrating a strong relationship between the strains and the inflammatory process. We found a positive association between an inflammatory process associated with H. pylori of cagA+ strains and chronic gastritis development.

  11. Pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated monocytes relates positively to muscle mass and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenakker, Karel G M; Westendorp, Rudi G J; de Craen, Anton J M; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Heemst, Diana; Maier, Andrea B

    2013-08-01

    In mice, monocytes that exhibit a pro-inflammatory profile enter muscle tissue after muscle injury and are crucial for clearance of necrotic tissue and stimulation of muscle progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to test if pro-inflammatory capacity of classically activated (M1) monocytes relates to muscle mass and strength in humans. This study included 191 male and 195 female subjects (mean age 64.2 years (SD 6.4) and 61.9 ± 6.4, respectively) of the Leiden Longevity Study. Pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes was assessed by ex vivo stimulation of whole blood with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TLR-2/1 agonist tripalmitoyl-S-glycerylcysteine (Pam₃Cys-SK₄), both M1 phenotype activators. Cytokines that stimulate M1 monocyte response (IFN-γ and GM-CSF) as well as cytokines that are secreted by M1 monocytes (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-1β) were measured. Analyses were adjusted for age, height, and body fat mass. Upon stimulation with LPS, the cytokine production capacity of INF-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α was significantly positively associated with lean body mass, appendicular lean mass and handgrip strength in men, but not in women. Upon stimulation with Pam₃Cys-SK₄, IL-6; TNF-α; and Il-1β were significantly positively associated with lean body mass and appendicular lean in women, but not in men. Taken together, this study shows that higher pro-inflammatory capacity of M1 monocytes upon stimulation is associated with muscle characteristics and sex dependent. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  12. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    OpenAIRE

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. Howe...

  13. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. However, the addition of positive reinforcement to escape extinction was associated with beneficial effects (e.g., greater decreases in negative vocalizations and inappropriate behavior) for some participants.

  14. The application in detection the position accuracy of the multi-leaf collimator of Varian linear accelerator with dynamic therapy log files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changhu; Xu Liming; Teng Jianjian; Ge Wei; Zhang Jun; Ma Guangdong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explorer the application in detection the position accuracy of the multileaf collimator of Varian accelerator with dynamic therapy log files. Methods: A pre-designed MLC format files named PMLC for two Varian accelerators, the dynamic treatment log files were recorded 10 times on a different date, and be converted into the MLC format files named DMLC, compared with the original plan PMLC, so we can analysis two files for each leaf position deviation. In addition, we analysis the repeatability of MLC leaves position accuracy between 10 dynalog files of two accelerators. Results: No statistically significant difference between the average position of the 10 times leaf position of the two accelerators,their were 0.29 -0.29 and 0.29 -0.30 (z = -0.77, P=0.442). About 40%, 30%, 20% and 10% of the leaf position deviation was at ≤0.2 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.4 mm, respectively. the maximum value was 0.5 mm. More than 86% of the leaf position are completely coincident between 10 dynamic treatment files of two accelerators. The rate of position deviation no more 0. 05 mm was 96. 6% and 97.3%, respectively. And the maximum value was 0.09 mm. Conclusions: Dynamic treatment log file is a splendid tool in testing the actual position of multi-leaf collimator. The multi-leaf collimator of two accelerators be detected are precise and stabilized. (authors)

  15. Relative position control and coalescence of independent microparticles using ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuang; Jia, Kun; Chen, Jian; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji

    2017-05-01

    Controlling the relative positions and coalescence of independent cells or microparticles is of particular importance for studying many physical phenomena, biological research, pharmaceutical tests, and chemical material processing. In this work, contactless maneuvering of two independent microparticles initially lying on a rigid surface was performed at a stable levitation height within a water-filled ultrasonic chamber. Three lead zirconate titanate transducers with 2 MHz thickness resonance frequency were obliquely mounted in a homemade device to form a sound field in a half space. By modulating the excitation voltage of a single transducer and the subsequent combination of amplitude and phase modulation, two separate 80 μm diameter silica beads were picked up from the chamber bottom, approached, and then coalesced to form a cluster in different ways. Both particles simultaneously migrated towards each other in the former process, while more dexterous movement with single-particle migration was realized for the other process. There is good agreement between the measured trajectories and theoretical predictions based on the theory of the first-order acoustic radiation force. The method introduced here also has the ability to form a cluster at any desired location in the chamber, which is promising for macromolecule processing ranging from the life sciences to biochemistry and clinical practice.

  16. Electromagnetic Field Analysis and Modeling of a Relative Position Detection Sensor for High Speed Maglev Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xue

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The long stator track for high speed maglev trains has a tooth-slot structure. The sensor obtains precise relative position information for the traction system by detecting the long stator tooth-slot structure based on nondestructive detection technology. The magnetic field modeling of the sensor is a typical three-dimensional (3-D electromagnetic problem with complex boundary conditions, and is studied semi-analytically in this paper. A second-order vector potential (SOVP is introduced to simplify the vector field problem to a scalar field one, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of series expansions according to Multipole Theory (MT and the New Equivalent Source (NES method. The coefficients of the expansions are determined by the least squares method based on the boundary conditions. Then, the solution is compared to the simulation result through Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The comparison results show that the semi-analytical solution agrees approximately with the numerical solution. Finally, based on electromagnetic modeling, a difference coil structure is designed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor.

  17. Electromagnetic field analysis and modeling of a relative position detection sensor for high speed maglev trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Song; He, Ning; Long, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    The long stator track for high speed maglev trains has a tooth-slot structure. The sensor obtains precise relative position information for the traction system by detecting the long stator tooth-slot structure based on nondestructive detection technology. The magnetic field modeling of the sensor is a typical three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic problem with complex boundary conditions, and is studied semi-analytically in this paper. A second-order vector potential (SOVP) is introduced to simplify the vector field problem to a scalar field one, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of series expansions according to Multipole Theory (MT) and the New Equivalent Source (NES) method. The coefficients of the expansions are determined by the least squares method based on the boundary conditions. Then, the solution is compared to the simulation result through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The comparison results show that the semi-analytical solution agrees approximately with the numerical solution. Finally, based on electromagnetic modeling, a difference coil structure is designed to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensor.

  18. THE USE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN PROJECTING AN ORGANIZATION'S POSITIVE IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical approach on the importance of using public relations in helping an organization to project a positive image. The study of the impact information has on the image of organisations seems to be an interesting research topic. Practice has proved that the image of institutions has a patrimonial value and it is sometimes essential in raising their credibility. It can be said that an image is defined as the representation of certain attitudes, opinions or prejudices concerning a person, a group of persons or the public opinion concerning an institution. In other words, an image is the opinion of a person, of a group of persons or of the public opinion regarding that institution. All specialists agree that a negative image affects, sometimes to an incredible extent, the success of an institution. In the contemporary age, we cannot speak about public opinion without taking into consideration the mass media as a main agent in transmitting the information to the public, with unlimited possibilities of influencing or forming it. The plan for the PR department starts with its own declaration of principles, which describes its roles and contribution to the organisation.

  19. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR SOCIAL POSITION IN THE CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Poledňová

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was based on a theoretical presumption that social climate and relationships in the class can be in specific ways connected with students’ achievement motivation. Previous research in the area of student motivation was mostly based on self-reports and was therefore focused on explicit motives, i.e. personal goals which the respondents strived for. Self-report measures of motivation, however, can be affected by biases and misperceptions of one’s own self. Our study approached achievement motivation at its implicit, i.e. non-conscious level. It was conducted with students in five classes of a secondary school, N = 138, 107 female and 31 male, with an average age of 17 years. The respondents were administered a sociometric questionnaire and the projective Thematic Apperception Test (TAT in McClelland´s adaptation using Heckhausen´s content-analytical clue for the measurement of achievement motivation. The hypothesized relation between social position in class and achievement motivation was only partly supported. Affiliation was unrelated to achievement motivation, even when analyzed for both achievement motives separately. We found a slight negative relationship between influence in the class and achievement motivation, especially with the motive to achieve success. These results, partly diverging from theoretical presumptions, can be explained in terms of specific features of the sample as well as a general methodological disparity in previous research, especially a lack of differentiation between implicit and explicit motives in the interpretation of the findings.

  20. Detection of vehicle parts based on Faster R-CNN and relative position information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingwen; Sang, Nong; Chen, Youbin; Gao, Changxin; Wang, Yongzhong

    2018-03-01

    Detection and recognition of vehicles are two essential tasks in intelligent transportation system (ITS). Currently, a prevalent method is to detect vehicle body, logo or license plate at first, and then recognize them. So the detection task is the most basic, but also the most important work. Besides the logo and license plate, some other parts, such as vehicle face, lamp, windshield and rearview mirror, are also key parts which can reflect the characteristics of vehicle and be used to improve the accuracy of recognition task. In this paper, the detection of vehicle parts is studied, and the work is novel. We choose Faster R-CNN as the basic algorithm, and take the local area of an image where vehicle body locates as input, then can get multiple bounding boxes with their own scores. If the box with maximum score is chosen as final result directly, it is often not the best one, especially for small objects. This paper presents a method which corrects original score with relative position information between two parts. Then we choose the box with maximum comprehensive score as the final result. Compared with original output strategy, the proposed method performs better.

  1. Using a retention in care protocol to promote positive health and systems related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, Alfred A; Spielberg, Freya; Kamanu Elias, Nnemdi; Athey, Erin; Ogbuawa, Ngozi; Murphy, Nancy

    2018-04-18

    People living with HIV can experience the full benefits of retention when they are continuously engaged in care. Continuous engagement in care promotes improved adherence to ART and positive health outcomes. An infectious disease clinic has implemented a protocol to primarily improve patient retention. The retrospective, facility-based, costing study took place in an infectious disease clinic in Washington DC. Retention was defined in two ways and over a 12-month period. Micro-costing direct measurement methods were used to collect unit costs in time series. Return on investment accounted for the cost of treatment based on CD4 strata. ROI was expressed in 2016USD. The difference in CD4 and viral load levels between the two periods of analysis were determined for active patients, infected with HIV. The year before the intervention was compared to the year of the intervention. Total treatment expenditure decreased from $2,435,653.00 to $2,283,296.23, resulting in a $152,356.77 gain from investment for the healthcare system over a 12-month investment period. The viral load suppression rate increased from 81 to 95 (p = 0.04) over the investment period. The number of patients in need of HIV related opportunistic infection prophylaxis decreased from 21 to 13 (p = 0.06). Improved immunologic, virologic and healthcare expenditure outcomes can be linked to the quality of retention practice.

  2. Relative position vectors: an alternative approach to conflict detection in air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic, Anita; Sanderson, Penelope; Neal, Andrew; Gaukrodger, Stephen; Wong, B L William

    2013-10-01

    We explore whether the visual presentation of relative position vectors (RPVs) improves conflict detection in conditions representing some aspects of future airspace concepts. To help air traffic controllers manage increasing traffic, new tools and systems can automate more cognitively demanding processes, such as conflict detection. However, some studies reveal adverse effects of such tools, such as reduced situation awareness and increased workload. New displays are needed that help air traffic controllers handle increasing traffic loads. A new display tool based on the display of RPVs, the Multi-Conflict Display (MCD), is evaluated in a series of simulated conflict detection tasks. The conflict detection performance of air traffic controllers with the MCD plus a conventional plan-view radar display is compared with their performance with a conventional plan-view radar display alone. Performance with the MCD plus radar was better than with radar alone in complex scenarios requiring controllers to find all actual or potential conflicts, especially when the number of aircraft on the screen was large. However performance with radar alone was better for static scenarios in which conflicts for a target aircraft, or target pair of aircraft, were the focus. Complementing the conventional plan-view display with an RPV display may help controllers detect conflicts more accurately with extremely high aircraft counts. We provide an initial proof of concept that RPVs may be useful for supporting conflict detection in situations that are partially representative of conditions in which controllers will be working in the future.

