Seibt, C.; Schubert, T. W.; Zickfeld, J. H.; Fiske, A. P.
The emotion commonly labeled in English as being moved or touched is widely experienced but only tacitly defined, and has received little systematic attention. Based on a review of conceptualizations from various disciplines, we hypothesize that events appraised as an increase in interpersonal closeness, or as moral acts, when sufficiently intense, elicit a positive emotion typically labeled “being moved,” and characterized by tears, goosebumps, and a feeling of warmth in the chest. We predic...
Seibt, Beate; Schubert, Thomas W; Zickfeld, Janis H; Fiske, Alan Page
The emotion commonly labeled in English as being moved or touched is widely experienced but only tacitly defined, and has received little systematic attention. Based on a review of conceptualizations from various disciplines, we hypothesize that events appraised as an increase in interpersonal closeness, or as moral acts, when sufficiently intense, elicit a positive emotion typically labeled "being moved," and characterized by tears, goosebumps, and a feeling of warmth in the chest. We predicted this to be true for events a person participates in, as well as for events they observe. In Study 1, we elicited reports of recent episodes of weeping evoked by something positive, and also weeping because of something negative; we measured emotion terms, bodily sensations, and appraisals in a U.S. We discovered that events of positive tears, rather than negative tears, were associated with self-reported being moved or touched, with goosebumps, with feelings of chest warmth, and with the appraisals of increased closeness and moral acts. These appraisals mediated the difference in being moved between positive and negative events. We further found that appraisal patterns for personally experienced events were similar to the patterns for observed events. Finally, the 2 appraisals were more closely associated with being moved than with other emotion labels. This was corroborated in Study 2 in the U.S. and Norway, where we induced being moved, sadness, anxiety, and happiness through videos and measured these emotions, plus the appraisals and sensations from Study 1. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Humiliation is an intensely negative and complex emotion. This dissertation focused on the determinants, strength, emotion relations, and consequences of feelings of humiliation in different contexts. In an interpersonal context (Chapter 2), we found that negative audience behaviour (laughter)
Full Text Available With increasing consumer requirements, farmers and vendors see the importance of social media as a marketing tool to engage with consumers. In particular, on a more personal level for reasons of brand management. Instagram is becoming increasingly popular as a marketing communication tool. The aim of this paper is to identify areas that users evaluate in terms of positive feelings in connection with farmers’ markets. The results are based on the analysis of the worldwide, and Czech, instagram social network. Instagram posts were identified on the basis of keywords, such as #farmarsketrhy and #farmersmarkets. The results of the study are based on 100,000 contributions on Instagram made by 55,632 users. The analysis contains 1,357,812 ‘unique’ words. The results identified six major areas (1 Healthy (2 Good (3 Great (4 Happy (5 Nice (6 Perfect. An appropriately posted hashtag indicated the positive feelings that were evoked and then assigned to a matching category. The research results are used to identify group characteristics that exert these positive feelings while visiting farmers’ markets. These results can be used to build communications campaigns for farmers’ markets. They can also be used as a basis for further research in defining the behaviour of farmers’ markets visitors, based on cultural differences arising from geographic location.
Wilkins, Ashley; Eriksson, Cynthia; Gottuso, Ann; Fort, Christin
Research on faith-based urban workers is limited despite the chronic and traumatic exposure inherent in their work. This study details the perception of positive interpersonal relationships during a time of trauma or crisis as described in semistructured 2- to 3-hour interviews with 13 faith-based urban workers in Los Angeles, California. Using strategies consistent with Consensual Qualitative Research, categories and subcategories defining positive interpersonal relationships were identified. Resulting categories suggested that there are specific characteristics, products, and types of relationships that urban workers experience as important during the time of trauma or crisis. Positive experiences were often religious in nature and included feeling supported, feeling connected, relationship growth, sharing and listening, authenticity, and feeling as through relationships facilitated personal growth or coping. The findings highlight participants' need for both practical support and relational support which reflects and enhances their spiritual commitment.
I.E. de Hooge (Ilona)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ For decades, shame has been understood as a negative, self-conscious feeling with mostly negative interpersonal consequences. As a result, shame is currently perceived as an ugly emotion that motivates social withdrawal, avoidance, and inhibition. The
Moeller, Sara K; Lee, Elizabeth A Ewing; Robinson, Michael D
Dominance and submission constitute fundamentally different social interaction strategies that may be enacted most effectively to the extent that the emotions of others are relatively ignored (dominance) versus noticed (submission). On the basis of such considerations, we hypothesized a systematic relationship between chronic tendencies toward high versus low levels of interpersonal dominance and emotion decoding accuracy in objective tasks. In two studies (total N = 232), interpersonally dominant individuals exhibited poorer levels of emotion recognition in response to audio and video clips (Study 1) and facial expressions of emotion (Study 2). The results provide a novel perspective on interpersonal dominance, suggest its strategic nature (Study 2), and are discussed in relation to Fiske's (1993) social-cognitive theory of power. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Carpenter, Stephanie M; Peters, Ellen; Västfjäll, Daniel; Isen, Alice M
The impact of induced mild positive feelings on working memory and complex decision making among older adults (aged 63-85) was examined. Participants completed a computer administered card task in which participants could win money if they chose from "gain" decks and lose money if they chose from "loss" decks. Individuals in the positive-feeling condition chose better than neutral-feeling participants and earned more money overall. Participants in the positive-feeling condition also demonstrated improved working-memory capacity. These effects of positive-feeling induction have implications for affect theory, as well as, potentially, practical implications for people of all ages dealing with complex decisions.
Savani, Krishna; Alvarez, Ayme; Mesquita, Batja; Markus, Hazel Rose
Two studies investigate whether interpersonally engaging emotions--those that bring the self closer to others (e.g., affection, shame)--are central to the model of self and relationships prevalent in Mexican cultural contexts. Study 1 demonstrated that compared to people in European American contexts, people in Mexican contexts were more likely to report experiencing interpersonally engaging emotions and less likely to report experiencing interpersonally disengaging emotions. Study 2 found that interpersonally engaging emotions had a substantial influence on performance motivation in Mexican contexts--Mexican participants solved more word search puzzles after recalling instances in which they experienced positive interpersonally engaging emotions, and fewer after recalling negative interpersonally disengaging emotions; in contrast, there were no differences by condition for European Americans. These findings significantly extend previous research by documenting the implications of relational concerns (e.g., simpatia, personalismo) for emotion and motivation in Mexican contexts, and are the first to demonstrate the motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions.
Kurtz-Nelson, E; McIntyre, L L
Parents' positive and negative feelings about their young children influence both parenting behaviour and child problem behaviour. Research has not previously examined factors that contribute to positive and negative feelings in parents of young children with developmental delay (DD). The present study sought to examine whether optimism, a known protective factor for parents of children with DD, was predictive of positive and negative feelings for these parents. Data were collected from 119 parents of preschool-aged children with developmental delay. Two separate hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if optimism significantly predicted positive feelings and negative feelings and whether optimism moderated relations between parenting stress and parent feelings. Increased optimism was found to predict increased positive feelings and decreased negative feelings after controlling for child problem behaviour and parenting stress. In addition, optimism was found to moderate the relation between parenting stress and positive feelings. Results suggest that optimism may impact how parents perceive their children with DD. Future research should examine how positive and negative feelings impact positive parenting behaviour and the trajectory of problem behaviour specifically for children with DD. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Stange, Jonathan P; Kleiman, Evan M; Rubenstein, Liza M; Scopelliti, Kate A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B
Positive and negative trait affect and emotion regulatory strategies have received considerable attention in the literature as predictors of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear whether individuals' trait affect is associated with responses to state positive affect (positive rumination and dampening) or negative affect (ruminative brooding), or whether these affective experiences contribute to negative or positive interpersonal event generation. Among 304 late adolescents, path analyses indicated that individuals with higher trait negative affect utilized dampening and brooding rumination responses, whereas those with higher trait positive affect engaged in rumination on positive affect. Further, there were indirect relationships between trait negative affect and fewer positive and negative interpersonal events via dampening, and between trait positive affect and greater positive and negative interpersonal events via positive rumination. These findings suggest that individuals' trait negative and positive affect may be associated with increased utilization of emotion regulation strategies for managing these affects, which may contribute to the occurrence of positive and negative events in interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P; Banerjee, Robin
Recent research has indicated that individuals with social interaction anxiety make biased interpretations of positive social interactions, with greater general apprehension in response to such events and more negative predictions about the future. There has also been some preliminary evidence for a second facet of interpretation bias, namely a failure to accept others' positive reactions at face value, but this has so far not been adequately studied. The present study developed a new measure of this "discounting" dimension and utilized a nonclinical sample of undergraduate students to provide an initial analysis of the scale. Results provide early support for the psychometric properties of our scale, and indicate that discounting mediates the relationship between social interaction anxiety and low positive affect, over and above the previously studied aspect of positive event interpretation bias. The implications for treatment interventions and further research are discussed.
Winther, Frederikke; Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Henriksen, Thomas Duus
, a living room or just a plain white wall. Seen from a rhetorical perspective, the communication situation in a virtual meeting consists of all the participants’ individual frameworks on a screen which must converge into a context suitable for interpersonal communication, interaction and collaboration....... It is argued, that virtual leadership must respond to the situation with rhetorical sensitivity by corresponding attentively and carefully to the conditions, positions and experiences of the particular followers in order to evoke their responsiveness and build commitment....
Franklin, Joseph C; Lee, Kent M; Hanna, Eleanor K; Prinstein, Mitchell J
Although pain itself induces negative affect, the removal (or offset) of pain induces a powerful state of relief. Despite being implicated in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenomena, relief remains a poorly understood emotion. In particular, some theorists associate relief with increased positive affect, whereas others associate relief with diminished negative affect. In the present study, we examined the affective nature of relief in a pain-offset paradigm with psychophysiological measures that were specific to negative valence (startle eyeblink reactivity) and positive valence (startle postauricular reactivity). Results revealed that pain offset simultaneously stimulates positive affect and diminishes negative affect for at least several seconds. Results also indicated that pain intensity differentially affects the positive and negative valence aspects of relief. These findings clarify the affective nature of relief and provide insight into why people engage in both normal and abnormal behaviors associated with relief.
Kim, Jinhee; Na, Hyunjoo
Recently, the interest in positive psychotherapy is growing, which can help to encourage positive relationships and develop strengths of people. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a positive psychotherapy program on positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery in community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. The research was conducted using a randomized control group pretest-posttest design. A total of 57 adults with schizophrenia participated in this study. The study participants in experimental group received a positive psychotherapy program (n=28) and the participants in control group received only the usual treatment in community centers (n=29). The positive psychotherapy program was provided for 5 weeks (of 10 sessions, held twice/week, for 60 minutes). The study outcomes included positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery. The collected data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for examining study hypothesis. Results showed that interpersonal relations (F=11.83, p=.001) and resilience (F=9.62, p=.003) significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. Although experimental group showed a slight increase in positive affect, it was not significant. The study findings confirm that the positive psychotherapy program is effective for improving interpersonal relations and resilience of community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. Based on the findings, we believe that the positive psychotherapy program would be acceptable and helpful to improve recovery of mental health in schizophrenia. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science
Livi, Stefano; Theodorou, Annalisa; Rullo, Marika; Cinque, Luigi; Alessandri, Guido
Among relevant consequences of organizational socialization, a key factor is the promotion of organizational citizenship behaviors toward individuals (i.e. OCBI). However, the relation between organizational socialization and OCBI has received little attention. This study tests the validity of a moderated mediation model in which we examine the mediating effect of a decreased interpersonal strain on the relationship between organizational socialization and OCBI, and the moderation role of a positive personal resource in reducing interpersonal strain when an unsuccessful socialization subsists. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 765 new recruits of the Guardia di Finanza-a military Police Force reporting to the Italian Minister of Economy. Findings confirm our hypothesis that interpersonal strain mediates the relationship between organizational socialization and OCBI. The index of moderated mediation results significant, showing that this effect exists at different levels of positivity. Theoretical and practical implications for promoting pro-organizational behaviors are discussed.
Theodorou, Annalisa; Rullo, Marika; Cinque, Luigi; Alessandri, Guido
Among relevant consequences of organizational socialization, a key factor is the promotion of organizational citizenship behaviors toward individuals (i.e. OCBI). However, the relation between organizational socialization and OCBI has received little attention. This study tests the validity of a moderated mediation model in which we examine the mediating effect of a decreased interpersonal strain on the relationship between organizational socialization and OCBI, and the moderation role of a positive personal resource in reducing interpersonal strain when an unsuccessful socialization subsists. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 765 new recruits of the Guardia di Finanza–a military Police Force reporting to the Italian Minister of Economy. Findings confirm our hypothesis that interpersonal strain mediates the relationship between organizational socialization and OCBI. The index of moderated mediation results significant, showing that this effect exists at different levels of positivity. Theoretical and practical implications for promoting pro-organizational behaviors are discussed. PMID:29494621
Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita
The present study examined the relationship between perceptions of genital appearance and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. The study sample included men and women (aged 18-45 years, M = 23.7, SD = 4.98) who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225), or bisexual (n = 651). Participants responded to an online survey assessing their self-perceived sexual attractiveness, genital self-image, genital self-consciousness during sexual activity, and sexual esteem. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized a positive link between genital self-perceptions and self-perceived sexual attractiveness, with sexual esteem acting as a mediator. We tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed a significant association between both genital self-image and genital self-consciousness and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. However, these relationships were at least partially mediated by sexual esteem, across both gender and sexual orientation. The findings suggest that, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, individuals who maintain a positive genital self-image or lack genital self-consciousness, are more likely to experience greater sexual esteem, and in turn, feel more sexually attractive. The findings have implications for the importance of genital appearance perceptions and improving individuals' sexual esteem and self-perceived sexual attractiveness.
Chu, Denise A; Bryant, Richard A; Gatt, Justine M; Harris, Anthony W F
Enhanced threat-related processing is associated with both elevated anxiety and childhood exposure to trauma. Given the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure on subsequent psychophysiological processes in the absence of psychopathology, we investigated the relative impacts of childhood interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma, as well as adult trauma exposure on neural processing of threat in healthy adults. We measured peak amplitudes of the N170 face-sensitive visual ERP component response to non-conscious and conscious Angry (threat) versus Happy (non-threat, positive) and Neutral (non-threat baseline) faces at temporo-occipital sites (right-T6; left-T5) in 489 psychiatrically asymptomatic adults (aged 18-70 years, 54% women, 94% right-handed). N170 peak amplitude differences between Angry vs Happy or Neutral faces were calculated and subjected to hierarchical multiple regression analysis, with trauma types (childhood interpersonal, childhood non-interpersonal and adult trauma) entered as predictors of interest. After controlling for sociodemographic and health factors, N170 peak amplitudes for non-conscious Angry vs Happy faces were inversely associated with childhood interpersonal trauma at T6 and adult trauma exposure at T5. Post-hoc repeated measures ANOVA indicated that unlike adults without trauma exposure, trauma-exposed adults failed to show significantly reduced N170 responses to Happy relative to Angry faces during non-conscious processing. This suggests that childhood interpersonal and adult trauma exposure are associated with a failure to differentiate between non-threat or positive and threat-related emotion cues. This is consistent with generalised hypervigilance seen in PTSD, and suggests trauma exposure is associated with a generalized heightened responsivity to non-conscious non-threat or positive as well as threat-related emotion cues in psychiatrically healthy adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Cohen, Carl I; Solanki, Dishal; Sodhi, Dimple
Although interpersonal interactions are thought to affect psychopathology in schizophrenia, there is a paucity of data about how older adults with schizophrenia manage interpersonal conflicts. This paper examines interpersonal conflict strategies and their impact on positive symptom remission in older adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The schizophrenia group consisted of 198 persons aged 55 years and over living in the community who developed schizophrenia before age 45. A community comparison group (n = 113) was recruited using randomly selected block-groups. Straus' Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) was used to assess the ways that respondents handled interpersonal conflicts. Seven conflict management subscales were created based on a principal component analysis with equamax rotation of items from the CTS. The order of the frequency of the tactics that was used was similar for both the schizophrenia and community groups. Calm and Pray tactics were the most commonly used, and the Violent and Aggressive tactics were rarely utilized. In two separate logistic regression analysis, after controlling for confounding variables, positive symptom remission was found to be associated significantly with both the Calm and Pray subscales. The findings suggest that older persons with schizophrenia approximate normal distribution patterns of conflict management strategies and the most commonly used strategies are associated with positive symptom remission.
Cundiff, Jenny M; Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Uchino, Bert N
The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular disease may involve social psychophysiological processes. To test effects of aspects of SEP on physiological reactivity, we experimentally manipulated 3 features of social context related to social hierarchy-social rank or status relative to an interaction partner, the partner's degree of dominant behavior, and the presence of social-evaluative threat. The study design was a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 (Participant Relative Status [high vs. low] × Partner Dominance [high vs. low] × Evaluative Threat [high vs. low] × Sex [male vs. female]) factorial, and 180 undergraduates participated. Cardiovascular and salivary cortisol responses were measured while participants engaged in a controlled interaction task with a prerecorded confederate partner. Lower participant relative status resulted in greater increases in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Interacting with a more dominant partner resulted in greater increases in SBP and heart rate (HR), and larger changes in cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activation. Higher levels of social-evaluative threat evoked larger increases in HR and SBP. In some cases, these effects were stronger in men than in women, and aspects of the low status social context had synergistic effects on some physiological outcomes. Interpersonal interactions and experiences may contribute to the association between SEP and cardiovascular health through the mechanism of physiological activation. Recurring patterns of everyday social experiences and their physiological effects may be a pathway linking the broader social context to cardiovascular disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
M Y H Moosa
Full Text Available Aim. The coping skills and styles individuals utilise to deal with the stress of HIV infection greatly influence the psychological impact of this illness and potential consequent feelings of hopelessness. The aim of this study was to describe levels of hopelessness in a group of stable, non-depressed HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, and factors associated with hopelessness. Method. Thirty randomly selected non-depressed patients (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV criteria were included in this study. Demographic and other data were obtained from all subjects, who also completed the Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (BHS. The 20 true-false items of the BHS (29 measured three major aspects of hopelessness, which was interpreted on the total scale score as follows: ≤3 minimal, and >3 significant. Results. The study population comprised 30 patients with a mean age of 37.9 years (standard error (SE 1.18 ( range 28 - 51 years. The mean BHS score was 4.03 (SE 0.55, with a range from 0 to 12. There were no statistically significant correlations between BHS scores of the study population and gender, marital status, employment status, level of education, years since the diagnosis of HIV, or number of children (p>0.05. Eighteen subjects (60% scored 3 or less on the BHS, considered minimal levels of hopelessness. However, 12 (40% scored more than 3, which is considered significant; of these 23% had scores of 7 or more. There was no statistically significant association between BHS scores and gender, employment status, level of education, number of children or number of years since diagnosis (p>0.05. However, patients who were married or living with partners were statistically more likely to score higher on the hopelessness scale compared with those who were single (p
The social and intellectual climate of the late 1940s and early 1950s in America helped nourish humanistic, person-centered views of human behavior. During that time, psychologists such as Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, Harry Murray, and Carl Rogers emphasized the positive growth potential in human character. The psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan proposed that personality can best be understood within the context of interpersonal transactions, and he provided a practical, street-smart understanding of psychiatric symptoms that was quite an advance over the traditional medical and psychoanalytic viewpoints. These ideas, along with the concept of dimensionalizing traits rather than categorizing them, inspired my colleagues and I to conduct our cooperative work on the interpersonal circumplex, which culminated in the publication of my monograph. Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality (Leary, 1957).
"Feeling happy" focuses on the syndrome of self-indulgence, self-actualization or self-fulfillment as antagonistic to the survival of marital agreement. Inspite of the obvious redeeming qualities of either spouse the unhappy partner opts for divorce. The article posits the familial advantages of responsiblity and commitment and reviews the older…
Ram, Diana; Berson, Tamar; Moskovitz, Moti; Efrat, Jacob
The purpose of the current study was to assess whether an unsweetened ice-popsicle imparts a positive feeling to children after dental treatment in which local anaesthesia is administered, and whether it reduces the tendency of children to self-mutilate (bite the lip, cheek or tongue) after the administration of local anaesthesia. Crossover study of 31 children aged 4-11 years old who needed similar dental treatments on both sides of the mandible or maxilla under local anaesthesia. At the end of each appointment the child received a toy or an ice-popsicle especially made for this study. Patients and parents answered a questionnaire regarding the children's behaviour and feeling immediately after the treatment, and 10 and 30 min after receiving the ice-popsicle or toy. Children who received ice-popsicles after dental treatment under local anaesthesia felt less discomfort and suffered less soft tissue trauma than they did when they received a toy. Reduction in soft tissue trauma was evident 10 min after receiving the ice-popsicles. Licking of an ice-popsicle after dental treatment with local anaesthesia reduces the feeling of discomfort and the biting of soft tissue and self- mutilation.
Hourihan, Kathleen L; Bursey, Elliott
Emotional information is often remembered better than neutral information, but the emotional benefit for positive information is less consistently observed than the benefit for negative information. The current study examined whether positive emotional pictures are recognised better than neutral pictures, and further examined whether participants can predict how emotion affects picture recognition. In two experiments, participants studied a mixed list of positive and neutral pictures, and made immediate judgements of learning (JOLs). JOLs for positive pictures were consistently higher than for neutral pictures. However, recognition performance displayed an inconsistent pattern. In Experiment 1, neutral pictures were more discriminable than positive pictures, but Experiment 2 found no difference in recognition based on emotional content. Despite participants' beliefs, positive emotional content does not appear to consistently benefit picture memory.
Leary, M R; Haupt, A L; Strausser, K S; Chokel, J T
Four experiments examined the functional relationship between interpersonal appraisal and subjective feelings about oneself. Participants imagined receiving one of several positive or negative reactions from another person (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) or actually received interpersonal evaluations (Experiment 4), then completed measures relevant to state self-esteem. All 4 studies showed that subjective feelings were a curvilinear, ogival function of others' appraisals. Although trait self-esteem correlated with state reactions as a main effect, it did not moderate participants' reactions to interpersonal feedback.
Hughey, Judy K.
The relationship between interpersonal skills is positively correlated with effective academic advising. Professional academic advisors feel significant pressure to meet a wide array of student needs, increase retention rates, help students in their efforts of academic achievement and career exploration, and support institutions to excel in…
Woerner, Jacqueline; Abbey, Antonia
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of positive and negative affect following casual sex. Specifically, the primary goal was to investigate how traditional gender-role beliefs, peer approval of casual sex, perceptions of others, sexual assertiveness, and sexual pleasure influence affective experiences. Second, we aimed to determine the extent to which these associations were comparable for men and women. Although we expected mean differences on many of these constructs (e.g., men perceiving more peer approval), we expected the relationships between these constructs to be comparable for women and men. Participants ages 18 to 35 (N = 585) were recruited from a large university and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and described their most recent casual sex experience in a self-report questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that gender-role beliefs were significantly associated with less sexual assertiveness and more negative perceptions of others; for women they were also associated with less peer approval of casual sex. For women and men, sexual assertiveness predicted sexual pleasure; and sexual pleasure was associated with affect. To decrease the gender discrepancy in positive affect and sexual pleasure, it is important to develop a comprehensive understanding of the interrelationships among norms, casual sex experiences, and affect.
Gosling, Corentin J; Moutier, Sylvain
Human risky decision-making is known to be highly susceptible to profit-motivated responses elicited by the way in which options are framed. In fact, studies investigating the framing effect have shown that the choice between sure and risky options depends on how these options are presented. Interestingly, the probability of gain of the risky option has been highlighted as one of the main factors causing variations in susceptibility to the framing effect. However, while it has been shown that high probabilities of gain of the risky option systematically lead to framing bias, questions remain about the influence of low probabilities of gain. Therefore, the first aim of this paper was to clarify the respective roles of high and low probabilities of gain in the framing effect. Due to the difference between studies using a within- or between-subjects design, we conducted a first study investigating the respective roles of these designs. For both designs, we showed that trials with a high probability of gain led to the framing effect whereas those with a low probability did not. Second, as emotions are known to play a key role in the framing effect, we sought to determine whether they are responsible for such a debiasing effect of the low probability of gain. Our second study thus investigated the relationship between emotion and the framing effect depending on high and low probabilities. Our results revealed that positive emotion was related to risk-seeking in the loss frame, but only for trials with a high probability of gain. Taken together, these results support the interpretation that low probabilities of gain suppress the framing effect because they prevent the positive emotion of gain anticipation.
Gosling, Corentin J.; Moutier, Sylvain
Human risky decision-making is known to be highly susceptible to profit-motivated responses elicited by the way in which options are framed. In fact, studies investigating the framing effect have shown that the choice between sure and risky options depends on how these options are presented. Interestingly, the probability of gain of the risky option has been highlighted as one of the main factors causing variations in susceptibility to the framing effect. However, while it has been shown that high probabilities of gain of the risky option systematically lead to framing bias, questions remain about the influence of low probabilities of gain. Therefore, the first aim of this paper was to clarify the respective roles of high and low probabilities of gain in the framing effect. Due to the difference between studies using a within- or between-subjects design, we conducted a first study investigating the respective roles of these designs. For both designs, we showed that trials with a high probability of gain led to the framing effect whereas those with a low probability did not. Second, as emotions are known to play a key role in the framing effect, we sought to determine whether they are responsible for such a debiasing effect of the low probability of gain. Our second study thus investigated the relationship between emotion and the framing effect depending on high and low probabilities. Our results revealed that positive emotion was related to risk-seeking in the loss frame, but only for trials with a high probability of gain. Taken together, these results support the interpretation that low probabilities of gain suppress the framing effect because they prevent the positive emotion of gain anticipation. PMID:28232808
Diener, Ed; Ng, Weiting; Harter, James; Arora, Raksha
The Gallup World Poll, the first representative sample of planet Earth, was used to explore the reasons why happiness is associated with higher income, including the meeting of basic needs, fulfillment of psychological needs, increasing satisfaction with one's standard of living, and public goods. Across the globe, the association of log income with subjective well-being was linear but convex with raw income, indicating the declining marginal effects of income on subjective well-being. Income was a moderately strong predictor of life evaluation but a much weaker predictor of positive and negative feelings. Possessing luxury conveniences and satisfaction with standard of living were also strong predictors of life evaluation. Although the meeting of basic and psychological needs mediated the effects of income on life evaluation to some degree, the strongest mediation was provided by standard of living and ownership of conveniences. In contrast, feelings were most associated with the fulfillment of psychological needs: learning, autonomy, using one's skills, respect, and the ability to count on others in an emergency. Thus, two separate types of prosperity-economic and social psychological-best predict different types of well-being.
Full Text Available The present research investigated the relation between the use of positive, negative and instrumental humour in the context of romantic relationships and relational well-being as assessed by positive and negative patterns of conflict resolution behaviour. A sample of 116 heterosexual married couples completed scales of relational humour use as well as conflict resolution behaviour. Behaviour of couples while attempting to resolve a relationship based conflict was also coded by independent raters. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM analyses showed patterns of actor and partner effects for each type of humour use. Specifically, positive humour use of both partners predicted more positive conflict resolution, whereas negative humour use of both partners predicted less positive conflict resolution. Additionally, instrumental humour use of both partners seemed to predict greater apathy during conflict resolution. Implications for considering couple humor use, assessed for both partners of the dyad, for understanding relational well-being are discussed.
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Full Text Available Feelings-as-information theory states that feelings inform us about the nature of our current situation and we rely on them to make our judgments. Beyond that, feelings tune our cognitive processes to meet situational requirements. Positive feelings result in relying on pre-existing knowledge structures and default strategies, whereas negative feelings hamper relying on routines and results in adapting systematic processing. Based on this premise, it was hypothesized that positive mood, elicited either by the perceived target or by the independent source, would lead to relying on accessible agentic or communal content in perceiving strangers, as well as familiar others, whereas negative mood would weaken these tendencies. Specifically, the three studies showed initial evidence that (a positive mood leads to focusing on agencyrelated qualities in perception of unknown men to a greater extent than negative mood, (b positive mood leads to focusing on communion-related qualities in perception of unknown women more than negative mood, and(c positive mood leads to relying on communal content in perception of familiar others comparing to negative mood.
Masillo, Alice; Brandizzi, M; Valmaggia, L R; Saba, R; Lo Cascio, N; Lindau, J F; Telesforo, L; Venturini, P; Montanaro, D; Di Pietro, D; D'Alema, M; Girardi, P; Fiori Nastro, P
Interpersonal sensitivity defines feelings of inner-fragility in the presence of others due to the expectation of criticism or rejection. Interpersonal sensitivity was found to be related to attenuated positive psychotic symptom during the prodromal phase of psychosis. The aims of this study were to examine if high level of interpersonal sensitivity at baseline are associated with the persistence of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and general psychopathology at 18-month follow-up. A sample of 85 help-seeking individuals (mean age = 16.6, SD = 5.05) referred an Italian early detection project, completed the interpersonal sensitivity measure and the structured interview for prodromal symptoms (SIPS) at baseline and were assessed at 18-month follow-up using the SIPS. Results showed that individuals with high level of interpersonal sensitivity at baseline reported high level of attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (i.e., unusual thought content) and general symptoms (i.e., depression, irritability and low tolerance to daily stress) at follow-up. This study suggests that being "hypersensitive" to interpersonal interactions is a psychological feature associated with attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and general symptoms, such as depression and irritability, at 18-month follow-up. Assessing and treating inner-self fragilities may be an important step of early detection program to avoid the persistence of subtle but very distressing long-terms symptoms.
Joseph, Meera; Rab, Faiza; Panabaker, Karen; Nisker, Jeff
Family physicians in Canada as reported in several studies do not recognize the importance of family history in relation to breast/ovarian cancer and thus Canadian women with strong family histories continue to develop early-onset breast cancer without the knowledge of or ability to make choices regarding increased surveillance or preventative strategies. This study explored the feelings of women who learned about their hereditary risk only after their diagnosis younger than 52 years and who eventually tested positive for a BRCA gene mutation. Thirty-four such women were mailed an invitation to participate in this research including a letter of information, consent form, and discussion prompts for their written narrative response. Rigorous mixed method analyses were performed using Charmaz-based qualitative analyses as well as quantitative analyses. Thirteen women (38.2%) responded with narratives for qualitative analysis from which 4 themes were coconstructed as follows: I, types of emotions; II, emotional response; III, coping with emotions; and IV, advice to women at similar risk. Women felt they should have learned about their hereditary risk from their family physician and through public education before their diagnosis. Although not experienced at the time of diagnosis, anger, frustration, and regret were experienced after receiving their BRCA results. These emotions arose from our research participants' lack of opportunity for prior genetic counseling and testing opportunity for genetic counseling and testing. With increased public and physician education, it is hoped that women with significant family histories of breast/ovarian cancer will be identified before diagnosis and given options regarding cancer surveillance and risk reduction strategies.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Feeling Fresh KidsHealth / For Teens / Feeling Fresh Print en español La higiene femenina As ... the other products that claim to make women feel cleaner and fresher. But do these work? And ...
Full Text Available ... negative and positive. These feelings are very common — most heart patients have them. They may go away ... overcome your fears. For example, say to yourself, "Most people recover and I will, too," Or, "Most ...
Full Text Available ... positive. These feelings are very common — most heart patients have them. They may go away as you ... reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley talks about ...
The article relates the study of mobility history to the fields of history of emotion and affect theory in the promotion of a cross-disciplinary research agenda. Taking as its point of departure a workshop in Copenhagen on feeling and space, the text draws lines and points of potential interface...... between historical mobility studies and the two related fields....
Rand, David G; Kraft-Todd, Gordon; Gruber, June
Cooperation is central to human existence, forming the bedrock of everyday social relationships and larger societal structures. Thus, understanding the psychological underpinnings of cooperation is of both scientific and practical importance. Recent work using a dual-process framework suggests that intuitive processing can promote cooperation while deliberative processing can undermine it. Here we add to this line of research by more specifically identifying deliberative and intuitive processes that affect cooperation. To do so, we applied automated text analysis using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) software to investigate the association between behavior in one-shot anonymous economic cooperation games and the presence inhibition (a deliberative process) and positive emotion (an intuitive process) in free-response narratives written after (Study 1, N = 4,218) or during (Study 2, N = 236) the decision-making process. Consistent with previous results, across both studies inhibition predicted reduced cooperation while positive emotion predicted increased cooperation (even when controlling for negative emotion). Importantly, there was a significant interaction between positive emotion and inhibition, such that the most cooperative individuals had high positive emotion and low inhibition. This suggests that inhibition (i.e., reflective or deliberative processing) may undermine cooperative behavior by suppressing the prosocial effects of positive emotion.
David G Rand
Full Text Available Cooperation is central to human existence, forming the bedrock of everyday social relationships and larger societal structures. Thus, understanding the psychological underpinnings of cooperation is of both scientific and practical importance. Recent work using a dual-process framework suggests that intuitive processing can promote cooperation while deliberative processing can undermine it. Here we add to this line of research by more specifically identifying deliberative and intuitive processes that affect cooperation. To do so, we applied automated text analysis using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC software to investigate the association between behavior in one-shot anonymous economic cooperation games and the presence inhibition (a deliberative process and positive emotion (an intuitive process in free-response narratives written after (Study 1, N = 4,218 or during (Study 2, N = 236 the decision-making process. Consistent with previous results, across both studies inhibition predicted reduced cooperation while positive emotion predicted increased cooperation (even when controlling for negative emotion. Importantly, there was a significant interaction between positive emotion and inhibition, such that the most cooperative individuals had high positive emotion and low inhibition. This suggests that inhibition (i.e., reflective or deliberative processing may undermine cooperative behavior by suppressing the prosocial effects of positive emotion.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONInterpersonal skills are becoming more and more a necessity in the medical profession. The expectation from health care professionals is beyond just knowledge of the medical facts. To practice medicine effectively, doctors need to develop interpersonal skills in communication, leadership, management, teaching and time management. All of these are vital tools and are becoming increasingly essential subjects in teaching both undergraduate students and postgraduate doctors. However, a degree of self-motivation and personal initiative is needed to develop these skills. In this article, I will give an overview on interpersonal skills and will be follow this by a series of articles, in future issues, dealing with these skills.
van Dijke, Marius; De Cremer, David; Langendijk, Gerben; Anderson, Cameron
Research shows that power can lead to prosocial behavior by facilitating the behavioral expression of dispositional prosocial motivation. However, it is not clear how power may facilitate responses to contextual factors that promote prosocial motivation. Integrating fairness heuristic theory and the situated focus theory of power, we argue that in particular, organization members in lower (vs. higher) hierarchical positions who simultaneously experience a high (vs. low) sense of power respond with prosocial behavior to 1 important antecedent of prosocial motivation, that is, the enactment of procedural justice. The results from a multisource survey among employees and their leaders from various organizations (Study 1) and an experiment using a public goods dilemma (Study 2) support this prediction. Three subsequent experiments (Studies 3-5) show that this effect is mediated by perceptions of authority trustworthiness. Taken together, this research (a) helps resolve the debate regarding whether power promotes or undermines prosocial behavior, (b) demonstrates that hierarchical position and the sense of power can have very different effects on processes that are vital to the functioning of an organization, and (c) helps solve ambiguity regarding the roles of hierarchical position and power in fairness heuristic theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Uchino, Bert N.; Cawthon, Richard M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Light, Kathleen C.; McKenzie, Justin; Carlisle, McKenzie; Gunn, Heather; Birmingham, Wendy; Bowen, Kimberly
Objective The quality of one’s personal relationships has been linked to morbidity and mortality across different diseases. As a result, it is important to examine more integrative mechanisms that might link relationships across diverse physical health outcomes. In this study, we examine associations between relationships and telomeres which predict general disease risk. These questions are pursued in the context of a more comprehensive model of relationships that highlights the importance of jointly considering positive and negative aspects of social ties. Method 136 individuals from a community sample (ages 48 to 77) completed the social relationships index which allows a determination of relationships that differ in their positive and negative substrates (i.e., ambivalent, supportive, aversive, indifferent). Telomere length was determined from peripheral blood mononuclear cells via quantitative PCR. Results Participants who had a higher number of ambivalent ties in their social networks evidenced shorter telomeres. These results were independent of other relationships types (e.g., supportive), as well as standard control variables (e.g., age, health behaviors, medication use). Gender moderated the links between ambivalent ties and telomere length with these associations seen primarily in women. Follow-up analyses revealed that the links between ambivalent ties and telomeres were primarily due to friendships, parents, and social acquaintances. Conclusions Consistent with epidemiological findings, these data highlight a novel and integrative biological mechanism by which social ties may impact health across diseases, and further suggests the importance of incorporating both positivity and negativity in the study of specific relationships and physical health. PMID:22229928
Turner, Brianna J; Chapman, Alexander L; Layden, Brianne K
Understanding the functions of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has important implications for the development and refinement of theoretical models and treatments of NSSI. Emotional and social vulnerabilities associated with five common functions of NSSI-emotion relief (ER), feeling generation (FG), self-punishment (SP), interpersonal influence (II), and interpersonal communication (IC)-were investigated to clarify why individuals use this behavior in the service of different purposes. Female participants (n = 162) with a history of NSSI completed online measures of self-injury, emotion regulation strategies and abilities, trait affectivity, social problem-solving styles, and interpersonal problems. ER functions were associated with more intense affectivity, expressive suppression, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. FG functions were associated with a lack of emotional clarity. Similar to ER functions, SP functions were associated with greater affective intensity and expressive suppression. II functions were negatively associated with expressive suppression and positively associated with domineering/controlling and intrusive/needy interpersonal styles. IC functions were negatively associated with expressive suppression and positively associated with a vindictive or self-centered interpersonal style. These findings highlight the specific affective traits, emotional and social skill deficits, and interpersonal styles that may render a person more likely to engage in NSSI to achieve specific goals. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.
