Positive solutions of fractional differential equations with derivative terms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cuiping Cheng
2012-11-01
Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the existence of positive solutions for nonlinear fractional differential equation whose nonlinearity contains the first-order derivative, $$displaylines{ D_{0^+}^{alpha}u(t+f(t,u(t,u'(t=0,quad tin (0,1,; n-1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Gao
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Aiming at balancing and positioning of a new electro-hydraulic servo system with iso-actuation configuration, an extended state observer–based fractional order proportional–integral–derivative controller is proposed in this study. To meet the lightweight requirements of heavy barrel weapons with large diameters, an electro-hydraulic servo system with a three-chamber hydraulic cylinder is especially designed. In the electro-hydraulic servo system, the balance chamber of the hydraulic cylinder is used to realize active balancing of the unbalanced forces, while the driving chambers consisting of the upper and lower chambers are adopted for barrel positioning and dynamic compensation of external disturbances. Compared with conventional proportional–integral–derivative controllers, the fractional order proportional–integral–derivative possesses another two adjustable parameters by expanding integer order to arbitrary order calculus, resulting in more flexibility and stronger robustness of the control system. To better compensate for strong external disturbances and system nonlinearities, the extended state observer strategy is further introduced to the fractional order proportional–integral–derivative control system. Numerical simulation and bench test indicate that the extended state observer–based fractional order proportional–integral–derivative significantly outperforms proportional–integral–derivative and fractional order proportional–integral–derivative control systems with better control accuracy and higher system robustness, well demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed extended state observer–based fractional order proportional–integral–derivative control strategy.
Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harry H. Hilton
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.
Fractional variational calculus in terms of Riesz fractional derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agrawal, O P
2007-01-01
This paper presents extensions of traditional calculus of variations for systems containing Riesz fractional derivatives (RFDs). Specifically, we present generalized Euler-Lagrange equations and the transversality conditions for fractional variational problems (FVPs) defined in terms of RFDs. We consider two problems, a simple FVP and an FVP of Lagrange. Results of the first problem are extended to problems containing multiple fractional derivatives, functions and parameters, and to unspecified boundary conditions. For the second problem, we present Lagrange-type multiplier rules. For both problems, we develop the Euler-Lagrange-type necessary conditions which must be satisfied for the given functional to be extremum. Problems are considered to demonstrate applications of the formulations. Explicitly, we introduce fractional momenta, fractional Hamiltonian, fractional Hamilton equations of motion, fractional field theory and fractional optimal control. The formulations presented and the resulting equations are similar to the formulations for FVPs given in Agrawal (2002 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 272 368, 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 10375) and to those that appear in the field of classical calculus of variations. These formulations are simple and can be extended to other problems in the field of fractional calculus of variations
Generalized fractional Schroedinger equation with space-time fractional derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shaowei; Xu Mingyu
2007-01-01
In this paper the generalized fractional Schroedinger equation with space and time fractional derivatives is constructed. The equation is solved for free particle and for a square potential well by the method of integral transforms, Fourier transform and Laplace transform, and the solution can be expressed in terms of Mittag-Leffler function. The Green function for free particle is also presented in this paper. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the cases of the generalized fractional Schroedinger equation and the ones in standard quantum
Generalized time fractional IHCP with Caputo fractional derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murio, D A; MejIa, C E
2008-01-01
The numerical solution of the generalized time fractional inverse heat conduction problem (GTFIHCP) on a finite slab is investigated in the presence of measured (noisy) data when the time fractional derivative is interpreted in the sense of Caputo. The GTFIHCP involves the simultaneous identification of the heat flux and temperature transient functions at one of the boundaries of the finite slab together with the initial condition of the original direct problem from noisy Cauchy data at a discrete set of points on the opposite (active) boundary. A finite difference space marching scheme with adaptive regularization, using trigonometric mollification techniques and generalized cross validation is introduced. Error estimates for the numerical solution of the mollified problem and numerical examples are provided.
The Klein–Gordon–Zakharov equations with the positive fractional
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... and the new special types of KGZ equations with the positive fractional power terms (gKGZE) are presented. ... exact solutions of four special types of the gKGZE are derived, which are the bell-type ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.
Coronary CT Angiography Derived Fractional Flow Reserve
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Jensen, Jesper Møller; Blanke, Philipp
2017-01-01
Purpose of Review: To summarize the scientific basis of CT derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) and present an updated review on the evidence from clinical trials and real-world observational data Recent Findings: In prospective multicenter studies of patients with stable coronary artery disea...... of patients with stable CAD. The optimal FFRCT testing interpretation strategy, as well as the relative cost-efficiency of FFRCT against standard noninvasive functional testing, need further investigation....
THE NEW SOLUTION OF TIME FRACTIONAL WAVE EQUATION WITH CONFORMABLE FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE DEFINITION
Çenesiz, Yücel; Kurt, Ali
2015-01-01
– In this paper, we used new fractional derivative definition, the conformable fractional derivative, for solving two and three dimensional time fractional wave equation. This definition is simple and very effective in the solution procedures of the fractional differential equations that have complicated solutions with classical fractional derivative definitions like Caputo, Riemann-Liouville and etc. The results show that conformable fractional derivative definition is usable and convenient ...
Modeling of heat conduction via fractional derivatives
Fabrizio, Mauro; Giorgi, Claudio; Morro, Angelo
2017-09-01
The modeling of heat conduction is considered by letting the time derivative, in the Cattaneo-Maxwell equation, be replaced by a derivative of fractional order. The purpose of this new approach is to overcome some drawbacks of the Cattaneo-Maxwell equation, for instance possible fluctuations which violate the non-negativity of the absolute temperature. Consistency with thermodynamics is shown to hold for a suitable free energy potential, that is in fact a functional of the summed history of the heat flux, subject to a suitable restriction on the set of admissible histories. Compatibility with wave propagation at a finite speed is investigated in connection with temperature-rate waves. It follows that though, as expected, this is the case for the Cattaneo-Maxwell equation, the model involving the fractional derivative does not allow the propagation at a finite speed. Nevertheless, this new model provides a good description of wave-like profiles in thermal propagation phenomena, whereas Fourier's law does not.
Fractional derivative and its application in mathematics and physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namsrai, K.
2004-12-01
We propose fractional derivatives and to study those mathematical and physical consequences. It is shown that fractional derivatives possess noncommutative and nonassociative properties and within which motion of a particle, differential and integral calculuses are investigated. (author)
Fractional Hamiltonian analysis of higher order derivatives systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baleanu, Dumitru; Muslih, Sami I.; Tas, Kenan
2006-01-01
The fractional Hamiltonian analysis of 1+1 dimensional field theory is investigated and the fractional Ostrogradski's formulation is obtained. The fractional path integral of both simple harmonic oscillator with an acceleration-squares part and a damped oscillator are analyzed. The classical results are obtained when fractional derivatives are replaced with the integer order derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Ji-Huan; Elagan, S.K.; Li, Z.B.
2012-01-01
The fractional complex transform is suggested to convert a fractional differential equation with Jumarie's modification of Riemann–Liouville derivative into its classical differential partner. Understanding the fractional complex transform and the chain rule for fractional calculus are elucidated geometrically. -- Highlights: ► The chain rule for fractional calculus is invalid, a counter example is given. ► The fractional complex transform is explained geometrically. ► Fractional equations can be converted into differential equations.
State-Space Modelling of Loudspeakers using Fractional Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
King, Alexander Weider; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2015-01-01
This work investigates the use of fractional order derivatives in modeling moving-coil loudspeakers. A fractional order state-space solution is developed, leading the way towards incorporating nonlinearities into a fractional order system. The method is used to calculate the response of a fractio......This work investigates the use of fractional order derivatives in modeling moving-coil loudspeakers. A fractional order state-space solution is developed, leading the way towards incorporating nonlinearities into a fractional order system. The method is used to calculate the response...... of a fractional harmonic oscillator, representing the mechanical part of a loudspeaker, showing the effect of the fractional derivative and its relationship to viscoelasticity. Finally, a loudspeaker model with a fractional order viscoelastic suspension and fractional order voice coil is fit to measurement data...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Zhou
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The unstable equilibrium points of the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be controlled via fractional-order derivative, and chaos synchronization for the fractional-order Lorenz chaotic system can be achieved via fractional-order derivative. The control and synchronization technique, based on stability theory of fractional-order systems, is simple and theoretically rigorous. The numerical simulations demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed method.
Analysis of Drude model using fractional derivatives without singular kernels
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Jiménez Leonardo Martínez
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We report study exploring the fractional Drude model in the time domain, using fractional derivatives without singular kernels, Caputo-Fabrizio (CF, and fractional derivatives with a stretched Mittag-Leffler function. It is shown that the velocity and current density of electrons moving through a metal depend on both the time and the fractional order 0 < γ ≤ 1. Due to non-singular fractional kernels, it is possible to consider complete memory effects in the model, which appear neither in the ordinary model, nor in the fractional Drude model with Caputo fractional derivative. A comparison is also made between these two representations of the fractional derivatives, resulting a considered difference when γ < 0.8.
Variational problems with fractional derivatives: Euler-Lagrange equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atanackovic, T M; Konjik, S; Pilipovic, S
2008-01-01
We generalize the fractional variational problem by allowing the possibility that the lower bound in the fractional derivative does not coincide with the lower bound of the integral that is minimized. Also, for the standard case when these two bounds coincide, we derive a new form of Euler-Lagrange equations. We use approximations for fractional derivatives in the Lagrangian and obtain the Euler-Lagrange equations which approximate the initial Euler-Lagrange equations in a weak sense
Fractional-Order Control of Pneumatic Position Servosystems
Junyi, Cao; Binggang, Cao
2011-01-01
A fractional-order control strategy for pneumatic position servosystem is presented in this paper. The idea of the fractional calculus application to control theory was introduced in many works, and its advantages were proved. However, the realization of fractional-order controllers for pneumatic position servosystems has not been investigated. Based on the relationship between the pressure in cylinder and the rate of mass flow into the cylinder, the dynamic model of pneumatic position servo ...
Fractional-Order Control of Pneumatic Position Servosystems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cao Junyi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A fractional-order control strategy for pneumatic position servosystem is presented in this paper. The idea of the fractional calculus application to control theory was introduced in many works, and its advantages were proved. However, the realization of fractional-order controllers for pneumatic position servosystems has not been investigated. Based on the relationship between the pressure in cylinder and the rate of mass flow into the cylinder, the dynamic model of pneumatic position servo system is established. The fractional-order controller for pneumatic position servo and its implementation in industrial computer is designed. The experiments with fractional-order controller are carried out under various conditions, which include sine position signal with different frequency and amplitude, step position signal, and variety inertial load. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme and verify their fine control performance for pneumatic position servo system.
Large deflection of viscoelastic beams using fractional derivative model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahranini, Seyed Masoud Sotoodeh; Eghtesad, Mohammad; Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Farid, Mehrdad
2013-01-01
This paper deals with large deflection of viscoelastic beams using a fractional derivative model. For this purpose, a nonlinear finite element formulation of viscoelastic beams in conjunction with the fractional derivative constitutive equations has been developed. The four-parameter fractional derivative model has been used to describe the constitutive equations. The deflected configuration for a uniform beam with different boundary conditions and loads is presented. The effect of the order of fractional derivative on the large deflection of the cantilever viscoelastic beam, is investigated after 10, 100, and 1000 hours. The main contribution of this paper is finite element implementation for nonlinear analysis of viscoelastic fractional model using the storage of both strain and stress histories. The validity of the present analysis is confirmed by comparing the results with those found in the literature.
Simulation of chemical reactions using fractional derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zabadal, J.; Vilhena, M.; Livotto, P.
2001-01-01
In this work a new approach to solve time-dependant Schroedinger equation for molecular systems is proposed. The method employs functional derivatives to describe the time evolution of the wave functions in reactive systems, in order to establish the mechanisms and products of the reaction. A numerical simulation is reported
Measuring memory with the order of fractional derivative
Du, Maolin; Wang, Zaihua; Hu, Haiyan
2013-12-01
Fractional derivative has a history as long as that of classical calculus, but it is much less popular than it should be. What is the physical meaning of fractional derivative? This is still an open problem. In modeling various memory phenomena, we observe that a memory process usually consists of two stages. One is short with permanent retention, and the other is governed by a simple model of fractional derivative. With the numerical least square method, we show that the fractional model perfectly fits the test data of memory phenomena in different disciplines, not only in mechanics, but also in biology and psychology. Based on this model, we find that a physical meaning of the fractional order is an index of memory.
Periodicity and positivity of a class of fractional differential equations.
Ibrahim, Rabha W; Ahmad, M Z; Mohammed, M Jasim
2016-01-01
Fractional differential equations have been discussed in this study. We utilize the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus to implement it within the generalization of the well known class of differential equations. The Rayleigh differential equation has been generalized of fractional second order. The existence of periodic and positive outcome is established in a new method. The solution is described in a fractional periodic Sobolev space. Positivity of outcomes is considered under certain requirements. We develop and extend some recent works. An example is constructed.
Exact solutions to the time-fractional differential equations via local fractional derivatives
Guner, Ozkan; Bekir, Ahmet
2018-01-01
This article utilizes the local fractional derivative and the exp-function method to construct the exact solutions of nonlinear time-fractional differential equations (FDEs). For illustrating the validity of the method, it is applied to the time-fractional Camassa-Holm equation and the time-fractional-generalized fifth-order KdV equation. Moreover, the exact solutions are obtained for the equations which are formed by different parameter values related to the time-fractional-generalized fifth-order KdV equation. This method is an reliable and efficient mathematical tool for solving FDEs and it can be applied to other non-linear FDEs.