  3. Swedish fathers' experiences of childbirth in relation to maternal birth position: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Margareta; Thies-Lagergren, Li

    2015-12-01

    Fathers often want to be involved in labour and birth. To investigate how maternal birth position during second stage of labour may influence fathers' experience of childbirth. Mixed method study with 221 Swedish fathers completing an on-line questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis were used. In total 174 (78.7%) had a positive overall birth experience. The theme An emotional life-changing event influenced by the birth process and the structure of obstetrical care was revealed and included the categories; Midwives ability to be professional, The birth process' impact, and Being prepared to participate. The most frequently utilised birth position during a spontaneous vaginal birth was birth seat (n=83; 45.1%), and the fathers in this group were more likely to assess the birth position as very positive (n=40; 54.8%) compared to other upright and horizontal birth positions. Fathers with a partner having an upright birth position were more likely to have had a positive birth experience (p=0.048), to have felt comfortable (p=0.003) and powerful (p=0.019) compared to women adopting a horizontal birth position during a spontaneous vaginal birth. When the women had an upright birth position the fathers deemed the second stage of labour to have been more rapid (mean VAS 7.01 vs. 4.53) compared to women in a horizontal birth position. An upright birth position enhances fathers' experience of having been positively and actively engaged in the birth process. Midwives can enhance fathers' feelings of involvement and participation by attentiveness through interaction and communicating skills. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  5. Running pace decrease during a marathon is positively related to blood markers of muscle damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Completing a marathon is one of the most challenging sports activities, yet the source of running fatigue during this event is not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause(s of running fatigue during a marathon in warm weather. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited 40 amateur runners (34 men and 6 women for the study. Before the race, body core temperature, body mass, leg muscle power output during a countermovement jump, and blood samples were obtained. During the marathon (27 °C; 27% relative humidity running fatigue was measured as the pace reduction from the first 5-km to the end of the race. Within 3 min after the marathon, the same pre-exercise variables were obtained. RESULTS: Marathoners reduced their running pace from 3.5 ± 0.4 m/s after 5-km to 2.9 ± 0.6 m/s at the end of the race (P 15% pace reduction had elevated post-race myoglobin (1318 ± 1411 v 623 ± 391 µg L(-1; P<0.05, lactate dehydrogenase (687 ± 151 v 583 ± 117 U L(-1; P<0.05, and creatine kinase (564 ± 469 v 363 ± 158 U L(-1; P = 0.07 in comparison with marathoners that preserved their running pace reasonably well throughout the race. However, they did not differ in their body mass change (-3.1 ± 1.0 v -3.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.60 or post-race body temperature (38.7 ± 0.7 v 38.9 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.35. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Running pace decline during a marathon was positively related with muscle breakdown blood markers. To elucidate if muscle damage during a marathon is related to mechanistic or metabolic factors requires further investigation.

  6. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children’s Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors on children’s depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children’s depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors. Structural equation modeling indicated that supportive–positive and harsh–negative p...

  7. Measurements of the relative backscatter contribution to the monitor chamber for modern medical linear accelerators; A multi-center study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibolt, Patrik; Cronholm, Rickard O.; Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg

    2015-01-01

    Conversion to absolute dose in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of MV radiotherapy beams needs correct modeling of backscatter (BS) to the linear accelerator (linac) monitor chamber. For some linacs the BS depends largely on jaw settings. The backscattered fraction (BSF) of radiation can be determined...... BSF measurements were compared with MC simulations performed using the BEAMnrc user code. For flattened beams on the Varian linacs, the measured BSF exhibited a clear linear correlation with square jaw settings (correlation coefficient r > 0.9 with p

  8. Positive and negative expressions of shyness in toddlers: are they related to anxiety in the same way?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colonnesi, C.; Napoleone, E.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shyness has generally been investigated as a negative and unpleasant emotional state, strongly related to social anxiety and loneliness. However, recent evidence suggests that shyness may have a positive and socially adaptive form. We examined whether the positive expression of shyness differs from

  9. How Does Attention Relate to the Ability-Specific and Position-Specific Components of Reasoning Measured by APM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuezhu; Goldhammer, Frank; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Schweizer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the nature of the ability-specific and position-specific components of Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) by relating them to a number of types of attention. The ability-specific component represents the constant part of cognitive performance whereas the position-specific component reflects the…

  10. Free energy of activation. Definition, properties, and dependent variables with special reference to linear free energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction rate constant is expressed as Z exp(-G/sub a//RT). Z is the binary collision frequency. G/sub a/, the free energy of activation, is shown to be the difference between the free energy of the reactive reactants and the free energy of all reactants. The results are derived from both a statistical mechanical and a collision theoretic point of view. While the later is more suitable for an ab-initio computation of the reaction rate, it is the former that lends itself to the search of systematics and of correlations and to compaction of data. Different thermodynamic-like routes to the characterization of G/sub a/ are thus explored. The two most promising ones appear to be the use of thermodynamic type cycles and the changes of dependent variables using the Legendre transform technique. The dependence of G/sub a/ on ΔG 0 , the standard free energy change in the reaction, is examined from the later point of view. It is shown that one can rigorously express this dependence as G/sub a/ = αΔG 0 + G/sub a/ 0 M(α). Here α is the Bronsted slope, α = -par. delta ln k(T)/par. delta(ΔG 0 /RT), G/sub a/ 0 is independent of ΔG 0 and M(α), the Legendre transform of G/sub a/, is a function only of α. For small changes in ΔG 0 , the general result reduces to the familiar ''linear'' free energy relation delta G/sub a/ = α delta ΔG 0 . It is concluded from general considerations that M(α) is a symmetric, convex function of α and hence that α is a monotonically increasing function of ΔG 0 . Experimental data appear to conform well to the form α = 1/[1 + exp(-ΔG 0 /G/sub s/ 0 )]. A simple interpretation of the ΔG 0 dependence of G/sub a/, based on an interpolation of the free energy from that of the reagents to that of the products, is offered. 4 figures, 69 references

  11. Patterns of Failure After Proton Therapy in Medulloblastoma; Linear Energy Transfer Distributions and Relative Biological Effectiveness Associations for Relapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Roshan V.; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Raiford, Michael; Malhi, Imran; Niemierko, Andrzej; Rapalino, Otto; Caruso, Paul; Yock, Torunn I.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Paganetti, Harald; MacDonald, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The pattern of failure in medulloblastoma patients treated with proton radiation therapy is unknown. For this increasingly used modality, it is important to ensure that outcomes are comparable to those in modern photon series. It has been suggested this pattern may differ from photons because of variations in linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). In addition, the use of matching fields for delivery of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) may influence patterns of relapse. Here we report the patterns of failure after the use of protons, compare it to that in the available photon literature, and determine the LET and RBE values in areas of recurrence. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of patients with medulloblastoma treated with proton radiation therapy at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) between 2002 and 2011. We documented the locations of first relapse. Discrete failures were contoured on the original planning computed tomography scan. Monte Carlo calculation methods were used to estimate the proton LET distribution. Models were used to estimate RBE values based on the LET distributions. Results: A total of 109 patients were followed for a median of 38.8 months (range, 1.4-119.2 months). Of the patients, 16 experienced relapse. Relapse involved the supratentorial compartment (n=8), spinal compartment (n=11), and posterior fossa (n=5). Eleven failures were isolated to a single compartment; 6 failures in the spine, 4 failures in the supratentorium, and 1 failure in the posterior fossa. The remaining patients had multiple sites of disease. One isolated spinal failure occurred at the spinal junction of 2 fields. None of the 70 patients treated with an involved-field-only boost failed in the posterior fossa outside of the tumor bed. We found no correlation between Monte Carlo-calculated LET distribution and regions of recurrence. Conclusions: The most common site of failure in patients treated with protons for

  12. Comparison of x ray computed tomography number to proton relative linear stopping power conversion functions using a standard phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F

    2014-06-01

    Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institute sponsored clinical trials. A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote standardization between facilities. Although it

  13. Test Results of an F/A-18 Automatic Carrier Landing Using Shipboard Relative Global Positioning System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sousa, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Defense's Joint Precision Approach and Landing System program, the Navy is responsible for developing the shipboard coreponent, termed Shipboard Relative Global Positioning System (SRGPS...

  14. The amplitude of the Achilles tendon reflex in infants is related to body position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Bos, Arend F.; vd Hoeven, Johannes H.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Sollie, Krystyna M.; Sival, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the Achilles tendon reflex (ATR) in healthy infants is modulated by changes in body position (prone vs. supine). The amplitude of the ATR was compared at postnatal day 1, months 2, 3 and 6, while infants were placed in prone and supine position. The ATR was

  15. Viral Richness is Positively Related to Group Size, but Not Mating System, in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Quinn M R; Fletcher, Quinn E; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing host traits that influence viral richness and diversification is important for understanding wildlife pathogens affecting conservation and/or human health. Behaviors that affect contact rates among hosts could be important for viral diversification because more frequent intra- and inter-specific contacts among hosts should increase the potential for viral diversification within host populations. We used published data on bats to test the contact-rate hypothesis. We predicted that species forming large conspecific groups, that share their range with more heterospecifics (i.e., sympatry), and with mating systems characterized by high contact rates (polygynandry: multi-male/multi-female), would host higher viral richness than species with small group sizes, lower sympatry, or low contact-rate mating systems (polygyny: single male/multi-female). Consistent with our hypothesis and previous research, viral richness was positively correlated with conspecific group size although the relationship plateaued at group sizes of approximately several hundred thousand bats. This pattern supports epidemiological theory that, up to a point, larger groups have higher contact rates, greater likelihood of acquiring and transmitting viruses, and ultimately greater potential for viral diversification. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no effect of sympatry on viral richness and no difference in viral richness between mating systems. We also found no residual effect of host phylogeny on viral richness, suggesting that closely related species do not necessarily host similar numbers of viruses. Our results support the contact-rate hypothesis that intra-specific viral transmission can enhance viral diversification within species and highlight the influence of host group size on the potential of viruses to propagate within host populations.

  16. Positive psychological interventions for people with epilepsy: An assessment on factors related to intervention participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Siew-Tim; Lim, Kheng-Seang; Tang, Venus; Low, Wah-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Positive psychological interventions (PPI) are increasingly employed as a coping strategy with physical and mental conditions, including neurological diseases. Its effectiveness on improving wellbeing in people with epilepsy (PWE) has been shown in a few studies. This study aimed to explore factors related to participants' willingness to engage in psychological interventions from the perspective of patients with epilepsy. Participants answered a needs assessment questionnaire eliciting information about their illness perception (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief-IPQ)), emotions (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), willingness to participate in psychological interventions, preferences in types of PPI and intervention designs, as well as barriers in seeking mental health services. A total of 154 patients with epilepsy participated, with a mean age of 37.3years (range 16-86years). Most patients had focal epilepsy (68.2%), and drug-resistant (59.1%). Majority (71.4%) of them indicated a strong willingness to participate in PPI. Out of nine types of PPI, character strengths, mindfulness-based and expressive-based interventions were highly preferred. Those with negative illness perception (p=0.001), anxiety (p=0.004), and being unemployed (p=0.048) were more willing to participate in PPI. Most participants preferred group rather than individual session, and a shorter duration (30min) was favored by most. This study captured the self-report willingness to participate in psychological interventions. Findings suggested that psychological interventions delivered in short-group session were highly preferred. Future study is required to determine the feasibility of such design for patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interim staff position on environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment: including staff responses to public comments. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    This document provides the NRC staff positions regarding selected areas of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment, in the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-24, 'Qualification of Class IE Safety-Related Equipment.' The positions herein are applicable to plants that are or will be in the construction permit (CP) or operating license (OL) review process and that are required to satisfy the requirements set forth in either the 1971 or the 1974 version of IEEE-323 standard

  18. HIV-related stigma and optimism as predictors of anxiety and depression among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick J; Garrido-Hernansaiz, Helena; Mulcahy, Fiona; Hevey, David

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between forms of HIV-related optimism, HIV-related stigma, and anxiety and depression among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. HIV health optimism (HHO) and HIV transmission optimism (HTO) were hypothesised to be protective factors for anxiety and depression, while the components of HIV-related stigma (enacted stigma, disclosure concerns, concern with public attitudes, and internalised stigma) were hypothesised to be risk factors. Data were collected from 278 HIV-positive MSM using an online questionnaire. The prevalence of psychological distress was high, with close to half (48.9%) of all participants reporting symptoms of anxiety, and more than half (57.9%) reporting symptoms of depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that both anxiety and depression were positively predicted by internalised stigma and enacted stigma, and negatively predicted by HHO. For both anxiety and depression, internalised stigma was the strongest and most significant predictor. The results highlight the continued psychological burden associated with HIV infection among MSM, even as community support services are being defunded across the United Kingdom and Ireland. The results point to the need for clinicians and policy makers to implement stigma reduction interventions among this population.