Han, Xuesheng; Gibson, Jacob; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L
Mental health issues have been increasingly recognized as public health problems globally. Their burden is projected to increase over the next several decades. Additional therapies for mental problems are in urgent need worldwide due to the limitations and costs of existing healthcare approaches. Essential oil aromatherapy can provide a cost-effective and safe treatment for many mental problems. This pilot study observed the effects of bergamot essential oil inhalation on mental health and well-being, as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, in a mental-health treatment center located in Utah, USA. Fifty-seven eligible participants (50 women, age range: 23-70 years) were included for analysis. Fifteen minutes of bergamot essential oil exposure improved participants' positive feelings compared with the control group (17% higher). Unexpectedly, more participants participated in experimental periods rather than control periods, suggesting even brief exposure to essential oil aroma may make people more willing to enroll in clinical trials. This study provides preliminary evidence of the efficacy and safety of bergamot essential oil inhalation on mental well-being in a mental health treatment center, suggesting that bergamot essential oil aromatherapy can be an effective adjunct treatment to improve individuals' mental health and well-being. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vink, Roy; Wijnants, Maarten L; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bosman, Anna M T
Cooperative learning has been shown to result in better task performance, compared to individual and competitive learning, and can lead to positive social effects. However, potential working mechanisms at a micro level remain unexplored. One potential working mechanism might be the level of interpersonal synchrony between cooperating individuals. It has been shown that increased levels of interpersonal synchrony are related to better cognitive performance (e.g., increased memory). Social factors also appear to be affected by the level of interpersonal synchrony, with more interpersonal synchrony leading to increased likeability. In the present study, interpersonal synchrony of postural sway and its relation to task performance and social factors (i.e., popularity, social acceptance, and likeability) was examined. To test this, 183 dyads performed a tangram task while each child stood on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board that recorded their postural sway. The results showed that lower levels of interpersonal synchrony were related to better task performance and those dyads who were on average more popular synchronized more. These results contradict previous findings. It is suggested that for task performance, a more loosely coupled system is better than a synchronized system. In terms of social competence, dyad popularity was associated with more interpersonal synchrony.
Baumeister, R F; Stillwell, A M; Heatherton, T F
Multiple sets of empirical research findings on guilt are reviewed to evaluate the view that guilt should be understood as an essentially social phenomenon that happens between people as much as it happens inside them. Guilt appears to arise from interpersonal transactions (including transgressions and positive inequities) and to vary significantly with the interpersonal context. In particular, guilt patterns appear to be strongest, most common, and most consistent in the context of communal relationships, which are characterized by expectations of mutual concern. Guilt serves various relationship-enhancing functions, including motivating people to treat partners well and avoid transgressions, minimizing inequities and enabling less powerful partners to get their way, and redistributing emotional distress.
Seddig, Daniel; Davidov, Eldad
The relevance of human values for the study of the motivational sources of interpersonal violent behavior was investigated in various fields of the social sciences. However, several past studies mixed up values with other dimensions like attitudes, norms, or beliefs, and only a few systematically assessed the effect of values on violent behavior relying on a value theory. Furthermore, in other studies, violence was often analyzed as a composite index of different forms of delinquent behavior rather than as violence per se . In the current study we address these gaps in the literature by building upon Schwartz' theory of basic human values. We use it to explain attitudes toward interpersonal violence and interpersonal violent behavior. We analyze data of young people ( n = 1,810) drawn from a German study in Duisburg, Germany, which assessed various types of self-reported violent behavior as well as values and attitudes toward violence. We test structural equation models in which we explain interpersonal violent behavior with basic human values, and where attitudes toward interpersonal violent behavior mediate this relation. Results show that self-transcendence and conservation values are associated negatively and power and stimulation values positively with interpersonal violent behavior. In addition, attitudes operate as a partial mediator for the former and as a full mediator for the latter in the relation between values and violent behavior. Despite a dominant association between attitudes and behavior, values themselves can significantly contribute to the explanation of violent behavior.
Full Text Available The relevance of human values for the study of the motivational sources of interpersonal violent behavior was investigated in various fields of the social sciences. However, several past studies mixed up values with other dimensions like attitudes, norms, or beliefs, and only a few systematically assessed the effect of values on violent behavior relying on a value theory. Furthermore, in other studies, violence was often analyzed as a composite index of different forms of delinquent behavior rather than as violence per se. In the current study we address these gaps in the literature by building upon Schwartz’ theory of basic human values. We use it to explain attitudes toward interpersonal violence and interpersonal violent behavior. We analyze data of young people (n = 1,810 drawn from a German study in Duisburg, Germany, which assessed various types of self-reported violent behavior as well as values and attitudes toward violence. We test structural equation models in which we explain interpersonal violent behavior with basic human values, and where attitudes toward interpersonal violent behavior mediate this relation. Results show that self-transcendence and conservation values are associated negatively and power and stimulation values positively with interpersonal violent behavior. In addition, attitudes operate as a partial mediator for the former and as a full mediator for the latter in the relation between values and violent behavior. Despite a dominant association between attitudes and behavior, values themselves can significantly contribute to the explanation of violent behavior.
Amy B. Brunell
Full Text Available Measures of exploitativeness evidence problems with validity and reliability. The present set of studies assessed a new measure (the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale that defines exploitativeness in terms of reciprocity. In Studies 1 and 2, 33 items were administered to participants. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that a single factor consisting of six items adequately assess interpersonal exploitativeness. Study 3 results revealed that the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale was positively associated with normal narcissism, pathological narcissism, psychological entitlement, and negative reciprocity and negatively correlated with positive reciprocity. In Study 4, participants competed in a commons dilemma. Those who scored higher on the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale were more likely to harvest a greater share of resources over time, even while controlling for other relevant variables, such as entitlement. Together, these studies show the Interpersonal Exploitativeness Scale to be a valid and reliable measure of interpersonal exploitativeness. The authors discuss the implications of these studies.
Full Text Available Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation –the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others– occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behaviour that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agents´ resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on targets´ feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers’ resource depletion, measured as self-reported actual and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78 were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving x 2(patients’ feedback: positive vs. negative factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent´s strategy and the target´s response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as
Martínez-Íñigo, David; Mercado, Francisco; Totterdell, Peter
Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation -the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others- occurs in a variety of interpersonal relationships and contexts. An incipient corpus of research shows that interpersonal affect regulation can be characterized as a goal-directed behavior that uses self-control processes which, according to the strength model of self-regulation, consumes a limited resource that is also used by other self-control processes. Using interpersonal affect-improving and affect-worsening regulation strategies can increase agent's resource depletion but there is reason to think that effects will partially rely on target's feedback in response to the regulation. Using a healthcare paradigm, an experiment was conducted to test the combined effects of interpersonal affect regulation use and patient feedback on healthcare workers' resource depletion, measured as self-reported experienced and expected emotional exhaustion, and persistence on a self-regulation task. Medical students (N = 78) were randomly assigned to a 2(interpersonal affect regulation: affect-worsening vs. affect-improving) × 2(patients' feedback: positive vs. negative) factorial between-subjects design and given instructions to play the role of doctors in interactions with two professional actors trained to act as patients. Analysis of covariance showed that affect-worsening was more depleting than affect-improving for all measures, whereas the recovery effects of positive feedback varied depending on strategy type and measure. The findings confirm the characterization of interpersonal affect regulation as potentially depleting, but suggest that the correspondence between the agent's strategy and the target's response needs to be taken into consideration. Use of affect-improving and positive feedback showed positive effects on self-rated performance, indicating that interpersonal affect regulation is relevant for organizational as well as personal
Full Text Available ... information that can make you feel better. Anxiety Do you often feel restless and worried? This is ... you feel better. Take time to relax and do things that make you happy. Don't try ...
Full Text Available ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare professionals may ... aspects of your illness. And you're probably feeling many emotions. You may feel alone, scared or ...
Onu, Chinwe; Ongeri, Linnet; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig R; Neylan, Thomas C; Oyaro, Patrick; Rota, Grace; Otewa, Faith; Delucchi, Kevin L; Meffert, Susan M
Mental disorders are the leading global cause of years lived with disability; the majority of this burden exists in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Over half of mental illness is attributable to depression and anxiety disorders, both of which have known treatments. While the scarcity of mental health care providers is recognized as a major contributor to the magnitude of untreated disorders in LMICs, studies in LMICs find that evidence-based treatments for depression and anxiety disorders, such as brief, structured psychotherapies, are feasible, acceptable and have strong efficacy when delivered by local non-specialist personnel. However, most mental health treatment studies using non-specialist providers in LMICs deploy traditional efficacy designs (T1) without the benefit of integrated mental health treatment models shown to succeed over vertical interventions or methods derived from new implementation science to speed policy change. Here, we describe an effectiveness-implementation hybrid study that evaluates non-specialist delivery of mental health treatment within an HIV clinic for HIV-positive (HIV+) women affected by gender- based violence (GBV) (HIV+ GBV+) in the Nyanza region of Kenya. In this effectiveness-implementation hybrid type I design, 200 HIV+ women with major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who are receiving care at a Family AIDS Care Education and Services (FACES)-supported clinic in Kisumu, Kenya will be randomized to: (1) interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) + treatment as usual (TAU) or (2) TAU, both delivered within the HIV clinic. IPT will consist of 12 weekly 60-minute individual IPT sessions, delivered by non-specialists trained to provide IPT. Primary effectiveness outcomes will include MDD and PTSD diagnosis on the Mini International Diagnostic Interview (MINI). Primary implementation outcomes will include treatment cost-benefit, acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility and fidelity of the
Royston, Natalie Steele
Interpersonal relationships are fundamental to learning and human development. To develop a positive and safe classroom environment with student motivation and learning, music educators need to learn to relate and connect effectively with others. This article looks at the importance of the interpersonal relationships in the classroom environment…
Emotion researchers are increasingly interested in processes by which people influence others' feelings. Although one such process, interpersonal emotion regulation, has received particular attention in recent years, there remains confusion about exactly how to define this process. The present article aims to distinguish interpersonal emotion regulation from other, related processes by outlining its four key characteristics. Specifically, interpersonal emotion regulation is presented as a process of (i) regulation, that (ii) has an affective target, (iii) is deliberate, and (iv) has a social target. Considering these characteristics raises questions for future research concerning factors that may influence the process of interpersonal emotion regulation, why interpersonal emotion regulation sometimes fails, and whether interventions can improve people's use of interpersonal emotion regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Ingeman, Mads Lind; Vedsted, Peter
OBJECTIVE: Research has suggested that physicians' gut feelings are associated with parents' concerns for the well-being of their children. Gut feeling is particularly important in diagnosis of serious low-incidence diseases in primary care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether...... results suggest that gut feelings have diagnostic value, these findings highlight the importance of incorporating empathy and interpersonal skills into medical training to increase sensitivity to patient concern and thereby increase the use and reliability of gut feeling....
Nakayama, Rumiko; Nakanishi, Yoshifumi; Nagahama, Fumiyo; Nakajima, Makoto
The present study examined the influence of interpersonal motivation on university adjustment in freshman students enrolled in a First Year Experience (FYE) class. An interpersonal motivation scale and a university adjustment (interpersonal adjustment and academic adjustment) scale were administered twice to 116 FYE students; data from the 88 students who completed both surveys were analyzed. Results from structural equation modeling indicated a causal relationship between interpersonal, motivation and university adjustment: interpersonal adjustment served as a mediator between academic adjustment and interpersonal motivation, the latter of which was assessed using the internalized motivation subscale of the Interpersonal Motivation Scale as well as the Relative Autonomy Index, which measures the autonomy in students' interpersonal attitudes. Thus, revising the FYE class curriculum to include approaches to lowering students' feelings of obligation and/or anxiety in their interpersonal interactions might improve their adjustment to university.
Full Text Available ... to be part of your overall treatment plan. Loneliness It's easy to feel alone when you're ... your illness affects you emotionally and physically. The loneliness can be worse if you feel you have ...
Full Text Available ... heart disease, it's normal to feel sad or low. These feelings may get better as you learn ... 7 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 8 Low Blood Pressure - When Blood Pressure Is Too Low ...
Full Text Available ... though it's one more thing wrong with you. Consider recovering from depression to be part of your ... and what feelings are behind the anger. For example, are you feeling afraid? Rejected? Helpless? Learn to ...
Full Text Available ... about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel ... off, then take action. Hope Many of the emotions you may feel after a heart disease diagnosis ...
Full Text Available ... talks about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to ... disease, it's normal to feel sad or low. These feelings may get better as you learn more ...
Full Text Available ... because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but ... because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but ...
Full Text Available ... resources that can help you with home care, transportation and social needs. Think about why you feel ... and oxygen to the heart. Anger is a problem when you often: Lose your temper. Feel rage ...
... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...
Full Text Available ... about your condition and treatments is a good way to feel more hopeful. Learn more about cardiovascular ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ...
Full Text Available ... learn to understand your heart condition and manage it, but sometimes feelings such as depression may stay ... and your risk of future cardiac events, so it's important to understand your feelings, recognize problems and ...
Full Text Available ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare professionals may not have ... or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, ...
Full Text Available ... wait until you cool off, then take action. Hope Many of the emotions you may feel after ... difficult, even unpleasant. But another common feeling is hope. Even people who are very ill say they ...
Full Text Available ... what lies ahead, or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some ... what lies ahead, or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some ...
Full Text Available ... feelings, recognize problems and get help if you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and ... help you with home care, transportation and social needs. Think about why you feel lonely or isolated. ...
Full Text Available ... you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions ... and information that can make you feel better. Anxiety Do you often feel restless and worried? This ...
Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Anderson, Steven R; Wager, Tor D
Pain is influenced by many factors other than external sources of tissue damage. Among these, the clinician-patient relationship is particularly important for pain diagnosis and treatment. However, the effects of the clinician-patient relationship on pain remain underexamined. We tested the hypothesis that patients who believe they share core beliefs and values with their clinician will report less pain than patients who do not. We also measured feelings of perceived clinician-patient similarity and trust to see if these interpersonal factors influenced pain. We did so by experimentally manipulating perceptions of similarity between participants playing the role of clinicians and participants playing the role of patients in simulated clinical interactions. Participants were placed in 2 groups on the basis of their responses to a questionnaire about their personal beliefs and values, and painful thermal stimulation was used as an analog of a painful medical procedure. We found that patients reported feeling more similarity and trust toward their clinician when they were paired with clinicians from their own group. In turn, patients' positive feelings of similarity and trust toward their clinicians-but not clinicians' feelings toward patients or whether the clinician and patient were from the same group-predicted lower pain ratings. Finally, the most anxious patients exhibited the strongest relationship between their feelings about their clinicians and their pain report. These findings increase our understanding of context-driven pain modulation and suggest that interventions aimed at increasing patients' feelings of similarity to and trust in health care providers may help reduce the pain experienced during medical care. We present novel evidence that the clinician-patient relationship can affect the pain experienced during medical care. We found that "patients" in simulated clinical interactions who reported feeling more similarity and trust toward their
Full Text Available Individuals use a range of interpersonal emotion regulation strategies to influence the feelings of others, e.g., friends, family members, romantic partners, work colleagues. But little is known about whether people vary their strategy use across these different relational contexts. We characterize and measure this variability as ‘spin’, i.e., the extent of dispersion in a person’s interpersonal emotion regulation strategy use across different relationships, and focus on two key questions. First, is spin adaptive or maladaptive with regard to personal well-being and relationship quality? Second, do personality traits that are considered important for interpersonal functioning (i.e., empathy, attachment style predict spin? The data used in this study is drawn from a large online survey. A key contribution of this study is to reveal that people who varied the type of strategies they used across relationships (i.e., those with high spin had lower positive mood, higher emotional exhaustion and less close relationships. A further key contribution is to show that spin was associated with low empathic concern and perspective taking and high anxious attachment style. High variability in interpersonal emotion regulation strategies across relationships therefore appears to be maladaptive both personally and socially.
Moritz, Steffen; Niemeyer, Helen; Hottenrott, Birgit; Schilling, Lisa; Spitzer, Carsten
The social attitudes and interpersonal relationships of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are subject to a longstanding controversy. Whereas cognitive-behavioural researchers emphasize exaggerated pro-social attitudes in OCD like inflated responsibility and worry for other people (especially significant others), dynamic theories traditionally focus on anti-social attitudes such as latent aggression and hostility. In two recent studies, we gathered support not only for a co-existence of these seemingly opposing attitudes in OCD, but also for a functional connection: inflated responsibility in part appears to serve as a coping strategy (or “defense”) against negative interpersonal feelings. In the present study, we tested a shortened version of the Responsibility and Interpersonal Behaviours and Attitudes Questionnaire (RIBAQ-R). The scale was administered to 34 participants with OCD and 34 healthy controls. The questionnaire concurrently measures pro-social and anti-social interpersonal attitudes across three subscales. In line with our prior studies, patients displayed higher scores on both exaggerated pro-social attitudes (e.g. “I suffer from a strict conscience concerning my relatives”) as well as latent aggression (e.g. “Sometimes I would like to harm strangers on the street“) and suspiciousness/distrust (e.g. “I cannot even trust my own family”). A total of 59% of the patients but only 12% of the healthy controls showed marked interpersonal ambivalence (defined as scores higher than one standard deviation from the mean of the nonclinical controls on both the prosocial and at least one of the two anti-social subscales). The study asserts high interpersonal ambivalence in OCD. Further research is required to pinpoint both the dynamic and causal links between opposing interpersonal styles. Normalization and social competence training may prove beneficial to resolve the apparent problems of patients with OCD regarding anger
Nikodemus Thomas Martoredjo
Full Text Available Interpersonal communication is transactional and two-way direction. Therefore active listening skills play a key role in interpersonal communication. These active listening skills can have a positive impact on communication and at the same time creating a better relationship. So it is very useful to improve the skills of active listening. This paper intends to reveal the important role of active listening skills in interpersonal communication, identifying the challenges that exist within it both internally and externally as well as indicate the action that needs to be developed to improve these skills.
Tyas Hapsari Dewi
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the relationship between perceptions of interpersonal communication and extrovert personality type with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace on employees Editorial Suara Merdeka Semarang. The sample in this study was 60 employees. Major hypothesis in this study is that there is a relationship between perceptions of interpersonal communication and extrovert personality types with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace. Minor hypotheses in this study were 1 There is a positive relationship between perceptions of interpersonal communication with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace, 2 There is a positive relationship between the extroverted personality type with the ability to manage interpersonal conflict in the workplace. Major hypothesis testing using regression analysis two predictors, the results obtained ry (1-2 = 0.639 with p = 0.000 (p 0,05.
Mauro de Oliveira Magalhães
Interpersonal style is an aspect of personality related to the particular way individuals participate and gain influence in social contexts. It has its origin in childhood’s first social interactions within the family group. It is suggested that the individual position in the family structure, namely birth order, is an important variable in this process. The present study investigated combined effects of sex and birth order on interpersonal style. A sample of 435 college students (196 men and...
Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-P?rez, Ana; Pablos, Adri?n; Mart?nez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M.; G?mez-Olivencia, Asier; Berm?dez de Castro, Jos? Mar?a; Carbonell, Eudald
Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force ...
Koganuramath, M. M.; Angadi, Mallikarjun
This paper intends to reveal various facets of interpersonal skills and also the importance of public relations skills, including librarian's own skills, that helps the users to cultivate interpersonal skills as a positive reference service. Surveys of professional librarians show a high need for the skills for professional competencies, management, networking and teamwork. The perceived need for skills in these areas may reflect the increasing interdependence of library workers and relianc...
There are many difficult feelings that you can have when going through cancer. Having an advanced or metastatic cancer diagnosis can cause them to be more intense than ever. Know that you're not alone. Learn tips on how to cope with your feelings with an advanced cancer diagnosis.
Full Text Available ... ill. You're the only one who knows how your illness affects you emotionally and physically. The loneliness can be worse if you feel you have no one to give you support or you feel you can't ask for it. Try to reach out ... may be pleasantly surprised at how many people are willing to help or spend ...
Full Text Available ... may be scared because you don't know what lies ahead, or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some ... may be scared because you don't know what lies ahead, or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some ...
Silvestre, Rafaela Luisa Silva; Vandenberghe, Luc
The present article discusses possible uses of the therapist's feelings to enhance treatment following Kohlenberg and Tsai's conceptualization of the therapist-client relationship. Four vignettes from a case study involving a couple are used as illustrative material. It is argued that the therapist's feelings can serve as clues for identifying…
Full Text Available ... social service resources that can help you with home care, transportation and social needs. Think about why you feel lonely or isolated. Use this checklist to help you. I feel I don't have enough contact with people. I'm not ...
Full Text Available ... as you can about your condition and treatments is a good way to feel more hopeful. Learn more about ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking ... 8 Low Blood Pressure - When Blood Pressure Is Too Low 9 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate 10 ...
Lemay, Edward P; Dudley, Kari L
In three studies, the authors tested a model positing that chronically insecure individuals often believe that their relationship partners view them as highly insecure. In turn, because of expectations regarding the social consequences of expressing insecurities, these reflected appraisals of insecurity are thought to predict suspicion of partners' authenticity and feelings of powerlessness within relationships. Results supported these predictions. Self-esteem, attachment anxiety, neuroticism, proclivity for anger, and proclivity for hurt feelings predicted reflected appraisals of insecurity independently of whether partners detected insecurity. In turn, chronically insecure participants were suspicious of their partners' authenticity and felt powerless in their relationships partly because they believed they were viewed as insecure. This research suggests that beliefs that one is perceived as insecure, even when they are misguided, can partially explain interpersonal cognitions associated with actually being insecure.
Jessica Laura Fitterer
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-two (82% reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offences. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%, with trading hours (63%, and alcohol price following (58%. Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offences. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater up take of local level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes such as 1% increases in alcohol price, one hour changes
Full Text Available Social networks visible influence people's ability to interact and communicate. Extending social circles by establishing virtual links involves a number of positive aspects such as: instant access to options for interaction, sharing of information to large communities of people, intensification of acts of communication, high levels of feedback and trust with people with whom we communicate. On the other hand, social networks adversely affects communication by decreasing the interaction face to face, by imposing superficial communications experiences, grammatical and spelling erosion of the language. Therefore, the study aims to capture the spread of social networks, their use and impact on interpersonal communication. More specifically, they look for the answer to the question: what is the nature of interpersonal communication that is found on social networking sites: personal, emotional, private or shared, informal, and public?
Full Text Available Aromatherapy claims that citrus essential oils exert mood lifting effects. Controlled studies, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Notably, studies so far did not control for odor pleasantness, although pleasantness is a critical determinant of emotional responses to odors. This study investigates mood lifting effects of d-(+-limonene, the most prominent substance in citrus essential oils, with respect to odor quality judgments.Negative mood was induced within 78 participants using a helplessness paradigm (unsolvable social discrimination task. During this task, participants were continuously (mean duration: 19.5 min exposed to d-(+-limonene (n = 25, vanillin (n = 26, or diethyl phthalate (n = 27. Participants described their mood (Self-Assessment-Manikin, basic emotion ratings and judged the odors’ quality (intensity, pleasantness, unpleasantness, familiarity prior to and following the helplessness induction. The participants were in a less positive mood after the helplessness induction (p < .001, irrespective of the odor condition. Still, the more pleasant the participants judged the odors, the less effective the helplessness induction was in reducing happiness (p = .019.The results show no odor specific mood lifting effect of d-(+-limonene, but indicate a positive effect of odor pleasantness on mood. The study highlights the necessity to evaluate odor judgments in aromatherapy research.
Zaki, Jamil; Williams, W Craig
Contemporary emotion regulation research emphasizes intrapersonal processes such as cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, but people experiencing affect commonly choose not to go it alone. Instead, individuals often turn to others for help in shaping their affective lives. How and under what circumstances does such interpersonal regulation modulate emotional experience? Although scientists have examined allied phenomena such as social sharing, empathy, social support, and prosocial behavior for decades, there have been surprisingly few attempts to integrate these data into a single conceptual framework of interpersonal regulation. Here we propose such a framework. We first map a "space" differentiating classes of interpersonal regulation according to whether an individual uses an interpersonal regulatory episode to alter their own or another person's emotion. We then identify 2 types of processes--response-dependent and response-independent--that could support interpersonal regulation. This framework classifies an array of processes through which interpersonal contact fulfills regulatory goals. More broadly, it organizes diffuse, heretofore independent data on "pieces" of interpersonal regulation, and identifies growth points for this young and exciting research domain.
This study investigated change of cognitions and feelings before, during, and after the process of procrastination. A questionnaire was administered to 358 undergraduate students asking them to recall and rate their experience of procrastinating. The results revealed that negative feelings which take place during procrastination interfere with task performance. Planning before procrastination is associated with positive feelings after procrastination, and these positive feelings assist task performance. Optimistic thinking is positively related to both positive and negative feelings; the former take place during procrastination, and the latter take place after procrastination.
Chu, Carol; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Tucker, Raymond P; Hagan, Christopher R; Rogers, Megan L; Podlogar, Matthew C; Chiurliza, Bruno; Ringer, Fallon B; Michaels, Matthew S; Patros, Connor H G; Joiner, Thomas E
Over the past decade, the interpersonal theory of suicide has contributed to substantial advances in the scientific and clinical understanding of suicide and related conditions. The interpersonal theory of suicide posits that suicidal desire emerges when individuals experience intractable feelings of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness and near-lethal or lethal suicidal behavior occurs in the presence of suicidal desire and capability for suicide. A growing number of studies have tested these posited pathways in various samples; however, these findings have yet to be evaluated meta-analytically. This paper aimed to (a) conduct a systematic review of the unpublished and published, peer-reviewed literature examining the relationship between interpersonal theory constructs and suicidal thoughts and behaviors, (b) conduct meta-analyses testing the interpersonal theory hypotheses, and (c) evaluate the influence of various moderators on these relationships. Four electronic bibliographic databases were searched through the end of March, 2016: PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Hypothesis-driven meta-analyses using random effects models were conducted using 122 distinct unpublished and published samples. Findings supported the interpersonal theory: the interaction between thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness was significantly associated with suicidal ideation; and the interaction between thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and capability for suicide was significantly related to a greater number of prior suicide attempts. However, effect sizes for these interactions were modest. Alternative configurations of theory variables were similarly useful for predicting suicide risk as theory-consistent pathways. We conclude with limitations and recommendations for the interpersonal theory as a framework for understanding the suicidal spectrum. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
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of the examination. This study aims at presenting and reviewing a practical approach to teaching of interpersonal skills, referred to as the Social Risk Analysis, which has been applied and integrated into the curriculum of two engineering courses. The Social Risk Analysis encourages and imposes a critical review......In addition to the traditional learning outcomes for technical disciplinary knowledge, the CDIO-syllabus also specifies personal and interpersonal learning outcomes. The argument for teaching interpersonal skills rest upon the team-based working environment that is typical for engineers, where...... knowledge and skills in teamwork, leadership, and communications are highly required. Thus, the practice of interpersonal skills need to be implemented in engineering teaching, not only in terms of learning objectives, but realised in practical teaching activities and as an integrated part...
McIntosh, V V; Bulik, C M; McKenzie, J M; Luty, S E; Jordan, J
This paper outlines the rationale for treating individuals with anorexia nervosa using interpersonal psychotherapy. We review theoretical, empirical, and psychotherapy literature relating to interpersonal functioning in anorexia nervosa. Etiological theories emphasize interpersonal and family dysfunction in the development of anorexia nervosa. Research supports the notion that families of individuals with anorexia nervosa have dysfunctional patterns of communication. The history of treatment for anorexia nervosa emphasizes the need for resolution of interpersonal dysfunction, within the traditions of psychodynamic, family therapy, and multidimensional therapies. Interpersonal psychotherapy is a time-limited psychotherapy based on the notion that regardless of etiology, interpersonal relationships are intertwined with symptomatology. The goals of the therapy are to improve interpersonal functioning and thereby decrease symptomatology. Factors identified as important in the development of anorexia nervosa are readily conceptualized within the interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas of grief, interpersonal disputes, interpersonal deficits, and role transitions. Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Locke, Geoffrey W; Shilkret, Robert; Everett, Joyce E; Petry, Nancy M
The college years are a time for developing independence and separating from one's family, and they are also a time in which substance use often escalates. This study examined the relationships between use of substances and interpersonal guilt, an emotion that can arise from feelings about separation among college students. In total, 1865 college students completed a survey evaluating substance use and interpersonal guilt. Regular users of alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis, and other illicit drugs were compared with nonregular users of each substance. Sequential linear regression, controlling for confounding variables, examined relationships between regular use of each substance and scores on a guilt index. Risky drinkers and daily smokers had significantly more interpersonal guilt than their peers who did not regularly use these substances. In contrast, regular cannabis users had significantly less guilt than nonregular cannabis users. These data suggest that substance use among college students may be related to interpersonal guilt and family separation issues, and this relationship may vary across substances.
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Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan
Mooij, T., & Fettelaar, D. (2013). School and pupil effects on secondary pupils’ feelings of safety in school, around school, and at home. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(6), 1240-1265. doi:10.1177/0886260512468242
Two dyadic studies investigated interpersonal worry regulation in heterosexual relationships. In Study 1, we video-recorded 40 romantic couples discussing shared concerns. Male partners’ worry positively predicted female partners’ interpersonal calming attempts, and negatively predicted female partners’ interpersonal alerting attempts (i.e., attempts to make their partners appreciate the seriousness of concerns). Video-cued recall data also indicated that changes in partner A’s worry over time positively predicted partner B’s motivation to reduce partner A’s worry, and that this effect was stronger when B was the female partner. Study 2 was a dyadic survey of 100 couples. Individual differences in partner A’s negative affect were positive predictors of partner B’s interpersonal calming, and individual differences in partner A’s expressive suppression were negative predictors of partner B’s interpersonal calming. Further, individual differences in male partners’ expressivity were significant positive predictors of female partners’ interpersonal calming, and individual differences in male partners’ reappraisal were significant positive predictors of female partners’ interpersonal alerting. These findings suggest that interpersonal worry regulation relates to partners’ expression and intrapersonal regulation of worry, but not equally for men and women. PMID:26882336
Parkinson, Brian; Simons, Gwenda; Niven, Karen
Two dyadic studies investigated interpersonal worry regulation in heterosexual relationships. In Study 1, we video-recorded 40 romantic couples discussing shared concerns. Male partners' worry positively predicted female partners' interpersonal calming attempts, and negatively predicted female partners' interpersonal alerting attempts (i.e., attempts to make their partners appreciate the seriousness of concerns). Video-cued recall data also indicated that changes in partner A's worry over time positively predicted partner B's motivation to reduce partner A's worry, and that this effect was stronger when B was the female partner. Study 2 was a dyadic survey of 100 couples. Individual differences in partner A's negative affect were positive predictors of partner B's interpersonal calming, and individual differences in partner A's expressive suppression were negative predictors of partner B's interpersonal calming. Further, individual differences in male partners' expressivity were significant positive predictors of female partners' interpersonal calming, and individual differences in male partners' reappraisal were significant positive predictors of female partners' interpersonal alerting. These findings suggest that interpersonal worry regulation relates to partners' expression and intrapersonal regulation of worry, but not equally for men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Taking as its point of departure Raymond Williams' notion 'structure of feeling', this volume investigates how affectivity makes a difference in memory studies, performance studies, and the range of cultural studies across the humanities and social sciences today. It illustrates the importance of...... of theorizing affectivity at a moment when social and cultural life are becoming increasingly affect-driven.......Taking as its point of departure Raymond Williams' notion 'structure of feeling', this volume investigates how affectivity makes a difference in memory studies, performance studies, and the range of cultural studies across the humanities and social sciences today. It illustrates the importance...
Full Text Available As part of the scientific project titled “The Curriculum of Social Competences and Relations in School”, the aim of this paper is to examine the quality of interpersonal relations between teachers and pupils. On a sample of 432 teachers from 20 towns, 35 primary schools in the Republic of Croatia, and 432 pupils, it was confirmed that there is a difference in the appraisal of the quality of their interpersonal relations. Although the overall quality of interpersonal relations between pupils and teachers is at a moderately satisfactory level, pupils still appraise the quality of interpersonal relations lower than their teachers. In view of latent dimensionality, a factor questionnaire structure was used (14 variables; ordinal type and two main components (subscales determined: didactic support and interaction, and rough verbal and physical treatment. As part of the differential draft of our research, no gender differences were established (between female and male teachers in the appraisal of the quality of interpersonal relations with pupils (on two subscales. The correlation analysis confirmed a low negative statistically significant correlation between the years of service and the subscale rough verbal and physical treatment (Rho=-0.101. In view of the subscale of rough verbal and physical treatment between pupils and teachers, such results on a negative correlation imply that older teachers, as opposed to their younger colleagues, use more corporal punishment in schools, treat pupils rudely, use nasty and impolite words, and call pupils insulting names.
Full Text Available ... Conditions for Heart.org Support for Heart.org Professional for Heart.org Research for Heart.org Educator ... with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare professionals may not have talked to you about the ...
Buda, Dorina; d'Hauteserre, Anne-Marie; Johnston, Lynda
Drawing on critical social and spatial theories of emotion and affect this article offers a contribution to the concepts of danger-zone and dark tourism through a focus on feelings. Research findings on tourism in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the West Bank (of the river Jordan) in Palestine
Full Text Available ... heart rate to rise, and make your heart work harder. Sometimes anger also causes angina (chest pain) because vessels constrict (narrow), reducing blood and oxygen to the heart. Anger is a problem when you often: Lose ... daily situations, such as at work, in traffic or waiting in line. Feel that ...
Full Text Available ... ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. Write down the people and situations that make you angry. Also write down how you react and what feelings are behind the anger. For example, are ...
Full Text Available ... also causes angina (chest pain) because vessels constrict (narrow), reducing blood and oxygen to the heart. Anger is a problem when you often: Lose your temper. Feel rage at people who are in your way in daily situations, ...
Full Text Available ... or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but if your fear is overwhelming, it can prevent you from getting well and staying well. Think back to a time when you were afraid. Did you ask yourself ...
Full Text Available ... plan if you're suffering depression. Over the past 2 weeks, have you been bothered by: Little interest or pleasure in doing things? Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless? If you answered "yes" to either question, you may be depressed. Tips Talk to your ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ubiquitous use of personal music players in over-crowded public transport alludes to the hypothesis that apart from making the journey more pleasant, listening to music through headphones may also affect representations of our personal space, that is, the emotionally-tinged zone around the human body that people feel is "their space". We evaluated the effects of emotional valence (positive versus negative and source (external, i.e. loudspeakers, versus embedded, i.e. headphones of music on the participant's interpersonal distance when interacting with others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Personal space was evaluated as the comfort interpersonal distance between participant and experimenter during both active and passive approach tasks. Our results show that, during passive approach tasks, listening to positive versus negative emotion-inducing music reduces the representation of personal space, allowing others to come closer to us. With respect to a no-music condition, an embedded source of positive emotion-inducing music reduced personal space, while an external source of negative emotion-inducing music expanded personal space. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results provide the first empirical evidence of the relation between induced emotional state, as a result of listening to positive music through headphones, and personal space when interacting with others. This research might help to understand the benefit that people find in using personal music players in crowded situations, such as when using the public transport in urban settings.
Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Woody, Erik; Ethier, Nicole; Sadler, Pamela
To demonstrate how a novel computer joystick coding method can illuminate the study of interpersonal processes in psychotherapy sessions, we applied it to Shostrom's (1966) well-known films in which a client, Gloria, had sessions with 3 prominent psychotherapists. The joystick method, which records interpersonal behavior as nearly continuous flows on the plane defined by the interpersonal dimensions of control and affiliation, provides an excellent sampling of variability in each person's interpersonal behavior across the session. More important, it yields extensive information about the temporal dynamics that interrelate clients' and therapists' behaviors. Gloria's 3 psychotherapy sessions were characterized using time-series statistical indices and graphical representations. Results demonstrated that patterns of within-person variability tended to be markedly asymmetric, with a predominant, set-point-like interpersonal style from which deviations mostly occurred in just 1 direction (e.g., occasional submissive departures from a modal dominant style). In addition, across each session, the therapist and client showed strongly cyclical variations in both control and affiliation, and these oscillations were entrained to different extents depending on the therapist. We interpreted different patterns of moment-to-moment complementarity of interpersonal behavior in terms of different therapeutic goals, such as fostering a positive alliance versus disconfirming the client's interpersonal expectations. We also showed how this method can be used to provide a more detailed analysis of specific shorter segments from each of the sessions. Finally, we compared our approach to alternative techniques, such as act-to-act lagged relations and dynamic systems and pointed to a variety of possible research and training applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Mønster, Dan; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær
Recent research suggests that shared behavioral dynamics during interpersonal interaction are indicative of subjective and objective outcomes of the interaction, such as feelings of rapport and success of performance. The role of shared physiological dynamics to quantify interpersonal interaction...... production task. Moreover, high team synchrony is found indicative of team cohesion, while low team synchrony is found indicative of a teams' decision to adopt a new behavior across multiple production sessions. We conclude that team-level measures of synchrony offer new and complementary information...
Clerkin, Elise M; Smith, April R; Hames, Jennifer L
Social networking sites like Facebook represent a potentially valuable means for individuals with low self-esteem or interpersonal difficulties to connect with others; however, recent research indicates that individuals who are most in need of social benefits from Facebook may be ineffective in their communication strategies, and thereby sabotage their potential to benefit interpersonally. The current study tested whether reassurance seeking via Facebook negatively influenced self-esteem, and whether this change in self-esteem mediated the relationship between Facebook reassurance seeking and greater thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Participants completed measures online at two time-points approximately 24 days apart. Results provided evidence that Facebook reassurance seeking predicted lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn predicted increased feelings that one does not belong and that one is a burden. Key limitations to this study include our use of a predominantly young, female, Caucasian sample, a novel reassurance seeking measure, and only evaluating two time points. These results suggest that Facebook usage has the potential for negative and far-reaching influences on one's interpersonal functioning. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Núñez, Juan L; Martín-Albo, José; Navarro, José G; Sánchez, Juana M; González-Cutre, David
This study analyzed the mediating role of interpersonal relations between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Athletes (98 men, 97 women), ages 11 to 43 years, completed measures of intrinsic motivation toward sports, self-concept of social and family relations, and sportsmanship orientation. A structural equation model indicated that self-concept of interpersonal relations mediated the relation between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Also, intrinsic motivation was directly and positively associated with self-concept of interpersonal relations, which, in turn, was positively and significantly related to sportsmanship. Variances explained by self-concept of interpersonal relations and by sportsmanship were 32 and 56%, respectively. The motivational interaction between the context of interpersonal relations and the sports context proposed in the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was discussed.
Jensen-Campbell, Lauri A; Gleason, Katie A; Adams, Ryan; Malcolm, Kenya T
This multimethod research linked the Big-Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflict in childhood. Agreeableness was the personality dimension of focus because this dimension has been associated with maintaining positive interpersonal relations in adolescents and adults. In two studies, elementary school children were assessed on the Big-Five domains of personality. Study 1 (n=276) showed that agreeableness was uniquely associated with endorsements of conflict resolution tactics in children as well as parent and teacher reports of coping and adjustment. Study 2 (n=234) revealed that children's perceptions of themselves and others during conflict was influenced by their agreeableness regardless of their partner's agreeableness. Observers also reported that pairs higher in agreeableness had more harmonious, constructive conflicts. Overall findings suggest that of the Big-Five dimensions, agreeableness is most closely associated with processes and outcomes related to interpersonal conflict and adjustment in children.
Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.
Results of the study suggest that birth-order effects might be included within the wider framework of approval-dependency theory. Females tend to account for a significant share of birth-order effects. More particularly, firstborn females accounted for much of the differences in expressed attraction as well as need for social approval. (Author)
Dowd, S B; Davidhizar, R
Individuals who are unqualified to fulfill a role are impostors. Often, competent practitioners feel they are unable to successfully practice their profession and suffer from an impostor syndrome. In health care, this can have a number of negative outcomes, including a poor reflection of the institution through the individual's actions. In many cases, impostorship can be prevented or remediated through the use of techniques such as identification, mentoring, and promotion of positive self-concepts. This article reviews a number of these techniques to help supervisors, especially new supervisors who may have feelings of inadequacy and impostorship, in developing a positive self-image.
Full Text Available In the article, I will argue that metacognition plays an important role in decision-making not only as direct online monitoring and control of decision-making processes but also by enabling us to influence our decisions and actions - and mental states and processes, related to them - in an offline manner. That is, offline metacognition allows us to observe, refer to and, to a certain degree, exert influence on mental states and processes related to our decisions and actions in the way of being removed, decoupled from the task/decision at hand and present time demands. As such, it enables us to observe, form thoughts and have feelings about mental states and processes directly related to our future decisions, to plan our future decisions, to reflect on our past choices, and to think and have feelings about our broader goals, desires, and personal values that are indirectly related to our decisions. To illustrate the importance of offline metacognition in decision-making, I will firstly review and discuss some experimental findings on implementation intentions ("decisions about the future" and anticipated emotions (beliefs about future emotional states related to outcomes of our decisions. Secondly, I will argue that our ability to reflect (think and feel on our broader goals, desires and personal values - that represent a kind of structure into which our specific decisions are embedded - reveals how offline metacognition can exert influence on our decisions also in an indirect way. All in all, I will try to show that our ability to refer to our own minds in an offline way - be it to mental states and processes directly or indirectly related to specific decisions - is essential for us to decide, as we decide, and act, as we act.
Maercker, Andreas; Horn, Andrea B
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common reaction to traumatic experiences. We propose a socio-interpersonal model of PTSD that complements existing models of post-traumatic memory processes or neurobiological changes. The model adds an interpersonal perspective to explain responses to traumatic stress. The framework draws from lifespan psychology, cultural psychology and research into close relationships and groups. Additionally, clinical knowledge about PTSD is incorporated. This involves knowledge about shame, guilt, estrangement feelings and protective factors, such as social support and forgiveness. Three levels are proposed at which relevant interpersonal processes can be situated and should be adequately researched. First, the individual level comprises social affective states, such as shame, guilt, anger and feelings of revenge. Second, at the close relationship level, social support, negative exchange (ostracism and blaming the victim), disclosure and empathy are proposed as dyadic processes relevant to PTSD research and treatment. Third, the distant social level represents culture and society, in which the collectivistic nature of trauma, perceived injustice, and social acknowledgement are concepts that predict the response trajectories to traumatic stress. Research by the current authors and others is cited in an effort to promote future investigation based on the current model. Methodological implications, such as multi-level data analyses, and clinical implications, such as the need for couple, community or larger-level societal interventions, are both outlined. The socio-interpersonal model proposes an interpersonal view of the processes that occur in the aftermath of a traumatic experience. At the individual level, the model integrates the social affective phenomena that clinical research identifies in PTSD patients, including shame, guilt, anger, revenge and the urges or reluctance to disclose. At the level of close relationships, there is
Hur, Yera; Cho, A-Ra; Kim, Sun
Medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs must be considered. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs. A total of 171 students in Konyang University College of Medicine were examined using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B). The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, t-test, and one-sample proportion test. The proportion of the 4 pairs of MBTI dimensions were Extroversion (E)-Introversion (I) (53.2% vs. 46.8%), Sensing (S)-Intuition (N) (63.2% vs. 36.8%), Thinking (T)-Feeling (F) (59.7% vs. 40.4%), and Judging (J)-Perceiving (P) (56.1% vs. 43.9%). The predominant personality types were ISTJ (16.4%), ESTJ (14.0%), and ESFJ (10.5%). The level of interpersonal needs were medium rage that was inclusion (mean=8.1), control (mean=8.8), affection (mean=8.1), expressed behavior (mean=12.1), wanted behavior (mean=12.9), and overall interpersonal needs (mean=25.0). Of the basic social needs, males and females differed significantly with regard to control needs (p=0.028). Educational programs that take into account personality types and characteristics of interpersonal needs are crucial in providing effective medical education. Our results suggest that the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs should be considered in developing an interpersonal relations improvement program for medical students.
Fusaroli, Riccardo; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Tylén, Kristian
What is the proper unit of analysis in the psycholinguistics of dialogue? While classical approaches are largely based on models of individual linguistic processing, recent advances stress the social coordinative nature of dialogue. In the influential interactive alignment model, dialogue is thus...... of individual cognitive systems but must be approached also at the interpersonal level. From such a perspective follows a number of new predictions: beyond simple synchrony, dialogue affords complementary dynamics, constrained by contextual sensitivity and functional specificity. We substantiate our arguments...
Wubbels, Th.; Brok, den P.J.; Tartwijk, van J.W.F.; Levy, J.
This book brings together recent research on interpersonal relationships in education. Clearly, positive teacher-student relationships strongly contribute to student learning. Problematic relationships on the other hand can be detrimental to student outcomes and development. Productive learning
The importance of positive subjective well-being (SWB) is supported by the wide-ranging network of relations between students' SWB and crucial school processes and outcomes, such as positive student engagement behavior, interpersonal relationships, coping skills, and academic achievement. Some studies have revealed that not only is positive SWB a…
Cryder, Cynthia E.; Springer, Stephen; Morewedge, Carey K.
Early investigations of guilt cast it as an emotion that prompts broad reparative behaviors that help guilty individuals feel better about themselves or about their transgressions. The current investigation found support for a more recent representation of guilt as an emotion designed to identify and correct specific social offenses. Across five experiments, guilt influenced behavior in a targeted and strategic way. Guilt prompted participants to share resources more generously with others, but only did so when those others were persons whom the participant had wronged and only when those wronged individuals could notice the gesture. Rather than trigger broad reparative behaviors that remediate one’s general reputation or self-perception, guilt triggers targeted behaviors intended to remediate specific social transgressions. PMID:22337764
Abelson, Jeanne; Lambevski, Sasho; Crawford, June; Bartos, Michael; Kippax, Susan
This paper examines factors associated with feeling suicidal in a large sample of urban men in Sydney and Melbourne, aged 18-50, including heterosexual, gay and bisexual men, HIV antibody positive and HIV antibody negative. As in previous research, sexuality (being homosexual or bisexual) was found to be a major predictor of suicidality. The research went some way towards explaining the close relationship between feeling suicidal and sexual orientation. Sexuality interacts with feeling bad in that, once men feel moderately bad/depressed, they are more likely to feel suicidal if they are homosexual or bisexual than if they are heterosexual. In addition, the research found that experience of verbal abuse and physical assault (harassment) increased feeling suicidal for both heterosexual and gay/bisexual men, not just for homosexual men as suggested by previous research, and that social isolation in the form of living alone is a further risk factor. Seeking counseling help and taking sexual risks were also independently associated with feeling suicidal. These actions may result from feeling suicidal rather than the reverse, and their association with feeling suicidal warrants further research. Many of the 46 independent variables examined in the research, including HIV antibody status and closeness to the HIV/ AIDS epidemic, were related to feeling suicidal only through their association with being gay/bisexual. Celibacy and general risk taking were not related to feeling suicidal in this study.
Full Text Available ... few days, the next month and the next year. Use "positive self-talk" to help overcome your ... few days, the next month and the next year. Use "positive self-talk" to help overcome your ...
Full Text Available ... next month and the next year. Use "positive self-talk" to help overcome your fears. For example, ... next month and the next year. Use "positive self-talk" to help overcome your fears. For example, ...
Engr E. Egbochukwu
skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. ..... communication problems (Akinade, 1988, Aremu, 1998, Ojekunle, 1999, .... Restructuring on the Enhancement of Self Esteem of Visually Impaired.
Mauro de Oliveira Magalhães
Full Text Available Interpersonal style is an aspect of personality related to the particular way individuals participate and gain influence in social contexts. It has its origin in childhood’s first social interactions within the family group. It is suggested that the individual position in the family structure, namely birth order, is an important variable in this process. The present study investigated combined effects of sex and birth order on interpersonal style. A sample of 435 college students (196 men and 239 women with ranging in age from 18 to 40 years (M = 23,3 answered the BASIS-A (Basic Adlerian Scales of Interpersonal Styles and a brief demographic questionnaire. Interactions between sex and birth order were found. Lastborn women showed greater tendency to search for success and social approval than firstborn women and lastborn men. Among men, lastborn revealed less need for social approval compared to firstborn and only children. First born men showed a higher need to attend social conventions and obtain success. The interaction between sex and birth order was relevant for the understanding of personality development in the context of family relations. Keywords: birth order; interpersonal styles; personality.
Full Text Available Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.
Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald
Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.
Crouch, B I; Thomas, K C; Rothwell, E; Planalp, S; Ellington, L; Teemant, K
Poison control center (PCC) personnel face many challenges in communicating with callers and with each other. The purpose of this study was to identify interpersonal communication issues that affect the work environment within PCCs. As part of a larger questionnaire study distributed electronically to members of the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) to assess communication training needs for PCCs, three questions were included to assess interpersonal communication within the work environment: (1) How important is interpersonal communication within your center to a positive work environment? (not at all to extremely important, 1-7); (2) How disruptive is interpersonal communication to your work? (not at all to extremely disruptive, 1-7); and (3) What communication issues do you find most disruptive to your work? (free-text response). Descriptive and qualitative content analyses were used to identify themes in responses. A total of 537 responses were received from SPIs, directors, medical directors, and other PCC staff. Interpersonal communication within the PCC was rated as extremely important to a positive work environment (median = 7 and IQR = 6-7; 62.3% rated as extremely important). Interpersonal communication was rated as less than moderately disruptive on average (median = 3 and IQR = 2-4). Free-text responses were received from 335 (62%) respondents. Free-text comments were broadly categorized as relating to PCC personnel and work environment and issues related to PCC callers. Categories that emerged from the PCC personnel and work environment category included the following: poor interpersonal communication (n = 104; 31%); background noise (n = 96; 29%); poor work procedures (n = 51; 15%); and poor management communication (n = 38; 11%). Interpersonal communication within PCCs was considered to be important for a positive work environment. Although not found to be strongly disruptive by most respondents, several specific interpersonal
Manassis, Katharina; Mendlowitz, Sandra; Kreindler, David; Lumsden, Charles; Sharpe, Jason; Simon, Mark D.; Woolridge, Nicholas; Monga, Suneeta; Adler-Nevo, Gili
We evaluated a novel, computerized feelings assessment instrument (MAAC) in 54 children with anxiety disorders and 35 nonanxious children ages 5 to 11. They rated their feelings relative to 16 feeling animations. Ratings of feelings, order of feeling selection, and correlations with standardized anxiety measures were examined. Positive emotions…
Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer
This study examines the interactive effects of self-esteem, contingencies of self-worth, and ego threat on supportiveness and liking. Targets high or low in self-esteem and academic contingency receive failure test feedback or no evaluative feedback. Then, targets interact with another participant who discloses a personal problem; afterward, both participants complete questionnaires assessing targets' supportiveness and liking. High self-esteem, highly contingent targets feel less supportive and like partners less after interacting under threat than under no threat. Partners, in turn, perceive these targets to be less supportive and less likeable. Low self-esteem, highly contingent targets show the reverse pattern, although these findings do not reach statistical significance. Further analyses reveal that the interpersonal effects of ego threat were caused by threats in a specific domain of contingency (e.g., academics) rather than being a contingent person in general or having external or internal contingent self-worth. Implications for self-esteem and interpersonal processes are discussed.
Onishi, Ayako; Kawabata, Yoshito; Kurokawa, Masayuki; Yoshida, Toshikazu
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between narcissistic orientations (grandiose sense of self-importance, interpersonal exploitation, and narcissistic rage) and relational aggression (self-satisfactory and punishment type) and the mediating effects of guilt feelings toward and perceived classroom norms against relational…
Lance, Elizabeth P.
Despite a lack of consensus on theoretical perspectives on public relations and variations in the ways it and interpersonal communication are defined, public relations may be related to interpersonal communication in three ways: (1) it is two-way communication, (2) it is personal, and (3) it is relational. Even in activities having the highest…
Kleptsova, Elena Yuryevna; Balabanov, Anton Anatolyevich
The article reflects some theoretical aspects of humanization of interpersonal relationships in the sphere of education. The notion "humanization of interpersonal relationships" is being analyzed. The authors offer a characterization of some parameters of relationships: orientation, modality, valence, intensity, awareness,…
Niven, Karen; Totterdell, Peter; Holman, David; Headley, Tara
Individuals in a variety of social contexts try to regulate other people's feelings, but how does this process affect the regulators themselves? This research aimed to establish a relationship between people's use of interpersonal affect regulation and their own affective well-being. In a field study, self- and other-reported data were collected from prisoners and staff members in a therapeutic prison using two surveys separated in time. In a laboratory study, a student sample reported their affect before and after attempting to influence the feelings of talent show contestants in a role-play task. The results of both studies indicated congruent associations between the use of affect-improving and affect-worsening interpersonal affect regulation and strategy agents' affective well-being. Our findings highlight that, when performing interpersonal affect regulation, people may not be immune from the effects of their own actions.
Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore; Di Fratello, Carla; Giordano, Cecilia; Kivlighan, Dennis M
Groups are more effective when positive bonds are established and interpersonal conflicts resolved in early sessions and work is accomplished in later sessions. Previous research has provided mixed support for this group development model. We performed a test of this theoretical perspective using group members' (actors) and aggregated group members' (partners) perceptions of positive bonding, positive working, and negative group relationships measured early and late in interpersonal growth groups. Participants were 325 Italian graduate students randomly (within semester) assigned to 1 of 16 interpersonal growth groups. Groups met for 9 weeks with experienced psychologists using Yalom and Leszcz's (2005) interpersonal process model. Outcome was assessed pre- and posttreatment using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and group relationships were measured at Sessions 3 and 6 using the Group Questionnaire. As hypothesized, early measures of positive bonding and late measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were positively related to improved interpersonal problems. Also as hypothesized, late measures of positive bonding and early measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were negatively related to improved interpersonal problems. We also found that early actor and partner positive bonding and negative relationships interacted to predict changes in interpersonal problems. The findings are consistent with group development theory and suggest that group therapists focus on group-as-a-whole positive bonding relationships in early group sessions and on group-as-a-whole positive working relationships in later group sessions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Abstract. The capacity to establish interpersonal synchrony is fundamental to human beings because it constitutes the basis for social connection and understanding. Interpersonal synchrony refers to instances when the movements or sensations of two or more people overlap in time and form. Recently, the causal influence of interpersonal synchrony on prosociality has been established through experiments. The current meta-analysis is the first to synthesize these isolated and sometimes contradictory experiments. We meta-analyzed 60 published and unpublished experiments that compared an interpersonal synchrony condition with at least one control condition. The results reveal a medium effect of interpersonal synchrony on prosociality with regard to both attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, experimenter effects and intentionality moderate these effects. We discuss the strengths and limitations of our analysis, as well as its practical implications, and we suggest avenues for future research. PMID:28105388
Like it or not, leaders need to manage the mood of their organizations. The most gifted leaders accomplish that by using a mysterious blend of psychological abilities known as emotional intelligence. They are self-aware and empathetic. They can read and regulate their own emotions while intuitively grasping how others feel and gauging their organization's emotional state. But where does emotional intelligence come from, and how do leaders learn to use it? In this article, 18 leaders and scholars (including business executives, leadership researchers, psychologists, an autism expert, and a symphony conductor) explore the nature and management of emotional intelligence--its sources, uses, and abuses. Their responses varied, but some common themes emerged: the importance of consciously--and conscientiously--honing one's skills, the double-edged nature of self-awareness, and the danger of letting any one emotional intelligence skill dominate. Among their observations: Psychology professor John Mayer, who co-developed the concept of emotional intelligence, warns managers not to be confused by popular definitions of the term, which suggest that if you have a certain set of personality traits then you automatically possess emotional intelligence. Neuropsychologist Elkhonon Goldberg agrees with professors Daniel Goleman and Robert Goffee that emotional intelligence can be learned--but only by people who already show an aptitude for it. Cult expert Janja Lalich points out that leaders can use their emotional intelligence skills for ill in the same way they can for good. "Sometimes the only difference is [the leader's] intent," she says. And business leaders Carol Bartz, William George, Sidney Harman, and Andrea jung (of Autodesk, Medtronic, Harman International, and Avon respectively) describe situations in which emotional intelligence traits such as self-awareness and empathy have helped them and their companies perform at a higher level.
D. de Cremer (David); K. van den Bos (Kees)
textabstractIn this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position
Cremer, D. de; Bos, K. van den
In this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position of past
Kravetz, S; Faust, M; Lipshitz, S; Shalhav, S
This study used Baron and Kenny's (1986) criteria for mediation to investigate the extent to which interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between learning disabilities (LD) and social adaptation in the classroom. Twenty-two children with and 22 children without a diagnosis of LD completed a semistructured developmental clinical interview measure of interpersonal understanding. They were also rated by their fourth- and fifth-grade teachers on a measure of social adaptation in the classroom. Interpersonal understanding and social adaptation in the classroom were found to be positively correlated. Children with LD exhibited less interpersonal understanding and social adaptation. Although this group difference on social adaptation was greatly reduced when interpersonal understanding was statistically controlled, it remained statistically significant. These results suggest that reduced social adaptation in the classroom and lower interpersonal understanding are both associated with a diagnosis of LD. However, they do not conclusively support the claim that interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between LD and social adaptation. Thus, whether the social difficulties of people with LD stem from the same complex phenomena that produce these people's learning problems remains an open question.
LEE, Sunhee; KIM, Hye-Jin; CHOI, Han-Gyo; YOO, Yang Sook
Background: Interpersonal competence is an important capacity for nurses. Recently, the advent of smartphones has instigated considerable changes in daily life. Because smartphone has multiple functions, people tend to use them for numerous activities, often leading to addictive behavior. Methods: This cross-sectional study performed a detailed analysis of smartphone addiction subscales and social support related to interpersonal competence of nursing students. Overall, 324 college students were recruited at Catholic University in Seoul, Korea from Feb 2013 to Mar 2013. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire, which included scales that measured smartphone addiction, social support, interpersonal competence, and general characteristics. Path analysis was used to evaluate structural relations between subscales of smartphone addictions, social support, and interpersonal competence. Results: The effect of cyberspace-oriented relationships and social support on interpersonal competence were 1.360 (P=.004) and 0.555 (Psmartphone addiction subscale, and social support were positively correlated with interpersonal competence of nursing students, while other smartphone addiction subscales were not related to nursing student interpersonal competence. Therefore, effective smartphone teaching methods be developed to enhance nursing student motivation
Lee, Sunhee; Kim, Hye-Jin; Choi, Han-Gyo; Yoo, Yang Sook
Interpersonal competence is an important capacity for nurses. Recently, the advent of smartphones has instigated considerable changes in daily life. Because smartphone has multiple functions, people tend to use them for numerous activities, often leading to addictive behavior. This cross-sectional study performed a detailed analysis of smartphone addiction subscales and social support related to interpersonal competence of nursing students. Overall, 324 college students were recruited at Catholic University in Seoul, Korea from Feb 2013 to Mar 2013. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire, which included scales that measured smartphone addiction, social support, interpersonal competence, and general characteristics. Path analysis was used to evaluate structural relations between subscales of smartphone addictions, social support, and interpersonal competence. The effect of cyberspace-oriented relationships and social support on interpersonal competence were 1.360 ( P =.004) and 0.555 ( P smartphone addiction subscale, and social support were positively correlated with interpersonal competence of nursing students, while other smartphone addiction subscales were not related to nursing student interpersonal competence. Therefore, effective smartphone teaching methods be developed to enhance nursing student motivation.
Full Text Available ... A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley talks about coping with emotions Learn more about these ... month and the next year. Use "positive self-talk" to help overcome your fears. For example, say ...
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Chang, Tsui-Fen; Chen, Chung-Kuang; Chen, Ming-Jia
Team collaboration is an important factor that affects the performance of the operating room (OR). Therefore, the ability of OR nurses to adapt to and manage interpersonal conflict incidents properly is very important. The aims of this study were to investigate the interpersonal conflict management capabilities of OR nursing staffs and to find the relationships among the demographics of OR nurses and the following: work-related variables, interpersonal conflict management style, and target of interpersonal conflict. This study investigated 201 OR nurses who had worked for more than 6 months at the target hospitals, which were located in the three counties of Changhua, Yunlin, and Chiayi. The questionnaire that was used to collect data included three components: a demographic and work-related variables survey, interpersonal conflict management factor analysis scale, and interpersonal conflict parties and frequency scale. Data were analyzed using independent t test, analysis of variance, Scheffe's test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The main findings were as follows: (a) Integration and arbitration were the major interpersonal conflict management strategies adopted by the participants; (b) medical doctor, OR nurses, and anesthetists were the primary targets of conflict for the participants; (c) the factors of educational background, job position, experience in other departments, seniority, attending courses in conflict management, and level of hospital significantly affected the strategies that participants used to manage interpersonal conflict; and (d) license level, experience in other departments, seniority, and inclination toward serving in the OR were each found to relate significantly to the target of interpersonal conflict and the frequency of interpersonal conflict incidents. The main implications of this study are as follows: (a) The environment for communication in the OR should be made more friendly to encourage junior OR nurses to adopt
Yoon, Hee Sang; Kim, Gyung Hee; Kim, Jiyoung
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an interpersonal relationship program on interpersonal relationships, self-esteem, and depression in nursing students. This was a quasi-experiment with a nonequivalent control group pre-posttest design. Sixty-four nursing students participated in the study with 31 in the experimental group and 33 in the control group. They were from 3 different colleges of nursing located in Seoul. The interpersonal relationship program was held 10 times over 10 weeks, taking 90 minutes per session. The interpersonal relationship change scale developed by Schlein and Guemey, Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, and CED-S for depression were the instruments used in the study. The data collection period was from January 4 to March 8, 2011, and the collected data were analyzed with SPSS 14.0 using the Χ(2)-test, t-test, and paired t-test. The results showed a significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in terms of the degree of interpersonal relationships, self-esteem, and depression. The results indicate that interpersonal relationship programs have positive effects for improving interpersonal relationships and self-esteem, and decreasing depression in nursing students.
Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Resnik, Linda; Johnson, Erin; O'Toole, Thomas
Homelessness among veterans has dropped dramatically since the expansion of services for homeless veterans in 2009, and now engaging homeless veterans in existing programs will be important to continuing to make progress. While one promising approach for engaging homeless veterans in care is involving peer mentors in integrated services, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may diminish the effects of peer mentorship. This mixed methods study examined how interpersonal and emotional processes in homeless veterans with and without PTSD impacted their capacity to engage in relationships with peer mentors. Four focus groups of 5-8 homeless male veterans (N = 22) were drawn from a larger multisite randomized trial. Qualitative analysis identified five primary themes: disconnectedness; anger, hostility, or resentment; connecting with others; positive view of self; and feeling like an outsider. Thematic comparisons between participants with and without a self-reported PTSD diagnosis, and between those who did and did not benefit from the peer mentor program, were validated by using quantitative methods. Disconnectedness was associated with self-reported PTSD diagnosis and with lack of program benefit; feeling like an outsider was associated with program benefit. Results suggest that disruption to the capacity to develop and maintain social bonds in PTSD may interfere with the capacity to benefit from peer mentorship. Social rules and basic strategies for navigating interpersonal relationships may differ somewhat within the homeless community and outside of it; for veterans who feel disconnected from the domiciled community, a formerly homeless veteran peer may serve as a critical "bridge" between the two social worlds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Smokowski, Paul Richard; Bacallao, Martica; Buchanan, Rachel Lee
The specific aim of this study was to examine pathways leading to internalizing symptoms and self-esteem in Latino adolescents. Adolescent feelings of interpersonal humiliation, family conflict and commitment, and friendships with peers were investigated as potential mediators linking acculturation stress to subsequent adolescent self-esteem and…
Lennarz, H.K.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Finkenauer, C.; Granic, I.
Past studies have shown that jealousy peaks in adolescence. However, little is known about how and when adolescents experience jealousy in their daily lives. The current study aimed to examine the relation between state jealousy, the more general propensity to feel jealous, the interpersonal
Niven, Karen; Garcia, David; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Holman, David; Mansell, Warren
Building relationships is crucial for satisfaction and success, especially when entering new social contexts. In the present paper, we investigate whether attempting to improve others’ feelings helps people to make connections in new networks. In Study 1, a social network study following new networks of people for a 12-week period indicated that use of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) strategies predicted growth in popularity, as indicated by other network members’ reports of spending time with the person, in work and non-work interactions. In Study 2, linguistic analysis of the tweets from over 8000 Twitter users from formation of their accounts revealed that use of IER predicted greater popularity in terms of the number of followers gained. However, not all types of IER had positive effects. Behavioral IER strategies (which use behavior to reassure or comfort in order to regulate affect) were associated with greater popularity, while cognitive strategies (which change a person’s thoughts about his or her situation or feelings in order to regulate affect) were negatively associated with popularity. Our findings have implications for our understanding of how new relationships are formed, highlighting the important the role played by intentional emotion regulatory processes. PMID:26483718
Full Text Available Building relationships is crucial for satisfaction and success, especially when entering new social contexts. In the present paper, we investigate whether attempting to improve others’ feelings helps people to make connections in new networks. In Study 1, a social network study following new networks of people for a twelve-week period indicated that use of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER strategies predicted growth in popularity, as indicated by other network members’ reports of spending time with the person, in work and non-work interactions. In Study 2, linguistic analysis of the tweets from over 8000 Twitter users from formation of their accounts revealed that use of IER predicted greater popularity in terms of the number of followers gained. However, not all types of IER had positive effects. Behavioral IER strategies (which use behavior to reassure or comfort in order to regulate affect were associated with greater popularity, while cognitive strategies (which change a person’s thoughts about his or her situation or feelings in order to regulate affect were negatively associated with popularity. Our findings have implications for our understanding of how new relationships are formed, highlighting the important the role played by intentional emotion regulatory processes.
This paper aims to explore the critical attributes of the concept feeling safe. The safe delivery of care is a high priority; however; it is not really known what it means to the patient to 'feel safe' during an inpatient hospitalization. This analysis explores the topic of safety from the patient's perspective. Concept analysis. The data bases of CINAHL, Medline, PsychInfo and Google Scholar for the years 1995-2012 were searched using the terms safe and feeling safe. The eight-step concept analysis method of Walker and Avant was used to analyse the concept of feeling safe. Uses and defining attributes, as well as identified antecedents, consequences and empirical referents, are presented. Case examples are provided to assist in the understanding of defining attributes. Feeling safe is defined as an emotional state where perceptions of care contribute to a sense of security and freedom from harm. Four attributes were identified: trust, cared for, presence and knowledge. Relationship, environment and suffering are the antecedents of feeling safe, while control, hope and relaxed or calm are the consequences. Empirical referents and early development of a theory of feeling safe are explored. This analysis begins the work of synthesizing qualitative research already completed around the concept of feeling safe by defining the key attributes of the concept. Support for the importance of developing patient-centred models of care and creating positive environments where patients receive high-quality care and feel safe is provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Verkuyten, Maykel; Hindriks, Paul; Coenders, Marcel
In three survey experimental studies among national samples of the native Dutch, we examined feelings towards Muslim immigrants' political party representation. The strategy of disengagement (reject political representation) was evaluated most positively, followed by the descriptive representation
Jin Joo eLee
Full Text Available We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind’s readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naivete' of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to incorporate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust.
CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.
To say that a team leader's job is a tough one is certainly not saying enough. It is up to the team leader to manage a group of people to be individuals but yet work as a team. The team leader must keep the peace and yet create a revolution with this group all at the same time. The good leader will require a lot of education, training, and tons of practical application to be a success. The good news, however, is that the team leader's job is a rewarding one, one that they'll always feel good about if they do it right. How many of us get the opportunity to take a group of wonderful, thinking individual minds and pull from them ideas that a whole team can take to success? Yes, the job is indeed tough, but the paybacks are many.
Anderson, Jenn; Kuehl, Rebecca A; Drury, Sara A Mehltretter; Tschetter, Lois; Schwaegerl, Mary; Hildreth, Marilyn; Bachman, Charlotte; Gullickson, Heidi; Yoder, Julia; Lamp, Jamison
Formal policies can establish guidelines and expectations for workplace breastfeeding support. However, interpersonal communication between employees and managers is the context where such policies are explained, negotiated, and implemented. As such, this article focuses on interpersonal communication about breastfeeding support in the workplace. The objective of this article is to describe interpersonal communication related to workplace breastfeeding support. We conducted 3 focus groups with 23 business representatives from a rural city in the Midwest United States. Participants were recruited through the area chamber of commerce. We analyzed the transcripts of the focus groups and derived themes related to the study objective. Our analysis of responses from business representatives in the focus groups revealed 3 major themes about interpersonal communication concerning breastfeeding support in the workplace: (1) interpersonal communication may be more important than written communication for enacting breastfeeding support, (2) multiple factors (age, sex, and power dynamics) complicate the interpersonal communication required to enact breastfeeding support in local businesses, and (3) positive interpersonal communication strategies may improve the success of workplace breastfeeding support. Interpersonal communication between employees and managers is where the specifics of workplace breastfeeding support (eg, policies) are determined and applied. Interpersonal communication about breastfeeding can be challenging due to issues such as age, sex, and power dynamics. However, positive and open interpersonal communication can enhance workplace breastfeeding support. © The Author(s) 2015.
Haggerty, Greg; Siefert, Caleb J; Bornstein, Robert F; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Blais, Mark A; Zodan, Jennifer; Rao, Nyapati
Interpersonal dependency has been linked to psychological distress, depression, help seeking, treatment compliance, and sensitivity to interpersonal cues in adult samples. However, there is a dearth of research focusing on dependency in child and adolescent samples. The current study examined the construct validity of a measure of interpersonal dependency. The authors investigated how interpersonal dependency and detachment relate to behavioral problems, subjective well-being, interpersonal problems, and global symptom severity in adolescent inpatients. Destructive overdependence (DO) and dysfunctional detachment (DD) were positively related to interpersonal distress, behavioral problems, and symptom severity and negatively related to psychological health and well-being. Healthy dependency (HD) was associated with fewer behavioral problems and less symptom severity and positively related to subjective well-being. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Tolston, Michael T; Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A; Richardson, Michael J
The present study investigated how constraining movement affects interpersonal coordination and joint cognitive performance. Pairs of participants worked cooperatively to solve picture-puzzle tasks in which they conversed to identify differences between pictures in 3 degree-of-constraint conditions: both participants were free to move their hands (free-free; FF); both participants' hands were restrained (restrained-restrained; RR); and the hands of 1 participant were free while the hands of the other participant were restrained (free-restrained; FR). Eye tracking data were collected, and movement was measured at the waist, hand, and head. Data were analyzed using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQ). Postural sway coordination, gaze coordination, and task performance were predicted to be highest in FF, followed by RR, and then by FR. Results showed the asymmetric FR condition generally exhibited lesser degrees of coordination than the symmetric Conditions FF and RR, and that the patterning of coordination in the symmetric conditions varied across the measured body segments. These results demonstrate that movement restraints affect not only interpersonal postural coordination, but also joint attention. Additionally, significant positive relationships were found between task performance and total amount of anterior-posterior movement measured at the head, hand and waist; number of utterances; and number of differences pairs found in the puzzles. These findings indicate a relationship between movement and task performance consistent with the hypotheses that both interpersonal coordination and cognitive performance are sensitive to local action constraints.
Brady, Michael S.
The emotions of guilt, shame, disappointment and grief, and the bodily states of pain and suffering, have something in common, at least phenomenologically: they are all unpleasant, they feel bad. But how might we explain what it is for some state to feel bad or unpleasant? What, in other words, is the nature of negative affect? In this paper I want to consider the prospects for evaluativist theories, which seek to explain unpleasantness by appeal to negative evaluations or appraisals. In part...
Srie Wahyuni Pratiwi; Dina Sukma
Interpersonal communication is the process of face-to-face exchange of information between two or more persons in an interaction with the feedback response. The ground reality, many students still tend to unfavorable communicate interpersonal relationships between students and consequently less well established. This study aimed to describe the interpersonal communication between students in terms of attitudes of openness, empathy, being supportive, positive attitude and equality. The result...
Goto, Michiko; Takemura, Yousuke C
In medical practice, obtaining information regarding patients' undisclosed "feelings of anxiety" or "depressive feelings" is important. The purpose of this study was to determine which interview skills are best suited for eliciting verbal indications of undisclosed feelings, for example anxiety or depressive feelings in patients. Our group videotaped 159 medical interviews at an outpatient department of the Department of Family Medicine, Mie University Hospital (Mie, Japan). Physicians' medical interview skills were evaluated using a Medical Interview Evaluation System and Emotional Information Check Sheet for assessing indications of "feelings of anxiety" or "depressive feelings". We analyzed the relationship between the interview skills and patients' consequent emotional disclosure using generalized linear model (GLIM). The usage of interview skills such as "open-ended questions" "asking the patient's ideas about the meaning of illness" "reflection" and "legitimization" were positively associated with the number of anxiety disclosure, whereas "close-ended questions" and "focused question" were negatively associated. On the other hand, only "respect" was positively associated with the number of depressive disclosures, whereas "surveying question" was negatively associated. The results revealed that there are several interview skills that are effective in eliciting verbal indication of undisclosed "feelings of anxiety" or "depressive feelings".
Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J
Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jordan, Kevin D; Masters, Kevin S; Hooker, Stephanie A; Ruiz, John M; Smith, Timothy W
The interpersonal tradition (Horowitz & Strack, 2011) provides a rich conceptual and methodological framework for theory-driven research on mechanisms linking religiousness and spirituality (R/S) with health and well-being. In three studies, we illustrate this approach to R/S. In Studies 1 and 2, undergraduates completed various self-report measures of R/S, interpersonal style, and other aspects of interpersonal functioning. In Study 3, a community sample completed a wide variety of R/S measures and a measure of interpersonal style. Many, but not all, aspects of religiousness (e.g., overall religiousness, intrinsic religiousness) were associated with a warm interpersonal style, and most aspects and measures of spirituality were associated with a warm and somewhat dominant style. Spirituality and related constructs (i.e., gratitude, compassion) were associated with interpersonal goals that emphasize positive relationships with others, and with beneficial interpersonal outcomes (i.e., higher social support, less loneliness, and less conflict). However, some aspects of R/S (e.g., extrinsic religiousness, belief in a punishing God) were associated with a hostile interpersonal style. R/S have interpersonal correlates that may enhance or undermine health and emotional adjustment. This interpersonal perspective could help clarify why some aspects of religiousness and spirituality are beneficial and others are not. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
"It's for us -newcomers, LGBTQ persons, and HIV-positive persons. You feel free to be": a qualitative study exploring social support group participation among African and Caribbean lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender newcomers and refugees in Toronto, Canada.
Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Lee-Foon, Nakia; Ryan, Shannon; Ramsay, Hope
Stigma and discrimination harm the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people and contribute to migration from contexts of sexual persecution and criminalization. Yet LGBT newcomers and refugees often face marginalization and struggles meeting the social determinants of health (SDOH) following immigration to countries such as Canada. Social isolation is a key social determinant of health that may play a significant role in shaping health disparities among LGBT newcomers and refugees. Social support may moderate the effect of stressors on mental health, reduce social isolation, and build social networks. Scant research, however, has examined social support groups targeting LGBT newcomers and refugees. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore experiences of social support group participation among LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees in an urban Canadian city. We conducted 3 focus groups with a venue-based sample of LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees (n = 29) who attended social support groups at an ethno-specific AIDS Service Organization. Focus groups followed a semi-structured interview guide and were analyzed using narrative thematic techniques. Participant narratives highlighted immigration stressors, social isolation, mental health issues, and challenges meeting the SDOH. Findings reveal multi-level benefits of social support group participation at intrapersonal (self-acceptance, improved mental health), interpersonal (reduced isolation, friendships), community (reciprocity, reduced stigma and discrimination), and structural (housing, employment, immigration, health care) levels. Findings suggest that social support groups tailored for LGBT African and Caribbean newcomers and refugees can address social isolation, community resilience, and enhance resource access. Health care providers can provide support groups, culturally and LGBT competent health services, and resource access to promote LGBT
Stea, Diego; Pedersen, Torben; Foss, Nicolai Juul
networks are also associated with cognitive costs, which may reduce the focal employee's ability to both recognize the need for help and engage in helping behaviours. For these reasons, the authors assert an inverted U-shaped relation between the size of an ego's social network and engagement in helping...... behaviour. However, high-quality relationships imply higher mutual understanding between the actors, and hence lower cognitive costs. In turn, the position (and threshold) of the curve between network size and interpersonal helping should be influenced by the quality of the relationship between the provider...
Srie Wahyuni Pratiwi
Full Text Available Interpersonal communication is the process of face-to-face exchange of information between two or more persons in an interaction with the feedback response. The ground reality, many students still tend to unfavorable communicate interpersonal relationships between students and consequently less well established. This study aimed to describe the interpersonal communication between students in terms of attitudes of openness, empathy, being supportive, positive attitude and equality. The results reveal the interpersonal communication between students as a whole are in the good category.
Full Text Available Interpersonal intelligence is one of the goals in elementary school education. Interpersonal intelligence is a key element in the adaptation of children in their social relationships. SDN Kebon Jeruk 11 Pagi West Jakarta found a number of 19 students of 30 children (63% have barriers Interpersonal intelligence. Quantitative Research with One Shot Case Study Experiment using sample saturated with size 30 in research influence influence model cooperative learning type Teams Games Tournament (TGT to interpersonal intelligence. The results of this study prove that: The more effective the steps of cooperative learning model type TGT done then the better the interpersonal intelligence. So in this research result that model Cooperative Learning type Teams Games Tournament (TGT have positive effect to interpersonal intelligence.
Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Feinstein, Justin S; Tranel, Daniel
Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) typically have impaired declarative memory as a result of hippocampal damage early in the disease. Far less is understood about AD's effect on emotion. We investigated whether feelings of emotion can persist in patients with AD, even after their declarative memory for what caused the feelings has faded. A sample of 17 patients with probable AD and 17 healthy comparison participants (case-matched for age, sex, and education) underwent 2 separate emotion induction procedures in which they watched film clips intended to induce feelings of sadness or happiness. We collected real-time emotion ratings at baseline and at 3 post-induction time points, and we administered a test of declarative memory shortly after each induction. As expected, the patients with AD had severely impaired declarative memory for both the sad and happy films. Despite their memory impairment, the patients continued to report elevated levels of sadness and happiness that persisted well beyond their memory for the films. This outcome was especially prominent after the sadness induction, with sustained elevations in sadness lasting for more than 30 minutes, even in patients with no conscious recollection for the films. These findings indicate that patients with AD can experience prolonged states of emotion that persist well beyond the patients' memory for the events that originally caused the emotion. The preserved emotional life evident in patients with AD has important implications for their management and care, and highlights the need for caretakers to foster positive emotional experiences.
Geller, J; Cockell, S J; Hewitt, P L; Goldner, E M; Flett, G L
This study examined inhibited expression of negative feelings and interpersonal orientation in women with anorexia nervosa. Twenty-one women meeting DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa were compared with 21 psychiatric and 21 normal control women matched on education. Two measures were used to assess inhibited expression of negative feelings and interpersonal orientation: the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory assesses the suppression and expression of anger and the Silencing the Self Scale assesses four cognitive schemas involving the repression of needs and feelings to protect interpersonal relationships. Women with anorexia nervosa reported significantly higher scores on the four Silencing the Self schemas and on suppressed anger after controlling for age. These group differences were maintained for two of the cognitive schemas (Care and Silence) after controlling for depression, self-esteem, and global assessment of functioning. Inhibited expression of negative emotion and interpersonal orientation scores were also significantly related to cognitive and affective components of body image dissatisfaction and to trait and self-presentational dimensions of perfectionism. These findings are reviewed in the context of health psychology, as well as feminist and temperament theories. Implications for treatment are addressed. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Galovski, Tara E.; Mott, Juliette; Young-Xu, Yinong; Resick, Patricia A.
This study compares a sample of PTSD-positive, female survivors of interpersonal assault (n = 162) to a sample of similarly traumatized male counterparts (n = 45) on a number of variables, including PTSD-symptom severity, depressive symptoms, anger, guilt, and health-related concerns. Results indicate that male and female interpersonal assault…
早矢仕, 彩子; Hayashi, Saiko
The purpose of the present study was to examine how self-perception and cultural attitude influence on the international students' feelings of adjustment. Students in 7 Japanese language schools mainly from Asian countries answered the questionnair. Items were about (1) attitude to own/host culture, (2) positive feeling toward own country/culture, (3) self-efficacy and social life skills in their own countries and (4) self-efficacy, social life skills, expecting level of social life skills an...
There are many ways to improve students' understanding of physics concepts. This article focused on drawing students' attention with picture-embedded questions. Pictures give students a direct impression or feeling about the corresponding concepts, which really makes a difference. However, the effects are limited. Some physics concepts are…
Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W
Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300-400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of romantic
Langeslag, Sandra J. E.; van Strien, Jan W.
Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300–400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of
Sandra J E Langeslag
Full Text Available Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships. If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300-400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative
van Kleef, G.A.; Potegal, M.; Stemmler, G.; Spielberger, C.
This chapter reviews research on the role of anger in conflict and negotiation. I focus on three broad classes of dependent variables that I roughly call feelings, thoughts, and actions to refer to (1) affective states and interpersonal sentiments, (2) conscious thought processes, and (3) actual
Arrindell, W A; Bridges, K R; van der Ende, J; St Lawrence, J S; Gray-Shellberg, L; Harnish, R; Rogers, R; Sanderman, R
The Scale for Interpersonal Behaviour (SIB), a multidimensional, self-report measure of state assertiveness, was administered to a nationwide sample of 2375 undergraduates enrolled at 11 colleges and universities across the USA. The SIB was developed in the Netherlands for the independent assessment of both distress associated with self-assertion in a variety of social situations and the likelihood of engaging in a specific assertive response. This is done with four factorially-derived, first-order dimensions: (i) Display of negative feelings (Negative assertion); (ii) Expression of and dealing with personal limitations; (iii) Initiating assertiveness; and (iv) Praising others and the ability to deal with compliments/praise of others (Positive assertion). The present study was designed to determine the cross-national invariance of the original Dutch factors and the construct validity of the corresponding dimensions. It also set out to develop norms for a nationwide sample of US students. The results provide further support for the reliability, factorial and construct validity of the SIB. Compared to their Dutch equivalents, US students had meaningfully higher distress in assertiveness scores on all SIB scales (medium to large effect sizes), whereas differences on the performance scales reflected small effect sizes. The cross-national differences in distress scores were hypothesized to have originated from the American culture being more socially demanding with respect to interpersonal competence than the Dutch, and from the perceived threats and related cognitive appraisals that are associated with such demands.
Murdock, Karla Klein; Gorman, Sarah; Robbins, Maia
Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Igor A. Fourmanov
Full Text Available Background. Values of sexual relations repeatedly changed throughout various culturalhistorical periods. As a result of acquiring values and norms of sexual culture many actual requirements of the personthat were significant at certainontogenetic and sociogeneticstages couldget deprived of the relevance at further stages. As the sociocultural sexual development progresses the subsequent new values, highly significant for the given person are can be shaped. The system of values finds the reflexion in hierarchy and defines dynamics of sexual motives at different stages of the course of life. Objective. The objective is to define hierarchy, sexual and age distinctions in dispositional sexual motives in early adulthood. Design. The paper regards the issue of interrelation between sexual motivation and features of gender interpersonal relations. The sexual motivation was considered as interest in a general class of related incentives, all of which provide the same basic type of satisfaction associated with sexual expression. Eight specific types of incentives intrinsic to sexual expression that motivate sexual behaviourare studied: (1 feeling valued by the partner, (2 reinforcing partners value, (3 obtaining relief from stress or negative psychological states, (4 providing care and custody through sexual interaction to improve a partner’s psychological condition, (5 enhancing feelings of personal power, (6 feeling partner’s power, (7 feeling pleasure, and (8 productive fertility. Conclusion. Disregarding gender and age,the leading position in the hierarchy of sexual disposition motives is occupied by the motives of reinforcing partner’s value, pleasure and care, and subordination position, i.e. motives of comfort, personal value, power and submission. Females in comparison with males differ by higher intensity of submissionmotives and the partner’s significance, while males manifest more force of motive of production fertility. Within the
Miano, Annemarie; Grosselli, Luna; Roepke, Stefan; Dziobek, Isabel
Dysfunction in romantic relationships constitutes one of the most burdensome symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of this study was to ascertain how emotional dysregulation affects behavior and relationship related feelings of women with BPD in threatening conversations with their own romantic partner. Thirty couples in which the women were diagnosed with BPD and 34 healthy control (HC) couples were videotaped while discussing personally threatening (i.e., personal failure) and relationship-threatening (i.e., separation) themes. Third party raters evaluated stress and communication behaviors during the conversations. Relationship related feelings, i.e., closeness and relationship insecurity, were assessed by self-report. Overall, women with BPD were rated as more stressed in threatening situations than HC women and their partners, but not more stressed in relationship-threatening than personally threatening situations. A heightened stress response of women with BPD predicted more negative and less positive communication behaviors and a stronger decline in self-rated closeness to the partner compared to HC. Stress-induced increases in relationship insecurity were specific to women with BPD. Our results highlight the central role of emotional dysregulation in interpersonal dysfunctions of persons with BPD and the need to address individual emotion regulation strategies more explicitly in dyadic contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Interpersonal roadway communication is a vital component of the transportation system. Road users communicate to coordinate movement and increase roadway safety. Future autonomous vehicle research needs to account for the role of interpersonal roadwa...
Cubaka, Vincent K; Schriver, Michael; Kayitare, Janvier B
BACKGROUND: Patient-provider communication is an interpersonal interaction between a patient and a health care provider. OBJECTIVE: This study explored patients' communication preferences and perceptions on what factors influence the patient-provider communication in primary health care settings...... field of health communication in sub-Saharan Africa. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Findings call for more inclusion of patient perspectives in the patient-provider encounter. This could require more training of professionals and research on the topic, both in Rwanda and in other regions....
Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael
Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…
Alden, Lynn E.; Bieling, Peter M.
Numerous studies have suggested that depression and social anxiety are associated with perfectionism. The present study examines how self-oriented perfectionism and socially-prescribed perfectionism influence cognitive reactions to an interpersonal interaction. Undergraduate women (n=90) completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Beck…
Cegala, Donald J.
The traditional views of audience analysis and rhetorical strategy are examined in terms of modifications necessary for application to persuasion in interpersonal communication contexts. To obtain guidance for ways in which the traditional concepts may be modified, a framework consisting of selected work by Erving Goffman and Ernest Becker is…
Danner, Jean Ortowski; And Others
This curriculum guide on interpersonal relations in the workplace give techniques for instructors to use in evaluating these skills in their students. Eighteen competencies are included in this guide: adaptability; attendance; attitude; communication (nonverbal); communication (verbal); communication (written); confidence; cooperation; enthusiasm;…
Zandvliet, D.; Brok, den P.J.; Mainhard, T.; Tartwijk, van J.W.F.
This book brings together recent research on interpersonal relationships in education from a variety of perspectives including research from Europe, North America and Australia. The work clearly demonstrates that positive teacher-student relationships can contribute to student learning in classrooms
Pish, Suzanne; Clark-Jones, Teresa; Eschbach, Cheryl; Tiret, Holly
RELAX: Alternatives to Anger is an educational anger management program that helps adults understand and manage anger, develop communication skills, manage stress, and make positive behavioral changes in their interpersonal relationships. A sample of 1,168 evaluation surveys were collected from RELAX: Alternatives to Anger participants over 3…
Nurulwahida Hj Azid
Full Text Available Orphans are considered a minority and they should be given a greater emphasis so that they do not feel left out and can build their own lives without a sense of humility. This does not mean that the orphans should be pampered instead they should be given the confidence and motivation to strive for success in later life. Humility among orphans can be associated with interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of problem-solving activity treatment based on the interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. 46 students from two orphanages were involved as the treatment group. The research design used was a one-group pretest-posttest design applied through a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Enrichment activities that provided interpersonal and intrapersonal skills as evidenced in this study should be carried out regularly at orphanages. Our study has proven that orphans‟ rights to learn cannot be neglected and „no child left behind „policy needs to be carried through by everybody involved with orphans‟ well-being. Teachers and carers need to be trained to use these enrichment activities at their orphanages to help maximize the orphans‟ potentials.
Tamir, Maya; Schwartz, Shalom H; Oishi, Shige; Kim, Min Y
Which emotional experiences should people pursue to optimize happiness? According to traditional subjective well-being research, the more pleasant emotions we experience, the happier we are. According to Aristotle, the more we experience the emotions we want to experience, the happier we are. We tested both predictions in a cross-cultural sample of 2,324 participants from 8 countries around the world. We assessed experienced emotions, desired emotions, and indices of well-being and depressive symptoms. Across cultures, happier people were those who more often experienced emotions they wanted to experience, whether these were pleasant (e.g., love) or unpleasant (e.g., hatred). This pattern applied even to people who wanted to feel less pleasant or more unpleasant emotions than they actually felt. Controlling for differences in experienced and desired emotions left the pattern unchanged. These findings suggest that happiness involves experiencing emotions that feel right, whether they feel good or not. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Wright, Aidan G C; Sanislow, Charles A; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Shea, M Tracie; Markowitz, John C; Skodol, Andrew E; Zanarini, Mary C; Morey, Leslie C
Researchers examining personality typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified 3 groups: low pathology, internalizing, and externalizing. These groups have been found to predict functional severity and psychiatric comorbidity. In this study, we employed Latent Profile Analysis to compare this previously established typology, grounded in temperament traits (negative emotionality; positive emotionality; constraint), to a novel typology rooted in interpersonal traits (dominance; warmth) in a sample of individuals with PTSD (n = 155). Using Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP) traits to create latent profiles, the 3-group temperament model was replicated. Using Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC) traits to create latent profiles, we identified a 4-group solution with groups varying in interpersonal style. These models were nonredundant, indicating that the depiction of personality variability in PTSD depends on how personality is assessed. Whereas the temperament model was more effective for distinguishing individuals based on distress and comorbid disorders, the interpersonal model was more effective for predicting the chronicity of PTSD over the 10 year course of the study. We discuss the potential for integrating these complementary temperament and interpersonal typologies in the clinical assessment of PTSD. 2014 APA
Niu, Chen-Chun; Huang, Hui-Man; Hung, Yun-Ying; Lee, Hsiu-Li
Most senior veterans who live in veterans' homes in Taiwan are single and have few intimate, interpersonal relationships. Aging is often accompanied by solitude and illness, which causes senior veterans to doubt the meaning of life and to lose confidence in the value of life. This study investigated the personal characteristics that influence interpersonal intimacy and the meaning of life as well as the relationship between interpersonal intimacy and the meaning of life among senior veterans living in veterans' homes. A cross-sectional design was used, and 120 senior male veterans were convenience sampled from three veterans' homes in southern Taiwan. Three structured questionnaires were used in this study: personal characteristics questionnaire, interpersonal intimacy scale, and purpose in life test. (a) Interpersonal intimacy was influenced by source of income or funds, type of residence institution, religious affiliation, and the quality of the participant's relationships with family, friends, and fellow residents. Educational level and self-perceived health status correlated positively with interpersonal intimacy, and period of residence correlated negatively with interpersonal intimacy. (b) Meaning of life was influenced by the quality of relationships with family and friends. Educational level and self-perceived health status correlated significantly and positively with meaning of life, and period of residence correlated negatively with meaning of life. (c) Significant, positive correlations were found among interpersonal intimacy, the four domains of interpersonal intimacy, and meaning of life. Health professionals involved in the care of senior veterans in institutions may use the results of this study to develop and implement interventions that promote a higher degree of interpersonal intimacy and a higher appreciation of the meaning of life, thus enabling senior veterans to confront old age in a more positive manner.
Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming
For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.
Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.
Olsson, Erik Masao
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate healthcare customer complaints concerning interpersonal matters in cancer care. Design/methodology/approach - Complaints from cancer patients and their relatives (n=116) that dealt with interpersonal matters registered between 2009 and 2011 at four local Patients' Advisory Committees in Western Sweden were sampled and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings - Complaints concerned lack of information and consideration from healthcare providers. Lack of empathy and civility also caused dissatisfaction, the latter particularly for women. Relatives complained that they did not feel included in the care process or were not offered proper support. Most complaints by relatives were filed by a female relative and concerned a male patient. Research limitations/implications - Information about patient demographics other than gender could not be investigated due to database limitations. Hence, factors such as age, country of birth, and geographical residence were not included for analysis. In addition, neither the type nor stage of cancer among the sampled patients was able to be addressed. Practical implications - Patient complaints should not only be viewed as a post-consumption judgment, but also as a service interaction activity. This may require healthcare providers to enhance their interpersonal skills, allowing patients and relatives to provide feedback during service interaction to satisfactorily address dissatisfaction. Visualizing gender disparities may help healthcare providers prevent stereotypical encounters. In addition, the provider should be invited to participate in the customer's value creating network, which may also include knowledge and skills from other sources, such as relatives. Originality/value - Value co-creation offers a different view on patient complaints. Incorporating social construction into value co-creation may reveal socially constructed disparities. The paper provides
Lloyd, Karina J.; Boer, Diana; Kluger, Avraham N.; Voelpel, Sven C.
We investigated perceived listening quality in relation to individual (self-clarity and emotional well-being) and dyadic variables (social attraction and trust). Specifically, we proposed that the link between perceived listening quality and emotional well-being is mediated by self-clarity, and that the link between perceived listening and trust…
Sheldon, Kennon M; Sommet, Nicolas; Corcoran, Mike; Elliot, Andrew J
We created a life-goal assessment drawing from self-determination theory and achievement goal literature, examining its predictive power regarding immoral behavior and subjective well-being. Our source items assessed direction and energization of motivation, via the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic aims and between intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for acting, respectively. Fused source items assessed four goal complexes representing a combination of direction and energization. Across three studies ( Ns = 109, 121, and 398), the extrinsic aim/extrinsic reason complex was consistently associated with immoral and/or unethical behavior beyond four source and three other goal complex variables. This was consistent with the triangle model of responsibility's claim that immoral behaviors may result when individuals disengage the self from moral prescriptions. The extrinsic/extrinsic complex also predicted lower subjective well-being, albeit less consistently. Our goal complex approach sheds light on how self-determination theory's goal contents and organismic integration mini-theories interact, particularly with respect to unethical behavior.
Tasca, Giorgio A; Foot, Meredith; Leite, Catherine; Maxwell, Hilary; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany
This mixed method systematic case study applied an interpersonal stage model of the therapeutic process to examine interpersonal processes among a highly adherent Group Psychodynamic-Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) therapist and a highly adherent Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) therapist and their groups of binge eating disordered (BED) patients. This is the first case study to apply the interpersonal stage model of psychotherapy to compare GCBT and GPIP methods and the first to apply the model to group therapy. Early-, middle-, and late-stage transcribed video recordings of sequential interactions among therapists and patients in each of these two time-limited group therapies were analyzed with the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). We also provide qualitative presentations of the transcripts from each stage as context for the quantitative analyses. BED patients in both groups achieved positive outcomes for binge eating and depression. Consistent with their treatment model, the GPIP therapist was more autonomy-giving, whereas the GCBT therapist was more controlling/directive. The GPIP therapist and her group had high levels of interpersonal complementary interaction sequences in the early stage followed by lower complementarity in the middle stage. The GCBT therapist and her group showed a high-low-high pattern of complementarity across the three stage of therapy. However, overall the GPIP group had higher levels complementarity than the GCBT group. This mixed method case study of group processes based on an interpersonal stage model of psychotherapy suggested specific therapist behaviors in each modality to maximize positive therapeutic interactions at each stage of group therapy. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Jordan, Kevin D; Foster, Penni Smith
Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal quality, empathy is a social behavior well-suited to be examined from an interpersonal perspective. The present study used the interpersonal theory of clinical, personality, and social psychology to examine the construct of empathy and theorize about likely interpersonal correlates. One hundred and sixty-three students from an academic health center in the southeastern United States participated in this study. The medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy was used to assess empathy and its factors: Perspective taking, compassionate care, and walking in the patient's shoes. Interpersonal assessments included the International Personality Item Pool-Interpersonal Circumplex, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Distinct interpersonal styles and correlates emerged among empathy and its factors. While all factors of empathy were related to interpersonal warmth, perspective taking and compassionate care were also associated with submissiveness. Of note, only walking in the patient's shoes was correlated with both social support and less loneliness. These findings are discussed in light of interpersonal theory with particular attention paid to the implications for medical education and professional development.
Interpersonal relationships in early adulthood, in people aged 25 to 30 vary considerably among individuals. Some place emphasis on partnership, and others on relations with friends. Even the relationship with parents and siblings are experienced by young adults in a variety of ways. Some have frequent and regular contact with their parents while some no longer have any relationship with their parents. These are two frequent situations hiding much more in between. Relationships are complex an...
Frost, J.H.; Finkel, E.J.; Norton, M.I.; Ariely, D.; Caprariello, P.A.; Eastwick, P.W.
This article began as an adversarial collaboration between two groups of researchers with competing views on a longstanding question: Does familiarity promote or undermine interpersonal attraction? As we explored our respective positions, it became clear that the limitations of our
Wong, Karen; Pos, Alberta E
This study examined the effects of in-session interpersonal process and pre-therapy interpersonal problems on session-one alliance formation for 32 clients who received short-term experiential therapy for depression. Interpersonal behavior measured by the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, as well as clients' pre-therapy reports of interpersonal problems significantly related to session-one alliance scores. Greater client disclosure independently predicted a stronger session-one bond with the therapist. Both greater client disclosure (positively) and pre-therapy Social Inhibition (negatively) independently predicted early goal agreement. Findings suggest that client disclosure is a marker of early engagement in experiential therapy, as well as support this model's mandate to form interpersonally safe therapeutic environments from the first moments of therapy.
Huang, Yunhui; Lv, Wei; Wu, Jiang
This study examined the effect of intrinsic academic motivation and interpersonal conflict on the perceived depression and stress. Participants were 537 Chinese undergraduate students (191 males and 346 females; M age = 20.4 years, SD age = 1.3). They completed four scales measuring intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, stress, and depression. Linear regressions were conducted with intrinsic academic motivation, interpersonal conflict, and their interaction as independent variables to predict depression and stress. Results showed that intrinsic academic motivation was negatively, while interpersonal conflict was positively, associated with depression and stress. Moreover, the interaction was significant: negative association of "intrinsic academic motivation and depression" and that of "intrinsic academic motivation and stress" was weaker among participants who reported higher (vs. lower) levels of interpersonal conflict. © The Author(s) 2016.
Gallego-Alberto, Laura; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Vara, Carlos
Caregivers' commitment to personal values is linked to caregivers' well-being, although the effects of personal values on caregivers' guilt have not been explored to date. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between caregivers´ commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Participants were 179 dementia family caregivers. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to describe sociodemographic variables and assess stressors, caregivers' commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Commitment to values was conceptualized as two factors (commitment to own values and commitment to family values) and 12 specific individual values (e.g. education, family or caregiving role). Hierarchical regressions were performed controlling for sociodemographic variables and stressors, and introducing the two commitment factors (in a first regression) or the commitment to individual/specific values (in a second regression) as predictors of guilt. In terms of the commitment to values factors, the analyzed regression model explained 21% of the variance of guilt feelings. Only the factor commitment to family values contributed significantly to the model, explaining 7% of variance. With regard to the regression analyzing the contribution of specific values to caregivers' guilt, commitment to the caregiving role and with leisure contributed negatively and significantly to the explanation of caregivers' guilt. Commitment to work contributed positively to guilt feelings. The full model explained 30% of guilt feelings variance. The specific values explained 16% of the variance. Our findings suggest that commitment to personal values is a relevant variable to understand guilt feelings in caregivers.
Lipsitz, Joshua D.; Markowitz, John C.
Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. IPT’s interpersonal model integrates both relational theory, building on work by Sullivan, Bowlby, and others, and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness to highlight contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psychiatric disorders. IPT frames therapy around a central interpersonal problem in the patient’s life, a current crisis or relational predicament that is disrupting social support and increasing interpersonal stress. By mobilizing and working collaboratively with the patient to resolve (better manage or negotiate) this problem, IPT seeks to activate several interpersonal change mechanisms. These include: 1) enhancing social support, 2) decreasing interpersonal stress, 3) facilitating emotional processing, and 4) improving interpersonal skills. We hope that articulating these mechanisms will help therapists to formulate cases and better maintain focus within an IPT framework. We propose interpersonal mechanisms that might explain how IPT’s interpersonal focus leads to symptom change. Future work needs to specify and test candidate mediators in clinical trials of IPT. We anticipate that pursuing this more systematic strategy will lead to important refinements and improvements in IPT and enhance its application in a range of clinical populations. PMID:24100081
Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas
In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.
Bryan, Venise D; Lindo, Jascinth; Anderson-Johnson, Pauline; Weaver, Steve
Faculty members are viewed as nurturers within the academic setting and may be able to influence students' behaviors through the formation of positive interpersonal relationships. Faculty members' attributes that best facilitated positive interpersonal relationships according to Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Model was studied. Students (n = 192) enrolled in a 3-year undergraduate nursing program in urban Jamaica were randomly selected to participate in this descriptive cross-sectional study. A 38-item questionnaire on interpersonal relationships with nursing faculty and students' perceptions of their teachers was utilized to collect data. Factor analysis was used to create factors of realness, prizing, and empathetic understanding. Multiple linear regression analysis on the interaction of the 3 factors and interpersonal relationship scores was performed while controlling for nursing students' study year and age. One hundred sixty-five students (mean age: 23.18 ± 4.51years; 99% female) responded. The regression model explained over 46% of the variance. Realness (β = 0.50, P < .001) was the only significant predictor of the interpersonal relationship scores assigned by the nursing students. Of the total number of respondents, 99 students (60%) reported satisfaction with the interpersonal relationships shared with faculty. Nursing students' perception of faculty members' realness appeared to be the most significant attribute in fostering positive interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nikitin, Jana; Freund, Alexandra M
Social approach and social avoidance goals (i.e., approach of positive and avoidance of negative outcomes in social situations) are important predictors of the feeling of being socially integrated or isolated. However, little is known about the development of these goals across adulthood. In a large diary study with N = 744 young (18-39 years), middle-aged (40-59 years), and older adults (60-83 years), we tested the hypothesis that the adaptiveness of social goals changes across adulthood: Social approach goals were hypothesized to be adaptive during young adulthood when adult social relationships are to be established. In contrast, social avoidance goals were hypothesized to become more adaptive with age as people are increasingly motivated to avoid interpersonal tension. Our findings support these hypotheses: Social approach goals were positively and social avoidance goals negatively associated with younger but not with middle-aged and older adults' daily social well-being. These results were robust across different situations (positive, negative) and different types of relationships (close, peripheral). The study highlights the changing role of social approach and avoidance goals for daily social well-being across adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Geraets, Chris N W; van Beilen, Marije; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van der Gaag, Mark; Veling, Wim
Experimentally studying the influence of social environments on mental health and behavior is challenging, as social context is difficult to standardize in laboratory settings. Virtual Reality (VR) enables studying social interaction in terms of interpersonal distance in a more ecologically valid manner. Regulation of interpersonal distance may be abnormal in patients with psychotic disorders and influenced by environmental stress, symptoms or distress. To investigate interpersonal distance in people with a psychotic disorder and at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR) compared to siblings and controls in virtual social environments, and explore the relationship between clinical characteristics and interpersonal distance. Nineteen UHR patients, 52 patients with psychotic disorders, 40 siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder and 47 controls were exposed to virtual cafés. In five virtual café visits, participants were exposed to different levels of social stress, in terms of crowdedness, ethnicity and hostility. Measures on interpersonal distance, distress and state paranoia were obtained. Baseline measures included trait paranoia, social anxiety, depressive, positive and negative symptoms. Interpersonal distance increased when social stressors were present in the environment. No difference in interpersonal distance regulation was found between the groups. Social anxiety and distress were positively associated with interpersonal distance in the total sample. This VR paradigm indicates that interpersonal distance regulation in response to environmental social stressors is unaltered in people with psychosis or UHR. Environmental stress, social anxiety and distress trigger both people with and without psychosis to maintain larger interpersonal distances in social situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fedina, Lisa; Nam, Boyoung; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Shah, Roma; Von Mach, Tara; Bright, Charlotte L; DeVylder, Jordan
Resilience has been found to attenuate the effects of negative mental health symptomology associated with interpersonal victimization; however, existing research has largely focused on resilience traits, such as individual cognitive and environmental factors that promote resilience. In addition, empirical knowledge on the extent to which resilience mitigates suicidal symptomology associated with interpersonal violence victimization is particularly limited. This study assesses whether the relationship between interpersonal violence (i.e., IPV and nonpartner sexual violence) and mental health symptomology (i.e., depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) is moderated by resilience using a general population sample of women ( N = 932). A cross-sectional, observational survey was administered in four U.S. cities (Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.). Bivariate results indicated that women exposed to interpersonal violence reported significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, depression, and psychological distress compared with women without exposure to interpersonal violence. Regression models revealed significant positive associations between interpersonal violence and depression, distress, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographics. Resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between interpersonal violence victimization and any associated mental health outcomes. However, subgroup analyses reveal significant interaction effects between resilience and IPV within specific racial and ethnic minority subgroups, suggesting that attenuating effects of resilience on mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and psychological distress) associated with IPV likely vary across race and ethnicity. Implications for future research and clinical interventions focused on resilience among survivors of interpersonal violence are discussed.
Lipsitz, Joshua D.; Markowitz, John C.
Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. IPT’s interpersonal model integrates both relational theory, building on work by Sullivan, Bowlby, and others, and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness to highlight contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psyc...
Primada Qurrota Ayun
Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Com...
Ayun, Primada Qurrota
Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Com...
Boden, Zoë V R; Gibson, Susanne; Owen, Gareth J; Benson, Outi
In this article, we explore how feelings permeated our qualitative research on suicide. Drawing on phenomenological theory, we argue for the epistemic and ethical importance of the feelings that emerge through research encounters, considering them to be embodied, intersubjective, and multilayered, and requiring careful interpretation through a "reflexivity of feelings." We sketch a tentative framework of the ways that we experienced feelings in our research and give three in-depth examples to illustrate some of the different layers and types of feelings we identified. We reflexively interpret these feelings and their role in our analysis and then discuss some of the ethical and methodological issues related to examining feelings in suicide research, and research more generally. © The Author(s) 2015.
Mayer, Nicole D; Tormala, Zakary L
Three studies explored think ("I think . . . ") versus feel ("I feel . . . ") message framing effects on persuasion.The authors propose a matching hypothesis, suggesting that think framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is cognitively oriented, whereas feel framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is affectively oriented. Study 1 presented cognitively and affectively oriented individuals with a think- or feel-framed message. Study 2 primed cognitive or affective orientation and then presented a think- or feel-framed message. Study 3 presented male and female participants with an advertisement containing think- or feel-framed arguments. Results indicated that think (feel) framing was more persuasive when the target attitude or recipient was cognitively (affectively) oriented. Moreover, Study 2 demonstrated that this matching effect was mediated by processing fluency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
MacKenzie, M.J.; Vohs, K. D.; Baumeister, R.F.
Four studies tested the hypothesis that a weaker belief in free will would be related to feeling less gratitude. In Studies 1a and 1b, a trait measure of free will belief was positively correlated with a measure of dispositional gratitude. In Study 2, participants whose free will belief was weakened
Lipsitz, Joshua D; Markowitz, John C
Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. Integrating relational theory and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness, IPT highlights contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psychiatric disorders. It frames therapy around a central interpersonal problem in the patient's life, a current crisis or relational predicament that is disrupting social support and increasing interpersonal stress. By mobilizing and working collaboratively with the patient to resolve this problem, IPT seeks to activate several interpersonal change mechanisms. These include: 1) enhancing social support, 2) decreasing interpersonal stress, 3) facilitating emotional processing, and 4) improving interpersonal skills. We hope that articulating these mechanisms will help therapists to formulate cases and better maintain focus within an IPT framework. Here we propose interpersonal mechanisms that might explain how IPT's interpersonal focus leads to symptom change. Future work needs to specify and test candidate mediators in clinical trials. We anticipate that pursuing this more systematic strategy will lead to important refinements and improvements in IPT and enhance its application in a range of clinical populations. © 2013.
The Role of Difficulty in Identifying and Describing Feelings in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Behavior (NSSI): Associations With Perceived Attachment Quality, Stressful Life Events, and Suicidal Ideation.
Cerutti, Rita; Zuffianò, Antonio; Spensieri, Valentina
Objective: Core alexithymic features, such as the difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, are associated with poor attachment styles and emotional trauma, which influence the capacity to regulate affect. Additionally, emotional regulation has been found to be the most commonly identified function associated with non-suicidal self-injury behavior (NSSI) in adolescents as they attempt to modulate strong emotions. However, few studies have examined the link between difficulty in identifying and describing feelings (core components of alexithymia), NSSI behaviors, quality of attachment, life stressors and suicidal ideation in healthy early adolescents. Consequently, this study aims to investigate these constructs and the relationship among them in a large non-clinical sample of adolescents. Methods: Seven hundred and nine middle school students (50.4% males), aged 10-15 years ( M = 12.6; SD = 1.06) were involved in this study. In order to investigate the variables considered in the study, the following measures were administered: the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory exploring non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors; the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children examining difficulty in identifying and describing feelings; the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment assessing the quality of parental and peer attachment; the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised outlining stressful/traumatic events and the Children's Depression Inventory evaluating suicidal ideation. Results: We found significantly positive relationships among difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, NSSI behaviors, stressful events, and suicidal ideation. Data indicated a significant negative association of difficulty in identifying and describing feelings with quality of attachment to parents and peers. Further findings highlighted that difficulty in identifying and describing feelings significantly mediated the effect of quality of attachment (parent and peer) on NSSI and suicidal ideation
Brunet, Jennifer; Guérin, Eva; Speranzini, Nicolas
Although exercise-induced feeling states may play a role in driving future behavior, their role in relation to older adults' participation in physical activity (PA) has seldom been considered. The objectives of this study were to describe changes in older adults' feeling states during exercise, and examine if levels of and changes in feeling states predicted their future participation in PA. Self-reported data on feeling states were collected from 82 older adults immediately before, during, and after a moderate-intensity exercise session, and on participation in PA 1 month later. Data were analyzed using latent growth modeling. Feelings of revitalization, positive engagement, and tranquility decreased during exercise, whereas feelings of physical exhaustion increased. Feelings of revitalization immediately before the exercise session predicted future participation in PA; changes in feeling states did not. This study does not provide empirical evidence that older adults' exercise-induced feeling states predict their future participation in PA.
Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Temes, Christina M.; Elkin, Irene; Gallop, Robert
Objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the interpersonal accuracy of interventions in cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy as a predictor of the outcome of treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. Method: The interpersonal accuracy of interventions was rated using transcripts of treatment sessions…
Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Attinà, Giovanna
Treating narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) successfully is possible but requires a thorough understanding of the pathology and appropriate clinical procedures. Perfectionism is one prominent feature often associated with narcissistic difficulties. Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy (MIT) for NPD adopts manualized step-by-step procedures aimed at progressively dismantling narcissistic processes by first stimulating an autobiographical mode of thinking and then improving access to inner states and awareness of dysfunctional patterns. Finally, adaptive patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting are promoted, together with a sense of autonomy and agency and a reduction of perfectionistic regulatory strategies. Throughout, there needs to be constant attention to regulation of the therapy relationship to avoid ruptures and maximize cooperation. We describe here a successful case of MIT applied to a man in his early 20's with narcissism, perfectionism, and significant co-occurrence of Axis I and Axis II disorders. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Leng, Bingbing; Wang, Xiangling; Cao, Bihua; Li, Fuhong
The present study aimed to reveal the temporal course and electrophysiological correlates of interpersonal guilt. Human participants were asked to perform multiple rounds of a dot-estimation task with their partners, while event-related potential being recorded. The paired participants were informed that they would win money if both responded correctly; otherwise, both of them would lose money. The feeling of guilt in Self-Wrong condition (SW) was significantly higher than that in Both-Wrong and Partner-Wrong conditions. At approximately 350 ms after the onset of feedback presentation, greater negativities were observed in the frontal regions in the guilt condition (i.e., SW) than those in the non-guilt condition. The guilt-modulated frontal negativity might reflect the interactions of self-reflection, condemnation, and negative emotion.
Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; Aan Het Rot, Marije
Individuals with a family history of depression show subtle abnormalities in the processing of social stimuli. This could negatively affect their interpersonal functioning and contribute to their depression risk. Repeated administration of the serotonin precursor tryptophan has previously been shown to increase agreeable behavior and reduce quarrelsome behavior in irritable people, who are also considered at risk for depression. To examine the effects of tryptophan on social functioning in individuals with a family history of depression, 40 men and women with at least one first-degree relative with depression received tryptophan (1g three times a day) and placebo for 14 days each in a double-blind crossover design and recorded their social behavior and mood during everyday interpersonal encounters. Participants also provided daily ratings of their positive and negative cognitions concerning their social functioning. Tryptophan improved mood. Unexpectedly, tryptophan increased quarrelsome behavior and reduced agreeable behavior, specifically during interactions at home. The behavioral effects of tryptophan were not moderated by mood or by the interaction partner. Negative social cognitions were lower when tryptophan was given second and lower during placebo when placebo was given second. Overall, tryptophan may not alter social behavior in individuals with a family history of depression as it does in irritable people. However, the behavioral effects of tryptophan at home might be seen as a way for individuals with a family history of depression to achieve more control. Over time, this may positively influence the way they feel and think about themselves in a social context. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.
Petersen, Morten Rask; Dohn, Niels Bonderup
for learning (e.g. Krapp, 2002). Here we turn the interplay and see learning as a facilitator for interest development. This interplay was studied in upper secondary biology education. Student’s conducted an exercise on modelling natural selection with LEGO® bricks (Christensen-Dalsgaard & Kanneworf, 2009...... support our initial hypothesis that learning can be a facilitator for interest development. This is an argument for focusing more on didactical approaches and learning environments if the goal is to have interested students. As stated by Dewey: “If we can discover a child’s urgent needs and powers...
Zickfeld, Janis Heinrich
The feeling of being moved has only received marginal attention by emotion research during the last decades. Recently, an emotion framework termed kama muta has been introduced giving a first overview and suggesting that being moved is a positive cultural-dependent feeling typically accompanied by tears, piloerection, and a warm feeling in the chest (Seibt, Schubert, Zickfeld & Fiske, 2015). The present article tries to give a first insight into the effects of kama muta. Based on relational m...
Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Sablik, Zbigniew; Gaszyński, Tomasz; Drożdż, Jarosław
Doctors are frequently expose to stress during their occupational work. It is mainly the result of burdens caused by taking care of patients, dysfunctional arrangements of the health care system and difficult relationships in their workplace. Chronic stress brings negative emotions and they need to cope with them . Doctors, willing to achieve it, may initiate interpersonal games with the hidden motive of restoring their internal balance. Based on transactional analysis, the authors describe some of the games which may be found in doctors' environment: "How to get out of there", "Mine is better than yours", "Scapegoat", "Fault" and "double bind". The outcome of the games may be receiving a support, proving a benefit derived from stress, getting the feeling of being not guilty, justification, or releasing emotions in apparently unintended way. Interpersonal games may help stressed doctors to get rid of internal tension but at the same time they may be a source of stress for other participants in the games. The way to limit their destructive impact is to create such administrative and organizational solutions which allow to make working conditions more friendly. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Anders, Silke; de Jong, Roos; Beck, Christian; Haynes, John-Dylan; Ethofer, Thomas
Being able to comprehend another person’s intentions and emotions is essential for successful social interaction. However, it is currently unknown whether the human brain possesses a neural mechanism that attracts people to others whose mental states they can easily understand. Here we show that the degree to which a person feels attracted to another person can change while they observe the other’s affective behavior, and that these changes depend on the observer’s confidence in having correctly understood the other’s affective state. At the neural level, changes in interpersonal attraction were predicted by activity in the reward system of the observer’s brain. Importantly, these effects were specific to individual observer–target pairs and could not be explained by a target’s general attractiveness or expressivity. Furthermore, using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we found that neural activity in the reward system of the observer’s brain varied as a function of how well the target’s affective behavior matched the observer’s neural representation of the underlying affective state: The greater the match, the larger the brain’s intrinsic reward signal. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that reward-related neural activity during social encounters signals how well an individual’s “neural vocabulary” is suited to infer another person’s affective state, and that this intrinsic reward might be a source of changes in interpersonal attraction. PMID:27044071
Thelen, Mark H.; And Others
Assessed changes in bulimia in female college students (N=44) and in relation between bulimia and interpersonal relationships over time. Found (1) stable symptomology for normals and bulimics; (2) strong negative correlations between bulimia measures and interpersonal relationships with men; and (3) improvement in symptomology and relationships…
Full Text Available In this item, the writer emphasizes the origination of the interpersonal communications in contemporary circumstances on the present evolutionary stage of the civilization. In addition the phenomenon of the interpersonal communications determine the social being of the humans in the area of the family and nation together with the area of the wide social community.