Fractional derivatives for physicists and engineers background and theory
Uchaikin, Vladimir V
2013-01-01
The first derivative of a particle coordinate means its velocity, the second means its acceleration, but what does a fractional order derivative mean? Where does it come from, how does it work, where does it lead to? The two-volume book written on high didactic level answers these questions. Fractional Derivatives for Physicists and Engineers— The first volume contains a clear introduction into such a modern branch of analysis as the fractional calculus. The second develops a wide panorama of applications of the fractional calculus to various physical problems. This book recovers new perspectives in front of the reader dealing with turbulence and semiconductors, plasma and thermodynamics, mechanics and quantum optics, nanophysics and astrophysics. The book is addressed to students, engineers and physicists, specialists in theory of probability and statistics, in mathematical modeling and numerical simulations, to everybody who doesn't wish to stay apart from the new mathematical methods becoming more and ...
The representitativeness of patient position during the first treatment fractions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertelsen, Anders; Nielsen, Morten; Westberg, Jonas
2009-01-01
BACKGROUND: During external radiotherapy daily or even weekly image verification of the patient position might be problematic due to the resulting workload. Therefore it has been customary to perform image verification only at the first treatment fraction. In this study it is investigated whether...... the patient position uncertainty at the initial three treatment fractions is representative for the uncertainty throughout the treatment course. METHODS: Seventy seven patients were treated using Elekta Synergy accelerators. The patients were immobilized during treatment by use of a customized VacFix bag...... and a mask of AquaPlast. Cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were performed at fractions 1, 2, and 3 and at the 10th and 20th treatment fractions. Displacements in patient position, translational and rotational, have been measured by an image registration of the CBCT and the planning CT scan. The displacements data...
An inverse Sturm–Liouville problem with a fractional derivative
Jin, Bangti
2012-05-01
In this paper, we numerically investigate an inverse problem of recovering the potential term in a fractional Sturm-Liouville problem from one spectrum. The qualitative behaviors of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are discussed, and numerical reconstructions of the potential with a Newton method from finite spectral data are presented. Surprisingly, it allows very satisfactory reconstructions for both smooth and discontinuous potentials, provided that the order . α∈. (1,. 2) of fractional derivative is sufficiently away from 2. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
On the Asymptotic Behavior of Positive Solutions of Certain Fractional Differential Equations
Said R. Grace
2015-01-01
This paper deals with the asymptotic behavior of positive solutions of certain forced fractional differential equations of the form DcαCyt=et+ft, xt, c>1, α∈0,1, where yt=atx′t′, c0=y(c)/Γ(1) =yc, and c0 is a real constant. From the obtained results, we derive a technique which can be applied to some related fractional differential equations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingkai Kong
2012-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions of a class of nonlinear fractional boundary value problems with Dirichlet boundary conditions. By applying the fixed point theory on cones we establish a series of criteria for the existence of one, two, any arbitrary finite number, and an infinite number of positive solutions. A criterion for the nonexistence of positive solutions is also derived. Several examples are given for demonstration.
Subrecoil laser cooling dynamics: a fractional derivative approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchaikin, Vladimir V; Sibatov, Renat T
2009-01-01
The subrecoil laser cooling process is considered in the framework of a model with two states (trapping and recycling), with instantaneous transitions between them. The key point of the work is the use of a fractional exponential function for waiting time distributions. This allows us to derive a general master equation covering both important cases: those with exponential and power type tails. Their solutions are expressed through fractionally stable distributions. The pdfs of the total trapping time of an atom and the proportion of trapped atoms are found. Analytical relationships show a good agreement with numerical results from Monte Carlo simulation
Automatic approach to deriving fuzzy slope positions
Zhu, Liang-Jun; Zhu, A.-Xing; Qin, Cheng-Zhi; Liu, Jun-Zhi
2018-03-01
Fuzzy characterization of slope positions is important for geographic modeling. Most of the existing fuzzy classification-based methods for fuzzy characterization require extensive user intervention in data preparation and parameter setting, which is tedious and time-consuming. This paper presents an automatic approach to overcoming these limitations in the prototype-based inference method for deriving fuzzy membership value (or similarity) to slope positions. The key contribution is a procedure for finding the typical locations and setting the fuzzy inference parameters for each slope position type. Instead of being determined totally by users in the prototype-based inference method, in the proposed approach the typical locations and fuzzy inference parameters for each slope position type are automatically determined by a rule set based on prior domain knowledge and the frequency distributions of topographic attributes. Furthermore, the preparation of topographic attributes (e.g., slope gradient, curvature, and relative position index) is automated, so the proposed automatic approach has only one necessary input, i.e., the gridded digital elevation model of the study area. All compute-intensive algorithms in the proposed approach were speeded up by parallel computing. Two study cases were provided to demonstrate that this approach can properly, conveniently and quickly derive the fuzzy slope positions.
Extended Riemann-Liouville type fractional derivative operator with applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agarwal P.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a class of new extended forms of the beta function, Gauss hypergeometric function and Appell-Lauricella hypergeometric functions by means of the modified Bessel function of the third kind. Some typical generating relations for these extended hypergeometric functions are obtained by defining the extension of the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative operator. Their connections with elementary functions and Fox’s H-function are also presented.
The realization problem for positive and fractional systems
Kaczorek, Tadeusz
2014-01-01
This book addresses the realization problem of positive and fractional continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems. Roughly speaking the essence of the realization problem can be stated as follows: Find the matrices of the state space equations of linear systems for given their transfer matrices. This first book on this topic shows how many well-known classical approaches have been extended to the new classes of positive and fractional linear systems. The modified Gilbert method for multi-input multi-output linear systems, the method for determination of realizations in the controller canonical forms and in observer canonical forms are presented. The realization problem for linear systems described by differential operators, the realization problem in the Weierstrass canonical forms and of the descriptor linear systems for given Markov parameters are addressed. The book also presents a method for the determination of minimal realizations of descriptor linear systems and an extension for cone linear syste...
Non-Noether symmetries of Hamiltonian systems with conformable fractional derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Lin-Li; Fu Jing-Li
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present the fractional Hamilton’s canonical equations and the fractional non-Noether symmetry of Hamilton systems by the conformable fractional derivative. Firstly, the exchanging relationship between isochronous variation and fractional derivatives, and the fractional Hamilton principle of the system under this fractional derivative are proposed. Secondly, the fractional Hamilton’s canonical equations of Hamilton systems based on the Hamilton principle are established. Thirdly, the fractional non-Noether symmetries, non-Noether theorem and non-Noether conserved quantities for the Hamilton systems with the conformable fractional derivatives are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the results. (paper)
On a system of differential equations with fractional derivatives arising in rod theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atanackovic, Teodor M; Stankovic, Bogoljub
2004-01-01
We study a system of equations with fractional derivatives, that arises in the analysis of the lateral motion of an elastic column fixed at one end and loaded by a concentrated follower force at the other end. We assume that the column is positioned on a viscoelastic foundation described by a constitutive equation of fractional derivative type. The stability boundary is determined. It is shown that as in the case of an elastic (Winkler) type of foundation the stability boundary remains the same as for the column without a foundation! Thus, with the solution analysed here, the column exhibits the so-called Hermann-Smith paradox
Multiple Positive Solutions for Nonlinear Semipositone Fractional Differential Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-Xue Zhou
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present some new multiplicity of positive solutions results for nonlinear semipositone fractional boundary value problem D0+αu(t=p(tf(t,u(t-q(t,0
Positive Solutions for Coupled Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenning Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the existence of positive solutions for a coupled system of nonlinear fractional differential equations with integral boundary values. Assume the nonlinear term is superlinear in one equation and sublinear in the other equation. By constructing two cones K1, K2 and computing the fixed point index in product cone K1×K2, we obtain that the system has a pair of positive solutions. It is remarkable that it is established on the Cartesian product of two cones, in which the feature of two equations can be opposite.
Jin, Jie; Sun, Ke; Liu, Wei; Li, Shiwei; Peng, Xianqiang; Yang, Yan; Han, Lanfang; Du, Ziwen; Wang, Xiangke
2018-05-01
Chemical composition and pollutant sorption of biochar-derived organic matter fractions (BDOMs) are critical for understanding the long-term environmental significance of biochar. Phenanthrene (PHE) sorption by the humic acid-like (HAL) fractions isolated from plant straw- (PLABs) and animal manure-based (ANIBs) biochars, and the residue materials (RES) after HAL extraction was investigated. The HAL fraction comprised approximately 50% of organic carbon (OC) of the original biochars. Results of XPS and 13 C NMR demonstrated that the biochar-derived HAL fractions mainly consisted of aromatic clusters substituted by carboxylic groups. The CO 2 cumulative surface area of BDOMs excluding PLAB-derived RES fractions was obviously lower than that of corresponding biochars. The sorption nonlinearity of PHE by the fresh biochars was significantly stronger than that of the BDOM fractions, implying that the BDOM fractions were more chemically homogeneous. The BDOMs generally exhibited comparable or higher OC-normalized distribution coefficients (K oc ) of PHE than the original biochars. The PHE logK oc values of the fresh biochars correlated negatively with the micropore volumes due to steric hindrance effect. In contrast, a positive relationship between the sorption coefficients (K d ) of BDOMs and the micropore volumes was observed in this study, suggesting that pore filling could dominate PHE sorption by the BDOMs. The positive correlation between the PHE logK oc values of the HAL fractions and the aromatic C contents indicates that PHE sorption by the HAL fractions was regulated by aromatic domains. The findings of this study improve our knowledge of the evolution of biochar properties after application and its potential environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fractional derivatives. An introduction; Derivate frazionarie. Che cosa sono, a cosa servono
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Div. Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)
2001-07-01
In this item is presented a brief survey of fractional calculus and of the relevant applications. In the work are discussed different points of view of the operation of fractional derivative and present a unifying definition. The role played by fractional derivatives and integrals within the framework of integral transform is analyzed. [Italian] In questo articolo si traccia un profilo del cosidetto calcolo frazionario e delle relative applicazioni a problemi di matematica pura ed applicata. Si discutono varie definizioni dell'operazione di derivata frazionaria, non tutte coincidenti fra loro, e si mostra come sia possibile proporre una definizione univoca che inglobi tutte le altre. Si analizza infine il ruolo giocato dalle derivate e dagli integrali frazionari e, piu' in generale, quello degli operatori differenziali ad esponente frazionario, nell'ambito della teoria delle rappresentazioni integrali.
Marinangeli, L.; Alijani, F.; HosseinNia, S. Hassan
2018-01-01
In this paper, Active Vibration Control (AVC) of a rectangular carbon fibre composite plate with free edges is presented. The plate is subjected to out-of-plane excitation by a modal vibration exciter and controlled by Macro Fibre Composite (MFC) transducers. Vibration measurements are performed by using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) system. A fractional-order Positive Position Feedback (PPF) compensator is proposed, implemented and compared to the standard integer-order PPF. MFC actuator and sensor are positioned on the plate based on maximal modal strain criterion, so as to control the second natural mode of the plate. Both integer and fractional-order PPF allowed for the effective control of the second mode of vibration. However, the newly proposed fractional-order controller is found to be more efficient in achieving the same performance with less actuation voltage. Moreover, it shows promising performance in reducing spillover effect due to uncontrolled modes.
New arylsparteine derivatives as positive inotropic drugs.
Boido, Vito; Ercoli, Marcella; Tonelli, Michele; Novelli, Federica; Tasso, Bruno; Sparatore, Fabio; Cichero, Elena; Fossa, Paola; Dorigo, Paola; Froldi, Guglielmina
2017-12-01
Positive inotropic agents are fundamental in the treatment of heart failure; however, their arrhythmogenic liability and the increased myocardial oxygen demand strongly limit their therapeutic utility. Pursuing our study on cardiovascular activities of lupin alkaloid derivatives, several 2-(4-substituted-phenyl)-2-dehydrosparteines and 2-(4-substituted-phenyl)sparteines were prepared and tested for inotropic and chronotropic activities on isolated guinea pig atria. Four compounds (6b, 6e, 7b, and 7f) exhibited significant inotropism that, at the higher concentrations, was followed by negative inotropism or toxicity. Compound 7e (2-(4-tolyl)sparteine) exhibited a steep dose-depending inotropic activity up to the highest concentration tested (300 µM) with an E max of 116.5 ± 3.4% of basal force, proving less potent but much more active in comparison to the highest concentrations tested of digoxin and milrinone having E max of 87.5 ± 3.1% and 52.2 ± 1.1%, respectively. Finally, docking studies suggested that the relevant sparteine derivatives could target the sigma-1 receptor, whose involvement in cardiac activity is well documented.
A Caputo fractional derivative of a function with respect to another function
Almeida, Ricardo
2017-03-01
In this paper we consider a Caputo type fractional derivative with respect to another function. Some properties, like the semigroup law, a relationship between the fractional derivative and the fractional integral, Taylor's Theorem, Fermat's Theorem, etc., are studied. Also, a numerical method to deal with such operators, consisting in approximating the fractional derivative by a sum that depends on the first-order derivative, is presented. Relying on examples, we show the efficiency and applicability of the method. Finally, an application of the fractional derivative, by considering a Population Growth Model, and showing that we can model more accurately the process using different kernels for the fractional operator is provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zabadal, J.; Vilhena, M.T.; Segatto, C.F.; Pazos, R.P.Ruben Panta.
2002-01-01
In this work we construct a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation rewritten in integral form which is expressed in terms of a fractional derivative of the angular flux. We determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of the Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. We report numerical simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zabadal, J. E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br; Vilhena, M.T. E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br; Segatto, C.F. E-mail: cynthia@mat.ufrgs.br; Pazos, R.P.Ruben Panta. E-mail: rpp@mat.pucrgs.br
2002-07-01
In this work we construct a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation rewritten in integral form which is expressed in terms of a fractional derivative of the angular flux. We determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of the Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. We report numerical simulations.