  19. An efficient synthesis of linear β-(1→6)-galactan oligosaccharides related to plant cell wall glycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch; Arentoft, Camilla Anna Søholt; Boos, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Galactans are linear structures mainly found in arabinogalactan glycans and RG-I side chains. As a follow-up to our work on both β-(1→3)-linked and β-(1→4)-linked galactans, we herein report a convergent synthesis of β-(1→6)-galactan using our previously synthesized 4,6-benzylidene protected disa...

  20. Production of positive pions from polarized protons by linearly polarized photons in the energy region 300--420 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Get' man, V.A.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Grushin, V.F.; Derkach, A.Y.; Zhebrovskii, Y.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kolesnikov, L.Y.; Luchanin, A.A.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sanin, V.M.; Sorokin, P.V.; Sporov, E.A.; Telegin, Y.N.; Shalatskii, S.V.

    1980-10-01

    A technique for measurement of the polarization observables ..sigma.., P, and T for the reaction ..gamma..p..-->..n..pi../sup +/ in a doubly polarized experiment (polarized proton target + linearly polarized photon beam) is described. Measurements of the angular distributions of these observables in the range of pion emission angles 30--150/sup 0/ are presented for four photon energies from 300 to 420 MeV. Inclusion of the new experimental data in an energy-independent multipole analysis of photoproduction from protons permits a more reliable selection of solutions to be made.

  1. Frequency of head-impact-related outcomes by position in NCAA division I collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kiernan, Patrick T; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Montenigro, Philip H; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and "dings" (pfootball season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion.

  2. Frequency of Head-Impact–Related Outcomes by Position in NCAA Division I Collegiate Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Patrick T.; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Montenigro, Philip H.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and “dings” (pfootball season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion. PMID:25155288

  3. Problematic smartphone use and relations with negative affect, fear of missing out, and fear of negative and positive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniewicz, Claire A; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Weeks, Justin W; Elhai, Jon D

    2018-04-01

    For many individuals, excessive smartphone use interferes with everyday life. In the present study, we recruited a non-clinical sample of 296 participants for a cross-sectional survey of problematic smartphone use, social and non-social smartphone use, and psychopathology-related constructs including negative affect, fear of negative and positive evaluation, and fear of missing out (FoMO). Results demonstrated that FoMO was most strongly related to both problematic smartphone use and social smartphone use relative to negative affect and fears of negative and positive evaluation, and these relations held when controlling for age and gender. Furthermore, FoMO (cross-sectionally) mediated relations between both fear of negative and positive evaluation with both problematic and social smartphone use. Theoretical implications are considered with regard to developing problematic smartphone use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Imagined futures in living with multiple conditions : positivity, relationality and hopelessness.

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, L.A.; Atkinson, S.

    2018-01-01

    Hope serves as an overarching concept for a range of engagements that demonstrate the benefits of a positive outlook for coping with chronic conditions of ill-health and disability. A dominant engagement through medicine has positioned hope as a desirable attribute and its opposite, hopelessness, as pathological. In this engagement hope is individual, internally located and largely cognitive and able to be learned. Attaining hope reflects a process of coming to terms with the losses associate...

  5. Obesity-related behaviors among poor adolescents and young adults: Is social position associated with risk behaviors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position—community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data is taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g. diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and young adults who have dropped out of school and those with lower perceived relative social position within their community are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors than those with higher relative social position. We conclude that youth-specific measures may be important in identifying the most at

  6. [Treatment of supine position-related obstructive sleep apnea with smartphone applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, D; Birk, R; Maurer, J T; Hörmann, K; Stuck, B A; Sommer, J U

    2017-02-01

    Positional obstructive sleep apnea (POSA) is common in mild and moderate forms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Two smartphone applications (apps) professing to avoid the supine position (SP) are available: for Android the "Apnea Sleep Position Trainer" and for iOS the "SomnoPose-Sleep Position Monitor". The smartphone needs to be attached to the chest to recognize SP, which then triggers a vibration alarm. This is intended to encourage the patient to change position and the vibration stops as soon as SP is left. These apps, however, have not yet undergone a systematic evaluation. Adult patients with polysomnographically diagnosed POSA were invited to participate in the study. POSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in SP >10, with AHI in a lateral position sleep time and to an overall AHI smartphone apps have the capability to prevent PS in POSA patients and can potentially offer a cost-effective option in the treatment of POSA.

  7. Alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations: drinking motives, working memory capacity, and prospective drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemink, Elske; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-03-01

    Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word-Sentence Association Task was used to assess implicit alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations in 92 participants. Results revealed that enhancement motives were specifically associated with the endorsement of alcohol words in positive affect situations and coping motives were associated with the endorsement of alcohol words in negative affect situations. Furthermore, alcohol associations in positive affect situations predicted prospective alcohol use and number of binges, depending on levels of working memory capacity. The current findings shed more light on the underpinnings of alcohol use and suggest that implicit memory processes and working memory capacity might be important targets for intervention.

  8. Metrical analysis of disc-condyle relation with different splint treatment positions in patients with TMJ disc displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Qing Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of bite positions characterizing different splint treatments (anterior repositioning and stabilization splints on the disc-condyle relation in patients with TMJ disc displacement with reduction (DDwR, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Material and Methods: 37 patients, with a mean age of 18.8±4.3 years (7 male and 30 females and diagnosed with DDwR based on the RDC/TMD, were recruited. MRI metrical analysis of the spatial changes of the disc/condyle, as well as their relationships, was done in three positions: maximum intercuspation (Position 1, anterior repositioning splint position (Position 2, and stabilization splint position (Position 3. Disc/condyle coordinate measurements and disc condyle angles were determined and compared. Results: In Position 1, the average disc-condyle angle was 53.4° in the 60 joints with DDwR, while it was −13.3° with Position 2 and 30.1° with Position 3. The frequency of successful "disc recapture" with Position 2 was significantly higher (58/60, 96.7% than Position 3 (20/60, 33.3%. In Positions 2 and 3, the condyle moved forward and downward while the disc moved backward. The movements were, however, more remarkable with Position 2. Conclusions: Anterior repositioning of the mandible improves the spatial relationship between the disc and condyle in patients with DDwR. In addition to anterior and inferior movement of the condyle, transitory posterior movement of the disc also occurred.

  9. Relations between broad-band linear polarization and Ca II H and K emission in late-type dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovelin, Juhani; Saar, Steven H.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1988-01-01

    Broadband UBV linear polarization data acquired for a sample of late-type dwarfs are compared with contemporaneous measurements of Ca II H and K line core emission. A weighted average of the largest values of the polarization degree is shown to be the best parameter for chromospheric activity diagnosis. The average maximum polarization in the UV is found to increase from late-F to late-G stars. It is noted that polarization in the U band is considerably more sensitive to activity variations than that in the B or V bands. The results indicate that stellar magnetic fields and the resulting saturation in the Zeeman-sensitive absorption lines are the most probably source of linear polarization in late-type main-sequence stars.

  10. Relation between nonlinear or 'not-linear' characteristics in nuclear kinetics and noise analysis of neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, H.

    1975-01-01

    The 'not-linear' or '2nd-class-nonlinear' characteristics in nuclear reactor kinetics with the feedback effect in the high-power operation and induce the increase in the amplitude of the neutron flux noise, specially in the very low frequency region. The fundamental behaviour of 'not-linear' characteristics and its effect for the reactor noise was investigated. Application of the reactor noise analysis technique to power reactors has not been successful because of unknown large disagreement between the result of the conventional theoretical analysis and the experimental facts. When the cause of this discrepancy is clear, reactor noise analysis techniques can be effectively applied to instrumentation, control, monitoring and diagnosis of power reactors. (author)

  11. The Schrödinger representation and its relation to the holomorphic representation in linear and affine field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeckl, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We establish a precise isomorphism between the Schrödinger representation and the holomorphic representation in linear and affine field theory. In the linear case, this isomorphism is induced by a one-to-one correspondence between complex structures and Schrödinger vacua. In the affine case we obtain similar results, with the role of the vacuum now taken by a whole family of coherent states. In order to establish these results we exhibit a rigorous construction of the Schrödinger representation and use a suitable generalization of the Segal-Bargmann transform. Our construction is based on geometric quantization and applies to any real polarization and its pairing with any Kähler polarization.

  12. Effect of removing the common mode errors on linear regression analysis of noise amplitudes in position time series of a regional GPS network & a case study of GPS stations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Ma, Jun; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Zhou, Boye

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of the correlations between the noise in different components of GPS stations has positive significance to those trying to obtain more accurate uncertainty of velocity with respect to station motion. Previous research into noise in GPS position time series focused mainly on single component evaluation, which affects the acquisition of precise station positions, the velocity field, and its uncertainty. In this study, before and after removing the common-mode error (CME), we performed one-dimensional linear regression analysis of the noise amplitude vectors in different components of 126 GPS stations with a combination of white noise, flicker noise, and random walking noise in Southern California. The results show that, on the one hand, there are above-moderate degrees of correlation between the white noise amplitude vectors in all components of the stations before and after removal of the CME, while the correlations between flicker noise amplitude vectors in horizontal and vertical components are enhanced from un-correlated to moderately correlated by removing the CME. On the other hand, the significance tests show that, all of the obtained linear regression equations, which represent a unique function of the noise amplitude in any two components, are of practical value after removing the CME. According to the noise amplitude estimates in two components and the linear regression equations, more accurate noise amplitudes can be acquired in the two components.

  13. Micronutrient Availability in Relation to Selected Soil Properties and landscape Position in Calcareous Soils of Golpayegan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Fathi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Variety of soil reactions govern the distribution of metal micronutrients that includes complexation with organic and inorganic ligands, ion exchange, adsorption and desorption processes, precipitation and dissolution of solids and acid-based equilibria. The relative importance of these reactions depends on many factors such as soil physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties and the nature of metal ions. Environmental factors such as climate, physiographic position, and soil development may affect variability of some soil properties and thereby nutrient availability. The present research was conducted to find relationships between Iron, manganese, zinc, and copper availability and some major soil properties, physiographic condition and soil development. Materials and Methods: Golpayegan region is located in northwest of Isfahan province in central Iran. The mean elevation of the studied area is 1790 above sea level. Annual precipitation was about 244mm and mean monthly temperature ranges from -6 in January to 34°C in August. The soils were developed on different physiographic conditions including piedmont plains, alluvial-fan, plateaus, and flood plains belonging to Entisols and Aridisols. Soil samples (0–60 cm were collected from 98 grid points with 2000m distance in the agricultural area of Golpayegan. Particle size distribution, calcium carbonate, organic carbon, available potassium and phosphorus of the soils were measured by SWRI standard methods. Available Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe were determined by addition of 10 g soil to 20mL 0.005M diethylentriaminepentacetic‏. The solutions were shaken for 2 h at 25°C, centrifuged, filtered, and Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu concentrations were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results Discussion: Studied soils were developed on calcareous material and about 60% of samples have more than 20% of calcium carbonate. Available Fe ranged from 1.4 to 6.5 mg kg-1 (mean 15.8 mg kg-1

  14. The Ultrasonographic Determination of the Position of the Mental Foramen and its Relation to the Mandibular Premolar Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Abdullah Ebrahim; Motara, Feroza; Moolla, Muhammed

    2016-06-01

    The position of the mental foramen has been well researched in cadaver specimens, radiographically as well as intraoperatively. To our knowledge, this landmark study is the first to make use of ultrasonography in a study population to determine the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Ultrasonography has great potential to further revolutionize the practice of medicine and dento-maxillofacial surgery. To make use of ultrasound to determine the position of the mental foramen and its relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. One hundred Black and Caucasian subjects were enrolled. A high frequency (8MHz) transducer (PLF.805ST) of a diagnostic ultrasound system (model SSA-510A) was applied above the inferior border of the mandible, just lateral to the mentum. With the marker of the transducer pointing cranially, the position of the mental foramen in relation to the closest mandibular premolar tooth was determined. The position was compared across race, sex and age groups. All mental foramina (100%) were visualised. Overall the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right (44%) and between the first and second premolars on the left (44%). There were no statistical differences (p >0.05) between race groups, sex and age groups with regard to the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolars. However, in Blacks, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar and in Caucasians the most common position was between the first and second premolars. The most frequent position of the mental foramen in females was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right and between the first and second premolars on the left. In males, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar bilaterally. The most common position of the mental

  15. Barriers and Bridges to Positive Cross-Ethnic Relations: African American and White Parent Socialization Beliefs and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jill V.