Markowitz, John C.; Weissman, Myrna M.
The authors briefly describe the origins, theory, and development of interpersonal psychotherapy: its roots in clinical outcome research, its spread from major depression to other psychiatric disorders and its increasing dissemination as an empirically validated clinical intervention included in treatment guidelines. They attempt to forecast research, organizational and training issues the growing interpersonal psychotherapy community may face in the future.
Results indicate that personality differences, superior/subordinate relationships, power struggle and competition are responsible for interpersonal conflicts in Ghanaian university libraries. It then makes recommendations on how to manage the various types of interpersonal conflicts within university libraries. Keywords: ...
Strickland, Ben; Arnn, John
All interpersonal relationships are a function of the basic beliefs, expectations, and reactions of the people involved. These conditions may not be written or even verbalized formally, but they exist nontheless and are as binding as any legal contract. Giving specific and intentional consideration to interpersonal contracts and utilizing them as…
comparison, and between a subjectivist and objectivist standard of interpersonal comparison. The paper provides a normative argument for pluralism and objectivism with regard to interpersonal comparison, and it suggests that the Capability Approach as developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum fits...
Halverson, Charles F., Jr.
Demonstrates that evaluative connotations of personality characteristics have more persuasive effect on interpersonal judgment for persons low in cognitive complexity than for cognitively complex persons. Stresses need for conceptualizing interpersonal judgment as function of interaction between cognitive complexity and evaluative requirements of…
Coldren, Jeffrey; Hively, Jodi
Assuming that learning is an inherently social process, this research explores interpersonal variables that affect teaching. Specifically, does the interpersonal teaching style affect student impressions of the instructor? Eighty-five undergraduates viewed one of three ten-minute videos that portrayed either an authoritarian, authoritative, or…
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. We review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which we regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and DSM-5 Section 2) definition. We note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the DSM-5 Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptions and evidence base of the interpersonal paradigm in clinical psychology. We describe how grounding the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 definition in interpersonal theory, and in particular a focus on the “interpersonal situation”, adds to its theoretical texture, empirical support, and clinical utility. We provide a clinical example that demonstrates the ability of contemporary interpersonal theory to augment the DSM-5 definition of personality pathology. We conclude with directions for further research that could clarify the core of personality pathology, and how interpersonal theory can inform research aimed at enhancing the DSM-5 Section 3 proposal and ultimately justify its migration to DSM-5 Section 2. PMID:23735037
Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Roope, Laurence; Tarp, Finn
This paper discusses different approaches to the measurement of global interpersonal in equality. Trends in global interpersonal inequality during 1975-2005 are measured using data from UNU-WIDER’s World Income Inequality Database. In order to better understand the trends, global interpersonal...... inequality is decomposed into within-country and between-country inequality. The paper illustrates that the relationship between global interpersonal inequality and these constituent components is a complex one. In particular, we demonstrate that the changes in China’s and India’s income distributions over...... the past 30 years have simultaneously caused inequality to rise domestically in those countries, while tending to reduce global inter-personal inequality. In light of these findings, we reflect on the meaning and policy relevance of global vis-à-vis domestic inequality measures...
Full Text Available This study aimed to test the significance effect of self-concept on students’ interpersonal communication. Subjects in this reasearch were guidance and counseling students in Satwa Wacana Christian University, Salatiga. Analysis of data used simple regression to determine the effect of self-concept on students’ interpersonal communication. The results showed that Sig. = 0.012, which means that there was a significant relationship between self-concept and interpersonal communication. Besides, the value of R Square or determination coefficient was 0.048, which means that self-concept has the contribution effect of a 4.8% on the student interpersonal communication, while the remaining 95.2% was influenced by other factors. It can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between self-concept on students’ interpersonal communication.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar diferentes escalas en español para la evaluación de la confianza interpersonal. La calidad de las relaciones establecidas entre los miembros de un grupo social permite el crecimiento de cada integrante y del grupo como conjunto. En la mayoría de los casos, y particularmente en la infancia, las necesidades solamente pueden ser satisfechas a través de la interacción con los demás; esto implica interdependencia y requiere reciprocidad. Por lo tanto es importante prever cómo actuará la otra persona, para anticipar nuestro comportamiento hacia ella. Las expectativas producen cambios en la atribución, según sea interpretada la actitud del otro como beligerante o cooperativa, y a la vez modifican el comportamiento hacia los demás.
Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Karhu, Markku; Christensen, Cecillia
skills, leadership and awareness. Consequently, educational programs for teaching engineers should work with the fact that the capability of communicating with people with different background competences is important, nevertheless the engineering education has traditionally focused on technical skills...... to the CDIO (conceive, design, implement and operate) approach in the autumn of 2008. The CDIO pedagogy encouraged to develop an interactive course in interpersonal skills, where the students have to take an active part in the exercises as well as involve themselves in the interactive communication process....... The course consists of various exercises from which the participants will develop their awareness and knowledge of communication. It is the intention to give the students a personal understanding and idea of a different approach to communicating between people. The students evaluated the course, and the four...
Luo, Xiaochen; Nuttall, Amy K; Locke, Kenneth D; Hopwood, Christopher J
Despite wide recognition of the importance of interpersonal problems in binge eating disorder (BED), the nature of this association remains unclear. Examining the direction of this longitudinal relationship is necessary to clarify the role that interpersonal problems play in the course of binge eating problems, and thus to specify treatment targets and mechanisms. This study aimed to articulate the bidirectional, longitudinal associations between BED and both the general severity of interpersonal problems as well as warm and dominant interpersonal styles. Severity and styles of interpersonal problems and BED symptoms were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, 24 weeks, and 36 weeks in a sample of 107 women in treatment for BED. Results from bivariate latent change score models indicated that interpersonal problem severity and BED symptoms are associated longitudinally but do not directly influence each other. The results indicated a bidirectional interrelation between binge eating symptoms and dominance such that less dominance predicted greater decreases in binge eating problems, and less binge eating symptoms predicted greater increases in dominance. We also found that binge eating symptoms positively predicted changes in warmth (i.e., less binge eating symptoms predicted less increases or more decreases in warmth). These findings highlight the importance of using dynamic models to examine directionality and delineate the distinct roles of interpersonal severity and styles in BED trajectories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Andersen, Susan M; Przybylinski, Elizabeth
Close relationships afford us opportunities to create and maintain meaning systems as shared perceptions of ourselves and the world. Establishing a sense of mutual understanding allows for creating and maintaining lasting social bonds, and as such, is important in human relations. In a related vein, it has long been known that knowledge of significant others in one's life is stored in memory and evoked with new persons-in the social-cognitive process of 'transference'-imbuing new encounters with significance and leading to predictable cognitive, evaluative, motivational, and behavioral consequences, as well as shifts in the self and self-regulation, depending on the particular significant other evoked. In these pages, we briefly review the literature on meaning as interpersonally defined and then selectively review research on transference in interpersonal perception. Based on this, we then highlight a recent series of studies focused on shared meaning systems in transference. The highlighted studies show that values and beliefs that develop in close relationships (as shared reality) are linked in memory to significant-other knowledge, and thus, are indirectly activated (made accessible) when cues in a new person implicitly activate that significant-other knowledge (in transference), with these shared beliefs then actively pursued with the new person and even protected against threat. This also confers a sense of mutual understanding, and all told, serves both relational and epistemic functions. In concluding, we consider as well the relevance of co-construction of shared reality n such processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Chia-Yi; Kuo, Feng-Yang
Previous studies have presented conflicting claims regarding reasons that people become addicted to the Internet. In this study, we attempted to identify predictors of Internet addiction based on Sullivan's interpersonal theory and Internet addiction literature. In our research model, it is hypothesized that good parent-child relationship positively correlates with good interpersonal relationships, which in turn are hypothesized to correlate with undesirable social anxiety. In addition, both parent-child and interpersonal relationships are hypothesized to negatively correlate with Internet addiction, whereas the level of social anxiety is hypothesized to positively correlate with Internet addiction. The results of this study confirm the research model hypotheses, indicating that the quality of parent-child relationship is indeed positively correlated to the quality of our participants' interpersonal relationships and that frustrating interpersonal relationships may raise the level of social anxiety. In addition, interpersonal relationships, the parent-child relationship, and social anxiety all influence Internet addiction, as predicted by the model. Finally, the more social anxiety and discontent with their peer interactions the participants experienced, the more addicted they were to the Internet.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español The Power of Positive Emotions KidsHealth / For Teens / The Power ... great one. 2. Practice Positivity Every Day Building habits that encourage us to feel more positive emotions ...
Full Text Available In accordance with the concept of A. Adler (1933/1986 - the community feeling is an individual characteristic which is relatively stable throughout life. It refers to an inner relationship of one person with other people: a feeling of unity with others or separation from others. People with high community feeling are motivated in their actions by striving towards the common good, whereas people with low community feeling intend to exhibit their superiority over others in their actions, which would allow them to compensate for their inner feeling of inferiority. On the basis of the Adler concept the following hypotheses were formulated: There is a negative connection between the community feeling and anxiety. The community feeling is positively connected with self-esteem and psychological well-being. A slight increase in the community feeling can be observed with age. The community feeling increases in the age of middle adulthood. 585 people between 20 to 65 years of age were examined. Methods: Community Feeling Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The hypotheses assumed were verified.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in psychosocial factors with positive attitudes, such as interpersonal trust, as determinants for Quality-of-life (QOL or subjective well-being. Despite their longevity, Japanese people report a relatively poor subjective well-being, as well as lower interpersonal trust. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal trust and QOL among Japanese people. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on the cross-sectional data for Japanese adults (2008, we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal trust and each of four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Interpersonal trust was assessed using three scales for trust in people, in human fairness and in human nature. In a total of 1000 participants (mean age: 45 years; 49% women, greater trust was recognized among women (vs. men, those aged 60-69 (vs. 20-29, or the high-income group (vs. low-income. Each of three trust scales was positively correlated with all domains of QOL. Multiple linear-regression models were constructed for each of QOL and the principal component score of the trust scales, adjusted for age, gender, area size of residence, income, education, and occupation. For all QOL domains, interpersonal trust was significantly and positively associated with better QOL with p<0.001 for all four domains including physical, psychological, social, and environmental QOL. Other factors associated with QOL included gender, age class, area size of residence, and income. Education and occupation were not associated with QOL. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Greater interpersonal trust is strongly associated with a better QOL among Japanese adults. If a causal relationship is demonstrated in a controlled interventional study, social and political measures should be advocated to increase interpersonal trust for achieving better QOL.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the expression of religious feelings in pre-school children and the perception of these feelings by the children’s’ mothers. Ninety Polish children from Catholic families aged 4, 5 and 6 participated in the study. A picture method along with interviews with children’s mothers were employed to gather the data. Data from the two sources was compared, taking into consideration the content and ways of expression of the described feelings. Relations between positive and negative feelings were investigated and further statistical analyses were focused mainly on negative feelings. It was found that structure of negative religious feelings obtained directly from the children bears significant similarity to the mothers’ perception.
Murphy, Anna M; Russell, Gemma
The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships lead individuals to risk rejection in the pursuit of acceptance. Some individuals are predisposed to experience a hypersensitivity to rejection that is hypothesized to be related to jealous and aggressive reactions within interpersonal relationships. The current study used convenience sampling to recruit 247 young adults to evaluate the relationship between rejection sensitivity, jealousy, and aggression. A mediation model was used to test three hypotheses: Higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of aggression (Hypothesis 1); higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of jealousy (Hypothesis 2); jealousy would mediate the relationship between rejection sensitivity and aggression (Hypothesis 3). Study results suggest a tendency for individuals with high rejection sensitivity to experience higher levels of jealousy, and subsequently have a greater propensity for aggression, than individuals with low rejection sensitivity. Future research that substantiates a link between hypersensitivity to rejection, jealousy, and aggression may provide an avenue for prevention, education, or intervention in reducing aggression within interpersonal relationships.
Aline Cristina Zerwes Ferreira
Full Text Available A descriptive qualitative research conducted with 20 drug addicts during treatment at a Center of Psychosocial Attention for Alcohol and other Drugs, aimed to identify intra and interpersonal determinants of relapse perceived by the drug addict. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, submitted to Content Analysis, and organized into categories following predictive determinants for relapse. The relapse occurred by intrapersonal determinants, as self-efficacy expressed by self-confidence in interrupting the drug consumption; the result expectation by anticipation of pleasurable drug effects; the motivation by the absence of volition to interrupt the consumption; coping with the difficulty to confront daily problems; negative and positive emotional states; and craving. Interpersonal determinants expressed by social support were related to the influence of thirds. The identification of these determinants during treatment to favor relapse prevention and effective rehabilitation.
Robinson, Michael D.; Ode, Scott; Spencer L., Palder; Fetterman, Adam K.
Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed. PMID:22399360
Robinson, Michael D; Ode, Scott; Palder, Spencer L; Fetterman, Adam K
Self-reports of approach motivation are unlikely to be sufficient in understanding the extent to which the individual reacts to appetitive cues in an approach-related manner. A novel implicit probe of approach tendencies was thus developed, one that assessed the extent to which positive affective (versus neutral) stimuli primed larger size estimates, as larger perceptual sizes co-occur with locomotion toward objects in the environment. In two studies (total N = 150), self-reports of approach motivation interacted with this implicit probe of approach motivation to predict individual differences in arrogance, a broad interpersonal dimension previously linked to narcissism, antisocial personality tendencies, and aggression. The results of the two studies were highly parallel in that self-reported levels of approach motivation predicted interpersonal arrogance in the particular context of high, but not low, levels of implicit approach motivation. Implications for understanding approach motivation, implicit probes of it, and problematic approach-related outcomes are discussed.
Renner, Fritz; Jarrett, Robin B; Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Marna S; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E
The degree to which interpersonal problems of depressed patients improve over the course of cognitive therapy (CT) and relate to the quality of the therapeutic alliance and to symptom improvement, remains unclear. We analyzed data of adult outpatients (N=523) with major depressive disorder participating in a clinical trial to determine the factor structure of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (IIP-C) and to relate the observed factor scores to the quality of the therapeutic alliance and symptom improvement over the course of CT. Patients received 16-20 sessions protocol (50-60 min each) of individual CT according to the treatment manual by Beck et al. (1979). We found a three-factor structure (interpersonal distress, agency, and communion) of interpersonal problems. Interpersonal distress decreased (d=.90), but interpersonal style did not change substantively during CT (communion d=.03; agency d=.14). High initial agency scores related negatively to the therapeutic alliance (β=-.12), whereas high initial communion scores related positively to the therapeutic alliance (β=.15). Elevated pre-treatment interpersonal distress scores were related to both weaker therapeutic alliances (β=.13) and higher symptom levels throughout treatment (β=.10). All patients in this study had recurrent MDD and it is therefore uncertain whether the results would generalize to patients with other psychiatric disorders. This study supports the use of the IIP-C as a comprehensive measure of patients' interpersonal style and interpersonal distress. The IIP-C measured before CT showed some predictive validity with respect to therapeutic alliance measured at the midpoint and therapy outcome. The clinical importance of these findings is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Renner, Fritz; Jarrett, Robin B.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Barrett, Marna S.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.
Background The degree to which interpersonal problems of depressed patients improve over the course of cognitive therapy (CT) and relate to the quality of the therapeutic alliance and to symptom improvement, remain unclear. Methods We analyzed data of adult outpatients (N = 523) with major depressive disorder participating in a clinical trial to determine the factor structure of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (IIP-C) and to relate the observed factor scores to the quality of the therapeutic alliance and symptom improvement over the course of CT. Patients received 16–20 sessions protocol (50–60 minutes each) of individual CT according to the treatment manual by Beck et al. (1979). Results We found a three-factor structure (interpersonal distress, agency, and communion) of interpersonal problems. Interpersonal distress decreased (d = .90), but interpersonal style did not change substantively during CT (communion d = .03; agency d = .14). High initial agency scores related negatively to the therapeutic alliance (β = −.12), whereas high initial communion scores related positively to the therapeutic alliance (β = .15). Elevated pre-treatment interpersonal distress scores were related to both weaker therapeutic alliances (β = .13) and higher symptom levels throughout treatment (β = .10). Limitations All patients in this study had recurrent MDD and it is therefore uncertain whether the results would generalize to patients with other psychiatric disorders. Conclusions This study supports the use of the IIP-C as a comprehensive measure of patients' interpersonal style and interpersonal distress. The IIP-C measured before CT showed some predictive validity with respect to therapeutic alliance measured at the midpoint and therapy outcome. The clinical importance of these findings is discussed. PMID:22306232
Dian Ari Widyastuti
The purpose of this study is to determine the interpersonal communication skill level of the counselor candidate students. This study is a quantitative descriptive study with data collection instrument in the form of Interpersonal Communication Skill (ICS scale. The subjects of the study were 105 students of Guidance and Counseling Study Program in one of the universities in Yogyakarta City which was taken by random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis, where the criteria were calculated using standard deviation and mean formulas. The results showed that as many as 14.29% of students are in the criteria of interpersonal communication skill is very high, 23.81% of students are in interpersonal communication skill criteria high, 37.14% of students are on interpersonal communication skill criteria are, 20% sinterpersonal communication skills criteria are low, and 4.76% of students are in very low interpersonal communication skill criteria. The results of this study can be used as a reference in an effort to develop interpersonal communication skill prospective student counselor
Primada Qurrota Ayun
Full Text Available Interpersonal communication should ideally in face to face, until the achievement of intimate communication. Instant messenger makes interpersonal communication easier and more efficient. However, it also resulted in less effective communication to occur, because it only uses text messaging as a means to convey a message so frequent miscommunication. This study wanted to see how the use of instant messenger among teenagers in interpersonal communication. The theory used in this study is a Computer Mediated Communication, Ecology Media and Interpersonal Intimacy. The method used in this research is phenomenology. The results of this study indicate that the instant messenger is a medium that is considered to be practical and easy to communicate interpersonally with family, friends, and lovers. Interpersonal communication process through instant messenger can not reach the stage of intimate relationship, because of interactions that occur frequently experienced miscommunication due to an incorrect perception. Interpersonal communication is more effective if it is done face to face. Teens when communicating via instant messenger, tend not to believe and to tell the truth.
Melwani, Shimul; Barsade, Sigal G
Guided by a social function of emotions perspective, the authors examined a model of the psychological, interpersonal, and performance consequences of contempt in a series of 3 experiments that tested the outcomes of being a recipient of contempt in the work domain. In these experiments, participants engaged in a business strategy simulation with a virtual partner-a computer programmed to give contemptuous and other types of feedback. In Study 1, which examined the task performance and interpersonal outcomes of contempt, recipients of contempt had significantly better task performance but also significantly more interpersonal aggressiveness toward their virtual partners compared with recipients of failure, angry, or neutral feedback. Study 2 examined 3 psychological outcomes mediating the contempt-task performance/aggression relationship: self-esteem, returned feelings of contempt, and activation levels. Lowered levels of implicit self-esteem and greater levels of activation significantly mediated the relationship between receiving contempt and task performance, whereas the contempt-aggression relationship was mediated by lowered implicit self-esteem and increased feelings of returned contempt. Study 3 examined status as a moderator of these relationships. Low-status recipients had significantly better task performance than did equal-status recipients, who performed significantly better than did the high-status recipients of contempt. In addition, low-status recipients displayed significantly lower levels of aggression in response to contempt than did equal-status and high-status recipients. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present article is an analysis of the role of akratic feelings on empathy and self-consciousness. It argues that akratic feelings create a meta-emotional platform that allows the installation of a type of empathic process, which simultaneously contributes for self-consciousness. The article shows in what way akratic feelings are crucial to further understand both ourselves and others.The article begins by describing the nature of akratic feelings and the way in which we can find them at various emotional levels. The second part points out how akratic feelings contribute to empathetic processes and their role in the formation of a meta-emotional platform in which people recognize their opacity. Finally, the article points out how this also contributes for self-awareness, and ultimately for a better understanding of emotional processes.
Huprich, Steven K; Lengu, Ketrin; Evich, Carly
DSM-5 Section III recommends that level of personality functioning be assessed. This requires an assessment of self and other representations. Malignant self-regard (MSR) is a way of assessing the level of functioning of those with a masochistic, self-defeating, depressive, or vulnerably narcissistic personality. In Study 1, 840 undergraduates were assessed for MSR, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anaclitic and introjective depression, and interpersonal problems. MSR, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anaclitic and introjective depression were correlated with multiple dimensions of interpersonal problems, and MSR predicted the most variance in interpersonal scales measuring social inhibition, nonassertion, over-accommodation, and excessive self-sacrifice. MSR, anaclitic, and introjective depression predicted unique variance in six of the eight domains of interpersonal problems assessed. In Study 2, 68 undergraduates were provided positive or negative feedback. Consistent with theory, MSR predicted unique variance in state anxiety but not state anger. Results support the validity of the MSR construct.
Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with substance abuse show signs of negative emotion regulation strategies and impaired interpersonal behaviors. The aim of the present research was to determine the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and interpersonal behavior among substance abusers. Method: The research design was a correlation study. The research sample consisted of 100 who were selected of the substance abusers that referred to clinical of addiction withdrawal by random sample method in Ardabil city. To collect the data, Emotion regulation Scale and Interpersonal Reactivity Index were used. Results: The results showed that positive and negative emotion regulation strategies were correlated to interpersonal behavior in substance abusers. The results of multiple regression analysis showed positive and negative emotion regulation strategies explained 16 percent of interpersonal behavior variance. Also the results showed that “putting into perspective“ was found to be the best predictor for interpersonal behavior. Conclusion: These results have important implications in psychopathological of substance abuse. On the basis of these results, clinicians can use emotion regulation strategies in order to cope substance abuse.
Donovan, M A; Drasgow, F; Munson, L J
The Perceptions of Fair Interpersonal Treatment (PFIT) scale was designed to assess employees' perceptions of the interpersonal treatment in their work environment. Analyses of the factor structure and reliability of this new instrument indicate that the PFIT scale is a reliable instrument composed of 2 factors: supervisor treatment and coworker treatment. It was hypothesized that the PFIT scale would be positively correlated with job satisfaction variables and negatively correlated with work withdrawal, job withdrawal, experiences of sexual harassment, and an organization's tolerance of sexual harassment. Results based on 509 employees in a private-sector organization and 217 female faculty and staff members at a large midwestern university supported these hypotheses. Arguments that common method variance and employees' dispositions are responsible for the significant correlations between the PFIT scale and other job-related variables were eliminated. The implications of these results are discussed.
Turner, Margaret A; Andrewes, David G
This study investigated whether increasing positive mood improved interpersonal attitudes and relieved depression in depressed stroke patients despite levels of cognitive and emotional dysfunction. Depressed stroke (n = 30) and rheumatic/orthopaedic controls (n = 30) were compared on the effect of verbal and nonverbal positive and neutral mood induction on mood state, interpersonal attitudes, psychological distress and related cognitive and emotional processing deficits. Compared with the neutral mood induction condition, the positive mood induction significantly improved mood state, interpersonal attitudes and psychological distress, irrespective of cognitive and emotional processing deficits. The nonverbal material was effective for all patients but was more marked for the left hemisphere stroke group. There was no obvious influence of humour appreciation despite reduced understanding in the right hemisphere stroke group. Although the effect is likely to be short-lived, these results support the trial of positive mood induction within therapy programmes to relieve depression.
N V Amyaga
Full Text Available The article examines the problem of interpreting and studying the feedback in interpersonal interaction as a result of some reflective position. A scientist interested in the feedback has to study the reflective positions as well and to consider their ‘second order’, i. e. to identify the object of his research as a certain number of direct and reverse processes together with their possible subjective representation. Considering the interaction of the sociologist with his customer, this means the necessity to correctly understand and reflect the goals, interests and negotiating tools of the other party that determine the success of negotiations.
Ayearst, Lindsay E; Sellbom, Martin; Trobst, Krista K; Bagby, R Michael
Convergence between the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) interpersonal scales and 2 interpersonal circumplex (IPC) measures was examined. University students (N = 405) completed the MMPI-2 and 2 IPC measures, the Interpersonal Adjectives Scales Revised Big Five Version (IASR-B5; Trapnell & Wiggins, 1990) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex (IIP-C; Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Internal consistency was adequate for 3 of the 6 scales investigated. The majority of scales were located in their hypothesized locations, although magnitude of correlations was somewhat weaker than anticipated, partly owing to restricted range from using a healthy sample. The expected pattern of correlations that defines a circular matrix was demonstrated, lending support for the convergent and discriminant validity of the MMPI-2-RF interpersonal scales with respect to the assessment of interpersonal traits and problems.
Ruz, María; Tudela, Pío
Facial displays of emotions can help to infer the mental states of other individuals. However, the expectations we generate on the basis of people's emotions can mismatch their actual behaviour in certain circumstances, which generates conflict. In the present study, we explored the neural mechanisms of emotional conflict during interpersonal interactions. Participants had to accept or reject economic offers made by several partners who displayed emotional expressions. On every trial, a cue informed participants of whether they could trust the emotion of their partner or not. Trustworthy (low-conflict) partners with happy facial expressions were cooperative and those with angry expressions did not cooperate. Untrustworthy (high-conflict) partners, on the other hand, cooperated when their expression was angry and did not cooperate when they displayed a happy emotion. Behavioural responses were faster for trustworthy than for untrustworty partners. High-conflict partners activated the anterior cingulate and the anterior insula. In turn, trustworthy partners were associated with activations in the left precuneus. Our results suggest that the emotion displayed by another person affects our decision-making in social contexts. When emotional expressions are linked to their natural consequences, they engage ToM processes. In contrast, untrustworthy emotional expressions engage conflict-related brain regions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Škařupová, Kateřina; Blinka, Lukas
Background and aims The present study explores the relationship between social motivations and addiction to online gaming and if that possible connection can be explained by the personality traits responsible for social functioning. Methods We employ Bernstein's concept of interpersonal dependency to distinguish healthy dependency, dysfunctional detachment, and destructive overdependence, and Charlton and Danforth's conceptualisation of online gaming addiction and high engagement. An online questionnaire was administered to a self-nominated sample of 4,074 online gamers. Two regression models were constructed to separately explain gaming addiction and high engagement using social motivations to play, while controlling for age, gender, and time spent online. Results High scores on subscales measuring dysfunctional detachment and destructive overdependence were positively associated with online gaming addiction, while healthy dependency was negatively correlated with addiction scores. In contrast, the overall role of social motivation was negligible. Discussion People with healthy relationship profiles are less likely to develop problematic patterns of online gaming. High in-game engagement, although sharing some factors with addiction, was only poorly explained by the study variables, suggesting the mutual exclusiveness of addiction and engagement.
Škařupová, Kateřina; Blinka, Lukas
Background and aims The present study explores the relationship between social motivations and addiction to online gaming and if that possible connection can be explained by the personality traits responsible for social functioning. Methods We employ Bernstein’s concept of interpersonal dependency to distinguish healthy dependency, dysfunctional detachment, and destructive overdependence, and Charlton and Danforth’s conceptualisation of online gaming addiction and high engagement. An online questionnaire was administered to a self-nominated sample of 4,074 online gamers. Two regression models were constructed to separately explain gaming addiction and high engagement using social motivations to play, while controlling for age, gender, and time spent online. Results High scores on subscales measuring dysfunctional detachment and destructive overdependence were positively associated with online gaming addiction, while healthy dependency was negatively correlated with addiction scores. In contrast, the overall role of social motivation was negligible. Discussion People with healthy relationship profiles are less likely to develop problematic patterns of online gaming. High in-game engagement, although sharing some factors with addiction, was only poorly explained by the study variables, suggesting the mutual exclusiveness of addiction and engagement. PMID:26690326
Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wei, Meifen; Russell, Daniel W; Abraham, W Todd
This study examined the effects of experiential self-focus writing on changes in psychological outcomes (i.e., unforgiveness and negative affect) after an interpersonal hurt and the buffering effects of experiential self-focus writing on the association between anger rumination and these psychological outcomes. A sample of 182 college students who had experienced interpersonal hurt were randomly assigned to either the experiential self-focus writing condition, in which participants wrote about their feelings and experiences related to the hurt, or to a control writing condition in which they wrote about a recent neutral event. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that changes in unforgiveness over time did not differ between the experiential self-focus writing and the control writing conditions. However, relative to the control writing condition, negative affect decreased faster during writing and increased more slowly at follow-ups in the experiential self-focus writing condition. The results supported the hypothesis that negative affect resulting from an interpersonal hurt would significantly decrease over time among participants in the experiential self-focus writing group compared with the control group. Implications of experiential self-focus writing for interpersonal hurt and directions for future studies are discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jones, Sharon M
Trust (confianza) is an important component of patient-centered care and culturally competent care and a major element in the Hispanic culture. The aim of this study was to conceptualize the process of the development of interpersonal trust by hospitalized patients in their nurses. Using the grounded theory method, English-speaking Mexican American patients (N = 22) were interviewed. The core category was Making Me Feel Comfortable. The cyclical process included a beginning stage (Having Needs, Relying on the Nurse), middle stage (Coming Across to Me, Taking Care of Me, Connecting), and end point (Feeling Confianza) with two outcomes (Confiding in the Nurse, Taking Away the Negative). Anytime there was a negative element during the middle stage, this element halted any further development of trust with the nurse. Unique findings were related to Hispanic cultural values of familism and personalismo. The findings have implications which impact patient safety and quality care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zbylut, Michelle L; Ward, Jason N
... of innovation and cultural awareness." This paper discussed an innovative training prototype that not only targets the development of interpersonal ability in junior officers, but also incorporates many of the situation elements...
Full Text Available Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the trustee after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated cognitive states.
Yantis, Betty; Nixon, John E.
Investigates the impact of interpersonal relationships on decision-making success in small groups using a business simulation game as a research vehicle. The study concludes that group decision making may be unfavorably affected by personality conflicts. (Author/JJD)
Aliyah Nur'aini Hanun
Full Text Available Tunagrahita were a terminology to called the children with mentally retarded conditions. This conditions caused these children having difficulties at least on four areas, related with attention, memory, language, and academics. The research problem is how interpersonal communication tunagrahita in Dormitory Extraordinary Education Foundation (YPLB Cipaganti Bandung. This research’s aim is to seek the interpersonal communication phenomenon of children with mentally retarded in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. The research method which were used is the qualitative method with communication Ethnography approach and Symbolic Interactionism theory to have comprehensive descriptions about life reality of mentally retarded’s children in YPLB Cipaganti Dormitory. Data obtained by participation observer, unstructured interviews, and documentary study. The result showed that interpersonal interactions are done with each child boarding and with the management of the hostel, is a series of unique events and interpersonal communication with a distinctive circular process that takes place continuously.
The concept of attraction is not reserved for the study of interpersonal relationships between husband and wife, family members, or lifelong friends. On the contrary, it contains much potential as a variable describing interpersonal business exchange relationships. This potential has been noted...... by well-known industrial marketing scholars in the past, and recent theoretical advances have incorporated attraction to describe buyer– supplier exchange, although primarily at the interorganizational level of analysis. The in-depth understanding of interpersonal attraction between boundary spanners...... representing buying and supply companies has yet to be developed. By drawing on social psychology and social exchange literature, this paper attempts to fill some of this gap. It contributes by uncovering the elements and process of interpersonal attraction. Furthermore, propositions are formulated to guide...
Flynn, Francis J; Schaumberg, Rebecca L
The authors posit that higher levels of guilt-proneness are associated with higher levels of affective organizational commitment. To explain this counterintuitive link, the authors suggest that a dispositional tendency to feel guilt motivates individuals to exert greater effort on their work-related tasks that, in turn, strengthens their affinity for the organization. The authors tested this idea using a laboratory study and field data from 2 samples of working adults. Individuals who are more guilt-prone reported higher levels of organizational attachment compared with less guilt-prone individuals. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicate that the link between guilt-proneness and affective commitment is driven by greater task effort. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the affective drivers of commitment in organizations.
Francisca Eliene de Oliveira Callou
Full Text Available Objective: To understand the interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature newborns of the Kangaroo Unit. Methods: This was an exploratory study of qualitative approach. The interviews were conducted with 10 mothers and 7 professionals who joined in Kangaroo Program and then analyzed by the content analysis technique. The guiding questions used were related to feelings perceived in relation to the Kangaroo method, related to mother-child dyad and interpersonal relationships. Results: Mothers reported on their speeches: “safe to be with the baby in Kangaroo Method” and “sense of maternal feeling during breastfeeding”, while in the professionals’ discourses have emerged: “guidelines on caring for the babies”, “the embracement by the team” and “the importance of family support.” Conclusions: The interaction between professionals and mothers of Kangaroo Unit facilitates the permanence of the binomial in the method, therefore develops feelings of security, tranquility and confidence to take care of the baby. It is important that the team be aware of the difficulties, supporting them in the weakest moments and sharing their fears, doubts and concerns over the baby’s hospitalization.
Yongmin Chen; Tianle Zhang
Sellers sometimes offer goods for sale under both a regular price and a discount for group purchase if the consumer group reaches some minimum size. This selling practice, which we term interpersonal bundling, has been popularized on the Internet by companies such as Groupon. We explain why interpersonal bundling is a profitable strategy in the presence of demand uncertainty, and how it may further boost profits by stimulating product information dissemination. Other reasons for its profitabi...
Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W.; van de Groep, Suzanne; Colzato, Lorenza S.
Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more focused/exclusive cognitive control mode by means of a...
Dahl, Hanne-Sofie Johnsen; Høglend, Per; Ulberg, Randi; Amlo, Svein; Gabbard, Glen O; Perry, John Christopher; Christoph, Paul Crits
significant impact on both the treatment process and outcome of psychotherapy. Therapists' heightened level of disengaged feelings over a treatment period shows an adverse impact on the effect of transference work for all patients, and especially so for patients with a history of poor, non-mutual and complicated relationships. For patients with a history of reciprocal, sound relationships the negative influence of therapists' disengaged countertransference is minimal. Higher therapist disengagement is strongly related to inferior therapists' skill for patients with a history of poor relationships and/or more personality disorder pathology. Training and supervision should provide direct feedback and focus on therapists' internal thought processes and emotional reactions. Therapists need to recognize and understand their feelings and attitudes in order to use the countertransference as a tool to understand the interpersonal process in therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Maffini, Cara S; Wong, Y Joel
Although measures of cultural identity, values, and behavior exist in the multicultural psychological literature, there is currently no measure that explicitly assesses ethnic minority individuals' positive and negative affect toward culture. Therefore, we developed 2 new measures called the Feelings About Culture Scale--Ethnic Culture and Feelings About Culture Scale--Mainstream American Culture and tested their psychometric properties. In 6 studies, we piloted the measures, conducted factor analyses to clarify their factor structure, and examined reliability and validity. The factor structure revealed 2 dimensions reflecting positive and negative affect for each measure. Results provided evidence for convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity as well as the reliability of the scales. The Feelings About Culture Scales are the first known measures to examine both positive and negative affect toward an individual's ethnic culture and mainstream American culture. The focus on affect captures dimensions of psychological experiences that differ from cognitive and behavioral constructs often used to measure cultural orientation. These measures can serve as a valuable contribution to both research and counseling by providing insight into the nuanced affective experiences ethnic minority individuals have toward culture. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören; Krämer, Ulrike M; Paulus, Frieder M
In our daily lives, we constantly engage in reciprocal interactions with other individuals and represent ourselves in the context of our surrounding social world. Within social interactions, humans often experience interpersonal emotions such as embarrassment, shame, guilt, or pride. How interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level is of major interest for social neuroscience research. While the configuration of laboratory settings in general is constraining for emotion research, recent neuroimaging investigations came up with new approaches to implement socially interactive and immersive scenarios for the real-life investigation of interpersonal emotions. These studies could show that among other brain regions the so-called mentalizing network, which is typically involved when we represent and make sense of others' states of mind, is associated with interpersonal emotions. The anterior insula/anterior cingulate cortex network at the same time processes one's own bodily arousal during such interpersonal emotional experiences. Current research aimed to explore how we make sense of others' emotional states during social interactions and investigates the modulating factors of our emotional experiences during social interactions. Understanding how interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level may yield significant implications for neuropsychiatric disorders that affect social behavior such as social anxiety disorders or autism.
Izaute, Marie; Chambres, Patrick; Larochelle, Serge
The main objective of the presented study was to study feeling-of-knowing (FOK) in proper name retrieval. Many studies show that FOK can predict performance on a subsequent criterion test. Although feeling-of-knowing studies involve questions about proper names, none make this distinction between proper names and common names. Nevertheless, the specific character of proper names as a unique label referring to a person should allow participants to target precisely the desired verbal label. Our idea here was that the unique character of proper name information should result in more accurate FOK evaluations. In the experiment, participants evaluated feeling-of-knowing for proper and common name descriptions. The study demonstrates that FOK judgments are more accurate for proper names than for common names. The implications of the findings for proper names are briefly discussed in terms of feeling-of-knowing hypotheses.
... 000616.htm When you feel like changing your medicine To use the sharing features on this page, ... well with your medicines. Common Reasons for Changing Medicine You may think about stopping or changing your ...