On some new properties of fractional derivatives with Mittag-Leffler kernel
Baleanu, Dumitru; Fernandez, Arran
2018-06-01
We establish a new formula for the fractional derivative with Mittag-Leffler kernel, in the form of a series of Riemann-Liouville fractional integrals, which brings out more clearly the non-locality of fractional derivatives and is easier to handle for certain computational purposes. We also prove existence and uniqueness results for certain families of linear and nonlinear fractional ODEs defined using this fractional derivative. We consider the possibility of a semigroup property for these derivatives, and establish extensions of the product rule and chain rule, with an application to fractional mechanics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jieming Zhang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We establish some sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of positive solutions to a class of initial value problem for impulsive fractional differential equations involving the Caputo fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on a fixed point theorem for mixed monotone operators. Our result can not only guarantee the existence of a unique positive solution but also be applied to construct an iterative scheme for approximating it. An example is given to illustrate our main result.
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Amal Khalaf Haydar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The main aim in this paper is to use all the possible arrangements of objects such that r1 of them are equal to 1 and r2 (the others of them are equal to 2, in order to generalize the definitions of Riemann-Liouville and Caputo fractional derivatives (about order 0<β
Epps, Brenden; Cushman-Roisin, Benoit
2017-11-01
Fluid turbulence is an outstanding unsolved problem in classical physics, despite 120+ years of sustained effort. Given this history, we assert that a new mathematical framework is needed to make a transformative breakthrough. This talk offers one such framework, based upon kinetic theory tied to the statistics of turbulent transport. Starting from the Boltzmann equation and ``Lévy α-stable distributions'', we derive a turbulence model that expresses the turbulent stresses in the form of a fractional derivative, where the fractional order is tied to the transport behavior of the flow. Initial results are presented herein, for the cases of Couette-Poiseuille flow and 2D boundary layers. Among other results, our model is able to reproduce the logarithmic Law of the Wall in shear turbulence.
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Ai-Min Yang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The local fractional Laplace variational iteration method was applied to solve the linear local fractional partial differential equations. The local fractional Laplace variational iteration method is coupled by the local fractional variational iteration method and Laplace transform. The nondifferentiable approximate solutions are obtained and their graphs are also shown.
Lower and Upper Solutions Method for Positive Solutions of Fractional Boundary Value Problems
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R. Darzi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We apply the lower and upper solutions method and fixed-point theorems to prove the existence of positive solution to fractional boundary value problem D0+αut+ft,ut=0, 0
Spatial Rotation of the Fractional Derivative in Two-Dimensional Space
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Ehab Malkawi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The transformations of the partial fractional derivatives under spatial rotation in R2 are derived for the Riemann-Liouville and Caputo definitions. These transformation properties link the observation of physical quantities, expressed through fractional derivatives, with respect to different coordinate systems (observers. It is the hope that such understanding could shed light on the physical interpretation of fractional derivatives. Also it is necessary to be able to construct interaction terms that are invariant with respect to equivalent observers.
76 FR 4751 - Position Limits for Derivatives
2011-01-26
... saleable by long traders at its market value in normal cash marketing channels at the derivative contract's... Association, Futures Industry Association, GDF Suez Energy, Morgan Stanley, and NextEra Energy Power Marketing...
78 FR 75679 - Position Limits for Derivatives
2013-12-12
... practices for compliance with Designated Contract Market (``DCM'') core principle 5 and Swap Execution Facility (``SEF'') core principle 6 in respect of exchange- set speculative position limits and position... To Become Guidance on and Acceptable Practices for Compliance with DCM Core Principle 5 3. The CFTC...
Exact solutions of a class of fractional Hamiltonian equations involving Caputo derivatives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baleanu, Dumitru [Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Cankaya University, Ankara 06530 (Turkey); Trujillo, Juan J [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, University of La Laguna, 38271 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: dumitru@cankaya.edu.tr, E-mail: JTrujill@ullmat.es, E-mail: baleanu@venus.nipne.ro
2009-11-15
The fractional Hamiltonian equations corresponding to the Lagrangians of constrained systems within Caputo derivatives are investigated. The fractional phase space is obtained and the exact solutions of some constrained systems are obtained.
Investigation of the Dirac Equation by Using the Conformable Fractional Derivative
Mozaffari, F. S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Sobhani, H.; Chung, W. S.
2018-05-01
In this paper,the Dirac equation is constructed using the conformable fractional derivative so that in its limit for the fractional parameter, the normal version is recovered. Then, the Cornell potential is considered as the interaction of the system. In this case, the wave function and the energy eigenvalue equation are derived with the aim of the bi-confluent Heun functions. use of the conformable fractional derivative is proven to lead to a branching treatment for the energy of the system. Such a treatment is obvious for small values of the fractional parameter, and a united value as the fractional parameter approaches unity.
Guaranteed Cost Finite-Time Control of Fractional-Order Positive Switched Systems
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Leipo Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of guaranteed cost finite-time control of fractional-order positive switched systems (FOPSS is considered in this paper. Firstly, a new cost function is defined. Then, by constructing linear copositive Lyapunov functions and using the average dwell time (ADT approach, a state feedback controller and a static output feedback controller are constructed, respectively, and sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee that the corresponding closed-loop systems are guaranteed cost finite-time stable (GCFTS. Such conditions can be easily solved by linear programming. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Machida, M.; Ono, S. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology
1997-09-01
The improvement in hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of coal-derived liquids by co-refining with a petroleum fraction results principally from lowering the nitrogen content of the feedstock (coal-derived liquid) by blending with a nitrogen-free petroleum fraction. Effects of different fractions of coal-derived liquids on HDN and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) were also examined. The HDN improvement by co-refining could be interpreted in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
Stability Tests of Positive Fractional Continuous-time Linear Systems with Delays
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Tadeusz Kaczorek
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of positive fractional continuous-time linear systems with many delays are established. It is shown that: 1 the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional system is independent of their delays, 2 the checking of the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional systems with delays can be reduced to checking of the asymptotic stability of positive standard linear systems without delays.
Yang, YongGe; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong
2018-04-01
To the best of authors' knowledge, little work was referred to the study of a noisy vibro-impact oscillator with a fractional derivative. Stochastic bifurcations of a vibro-impact oscillator with two kinds of fractional derivative elements driven by Gaussian white noise excitation are explored in this paper. We can obtain the analytical approximate solutions with the help of non-smooth transformation and stochastic averaging method. The numerical results from Monte Carlo simulation of the original system are regarded as the benchmark to verify the accuracy of the developed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has a satisfactory level of accuracy. We also discuss the stochastic bifurcation phenomena induced by the fractional coefficients and fractional derivative orders. The important and interesting result we can conclude in this paper is that the effect of the first fractional derivative order on the system is totally contrary to that of the second fractional derivative order.
An inverse Sturm–Liouville problem with a fractional derivative
Jin, Bangti; Rundell, William
2012-01-01
In this paper, we numerically investigate an inverse problem of recovering the potential term in a fractional Sturm-Liouville problem from one spectrum. The qualitative behaviors of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are discussed, and numerical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Jianping; Xu Mingyu
2008-01-01
The space fractional Schroedinger equation with a finite square potential, periodic potential, and delta-function potential is studied in this paper. We find that the continuity or discontinuity condition of a fractional derivative of the wave functions should be considered to solve the fractional Schroedinger equation in fractional quantum mechanics. More parity states than those given by standard quantum mechanics for the finite square potential well are obtained. The corresponding energy equations are derived and then solved by graphical methods. We show the validity of Bloch's theorem and reveal the energy band structure for the periodic potential. The jump (discontinuity) condition for the fractional derivative of the wave function of the delta-function potential is given. With the help of the jump condition, we study some delta-function potential fields. For the delta-function potential well, an alternate expression of the wave function (the H function form of it was given by Dong and Xu [J. Math. Phys. 48, 072105 (2007)]) is obtained. The problems of a particle penetrating through a delta-function potential barrier and the fractional probability current density of the particle are also discussed. We study the Dirac comb and show the energy band structure at the end of the paper
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Waleed M. Abd-Elhameed
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Herein, two numerical algorithms for solving some linear and nonlinear fractional-order differential equations are presented and analyzed. For this purpose, a novel operational matrix of fractional-order derivatives of Fibonacci polynomials was constructed and employed along with the application of the tau and collocation spectral methods. The convergence and error analysis of the suggested Fibonacci expansion were carefully investigated. Some numerical examples with comparisons are presented to ensure the efficiency, applicability and high accuracy of the proposed algorithms. Two accurate semi-analytic polynomial solutions for linear and nonlinear fractional differential equations are the result.
Fractional diffusion equation with distributed-order material derivative. Stochastic foundations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magdziarz, M; Teuerle, M
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the stochastic foundations of fractional dynamics driven by the fractional material derivative of distributed-order type. Before stating our main result, we present the stochastic scenario which underlies the dynamics given by the fractional material derivative. Then we introduce the Lévy walk process of distributed-order type to establish our main result, which is the scaling limit of the considered process. It appears that the probability density function of the scaling limit process fulfills, in a weak sense, the fractional diffusion equation with the material derivative of distributed-order type. (paper)
Cuahutenango-Barro, B.; Taneco-Hernández, M. A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.
2017-12-01
Analytical solutions of the wave equation with bi-fractional-order and frictional memory kernel of Mittag-Leffler type are obtained via Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in the Liouville-Caputo sense. Through the method of separation of variables and Laplace transform method we derive closed-form solutions and establish fundamental solutions. Special cases with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions and nonhomogeneous initial conditions, as well as for the external force are considered. Numerical simulations of the special solutions were done and novel behaviors are obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scalliet, P.; Schueren, E. van der; Erfmann, R.K.L.; Landuyt, W.
1988-01-01
The authors present a method for the derivation of the time constant of repair from fractionated and protracted irradiations, using formulae based on those derived by Dale (1985) and Liversage (1969) establishing the correlation between the biological effects of low dose rate and acute fractionated irradiation. (UK)
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Yang Xiao-Jun
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we address a class of the fractional derivatives of constant and variable orders for the first time. Fractional-order relaxation equations of constants and variable orders in the sense of Caputo type are modeled from mathematical view of point. The comparative results of the anomalous relaxation among the various fractional derivatives are also given. They are very efficient in description of the complex phenomenon arising in heat transfer.
Fractional-order integral and derivative controller for temperature ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ideal transfer function as a reference model, for a temperature profile tracking. ... tant, and in process industry (Tsai & Lu 1998), the most common control task is to ..... be solved for fractional order α using numerical classical approach in MATLAB. ..... discrepancy between simulation and experimental results may be due to ...
Fractional derivative of the Hurwitz ζ-function and chaotic decay to zero
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C. Cattani
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the fractional order derivative of a Dirichlet series, Hurwitz zeta function and Riemann zeta function is explicitly computed using the Caputo fractional derivative in the Ortigueira sense. It is observed that the obtained results are a natural generalization of the integer order derivative. Some interesting properties of the fractional derivative of the Riemann zeta function are also investigated to show that there is a chaotic decay to zero (in the Gaussian plane and a promising expression as a complex power series.
Ghosh, Uttam; Banerjee, Joydip; Sarkar, Susmita; Das, Shantanu
2018-06-01
Klein-Gordon equation is one of the basic steps towards relativistic quantum mechanics. In this paper, we have formulated fractional Klein-Gordon equation via Jumarie fractional derivative and found two types of solutions. Zero-mass solution satisfies photon criteria and non-zero mass satisfies general theory of relativity. Further, we have developed rest mass condition which leads us to the concept of hidden wave. Classical Klein-Gordon equation fails to explain a chargeless system as well as a single-particle system. Using the fractional Klein-Gordon equation, we can overcome the problem. The fractional Klein-Gordon equation also leads to the smoothness parameter which is the measurement of the bumpiness of space. Here, by using this smoothness parameter, we have defined and interpreted the various cases.
Cadmium isotope fractionation of materials derived from various industrial processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinková, Eva, E-mail: eva.cadkova@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Chrastný, Vladislav, E-mail: chrastny@fzp.czu.cz [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Francová, Michaela, E-mail: michaela.francova@fzp.czu.cz [Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Šípková, Adéla, E-mail: adela.sipkova@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Čuřík, Jan, E-mail: jan.curik@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Myška, Oldřich, E-mail: oldrich.myska@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Mižič, Lukáš, E-mail: lukas.mizic@geology.cz [Czech Geological Survey, Geologická 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic)
2016-01-25
Highlights: • All studied industrial processes were accompanied by Cd isotope fractionation. • ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd values of the waste materials were discernible from primary sources. • Technology in use plays an important role in Cd isotope fractionation. - Abstract: Our study represents ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd {sub NIST3108} values of materials resulting from anthropogenic activities such as coal burning, smelting, refining, metal coating, and the glass industry. Additionally, primary sources (ore samples, pigment, coal) processed in the industrial premises were studied. Two sphalerites, galena, coal and pigment samples exhibited ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd{sub NIST3108} values of 1.0 ± 0.2, 0.2 ± 0.2, 1.3 ± 0.1, −2.3 ± 0.2 and −0.1 ± 0.3, respectively. In general, all studied industrial processes were accompanied by Cd isotope fractionation. Most of the industrial materials studied were clearly distinguishable from the samples used as a primary source based on ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd {sub NIST3108} values. The heaviest ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd{sub NIST3108} value of 58.6 ± 0.9 was found for slag resulting from coal combustion, and the lightest ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd{sub NIST3108} value of −23 ± 2.5 was observed for waste material after Pb refinement. It is evident that ϵ{sup 114/110} Cd {sub NIST3108} values depend on technological processes, and in case of incomplete Cd transfer from source to final waste material, every industrial activity creates differences in Cd isotope composition. Our results show that Cd isotope analysis is a promising tool to track the origins of industrial waste products.