    2001-01-01

    Using interviews and focus groups, lower and middle socioeconomic status (SES) African American parents and middle SES white parents discussed their objectives regarding cross-ethnic relations and how they helped their children forge positive cross-ethnic relations. The groups relied on different methods to promote socialization. Parents' efforts…

  16. Alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations: Drinking motives, working memory capacity, and prospective drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word-Sentence Association Task

  17. Dynamic Infrared Thermography Study of Blood Flow Relative to Lower Limp Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, I.; Skouroliakou, K.; Michail, C.; Valais, I.

    2015-09-01

    Thermography is an established method for studying skin temperature distribution. Temperature distribution on body surface is influenced by a variety of physiological mechanisms and has been proven a reliable indicator of various physiological disorders. Blood flow is an important factor that influences body heat diffusion and skin temperature. In an attempt to validate and further elucidate thermal models characterizing the human skin, dynamic thermography of the lower limp in horizontal and vertical position was performed, using a FLIR T460 thermographic camera. Temporal variation of temperature was recorded on five distinct points of the limp. Specific points were initially cooled by the means of an ice cube and measurements of the skin temperature were obtained every 30 seconds as the skin temperature was locally reduced and afterwards restored at its initial value. The return to thermal balance followed roughly the same pattern for all points of measurement, although the heating rate was faster when the foot was in horizontal position. Thermal balance was achieved faster at the spots that were positioned on a vein passage. Our results confirm the influence of blood flow on the thermal regulation of the skin. Spots located over veins exhibit different thermal behaviour due to thermal convection through blood flow. Changing the position of the foot from vertical to horizontal, effectively affects blood perfusion as in the vertical position blood circulation is opposed by gravity.

  18. Positive evolution of the glycoprotein (GP) gene is related to transmission of the Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Y X; Wang, L N; Wu, X M; Song, C X

    2016-03-28

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a fatal disease caused by the negative-strand RNA of the Ebola virus. A high-intensity outbreak of this fever was reported in West Africa last year; however, there is currently no definitive treatment strategy available for this disease. In this study, we analyzed the molecular evolutionary history and attempted to determine the positive selection sites in the Ebola genes using multiple-genomic sequences of the various Ebola virus subtypes, in order to gain greater clarity into the evolution of the virus and its various subtypes. Only the glycoprotein (GP) gene was positively selected among the 8 Ebola genes, with the other genes remaining in the purification stage. The positive selection sites in the GP gene were identified by a random-site model; these sites were found to be located in the mucin-like region, which is associated with transmembrane protein binding. Additionally, different branches of the phylogenetic tree displayed different positive sites, which in turn was responsible for differences in the cell adhesion ability of the virus. In conclusion, the pattern of positive sites in the GP gene is associated with the epidemiology and prevalence of Ebola in different areas.

  19. Cognitive reserve and emotional stimuli in older individuals: level of education moderates the age-related positivity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Davide; Brown, Adam D; Kapucu, Aycan; Marmar, Charles R; Pomara, Nunzio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: A frequently observed age-related effect is a preference in older individuals for positive stimuli. The cognitive control model proposes that this positivity effect may be mediated by executive functions. We propose that cognitive reserve, operationally defined as years of education, which tempers cognitive decline and has been linked to executive functions, should also influence the age-related positivity effect, especially as age advances. An emotional free recall test was administered to a group of 84 cognitively intact individuals aged 60 to 88, who varied in years of education. As part of a larger test battery, data were obtained on measures of executive functioning and depression. Multiple regression and moderation analyses were performed, controlling for general cognitive function, severity of depressive symptoms, and executive function. In our data, years of education appeared to moderate the effect of age on the positivity effect; age was negatively associated with recall of positive words in participants with fewer years of education, whereas a nonsignificant positive correlation was observed between age and positivity in participants with more education. Cognitive reserve appears to play a role in explaining individual differences in the positivity effect in healthy older individuals. Future studies should investigate whether cognitive reserve is also implicated in the ability to process a wide range of emotional stimuli and whether greater reserve is reflected in improved emotional regulation.

  20. Description and predictors of positive and negative alcohol-related consequences in the first year of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Clerkin, Elise M; Wood, Mark; Monti, Peter M; O'Leary Tevyaw, Tracy; Corriveau, Donald; Fingeret, Allan; Kahler, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the frequency of positive and negative alcohol-related consequences during the first year of college and to evaluate gender, race/ethnicity, time of year, alcohol use, and intoxication as predictors of consequences using frequent assessments. Participants (N = 1,053; 57.5% female) completed biweekly assessments of alcohol use and positive and negative alcohol-related consequences throughout the year. The majority of drinkers reported both positive and negative consequences. Having a good time and feeling less stressed were the most commonly reported positive consequences. Blackouts and getting physically sick were the most commonly endorsed negative consequences. At the weekly level, number of drinking days, drinks per drinking day, and estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC, reflecting intoxication) were significantly related to all consequences after controlling for demographics and time of year. Negative consequences had stronger associations with number of drinks and eBAC than positive consequences did. With each additional drink consumed on a drinking day, the incidence of negative consequences more than doubled (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.34, 95% CI [2.19, 2.50]), whereas the incidence of positive consequences increased by about half (IRR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.47, 1.56]). The consequence with the largest gender difference was regretted sex, with women reporting it more often. Few racial/ethnic differences were found in report of negative consequences. Greater positive and negative consequences were endorsed at the beginning of both academic semesters. As number of drinks and eBAC increase, the relative odds of a negative consequence are higher than that of a positive consequence. Alcohol interventions could promote greater awareness of the likelihood of specific consequences and could highlight that positive consequences are associated with lower levels of drinking.

  1. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Prioreschi

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity.To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa.Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females. Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM, fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT were recorded.Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, p<0.01 and β = 0.10, p<0.01 respectively. Relative weight gain from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM, fat mass, VAT, and SAT at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 2 was positively associated with VAT at year 22. Being born small for gestational age and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22.The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  2. Relative Panoramic Camera Position Estimation for Image-Based Virtual Reality Networks in Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M.; Akano, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Sekiguchi, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Image-based virtual reality (VR) is a virtual space generated with panoramic images projected onto a primitive model. In imagebased VR, realistic VR scenes can be generated with lower rendering cost, and network data can be described as relationships among VR scenes. The camera network data are generated manually or by an automated procedure using camera position and rotation data. When panoramic images are acquired in indoor environments, network data should be generated without Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning data. Thus, we focused on image-based VR generation using a panoramic camera in indoor environments. We propose a methodology to automate network data generation using panoramic images for an image-based VR space. We verified and evaluated our methodology through five experiments in indoor environments, including a corridor, elevator hall, room, and stairs. We confirmed that our methodology can automatically reconstruct network data using panoramic images for image-based VR in indoor environments without GNSS position data.

  3. Exploring the relation between positive emotions and the functional status of older adults living independently: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Miriam; Lamers, Sanne M A; Trompetter, Hester R; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R

    2017-11-01

    Literature suggests that positive emotions positively influence physiological parameters but their relation to functioning in the daily life of older adults living independently remains unclear. The present work aims to investigate the relation between positive emotions and functional status in daily life of older people living independently. A systematic literature review was conducted using the PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus electronic databases. Included works were peer-reviewed empirical studies that analysed the relation between positive emotions and ability to perform activities of daily living with older adults living independently. After removal of duplicates, 10 out of 963 papers met the inclusion criteria. Cross-sectional studies (n = 6) provided limited evidence about a relation between positive emotions and functioning in daily life. However, longitudinal studies (n = 4) provide significant evidence for an interaction between the two factors, suggesting that time influences this interaction. The variety on the design and samples of the studies included in this review does not allow a cohesive conclusion of the results. Nevertheless, limited evidence suggests that higher frequency in the experience of positive emotions might be associated with lower functional limitations. The issue of causality in emotions-functioning remains unclear from the review. Further observational studies are highly recommended, supported by innovative technologies.

  4. Occupational position and its relation to mental distress in a random sample of Danish residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner Ernst; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Maj Britt D

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the distribution of depressive, anxiety, and somatization symptoms across different occupational positions in a random sample of Danish residents. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 591 Danish residents (50% women), aged 20-65, drawn from an age- and gender-stratified random...... sample of the Danish population. Participants filled out a survey that included the 92 item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-92). We categorized occupational position into seven groups: high- and low-grade non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, high- and low-grade self...

  5. Hydroelectrolytic and hormonal modifications related to prolonged bedrest in antiorthostatic position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güell, A.; Dupui, Ph.; Fanjaud, G.; Bes, A.; Moatti, J. P.; Gharrib, Cl.

    The effects of prolonged bedrest in antiorthostatic position (-4° head down) on electrolyte balance were studied in 4 young volunteers. An increase was noted in sodium excretion during the first 4 days. Plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone varied in parallel manner during the same period. Potassium balance and creatinine clearance were not significantly modified. In light of these data we feel that prolonged bedrest in antiorthostatic position constitutes an effective way to simulate on earth metabolic and hormonal modifications occurring in man under weightlessness conditions.

  6. A combined stretching-tilting mechanism produces negative, zero and positive linear thermal expansion in a semi-flexible Cd(II)-MOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Prem; Das, Raj Kumar; Smith, Vincent J; Barbour, Leonard J

    2014-06-21

    A novel semi-flexible Cd(II)-MOF has been synthesized and characterized by variable temperature powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The material displays an unusual combination of thermal expansion (TE) i.e. negative, zero and positive, which is an extremely rare finding, especially for metal-organic frameworks as a result of a combined stretching-tilting mechanism.

  7. Relating specific emotions to intrinsic motivation: on the moderating role of positive and negative emotion differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation -individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions- on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  8. Relation Between Intelligence and Family Size, Position, and Income in Adolescent Girls in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Habab; Alahmadi, Maryam; Bakhiet, Salaheldin; Lynn, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Data are reported showing statistically significant negative correlations between intelligence and family size, position, and income in a sample of 604 adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. There were no statistically significant correlations or associations between whether the mother or father were deceased or both parents were alive, and whether the parents were living together or were divorced. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Positive and Negative Consequences in Contingency Contracts: Their Relative Effectiveness on Arithmetic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Teresa A.; Saudargas, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    The study with two elementary students who had low levels of completion and accuracy on daily arithmetic assignments found that a negative consequence was not necessary and that use of a positive component alone was sufficient to maintain high levels of completion and accuracy. (Author/DB)

  10. Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation –individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions– on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25517984

  11. Relating specific emotions to intrinsic motivation: on the moderating role of positive and negative emotion differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Vandercammen

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation -individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions- on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72 and an experience sampling study (N = 34. Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2, calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1 on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  12. 'Big' men: Male leaders' height positively relates to followers' perception of charisma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, M.R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Physical height is associated with beneficial outcomes for the tall individual (e.g., higher salary and likelihood of occupying a leadership position), presumably because being tall constituted an adaptive characteristic in ancestral societies. Although this account hinges on the presence of an

  13. An improved method to simulate water and biological tissues in relation to linear interactions with photons and fast electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geske, G.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation physical problems in clinical dosimetry often need for their experimental solution the linear coefficients of interaction between radiation and irradiated matter. Using modified material parameters (the products of mass density and the earlier defined effective material parameters) it was possible to derive an improved method to calculate the composition of an equivalent for a material to be substituted. The method is described and its usefulness demonstrated by some examples. A geometric analogue facilitates the solution if a computer is not available. Some comparisons are made between this method and the basic data method of White. (orig.) [de

  14. On the existence of eigenmodes of linear quasi-periodic differential equations and their relation to the MHD continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salat, A.

    1981-12-01

    The existence of quasi-periodic eigensolutions of a linear second order ordinary differential equation with quasi-periodic coefficient f(ω 1 t,ω 2 t) is investigated numerically and graphically. For sufficiently incommensurate frequencies ω 1 , ω 2 a doubly indexed infinite sequence of eigenvalues and eigenmodes is obtained. The equation considered is a model for the magneto-hydrodynamic 'continuum' in general toroidal geometry. The result suggests that continuum modes exist at least on sufficiently irrational magnetic surfaces. (orig.)