Antheunis, Marjolijn L; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen
The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the influence of computer-mediated communication (CMC) on interpersonal attraction and (b) to examine two underlying processes in the CMC-interpersonal attraction relationship. We identified two variables that may mediate the influence of CMC on interpersonal attraction: self-disclosure and direct questioning. Focusing on these potential mediating variables, we tested two explanatory hypotheses: the CMC-induced direct questioning hypothesis and the CMC-induced self-disclosure hypothesis. Eighty-one cross-sex dyads were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: text-only CMC, visual CMC, and face-to-face communication. We did not find a direct effect of CMC on interpersonal attraction. However, we did find two positive indirect effects of text-only CMC on interpersonal attraction: text-only CMC stimulated both self-disclosure and direct questioning, both of which in turn enhanced interpersonal attraction. Results are discussed in light of uncertainty reduction theory and CMC theories.
Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Feinstein, Justin S.; Tranel, Daniel
Background: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) typically have impaired declarative memory as a result of hippocampal damage early in the disease. Far less is understood about AD’s effect on emotion. Objective: We investigated whether feelings of emotion can persist in patients with AD, even after their declarative memory for what caused the feelings has faded. Methods: A sample of 17 patients with probable AD and 17 healthy comparison participants (case-matched for age, sex, and education) ...
Hadziahmetović, Nina; Alispahić, Sabina; Tuce, Đenita; Hasanbegović-Anić, Enedina
BACKGROUND/AIM. In (counter)transference relationship therapist's interpersonal style, implying the perceived relation of therapist to a client (patient) in terms of control, autonomy, care and positive feedback, has been shown to be important. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between therapist's interpersonal style and clients' personality self-reports. Within therapist's interpersonal style, preliminary validation of the Therapist's Interpersonal Style Scale has been conducted, which included double translation method, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the reliability tests of the derived components. This research was conducted on a group of 206 clients, attending one of the four psychotherapy modalities: psychoanalysis, gestalt therapy, cognitive-behavioral and systemic family therapy. Beside Therapist's Interpersonal Style Scale, Big Five Questionnaire and Therapy Benefit Scale were administered, showing good internal consistency. Principal component analysis of therapist's interpersonal style singled out two components Supportive Autonomy and Ignoring Control, explaining 42% of variance. Two-factor model of the therapist's styles was better fitted in confirmatory factor analysis than the original 4-factor model. Structural model showing indirect and direct effects of therapist's interpersonal styles on self-reports in clients indicates good fitness (χ²(12) = 8.932, p = 0.709; goodness-of-fit index = 0.989), with Ignoring Control having direct effect on Stability, Supportive Autonomy on Therapy Benefit, and Therapy Benefit on Plasticity. The results of this study indicate the importance of further research on therapist's interpersonal style, as well as further validation of the instrument that measures this construct. Besides, a client's perception that the therapy is being helpful could instigate more explorative and approach-oriented behavior, what indirectly might contribute to a client's stability.
Lavigne, B; Audebert-Mérilhou, E; Buisson, G; Kochman, F; Clément, J P; Olliac, B
of transition is very common during adolescence: children become adults, they pass from high school to college, or their parents get divorced, etc. The patient and the therapist work on giving up the old role with its emotional expression (guilt, anger, and loss), and acquiring new skills, and identifying positive aspects of the new role. Interpersonal role disputes are common during adolescence, with parents or teachers for example. To determine a treatment plan, the therapist may first determine the stage of the role dispute, among impasse, renegotiation, or dissolution, and then work on the communication mode of the patient. At the least, the interpersonal deficit may be the most difficult area to work on because of the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. The therapist must be especially careful about anxious disorder which may complicate the psychotherapy and for which IPT is not the best therapy. The termination phase focuses on the new skills and abilities and works on the future without therapy. IPT is one of the psychotherapies recommended in the treatment of depression disorder in the international recommendations. But in France, all psychotherapies are considered equally. This may be a consensual approach, but the authors wonder if it is the best, especially to motivate research in the psychotherapy field. Finally, IPT has been developed in other indications in the past years, and many others are presently in research projects: depression during pregnancy, prevention of depression relapse, eating disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, self-harm for example. Its validity, simplicity and efficacy should stimulate psychiatrists and residents to train themselves to IPT. Copyright Â© 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Philippe, Frederick L; Vallerand, Robert J; Houlfort, Nathalie; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Donahue, Eric G
Our purpose in this research was to investigate the role of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) for a given activity in the quality of interpersonal relationships experienced within the context of that activity in 4 studies. Study 1 demonstrated that a harmonious passion was positively associated with the quality of interpersonal relationships within the context of the passionate activity, whereas an obsessive passion was unrelated to it. Furthermore, in line with the broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2001), results also showed that positive emotions experienced at work fully mediated the relation between harmonious passion and quality of interpersonal relationships. Obsessive passion was not associated with positive emotions. Study 2 replicated the results from Study 1 while controlling for trait extraversion. Also, in Study 2, we examined the negative mediating role of negative emotions between obsessive passion and quality of interpersonal relationships. Finally, Studies 3 and 4 replicated the results of Study 2 with prospective designs and with objective ratings of interpersonal relationships quality. Implications for the dualistic model of passion and the broaden-and-build theory are discussed. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The core issues have been examined in this study including the relationships of the teacher’s involvement in decision making, interpersonal communication, and work motivation of the BPKB teachers in Gorontalo Province. This study used survey method with correlation techniques. The sample was the whole population of the 47 teachers by using total sampling or sample saturated. Based on the analysis of data concluded results namely 1 there is a positive relationship between teacher’s involvements in decision-making with the work motivation. 2 There is a positive relationship between interpersonal communication and the work motivation of teachers, 3 There is a positive relationship between involvement in decision-making and interpersonal communication simultaneously on the work motivation of teachers. These results indicated that the higher of teachers’ involvement in decision-making and interpersonal communication, the work motivation is increasing.
Côté, Stéphane; Decelles, Katherine A; McCarthy, Julie M; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Hideg, Ivona
Does emotional intelligence promote behavior that strictly benefits the greater good, or can it also advance interpersonal deviance? In the investigation reported here, we tested the possibility that a core facet of emotional intelligence--emotion-regulation knowledge--can promote both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior. Drawing from research on how the effective regulation of emotion promotes goal achievement, we predicted that emotion-regulation knowledge would strengthen the effects of other-oriented and self-oriented personality traits on prosocial behavior and interpersonal deviance, respectively. Two studies supported our predictions. Among individuals with higher emotion-regulation knowledge, moral identity exhibited a stronger positive association with prosocial behavior in a social dilemma (Study 1), and Machiavellianism exhibited a stronger positive association with interpersonal deviance in the workplace (Study 2). Thus, emotion-regulation knowledge has a positive side and a dark side.
Full Text Available Introduction: We propose that active Bayesian inference – a general framework for decision-making – can equally be applied to interpersonal exchanges. Social cognition, however, entails special challenges. We address these challenges through a novel formulation of a formal model and demonstrate its psychological significance. Method: We review relevant literature, especially with regards to interpersonal representations, formulate a mathematical model and present a simulation study. The model accommodates normative models from utility theory and places them within the broader setting of Bayesian inference. Crucially, we endow people's prior beliefs, into which utilities are absorbed, with preferences of self and others. The simulation illustrates the model's dynamics and furnishes elementary predictions of the theory. Results: 1. Because beliefs about self and others inform both the desirability and plausibility of outcomes, in this framework interpersonal representations become beliefs that have to be actively inferred. This inference, akin to 'mentalising' in the psychological literature, is based upon the outcomes of interpersonal exchanges. 2. We show how some well-known social-psychological phenomena (e.g. self-serving biases can be explained in terms of active interpersonal inference. 3. Mentalising naturally entails Bayesian updating of how people value social outcomes. Crucially this includes inference about one’s own qualities and preferences. Conclusion: We inaugurate a Bayes optimal framework for modelling intersubject variability in mentalising during interpersonal exchanges. Here, interpersonal representations are endowed with explicit functional and affective properties. We suggest the active inference framework lends itself to the study of psychiatric conditions where mentalising is distorted.
de Vries, R.E.
Since leadership styles have been most commonly defined in terms of interpersonal influence, one would assume that they have their main projections on the interpersonal circumplex. In this study, the relations between leadership styles from the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Leader
Tomcikova, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P
The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%) were obtained. Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the previous 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced and a measure of their feelings toward their parents. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the previous month, as were the high rates of negative and low rates of positive feelings toward both parents. The effect of divorce on drunkenness strongly decreased if adjusted for the affect of the adolescent toward the father, but not the mother. Our findings indicate that to keep the father positively involved after divorce might be a protective factor with regard to a higher probability of adolescent drunkenness in divorced families. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Informal learning includes all occurrences during one's life when learning is not deliberate. Prior research on informal learning in healthcare contexts examined learning happening outside of the formal curriculum, yet still in the workplace. This study explores residents' perceptions about extracurricular factors outside of the workplace that contribute to their learning and development of professional identity, whether interpersonal relations are recognised as such factors, and positive and negative impacts of interpersonal relations. In this qualitative study, all 21 residents in our Emergency Medicine programme were asked, in a web-based survey with open-ended questions, to identify extracurricular sources outside of the workplace perceived as contributing to their learning and professional identity development, and list positive and negative impacts of interpersonal relations outside of work on learning and identity development. Themes were extracted through content analysis of the narrative responses. Two reviewers coded all data. Thirteen (62%) residents identified 37 factors grouped under five themes: learning activity, role modelling, support, non-clinical academic roles, and social interactions. Interpersonal relations were perceived as having positive and negative impacts, including creating support, positive role modelling and mentoring, increasing concrete learning, as well as lapses in teaching skills, deficits in professional role training, and loss of personal time. Several extracurricular factors outside of the workplace contribute to resident learning and identity development, including interpersonal relations, which have positive and negative impacts. The most often noted negative impact of interpersonal relations outside of work between residents and faculty related to perceived lapses in teaching skills. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Bell, Victoria; Freeman, Daniel
Advances in understanding delusions may be used to improve clinical interventions. Interpersonal sensitivity - feeling vulnerable in the presence of others due to the expectation of criticism or rejection - has been identified as a potential causal factor in the occurrence of persecutory delusions. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact on persecutory delusions of a (newly devised) cognitive behavioural intervention targeting interpersonal sensitivity (CBT-IPS). CBT-IPS was tested in an uncontrolled pilot study with eleven patients with persistent persecutory delusions in the context of a psychotic disorder. Patients had two baseline assessments over a fortnight period to establish the stability of the delusions, which was followed by six sessions of CBT-IPS, a post-therapy assessment, and a further follow-up assessment one month later. Interpersonal sensitivity and the persecutory delusions were stable during the baseline period. At the post-therapy assessment there were significant reductions of large effect size for both interpersonal sensitivity and the persecutory delusions. These gains were maintained at follow-up. The main limitation is that in this initial test there was no control group. The intervention may not have caused the reduction in delusions. Further, bias may have been introduced by the outcome data being collected by the therapist. The findings from this evaluation are consistent with the hypothesised causal role for interpersonal sensitivity in the occurrence of persecutory delusions. CBT-IPS shows promise as a therapeutic intervention but requires a rigorous test of its efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A
Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Kalokerinos, Elise K; Greenaway, Katharine H; Pedder, David J; Margetts, Elise A
People who express positive emotion usually have better social outcomes than people who do not, and suppressing the expression of emotions can have interpersonal costs. Nevertheless, social convention suggests that there are situations in which people should suppress the expression of positive emotions, such as when trying to appear humble in victory. The present research tested whether there are interpersonal costs to expressing positive emotions when winning. In Experiment 1, inexpressive winners were evaluated more positively and rated as lower in hubristic-but not authentic-pride compared with expressive winners. Experiment 2 confirmed that inexpressive winners were perceived as using expressive suppression to downregulate their positive emotion expression. Experiment 3 replicated the findings of Experiment 1, and also found that people were more interested in forming a friendship with inexpressive winners than expressive winners. The effects were mediated by the perception that the inexpressive winner tried to protect the loser's feelings. This research is the first to identify social costs of expressing positive emotion, and highlights the importance of understanding the situational context when determining optimal emotion regulation strategies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Cho, Yohan; Otani, Hajime; Han, Kyunghee; Van Horn, K Roger
Previous studies have reported that our interpersonal knowledge shows an asymmetry; that is, we tend to believe that we know and understand other people's thoughts and feelings better than other people know and understand our own thoughts and feelings. In the present study, the authors compared American (114 men, 192 women) and Korean (99 men and 98 women) students to examine whether the asymmetry is greater in collectivistic than in individualistic culture in two types of relationships: horizontal (with best friends) and vertical (with parents). On all three items--Know, Understand, and Visibility--asymmetry was found for both horizontal and vertical relationships. Further, the Understand and Visibility items showed greater asymmetry for the Korean group than for the American group. It was concluded that asymmetry is greater in collectivistic than in individualistic culture. The cultural differences can be explained by self-consistency, sensitivity to social consequences, parent-child interaction, and living arrangement.
BALDWIN, AUSTIN S.; KIVINIEMI, MARC T.; SNYDER, MARK
In 2 studies, the authors tested the hypothesis that having information about another person can be a source of power in interpersonal interactions. In Study 1, the authors randomized participants to receive an expectation about an interaction partner, and the expectation provided an informational advantage for some participants but not for others. Participants with an advantage reported higher perceptions of power than did those who had information that did not confer an advantage; however, the effect was isolated to feelings of informational power. In Study 2, the authors examined whether the effect extended to different types of power when the information did not provide an explicit advantage. In this case, participants who received a more ambiguous expectation reported more diffuse feelings of power. The authors discuss implications for understanding the dynamics of power in social interactions. PMID:19245049
Katherine L. Fiori
Full Text Available This study examines the associations among interpersonal dependency, social support, and crying proneness, since crying is a behavior that is particularly relevant to the affiliative interpersonal goals characterizing maladaptive forms of dependency (Keltner & Kring, 1998. Data were collected from 305 first-year university students (M age = 18 years. A series of hierarchical linear regressions, controlling for gender, commuting status, romantic relationship status, stress, loneliness, and depressive symptoms, partially supported our hypotheses. That is, we found that a measure of maladaptive dependency (destructive overdependence, or DO and crying proneness were positively correlated, and that DO moderated the associations between social support and crying proneness. Specifically, we found that social support and crying were more closely positively associated among individuals high on DO compared to individuals low on DO. Our findings imply that interpersonal dependency may be an important factor in understanding individual differences in crying, and in determining whether crying is a successful elicitor of social support.
Guruh Sukma Hanggara
Full Text Available Interpersonal attractiveness of counselor is an attraction that is owned by a counselor because of the positive impression attached to him, it is important to generate side motivation in receiving group guidance services. This study aims to determine the relationship of interpersonal attractiveness of counselor and student motivation in following group guidance. This research was conducted in Senior High School in Malang. This study included descriptive-correlational and using multi-stage cluster random sampling technique. As a result, there is a positive and significant correlation between the interpersonal attractiveness of the counselor and the motivation of high school students in following group guidance with (r = 0.622 and (p = 0,000 <0.05
Tomić Katarina N.
Full Text Available The Dark triad is a construct of pathological personality traits, which consists of three components conceptually different, but still with significant empirical overlap: narcissism, Machiavellianism and subclinical psychopathy. The concept of Dark Triad found its place in the current structural models of personality, such as the Big-five and HEXACO model, and also an Interpersonal circumplex, within which the personal qualities project itselves into certain patterns of interpersonal behavior. This paper provides a brief theoretical overview of the basic elements of the Dark Triad, and an overview of current research related to (un justified observation of the three constituent dimensions as a single construct in theoretical and empirical terms. Also, the paper presents an overview of the emotional dysfunctions typical for the triad, as well as the problems and consequences in the area of interpersonal and social relations.
Getter, H; Nowinski, J K
Development of the Interpersonal Problem Solving Assessment Technique (IPSAT), College form, is described. Guided by Rotter's Social Learning Theory, problem-solving, and assertiveness research, a semi-structured free response format was designed to assess components of interpersonal effectiveness, The instrument yields patterns of self-reported behaviors in six classes of problematic social situations. A detailed manual enabled reliable scoring of the following response categories: Effectiveness, avoidance, appropriateness, dependency and solution productivity. Scores were not materially affected by sex, verbal ability, or social desirability response sets. Correlations with the College Self-Expression Scale, the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule and the Lanyon Psychological Screening Inventory provided initial evidence of validity. Comparison of mean IPSAT scores of 23 psychotherapy clients with those of 78 normative subjects showed that clients report less interpersonal effectiveness and more avoidance than controls. Implications for utility of the IPSAT are discussed.
Champaloux, Eve Privman; Keeley, Meg G
Medical students at the University of Virginia (UVA) are mentored and learn within the framework of a four college learning community. Uniquely, these learning communities are used to organize the third-year clerkship rotations. Students were surveyed after their first pre-clinical year and after their clerkship year to determine what the effect of the learning community was on their social and educational interpersonal relationships. Students knew a higher percentage of their college mates after completing their third-year clerkships within the framework of the college system. Students chose peers from within the college system for social and educational interpersonal scenarios statistically more often than what would be expected at random. Small group learning environments that were not formed within the framework of the college system at UVA did not have the same effect on interpersonal relationships, indicating that learning communities are uniquely able to provide a context for relationship building. Students felt more positively about the social and educational effects of the college system after the clerkship year, with a corresponding increase in the strength of their interpersonal bonds with their college peers. This work is the first to investigate the effects of learning communities on interpersonal relationships among medical students and finds that learning communities positively impact both social and educational medical student bonds.
Errante, Margaret R; Gill, Gurjinder S; Rodriguez, Tobias E
The purpose of this study was to assess if a clinical group practice model has an impact on enhancing the interpersonal skills of predoctoral dental students, what factors may influence the development of these skills, and what, if any, are innovative and technological solutions that can potentially influence interpersonal skills in predoctoral dental students. This study surveyed the faculty responsible for teaching the dental students in a recently developed group practice model. Out of 18 eligible group practice leaders at one US dental school, 17 respondents (94.4%) completed the survey. In addition, this study asked the faculty to provide qualitative response and recommendations to improve interpersonal skills. Based on the feedback, a focus group was conducted to explore opportunities to further enhance the skills. The results of the study suggest that the group practice model has a positive and distinct impact on the development of overall interpersonal skills for students. Further research suggests that the greatest impacted areas of personal development are critical thinking skills and teamwork. However, as a way to make the model more effectual, most faculty suggested the need for additional time, for both students and faculty. To some extent, using technology and innovative teaching pedagogies could potentially address the challenge of limited time. Based on the results of the survey, one may conclude that with adequate design and conditions, the group practice model can have a positive effect on the interpersonal skills of its students.
Errante, Margaret R; Gill, Gurjinder S; Rodriguez, Tobias E
Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess if a clinical group practice model has an impact on enhancing the interpersonal skills of predoctoral dental students, what factors may influence the development of these skills, and what, if any, are innovative and technological solutions that can potentially influence interpersonal skills in predoctoral dental students. Methods This study surveyed the faculty responsible for teaching the dental students in a recently developed group practice model. Out of 18 eligible group practice leaders at one US dental school, 17 respondents (94.4%) completed the survey. In addition, this study asked the faculty to provide qualitative response and recommendations to improve interpersonal skills. Based on the feedback, a focus group was conducted to explore opportunities to further enhance the skills. Results The results of the study suggest that the group practice model has a positive and distinct impact on the development of overall interpersonal skills for students. Further research suggests that the greatest impacted areas of personal development are critical thinking skills and teamwork. However, as a way to make the model more effectual, most faculty suggested the need for additional time, for both students and faculty. To some extent, using technology and innovative teaching pedagogies could potentially address the challenge of limited time. Conclusion Based on the results of the survey, one may conclude that with adequate design and conditions, the group practice model can have a positive effect on the interpersonal skills of its students. PMID:29720884
Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Elmquist, JoAnna; Brem, Meagan; Zapor, Heather; Stuart, Gregory L
Victims of dating violence experience suicidal ideation at a higher rate than the general population. However, very few studies have examined the relationship between dating violence and suicidal ideation within an empirically supported theory of suicide. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits that thwarted interpersonal needs (i.e., thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) are proximal antecedents to suicidal ideation. The experience of dating violence may thwart such interpersonal needs, thus increasing risk for suicidal ideation. We aimed to examine the relationships among dating violence, thwarted interpersonal needs, and suicidal ideation and test the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide. We conducted two cross-sectional studies on college students in dating relationships to examine these research questions. Study 1 indicated positive correlations among dating violence (i.e., physical and psychological), thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness. Study 2 generally replicated the bivariate relationships of Study 1 and demonstrated that, at high levels of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness was correlated with suicidal ideation, while accounting for the effects of depressive symptoms and drug use. These results highlight the importance of using theory-guided research to understand the relationship between dating violence and suicidal ideation.
Sarlo, Michela; Lotto, Lorella; Rumiati, Rino; Palomba, Daniela
According to Greene et al.'s dual-process theory, the differential involvement of emotional processes would explain the different patterns of moral judgments people typically produce when faced with Trolley- and Footbridge-type dilemmas. As a relevant factor, dispositional empathy is known to motivate prosocial behaviors, thus playing a central role in moral judgment and behavior. The present study was aimed at investigating how behavioral and neural correlates of moral decision-making are modulated by the cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy. Thirty-seven participants were presented with 30 Footbridge-type and 30 Trolley-type dilemmas. Participants were required to decide between two options: letting some people die (non-utilitarian) vs. killing one person to save more people (utilitarian). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded stimulus-locked to a "decision slide". Response choices and ratings of valence and arousal were also collected. Trait empathy was measured through the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), assessing both the cognitive and affective dimensions. Scores on the Empathic Concern affective subscale of the IRI positively predicted unpleasantness experienced during decision-making for all dilemmas. On the other hand, for Footbridge-type dilemmas only, scores on the Personal Distress affective subscale predicted negatively the mean percentages of utilitarian choices and positively the mean amplitudes of the P260, an ERP component reflecting an immediate emotional reaction during decision-making. It is concluded that "self-oriented" feelings of anxiety and unease, rather than "other-oriented" feelings of concern, affect behavioral choices and emotion-related cortical activity in Footbridge-type moral dilemmas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bottai, T; Biloa-Tang, M; Christophe, S; Dupuy, C; Jacquesy, L; Kochman, F; Meynard, J-A; Papeta, D; Rahioui, H; Adida, M; Fakra, E; Kaladjian, A; Pringuey, D; Azorin, J-M
Bipolar disorder is common, recurrent, often severe and debiliting disorder. All types of bipolar disorder have a common determinant: depressive episode. It is justify to propose a psychotherapy which shown efficacy in depression. Howewer, perturbations in circadian rhythms have been implicated in the genesis of each episode of the illness. Biological circadian dysregulation can be encouraged by alteration of time-givers (Zeitgebers) or occurrence of time-disturbers (Zeitstörers). Addition of social rhythm therapy to interpersonal psychotherapy leads to create a new psychotherapy adaptated to bipolar disorders: InterPersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT). IPSRT, in combinaison with medication, has demonstrated efficacy as a treatment for bipolar disorders. IPSRT combines psychoeducation, behavioral strategy to regularize daily routines and interpersonal psychotherapy which help patients cope better with the multiple psychosocial and relationship problems associated with this chronic disorder. The main issues of this psychotherapy are: to take the history of the patient's illness and review of medication, to help patient for "grief for the lost healthy self" translated in the french version in "acceptance of a long-term medical condition", to give the sick role, to examinate the current relationships and changes proximal to the emergence of mood symptoms in the four problem areas (unresolved grief, interpersonal disputes, role transitions, role déficits), to examinate and increase daily routines and social rhythms. French version of IPSRT called TIPARS (with few differences), a time-limited psychotherapy, in 24 sessions during approximatively 6 months, is conducted in three phases. In the initial phase, the therapist takes a thorough history of previous episodes and their interpersonal context and a review of previous medication, provides psychoeducation, evaluates social rhythms, introduces the Social Rhythm Metric, identifies the patient's main interpersonal
Tuan Pham Michel
Full Text Available Not only are subjective feelings an integral part of many judgments and decisions, they can even lead to improved decisions and better predictions. Individuals who have learned to trust their feelings performed better in economic-negotiation games than their rational-thinking opponents. But emotions are not just relevant in negotiations and decisions. They also play a decisive role in forecasting future events. Candidates who trusted their feelings made better predictions than people with less emotional confidence. Emotions contain valuable information about the world around us. This information is not as readily available in our mind as hard facts but rather lies in the background of our conscious attention. In negotiation situations like the ultimatum game, feelings provide an intuitive sense of what offer is about right and what offer is too high or too low. But feelings also summarize statistical relationships among things that, on the surface, may seem disconnected. These statistical relationships make more probable futures feel more right than less probable futures. However, researchers warn that you should not always trust your feelings. Feelings that tend to help are those based on general knowledge, not those based on easy-to-verbalize local knowledge.
Tani, Franca; Ponti, Lucia
The authors examined how the two different dimensions of guilt feelings, needed for reparation and fear of punishment, could influence social conduct, such as prosocial and aggressive behaviors, and how they are linked to popularity in childhood. The authors hypothesized a theoretical model that they tested, fitting it with empirical data obtained from a sample of 242 Italian children 9-11 years old. Both dimensions of guilt predict prosocial and aggressive behaviors. Specifically, the feeling of guilt linked to the need for reparation tends to negatively predict aggressive behaviors, and positively predict prosocial behaviors. The feeling of guilt linked to the fear of punishment, on the contrary, tends to positively affect aggressive and negatively affect prosocial conducts in children. These results highlight that the different feelings of guilt can represent a relevant risk or protective factor for the development of social competence in childhood. Limitations, strengths, and further development of the present study are discussed.
Sánchez, Francisco J; Westefeld, John S; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen's d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen's f(2) = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client's lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being.
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Westefeld, John S.; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen’s d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen’s f2 = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client’s lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being. PMID:20428323
Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E
Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.
McFarquhar, Tara; Luyten, Patrick; Fonagy, Peter
Interpersonal problems are commonly reported by depressed patients, but the effect of psychotherapeutic treatment on them remains unclear. This paper reviews the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions for depression on interpersonal problems as measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). An electronic database search identified articles reporting IIP outcome scores for individual adult psychotherapy for depression. A systematic review and, where possible, meta-analysis was conducted. Twenty-eight studies met inclusion criteria, 10 of which could be included in a meta-analysis investigating changes in the IIP after brief psychotherapy. Reasons for exclusion from the meta-analysis were too few participants with a diagnosis of depression (n=13), IIP means and SDs unobtainable (n=3) and long-term therapy (n=2). A large effect size (g=0.74, 95% CI=0.56-0.93) was found for improvement in IIP scores after brief treatment. Paucity of IIP reporting and treatment type variability mean results are preliminary. Heterogeneity for improvement in IIP after brief psychotherapy was high (I 2 =75%). Despite being central to theories of depression, interpersonal problems are infrequently included in outcome studies. Brief psychotherapy was associated with moderate to large effect sizes in reduction in interpersonal problems. Of the dimensions underlying interpersonal behaviour, the dominance dimension may be more amenable to change than the affiliation dimension. Yet, high pre-treatment affiliation appeared to be associated with better outcomes than low affiliation, supporting the theory that more affiliative patients may develop a better therapeutic relationship with the therapist and consequently respond more positively than more hostile patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maulia, Putri; Budi Lestari, SU, Dr. Dra. Sri
In a family, interpersonal communication processes take place in nurturing and controlling against the behavior of their children. Now, many parents who choose to educate his children in boarding schools and they hopes their children can have a religious knowledge as well as a good general science, have a good character, and have a positive self-concept if educated in the boarding school. This research using a qualitative approach, aims to describing interpersonal communication processes betw...
Tsetserukou, Dzmitry; Neviarouskaya, Alena; Prendinger, Helmut; Kawakami, Naoki; Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Tachi, Susumu
Driven by the motivation to enhance emotionally immersive experience of real-time messaging in 3D virtual world Second Life, we are proposing a conceptually novel approach to reinforcing (intensifying) own feelings and reproducing (simulating) the emotions felt by the partner through specially designed system, iFeel_IM!. In the paper we are describing the development of novel haptic devices (HaptiHeart, HaptiHug, HaptiTickler, HaptiCooler, and HaptiWarmer) integrated into iFeel_IM! system, which architecture is presented in detail.
Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Eerola, Tuomas
Why do we enjoy listening to music that makes us sad? This question has puzzled music psychologists for decades, but the paradox of “pleasurable sadness” remains to be solved. Recent findings from a study investigating the enjoyment of sad films suggest that the positive relationship between felt sadness and enjoyment might be explained by feelings of being moved (Hanich et al., 2014). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feelings of being moved also mediated the enjoyment ...
Telli, Sibel; Cakiroglu, Jale; den Brok, Perry
The purpose of the study was to examine associations between Turkish high school students' perceptions of their teachers' interpersonal behavior and drawn attention to the relationship between students' affective outcomes and teachers' interpersonal behavior. The Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction
Telli, S.; Cakiroglu, J.; Brok, den P.J.
The purpose of the study was to examnine associations between Turkish high school students'perceptions of their teacher's interpersonal behavior and drawn attention to the relationship between students'affective outcomes and teachers' interpersonal behavior. The Questionnaire on Teacher
Responding to Destructive Interpersonal Interactions: A way forward for ... cultural intolerance and other destructive interpersonal interactions and relationships clearly ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Communication skills: A tool for interpersonal relationship in nursing care. ... Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to ... Background: The interpersonal relationship between the nurse and other health care providers is poor.
Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…
Padfield, Nicolas; Löwgren, Jonas; Hobye, Mads
We present five design cases as an annotated portfolio, exploring ways to design for intimate, interpersonal touch and social intimacy in interaction design. Five key qualities are elicited from the cases, including novel connotations sparking curiosity; providing an excuse to interact; unfolding...
Ferris, Patricia A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.
Studies demonstrate that negative interpersonal interaction(s) (NII) such as bullying are frequent and harmful to individuals in workplace and higher education student settings. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the degree of perceived severity of NII varies by the status of the actor. The present study explored the moderating effect of actor…
This paper is aimed at highlighting how essential interpersonal communication is necessary for establishing rapport, understanding the needs of the patients and planning effective intervention for meeting holistic health care. To be continually relevant, Nurses have to improve on their communication skills to meet the ...
Jordan, Kevin D.; Foster, Penni Smith
Attention to interpersonal behaviors, communication, and relational factors is taking on increasing importance in medical education. Medical student empathy is one aspect of the physician-patient relationship that is often involved in beneficial interactions leading to improved clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction. As an interpersonal…
The study investigated the effect of enhanced thinking skills (ETS) and social skill training (SST) in fostering interpersonal behaviour among Nigerian adolescents. A pre- and post-test experimental-control group design with a 3x2 factorial matrix was employed for the study. Gender which was used as a moderator variable ...
Wachowiak, Dale; Diaz, Sandra
Murstein's Stimulus-Value-Role theory of dyadic relationships, in which attraction depends on the exchange value of the assets and liabilities each person brings to the situation, is employed as a foundation for this review of the literature on interpersonal attraction in the counseling relationship. A three-stage model, accounting for both…
Academic departmentalization, especially at the undergraduate level, can result in the isolation of subject areas. The two purposes of this paper are to make a case for the interrelationships between mass and interpersonal communication becoming an integral aspect of mass media study, and to stress the importance of presenting this material in…
cognitive process, and that the human capacity for inference is crucially important ... been noted that research in interpersonal communication is currently pushing the ... communicative actions, the social-cultural world of everyday life is not only ... personal experiences of the authors', as documented over time and recreated ...
Many psychological theories point to the importance of siblings in individual personality development. The impact of sibling status on interpersonal and achievement orientation was examined with undergraduates (N=1782) who completed a series of objective personality measures and a background questionnaire. Sibling status was defined in terms of…
Wang, C; Gao, J; Ma, Y; Zhu, C; Dong, X-W
People behave and interact with others differently when experiencing physical pain. Pain has dramatic effects on one's emotional responses, cognitive functions and social interaction. However, little has been known about whether and how physical pain influences interpersonal trust in social interaction. In the present study, we examined the influence of physical pain on trusting behaviour. A total of 112 healthy participants were recruited and assigned to physical pain condition (induced by Capsaicin) and control condition (with hand cream), respectively. Thirty minutes after pain induction, three decision-making tasks were conducted to measure behaviours in social interaction, including trust and trustworthiness (trust game), non-social risk-taking (risk game) and altruism (dictator game). Results showed that physical pain increased interpersonal trust among females, but not among males. Pain did not influence non-social risk-taking, altruism or trustworthiness, as evaluated by monetary transfers in those tasks. Moreover, the effect of physical pain on interpersonal trust was fully mediated by expectation of monetary profit. These findings demonstrate an effect of pain on interpersonal trust and suggest a reciprocity mechanism that the effect may be driven by self-interest rather than altruistic motivation. The pain effect on trust was evident only in females, implying distinct pain coping strategies used by both genders. The present work highlights the social component of pain and extends our understanding of mutual interactions between pain and social cognition. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.
Couvillion, L. Michael; Eckstein, Daniel G.
The microeconomic theory relating to utility and cost is applied to the "risk," and the possible "payoff" relative to relationships with others. A good measure of utility is the need or want-satisfying power of an alternative. For the analysis of interpersonal relationships, the needs delineated by Maslow (i.e. food, shelter, belongingness, love,…
in question are ideational (clause complex, Angle) and interpersonal (modal Adjunct, modal auxiliary, mood) and how they – individually and in combination – emphasize different aspects of projection meaning. A specific status is ascribed to the subjunctive mood, which has a special instructive function...
De Raeve, Lore; Jansen, Nicole Wh; van den Brandt, Piet A; Vasse, Rineke M; Kant, Ijmert
The main goal of this study was to identify work-related risk factors for the onset of interpersonal conflicts at work. Longitudinal data from the Maastricht Cohort Study on "fatigue at work" (N=9241) were used. After the respondents who reported an interpersonal conflict at baseline were excluded, logistic regression analyses were used to determine the role of several work-related risk factors at baseline in the onset of a conflict with coworkers or supervisors after 1 year of follow-up. Higher psychological job demands, higher levels of role ambiguity, the presence of physical demands, higher musculoskeletal demands, a poorer physical work environment, shift work, overtime, and higher levels of job insecurity significantly predicted the onset of both a coworker conflict and a supervisor conflict. Higher levels of coworker and supervisor social support, more autonomy concerning the terms of employment, good overall job satisfaction, monetary gratification, and esteem reward significantly protected against the onset of both a coworker conflict and a supervisor conflict. Higher levels of decision latitude and more career opportunities also significantly protected against the onset of a supervisor conflict. Several factors in the work environment were related to the onset of interpersonal conflicts at work. Given the rather serious consequences of interpersonal conflicts at work with respect to health and well-being, the observed risk factors can serve as a starting point for effective prevention and intervention strategies in the workplace.
Tine Vertommen; Filip Van Den Ede; Nicolette Schipper-van Veldhoven
Children worldwide are confronted with interpersonal violence (IV) on a daily basis. They encounter violence in children’s books, cartoons, on television and in the media or, more personally, in social media, at home, at school, in church or on the streets, with the acts being perpetrated by
Interpersonal relationship involves activities where two or more people need to communicate with one another. As human beings, we always come in contact with people and in the process, relate with them and sometimes react to their utterances and actions. Pathologies, maladaptive behaviours and most human problems ...
Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip
In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence,
North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.
The seven interpersonal relations units in the consumer education guide are: Expressing Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction with Consumer Goods and Services, What to Do in Case of a Financial Crisis, Bridging the Generation Gap, Rebellion, Emotions, Discovering Myself, and Dual Role (homemaker/wage earner). Grade levels of the units, are…
I. Consiglio (Irene)
markdownabstractIn this dissertation, I explore the intersection between interpersonal and consumer behaviour in three chapters. In chapter 2, I propose that consumers with low self-esteem become wary of new relationships with alternative service providers if they experience service failures in a
Greenaway, Katharine H.; Cichocka, Aleksandra; van Veelen, Ruth; Likki, Tiina; Branscombe, Nyla R.
Hope is an emotion that has been implicated in social change efforts, yet little research has examined whether feeling hopeful actually motivates support for social change. Study 1 (N = 274) confirmed that hope is associated with greater support for social change in two countries with different
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise
Abstract PhD Day 2015 The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long...
This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…
Fikkert, F.W.; Hakvoort, Michiel; Hakvoort, M.C.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus
FeelSound is a multi-user, multi-touch application that aims to collaboratively compose, in an entertaining way, acoustic music. Simultaneous input by each of up to four users enables collaborative composing. This process as well as the resulting music are entertaining. Sensor-packed intelligent
Lesko, Nancy; Brotman, Jennie S.; Agarwal, Ruchi; Quackenbush, Jaime Lynn
Sexuality education and HIV/AIDS education are arenas of strong feelings. Emotions make sexuality and health lessons peculiar, "thrown together" lessons, and emotions stick to "childhood innocence", "growing up too fast" and even "jump" in response to visuals, say a used condom on an elementary school playground or a pregnant sophomore in a…
Teaching interpersonal values in an "ideal" setting, such as a college classroom, differs greatly from teaching in a "real" setting, in this case a maximum security prison for males. The practice of prison indoctrination dehumanizes inmates, diminishes their self-esteem, and deprives them of positive role models. The nature of the collective…
Kim, Heui-Baik; Fisher, Darrell L.; Fraser, Barry J.
Studied classroom learning environment and teacher behavior in 12 Korean schools through questionnaires administered to 543 eighth graders. Results, which support the cross-cultural validity of both measures, show positive relationships between classroom environment and interpersonal teacher behavior and students' attitudinal outcome. Boys…
Doo, Min Young
One problem found when teaching interpersonal skills online is learners' lack of opportunity for skill practice. The online learning environment is deficient in face-to-face interaction, and opportunities for self-regulation make it difficult to ensure learners practice skills despite the positive effects of such practice on skill improvement. The…
Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle
Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…
Ellwardt, L.; Wittek, R.P.M.; Wielers, R.J.J.
This study developed and tested a relational theory of positive and negative gossip about managers. It is argued that spreading information about managers depends on trust in organizations, more specifically the employees' generalized and interpersonal trust in managers and colleagues. Hypotheses
Cavior, Norman; And Others
Tenth and twelfth grade males and females who knew each other judged, within grade levels, their classmates on physical attractiveness (PA), perceived attitude similarity (PAS), and interpersonal attraction (IA). Regression analyses supported the hypotheses that PA and PAS are positively correlated. (Author)
Full Text Available This quantitative study examines the correlations between humor, loneliness, gender and aging by presenting the results from a sample of eighty-three older Romanian adults, aged sixty and above. The first section of the paper is a comprehensive review of the social-psychological literature on aging, gender and humor. The second section assesses the findings generated from a study that uses the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (Thorson & Powell, 1993 and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults – short version, (diTomaso, Brannen & Best, 2004. Building on Robert Weiss’s (1973 reflections on the differences between feelings of loneliness because of social isolation or emotional isolation, the research findings nuance –and in some cases challenge several assumptions on gender, age, and emotional and social loneliness. The findings also point to the correlation between feelings of social loneliness and the use of humor in interpersonal communications. The data collected suggests that while Romanian men may value the use of humor more than women when self-reporting, that older Romanian women tend to use humor in interpersonal situations and that there is a significant correlation between the use of this type of humor and a reduced sense of social loneliness.