Memory regeneration phenomenon in dielectrics: the fractional derivative approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchaikin, V; Sibatov, R; Uchaikin, D
2009-01-01
Classical theory predicts that a capacitor's charging current obeys the first-order differential equation and hence follows the exponential Debye law. However, there are many experimental results confirming the inverse-power Curie-von Schweidler law of the charging current. The principal difference between the Curie-von Schweidler law and the Debye law is the presence of memory: the process depends not only on initial conditions but also on the whole prehistory. We constructed and investigated the capacitor model that extends the fractional Westerlund model by accounting for the resistance of the capacitor. To follow the transition to classical Debye theory, we investigated the solution of the fractional equation for the order α close to 1. The calculations show that the solution obeys the exponential law up to some point of time independently of the prehistory and then changes its behavior to the inverse power law depending on the prehistory. Comparison with experimental data confirmed the existence of this effect. We named it the regenerated memory effect.
Convergence criterion for branched contіnued fractions of the special form with positive elements
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D. I. Bodnar
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper the problem of convergence of the important type of a multidimensional generalization of continued fractions, the branched continued fractions with independent variables, is considered. This fractions are an efficient apparatus for the approximation of multivariable functions, which are represented by multiple power series. When variables are fixed these fractions are called the branched continued fractions of the special form. Their structure is much simpler then the structure of general branched continued fractions. It has given a possibility to establish the necessary and sufficient conditions of convergence of branched continued fractions of the special form with the positive elements. The received result is the multidimensional analog of Seidel's criterion for the continued fractions. The condition of convergence of investigated fractions is the divergence of series, whose elements are continued fractions. Therefore, the sufficient condition of the convergence of this fraction which has been formulated by the divergence of series composed of partial denominators of this fraction, is established. Using the established criterion and Stieltjes-Vitali Theorem the parabolic theorems of branched continued fractions of the special form with complex elements convergence, is investigated. The sufficient conditions gave a possibility to make the condition of convergence of the branched continued fractions of the special form, whose elements lie in parabolic domains.
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Fuquan Jiang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the properties of Green’s function for the nonlinear fractional differential equation boundary value problem: D0+αu(t+f(t,u(t+e(t=0,0
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Taohua Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Fractional advection-dispersion equations, as generalizations of classical integer-order advection-dispersion equations, are used to model the transport of passive tracers carried by fluid flow in a porous medium. In this paper, we develop an implicit finite difference method for fractional advection-dispersion equations with fractional derivative boundary conditions. First-order consistency, solvability, unconditional stability, and first-order convergence of the method are proven. Then, we present a fast iterative method for the implicit finite difference scheme, which only requires storage of O(K and computational cost of O(KlogK. Traditionally, the Gaussian elimination method requires storage of O(K2 and computational cost of O(K3. Finally, the accuracy and efficiency of the method are checked with a numerical example.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Hongyi; Hao Ren; Lu Hailiang
2008-01-01
Based on our previous paper (Commun. Theor. Phys. 39 (2003) 417) we derive the convolution theorem of fractional Fourier transformation in the context of quantum mechanics, which seems a convenient and neat way. Generalization of this method to the complex fractional Fourier transformation case is also possible
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Erkinjon Karimov
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. Using method of separation of variables, we reduce fractional order partial differential equation to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.
Erkinjon Karimov; Sardor Pirnafasov
2017-01-01
In this work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE) with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. Using method of separation of variables, we reduce fractional order partial differential equation to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.
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Yang Xiao-Jun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this article we propose a new fractional derivative without singular kernel. We consider the potential application for modeling the steady heat-conduction problem. The analytical solution of the fractional-order heat flow is also obtained by means of the Laplace transform.
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Imed Bachar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We are interested in the following fractional boundary value problem: Dαu(t+atuσ=0, t∈(0,∞, limt→0t2-αu(t=0, limt→∞t1-αu(t=0, where 1<α<2, σ∈(-1,1, Dα is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, and a is a nonnegative continuous function on (0,∞ satisfying some appropriate assumptions related to Karamata regular variation theory. Using the Schauder fixed point theorem, we prove the existence and the uniqueness of a positive solution. We also give a global behavior of such solution.
Zhai, Chengbo; Hao, Mengru
2014-01-01
By using Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem, we study the existence of at least one or two positive solutions to a system of fractional boundary value problems given by -D(0+)(ν1)y1(t) = λ1a1(t)f(y1(t), y2(t)), - D(0+)(ν2)y2(t) = λ2a2(t)g(y1(t), y2(t)), where D(0+)(ν) is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, ν1, ν2 ∈ (n - 1, n] for n > 3 and n ∈ N, subject to the boundary conditions y1((i))(0) = 0 = y ((i))(0), for 0 ≤ i ≤ n - 2, and [D(0+)(α)y1(t)] t=1 = 0 = [D(0+ (α)y2(t)] t=1, for 1 ≤ α ≤ n - 2, or y1((i))(0) = 0 = y ((i))(0), for 0 ≤ i ≤ n - 2, and [D(0+)(α)y1(t)] t=1 = ϕ1(y1), [D(0+)(α)y2(t)] t=1 = ϕ2(y2), for 1 ≤ α ≤ n - 2, ϕ1, ϕ2 ∈ C([0,1], R). Our results are new and complement previously known results. As an application, we also give an example to demonstrate our result.
A Semianalytical Solution of the Fractional Derivative Model and Its Application in Financial Market
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Lina Song
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Fractional differential equation has been introduced to the financial theory, which presents new ideas and tools for the theoretical researches and the practical applications. In the work, an approximate semianalytical solution of the time-fractional European option pricing model is derived using the method of combining the enhanced technique of Adomian decomposition method with the finite difference method. And then the result is introduced in China’s financial market. The work makes every effort to test the feasibility of the fractional derivative model in the actual financial market.
Cheraghali, A M; Aboofazeli, R
2009-12-01
In Iran all transfusion services are concentrated under authority of one public and centralized transfusion organization which has created the opportunity of using plasma produced in its blood centers for fractionation. In 2008 voluntary and non remunerated Iranian donors donated 1.8 million units of blood. This indicates a 25/1000 donation index. After responding to the needs for fresh plasma and cryoprecipitate each year about 150000 L of recovered plasma are reserved for fractionation. In an attempt to improve both blood safety profile and availability and affordability of plasma derived medicines, Iran's national transfusion service has entered into a contract fractionation agreement for surplus of plasma produced from donated blood by voluntary non remunerated donors. In order to ensure safety of product produced, Iran has chosen to collaborate with international fractionators based in highly regulated countries. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of contract plasma fractionation on the affordability of the plasma derived medicines in Iran. During 2006-2008, Iran's contract fractionation project was able to produce 46%, 18% and 6% of IVIG, Albumin and FVIII consumed in Iran's market, respectively. In contrary to IVIG and Albumin, due to fairly high consumption of FVIII in Iran, the role of fractionation project in meeting the needs to FVIII was not substantial. However, Iran's experience has shown that contract plasma fractionation, through direct and indirect effects on price of plasma derived medicines, could substantially improve availability and affordability of such products in national health care system.
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Lihong Zhang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In this article, a family of nonlinear diffusion equations involving multi-term Caputo-Fabrizio time fractional derivative is investigated. Some maximum principles are obtained. We also demonstrate the application of the obtained results by deriving some estimation for solution to reaction-diffusion equations.
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Johnny Henderson
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the existence and nonexistence of positive solutions for a system of nonlinear Riemann-Liouville fractional differential equations with two parameters, subject to coupled integral boundary conditions.
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Venkat M Ramakrishnan
Full Text Available Human adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (hSVF cells are an easily accessible, heterogeneous cell system that can spontaneously self-assemble into functional microvasculatures in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying vascular self-assembly and maturation are poorly understood, therefore we utilized an in vitro model to identify potential in vivo regulatory mechanisms. We utilized passage one (P1 hSVF because of the rapid UEA1+ endothelium (EC loss at even P2 culture. We exposed hSVF cells to a battery of angiogenesis inhibitors and found that the pan-Wnt inhibitor IWP2 produced the most significant hSVF-EC networking decrease (~25%. To determine which Wnt isoform(s and receptor(s may be involved, hSVF was screened by PCR for isoforms associated with angiogenesis, with only WNT5A and its receptor, FZD4, being expressed for all time points observed. Immunocytochemistry confirmed Wnt5a protein expression by hSVF. To see if Wnt5a alone could restore IWP2-induced EC network inhibition, recombinant human Wnt5a (0-150 ng/ml was added to IWP2-treated cultures. The addition of rhWnt5a significantly increased EC network area and significantly decreased the ratio of total EC network length to EC network area compared to untreated controls. To determine if Wnt5a mediates in vivo microvascular self-assembly, 3D hSVF constructs containing an IgG isotype control, anti-Wnt5a neutralizing antibody or rhWnt5a were implanted subcutaneously for 2w in immune compromised mice. Compared to IgG controls, anti-Wnt5a treatment significantly reduced vessel length density by ~41%, while rhWnt5a significantly increased vessel length density by ~62%. However, anti-Wnt5a or rhWnt5a did not significantly affect the density of segments and nodes, both of which measure vascular complexity. Taken together, this data demonstrates that endogenous Wnt5a produced by hSVF plays a regulatory role in microvascular self-assembly in vivo. These findings also suggest that
On a business cycle model with fractional derivative under narrow-band random excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Zifei; Li, Jiaorui; Li, Shuang
2016-01-01
This paper analyzes the dynamics of a business cycle model with fractional derivative of order α (0 < α < 1) subject to narrow-band random excitation, in which fractional derivative describes the memory property of the economic variables. Stochastic dynamical system concepts are integrated into the business cycle model for understanding the economic fluctuation. Firstly, the method of multiple scales is applied to derive the model to obtain the approximate analytical solution. Secondly, the effect of economic policy with fractional derivative on the amplitude of the economic fluctuation and the effect on stationary probability density are studied. The results show macroeconomic regulation and control can lower the stable amplitude of economic fluctuation. While in the process of equilibrium state, the amplitude is magnified. Also, the macroeconomic regulation and control improves the stability of the equilibrium state. Thirdly, how externally stochastic perturbation affects the dynamics of the economy system is investigated.
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Gesiane Ribeiro
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the culture of equine bone marrow mononuclear fraction and adipose tissue - derived stromal vascular fraction cells in two different cell culture media. Five adult horses were submitted to bone marrow aspiration from the sternum, and then from the adipose tissue of the gluteal region near the base of the tail. Mononuclear fraction and stromal vascular fraction were isolated from the samples and cultivated in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum or in AIM-V medium. The cultures were observed once a week with an inverted microscope, to perform a qualitative analysis of the morphology of the cells as well as the general appearance of the cell culture. Colony-forming units (CFU were counted on days 5, 15 and 25 of cell culture. During the first week of culture, differences were observed between the samples from the same source maintained in different culture media. The number of colonies was significantly higher in samples of bone marrow in relation to samples of adipose tissue.
Multiple positive solutions to a coupled systems of nonlinear fractional differential equations.
Shah, Kamal; Khan, Rahmat Ali
2016-01-01
In this article, we study existence, uniqueness and nonexistence of positive solution to a highly nonlinear coupled system of fractional order differential equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of positive solution are developed by using Perov's fixed point theorem for the considered problem. Further, we also established sufficient conditions for existence of multiplicity results for positive solutions. Also, we developed some conditions under which the considered coupled system of fractional order differential equations has no positive solution. Appropriate examples are also provided which demonstrate our results.
A Semianalytical Solution of the Fractional Derivative Model and Its Application in Financial Market
Song, Lina
2018-01-01
Fractional differential equation has been introduced to the financial theory, which presents new ideas and tools for the theoretical researches and the practical applications. In the work, an approximate semianalytical solution of the time-fractional European option pricing model is derived using the method of combining the enhanced technique of Adomian decomposition method with the finite difference method. And then the result is introduced in China’s financial market. The work makes every e...
A fractional derivative approach to full creep regions in salt rock
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, H. W.; Wang, C. P.; Mishnaevsky, Leon
2013-01-01
Based on the definition of the constant-viscosity Abel dashpot, a new creep element, referred to as the variable-viscosity Abel dashpot, is proposed to characterize damage growth in salt rock samples during creep tests. Ultrasonic testing is employed to determine a formula of the variable viscosity...... coefficient, indicating that the change of the variable viscosity coefficient with the time meets a negative exponent law. In addition, by replacing the Newtonian dashpot in the classical Nishihara model with the variable-viscosity Abel dashpot, a damage-mechanism-based creep constitutive model is proposed...... on the basis of time-based fractional derivative. The analytic solution for the fractional-derivative creep constitutive model is presented. The parameters of the fractional derivative creep model are determined by the Levenberg–Marquardt method on the basis of the experimental results of creep tests on salt...
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Xiaofeng Zhang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the existence of positive solutions to a singular semipositone boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional differential equations. By applying the fixed point index theorem, some new results for the existence of positive solutions are obtained. In addition, an example is presented to demonstrate the application of our main results.