  15. DIFFICULTIES RELATED TO THE FINANCIAL POSITION REPORTING INTO THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of a turbulent economic environment with impact on the vulnerability of the public sector entities, the stakeholders’ needs of information are focussed on the assessment of liquidities and their solvency, on the sustenability of service offerring, as well as on the capacity of the entities to answer a dynamic environment in terms of cost, quality and continuity. In this respect, the current study has as objective to identify the difficulties of reporting the financial position into the public sector in Romania. In order to reach the proposed objective, an interpretative research methodology was used. The results of this study has pointed out that the prevalence of divergences between the national view versus IPSAS in terms of reporting the financial position into the public sector limits the informational value and its relevance both for the management of the entities and their stakeholders.

  16. Differences among Job Positions Related to Communication Errors at Construction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiko; Ishida, Toshiro

    In a previous study, we classified the communicatio n errors at construction sites as faulty intention and message pattern, inadequate channel pattern, and faulty comprehension pattern. This study seeks to evaluate the degree of risk of communication errors and to investigate differences among people in various job positions in perception of communication error risk . Questionnaires based on the previous study were a dministered to construction workers (n=811; 149 adminis trators, 208 foremen and 454 workers). Administrators evaluated all patterns of communication error risk equally. However, foremen and workers evaluated communication error risk differently in each pattern. The common contributing factors to all patterns wer e inadequate arrangements before work and inadequate confirmation. Some factors were common among patterns but other factors were particular to a specific pattern. To help prevent future accidents at construction sites, administrators should understand how people in various job positions perceive communication errors and propose human factors measures to prevent such errors.

  17. DIFFICULTIES RELATED TO THE FINANCIAL POSITION REPORTING INTO THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of a turbulent economic environment with impact on the vulnerability of the public sector entities, the stakeholders’ needs of information are focussed on the assessment of liquidities and their solvency, on the sustenability of service offerring, as well as on the capacity of the entities to answer a dynamic environment in terms of cost, quality and continuity. In this respect, the current study has as objective to identify the difficulties of reporting the financial posit...

  18. Recreational drug use and related social factors among HIV-positive men in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togari, Taisuke; Inoue, Yoji; Takaku, Yosuke; Abe, Sakurako; Hosokawa, Rikuya; Itagaki, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Shigeyuki; Oki, Sachiko; Katakura, Naoko; Yamauchi, Asae; Wakabayashi, Chihiro; Yajima, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between recreational drug use in HIV-positive males in the past year and socio-economic factors and/or social support networks in Japan. A national online survey in a cross-sectional study was conducted by HIV Futures Japan project from July 2013 to February 2014. Of the 1095 HIV-positive individuals who responded, 913 responses were determined to be valid; responses from the 875 males were analysed. A total of 282 participants used addictive drugs (32.2%) in past year. New psychoactive substances were used by 121 participants (13.8%), methamphetamine or amphetamine by 47 (5.4%), air dusters/sprays/gas by 31 (3.5%), 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5MeO-DIPT) by 16 (1.8%) and cannabis (1.0%) by 9. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the use of alkyl nitrites, addictive drugs, air dusters and thinners, which are low illegality, as dependent variables. We found that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for use among participants with full-time and temp/contracted/part-time employees compared to management/administration professions were 2.59 (0.99-6.77) and 2.61 (0.91-7.51). Also, a correlation was observed between alkyl nitrites and new psychoactive substances and usage rates in people engaged in few HIV-positive networks. It is necessary to develop targeted policies for drug use prevention and user support among HIV-positive men and to support and provide care for drug users who are isolated or have a narrow HIV/AIDS support network.

  19. RELATIVE PANORAMIC CAMERA POSITION ESTIMATION FOR IMAGE-BASED VIRTUAL REALITY NETWORKS IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nakagawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Image-based virtual reality (VR is a virtual space generated with panoramic images projected onto a primitive model. In imagebased VR, realistic VR scenes can be generated with lower rendering cost, and network data can be described as relationships among VR scenes. The camera network data are generated manually or by an automated procedure using camera position and rotation data. When panoramic images are acquired in indoor environments, network data should be generated without Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS positioning data. Thus, we focused on image-based VR generation using a panoramic camera in indoor environments. We propose a methodology to automate network data generation using panoramic images for an image-based VR space. We verified and evaluated our methodology through five experiments in indoor environments, including a corridor, elevator hall, room, and stairs. We confirmed that our methodology can automatically reconstruct network data using panoramic images for image-based VR in indoor environments without GNSS position data.

  20. The Role of Trust and Interaction in Global Positioning System Related Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris W.; Shea, Christine; Holloway, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses a network of satellites to calculate the position of a receiver over time. This technology has revolutionized a wide range of safety-critical industries and leisure applications. These systems provide diverse benefits; supplementing the users existing navigation skills and reducing the uncertainty that often characterizes many route planning tasks. GPS applications can also help to reduce workload by automating tasks that would otherwise require finite cognitive and perceptual resources. However, the operation of these systems has been identified as a contributory factor in a range of recent accidents. Users often come to rely on GPS applications and, therefore, fail to notice when they develop faults or when errors occur in the other systems that use the data from these systems. Further accidents can stem from the over confidence that arises when users assume automated warnings will be issued when they stray from an intended route. Unless greater attention is paid to the role of trust and interaction in GPS applications then there is a danger that we will see an increasing number of these failures as positioning technologies become integral in the functioning of increasing numbers of applications.

  1. Pharmacologic management of bone-related complications and bone metastases in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardley DA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Denise A Yardley1,2 1Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: There is a high risk for bone loss and skeletal-related events, including bone metastases, in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Both the disease itself and its therapeutic treatments can negatively impact bone, resulting in decreases in bone mineral density and increases in bone loss. These negative effects on the bone can significantly impact morbidity and mortality. Effective management and minimization of bone-related complications in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer remain essential. This review discusses the current understanding of molecular and biological mechanisms involved in bone turnover and metastases, increased risk for bone-related complications from breast cancer and breast cancer therapy, and current and emerging treatment strategies for managing bone metastases and bone turnover in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, bone metastases, hormone receptor-positive, bone-related complications, interventions, management and management strategies, estrogen receptor-positive

  2. Relative Efficiency of Field and Online Strategies in the Recruitment of HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Andrea C; Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to reach HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and link them to care must be expanded; however, finding and recruiting them remains a challenge. We compared the efficiency of three recruitment sources in reaching self-identified HIV-positive MSM with various characteristics. Relative to recruitment online and at clubs and bars, AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) were significantly more efficient in reaching HIV-positive MSM in general. This was also true for those with specific characteristics of interest such as substance/stimulant use, and HIV-positive MSM who were racial/ethnic minorities. Both ASOs and online recruitment were more efficient than clubs and bars in reaching HIV-positive MSM not taking HIV medication. This was also the case for White HIV-positive MSM in general, and White HIV-positive MSM who used substances and stimulants. Online recruitment was also more efficient than clubs and bars in reaching HIV-positive MSM who were young across the board.

  3. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  4. Linear equations and rap battles: how students in a wired classroom utilized the computer as a resource to coordinate personal and mathematical positional identities in hybrid spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Osuna, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    This paper draws on the constructs of hybridity, figured worlds, and cultural capital to examine how a group of African-American students in a technology-driven, project-based algebra classroom utilized the computer as a resource to coordinate personal and mathematical positional identities during group work. Analyses of several vignettes of small group dynamics highlight how hybridity was established as the students engaged in multiple on-task and off-task computer-based activities, each of which drew on different lived experiences and forms of cultural capital. The paper ends with a discussion on how classrooms that make use of student-led collaborative work, and where students are afforded autonomy, have the potential to support the academic engagement of students from historically marginalized communities.

  5. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  6. Functionally Independent Components of the Late Positive Event-Related Potential During Visual Spatial Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makeig, Scott; Westeifleld, Marissa; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Covington, James; Townsend, Jeanne; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Courchesne, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Human event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 10 subjects presented with visual target and nontarget stimuli at five screen locations and responding to targets presented at one of the locations...

  7. Positioning of the NOR-bearing chromosomes in relation to nucleoli in daughter cells after mitosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalmárová, Markéta; Smirnov, Evgeny; Kováčik, Lubomír; Popov, Alexey; Raška, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2008), s. 421-425 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/06/1691 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA304/06/1662; GA MŠk(CZ) LC535; Wellcome Trust(XE) 075834/04/Z Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : chromosome positioning * NORs * daughter cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  8. [Medical errors from positions of mutual relations of patient-lawyer-doctor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radysh, Ia F; Tsema, Ie V; Mehed', V P

    2013-01-01

    The basic theoretical and practical aspects of problem of malpractice in the system of health protection Ukraine are presented in the article. On specific examples the essence of the term "malpractice" is expounded. It was considered types of malpractice, conditions of beginning and kinds of responsibility to assumption of malpractice. The special attention to the legal and mental and ethical questions of problem from positions of protection of rights for a patient and medical worker is spared. The necessity of qualification malpractices on intentional and unintentional, possible and impermissible is grounded.

  9. The concept of spirituality and its relation to religion in positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fernandes Marques

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical study that aims to provide a review of current scientific studies on the concept of spirituality and proposes some issues for future research. The article brings a literature review on the subject, including several areas of positive psychology. Articles and books in Portuguese, Spanish and English were examined  and held a computerized search in the SciELO (www.scielo.br and electronic Indexer Google Scholar, and the references of materials examined. The descriptors were: conceit, espirit, religion, and their counterparts in Spanish and English. The purpose of this review is outline some definitions to set limits and help in conducting research when the researcher should choose constructs and measurement instruments. Comment some classical authors such as Wundt, Maslow and James. After there is a difference about religion and spirituality, discussing their similarities and antagonisms that are mentioned in the reviewed literature and how the concept of spirituality appears in Positive Psychology. 

  10. Tackler’s head position relative to the ball carrier is highly correlated with head and neck injuries in rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Shiota, Yuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Maki, Nobukazu; Matsuura, Takahiro; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Itoigawa, Yoshiaki; Tateishi, Tomohiko; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the tackler’s head position during one-on-one tackling in rugby and to determine the incidence of head, neck and shoulder injuries through analysis of game videos, injury records and a questionnaire completed by the tacklers themselves. Methods We randomly selected 28 game videos featuring two university teams in competitions held in 2015 and 2016. Tackles were categorised according to tackler’s head position. The ‘pre-contact phase’ was defined; its duration and the number of steps taken by the ball carrier prior to a tackle were evaluated. Results In total, 3970 tackles, including 317 (8.0%) with the tackler’s head incorrectly positioned (ie, in front of the ball carrier) were examined. Thirty-two head, neck or shoulder injuries occurred for an injury incidence of 0.8% (32/3970). The incidence of injury in tackles with incorrect head positioning was 69.4/1000 tackles; the injury incidence with correct head positioning (ie, behind or to one side of the ball carrier) was 2.7/1000 tackles. Concussions, neck injuries, ‘stingers’ and nasal fractures occurred significantly more often during tackles with incorrect head positioning than during tackles with correct head positioning. Significantly fewer steps were taken before tackles with incorrect head positioning that resulted in injury than before tackles that did not result in injury. Conclusion Tackling with incorrect head position relative to the ball carrier resulted in a significantly higher incidence of concussions, neck injuries, stingers and nasal fractures than tackling with correct head position. Tackles with shorter duration and distance before contact resulted in more injuries. PMID:29162618

  11. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  12. An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Improving the precision of linear optics measurements based on turn-by-turn beam position monitor data after a pulsed excitation in lepton storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Beam optics control is of critical importance for machine performance and protection. Nowadays, turn-by-turn (TbT beam position monitor (BPM data are increasingly exploited as they allow for fast and simultaneous measurement of various optics quantities. Nevertheless, so far the best documented uncertainty of measured β-functions is of about 10‰ rms. In this paper we compare the β-functions of the ESRF storage ring measured from two different TbT techniques—the N-BPM and the Amplitude methods—with the ones inferred from a measurement of the orbit response matrix (ORM. We show how to improve the precision of TbT techniques by refining the Fourier transform of TbT data with properly chosen excitation amplitude. The precision of the N-BPM method is further improved by refining the phase advance measurement. This represents a step forward compared to standard TbT measurements. First experimental results showing the precision of β-functions pushed down to 4‰ both in TbT and ORM techniques are reported and commented.

  14. Reassessment of the Paleogene position of the Chortis block relative to southern Mexico: hierarchical ranking of data and features

    OpenAIRE

    Morán-Zenteno, Dante J.; Keppie, Duncan J.; Martiny, Barbara; González-Torres, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    The Paleogene location of the Chortis block relative to southern Mexico is presently a hotly debated topic, with various types and qualities of data brought to bear on the topic. There are currently three competing Cenozoic reconstructions: (i) the traditional model that places the Chortis block adjacent to southern Mexico, (ii) the near in situ model in which the Chortis block is located relatively near to its present position, and (iii) the Pacific model that places the Chortis block WSW of...