Luo, Yu L L; Cai, Huajian; Song, Hairong
Narcissism, characterized by grandiose self-image and entitled feelings to others, has been increasingly prevalent in the past decades. This study examined genetic and environmental bases of two dimensions of narcissism: intrapersonal grandiosity and interpersonal entitlement. A total of 304 pairs of twins from Beijing, China completed the Narcissistic Grandiosity Scale and the Psychological Entitlement Scale. Both grandiosity (23%) and entitlement (35%) were found to be moderately heritable, while simultaneously showing considerable non-shared environmental influences. Moreover, the genetic and environmental influences on the two dimensions were mostly unique (92-93%), with few genetic and environmental effects in common (7-8%). The two dimensions of narcissism, intrapersonal grandiosity and interpersonal entitlement, are heritable and largely independent of each other in terms of their genetic and environmental sources. These findings extend our understanding of the heritability of narcissism on the one hand. On the other hand, the study demonstrates the rationale for distinguishing between intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of narcissism, and possibly personality in general as well.
Himberg, Tommi; Laroche, Julien; Bigé, Romain; Buchkowski, Megan; Bachrach, Asaf
Collective dance improvisation (e.g., traditional and social dancing, contact improvisation) is a participatory, relational and embodied art form which eschews standard concepts in aesthetics. We present our ongoing research into the mechanisms underlying the lived experience of "togetherness" associated with such practices. Togetherness in collective dance improvisation is kinaesthetic (based on movement and its perception), and so can be simultaneously addressed from the perspective of the performers and the spectators, and be measured. We utilise these multiple levels of description: the first-person, phenomenological level of personal experiences, the third-person description of brain and body activity, and the level of interpersonal dynamics. Here, we describe two of our protocols: a four-person mirror game and a 'rhythm battle' dance improvisation score. Using an interpersonal closeness measure after the practice, we correlate subjective sense of individual/group connectedness and observed levels of in-group temporal synchronization. We propose that kinaesthetic togetherness, or interpersonal resonance, is integral to the aesthetic pleasure of the participants and spectators, and that embodied feeling of togetherness might play a role more generally in aesthetic experience in the performing arts.
Full Text Available Social cognition, the ability to act wisely in social interaction, is being actively researched in various fields besides the clinical, behavioral, and psychological sciences. The objectives of this paper are to review the conceptual basis of social cognition and its applicability in the areas of social competence and effectiveness in interpersonal environments. Social cognitive skills enable understanding of social situations. The relationship between social cognitive skills and ability of emotional decoding of self and others has been explored. The paper discusses various processes that are operative in the interactional scenarios and have relevance in individual effectiveness. Concepts such as emotional intelligence, trait transference, person-perception, categorical thinking, and knowledge construction have been discussed in relation to social cognition and effectiveness. The role of thoughts, feelings, expectations, and relational schemas in interpersonal situations has been linked to performances. In addition, effectiveness is influenced by motivated social cognitions, ego-tasks, global, and context-specific goals. Various strategies such as cognitive and social problem-solving and proactive-coping have been elaborated which lead to better outcomes in interpersonal environments.
Full Text Available Collective dance improvisation (e.g., traditional and social dancing, contact improvisation is a participatory, relational and embodied art form which eschews standard concepts in aesthetics. We present our ongoing research into the mechanisms underlying the lived experience of “togetherness” associated with such practices. Togetherness in collective dance improvisation is kinaesthetic (based on movement and its perception, and so can be simultaneously addressed from the perspective of the performers and the spectators, and be measured. We utilise these multiple levels of description: the first-person, phenomenological level of personal experiences, the third-person description of brain and body activity, and the level of interpersonal dynamics. Here, we describe two of our protocols: a four-person mirror game and a ‘rhythm battle’ dance improvisation score. Using an interpersonal closeness measure after the practice, we correlate subjective sense of individual/group connectedness and observed levels of in-group temporal synchronization. We propose that kinaesthetic togetherness, or interpersonal resonance, is integral to the aesthetic pleasure of the participants and spectators, and that embodied feeling of togetherness might play a role more generally in aesthetic experience in the performing arts.
Shore, Danielle M; Parkinson, Brian
A social partner's emotions communicate important information about their motives and intentions. However, people may discount emotional information that they believe their partner has regulated with the strategic intention of exerting social influence. Across two studies, we investigated interpersonal effects of communicated guilt and perceived strategic regulation in trust games. Results showed that communicated guilt (but not interest) mitigated negative effects of trust violations on interpersonal judgements and behaviour. Further, perceived strategic regulation reduced guilt's positive effects. These findings suggest that people take emotion-regulation motives into account when responding to emotion communication.
Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony
The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found...
Rahioui, H; Blecha, L; Bottai, T; Depuy, C; Jacquesy, L; Kochman, F; Meynard, J-A; Papeta, D; Rammouz, I; Ghachem, R
Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is a brief, structured psychotherapy initially intended to treat adult depression that was developed in the 1970s and manualized in 1984 by G. Klerman and his team. Two main theories served as a basis for its design: Bowlby's attachment theory and communication theory. Klerman theorized that tensions and problems in interpersonal relationships (i.e. disputes) cause psychological distress in vulnerable individuals that may lead to a major depressive episode. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that an insecure attachment style is strongly associated with lifetime depression. Severe depressive episodes have been correlated with avoidant attachment in women. IPT is based on the hypothesis that recent or ongoing disturbances in interpersonal relationships either trigger or follow the onset of mood disorder. In practice, IPT assists patients in analysing their interpersonal relationship modes, correlating their relational states with their mood and in learning to use better communication. Resolving difficulties in interpersonal relationships through the use of better communication skills promotes the improvement of depressive symptoms. Klerman identified four interpersonal areas that seem to be highly correlated with depressive episodes: grief (a close and important personal relation who has died), interpersonal disputes (conflicts with significant people such as a spouse or another close family member), role transition (significant life changes such as retirement, parenthood or chronic and invalidating illness) and interpersonal deficits (patients who have limited social contacts and few interpersonal relations). Classically, IPT is planned around 12-16 weekly sessions. During the initial sessions, the therapist will explore all existing interpersonal relations and any significant dysfunctions, both recent and ongoing. Following this interview, the area the patient considers as driving the current depressive episode will be
Luciane Guimarães Batistella Bianchini
Full Text Available By means of Piaget's critical clinical method, the study investigated the meanings assigned to mistakes by four students in different activities and interactive situations. The research also analyzed the results of using self-regulatory situations in understanding mistakes initially committed by the students. Data collection instruments consisted of games, video recordings, diaries and interviews. Following intervention, the students were able to recognize their competence, establish positive interactions within the group, and avoid viewing mistakes as obstacles to learning. We concluded that the meanings assigned to mistakes depend on certain variables, among them feelings nurtured by the individuals about themselves, the other, and the object of knowledge.
Full Text Available Rachel Kornhaber,1 Kenneth Walsh,1,2 Jed Duff,1,3 Kim Walker1,3 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Alexandria, NSW, 2Tasmanian Health Services – Southern Region, Hobart, TAS, 3St Vincent’s Private Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Therapeutic interpersonal relationships are the primary component of all health care interactions that facilitate the development of positive clinician–patient experiences. Therapeutic interpersonal relationships have the capacity to transform and enrich the patients’ experiences. Consequently, with an increasing necessity to focus on patient-centered care, it is imperative for health care professionals to therapeutically engage with patients to improve health-related outcomes. Studies were identiﬁed through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO databases of peer-reviewed research, limited to the English language with search terms developed to reﬂect therapeutic interpersonal relationships between health care professionals and patients in the acute care setting. This study found that therapeutic listening, responding to patient emotions and unmet needs, and patient centeredness were key characteristics of strategies for improving therapeutic interpersonal relationships. Keywords: health, acute care, therapeutic interpersonal relationships, relational care integrative review
Hisli Sahin, Nesrin; Basim, H Nejat; Cetin, Fatih
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-concept and locus of control in interpersonal conflict resolution approaches and to determine the predictors of conflict resolution approach choices. The study included 345 students aged between 18 and 28 years that were studying at universities in Ankara. Data were collected using the Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Approaches Scale to measure conflict resolution approaches, the Social Comparison Scale to measure self-concept, and the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale to measure locus of control. It was observed that confrontation approach to interpersonal conflict was predicted by self-concept (beta = 0.396, P resolution approaches. In addition to these findings, it was observed that females used self-disclosure (beta = -0.163, P resolution processes. Self-concept and locus of control were related to the behaviors adopted in the interpersonal conflict resolution process. Individuals with a positive self-concept and an internal locus of control adopted solutions to interpersonal conflict resolution that were more effective and constructive.
Paterson, Marie; Green, J M; Basson, C J; Ross, F
There is little information on the probability of assertive behaviour, interpersonal anxiety and self-efficacy in the literature regarding dietitians. The objective of this study was to establish baseline information of these attributes and the factors affecting them. Questionnaires collecting biographical information and self-assessment psychometric scales measuring levels of probability of assertiveness, interpersonal anxiety and self-efficacy were mailed to 350 subjects, who comprised a random sample of dietitians registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. Forty-one per cent (n=145) of the sample responded. Self-assessment inventory results were compared to test levels of probability of assertive behaviour, interpersonal anxiety and self-efficacy. The inventory results were compared with the biographical findings to establish statistical relationships between the variables. The hypotheses were formulated before data collection. Dietitians had acceptable levels of probability of assertive behaviour and interpersonal anxiety. The probability of assertive behaviour was significantly lower than the level noted in the literature and was negatively related to interpersonal anxiety and positively related to self-efficacy.
Bush, Hillary H.; Eisenhower, Abbey
Focusing specifically on the experiences of economically disadvantaged preschoolers, the relations between interpersonal violence exposure, behavior problems, and social skills were examined in both the home and school settings. In this racially and ethnically diverse sample of preschoolers from poor, urban households (N = 64; 3-6 years old; 56% female), many children (33%) had been exposed to at least one type of interpersonal violence, and even more (70%) had been exposed to any type of potentially traumatic event (PTE). Although exposure to interpersonal violence was not directly associated with parent- or teacher-reported behavior problems or social skills, a significant interaction effect was observed between exposure to interpersonal violence and teacher-reported internalizing problems in predicting teacher-reported social skills; specifically, for children with the highest levels of internalizing problems, a positive relation between interpersonal violence exposure and social skills was observed. This indirect effect was observed only in the school setting, whereas children in this high-risk sample appeared to demonstrate resilience in the home setting. Given these high rates of exposure, additional, clinically-relevant research is needed to inform interventions for this vulnerable population. PMID:25175528
Full Text Available This paper deals with an important issue related to the human attitudes and needs in interpersonal and professional aspects. The theoretical part deals with several psychological components of the self-esteem and esteem of the others – acceptance of the others, feeling of being accepted, need for approval. Some gender differences in manifestations of acceptance and feeling of being accepted at the workplace are discussed. This article presents some empirical data for the degree of acceptance of others, feeling of being accepted and the strive for being accepted among the representatives of helping, pedagogical, administrative and economic occupations, as well as non-qualified workers. The goals of the study were to reveal the interdependency between these constructs and to be found some significant differences between the representatives of the four groups of occupations. The methods of the first study were W. Fey’s scales “Acceptance of others”, and “How do I feel accepted by others”. The method of the second study was Crown and Marlowe Scale for Social Desirability. The results indicated some significant differences in acceptance of others and feeling of being accepted between the non-qualified workers and the representatives of helping, administrative and economic occupations. There were not any significant difference in strive for being accepted between the fouroccupational groups.
Pulido, Juan J.; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Leo, Francisco M.; Sánchez-Cano, Jorge; García-Calvo, Tomás
Purpose: The objectives were to develop and validate the Coaches' Interpersonal Style Questionnaire. The Coaches' Interpersonal Style Questionnaire analyzes the interpersonal style adopted by coaches when implementing their strategy of supporting or thwarting athletes' basic psychological needs. Method: In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis…
Hess, Timothy R.; Rohlfing, Jessica E.; Hardy, Amanda O.; Glidden-Tracey, Cynthia; Tracey, Terence J. G.
This study examined whether the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ) and its subscales assessed unique interpersonal distress. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) was used to assess discriminant validity for unique interpersonal distress. Participants (N = 121) were recruited from a southwestern university counselor training center. Significant…
The result indicated that personality types (introvert and extrovert) do not affect counsellors' interpersonal skill in counselling therapy. It was also concluded that counsellor personality types do not have much implication on the use of interpersonal skills. The researcher, therefore, recommended that mastering interpersonal ...
Cain, Nicole M; De Panfilis, Chiara; Meehan, Kevin B; Clarkin, John F
Individuals high in rejection sensitivity (RS) are at risk for experiencing high levels of interpersonal distress, yet little is known about the interpersonal profiles associated with RS. This investigation examined the interpersonal problems, sensitivities, and values associated with RS in 2 samples: 763 multicultural undergraduate students (Study 1) and 365 community adults (Study 2). In Study 1, high anxious RS was associated with socially avoidant interpersonal problems, whereas low anxious RS was associated with vindictive interpersonal problems. In Study 2, we assessed both anxious and angry expectations of rejection. Circumplex profile analyses showed that the high anxious RS group reported socially avoidant interpersonal problems, sensitivities to remoteness in others, and valuing connections with others, whereas the high angry RS group reported vindictive interpersonal problems, sensitivities to submissiveness in others, and valuing detached interpersonal behavior. Low anxious RS was related to domineering interpersonal problems, sensitivity to attention-seeking behavior, and valuing detached interpersonal behavior, whereas low angry RS was related to submissive interpersonal problems, sensitivity to attention-seeking behavior, and valuing receiving approval from others. Overall, results suggest that there are distinct interpersonal profiles associated with varying levels and types of RS.
Vezhnovets', T A
The aim of this work is to study the influence of the type of interpersonal relationships between executives and subordinates in healthcare institutions on their style of resolving management decision. It was established that indulgent and autonomous style are formed against background of liberal interpersonal relationship by the following criteria, as the absence of dominant traits, expressed benevolence among executives with autonomous style, uncertainty and inexperience among executives with indulgent style. Authoritarian and marginal styles are formed against empowerment and dominance in relationship with subordinates by expressed dominance criteria, as leadership qualities among executives with authoritarian style or as a manifestation of social maladjustment among executives with marginal style. Type of interpersonal relationships determines the style of resolving management decisions, that should be considered at conducting professional selection of candidates for senior positions in healthcare institutions.
Full Text Available As the sharp distinction between face-to-face communication and mediated interpersonal communication is disappearing, Twitter is now being used for private and public exchanges. This study aims to explore interpersonal communication motives on Twitter in relation to individuals’ social psychological states of loneliness and life satisfaction. Social compensation and social-enhancement hypotheses were considered for the theoretical background. Data were gathered from Twitter users through online surveys. Hierarchical regression analyses on each communication motive on Twitter (pleasure, affection, inclusion, escape, relaxation, and control were performed. Results revealed that loneliness negatively affected the motives of pleasure and affection, while life satisfaction positively affected the motives of pleasure, affection, relaxation, and control. The implications of these findings and the meaning of Twitter for interpersonal communication are discussed.
Kogan, Aleksandr; Impett, Emily A; Oveis, Christopher; Hui, Bryant; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher
Who benefits most from making sacrifices for others? The current study provides one answer to this question by demonstrating the intrinsic benefits of sacrifice for people who are highly motivated to respond to a specific romantic partner's needs noncontingently, a phenomenon termed communal strength. In a 14-day daily-experience study of 69 romantic couples, communal strength was positively associated with positive emotions during the sacrifice itself, with feeling appreciated by the partner for the sacrifice, and with feelings of relationship satisfaction on the day of the sacrifice. Furthermore, feelings of authenticity for the sacrifice mediated these associations. Several alternative hypotheses were ruled out: The effects were not due to individuals higher in communal strength making qualitatively different kinds of sacrifices, being more positive in general, or being involved in happier relationships. Implications for research and theory on communal relationships and positive emotions are discussed.
Sulima, Magdalena; Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Lewicka, Magdalena; Wiktor, Krzysztof; Kanadys, Katarzyna; Wiktor, Henryk
The aim of the study was an analysis of the feelings of pregnant women at risk ofpreterm labour. 313 expectant mothers aged between 18 to 44 years (ranges: 18-25, 26-30 and 31-44 years) with no psychological disorders, hospitalized and treated due to the risk of preterm labour were surveyed. All the examined pregnant women expressed voluntary and informed consent for the participation in the survey. Each of the questionnaires given to the examined pregnant women contained: a questionnaire form devised by the authors, to establish the characteristics of the surveyed expectant mothers, and the following research standardized tool - Negative and Positive Feelings Scale by P. Brzozowski. The value of the mean level of positive feel- ings state in the group of patients aged 31-44 years with higher education was significantly higher (p feelings as a condition of pregnant women in the study group (p > 0.05). There were no significant statistical differences (p > 0.05) between the level of negative feel- ings trait and age. It was found, however, that the level of negative feelings trait was significantly lower (p = 0.0009) in pregnant women with higher education than in pregnant women who had completed secondary education. 1. Among pregnant women at risk of pre- term labour, higher levels of positive feelings were found in pregnant women aged 31-44 years with higher education, being married and residents of a provincial city. 2. In order to reduce negative feelings in pregnant women at risk of preterm labour it seems important to implement appropriate psychological and prophylactic management, provide adequate care in the pregnancy pathology department, as well as support from the medical staff and the family. These activities should be targeted particularly at younger women with primary education or vocational training, not being married and living in rural areas.
Full text: The paper presents implementation stages and outcomes of the project “Nuclear Facility Competences” fulfilled in JSC “Rosenergoatom” and outcomes of the project “Knowledge Management, Training and Staff Retention” fulfilled for Romania regulatory authority. The goal of the project was a development of competence profiles for nuclear power plant and corporate inspectorate key job positions. The paper is focused on personal and interpersonal effectiveness competencies for inspectorate job positions which are a part of well-known 4-Quadrant Competence Model. Each competence is described by one or two behavior scales. One can consider those competencies like common ones for organizations implementing inspection activity and could be used in human resource management processes like personnel selection, job assessment, career planning, training, mentoring. (author
Eduardo Botti Abbade
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the attitude of college students regarding to interpersonal influence in virtual social networks related to consume decisions. It was conducted a survey with 200 college students from an Institution of Higher Education located in Santa Maria/RS. The sample was obtained through voluntary adhesion and the data collection instrument was applied in a virtual environment. Scales were adapted to measure and evaluate the propensity of students to influence and be influenced by their virtual contacts. The results suggest that the scales adapted are satisfactory to measure what they intend to do. The study also found that men are more able to influence the opinions of their virtual social contacts. On the other hand, the time dedicated to access the Internet positively and significantly influences the propensity of users to be influenced by their virtual social contacts. The correlation between the ability to influence the propensity to be influenced is significant and positive.
Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Weissman, Alexandra B; Puzia, Megan E; Wegbreit, Ezra; Tone, Erin B; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P
Prominent theoretical models and existing data implicate interpersonal factors in the development and maintenance of suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, no known study has yet used computerized behavioral tasks to objectively assess responses to interpersonal conflict/collaboration among teens engaged in NSSI or having made a suicide attempt. The current study, therefore, compared interpersonal functioning indexed by the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) task among three mutually exclusive groups, adolescents (ages 13-17): engaged in NSSI only without history of a suicide attempt (n=26); who made a suicide attempt without history of NSSI (n=26); and typically developing controls (n=26). Participants also completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure to assess their general sensitivity to/awareness of others' behaviors and feelings. No significant between-group differences were found in PD task performance; however, compared to typically developing control participants and those who had made a suicide attempt, the NSSI group reported significantly more stress during the task. Additionally, NSSI participants rated themselves as more interpersonally sensitive compared to both attempters and typically developing controls. Given the lack of knowledge about whether these groups either differentially activate the same circuitry during stressful interpersonal interactions or instead rely on alternative, compensatory circuits, future work using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leung, Beeto Wai-Chung; Moneta, Giovanni B.; Mcbride-Chang, Catherine
This study developed a dispositional path model of life satisfaction for community dwelling Chinese elderly living in Hong Kong. A sample of 117 elderly completed scales measuring life satisfaction, optimism, self-esteem, relationship harmony, self-construals, and perceived/expected health and financial status. Modeling revealed that life…
Gleiber Couto Santos
Full Text Available AbstractInterpersonal interactions as social processes reflect and influence individuals' mental health. The aim of the study was to verify how marital interactions relate to mental health, and to investigate evidence for the validity of the Checklist for Interpersonal Transactions II (CLOIT-II. Participants were 169 couples from the southeast of the Brazilian state of Goiás, aged between 18 and 55 years ( M = 21; SD = 5.48. They responded to a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and the CLOIT-II. Participants with low mental health problem scores in the GHQ (asymptomatic participants tended to occupy interpersonal positions in the range between Deference/Trust and Affective warmth/Friendliness. In the group with high scores (symptomatic participants, interactions were defined by Coldness/Hostility.Mental health problems were positively correlated with mistrust, coldness and hostility and negatively correlated with positions of Affiliation. These results, in addition to supporting the validity of the CLOIT-II, indicate that the study of interpersonal relationships is relevant for the understanding of mental health.
McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C
Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973
Dozois, David J A; Frewen, Paul A
The comorbidity between the mood and anxiety is extensive and it is probable that individuals with these disorders share a number of cognitive characteristics. However, comorbidity rates with depression are not uniform among the various anxiety disorders. This study examined the common and distinguishing features of self-schematic structure in major depressive disorder and social anxiety compared to other anxiety disorders in general and to no psychiatric disturbance. Participants completed the Psychological Distance Scaling Task, which provided an index of the cognitive organization of positively and negatively valenced interpersonal and achievement self-referent content. The depression and social phobia groups were statistically equivalent on all indices of cognitive organization, and showed greater interconnectedness among interpersonal negative content than both control groups, and less interconnectedness among both positive interpersonal and achievement content than did nonpsychiatric controls. Psychiatric groups were equivalent on negative achievement content but showed greater interconnectedness than controls. This study had a modest sample size and the findings are constrained to females. Negative interpersonal content is more densely interconnected in individuals with social phobia and depression compared with both other anxiety disorder and nonpsychiatric controls. In addition, both social phobia and depression were associated with less interconnected positive content. These findings are indicative of similarities in the way self-schematic content may be organized in individuals with depression and social phobia. Theoretical explanations of these results and future research directions are discussed.
Esma Emmioglu Sarikaya
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper examined the balance and meaning of two types of experiences in the day-to-day activity of doctoral students that draw them into academia and that move them away from academia: ‘feeling like an academic and belonging to an academic community;’ and ‘not feeling like an academic and feeling excluded from an academic community.’ Background: As students navigate doctoral work, they are learning what is entailed in being an academic by engaging with their peers and more experienced academics within their community. They are also personally and directly experiencing the rewards as well as the challenges related to doing academic work. Methodology\t: This study used a qualitative methodology; and daily activity logs as a data collection method. The data was collected from 57 PhD students in the social sciences and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics fields at two universities in the UK and two in Canada. Contribution: The current study moves beyond the earlier studies by elaborating on how academic activities contribute/hinder doctoral students’ sense of being an academic. Findings: The participants of the study generally focused on disciplinary/scholarly rather than institutional/service aspects of academic work, aside from teaching, and regarded a wide range of activities as having more positive than negative meanings. The findings related to both extrinsic and intrinsic factors that play important roles in students’ experiences of feeling (or not like academics are elaborated in the study. Recommendations for Practitioners: Supervisors should encourage their students to develop their own support networks and to participate in a wide range of academic activities as much as possible. Supervisors should encourage students to self-assess and to state the activities they feel they need to develop proficiency in. Future Research: More research is needed to examine the role of teaching in doctoral
Mónica Timón Herrero
obtained allow detecting and analyzing in detail distinct forms of articulating the affective and moral facets involved in the resolution of a surrender in which gender connotations play an important role. Subjects were asked to resolve the same conflict from three different perspectives: Justice, Happiness and Help. While from certain theoretical approaches feelings are regarded as disturbing elements of moral reasoning, the organizing models approach showed that considering first the emotional aspects of a conflict can have positive repercussions to the analysis from a perspective of justice. Also, gender differences were detected unrelated either to the structural level or to the moral orientation. The way in which girls and boys gave substance to the conflict differed, and so did the dynamics they established between justice and happiness.
Full Text Available Abstract: This research examined the effectiveness of conflict resolution counseling to solve student’s interpersonal conflict in senior high school. The experimental study used randomized controlled trials design with triple blinding include: client as participants, counselors, and pretest-postestt administrator. Participants were 24 students with destructive interpersonal, devided into 12 students in the experimental group and 12 students in the control group. The experimental group received conflict resolution counseling, and the control group received counseling as usual. Based on anacova statistical test indicated the implementing of conflict resolution counseling had improved four indicators effectively include, (1 positive perceptions of the conflict, (2 collaborative attitude in facing the conflict, (3 constructive way to resolve conflict, (4 the results of a constructive conflict resolution, and (5 the combination of four indicators. It can be concluded that, conflict resolution counseling can help the students of senior high school to solve their interpersonal conflicts. Key Words: Conflict resolution counseling, interpersonal conflict, senior high school students Abstrak: Penelitian ini menguji keefektifan konseling resolusi konflik untuk menyelesaikan konflik interpersonal pada siswa Sekolah Menengah Atas. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan randomized controlled trials: triple blinding. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 24 siswa dengan konflik interpersonal berpola “menang-kalah” ataupun “kalah-kalah”. Mereka terbagi dalam 12 siswa pada kelompok eksperimen serta 12 siswa pada kelompok kontrol, melalui random allocation. Siswa kelompok eksperimen dikenai konseling resolusi konflik
Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam
Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems.
Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad
Full Text Available Background: Despite the important role of feelings in health care seeking behavior (HCSB, this subject has not yet been adequately investigated. HCSB-related feelings begin with the onset of disease symptoms and persist in different forms after treatment. The aim of current study was to explore the feelings that women of reproductive age experience when they seek health care.Methods: In this deductive, qualitative content analysis, participants were selected by purposeful sampling. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 17 women of reproductive age and 5 healthcare staffs in Qom, Iran were carried out until data saturation was achieved. Qualitative data were concurrently analyzed by deductive content analysis, using the Health Promotion Model (HPM. The MAXQDA10 software was used to manage qualitative data analysis.Results: Three main categories were drawn from data to explain the HCSB-related feelings of participants consisting of (1 feeling of inner satisfaction with the treatment with 2 subcategories including "peace of mind" and "feeling alive", (2 multiple roles of fear with 5 subcategories including "fear about the consequences of delay", "fear of having hidden diseases", "fear of unknown experiences", "fear of hearing bad news" and "fear of medical errors" and (3uncomfortable feelings with 3 subcategories including "feeling uneasy when attending health facility", "feeling embarrassed" and "feeling worthless due to dealing the doctor".Conclusion: This study revealed that the inner feelings of women varied widely, ranging from positive or motivating feelings to negative or inhibitory ones, given their experiences with the formal health care system and the current situation of medical and health services. Highlighting patients’ perceived inner satisfaction and reducing fear and uncomfortable feelings by adopting culture-based practical strategies can enhance women’s HCSB.
Hagestad, Gunhild O; Settersten, Richard A
We start with the observation that aging gerontologists often engage in two distinct discourses on aging-one public and one private. This separation entails "othering," which reproduces agism and stigma. Based on personal experience, insight from colleagues and writers, and concepts from symbolic interaction perspectives, we argue that becoming old to some degree involves becoming a stranger. Before reaching old age, both of us have been in the position of strangers due to social experiences that left us "off the line" or "on the margins." Examples are crossing social borders related to nations, class structures, gender, race, health status, and generations. Our stories illustrate how aging is more than personal. It is interpersonal-shaped by social history, policies, interdependence in relationships, and the precariousness of old age. Such phenomena often show sharp contrasts in the interpersonal worlds and social experiences of women and men. Reflecting on our own journeys as life course migrants leaves us acutely aware of both the social problems and potential promises of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Webb, Christine E; Rossignac-Milon, Maya; Higgins, E Tory
Walking has myriad benefits for the mind, most of which have traditionally been explored and explained at the individual level of analysis. Much less empirical work has examined how walking with a partner might benefit social processes. One such process is conflict resolution-a field of psychology in which movement is inherent not only in recent theory and research, but also in colloquial language (e.g., "moving on"). In this article, we unify work from various fields pointing to the idea that walking together can facilitate both the intra- and interpersonal pathways to conflict resolution. Intrapersonally, walking supports various psychological mechanisms for reconciliation, including creativity, locomotion motivation, and embodied notions of forward progress. Both alone and in combination with its effects on mood and stress, walking can encourage individual mindsets conducive to resolving conflict (e.g., divergent thinking). Interpersonally, walking can allow partners to reap the cognitive, affective, and behavioral advantages of synchronous movement, such as increased positive rapport, empathy, and prosociality. Walking partners naturally adopt cooperative (as opposed to competitive) postural stances, experience shared attention, and can benefit from discussions in novel environments. Overall, despite its prevalence in conflict resolution theory, little is known about how movement influences conflict resolution practice. Such knowledge has direct implications for a range of psychological questions and approaches within negotiation and alternative mediation techniques, clinical settings, and the study of close relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Giumetti, Gary W; McKibben, Eric S; Hatfield, Andrea L; Schroeder, Amber N; Kowalski, Robin M
The current study was designed to extend the interpersonal deviance literature into the online domain by examining the incidence and impact of supervisor cyber incivility and neuroticism on employee outcomes at work. Conservation of Resources (COR) theory was used as the guiding framework because cyber incivility is thought to deplete energetic resources in much the same way that other stressors do, ultimately leading to negative outcomes like burnout. Results indicate that supervisor cyber incivility is positively related to burnout, absenteeism, and turnover intentions. Support was also found for the role of neuroticism as a moderator of the relationship between supervisor cyber incivility and outcomes. In general, the relations between cyber incivility and outcomes were stronger for those individuals reporting higher levels of neuroticism. Results are discussed in terms of COR theory, and possible mechanisms for the role of neuroticism in the stressor-strain relationship are discussed. The current study highlights the importance of understanding workplace online behavior and its impact on employee health and organizational well-being. Future research directions examining online interpersonal deviance are suggested.
Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A
The desire for meaning is recognized as a central human motive. Yet, knowing that people want meaning does not explain its function. What adaptive problem does this experience solve? Drawing on the feelings-as-information hypothesis, we propose that the feeling of meaning provides information about the presence of reliable patterns and coherence in the environment, information that is not provided by affect. We review research demonstrating that manipulations of stimulus coherence influence subjective reports of meaning in life but not affect. We demonstrate that manipulations that foster an associative mindset enhance meaning. The meaning-as-information perspective embeds meaning in a network of foundational functions including associative learning, perception, cognition, and neural processing. This approach challenges assumptions about meaning, including its motivational appeal, the roles of expectancies and novelty in this experience, and the notion that meaning is inherently constructed. Implications for constructed meaning and existential meanings are discussed.
Stearns, Deborah C; Parrott, W Gerrod
In two studies, we examined how expressions of guilt and shame affected person perception. In the first study, participants read an autobiographical vignette in which the writer did something wrong and reported feeling either guilt, shame, or no emotion. The participants then rated the writer's motivations, beliefs, and traits, as well as their own feelings toward the writer. The person expressing feelings of guilt or shame was perceived more positively on a number of attributes, including moral motivation and social attunement, than the person who reported feeling no emotion. In the second study, the writer of the vignette reported experiencing (or not experiencing) cognitive and motivational aspects of guilt or shame. Expressing a desire to apologise (guilt) or feelings of worthlessness (private shame) resulted in more positive impressions than did reputational concerns (public shame) or a lack of any of these feelings. Our results indicate that verbal expressions of moral emotions such as guilt and shame influence perception of moral character as well as likeability.
Vohs, Kathleen D
Caruso, Vohs, Baxter, and Waytz (2013) posited that because money is used in free market exchanges, cues of money would lead people to justify and support the systems that allow those exchanges to take place. Hence, the authors predicted that money primes would boost system justification, social dominance, belief in a just world, and free market ideology, and found supportive evidence. Rohrer, Pashler, and Harris (2015) failed to replicate those effects. This article discusses the factors that predict priming effects, and particularly those pertinent to differences between Caruso et al. and Rohrer et al. Variations in a prime's meaning, the ease with which primed content comes to mind, the prime's motivational importance, and the ambiguity of the outcome situation influence the impact of the prime. Money priming experiments (totaling 165 to date, from 18 countries) point to at least 2 major effects. First, compared to neutral primes, people reminded of money are less interpersonally attuned. They are not prosocial, caring, or warm. They eschew interdependence. Second, people reminded of money shift into professional, business, and work mentality. They exert effort on challenging tasks, demonstrate good performance, and feel efficacious. Money priming is not the same as priming another popular means of exchange, credit cards, and can have bigger effects when there is an implied connection between the self and having money. The practical benefits of money have been studied by other disciplines for decades, and the time is now for psychologists to study the effects of merely being reminded of money. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kring, Ann M.; Caponigro, Janelle M.
Our understanding of the nature of emotional difficulties in schizophrenia has been greatly enhanced by translational research over the past two decades. By incorporating methods and theories from affective science, researchers have been able to discover that people with schizophrenia exhibit very few outward displays of emotion but report experiencing strong feelings in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli or events. Recent behavioral, psychophysiological, and brain imaging research...
Langdon, Lance-David Bennett
Feeling Engaged: College Writers as Literacy Tutors brings together scholarship in the rhetoric of emotion and in civic writing to show how emotions - confidence, anger, embarrassment, pride, hope, fear, gratitude, guilt, shame, compassion, enthusiasm, and ennui - shape the roles we take on in K-16 literacy networks. This dissertation takes as a case study the community-engaged composition courses, poetry workshops, and literature classes I coordinated in 2011-2013. The undergraduates I led i...
Juan López Doblas
Full Text Available Our purpose is to look into one of the social problems affecting the most to older people, namely the feeling of loneliness. We intend to approach this problem differentiating its social and emotional dimensions. Through a qualitative methodological strategy ?focus groups as procedure to raise data and Grounded Theory as analytical perspective? we study how that feeling is experienced among a profile of older persons particularly affected by loneliness: older widowed persons living alone. Our findings prove that these persons suffer from emotional loneliness, especially those who enter widowhood at a later age and after decades of marriage. This feeling is linked to the loss of their spouse and it is at night when it is more likely to emerge. Moreover, widowhood comes along with the risk of social loneliness because of the relational distancing from friends who used to be connected to the married couple. We have identified as well gender differences regarding the impact of loneliness, being men those who are especially frail to confront it.
Liu, X; Yue, Z; Cai, Z; Chetwynd, D G; Smith, S T
We report a new investigation into how surface topography and friction affect human touch–feel perception. In contrast with previous work based on micro-scale mapping of surface mechanical and tribological properties, this investigation focuses on the direct measurement of the friction generated when a fingertip is stroked on a test specimen. A special friction apparatus was built for the in situ testing, based on a linear flexure mechanism with both contact force and frictional force measured simultaneously. Ten specimens, already independently assessed in a 'perception clinic', with materials including natural wood, leather, engineered plastics and metal were tested and the results compared with the perceived rankings. Because surface geometrical features are suspected to play a significant role in perception, a second set of samples, all of one material, were prepared and tested in order to minimize the influence of properties such as hardness and thermal conductivity. To minimize subjective effects, all specimens were also tested in a roller-on-block configuration based upon the same friction apparatus, with the roller materials being steel, brass and rubber. This paper reports the detailed design and instrumentation of the friction apparatus, the experimental set-up and the friction test results. Attempts have been made to correlate the measured properties and the perceived feelings for both roughness and friction. The results show that the measured roughness and friction coefficient both have a strong correlation with the rough–smooth and grippy–slippery feelings
Cain, Nicole M; Ansell, Emily B; Simpson, H Blair; Pinto, Anthony
The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. This study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others, whereas OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed.
Cain, Nicole M.; Ansell, Emily B.; Simpson, H. Blair; Pinto, Anthony
The core symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) often lead to interpersonal difficulties. However, little research has explored interpersonal functioning in OCPD. The current study examined interpersonal problems, interpersonal sensitivities, empathy, and systemizing, the drive to analyze and derive underlying rules for systems, in a sample of 25 OCPD individuals, 25 individuals with comorbid OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 25 healthy controls. We found that OCPD individuals reported hostile-dominant interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-dominant behavior by others while OCPD+OCD individuals reported submissive interpersonal problems and sensitivities with warm-submissive behavior by others. Individuals with OCPD, with and without OCD, reported less empathic perspective taking relative to healthy controls. Finally, we found that OCPD males reported a higher drive to analyze and derive rules for systems than OCPD females. Overall, results suggest that there are interpersonal deficits associated with OCPD and the clinical implications of these deficits are discussed. PMID:25046040
Charpentier, Caroline J; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Li, Xinyi; Roiser, Jonathan P; Sharot, Tali
Intuitively, how you feel about potential outcomes will determine your decisions. Indeed, an implicit assumption in one of the most influential theories in psychology, prospect theory, is that feelings govern choice. Surprisingly, however, very little is known about the rules by which feelings are transformed into decisions. Here, we specified a computational model that used feelings to predict choices. We found that this model predicted choice better than existing value-based models, showing a unique contribution of feelings to decisions, over and above value. Similar to the value function in prospect theory, our feeling function showed diminished sensitivity to outcomes as value increased. However, loss aversion in choice was explained by an asymmetry in how feelings about losses and gains were weighted when making a decision, not by an asymmetry in the feelings themselves. The results provide new insights into how feelings are utilized to reach a decision. © The Author(s) 2016.