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B. Kuldeep
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Fractional calculus has recently been identified as a very important mathematical tool in the field of signal processing. Digital filters designed by fractional derivatives give more accurate frequency response in the prescribed frequency region. Digital filters are most important part of multi-rate filter bank systems. In this paper, an improved method based on fractional derivative constraints is presented for the design of two-channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF bank. The design problem is formulated as minimization of L2 error of filter bank transfer function in passband, stopband interval and at quadrature frequency, and then Lagrange multiplier method with fractional derivative constraints is applied to solve it. The proposed method is then successfully applied for the design of two-channel QMF bank with higher order filter taps. Performance of the QMF bank design is then examined through study of various parameters such as passband error, stopband error, transition band error, peak reconstruction error (PRE, stopband attenuation (As. It is found that, the good design can be obtained with the change of number and value of fractional derivative constraint coefficients.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jumarie, Guy
2004-01-01
There are presently two different models of fractional Brownian motions available in the literature: the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative of white noise on the one hand, and the complex-valued Brownian motion of order n defined by using a random walk in the complex plane, on the other hand. The paper provides a comparison between these two approaches, and in addition, takes this opportunity to contribute some complements. These two models are more or less equivalent on the theoretical standpoint for fractional order between 0 and 1/2, but their practical significances are quite different. Otherwise, for order larger than 1/2, the fractional derivative model has no counterpart in the complex plane. These differences are illustrated by an example drawn from mathematical finance. Taylor expansion of fractional order provides the expression of fractional difference in terms of finite difference, and this allows us to improve the derivation of Fokker-Planck equation and Kramers-Moyal expansion, and to get more insight in their relation with stochastic differential equations of fractional order. In the case of multi-fractal systems, the Fokker-Planck equation can be solved by using path integrals, and the fractional dynamic equations of the state moments of the stochastic system can be easily obtained. By combining fractional derivative and complex white noise of order n, one obtains a family of complex-valued fractional Brownian motions which exhibits long-range dependence. The conclusion outlines suggestions for further research, mainly regarding Lorentz transformation of fractional noises
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Yong-Ge; Xu Wei; Sun Ya-Hui; Gu Xu-Dong
2016-01-01
This paper aims to investigate the stochastic response of the van der Pol (VDP) oscillator with two kinds of fractional derivatives under Gaussian white noise excitation. First, the fractional VDP oscillator is replaced by an equivalent VDP oscillator without fractional derivative terms by using the generalized harmonic balance technique. Then, the stochastic averaging method is applied to the equivalent VDP oscillator to obtain the analytical solution. Finally, the analytical solutions are validated by numerical results from the Monte Carlo simulation of the original fractional VDP oscillator. The numerical results not only demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed approach but also show that the fractional order, the fractional coefficient and the intensity of Gaussian white noise play important roles in the responses of the fractional VDP oscillator. An interesting phenomenon we found is that the effects of the fractional order of two kinds of fractional derivative items on the fractional stochastic systems are totally contrary. (paper)
Yu, Minda; He, Xiaosong; Liu, Jiaomei; Wang, Yuefeng; Xi, Beidou; Li, Dan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Chao
2018-04-14
Understanding the heterogeneous evolution characteristics of dissolved organic matter fractions derived from compost is crucial to exploring the composting biodegradation process and the possible applications of compost products. Herein, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy integrated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were utilized to obtain the molecular weight (MW) and polarity evolution characteristics of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and the hydrophilic (HyI) fractions during composting. The high-MW humic substances and building blocks in the HA fraction degraded faster during composting than polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. Similarly, the low MW acid FA factions transformed faster than the low weight neutral fractions, followed by building blocks, and finally polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. The evolutions of HyI fractions during composting occurred first for building blocks, followed by low MW acids, and finally low weight neutrals. With the progress of composting, the hydrophobic properties of the HA and FA fractions were enhanced. The degradation/humification process of the hydrophilic and transphilic components was faster than that of the hydrophobic component. Compared with the FA and HyI fractions, the HA fraction exhibited a higher MW and increased hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Min Jia
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We study a model arising from porous media, electromagnetic, and signal processing of wireless communication system -tαx(t=f(t,x(t,x'(t,x”(t,…,x(n-2(t, 0
Finite element formulation of viscoelastic sandwich beams using fractional derivative operators
Galucio, A. C.; Deü, J.-F.; Ohayon, R.
This paper presents a finite element formulation for transient dynamic analysis of sandwich beams with embedded viscoelastic material using fractional derivative constitutive equations. The sandwich configuration is composed of a viscoelastic core (based on Timoshenko theory) sandwiched between elastic faces (based on Euler-Bernoulli assumptions). The viscoelastic model used to describe the behavior of the core is a four-parameter fractional derivative model. Concerning the parameter identification, a strategy to estimate the fractional order of the time derivative and the relaxation time is outlined. Curve-fitting aspects are focused, showing a good agreement with experimental data. In order to implement the viscoelastic model into the finite element formulation, the Grünwald definition of the fractional operator is employed. To solve the equation of motion, a direct time integration method based on the implicit Newmark scheme is used. One of the particularities of the proposed algorithm lies in the storage of displacement history only, reducing considerably the numerical efforts related to the non-locality of fractional operators. After validations, numerical applications are presented in order to analyze truncation effects (fading memory phenomena) and solution convergence aspects.
Space-Time Fractional Diffusion-Advection Equation with Caputo Derivative
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José Francisco Gómez Aguilar
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An alternative construction for the space-time fractional diffusion-advection equation for the sedimentation phenomena is presented. The order of the derivative is considered as 0<β, γ≤1 for the space and time domain, respectively. The fractional derivative of Caputo type is considered. In the spatial case we obtain the fractional solution for the underdamped, undamped, and overdamped case. In the temporal case we show that the concentration has amplitude which exhibits an algebraic decay at asymptotically large times and also shows numerical simulations where both derivatives are taken in simultaneous form. In order that the equation preserves the physical units of the system two auxiliary parameters σx and σt are introduced characterizing the existence of fractional space and time components, respectively. A physical relation between these parameters is reported and the solutions in space-time are given in terms of the Mittag-Leffler function depending on the parameters β and γ. The generalization of the fractional diffusion-advection equation in space-time exhibits anomalous behavior.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller Jensen, Jesper; Erik Bøtker, Hans; Norling Mathiassen, Ole
2017-01-01
Aims: To assess the use of downstream coronary angiography (ICA) and short-term safety of frontline coronary CT angiography (CTA) with selective CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) testing in stable patients with typical angina pectoris. Methods and results: Between 1 January 2016 and 30 J...... of safe cancellation of planned ICAs....
Nonlinear analysis and analog simulation of a piezoelectric buckled beam with fractional derivative
Mokem Fokou, I. S.; Buckjohn, C. Nono Dueyou; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.
2017-08-01
In this article, an analog circuit for implementing fractional-order derivative and a harmonic balance method for a vibration energy harvesting system under pure sinusoidal vibration source is proposed in order to predict the system response. The objective of this paper is to discuss the performance of the system with fractional derivative and nonlinear damping (μb). Bifurcation diagram, phase portrait and power spectral density (PSD) are provided to deeply characterize the dynamics of the system. These results are corroborated by the 0-1 test. The appearance of the chaotic vibrations reduces the instantaneous voltage. The pre-experimental investigation is carried out through appropriate software electronic circuit (Multisim). The corresponding electronic circuit is designed, exhibiting periodic and chaotic behavior, in accord with numerical simulations. The impact of fractional derivative and nonlinear damping is presented with detail on the output voltage and power of the system. The agreement between numerical and analytical results justifies the efficiency of the analytical technique used. In addition, by combining the harmonic excitation with the random force, the stochastic resonance phenomenon occurs and improves the harvested energy. It emerges from these results that the order of fractional derivative μ and nonlinear damping μb play an important role in the response of the system.
A new fractional derivative and its application to explanation of polar bear hairs
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Ji-Huan He
2016-04-01
Full Text Available A new fractional derivative is defined through the variational iteration method, and its application in explaining the excellent thermal protection of polar bear hairs is elucidated. The fractal porosity of its inner structure makes a polar bear mathematically adapted for living in a harsh Arctic region.
A new fractional derivative and its application to explanation of polar bear hairs
Ji-Huan He; Zheng-Biao Li; Qing-li Wang
2016-01-01
A new fractional derivative is defined through the variational iteration method, and its application in explaining the excellent thermal protection of polar bear hairs is elucidated. The fractal porosity of its inner structure makes a polar bear mathematically adapted for living in a harsh Arctic region.
Fractional-order gradient descent learning of BP neural networks with Caputo derivative.
Wang, Jian; Wen, Yanqing; Gou, Yida; Ye, Zhenyun; Chen, Hua
2017-05-01
Fractional calculus has been found to be a promising area of research for information processing and modeling of some physical systems. In this paper, we propose a fractional gradient descent method for the backpropagation (BP) training of neural networks. In particular, the Caputo derivative is employed to evaluate the fractional-order gradient of the error defined as the traditional quadratic energy function. The monotonicity and weak (strong) convergence of the proposed approach are proved in detail. Two simulations have been implemented to illustrate the performance of presented fractional-order BP algorithm on three small datasets and one large dataset. The numerical simulations effectively verify the theoretical observations of this paper as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Chen Yuming
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Though boundary value problems for fractional differential equations have been extensively studied, most of the studies focus on scalar equations and the fractional order between 1 and 2. On the other hand, delay is natural in practical systems. However, not much has been done for fractional differential equations with delays. Therefore, in this paper, we consider a boundary value problem of a general delayed nonlinear fractional system. With the help of some fixed point theorems and the properties of the Green function, we establish several sets of sufficient conditions on the existence of positive solutions. The obtained results extend and include some existing ones and are illustrated with some examples for their feasibility.
Radiation from Accelerating Electric Charges: The Third Derivative of Position
Butterworth, Edward
2010-03-01
While some textbooks appear to suggest that acceleration of an electric charge is both a necessary and sufficient cause for the generation of electromagnetic radiation, the question has in fact had an intricate and involved history. In particular, the acceleration of a charge in hyperbolic motion, the behavior of a charge supported against a gravitational force (and its implications for the Equivalence Principle), and a charge accelerated by a workless constraint have been the subject of repeated investigation. The present paper examines specifically the manner in which the third derivative of position enters into the equations of motion, and the implications this has for the emission of radiation. Plass opens his review article with the statement that ``A fundamental property of all charged particles is that electromagnetic energy is radiated whenever they are accelerated'' (Plass 1961; emphasis mine). His treatment of the equations of motion, however, emphasizes the importance of the occurrence of the third derivative of position therein, present in linear motion only when the rate of acceleration is increasing or decreasing. There appears to be general agreement that the presence of a nonzero third derivative indicates that this charge is radiating; but does its absence preclude radiation? This question leads back to the issues of charges accelerated by a uniform gravitational field. We will examine the equations of motion as presented in Fulton & Rohrlich (1960), Plass (1961), Barut (1964), Teitelboim (1970) and Mo & Papas (1971) in the light of more recent literature in an attempt to clarify this question.
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Azizollah Babakhani
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of positive solution for system of nonlinear fractional differential equations in two dimensions with delay. Our analysis relies on a nonlinear alternative of Leray-Schauder type and Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem in a cone.
Analytical Solution for Fractional Derivative Gas-Flow Equation in Porous Media
El-Amin, Mohamed; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Sun, Shuyu
2017-01-01
In this paper, we introduce an analytical solution of the fractional derivative gas transport equation using the power-series technique. We present a new universal transform, namely, generalized Boltzmann change of variable which depends on the fractional order, time and space. This universal transform is employed to transfer the partial differential equation into an ordinary differential equation. Moreover, the convergence of the solution has been investigated and found that solutions are unconditionally converged. Results are introduced and discussed for the universal variable and other physical parameters such as porosity and permeability of the reservoir; time and space.
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S. Das
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this article, optimal homotopy-analysis method is used to obtain approximate analytic solution of the time-fractional diffusion equation with a given initial condition. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. Unlike usual Homotopy analysis method, this method contains at the most three convergence control parameters which describe the faster convergence of the solution. Effects of parameters on the convergence of the approximate series solution by minimizing the averaged residual error with the proper choices of parameters are calculated numerically and presented through graphs and tables for different particular cases.
Analytical Solution for Fractional Derivative Gas-Flow Equation in Porous Media
El-Amin, Mohamed
2017-07-06
In this paper, we introduce an analytical solution of the fractional derivative gas transport equation using the power-series technique. We present a new universal transform, namely, generalized Boltzmann change of variable which depends on the fractional order, time and space. This universal transform is employed to transfer the partial differential equation into an ordinary differential equation. Moreover, the convergence of the solution has been investigated and found that solutions are unconditionally converged. Results are introduced and discussed for the universal variable and other physical parameters such as porosity and permeability of the reservoir; time and space.
Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Derived Fractional Flow Reserve and Plaque Stress
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Leipsic, Jonathon; Koo, Bon-Kwon
2016-01-01
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured during invasive coronary angiography is an independent prognosticator in patients with coronary artery disease and the gold standard for decision making in coronary revascularization. The integration of computational fluid dynamics and quantitative anatomic...... and physiologic modeling now enables simulation of patient-specific hemodynamic parameters including blood velocity, pressure, pressure gradients, and FFR from standard acquired coronary computed tomography (CT) datasets. In this review article, we describe the potential impact on clinical practice...... and the science behind noninvasive coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) as well as future applications of this technology in treatment planning and quantifying forces on atherosclerotic plaques....
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Abdon Atangana
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The notion of uncertainty in groundwater hydrology is of great importance as it is known to result in misleading output when neglected or not properly accounted for. In this paper we examine this effect in groundwater flow models. To achieve this, we first introduce the uncertainties functions u as function of time and space. The function u accounts for the lack of knowledge or variability of the geological formations in which flow occur (aquifer in time and space. We next make use of Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives that were introduced by Kobelev and Romano in 2000 and its approximation to modify the standard version of groundwater flow equation. Some properties of the modified Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative approximation are presented. The classical model for groundwater flow, in the case of density-independent flow in a uniform homogeneous aquifer is reformulated by replacing the classical derivative by the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives approximations. The modified equation is solved via the technique of green function and the variational iteration method.