  15. Comparison of multiple linear regression, partial least squares and artificial neural networks for prediction of gas chromatographic relative retention times of trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A G; Farmaki, E; Thomaidis, N; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Angelis, Y S; Koupparis, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2012-09-21

    The comparison among different modelling techniques, such as multiple linear regression, partial least squares and artificial neural networks, has been performed in order to construct and evaluate models for prediction of gas chromatographic relative retention times of trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids. The performance of the quantitative structure-retention relationship study, using the multiple linear regression and partial least squares techniques, has been previously conducted. In the present study, artificial neural networks models were constructed and used for the prediction of relative retention times of anabolic androgenic steroids, while their efficiency is compared with that of the models derived from the multiple linear regression and partial least squares techniques. For overall ranking of the models, a novel procedure [Trends Anal. Chem. 29 (2010) 101-109] based on sum of ranking differences was applied, which permits the best model to be selected. The suggested models are considered useful for the estimation of relative retention times of designer steroids for which no analytical data are available. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Good news or bad news: Conducting sentiment analysis on Dutch texts to distinguish between positive and negative relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Atteveldt, W.H.; Kleinnijenhuis, J.; Ruigrok, N.; Schlobach, S.

    2008-01-01

    Many research questions in political communication can be answered by representing text as a network of positive or negative relations between actors and issues such as conducted by semantic network analysis. This article presents a system for automatically determining the polarity

  17. The Positive Adjustment of Low-Income Youths with Relational and Community Support: The Mediating Role of Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eddie C. W.; Lam, Jasmine K. M.; Chan, Charles C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Youths living in poverty may experience less developmental support. Although the importance of hope, relational support, and community support for positive adaptation is acknowledged, how they combine to affect psychosocial adjustment is unknown. This study, drawing on 830 low-income youths (11-18 years old) in Hong Kong, provides evidence that…

  18. Positive and Negative Affect Is Related to Experiencing Chest Pain During Exercise-Induced Myocardial Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stébenne, Philippe; Bacon, Simon L; Austin, Anthony; Paine, Nicola J; Arsenault, André; Laurin, Catherine; Meloche, Bernard; Gordon, Jennifer; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Lavoie, Kim L

    2017-05-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is thought to be associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes due to a lack of perception of pain cues that initiate treatment seeking. Negative affect (NA) has been associated with increased pain reporting and positive affect (PA) with decreased pain reporting, but these psychological factors have not been examined within the context of myocardial ischemia. This study evaluated the associations between PA, NA, and chest pain reporting in patients with and without ischemia during exercise testing. A total of 246 patients referred for myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography exercise stress testing completed the positive and negative affect schedule-expanded version, a measure of PA and NA. Presence of chest pain and myocardial ischemia were evaluated using standardized protocols. Logistic regression analyses revealed that for every 1-point increase in NA, there was a 13% higher chance for ischemic patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 1.26) and an 11% higher chance in nonischemic patients (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.19) to report chest pain. A significant interaction of PA and NA on chest pain reporting (β = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.002 to 0.031) was also observed; nonischemic patients with high NA and PA reported more chest pain (57%) versus patients with low NA and low PA (13%), with high NA and low PA (17%), and with high PA and low NA (7%). Patients who experience higher NA are more likely to report experiencing chest pain. In patients without ischemia, high NA and PA was also associated with a higher likelihood of reporting chest pain. Results suggest that high levels of PA as well as NA may increase the experience and/or reporting of chest pain.

  19. Negative and Positive Partial Mobility: A Study of the Relative Changes in Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Atanu; Ghosh, Abhijit

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered the issues concerning dynamic changes in HDI and its various components from a relative standpoint. The analysis of HDI mobility should entail directional movement introduced by Fields (in Distribution and development: a new look at the developing world. MIT Press, Cambridge, 2001). However, Fields' analysis was…

  20. An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…

  1. Estrogen-related receptor beta interacts with Oct4 to positively regulate Nanog gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L.C. van den Berg (Debbie); W. Zhang (Wensheng); A. Yates (Adam); M.P. Engelen (Erik); K. Takacs (Katalin); K. Bezstarosti (Karel); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); I. Chambers (Ian); R.A. Poor (Raymond)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractEmbryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal is regulated by transcription factors, including Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. A number of additional transcriptional regulators of ES cell self-renewal have recently been identified, including the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor beta

  2. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  3. Linear and nonlinear physics of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability of fusion-born ions in relation to ion cyclotron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, L., E-mail: L.Carbajal-Gomez@warwick.ac.uk; Cook, J. W. S. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dendy, R. O. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Tromsø, N-9037, Tromsø (Norway); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, D-01187, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    The magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI) probably underlies observations of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) from energetic ion populations in tokamak plasmas, including fusion-born alpha-particles in JET and TFTR [Dendy et al., Nucl. Fusion 35, 1733 (1995)]. ICE is a potential diagnostic for lost alpha-particles in ITER; furthermore, the MCI is representative of a class of collective instabilities, which may result in the partial channelling of the free energy of energetic ions into radiation, and away from collisional heating of the plasma. Deep understanding of the MCI is thus of substantial practical interest for fusion, and the hybrid approximation for the plasma, where ions are treated as particles and electrons as a neutralising massless fluid, offers an attractive way forward. The hybrid simulations presented here access MCI physics that arises on timescales longer than can be addressed by fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations and by analytical linear theory, which the present simulations largely corroborate. Our results go further than previous studies by entering into the nonlinear stage of the MCI, which shows novel features. These include stronger drive at low cyclotron harmonics, the re-energisation of the alpha-particle population, self-modulation of the phase shift between the electrostatic and electromagnetic components, and coupling between low and high frequency modes of the excited electromagnetic field.

  4. MDEP AP1000WG Design-Specific Common Position CP-AP1000WG-02. Common position addressing Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-09-01

    A severe accident involving several units took place in Japan at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) in March 2011. The immediate cause of the accident was an earthquake followed by a tsunami coupled with inadequate provisions against the consequences of such events in the design. Opportunities to improve protection against a realistic design basis tsunami had not been taken. As a consequence of the tsunami, safety equipment and the related safety functions were lost at the plant, leading to core damage in three units and subsequently to large radioactive release. Several studies have already been performed to better understand the accident progression and detailed technical studies are still in progress in Japan and elsewhere. In the meantime, on-going studies on the behaviour of nuclear power plants in very severe situations, similar to Fukushima Daiichi, seek to identify potential vulnerabilities in plant design and operation; to suggest reasonably practicable upgrades; or to recommend enhanced regulatory requirements and guidance to address such situations. Likewise, agencies around the world that are responsible for regulating the design, construction and operation of AP1000 R plants are engaged in similar activities. The MDEP AP1000 R Working Group (AP1000 WG) members consist of members from Canada, China, the United Kingdom and the United States. Since the regulatory review of their AP1000 R applications have not been completed by all of these Countries yet, this paper identifies common preliminary approaches to address potential safety improvements for AP1000 R plants as related to lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident or Fukushima Daiichi-related issues. In seeking common position, regulators will provide input to this paper to reflect their safety conclusions regarding the AP1000 R design and how the design could be enhanced to address Fukushima Daiichi issues. The common preliminary approaches are organized into five sections

  5. Interannual Variability in the Position and Strength of the East Asian Jet Stream and Its Relation to Large - scale Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Duo; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Qigang

    2013-04-01

    East Asian Jet Stream (EASJ) is charactered by obvious interannual variability in strength and position (latitude), with wide impacts on East Asian climate in all seasons. In this study, two indices are established to measure the interannual variability in intensity and position of EAJS. Possible causing factors, including both local signals and non-local large-scale circulation, are examined using NCAP-NCAR reanalysis data to investigate their relations with jet variation. Our analysis shows that the relationship between the interannual variations of EASJ and these factors depends on seasons. In the summer, both the intensity and position of EASJ are closely related to the meridional gradient of local surface temperature, but display no apparent relationship with the larg-scale circulation. In cold seasons (autumn, winter and spring), both the local factor and the large-scale circulation, i.e. the Pacific/North American teleconnection pattern (PNA), play important roles in the interannual variability of the jet intensity. The variability in the jet position, however, is more correlated to the Arctic Oscillation (AO), especially in winter. Diagnostic analysis indicates that transient eddy activity plays an important role in connecting the interannual variability of EASJ position with AO.

  6. Controlled by Love: The Harmful Relational Consequences of Perceived Conditional Positive Regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Roth, Guy; Assor, Avi; Raizer, Abira

    2016-08-01

    Research on conditional positive regard (CPR) has shown that this seemingly benign practice has maladaptive correlates when used by parents. However, there is no research on the correlates of this practice in romantic relationships or on the processes mediating its effects. Building on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, ), three studies tested the hypothesis that perceived CPR impairs relationship quality, partly because it undermines the fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness. Study 1 (N = 125) examined perceived CPR and relationship quality across four relationship targets: mother, father, romantic partner, and best friend. Study 2, involving romantic partners (N = 142), examined whether needs fulfillment mediated the association between perceived CPR and relationship quality. Study 3, involving romantic dyads (N = 85), also included partner reports on CPR. Across the three studies, CPR was linked with poor relationship quality between relationships, between people, and between dyadic partners. Moreover, results of Study 2 and Study 3 revealed that the inverse association between perceived CPR and relationship quality was mediated by dissatisfaction of autonomy but not relatedness. Despite its seemingly benign nature, CPR is detrimental to relationship quality, partly because it thwarts the basic need for autonomy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fiber Length of Calabrian Pine as Related to Position in Cross Section and Growing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim BEKTAS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a better understanding of the variation of growing regions and differences in distance from pith to bark on wood fiber lengths. For this aim, Calabrian pines collected from five different growth regions, namely Kahramanmaras, Burdur, Muğla, İzmir and Balıkesir, were used to determine fiber lengths. In experiment, specimens prepared from logs cross section which is taken from three different distances from pith to bark (r/6, 3r/6 and 5r/6 were evaluated. As a result of analysis, distance from pith in the same area have shown a significant effect on fiber dimensions. In the evaluation among the habitat, it was obtained that r/6 and 3r/6 have a significant effect (p<0.001, p<0.05 respectively on fiber dimensions, however; 5r/6 has a nonsignificant. The results showed that, the quite suitable habitat in terms of fiber lenghts is Balıkesir which has high sand (64.4%, moderate clay (24.2% and lime-poor (3.1% soils. These results will make a positive contribution undoubtedly for the plantations will be established in the future of this species.