Dunton, Genevieve F; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M; Riggs, Nathaniel; Hedeker, Donald; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann
Most research on the interplay of affective and physical feelings states with physical activity in children has been conducted under laboratory conditions and fails to capture intraindividual covariation. The current study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to bidirectionally examine how affective and physical feeling states are related to objectively measured physical activity taking place in naturalistic settings during the course of children's everyday lives. Children (N = 119, ages 9-13 years, 52% male, 32% Hispanic) completed 8 days of EMA monitoring, which measured positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), feeling tired, and feeling energetic up to 7 times per day. EMA responses were time-matched to accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the 30 min before and after each EMA survey. Higher ratings of feeling energetic and lower ratings of feeling tired were associated with more MVPA in the 30 min after the EMA prompt. More MVPA in the 30 min before the EMA prompt was associated with higher ratings of PA and feeling energetic and lower ratings of NA. Between-subjects analyses indicated that mean hourly leisure-time MVPA was associated with less intraindividual variability in PA and NA. Physical feeling states predict subsequent physical activity levels, which in turn, predict subsequent affective states in children. Active children demonstrated higher positive and negative emotional stability. Although the strength of these associations were of modest magnitude and their clinical relevance is unclear, understanding the antecedents to and consequences of physical activity may have theoretical and practical implications for the maintenance and promotion of physical activity and psychological well-being in children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Pope, Alan T.; Stephens, Chad L.
One embodiment of biocybernetic adaptation is a human-computer interaction system designed such that physiological signals modulate the effect that control of a task by other means, usually manual control, has on performance of the task. Such a modulation system enables a variety of human-human interactions based upon physiological self-regulation performance. These interpersonal interactions may be mixes of competition and cooperation for simulation training and/or videogame entertainment
Wolfe, D E; Bushardt, S C
Historically, management theorists have recommended the avoidance or suppression of conflict. Modern management theorists recognize interpersonal conflict as an inevitable byproduct of growth and change. The issue is no longer avoidance of conflict but the strategy by which conflict is resolved. Various strategies of conflict resolution and the consequences of each are discussed in this article, along with guidelines for the effective use of confrontation strategy.
ABSTRACT: Today, with the development of communication technologies, social network sites become common and popular. People prefer to communicate with each other via social network sites. In particular, Facebook is used by almost everyone and today it has about 901 million users from all around the world. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the influence of Facebook on interpersonal communication among 200 students who study at the Faculty of Communication and Media Studies at the ...
Ojiako, Udechukwu; Manville, Graham; Zouk, Nadine; Chipulu, Maxwell
One particular area of project management literature that has continued to gain momentum in literature is its social dimension; with a number of scholars emphasising the fact that there is a considerable social dimension to every project activity. Within this context, the authors examine parameters that drive social facets of projects with a particular focus on social cohesion, interpersonal conflicts and national culture. Data from 167 project managers working in Kuwait were collected utilis...
Williams, Felice Amanda
Interpersonal conflict in organizations plays an important role in performance, but the exact nature of that role remains unclear. Among conflict researchers a shift has occurred from believing that all conflict is debilitating for organizational performance to the realization that there are both positive and negative aspects of conflict. Contemporary research adopts a distinction between task conflict and relationship conflict. Conceptually, a positive relationship has been proposed between ...
Barnicot, K; Wampold, B; Priebe, S
It is well-established that core clinician interpersonal behaviours are important when treating depression, but few studies have evaluated whether outcome is determined by clinicians׳ general behaviour rather than by the perception of the individual being treated. In the NIMH TDCRP, 157 patients rated their clinician׳s genuineness, positive regard, empathy and unconditional regard during cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy or clinical management with placebo. The association between averaged ratings for each of 27 clinicians and their patients׳ self- and observer-rated depression outcomes was evaluated, adjusting for the deviation of individual patient ratings from the average for their clinician and other potential confounders. Clinicians in the clinical management condition were rated on average as less genuine and less empathic than those in the psychotherapy conditions. Clinicians׳ average genuineness, positive regard and empathy were significantly associated with lower depression severity during treatment, but not with recovery from depression, after adjusting for the deviation of the individual patient׳s rating of their clinician from the average for that clinician, treatment condition and baseline depression severity. Clinician unconditional regard was not significantly associated with outcome. Using averaged ratings of clinician behaviour likely reduced statistical power. Clinicians׳ ability to demonstrate genuineness, positive regard and empathy may represent a stable personal characteristic that influences the treatment of depression beyond the individual clinician-patient relationship or an individual patient׳s perception of their clinician. However, clinicians׳ ability to demonstrate these behaviours may be poorer when delivering an intervention without a specific rationale or treatment techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Burns, Carol Rhonda; Lagdon, Susan; Boyda, David; Armour, Cherie
A consistent conclusion within the extant literature is that victimization and in particular polyvictimization leads to adverse mental health outcomes. A large body of literature exists as it pertains to the association between victimisation and mental health in studies utilising samples of childhood victims, female only victims, and samples of male and female victims; less research exists as it relates to males victims of interpersonal violence. The aim of the current study was therefore to identify profiles of interpersonal victimizations in an exclusively male sample and to assess their differential impact on a number of adverse mental health outcomes. Using data from 14,477 adult males from Wave 2 of the NESARC, we identified interpersonal victimization profiles via Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial Logistic Regression was subsequently utilized to establish risk across mental health disorders. A 4-class solution was optimal. Victimisation profiles showed elevated odds ratios for the presence of mental health disorders; suggesting that multiple life-course victimisation typologies exists, and that victimization is strongly associated with psychopathology. Several additional notable findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Osman, Ossama T; Abbas, Alaa K; Eid, Hani O; Salem, Mohamed O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M
We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity and outcome of hospitalised interpersonal violence-related injured patients in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates so as to give recommendations regarding the magnitude of this problem, its causes and priorities of prevention. Data were retrieved from Al-Ain Hospital Trauma Registry, which was prospectively collected over three years. There were 75 patients (males = 85.3%) having a mean age of 30 years. Eighty-one percent had blunt trauma. The estimated annual injury hospitalisation of interpersonal violence in Al-Ain city was 6.7 per 100,000 population. Females were significantly more injured by a family member (p = 0.02), at home (p = 0.005), and had more severe injuries (p = 0.003). There was a trend for children less than 18 years old to have more penetrating trauma (p = 0.06) and to be injured by a family member (p = 0.09). There was only one case of woman sexual assault and two cases of child abuse. The mean (SD) hospital stay was 7.87 (14.1) days. Less than 3% (n = 2) were admitted to the intensive care unit with no deaths. In conclusion, the majority of patients in our study had minor injuries. Nevertheless, the psychological impact may be major. This highlights the need to develop suitable mental health services in support of victims of interpersonal violence.
Salazar-López, E; Domínguez, E; Juárez Ramos, V; de la Fuente, J; Meins, A; Iborra, O; Gálvez, G; Rodríguez-Artacho, M A; Gómez-Milán, E
We applied thermography to investigate the cognitive neuropsychology of emotions, using it as a somatic marker of subjective experience during emotional tasks. We obtained results that showed significant correlations between changes in facial temperature and mental set. The main result was the change in the temperature of the nose, which tended to decrease with negative valence stimuli but to increase with positive emotions and arousal patterns. However, temperature change was identified not only in the nose, but also in the forehead, the oro-facial area, the cheeks and in the face taken as a whole. Nevertheless, thermic facial changes, mostly nasal temperature changes, correlated positively with participants' empathy scores and their performance. We found that temperature changes in the face may reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions and feelings like love. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allan, Nicholas P; Gros, Daniel F; Hom, Melanie A; Joiner, Thomas E; Stecker, Tracy
The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits that perceived burdensomeness (PB; i.e., the belief that others would be better off if one were dead) and thwarted belongingness (TB; i.e., the belief that one lacks meaningful social connections) are both necessary risk factors for the development of suicidal ideation. To test these relations, measures are needed that are well validated, especially in samples of at-risk adults. The current study was designed to examine the factor structure of an eight-item version of the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) in a sample of 405 U.S. past and current military personnel (M age = 31.57 years, SD = 7.28; 90.4% male) who endorsed either current suicidal ideation and/or a past suicide attempt. Analyses were conducted using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A bifactor model comprising a general factor, labeled interpersonal needs, and two specific factors, labeled PB and TB, fit the data best. The general factor captured a high proportion of overall variance (81.9%). In contrast, the TB factor captured only a modest amount of variance in items meant to capture this factor (59.1%) and the PB factor captured very little variance in items meant to capture this factor (13.5%). Further, only the interpersonal needs factor was associated with lifetime and past-week suicidal ideation as well as suicidal ideation frequency and duration. The current findings indicate that, for the INQ-8 in high-risk military personnel, a general interpersonal needs factor accounted for the relations PB and TB share with suicidal ideation.
Matosic, D; Ntoumanis, N; Boardley, I D; Sedikides, C; Stewart, B D; Chatzisarantis, N
Athletes' sport experiences are often influenced by the interpersonal styles of communication used by their coaches. Research on personality antecedents of such styles is scarce. We examined the link between a well-researched personality trait, namely narcissism, and two types of coaching interpersonal style, namely autonomy-supportive and controlling styles. We also tested the mediating roles of dominance and empathic concern in explaining the relations between narcissism and the two coaching interpersonal styles. United Kingdom-based coaches (N = 211) from various sports completed a multi-section questionnaire assessing the study variables. Regression analyses revealed a positive direct relation between narcissism and controlling coach behaviors. Furthermore, empathy (but not dominance) mediated the positive and negative indirect effects of narcissism on controlling and autonomy-supported interpersonal styles, respectively. We discuss these findings in terms of their implications for coaching and the quality of athletes' sport experiences. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Taliep, Naiema; Lazarus, Sandy; Naidoo, Anthony V
Exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence have triggered a call by many experts for the need to determine effective ways to address the onset and effects of exposure to interpersonal violence. The specific aim of this study was to identify and draw on existing promising practices to make a more informed decision on strategies to develop a contextually relevant intervention that focused on the promotion of positive forms of masculinity to create safety and peace. This study used a qualitative meta-synthesis (QMS) technique to integrate and interpret findings from various intervention studies that focused on males and/or gender. An in-depth literature search yielded a total of 827 papers that met the search criteria. After removal of duplicates, abstract review, and review of the full texts, the subsequent sample for this meta-synthesis included 12 intervention programs and 23 studies. This QMS revealed the value of a comprehensive approach, using multiple strategies, employing participatory and interactive methods, and promoting social mobilization to address interpersonal violence. The promotion of positive forms of masculinity as an interpersonal violence prevention strategy is a much-needed, relatively untapped approach to generating safety and peace for both males and females.
Thirty-one Japanese undergraduate and postgraduate students in Australian universities participated in semi-structured interviews to examine the interpersonal relationships between Japanese students and other nationalities in Australia, in particular, Australians and other international students. It was found that the Japanese students tended to form closer relationships and feel more comfortable in communicating with other Asian students than Australians, and that many regard Asian students ...
Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects
Antonia Márcia Rodrigues Sousa
Full Text Available By considering that a contextual analysis on the environment collaborates to help entrepreneurs, based on affective sets of the feeling of belonging, this research aims to search the relation between an entrepreneurial intention and attitude in the raising of topophilic feelings in college students. Thus, a quantitative study provided data collected through a sample of 360 students from two further superior education institutes of Ceará. To check this research assumptions (H1 – level of entrepreneurial attitude with a positive impact in the raising topophilic feelings and H2 – level of entrepreneurial intention with a positive impact in the raising of topophilic feelings, a Structural Analysis with the help of statistic software SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 20.0 was made. The analysis of causal trajectories evidenced that all assumptions are highly significant. The analysis of the model presents most of the factorial weights as elevated (≥0,5, besides the adequate coefficient of determination of 0, 27 (R 2 ≥0,25, informing the explanatory importance of regression. All the pattern regression weights (β are significant at the level of significance (p│1,96│. Results presented a positive influence of the entrepreneurial attitude and intention in the feeling of topophilia, once the not refuted assumptions became valid for this study, indicating which theoretical model is able to reproduce the correlational structure of the variable observed in the research sample. The arguments presented in this paper contribute for a larger theoretical knowledge about the relation between the entrepreneurial intention and the attitude in raising the topophilic feeling as well as the definition of strategies for entrepreneurial actions in college environments. Keywords: Topophilic Feelings. Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial Intention. Entrepreneurial Attitude
Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; McCarthy, Kevin S.; Dinger, Ulrike; Chambless, Dianne L.; Milrod, Barbara L.; Kunik, Lauren; Barber, Jacques P.
Objective Panic disorder (PD) is associated with significant personal, social, and economic costs. However, little is known about specific interpersonal dysfunctions that characterize the PD population. The current study systematically examined these interpersonal dysfunctions. Method The present analyses included 194 patients with PD out of a sample of 201 who were randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy, panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, or applied relaxation training. Interpersonal dysfunction was measured using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Circumplex (Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Results Individuals with PD reported greater levels of interpersonal distress than that of a normative cohort (especially when PD was accompanied by agoraphobia), but lower than that of a cohort of patients with major depression. There was no single interpersonal profile that characterized PD patients. Symptom-based clusters (with versus without agoraphobia) could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. Rather, as revealed by cluster analysis based on the pathoplasticity framework, there were two empirically derived interpersonal clusters among PD patients which were not accounted for by symptom severity and were opposite in nature: domineering-intrusive and nonassertive. The empirically derived interpersonal clusters appear to be of clinical utility in predicting alliance development throughout treatment: While the domineering-intrusive cluster did not show any changes in the alliance throughout treatment, the non-assertive cluster showed a process of significant strengthening of the alliance. Conclusions Empirically derived interpersonal clusters in PD provide clinically useful and non-redundant information about individuals with PD. PMID:26030762
Zilcha-Mano, Sigal; McCarthy, Kevin S; Dinger, Ulrike; Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara L; Kunik, Lauren; Barber, Jacques P
Panic disorder (PD) is associated with significant personal, social, and economic costs. However, little is known about specific interpersonal dysfunctions that characterize the PD population. The current study systematically examined these interpersonal dysfunctions. The present analyses included 194 patients with PD out of a sample of 201 who were randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy, panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, or applied relaxation training. Interpersonal dysfunction was measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex (Horowitz, Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 2000). Individuals with PD reported greater levels of interpersonal distress than that of a normative cohort (especially when PD was accompanied by agoraphobia), but lower than that of a cohort of patients with major depression. There was no single interpersonal profile that characterized PD patients. Symptom-based clusters (with vs. without agoraphobia) could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. Rather, as revealed by cluster analysis based on the pathoplasticity framework, there were 2 empirically derived interpersonal clusters among PD patients that were not accounted for by symptom severity and were opposite in nature: domineering-intrusive and nonassertive. The empirically derived interpersonal clusters appear to be of clinical utility in predicting alliance development throughout treatment: Although the domineering-intrusive cluster did not show any changes in the alliance throughout treatment, the nonassertive cluster showed a process of significant strengthening of the alliance. Empirically derived interpersonal clusters in PD provide clinically useful and nonredundant information about individuals with PD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.
Objective This goal of this research was to explore the development of the interpersonal system mapped by the interpersonal circumplex in early adulthood (Ages 18-22). Method This study uses the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders sample (N = 250; 53% Female). Participants completed the Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (Wiggins, Trapnell, & Phillips, 1988) in their freshman, sophomore, and senior years of college. Estimates of structural, rank-order, mean, individual, and ipsative stability were calculated for the broad interpersonal dimensions of Dominance and Affiliation, and also the lower-order octant scales. Additionally, the interpersonal profile parameters of differentiation and prototypicality were calculated at each wave and explored longitudinally, and also used as predictors of interpersonal stability. Results We found excellent structural and high rank-order and ipsative stability in the interpersonal scales over this time period. Mean increases on the Affiliation axis, but not on the Dominance axis, were found to mask differential rates of change among the octant scales, along with significant individual variation in the rates of change. Interpersonal differentiation and prototypicality were related to higher stability in overall interpersonal style. Conclusions Results point to evidence of both stability and nuanced change, illuminating some of the features of the structural variables that can be derived from interpersonal circumplex profiles. PMID:22224462
David J. Gunkel
Full Text Available With the advent of spoken dialogue systems (SDS, communication can no longer be considered a human-to-human transaction. It now involves machines. These mechanisms are not just a medium through which human messages pass, but now occupy the position of the other in social interactions. But the development of robust and efficient conversational agents is not just an engineering challenge. It also depends on research in human conversational behavior. It is the thesis of this paper that communication studies is best situated to respond to this need. The paper argues: 1 that research in communication can supply the information necessary to respond to and resolve many of the open problems in SDS engineering, and 2 that the development of SDS applications can provide the discipline of communication with unique opportunities to test extant theory and verify experimental results. We call this new area of interdisciplinary collaboration “computational interpersonal communication” (CIC
Mojzisch, Andreas; Kerschreiter, Rudolf; Faulmüller, Nadira; Vogelgesang, Frank; Schulz-Hardt, Stefan
Interpersonal cognitive consistency is a driving force in group behavior. In this article, we propose a new model of interpersonal cognitive consistency in collective decision making. Building on ideas from the mutual enhancement model (Wittenbaum, Hubbell, & Zuckerman, 1999), we argue that group members evaluate one another more positively when they mention information confirming each other's preferences instead of information disconfirming these preferences. Furthermore, we argue that this effect is mediated by perceived information quality: Group members evaluate one another more positively when they mention information confirming each other's preferences because they perceive this information to be more important and accurate than information disconfirming each other's preferences. Finally, we hypothesize that group members who communicate information confirming each other's preferences receive positive feedback for doing so, which, in turn, leads group members to mention even more of this information. The results of 3 studies with pseudo and face-to-face interacting dyads provide converging support for our model.
Full Text Available Interpersonal responsibility is an indigenous Chinese personality construct, which is regarded to have positive social functions. Two studies were designed to explore the relationship among interpersonal responsibility, proposal allocation ratio, and responders’ hostile decisions in an ultimatum game. Study 1 was a scenario study using a hypothetical ultimatum game with a valid sample of 551 high school students. Study 2 was an experimental study which recruited 54 undergraduate students to play the incentivized ultimatum game online. The results of the two studies showed a significantly negative correlation between interpersonal responsibility and responders’ rejection responses only when the proposal allocation ratio was 3:7. In addition, in Study 2, interpersonal responsibility had negative effects on responders’ rejection responses under the offer of 3:7, even after controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Taken together, proposal allocation ratio might moderate the effects of interpersonal responsibility on hostile decision-making in the ultimatum game. The social function of interpersonal responsibility might be beyond the Big Five.
Ryu, Hyera; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Aruem; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok
Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young's Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11), interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI). We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults' IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression) but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships).
Ryu, Hyera; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Aruem; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Dai-Jin
Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young’s Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11), interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI). We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults’ IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression) but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships). PMID:29509708
Gong, Xinyu; Xia, Ling-Xiang; Sun, Yanlin; Guo, Lei; Carpenter, Vanessa C.; Fang, Yuan; Chen, Yunli
Interpersonal responsibility is an indigenous Chinese personality construct, which is regarded to have positive social functions. Two studies were designed to explore the relationship among interpersonal responsibility, proposal allocation ratio, and responders’ hostile decisions in an ultimatum game. Study 1 was a scenario study using a hypothetical ultimatum game with a valid sample of 551 high school students. Study 2 was an experimental study which recruited 54 undergraduate students to play the incentivized ultimatum game online. The results of the two studies showed a significantly negative correlation between interpersonal responsibility and responders’ rejection responses only when the proposal allocation ratio was 3:7. In addition, in Study 2, interpersonal responsibility had negative effects on responders’ rejection responses under the offer of 3:7, even after controlling for the Big Five personality traits. Taken together, proposal allocation ratio might moderate the effects of interpersonal responsibility on hostile decision-making in the ultimatum game. The social function of interpersonal responsibility might be beyond the Big Five. PMID:29184518
Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young’s Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT, impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11, interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS, and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI. We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults’ IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships.
Montesanti, Stephanie Rose; Thurston, Wilfreda E
Research on interpersonal violence towards women has commonly focused on individual or proximate-level determinants associated with violent acts ignores the roles of larger structural systems that shape interpersonal violence. Though this research has contributed to an understanding of the prevalence and consequences of violence towards women, it ignores how patterns of violence are connected to social systems and social institutions. In this paper, we discuss the findings from a scoping review that examined: 1) how structural and symbolic violence contributes to interpersonal violence against women; and 2) the relationships between the social determinants of health and interpersonal violence against women. We used concept mapping to identify what was reported on the relationships among individual-level characteristics and population-level influence on gender-based violence against women and the consequences for women's health. Institutional ethics review was not required for this scoping review since there was no involvement or contact with human subjects. The different forms of violence-symbolic, structural and interpersonal-are not mutually exclusive, rather they relate to one another as they manifest in the lives of women. Structural violence is marked by deeply unequal access to the determinants of health (e.g., housing, good quality health care, and unemployment), which then create conditions where interpersonal violence can happen and which shape gendered forms of violence for women in vulnerable social positions. Our web of causation illustrates how structural factors can have negative impacts on the social determinants of health and increases the risk for interpersonal violence among women. Public health policy responses to violence against women should move beyond individual-level approaches to violence, to consider how structural and interpersonal level violence and power relations shape the 'lived experiences' of violence for women.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. In (countertransference relationship therapist’s interpersonal style, implying the perceived relation of therapist to a client (patient in terms of control, autonomy, care and positive feedback, has been shown to be important. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between therapist’s interpersonal style and clients’ personality self-reports. Within therapist’s interpersonal style, preliminary validation of the Therapist’s Interpersonal Style Scale has been conducted, which included double translation method, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the reliability tests of the derived components. Methods. This research was conducted on a group of 206 clients, attending one of the four psychotherapy modalities: psychoanalysis, gestalt therapy, cognitive-behavioral and systemic family therapy. Beside Therapist’s Interpersonal Style Scale, Big Five Questionnaire and Therapy Benefit Scale were administered, showing good internal consistency. Results. Principal component analysis of therapist’s interpersonal style singled out two components Supportive Autonomy and Ignoring Control, explaining 42% of variance. Two-factor model of the therapist’s styles was better fitted in confirmatory factor analysis than the original 4-factor model. Structural model showing indirect and direct effects of therapist’s interpersonal styles on selfreports in clients indicates good fitness (χ2(12 = 8.932, p = 0.709; goodness-of-fit index = 0.989, with Ignoring Control having direct effect on Stability, Supportive Autonomy on Therapy Benefit, and Therapy Benefit on Plasticity. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the importance of further research on therapist’s interpersonal style, as well as further validation of the instrument that measures this construct. Besides, a client’s perception that the therapy is being helpful could instigate more explorative and approach
Bailey, R. E.; Knotts, L. H.
An experimental investigation of the influence of lateral feel system characteristics on fighter aircraft roll flying qualities was conducted using the variable stability USAF NT-33. Forty-two evaluation flights were flown by three engineering test pilots. The investigation utilized the power approach, visual landing task and up-and-away tasks including formation, gun tracking, and computer-generated compensatory attitude tracking tasks displayed on the Head-Up Display. Experimental variations included the feel system frequency, force-deflection gradient, control system command type (force or position input command), aircraft roll mode time constant, control system prefilter frequency, and control system time delay. The primary data were task performance records and evaluation pilot comments and ratings using the Cooper-Harper scale. The data highlight the unique and powerful effect of the feel system of flying qualities. The data show that the feel system is not 'equivalent' in flying qualities influence to analogous control system elements. A lower limit of allowable feel system frequency appears warranted to ensure good lateral flying qualities. Flying qualities criteria should most properly treat the feel system dynamic influence separately from the control system, since the input and output of this dynamic element is apparent to the pilot and thus, does not produce a 'hidden' effect.
Sri Linuwih Menaldi
Full Text Available AbstractPrior to admission, medical students were subject to psychological tests to measure their logical thinking skills and personality, hence predicting their ability to complete their studies. The results showed 56,45% of medical students obtained recommendation category 4 (doubtful and 5 (not recommended, two categories which are considered to be at-risk group with a very small probability of completing their studies. These results predicted that students in the mentioned groups will have difficulties in achieving the clinical competence level required by the Indonesian Doctors’ Competency Standard (IDCS. The aim of the study was to investigate clinical competency achievement by at-risk medical students in the third year, after following interpersonal skills development training program on July 2011. This research used qualitative study design through psychological examination, written self-reflection and in-depth interview after the training. Interpersonal skills development training for at-risk medical students gave positive effects to theircharacter development for the helping profession. It was concluded that interpersonal skills training could help improve medical student’s achievement of clinical competence especially for at-risk group in their clinical rotations stage.Keywords: medical students, at-risk group, interpersonal skills, clinical competence AbstrakPada mahasiswa kedokteran yang baru masuk dilakukan pemeriksaan psikologis untuk memperoleh gambaran penalaran dan kepribadian untuk memprediksi kemampuan mahasiswa dalam menyelesaikan pendidikan. Berdasarkan pemeriksaan tersebut diperoleh 56,45% mahasiswa dengan hasil uji psikometrik kategori rekomendasi 4 (diragukan dan 5 (tidak disarankan yang disebut sebagai kelompok at-risk. Kelompok at risk memiliki peluang keberhasilan rendah untuk menyelesaikan pendidikan dan akan mengalami kesulitan mencapai kompetensi klinik sesuai Standar Kompetensi Dokter Indonesia. Tujuan
Salzer, Simone; Leibing, Eric; Jakobsen, Thorsten; Rudolf, Gerd; Brockmann, Josef; Eckert, Jochen; Huber, Dorothea; Klug, Günther; Henrich, Gerhard; Grande, Tilmann; Keller, Wolfram; Kreische, Reinhard; Biskup, Joachim; Staats, Hermann; Warwas, Jasmin; Leichsenring, Falk
Interpersonal problems were studied in 121 patients treated with psychoanalytic therapy using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. Four characteristic subtypes were identified, which differed in the quality and flexibility of their interpersonal behavior. Independent of the predominant type of interpersonal problems, the psychotherapy treatment led to strong decreases in interpersonal distress and increases in interpersonal differentiation. Psychoanalytic therapy was highly effective for all identified interpersonal subtypes and seems to help patients achieve more satisfactory relationships.
Le, Thao N; Johansen, Samantha
Multiculturalism has been purported to be supportive of positive youth development and outcomes. This study examined the relationship between perceived school multiculturalism-whether youth felt and thought that their school and teachers supported and provided activities for diverse intergroup interactions-and serious interpersonal violence, and explored whether this relation was mediated by civic engagement, ethnic identity, ethnocultural empathy, and positive peers. An ethnically diverse sample of 324 middle-school youth (mean age: 12.5 years; range: 11-15 years; sex: 50% female) from a city in northern California participated in the study. Analyses consisted of structural equation modeling with bootstrapping. The results revealed a negative association between school multiculturalism and interpersonal violence that was fully mediated by positive peers and civic engagement. Although school multiculturalism was positively associated with ethnic identity, ethnic identity, in turn, was not significantly associated with interpersonal violence. School multiculturalism is an important protective factor against youth violence by facilitating positive peer relationships and community engagement among youth. Teachers, administrators, and health officials need to consider the ways in which they can facilitate and encourage greater understanding, openness, and respect for diversity, and promote harmonious interactions among different groups at schools. Greater institutional support for school multiculturalism through implementation of tolerance curriculum and activities, for example, could in turn facilitate favorable youth outcomes. © 2011, American School Health Association.
Bijan khajeNoori; Mehdi Kaveh
IntroductionThe concept of social security and a Feeling of security and the citizens, as a key element in achieving the projected, is important Sociologists and criminologist shave always paid special attention has been sought. Study of the factors influencing the feeling of security, can increase the feeling of security is work. Also enhance citizens' feeling of security and welfare of the citizens and to accept responsibility and commitment will do. The widespread use of social media in re...
Full Text Available Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1 we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking towards the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2 we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants. In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude towards a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.
Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate
Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a community feeling scale in order to analyze the community feeling of learners, enrolled in a distance education program which is designed with blended learning model, in online environments. Providing interaction with information communication technologies come into prominence as a result of increasing importance of these technologies in distance education. Although this situation has positive contributions, it may have negative effects on decrement of the motivation, achievement, satisfaction or learning of student such as social isolation, aprosexia, and feeling of alienation. The role of community feeling is major on drop out rates, which is one of the quality indicators of distance education. Rovai (2001b defined classroom community components, including McMillan and Chavis‟s four components of community dimensions. These components are spirit, trust, influence and learning. Spirit shows the acceptance of the membership in the community and develops the feelings of friendship, commitment and satisfaction between the students. Trust is the second one of the class community components. It will be friendly and constructive if the community can be trusted and be given feedback by individuals. When individuals have been accepted by a growing and developing community, they feel more in safe and start to trust to community. The third component, influence is the feeling of closeness and mutual benefit between the individuals. The last component learning is the feeling that community enhances the acquisition of knowledge and understanding, and also the feeling of active information and meaning conformation which supplies the educational needs of the individuals that it consists of. According to the research results, the community feeling of students has so many positive effects. Strong community feeling have positive outcomes as increasing the flow of information, access to support, collaboration between the
Full Text Available This essay revisits Raymond Williams’s notion of ‘structures of feeling’ with the intention of clarifying what Williams meant by ‘feelings’, and of exploring the concept’s possible range and reach within the study of culture. It recovers the initial anthropological context for the phrase by reconnecting it to the work of Ruth Benedict and Gregory Bateson. It goes on to suggest that while the analysis of ‘structures of feeling’ has been deployed primarily in studies of literary and filmic culture it might be usefully extended towards the study of more ubiquitous forms of material culture such as clothing, housing, food, furnishings and other material practices of daily living. Indeed it might be one way of explaining how formations of feeling are disseminated, how they suture us to the social world and how feelings are embedded in the accoutrements of domestic, habitual life. The essay argues that by joining together a socially phenomenological interest in the world of things, accompanied by an attention to historically specific moods and atmospheres, ‘structures of feelings’ can direct analyses towards important mundane cultural phenomena.
Roche, Michael J.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.; Hyde, Amanda L.; Ram, Nilam
The Cognitive-Affective Processing System (CAPS) has been proposed as a useful meta-framework for integrating contextual differences in situations with individual differences in personality pathology. In this article, we evaluated the potential of combining the CAPS meta-framework and contemporary interpersonal theory to investigate how individual differences in pathological narcissism influenced interpersonal functioning in daily life. University students (N = 184) completed event-contingent reports about interpersonal interactions across a 7-day diary study. Using multilevel regression models, we found that combinations of narcissistic expression (grandiosity, vulnerability) were associated with different interpersonal behavior patterns reflective of interpersonal dysfunction. These results are among the first to empirically demonstrate the usefulness of the CAPS model to conceptualize personality pathology through the patterning of if-then interpersonal processes. PMID:23205698
Cain, Nicole M; Pincus, Aaron L; Grosse Holtforth, Martin
Interpersonal assessment may provide a clinically useful way to identify subtypes of social phobia. In this study, we examined evidence for interpersonal subtypes in a sample of 77 socially phobic outpatients. A cluster analysis based on the dimensions of dominance and love on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scales (Alden, Wiggins, & Pincus, 1990) found 2 interpersonal subtypes of socially phobic patients. These subtypes did not differ on pretreatment global symptom severity as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993) or diagnostic comorbidity but did exhibit differential responses to outpatient psychotherapy. Overall, friendly-submissive social phobia patients had significantly lower scores on measures of social anxiety and significantly higher scores on measures of well-being and satisfaction at posttreatment than cold-submissive social phobia patients. We discuss the results in terms of interpersonal theory and the clinical relevance of assessment of interpersonal functioning prior to beginning psychotherapy with socially phobic patients.
Kuncorowati, R. H.; Mardiyana; Saputro, D. R. S.
Creative thinking ability was one of student’s ability to determine various alternative solutions toward mathematics problem. One of indicators related to creative thinking ability was interpersonal intelligence. Student’s interpersonal intelligence would influence to student’s creativity. This research aimed to analyze creative thinking ability level of junior high school students in Karanganyar using descriptive method. Data was collected by test, questionnaire, interview, and documentation. The result showed that students with high interpersonal intelligence achieved third and fourth level in creative thinking ability. Students with moderate interpersonal intelligence achieved second level in creative thinking ability and students with low interpersonal intelligence achieved first and zero level in creative thinking ability. Hence, students with high, moderate, and low interpersonal intelligence could solve mathematics problem based on their mathematics creative thinking ability.
Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.
In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of daily affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed daily diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of daily stress were used as predictors of daily shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to daily fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to daily stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849
Full Text Available Interpersonal postural coordination (IPC produced by interpersonal light touch (ILT, whereby time-series variations in the postural sway between two people unintentionally resemble each other, may be a possible social interaction. From a sociopsychological standpoint, close mutual behavioral coordination is recognized as “social glue,” which represents the closeness of relationships and contributes to the building of a good rapport. Therefore, we hypothesized that if IPC functions as social glue, then IPC produced by ILT also represents a social relationship. Participants were dyadic pairs with a preexisting social relationship (acquaintance, friend, or best-friend, and we assessed the closeness between the partners. Postural sway in two quiet standing conditions—no touch (NT and ILT (a mutual light touch with <1 N condition—was concurrently measured with the side-by-side standing position, and the association of IPC with intradyadic closeness (rapport was analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that unintentional IPC was higher in both axes of the ILT condition than in NT condition. Additionally, IPC in the mediolateral axis (the partner side of the ILT condition was positively correlated with intradyadic closeness, whereas that in the anteroposterior axis (the non-partner side showed a negative association. As expected, IPC represented intradyadic closeness (rapport. Results indicate that, in unintentional IPC produced by ILT, the priority of processing sensory feedback for postural control, which is received from the individual and a partner, is modulated depending on the rapport in interactional coupled feedback loops between the two individuals (i.e., good rapport increases the degree of taking in feedback from a partner. Thus, unintentional IPC produced by ILT functions as social glue, and it provides an understanding of the sociopsychological aspect in the human-to-human postural coordination mechanism.
ABSTRACT This article defends three claims: (1) even if Rawls' difference principle permits incentives to induce talented people to be more productive, it does not follow that it permits inequalities; (2) the difference principle, when adequately specified, may in some circumstances permit incent...... incentives and allow that the worst off are not made as well off as they could be; and (3) an argument for incentives might pass Cohen's interpersonal test even if it is unsound and might not pass it even if it is sound. 1...
In this review, the author theoretically and empirically examined motives and interpersonal functions of aggression. A factor-analysis of Averill's questionnaire items on anger revealed that motives involved in aggressive responses were clustered into two groups: the hostile and the instrumental. It was also clarified that an individual is likely to engage in aggression particularly when some hostile motives are evoked. Concerning the interpersonal functions, the author proposed that aggression might serve four principal goals. (1) Aggression can be generated as an avoidance response to an aversive stimulus, such as frustration, annoyance, or pain, and so on. It depends on the severity of the stimulus. It was however emphasized that aggression is also mediated by social cognition, such as an attribution of intent to a harm-doer. (2) Aggression can be used as a means of coercing the other person into doing something. An individual is likely to use such a power strategy if he/she is lacking in self-confidence or a perspective for influencing the target person by more peaceful strategies. (3) Aggression can be interpreted as a punishment when it is directed toward a transgressor. In this case, aggression is motivated by restoration of a social justice, and thus its intensity is determined by the perceived moral responsibility of the transgressor. Further, it was indicated that aggression is intensified if it is justified as a sanctional conduct against the immoral. (4) Aggression can be also evoked when an individual's social identity is threatened. It was suggested that impression management motives are involved in aggression by an unexpected finding that the presence of audience or the identifiability rather facilitated retaliative aggression. The aggression-inhibition effect of apology was also explained in terms of impression management. In conclusion, it was presented that aggression is a behavioral strategy as an attempt to resolve interpersonal conflicts
Full Text Available In this paper employing a phenomenological method to explicate seven informants’ experience of interpersonal bullying behaviors in a South African work context, I demarcated four general themes namely: lack of recognition, discrimination, obstructionism, and isolation. Moreover, I found that perpetrators (male and female managers predominantly used verbal and indirect negative acts to bully subordinates. Finally, racial tensions contributed to bullying behavior. While a phenomenological approach shows promise to explore local bullying behavior more research is needed to broaden our understanding of the phenomenon, including explicating bullying through the eyes of bystanders and alleged bullies.
Elliott, Kari A; Erickson, Michael D; Fowler, Edward T; Gieseking, John K; Weiss, Mary P
.... This project expands the findings from the 2003 Army Training and Leadership Development Panel, Communication Task Force initiative, which identified a perceived gap in interpersonal skills exhibited...
Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Scott, Lori N; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A
We examined the relationship between psychopathology and interpersonal problems in a sample of 825 clinical and community participants. Sixteen psychiatric diagnoses and five transdiagnostic dimensions were examined in relation to self-reported interpersonal problems. The structural summary method was used with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales to examine interpersonal problem profiles for each diagnosis and dimension. We built a structural model of mental disorders including factors corresponding to detachment (avoidant personality, social phobia, major depression), internalizing (dependent personality, borderline personality, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress, major depression), disinhibition (antisocial personality, drug dependence, alcohol dependence, borderline personality), dominance (histrionic personality, narcissistic personality, paranoid personality), and compulsivity (obsessive-compulsive personality). All dimensions showed good interpersonal prototypicality (e.g., detachment was defined by a socially avoidant/nonassertive interpersonal profile) except for internalizing, which was diffusely associated with elevated interpersonal distress. The findings for individual disorders were largely consistent with the dimension that each disorder loaded on, with the exception of the internalizing and dominance disorders, which were interpersonally heterogeneous. These results replicate previous findings and provide novel insights into social dysfunction in psychopathology by wedding the power of hierarchical (i.e., dimensional) modeling and interpersonal circumplex assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goodboy, Alan K.; Kashy, Deborah A.
Do we study too much interpersonal communication and not enough of other topics in the instructional communication literature? This forum provides a mixed bag of both affirmative and negative responses to this question. On one hand, answering "yes" is quite defensible because there are many recent studies examining interpersonal…
Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan
The overall aims of this study were to identify qualities of interpersonal interaction within teacher-parent-pupil learning partnerships and to explore whether these characteristics were predictors of learning and teaching outcomes for teachers, parents and pupils participating in pursuit of expertise on musical instruments. This article presents…
Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria; Arias, V. Santiago
In this brief forum article, the authors suggest that in order to truly understand communication education, both interpersonal and instructional variables must be analyzed. Instructors, researchers, and scholars need to find balance between content and relationship aspects while being aware of context boundaries to truly assist in maximizing…
Veldman, Ietje; Admiraal, Wilfried; Mainhard, Tim; Wubbels, Theo; Van Tartwijk, Jan
In this study, we present the development and validation of an instrument for measuring teachers’ interpersonal self-efficacy: the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction-Self-Efficacy (QTI-SE). We used the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction as a basis to construct items. Current scales on teacher