Analysis of the cable equation with non-local and non-singular kernel fractional derivative
Karaagac, Berat
2018-02-01
Recently a new concept of differentiation was introduced in the literature where the kernel was converted from non-local singular to non-local and non-singular. One of the great advantages of this new kernel is its ability to portray fading memory and also well defined memory of the system under investigation. In this paper the cable equation which is used to develop mathematical models of signal decay in submarine or underwater telegraphic cables will be analysed using the Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivative due to the ability of the new fractional derivative to describe non-local fading memory. The existence and uniqueness of the more generalized model is presented in detail via the fixed point theorem. A new numerical scheme is used to solve the new equation. In addition, stability, convergence and numerical simulations are presented.
Modelling and simulation of a dynamical system with the Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivative
Owolabi, Kolade M.
2018-01-01
In this paper, we model an ecological system consisting of a predator and two preys with the newly derived two-step fractional Adams-Bashforth method via the Atangana-Baleanu derivative in the Caputo sense. We analyze the dynamical system for correct choice of parameter values that are biologically meaningful. The local analysis of the main model is based on the application of qualitative theory for ordinary differential equations. By using the fixed point theorem idea, we establish the existence and uniqueness of the solutions. Convergence results of the new scheme are verified in both space and time. Dynamical wave phenomena of solutions are verified via some numerical results obtained for different values of the fractional index, which have some interesting ecological implications.
General solution of the Bagley-Torvik equation with fractional-order derivative
Wang, Z. H.; Wang, X.
2010-05-01
This paper investigates the general solution of the Bagley-Torvik equation with 1/2-order derivative or 3/2-order derivative. This fractional-order differential equation is changed into a sequential fractional-order differential equation (SFDE) with constant coefficients. Then the general solution of the SFDE is expressed as the linear combination of fundamental solutions that are in terms of α-exponential functions, a kind of functions that play the same role of the classical exponential function. Because the number of fundamental solutions of the SFDE is greater than 2, the general solution of the SFDE depends on more than two free (independent) constants. This paper shows that the general solution of the Bagley-Torvik equation involves actually two free constants only, and it can be determined fully by the initial displacement and initial velocity.
Talib, Imran; Belgacem, Fethi Bin Muhammad; Asif, Naseer Ahmad; Khalil, Hammad
2017-01-01
In this research article, we derive and analyze an efficient spectral method based on the operational matrices of three dimensional orthogonal Jacobi polynomials to solve numerically the mixed partial derivatives type multi-terms high dimensions generalized class of fractional order partial differential equations. We transform the considered fractional order problem to an easily solvable algebraic equations with the aid of the operational matrices. Being easily solvable, the associated algebraic system leads to finding the solution of the problem. Some test problems are considered to confirm the accuracy and validity of the proposed numerical method. The convergence of the method is ensured by comparing our Matlab software simulations based obtained results with the exact solutions in the literature, yielding negligible errors. Moreover, comparative results discussed in the literature are extended and improved in this study.
Subharmonic Resonance of Van Der Pol Oscillator with Fractional-Order Derivative
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Yongjun Shen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The subharmonic resonance of van der Pol (VDP oscillator with fractional-order derivative is studied by the averaging method. At first, the first-order approximate solutions are obtained by the averaging method. Then the definitions of equivalent linear damping coefficient (ELDC and equivalent linear stiffness coefficient (ELSC for subharmonic resonance are established, and the effects of the fractional-order parameters on the ELDC, the ELSC, and the dynamical characteristics of system are also analysed. Moreover, the amplitude-frequency equation and phase-frequency equation of steady-state solution for subharmonic resonance are established. The corresponding stability condition is presented based on Lyapunov theory, and the existence condition for subharmonic resonance (ECSR is also obtained. At last, the comparisons of the fractional-order and the traditional integer-order VDP oscillator are fulfilled by the numerical simulation. The effects of the parameters in fractional-order derivative on the steady-state amplitude, the amplitude-frequency curves, and the system stability are also studied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Ran-Ran; Xu Wei; Yang Gui-Dong; Han Qun
2015-01-01
In this paper, we consider the response analysis of a Duffing–Rayleigh system with fractional derivative under Gaussian white noise excitation. A stochastic averaging procedure for this system is developed by using the generalized harmonic functions. First, the system state is approximated by a diffusive Markov process. Then, the stationary probability densities are derived from the averaged Itô stochastic differential equation of the system. The accuracy of the analytical results is validated by the results from the Monte Carlo simulation of the original system. Moreover, the effects of different system parameters and noise intensity on the response of the system are also discussed. (paper)
Pirnapasov, Sardor; Karimov, Erkinjon
2017-01-01
In the present work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE) with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. We investigate a boundary value problem for fractional heat equation involving higher order Caputo-Fabrizio derivatives in time-variable. Using method of separation of variables and integration by parts, we reduce fractional order PDE to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.
Macías-Díaz, J. E.
2017-12-01
In this manuscript, we consider an initial-boundary-value problem governed by a (1 + 1)-dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equation with constant damping that generalizes many nonlinear wave equations from mathematical physics. The model considers the presence of a spatial Laplacian of fractional order which is defined in terms of Riesz fractional derivatives, as well as the inclusion of a generic continuously differentiable potential. It is known that the undamped regime has an associated positive energy functional, and we show here that it is preserved throughout time under suitable boundary conditions. To approximate the solutions of this model, we propose a finite-difference discretization based on fractional centered differences. Some discrete quantities are proposed in this work to estimate the energy functional, and we show that the numerical method is capable of conserving the discrete energy under the same boundary conditions for which the continuous model is conservative. Moreover, we establish suitable computational constraints under which the discrete energy of the system is positive. The method is consistent of second order, and is both stable and convergent. The numerical simulations shown here illustrate the most important features of our numerical methodology.
Wang, Wei Z; Fang, Xin-Hua; Williams, Shelley J; Stephenson, Linda L; Baynosa, Richard C; Wong, Nancy; Khiabani, Kayvan T; Zamboni, William A
2013-01-01
Adipose-derived stem cells have become the most studied adult stem cells. The authors examined the apoptosis and necrosis rates for adipocyte, stromal vascular fraction, and adipose-derived stem cells in fresh human lipoaspirates. Human lipoaspirate (n = 8) was harvested using a standard liposuction technique. Stromal vascular fraction cells were separated from adipocytes and cultured to obtain purified adipose-derived stem cells. A panel of stem cell markers was used to identify the surface phenotypes of cultured adipose-derived stem cells. Three distinct stem cell subpopulations (CD90/CD45, CD105/CD45, and CD34/CD31) were selected from the stromal vascular fraction. Apoptosis and necrosis were determined by annexin V/propidium iodide assay and analyzed by flow cytometry. The cultured adipose-derived stem cells demonstrated long-term proliferation and differentiation evidenced by cell doubling time and positive staining with oil red O and alkaline phosphatase. Isolated from lipoaspirates, adipocytes exhibited 19.7 ± 3.7 percent apoptosis and 1.1 ± 0.3 percent necrosis; stromal vascular fraction cells revealed 22.0 ± 6.3 percent of apoptosis and 11.2 ± 1.9 percent of necrosis; stromal vascular fraction cells had a higher rate of necrosis than adipocytes (p vascular fraction cells, 51.1 ± 3.7 percent expressed CD90/CD45, 7.5 ± 1.0 percent expressed CD105/CD45, and 26.4 ± 3.8 percent expressed CD34/CD31. CD34/CD31 adipose-derived stem cells had lower rates of apoptosis and necrosis compared with CD105/CD45 adipose-derived stem cells (p necrosis than adipocytes. However, the extent of apoptosis and necrosis was significantly different among adipose-derived stem cell subpopulations.
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Pirson Chris
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Mycobacterial lipids have long been known to modulate the function of a variety of cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report the extraction and characterisation of polar and apolar free lipids from Mycobacterium bovis AF 2122/97 and identify the major lipids present in these fractions. Lipids found included trehalose dimycolate (TDM and trehalose monomycolate (TMM, the apolar phthiocerol dimycocersates (PDIMs, triacyl glycerol (TAG, pentacyl trehalose (PAT, phenolic glycolipid (PGL, and mono-mycolyl glycerol (MMG. Polar lipids identified included glucose monomycolate (GMM, diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG, phenylethanolamine (PE and a range of mono- and di-acylated phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs. These lipid fractions are capable of altering the cytokine profile produced by fresh and cultured bovine monocytes as well as monocyte derived dendritic cells. Significant increases in the production of IL-10, IL-12, MIP-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were seen after exposure of antigen presenting cells to the polar lipid fraction. Phenotypic characterisation of the cells was performed by flow cytometry and significant decreases in the expression of MHCII, CD86 and CD1b were found after exposure to the polar lipid fraction. Polar lipids also significantly increased the levels of CD40 expressed by monocytes and cultured monocytes but no effect was seen on the constitutively high expression of CD40 on MDDC or on the levels of CD80 expressed by any of the cells. Finally, the capacity of polar fraction treated cells to stimulate alloreactive lymphocytes was assessed. Significant reduction in proliferative activity was seen after stimulation of PBMC by polar fraction treated cultured monocytes whilst no effect was seen after lipid treatment of MDDC. These data demonstrate that pathogenic mycobacterial polar lipids may significantly hamper the ability of the host APCs to induce an appropriate immune response to an invading pathogen.
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Mehdi Behfar
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Tendon never restores the complete biological and mechanical properties after healing. Bone marrow and recently adipose tissue have been used as the sources of mesenchymal stem cells, which have been proven to enhance tendon healing. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF, derived from adipose tissue by an enzymatic digestion, represents an alternative source of multipotent cells, which undergo differentiation into multiple lineages to be used in regenerative medicine. In the present study, we investigated potentials of this source on tendon healing. Twenty rabbits were divided into control and treatment groups. Five rabbits were used as donors of adipose tissue. The injury model was unilateral complete transection through the middle one third of deep digital flexor tendon. Immediately after suture repair, either fresh stromal vascular fraction from enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue or placebo was intratendinously injected into the suture site in treatments and controls, respectively. Cast immobilization was continued for two weeks after surgery. Animals were sacrificed at the third week and tendons underwent histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical evaluations. By histology, improved fibrillar organization and remodeling of neotendon were observed in treatment group. Immunohistochemistry revealed an insignificant increase in collagen type III and I expression in treatments over controls. Mechanical testing showed significant increase in maximum load and energy absorption in SVF treated tendons. The present study showed that intratendinous injection of uncultured adipose derived stromal vascular fraction improved structural and mechanical properties of repaired tendon and it could be an effective modality for treating tendon laceration.
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Ahmet Bekir
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the fractional partial differential equations are defined by modified Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative. With the help of fractional derivative and traveling wave transformation, these equations can be converted into the nonlinear nonfractional ordinary differential equations. Then G′G-expansion method is applied to obtain exact solutions of the space-time fractional Burgers equation, the space-time fractional KdV-Burgers equation and the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. These results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple in performing a solution to the fractional partial differential equation.
A new visco-elasto-plastic model via time-space fractional derivative
Hei, X.; Chen, W.; Pang, G.; Xiao, R.; Zhang, C.
2018-02-01
To characterize the visco-elasto-plastic behavior of metals and alloys we propose a new constitutive equation based on a time-space fractional derivative. The rheological representative of the model can be analogous to that of the Bingham-Maxwell model, while the dashpot element and sliding friction element are replaced by the corresponding fractional elements. The model is applied to describe the constant strain rate, stress relaxation and creep tests of different metals and alloys. The results suggest that the proposed simple model can describe the main characteristics of the experimental observations. More importantly, the model can also provide more accurate predictions than the classic Bingham-Maxwell model and the Bingham-Norton model.
Asymptotic integration of some nonlinear differential equations with fractional time derivative
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baleanu, Dumitru; Agarwal, Ravi P; Mustafa, Octavian G; Cosulschi, Mirel
2011-01-01
We establish that, under some simple integral conditions regarding the nonlinearity, the (1 + α)-order fractional differential equation 0 D α t (x') + f(t, x) = 0, t > 0, has a solution x element of C([0,+∞),R) intersection C 1 ((0,+∞),R), with lim t→0 [t 1-α x'(t)] element of R, which can be expanded asymptotically as a + bt α + O(t α-1 ) when t → +∞ for given real numbers a, b. Our arguments are based on fixed point theory. Here, 0 D α t designates the Riemann-Liouville derivative of order α in (0, 1).
Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao
2016-08-01
The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao
2016-01-01
The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.
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Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei, E-mail: weixu@nwpu.edu.cn; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2016-08-15
The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.
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Chuanzhi Bai
2010-06-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the existence of positive solutions for a boundary value problem involving a nonlinear functional differential equation of fractional order $\\alpha$ given by $ D^{\\alpha} u(t + f(t, u_t = 0$, $t \\in (0, 1$, $2 < \\alpha \\le 3$, $ u^{\\prime}(0 = 0$, $u^{\\prime}(1 = b u^{\\prime}(\\eta$, $u_0 = \\phi$. Our results are based on the nonlinear alternative of Leray-Schauder type and Krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem.
Abro, Kashif Ali; Memon, Anwar Ahmed; Uqaili, Muhammad Aslam
2018-03-01
This research article is analyzed for the comparative study of RL and RC electrical circuits by employing newly presented Atangana-Baleanu and Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives. The governing ordinary differential equations of RL and RC electrical circuits have been fractionalized in terms of fractional operators in the range of 0 ≤ ξ ≤ 1 and 0 ≤ η ≤ 1. The analytic solutions of fractional differential equations for RL and RC electrical circuits have been solved by using the Laplace transform with its inversions. General solutions have been investigated for periodic and exponential sources by implementing the Atangana-Baleanu and Caputo-Fabrizio fractional operators separately. The investigated solutions have been expressed in terms of simple elementary functions with convolution product. On the basis of newly fractional derivatives with and without singular kernel, the voltage and current have interesting behavior with several similarities and differences for the periodic and exponential sources.