  8. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Donges, Uta-Susan

    2017-01-01

    Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  9. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Suslow

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  10. Linear Accelerator Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Central Nervous System Arteriovenous Malformations: A 15-Year Analysis of Outcome-Related Factors in a Single Tertiary Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenier-Villa, José Luis; Galárraga-Campoverde, Raúl Alejandro; Martínez Rolán, Rosa María; De La Lama Zaragoza, Adolfo Ramón; Martínez Cueto, Pedro; Muñoz Garzón, Víctor; Salgado Fernández, Manuel; Conde Alonso, Cesáreo

    2017-07-01

    Linear accelerator stereotactic radiosurgery is one of the modalities available for the treatment of central nervous system arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The aim of this study was to describe our 15-year experience with this technique in a single tertiary center and the analysis of outcome-related factors. From 1998 to 2013, 195 patients were treated with linear accelerator-based radiosurgery; we conducted a retrospective study collecting patient- and AVM-related variables. Treatment outcomes were obliteration, posttreatment hemorrhage, symptomatic radiation-induced changes, and 3-year neurologic status. We also analyzed prognostic factors of each outcome and predictability analysis of 5 scales: Spetzler-Martin grade, Lawton-Young supplementary and Lawton combined scores, radiosurgery-based AVM score, Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Scale, and Heidelberg score. Overall obliteration rate was 81%. Nidus diameter and venous drainage were predictive of obliteration (P linear accelerator-based radiosurgery is a useful, valid, effective, and safe modality for treatment of brain AVMs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The relation between mastoid pneumatization and sigmoid sinus position in chronic otomastoiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kee Hyuk; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Joo, Kyung Bin

    2001-01-01

    If significantly influenced by chronic otomastoiditis(COM), mastoid pneumatization and the position of the sigmoid sinus affect the operative procedure and postoperative complications in middle ear surgery. We evaluated mastoid pneumatization and sigmoid sinus position, and their relationship in COM, especially its during onset. Using temporal bone CT and referring to any relevant medical records, we retrospectively analyzed 107 cases of COM and 49 cases of normal ear. The total case load comprised an adult group, aged above 16 years [100 cases of COM (M:F=46:54, mean age = 45 years), and 42 cases of normal ear, (M:F=20:22, mean age = 44 years)], and a childhood group, aged less than 16 years [7 cases of COM (M:F=4:3, mean age = 8.4 years), and 7 cases of normal ear (M:F=4:3, mean age = 7 years)]. We determined the thickness of the mastoid bone by measuring the shortest distance between the outer cortex of this bone and the deepest border of the sigmoid sinus; the depth of the sigmoid sinus; and the degree of mastoid pneumatization and sclerosis. Fifty-three patients whose medical history clearly included the onset of otomastoiditis were divided into a child-onset group and an adult-onset group, and the relationship between the onset of otomastoiditis and the thickness of the mastoid bone was compared between the two groups. The mean axial thickness of the mastoid bone was 9.672±2.745 mm in COM and 12.430±3.027 mm in normal ear. The difference was statisfically significant (ρ < 0.0001). The mean depth of the sigmoid sinus was 7.557±1.868 mm in COM and 7.591±2.315 mm in normal ear, with no statistically significant difference. In the childhood group, the mean axial thickness of the mastoid bone was 8.672±2.978 mm in COM and 11.778±3.087 mm in normal ear. This difference was statistically significant (ρ < 0.05). In the adult group, the corresponding figures were 9.742±2.731 mm in COM and 12.538±3.041 mm in normal ear, a difference which was also

  12. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  13. Positive lysosomal modulation as a unique strategy to treat age-related protein accumulation diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Ben A; Wisniewski, Meagan L; Butler, David

    2012-04-01

    Lysosomes are involved in degrading and recycling cellular ingredients, and their disruption with age may contribute to amyloidogenesis, paired helical filaments (PHFs), and α-synuclein and mutant huntingtin aggregation. Lysosomal cathepsins are upregulated by accumulating proteins and more so by the modulator Z-Phe-Ala-diazomethylketone (PADK). Such positive modulators of the lysosomal system have been studied in the well-characterized hippocampal slice model of protein accumulation that exhibits the pathogenic cascade of tau aggregation, tubulin breakdown, microtubule destabilization, transport failure, and synaptic decline. Active cathepsins were upregulated by PADK; Rab proteins were modified as well, indicating enhanced trafficking, whereas lysosome-associated membrane protein and proteasome markers were unchanged. Lysosomal modulation reduced the pre-existing PHF deposits, restored tubulin structure and transport, and recovered synaptic components. Further proof-of-principle studies used Alzheimer disease mouse models. It was recently reported that systemic PADK administration caused dramatic increases in cathepsin B protein and activity levels, whereas neprilysin, insulin-degrading enzyme, α-secretase, and β-secretase were unaffected by PADK. In the transgenic models, PADK treatment resulted in clearance of intracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide and concomitant reduction of extracellular deposits. Production of the less pathogenic Aβ(1-38) peptide corresponded with decreased levels of Aβ(1-42), supporting the lysosome's antiamyloidogenic role through intracellular truncation. Amelioration of synaptic and behavioral deficits also indicates a neuroprotective function of the lysosomal system, identifying lysosomal modulation as an avenue for disease-modifying therapies. From the in vitro and in vivo findings, unique lysosomal modulators represent a minimally invasive, pharmacologically controlled strategy against protein accumulation disorders to enhance

  14. Among-Individual Variation in Desert Iguanas (Squamata: Dipsosaurus dorsalis): Endurance Capacity Is Positively Related to Home Range Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jennifer M; Garland, Theodore

    Among species of lizards, endurance capacity measured on a motorized treadmill is positively related to daily movement distance and time spent moving, but few studies have addressed such relationships at the level of individual variation within a sex and age category in a single population. Both endurance capacity and home range size show substantial individual variation in lizards, rendering them suitable for such studies. We predicted that these traits would be positively related because endurance capacity is one of the factors that has the potential to limit home range size. We measured the endurance capacity and home range size of adult male desert iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). Lizards were field captured for measurements of endurance, and home range data were gathered using visual identification of previously marked individuals. Endurance was significantly repeatable between replicate trials, conducted 1-17 d apart ([Formula: see text] for log-transformed values, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The log of the higher of two endurance trials was positively but not significantly related to log body mass. The log of home range area was positively but not significantly related to log body mass, the number of sightings, or the time span from first to last sighting. As predicted, log endurance was positively correlated with log home range area ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]; for body-mass residual endurance values: [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]). These results suggest that endurance capacity may have a permissive effect on home range size. Alternatively, individuals with larger home ranges may experience training effects (phenotypic plasticity) that increase their endurance.

  15. WHAT POPS OUT IN POSITIONAL PRIMING OF POP-OUT: INSIGHTS FROM EVENT-RELATED EEG LATERALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu eGokce

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that, in visual pop-out search, reaction time (RT performance is influenced by cross-trial repetitions versus changes of target-defining attributes. One instance of this is referred to as ‘positional priming of pop-out (pPoP’ (Maljkovic & Nakayama, 1996. In positional PoP paradigms, the processing of the current target is examined depending on whether it occurs at the previous target or a previous distractor location, relative to a previously empty location (‘neutral’ baseline, permitting target facilitation and distractor inhibition to be dissociated. The present study combined RT measures with specific sensory- and motor-driven event-related lateralizations to track the time course of four distinct processing levels as a function of the target’s position across consecutive trials. The results showed that, relative to targets at previous target and ‘neutral’ locations, the appearance of a target at a previous distractor location was associated with a delayed build-up of the PCN wave, indicating that distractor positions are suppressed at early stages of visual processing. By contrast, presentation of a target at a previous target, relative to ‘neutral’ and distractor locations, modulated the elicitation of the subsequent sLRP wave, indicating that post-selective response selection is facilitated if the target occurred at the same position as on the previous trial. Overall, the results of present study provides electrophysiological evidence for the idea that target location priming (RT benefits does not originate from an enhanced coding of target saliency at repeated (target locations; instead, they arise (near- exclusively from processing levels subsequent to focal-attentional target selection.

  16. Embedding Entrepreneurial Thinking into Fluids-related Courses: Small Changes Lead to Positive Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnasciali, Maria-Isabel

    2017-11-01

    Many fluid dynamics instructors have embraced student-centered learning pedagogies (Active & Collaborative Learning (ACL) and Problem/Project Based Learning (PBL)) to promote learning and increase student engagement. A growing effort in engineering education calls to equip students with entrepreneurial skills needed to drive innovation. The Kern Entrepreneurial Engineering Network (KEEN) defines entrepreneurial mindset based on three key attributes: curiosity, connections, and creating value. Elements of ACL and PBL have been used to embed Entrepreneurial Thinking concepts into two fluids-related subjects: 1) an introductory thermal-fluid systems course, and 2) thermo-fluids laboratory. Assessment of students' work reveal an improvement in student learning. Course Evaluations and Surveys indicate an increased perceived-value of course content. Training and development made possible through funding from the Kern Entrepreneurial Engineering Network and the Bucknall Excellence in Teaching Award.

  17. Onset of mobility limitations in old age: the combined effect of socioeconomic position and social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    performed in a study population of 2,839 older men and women from the Danish Intervention Study on Preventive Home Visits. Results: among men low financial assets, living alone or having low social participation significantly increased the odds ratios (OR) for onset of mobility limitations. Among women only...... limitations among both genders, yet the tendencies appeared stronger for males. In particular, men with simultaneous exposure to low financial assets and low social participation had increased odds ratios for onset of mobility limitations, OR = 5.36 (2.51-11.47), compared with the non-exposed. Conclusion...... low financial assets and low social participation significantly increased the ORs for onset of mobility limitations. Analyses with combined exposure variables showed that simultaneous exposure to low financial assets and poor social relations significantly increased the ORs for onset of mobility...

  18. Fathers make a difference: positive relationships with mother and baby in relation to infant colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C P; Zhu, J; Paul, I M; Kjerulff, K H

    2017-09-01

    Maternal psychological factors like depression, anxiety and stress have been associated with infant fussiness or colic. However, little research exists on whether positive factors such as social support and the happiness of the mother-partner relationship are associated with lower rates of infant fussiness or colic. We investigated the association between infant colic and three types of maternal support: general maternal social support (during pregnancy and post partum), the happiness of the mother-partner relationship (during pregnancy and post partum) and partner involvement in caring for the newborn. Participants were 3006 women in the First Baby Study, a prospective study of the effect of mode of first delivery on subsequent childbearing. Women were interviewed by telephone during pregnancy and 1 month after first childbirth and asked about social support and if their baby had a variety of problems since birth, including 'Colic - crying or fussiness three or more hours a day'. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to model the association between maternal support and infant colic, controlling for confounders, including maternal race or ethnicity, insurance, marital status, smoking, mode of delivery, maternal post-partum depression, breastfeeding, other neonatal illnesses and newborn gestational age. Infant colic was reported by 11.6% of new mothers. High general maternal social support (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy, was associated with lower reported infant colic (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40-0.75) and measured post partum (AOR, 0.51, 95% CI, 0.39-0.67); high relationship happiness (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy (AOR, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.54-0.93), and measured post partum (AOR, 0.22, 95% CI, 0.12-0.40); and high partner involvement with newborn care (in comparison with low) (AOR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.44-0.81). Higher levels of maternal social support during pregnancy and post

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Function are Positively Related Among Participants with Mild and Subjective Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckenschneider, Tim; Askew, Christopher David; Rüdiger, Stefanie; Cristina Polidori, Maria; Abeln, Vera; Vogt, Tobias; Krome, Andreas; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Lawlor, Brian; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    By 2030, about 74 million people will be diagnosed with dementia, and many more will experience subjective (SCI) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As physical inactivity has been identified to be a strong modifiable risk factor for dementia, exercise and physical activity (PA) may be important parameters to predict the progression from MCI to dementia, but might also represent disease trajectory modifying strategies for SCI and MCI. A better understanding of the relationship between activity, fitness, and cognitive function across the spectrum of MCI and SCI would provide an insight into the potential utility of PA and fitness as early markers, and treatment targets to prevent cognitive decline. 121 participants were stratified into three groups, late MCI (LMCI), early MCI (EMCI), and SCI based on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Cognitive function assessments also included the Trail Making Test A+B, and a verbal fluency test. PA levels were evaluated with an interviewer-administered questionnaire (LAPAQ) and an activity monitor. An incremental exercise test was performed to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness and to determine exercise capacity relative to population normative data. ANCOVA revealed that LMCI subjects had the lowest PA levels (LAPAQ, p = 0.018; activity monitor, p = 0.041), and the lowest exercise capacity in relation to normative values (p = 0.041). Moreover, a modest correlation between MoCA and cardiorespiratory fitness (r = 0.25; p cognitive impairment PA and exercise capacity might present a marker for the risk of further cognitive decline. This finding warrants further investigation using longitudinal cohort studies.

  20. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  1. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  2. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  3. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  4. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  5. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  6. Risk factors influencing dentists' hepatitis B-related knowledge and attitudes and their willingness to treat hepatitis B positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravanifard, B; Rakhshan, V; Sherafat, S; Najafi-Salehi, L

    2015-02-25

    This study assessed factors that could predict dentists' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards hepatitis B virus (HBV). A total of 300 dentists in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran were surveyed and their demographic, educational and office characteristics were analysed in relation to their scores on knowledge about HBV, self-reported attitudes towards treating people infected with HBV and actual behaviour towards treating simulated HBV-positive patients. Having a Master's degree, faculty membership, taking ≥ 3 continuing education courses, wearing eye-shields, spending more time on preparing dental units and higher self-confidence about knowledge predicted better knowledge. A positive attitude was associated with having attended more courses and working in group practice. The number of courses and a shorter dental unit preparation time positively affected dentists' behaviour.

  7. Related factors to semi-recumbent position compliance and pressure ulcers in patients with invasive mechanical ventilation: An observational study (CAPCRI study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaurado-Serra, Mireia; Ulldemolins, Marta; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan; Guell-Baro, Rosa; Valentí-Trulls, Teresa; Calpe-Damians, Neus; Piñol-Tena, Angels; Pi-Guerrero, Mercedes; Paños-Espinosa, Cristina; Sandiumenge, Alberto; Jimenez-Herrera, María F

    2016-09-01

    Semi-recumbent position is recommended to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. Its implementation, however, is below optimal. We aimed to assess real semi-recumbent position compliance and the degree of head-of-bed elevation in Spanish intensive care units, along with factors determining compliance and head-of-bed elevation and their relationship with the development of pressure ulcers. Finally, we investigated the impact that might have the diagnosis of pressure ulcers in the attitude toward head-of-bed elevation. We performed a prospective, multicenter, observational study in 6 intensive care units. Inclusion criteria were patients ≥18 years old and expected to remain under mechanical ventilator for ≥48h. Exclusion criteria were patients with contraindications for semi-recumbent position from admission, mechanical ventilation during the previous 7 days and prehospital intubation. Head-of-bed elevation was measured 3 times/day for a maximum of 28 days using the BOSCH GLM80(®) device. The variables collected related to patient admission, risk of pressure ulcers and the measurements themselves. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using multiple binary logistic regression and linear regression as appropriate. Statistical significance was set at preplacement therapy, nursing shift, open abdomen, abdominal vacuum therapy and agitation. Twenty-five patients (9.1%) developed a total of 34 pressure ulcers. The diagnosis of pressure ulcers did not affect the head-of-bed elevation. In the multivariate analysis, head-of-bed elevation was not identified as an independent risk factor for pressure ulcers. Semi-recumbent position compliance is below optimal despite the fact that it seems achievable most of the time. Factors that affect semi-recumbent position include the particular intensive care unit, abdominal conditions, renal replacement therapy, agitation and bed type. Head-of-bed elevation was not related to the risk of pressure ulcers. Efforts

  8. The position of IAEA safeguards relative to nuclear material control accountancy by States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rometsch, R.; Hough, G.

    1977-01-01

    IAEA Safeguards, which are always implemented on the basis of agreements which are concluded between one or more Governments and the IAEA, lay down the rights and obligations of the parties; and the more modern types of agreement, in particular those in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, do this in quite some detail. Several articles, for instance, regulate the working relations between the States and the IAEA inspectorate. These are based on two basic obligations - that of the State to establish and maintain a ''System of Accountancy for and Control of Nuclear Material'' and that of the IAEA to ascertain the absence of diversion of nuclear material by verifying the findings of the States' systems, inter alia through independent measurements and observations. Other articles dealing also with the working relations between States and the IAEA rule that the IAEA should take due account of the technical effectiveness of the States' systems and mention among the criteria for determining the inspection effort, the extent of functional dependence of the State's accountancy on that of the facility operator. However, quantitative relationships in this respect are left to be worked out in practice. With the help of consultants and expert advisory groups a rationale has been developed and possible practical arrangements discussed with several States concerned. The rationale for co-ordinating the work of the States' inspectorate with that of the IAEA was to use a factor by which the significant quantity used for calculating verification sampling plans would be adjusted so as to reduce to a certain extent the IAEA's independent verification work in case the States would themselves do extensive verifications in a manner transparent to the IAEA. However, in practice it proved that there are a number of points in the fuel cycle where such adaptations would have little or no effect on the inspection effort necessary to achieve the safeguards

  9. The position of IAEA safeguards relative to nuclear material control accountancy by states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rometsch, R.; Hough, G.

    1977-01-01

    IAEA Safeguards are always implemented on the basis of agreements which are concluded between one or more Governments and the Agency. They lay down the rights and obligations of the parties; the more modern types of agreements, in particular those in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, do that in quite some details. Several articles, for instance, regulate the working relations between the States and the IAEA inspectorate. Those are based on two basic obligations: that of the State to establish and maintain a ''System of Accountancy for and Control of Nuclear Material'' and that of the Agency to ascertain the absence of diversion of nuclear material by verifying the findings of the States' system, inter alia through independent measurements and observations. Other articles dealing also with the working relations States - IAEA rule that the Agency should take due account of the technical effectiveness of the States' system and mention among the criteria for determining the inspection effort, the extent of functional dependence of the State's accountancy from that of the facility operator. However, quantitative relationships in that respect are left to be worked out in practice. With the help of consultants and expert advisory groups a rational has been developed and possible practical arrangements discussed with several States concerned. The rational for coordinating the work of the States' inspectorate with IAEA's inspectorate was to use a factor by which the significant quantity used for calculating verification sampling plans would be adjusted in order to reduce to a certain extent the Agency's independent verification work in case the States would do extensive verifications themselves in a manner transparent to IAEA. However, in practice it proved that there are quite a number of points in the fuel cycle where such adaptations would have little or no effect on the inspection effort necessary to achieve the safeguards objective

  10. Stochastic lumping analysis for linear kinetics and its application to the fluctuation relations between hierarchical kinetic networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, De-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-14

    Conventional studies of biomolecular behaviors rely largely on the construction of kinetic schemes. Since the selection of these networks is not unique, a concern is raised whether and under which conditions hierarchical schemes can reveal the same experimentally measured fluctuating behaviors and unique fluctuation related physical properties. To clarify these questions, we introduce stochasticity into the traditional lumping analysis, generalize it from rate equations to chemical master equations and stochastic differential equations, and extract the fluctuation relations between kinetically and thermodynamically equivalent networks under intrinsic and extrinsic noises. The results provide a theoretical basis for the legitimate use of low-dimensional models in the studies of macromolecular fluctuations and, more generally, for exploring stochastic features in different levels of contracted networks in chemical and biological kinetic systems.

  11. Stochastic lumping analysis for linear kinetics and its application to the fluctuation relations between hierarchical kinetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, De-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Hung

    2015-05-14

    Conventional studies of biomolecular behaviors rely largely on the construction of kinetic schemes. Since the selection of these networks is not unique, a concern is raised whether and under which conditions hierarchical schemes can reveal the same experimentally measured fluctuating behaviors and unique fluctuation related physical properties. To clarify these questions, we introduce stochasticity into the traditional lumping analysis, generalize it from rate equations to chemical master equations and stochastic differential equations, and extract the fluctuation relations between kinetically and thermodynamically equivalent networks under intrinsic and extrinsic noises. The results provide a theoretical basis for the legitimate use of low-dimensional models in the studies of macromolecular fluctuations and, more generally, for exploring stochastic features in different levels of contracted networks in chemical and biological kinetic systems.

  12. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; MATSUDAIRA, Ko; DE JONGE, Jan; TOSAKA, Naoya; WATANABE, Kazuhiro; TAKAHASHI, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental he...

  13. Influence of body position on cortical pain-related somatosensory processing: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Spironelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the consistent information available on the physiological changes induced by head down bed rest, a condition which simulates space microgravity, our knowledge on the possible perceptual-cortical alterations is still poor. The present study investigated the effects of 2-h head-down bed rest on subjective and cortical responses elicited by electrical, pain-related somatosensory stimulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty male subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, head-down bed rest (BR or sitting control condition. Starting from individual electrical thresholds, Somatosensory Evoked Potentials were elicited by electrical stimuli administered randomly to the left wrist and divided into four conditions: control painless condition, electrical pain threshold, 30% above pain threshold, 30% below pain threshold. Subjective pain ratings collected during the EEG session showed significantly reduced pain perception in BR compared to Control group. Statistical analysis on four electrode clusters and sLORETA source analysis revealed, in sitting controls, a P1 component (40-50 ms in the right somatosensory cortex, whereas it was bilateral and differently located in BR group. Controls' N1 (80-90 ms had widespread right hemisphere activation, involving also anterior cingulate, whereas BR group showed primary somatosensory cortex activation. The P2 (190-220 ms was larger in left-central locations of Controls compared with BR group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Head-down bed rest was associated to an overall decrease of pain sensitivity and an altered pain network also outside the primary somatosensory cortex. Results have implications not only for astronauts' health and spaceflight risks, but also for the clinical aspects of pain detection in bedridden patients at risk of fatal undetected complications.

  14. Analysis of the collagen birefringence and the relative attenuation coefficient of health and burned skin irradiated with linearly polarized He-Ne laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Daniela de Fatima Teixeira da

    2002-01-01

    Low-intensity laser therapy is characterized by its ability to induce athermic effects and nondestructive photobiological processes. Although it has been in use for more than 40 years, this phototherapy is still not an established therapeutic modality. The objectives of this study were: to quantify the collagen fibers organization by polarized light microscopy in normal and burned skin samples at day 17 post-injury considering preferential axis as the animal's spinal column and aligning the linear laser polarization in two directions of polarization, parallel or perpendicular to this axis; to determine the relative attenuation coefficient for the intensity light by the technique of imaging the light distribution in normal and burned skin during wound healing process taking only parallel direction of polarization. To reach the objectives, burns about 6 mm in diameter were created with liquid N 2 on the back of the rats and the lesions were irradiated on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-wounding, D= 1 J/cm 2 , to investigate the effects of low-intensity linearly polarized He-Ne laser beam on skin wounds healing. Control lesions were not irradiated. The results have demonstrated that: the skin samples irradiated with linearly parallel polarized He-Ne laser beam showed collagen fibers more organized; burned skin samples presents a higher attenuation coefficient than normal skin samples. These results are important to optimize low intensity laser therapy dosimetry on acceleration wound healing. (author)

  15. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Matsudaira, Ko; Jonge, Jan DE; Tosaka, Naoya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2016-06-10

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement.

  16. Workplace-based communication skills training in clinical departments: Examining the role of collegial relations through positioning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Jane Ege; Malling, Bente Vigh

    2018-04-27

    Studies suggest that the workplace is a key to understanding how clinical communication skills learning takes place and that medical communication skills need to be reinforced over time in order not to deteriorate. This study explored the perceptions of doctors in four hospital departments who participated in a workplace-based communication training project. Its specific focus was the relationship between collegial relations and learning communication skills. The study applied a qualitative design using an ethnographic methodology, i.e. interviews and observations. Positioning theory was used as the theoretical framework. Training communication skills with colleagues in the actual workplace setting was valued by the participants who experienced more sharing of communication challenges, previously understood as something private one would not share with colleagues. However, collegial relations were also barriers for providing critical feedback, especially from junior doctors to their seniors. The position as "colleague" both reinforced the communication skills training and hindered it. The communication skills educational model had a flat, non-hierarchical structure which disturbed the hierarchical structure of the workplace, and its related positions.

  17. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  18. Linear collider: a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  19. The "Emotional Side" of Entrepreneurship: A Meta-Analysis of the Relation between Positive and Negative Affect and Entrepreneurial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Oana C; Pintea, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The experience of work in an entrepreneurial context is saturated with emotional experiences. While the literature on the relation between affect and entrepreneurial performance (EP) is growing, there was no quantitative integration of the results so far. This study addresses this gap and meta-analytically integrates the results from 17 studies ( N = 3810) in order to estimate the effect size for the relation between positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), on the one hand, and EP, on the other hand. The meta-analysis includes studies in English language, published until August 2016. The results indicate a significant positive relation between PA and EP, r = 0.18. The overall NA - EP relation was not significant, r = -0.12. Only state NA has a significant negative relation with EP ( r = -0.16). The moderating role of several conceptual (i.e., emotion duration, integrality etc.), sample (i.e., gender, age, education) and methodological characteristics of the studies (i.e., type of measurements etc.) are explored and implications for future research are discussed.

  20. The impact of HIV-related stigma on the lives of HIV-positive women: an integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Szu-Szu; Holloway, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    To critically explore how Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma impacts on the lives of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women through an integrative review of the literature. Throughout history Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection has been associated with sex trade, injecting drug use and other deviant behaviours within society. These historical associations can lead to the generation of negative perceptions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women. As such, women who contract Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection can be susceptible to societal stigma. An integrative literature review. To identify the publications on the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma among women, a search was performed using the following databases: CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstract covering the period from 2000-2014. The following key words were included in the search: 'women', 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus', and 'stigma'. Twenty-six articles were retrieved and reviewed. From the results, four key themes merged in relation to the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women's lives: the individual, relationships, work and the community. Despite great advances in the management and treatment of those who are Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive, it appears the lives of many women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus remain greatly affected by their Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection with gender-specific stigma and stereotypes. Having a holistic understanding of this impact offers the potential for those responsible for the funding and draws the attention of researchers and policy makers on promoting medical services specifically for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women, minimising social stigmatisation towards this client group, and optimising their health outcomes. In an attempt to amplify Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women