Saad, K. M.
2018-03-01
In this work we extend the standard model for a cubic isothermal auto-catalytic chemical system (CIACS) to a new model of a fractional cubic isothermal auto-catalytic chemical system (FCIACS) based on Caputo (C), Caputo-Fabrizio (CF) and Atangana-Baleanu in the Liouville-Caputo sense (ABC) fractional time derivatives, respectively. We present approximate solutions for these extended models using the q -homotopy analysis transform method ( q -HATM). We solve the FCIACS with the C derivative and compare our results with those obtained using the CF and ABC derivatives. The ranges of convergence of the solutions are found and the optimal values of h , the auxiliary parameter, are derived. Finally, these solutions are compared with numerical solutions of the various models obtained using finite differences and excellent agreement is found.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, H. W.; Yi, H. Y.; Mishnaevsky, Leon
2017-01-01
A modeling approach to time-dependent property of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) composites is of special interest for quantitative description of long-term behavior. An electronic creep machine is employed to investigate the time-dependent deformation of four specimens of dog-bond-shaped......A modeling approach to time-dependent property of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) composites is of special interest for quantitative description of long-term behavior. An electronic creep machine is employed to investigate the time-dependent deformation of four specimens of dog......-bond-shaped GFRP composites at various stress level. A negative exponent function based on structural changes is introduced to describe the damage evolution of material properties in the process of creep test. Accordingly, a new creep constitutive equation, referred to fractional derivative Maxwell model...... by the fractional derivative Maxwell model proposed in the paper are in a good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that the new creep constitutive model proposed in the paper needs few parameters to represent various time-dependent behaviors....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sperotto, Fabiola Aiub; Segatto, Cynthia Feijo; Zabadal, Jorge
2002-01-01
In this work, we determine the dominant eigenvalue of the one-dimensional neutron transport equation in a slab constructing an integral form for the neutron transport equation which is the expressed in terms of fractional derivative of the angular flux. Equating the fractional derivative of the angular flux to the integrate equation, we determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. Once known the angular flux the dominant eigenvalue is calculated solving a transcendental equation resulting from the application of the boundary conditions. We report the methodology applied, for comparison with available results in literature. (author)
Kim, Myong-Ha; Ri, Guk-Chol; O, Hyong-Chol
2013-01-01
This paper provides the existence and representation of solution to an initial value problem for the general multi-term linear fractional differential equation with generalized Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives and constant coefficients by using operational calculus of Mikusinski's type. We prove that the initial value problem has the solution of if and only if some initial values should be zero.
Li, Zhiyuan; Yamamoto, Masahiro
2014-01-01
This article proves the uniqueness for two kinds of inverse problems of identifying fractional orders in diffusion equations with multiple time-fractional derivatives by pointwise observation. By means of eigenfunction expansion and Laplace transform, we reduce the uniqueness for our inverse problems to the uniqueness of expansions of some special function and complete the proof.
Hansen, Christian T.; Meixner, Anette; Kasemann, Simone A.; Bach, Wolfgang
2017-11-01
Multiple batch experiments (100 °C, 200 °C; 40 MPa) were conducted, using Dickson-type reactors, to investigate Li and B partitioning and isotope fractionation between rock and water during serpentinization. We reacted fresh olivine (5 g; Fo90; [B] = anti-correlated with temperature, we argue for an overall attenuation of the isotopic effect through changes in B speciation in saline solutions (NaB(OH)4(aq) and B(OH)3Cl-) as well as variable B fixation and fractionation for different serpentinization product minerals (brucite, chrysotile). Breakdown of the Li-rich olivine and limited Li incorporation into product mineral phases resulted in an overall lower Li content of the final solid phase assemblage at 200 °C ([Li]final_200 °C = 0.77 μg/g; DS/FLi200 °C = 1.58). First order changes in Li isotopic compositions were defined by mixing of two isotopically distinct sources i.e. the fresh olivine and the fluid rather than by equilibrium isotope fraction. At 200 °C primary olivine is dissolved, releasing its Li budget into the fluid which shifts towards a lower δ7LiF of +38.62‰. Newly formed serpentine minerals (δ7LiS = +30.58‰) incorporate fluid derived Li with a minor preference of the 6Li isotope. At 100 °C Li enrichment of secondary phases exceeded Li release by olivine breakdown ([Li]final_100 °C = 2.10 μg/g; DS/FLi100 °C = 11.3) and it was accompanied by preferential incorporation of heavier 7Li isotope that might be due to incorporation of a 7Li enriched fluid fraction into chrysotile nanotubes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.B. Riaz
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article was to analyze the rotational flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid with fractional derivatives, induced by an infinite circular cylinder that applies a constant couple to the fluid. Such kind of problem in the settings of fractional derivatives has not been found in the literature. The solutions are based on an important remark regarding the governing equation for the non-trivial shear stress. The solutions that have been obtained satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and can easily be reduced to the similar solutions corresponding to ordinary Oldroyd-B, fractional/ordinary Maxwell, fractional/ordinary second-grade, and Newtonian fluids performing the same motion. The obtained results are expressed in terms of Newtonian and non-Newtonian contributions. Finally, the influence of fractional parameters on the velocity, shear stress and a comparison between generalized and ordinary fluids is graphically underlined.
Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yue; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.
2017-03-01
Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative (KVFD) model parameters have been used to describe viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. However, translating model parameters into a concise set of intrinsic mechanical properties related to tissue composition and structure remains challenging. This paper begins by exploring these relationships using a biphasic emulsion materials with known composition. Mechanical properties are measured by analyzing data from two indentation techniques—ramp-stress relaxation and load-unload hysteresis tests. Material composition is predictably correlated with viscoelastic model parameters. Model parameters estimated from the tests reveal that elastic modulus E 0 closely approximates the shear modulus for pure gelatin. Fractional-order parameter α and time constant τ vary monotonically with the volume fraction of the material’s fluid component. α characterizes medium fluidity and the rate of energy dissipation, and τ is a viscous time constant. Numerical simulations suggest that the viscous coefficient η is proportional to the energy lost during quasi-static force-displacement cycles, E A . The slope of E A versus η is determined by α and the applied indentation ramp time T r. Experimental measurements from phantom and ex vivo liver data show close agreement with theoretical predictions of the η -{{E}A} relation. The relative error is less than 20% for emulsions 22% for liver. We find that KVFD model parameters form a concise features space for biphasic medium characterization that described time-varying mechanical properties. The experimental work was carried out at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Methodological development, including numerical simulation and all data analysis, were carried out at the school of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an JiaoTong University, 710049, China.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Yaozong; Yu Dianlong; Zhao Honggang; Wen Jihong; Wen Xisen
2008-01-01
Wave propagation in two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) with viscoelasticity is investigated using a finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method. The viscoelasticity is evaluated using the Kelvin-Voigt model with fractional derivatives (FDs) so that both the dispersion and dissipation are considered. Numerical approximation of FDs is integrated into the FDTD scheme to simulate wave propagation in such PCs. All the constituent materials are treated as isotropic and homogeneous. The gaps are substantially displaced and widened and the attenuation is noticeably enhanced due to the dispersion and dissipation of host material and the complicated multiple scattering between scatterers. These results indicate that the viscoelasticity of the damping host has significant influence on wave propagation in PCs and should be considered
Li, S; Tang, X; Peng, L; Luo, Y; Dong, R; Liu, J
2015-05-01
To review the literature on the diagnostic accuracy of CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease, with invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the reference standard. A PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane cross-search was performed. The pooled diagnostic accuracy of FFRCT, with FFR as the reference standard, was primarily analysed, and then compared with that of CT angiography (CTA). The thresholds to diagnose ischaemia were FFR ≤0.80 or CTA ≥50% stenosis. Data extraction, synthesis, and statistical analysis were performed by standard meta-analysis methods. Three multicentre studies (NXT Trial, DISCOVER-FLOW study and DeFACTO study) were included, examining 609 patients and 1050 vessels. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for FFRCT were 89% (85-93%), 71% (65-75%), 70% (65-75%), 90% (85-93%), 3.31 (1.79-6.14), 0.16 (0.11-0.23), and 21.21 (9.15-49.15) at the patient-level, and 83% (78-63%), 78% (75-81%), 61% (56-65%), 92% (89-90%), 4.02 (1.84-8.80), 0.22 (0.13-0.35), and 19.15 (5.73-63.93) at the vessel-level. At per-patient analysis, FFRCT has similar sensitivity but improved specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR-, and DOR versus those of CTA. At per-vessel analysis, FFRCT had a slightly lower sensitivity, similar NPV, but improved specificity, PPV, LR+, LR-, and DOR compared with those of CTA. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves for FFRCT was 0.8909 at patient-level and 0.8865 at vessel-level, versus 0.7402 for CTA at patient-level. FFRCT, which was associated with improved diagnostic accuracy versus CTA, is a viable alternative to FFR for detecting coronary ischaemic lesions. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, S.; Tang, X.; Peng, L.; Luo, Y.; Dong, R.; Liu, J.
2015-01-01
Aim: To review the literature on the diagnostic accuracy of CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR CT ) for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease, with invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the reference standard. Materials and methods: A PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane cross-search was performed. The pooled diagnostic accuracy of FFR CT , with FFR as the reference standard, was primarily analysed, and then compared with that of CT angiography (CTA). The thresholds to diagnose ischaemia were FFR ≤0.80 or CTA ≥50% stenosis. Data extraction, synthesis, and statistical analysis were performed by standard meta-analysis methods. Results: Three multicentre studies (NXT Trial, DISCOVER-FLOW study and DeFACTO study) were included, examining 609 patients and 1050 vessels. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR−), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for FFR CT were 89% (85–93%), 71% (65–75%), 70% (65–75%), 90% (85–93%), 3.31 (1.79–6.14), 0.16 (0.11–0.23), and 21.21 (9.15–49.15) at the patient-level, and 83% (78–63%), 78% (75–81%), 61% (56–65%), 92% (89–90%), 4.02 (1.84–8.80), 0.22 (0.13–0.35), and 19.15 (5.73–63.93) at the vessel-level. At per-patient analysis, FFR CT has similar sensitivity but improved specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, LR−, and DOR versus those of CTA. At per-vessel analysis, FFR CT had a slightly lower sensitivity, similar NPV, but improved specificity, PPV, LR+, LR−, and DOR compared with those of CTA. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves for FFR CT was 0.8909 at patient-level and 0.8865 at vessel-level, versus 0.7402 for CTA at patient-level. Conclusions: FFR CT , which was associated with improved diagnostic accuracy versus CTA, is a viable alternative to FFR for detecting coronary ischaemic lesions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duan Jun-Sheng
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We conduct a detailed study and comparison for the one-degree-of-freedom steady-state vibrations under harmonic driving with a single fractional-order derivative and a distributed-order derivative. For each of the two vibration systems, we consider the stiffness contribution factor and damping contribution factor of the term of fractional derivatives, the amplitude and the phase difference for the response. The effects of driving frequency on these response quantities are discussed. Also the influences of the order α of the fractional derivative and the parameter γ parameterizing the weight function in the distributed-order derivative are analyzed. Two cases display similar response behaviors, but the stiffness contribution factor and damping contribution factor of the distributed-order derivative are almost monotonic change with the parameter γ, not exactly like the case of single fractional-order derivative for the order α. The case of the distributed-order derivative provides us more options for the weight function and parameters.
Abdulhameed, M.; Vieru, D.; Roslan, R.
2017-10-01
This paper investigates the electro-magneto-hydrodynamic flow of the non-Newtonian behavior of biofluids, with heat transfer, through a cylindrical microchannel. The fluid is acted by an arbitrary time-dependent pressure gradient, an external electric field and an external magnetic field. The governing equations are considered as fractional partial differential equations based on the Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional derivatives without singular kernel. The usefulness of fractional calculus to study fluid flows or heat and mass transfer phenomena was proven. Several experimental measurements led to conclusion that, in such problems, the models described by fractional differential equations are more suitable. The most common time-fractional derivative used in Continuum Mechanics is Caputo derivative. However, two disadvantages appear when this derivative is used. First, the definition kernel is a singular function and, secondly, the analytical expressions of the problem solutions are expressed by generalized functions (Mittag-Leffler, Lorenzo-Hartley, Robotnov, etc.) which, generally, are not adequate to numerical calculations. The new time-fractional derivative Caputo-Fabrizio, without singular kernel, is more suitable to solve various theoretical and practical problems which involve fractional differential equations. Using the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative, calculations are simpler and, the obtained solutions are expressed by elementary functions. Analytical solutions of the biofluid velocity and thermal transport are obtained by means of the Laplace and finite Hankel transforms. The influence of the fractional parameter, Eckert number and Joule heating parameter on the biofluid velocity and thermal transport are numerically analyzed and graphic presented. This fact can be an important in Biochip technology, thus making it possible to use this analysis technique extremely effective to control bioliquid samples of nanovolumes in microfluidic devices used for biological
Ahmed M. A. El-Sayed; Ebtisam O. Bin-Taher
2011-01-01
In this article, we prove the existence of positive nondecreasing solutions for a multi-term fractional-order functional differential equations. We consider Cauchy boundary problems with: nonlocal conditions, two-point boundary conditions, integral conditions, and deviated arguments.
total electron content derived from global positioning system during ...
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POSITIONING SYSTEM DURING SOLAR MAXIMUM OF 2012-2013. OVER THE ..... diffusion of the transported electrons from the equator (Panda et al. 2015). As the sun rises, the ..... Wang M and Christensen AB 2008 Features of annual and ...
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Niccolò Pampuro
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The phytotoxicity of four different composts obtained from pig slurry solid fraction composted by itself (SSFC and mixed with sawdust (SC, woodchips (WCC and wheat straw (WSC was tested with bioassay methods. For each compost type, the effect of water extracts of compost on seed germination and primary root growth of cress (Lepidium Sativum L. was investigated. Composts were also chemically analysed for total nitrogen, ammonium, electrical conductivity and heavy metal (Cu and Zn. The chemicals were correlated to phytotoxicity indices. The mean values of the germination index (GI obtained were 160.7, 187.9, 200.9 and 264.4 for WSC, WCC, SC and SSFC, respectively. Growth index (GrI ranged from the 229.4%, the highest value, for SSFC, followed by 201.9% for SC, and 193.1% for WCC, to the lowest value, 121.4%, for WSC. Electrical conductivity showed a significant and negative correlation with relative seed germination at the 50% and 75% concentrations. A strong positive correlation was found for water-extractable Cu with relative root growth and germination index at the 10% concentration. Water-extractable Zn showed a significant positive correlation with relative root growth and GI at the 10% concentration. These results highlighted that the four composts could be used for organic pellet production and subsequently distributed as a soil amendment with positive effects on seed germination and plant growth (GI > 80%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shilei Liu
2018-04-01
Full Text Available High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU has been proven to be promising in non-invasive therapies, in which precise prediction of the focused ultrasound field is crucial for its accurate and safe application. Although the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KZK equation has been widely used in the calculation of the nonlinear acoustic field of HIFU, some deviations still exist when it comes to dispersive medium. This problem also exists as an obstacle to the Westervelt model and the Spherical Beam Equation. Considering that the KZK equation is the most prevalent model in HIFU applications due to its accurate and simple simulation algorithms, there is an urgent need to improve its performance in dispersive medium. In this work, a modified KZK (mKZK equation derived from a fractional order derivative is proposed to calculate the nonlinear acoustic field in a dispersive medium. By correcting the power index in the attenuation term, this model is capable of providing improved prediction accuracy, especially in the axial position of the focal area. Simulation results using the obtained model were further compared with the experimental results from a gel phantom. Good agreements were found, indicating the applicability of the proposed model. The findings of this work will be helpful in making more accurate treatment plans for HIFU therapies, as well as facilitating the application of ultrasound in acoustic hyperthermia therapy.
Liu, Zhengguang; Li, Xiaoli
2018-05-01
In this article, we present a new second-order finite difference discrete scheme for a fractal mobile/immobile transport model based on equivalent transformative Caputo formulation. The new transformative formulation takes the singular kernel away to make the integral calculation more efficient. Furthermore, this definition is also effective where α is a positive integer. Besides, the T-Caputo derivative also helps us to increase the convergence rate of the discretization of the α-order(0 < α < 1) Caputo derivative from O(τ2-α) to O(τ3-α), where τ is the time step. For numerical analysis, a Crank-Nicolson finite difference scheme to solve the fractal mobile/immobile transport model is introduced and analyzed. The unconditional stability and a priori estimates of the scheme are given rigorously. Moreover, the applicability and accuracy of the scheme are demonstrated by numerical experiments to support our theoretical analysis.
Tesche, Christian; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Duguay, Taylor M; De Cecco, Carlo N; Albrecht, Moritz H; De Santis, Domenico; Langenbach, Marcel C; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Jacobs, Brian E; Jochheim, David; Baquet, Moritz; Bayer, Richard R; Litwin, Sheldon E; Hoffmann, Ellen; Steinberg, Daniel H; Schoepf, U Joseph
2017-12-15
This study investigated the performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) with cCTA-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) compared with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with fractional flow reserve (FFR) for therapeutic decision making in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Seventy-four patients (62 ± 11 years, 62% men) with at least 1 coronary stenosis of ≥50% on clinically indicated dual-source cCTA, who had subsequently undergone ICA with FFR measurement, were retrospectively evaluated. CT-FFR values were computed using an on-site machine-learning algorithm to assess the functional significance of CAD. The therapeutic strategy (optimal medical therapy alone vs revascularization) and the appropriate revascularization procedure (percutaneous coronary intervention vs coronary artery bypass grafting) were selected using cCTA-CT-FFR. Thirty-six patients (49%) had a functionally significant CAD based on ICA-FFR. cCTA-CT-FFR correctly identified a functionally significant CAD and the need of revascularization in 35 of 36 patients (97%). When revascularization was deemed indicated, the same revascularization procedure (32 percutaneous coronary interventions and 3 coronary artery bypass grafting) was chosen in 35 of 35 patients (100%). Overall, identical management strategies were selected in 73 of the 74 patients (99%). cCTA-CT-FFR shows excellent performance to identify patients with and without the need for revascularization and to select the appropriate revascularization strategy. cCTA-CT-FFR as a noninvasive "one-stop shop" has the potential to change diagnostic workflows and to directly inform therapeutic decision making in patients with suspected CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Ya-Juan Hao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The main object of this paper is to investigate the Helmholtz and diffusion equations on the Cantor sets involving local fractional derivative operators. The Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate method is applied to handle the corresponding local fractional differential equations. Two illustrative examples for the Helmholtz and diffusion equations on the Cantor sets are shown by making use of the Cantorian and Cantor-type cylindrical coordinates.
The angle property of positive real functions simply derived
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørsboe, Helge
1973-01-01
The angle property of positive real (rational) functionsZ(s), namely, that|arg s | geqq |arg Z(s)|in the right half of thes-plane, can be demonstrated very simply by an examination of the imaginary parts of the functionsln(s/Z(s))andln (sZ(s)), i.e.,arg s mp arg Z(s). In particular, on a contour...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, Nehad Ali; Khan, Ilyas
2016-01-01
This paper presents a Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives approach to the thermal analysis of a second grade fluid over an infinite oscillating vertical flat plate. Together with an oscillating boundary motion, the heat transfer is caused by the buoyancy force induced by temperature differences between the plate and the fluid. Closed form solutions of the fluid velocity and temperature are obtained by means of the Laplace transform. The solutions of ordinary second grade and Newtonian fluids corresponding to time derivatives of integer and fractional orders are obtained as particular cases of the present solutions. Numerical computations and graphical illustrations are used in order to study the effects of the Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional parameter α, the material parameter α 2 , and the Prandtl and Grashof numbers on the velocity field. A comparison for time derivative of integer order versus fractional order is shown graphically for both Newtonian and second grade fluids. It is found that fractional fluids (second grade and Newtonian) have highest velocities. This shows that the fractional parameter enhances the fluid flow. (orig.)
Sales, T. P.; Marques, Flávio D.; Pereira, Daniel A.; Rade, Domingos A.
2018-06-01
Nonlinear aeroelastic systems are prone to the appearance of limit cycle oscillations, bifurcations, and chaos. Such problems are of increasing concern in aircraft design since there is the need to control nonlinear instabilities and improve safety margins, at the same time as aircraft are subjected to increasingly critical operational conditions. On the other hand, in spite of the fact that viscoelastic materials have already been successfully used for the attenuation of undesired vibrations in several types of mechanical systems, a small number of research works have addressed the feasibility of exploring the viscoelastic effect to improve the behavior of nonlinear aeroelastic systems. In this context, the objective of this work is to assess the influence of viscoelastic materials on the aeroelastic features of a three-degrees-of-freedom typical section with hardening structural nonlinearities. The equations of motion are derived accounting for the presence of viscoelastic materials introduced in the resilient elements associated to each degree-of-freedom. A constitutive law based on fractional derivatives is adopted, which allows the modeling of temperature-dependent viscoelastic behavior in time and frequency domains. The unsteady aerodynamic loading is calculated based on the classical linear potential theory for arbitrary airfoil motion. The aeroelastic behavior is investigated through time domain simulations, and subsequent frequency transformations, from which bifurcations are identified from diagrams of limit cycle oscillations amplitudes versus airspeed. The influence of the viscoelastic effect on the aeroelastic behavior, for different values of temperature, is also investigated. The numerical simulations show that viscoelastic damping can increase the flutter speed and reduce the amplitudes of limit cycle oscillations. These results prove the potential that viscoelastic materials have to increase aircraft components safety margins regarding aeroelastic
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Koca Ilknur
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Recently Hristov using the concept of a relaxation kernel with no singularity developed a new model of elastic heat diffusion equation based on the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative as an extended version of Cattaneo model of heat diffusion equation. In the present article, we solve exactly the Cattaneo-Hristov model and extend it by the concept of a derivative with non-local and non-singular kernel by using the new Atangana-Baleanu derivative. The Cattaneo-Hristov model with the extended derivative is solved analytically with the Laplace transform, and numerically using the Crank-Nicholson scheme.
Eyuboglu, Atilla Adnan; Uysal, Cagri A; Ozgun, Gonca; Coskun, Erhan; Markal Ertas, Nilgun; Haberal, Mehmet
2018-03-01
Stasis zone is the surrounding area of the coagulation zone which is an important part determining the extent of the necrosis in burn patients. In our study we aim to salvage the stasis zone by injecting adipose derived stromal vascular fraction (ADSVF). Thermal injury was applied on dorsum of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20) by the "comb burn" model as described previously. When the burn injury was established on Sprague-Dawley rats (30min); rat dorsum was separated into 2 equal parts consisting of 4 burn zones (3 stasis zone) on each pair. ADSVF cells harvested from inguinal fat pads of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=5) were injected on the right side while same amount of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injected on the left side of the same animal. One week later, average vital tissue on the statis zone was determined by macroscopy, angiography and microscopy. Vascular density, inflammatory cell density, gradient of fibrosis and epithelial thickness were determined via immunohistochemical assay. Macroscopic stasis zone tissue viability (32±3.28%, 57±4.28%) (p51, 1.50±0.43) (pzone on acute burn injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Pennings, J.M.E.
2002-01-01
The behavior of managers in initiating a derivatives market position brings to the surface an interesting phenomenon: sometimes managers initiate a position in derivatives markets (i.e., futures and options markets) and sometimes they do not, even though the price volatility of the underlying asset
Abdullah, M.; Butt, Asma Rashid; Raza, Nauman; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh; Alzahrani, A. K.
2018-01-01
The magneto hydrodynamic blood flow in the presence of magnetic particles through a circular cylinder is investigated. To calculate the impact of externally applied uniform magnetic field, the blood is electrically charged. Initially the fluid and circular cylinder is at rest but at time t =0+ , the cylinder starts to oscillate along its axis with velocity fsin (Ωt) . To obtain the mathematical model of blood flow with fractional derivatives Caputo fractional operator is employed. The solutions for the velocities of blood and magnetic particles are procured semi analytically by using Laplace transformation method. The inverse Laplace transform has been calculated numerically by using MATHCAD computer software. The obtained results of velocities are presented in Laplace domain in terms of modified Bessel function I0 (·) . The obtained results satisfied all imposed initial and boundary conditions. The hybrid technique that is employed here less computational effort and time cost as compared to other techniques used in literature. As the limiting cases of our results the solutions of the flow model with ordinary derivatives has been procured. Finally, the impact of Reynolds number Re, fractional parameter α and Hartmann number Ha is analyzed and portrayed through graphs. It is worthy to pointing out that fractional derivatives brings remarkable differences as compared to ordinary derivatives. It also has been observed that velocity of blood and magnetic particles is weaker under the effect of transverse magnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, Yanwen; Xu, Wei, E-mail: weixu@nwpu.edu.cn; Wang, Liang [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2016-03-15
This paper focuses on the study of the stochastic Van der Pol vibro-impact system with fractional derivative damping under Gaussian white noise excitation. The equations of the original system are simplified by non-smooth transformation. For the simplified equation, the stochastic averaging approach is applied to solve it. Then, the fractional derivative damping term is facilitated by a numerical scheme, therewith the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used to obtain the numerical results. And the numerical simulation results fit the analytical solutions. Therefore, the proposed analytical means to study this system are proved to be feasible. In this context, the effects on the response stationary probability density functions (PDFs) caused by noise excitation, restitution condition, and fractional derivative damping are considered, in addition the stochastic P-bifurcation is also explored in this paper through varying the value of the coefficient of fractional derivative damping and the restitution coefficient. These system parameters not only influence the response PDFs of this system but also can cause the stochastic P-bifurcation.
Xiao, Yanwen; Xu, Wei; Wang, Liang
2016-03-01
This paper focuses on the study of the stochastic Van der Pol vibro-impact system with fractional derivative damping under Gaussian white noise excitation. The equations of the original system are simplified by non-smooth transformation. For the simplified equation, the stochastic averaging approach is applied to solve it. Then, the fractional derivative damping term is facilitated by a numerical scheme, therewith the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used to obtain the numerical results. And the numerical simulation results fit the analytical solutions. Therefore, the proposed analytical means to study this system are proved to be feasible. In this context, the effects on the response stationary probability density functions (PDFs) caused by noise excitation, restitution condition, and fractional derivative damping are considered, in addition the stochastic P-bifurcation is also explored in this paper through varying the value of the coefficient of fractional derivative damping and the restitution coefficient. These system parameters not only influence the response PDFs of this system but also can cause the stochastic P-bifurcation.
Toufik, Mekkaoui; Atangana, Abdon
2017-10-01
Recently a new concept of fractional differentiation with non-local and non-singular kernel was introduced in order to extend the limitations of the conventional Riemann-Liouville and Caputo fractional derivatives. A new numerical scheme has been developed, in this paper, for the newly established fractional differentiation. We present in general the error analysis. The new numerical scheme was applied to solve linear and non-linear fractional differential equations. We do not need a predictor-corrector to have an efficient algorithm, in this method. The comparison of approximate and exact solutions leaves no doubt believing that, the new numerical scheme is very efficient and converges toward exact solution very rapidly.
Modeling ramp-hold indentation measurements based on Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model
Zhang, Hongmei; zhe Zhang, Qing; Ruan, Litao; Duan, Junbo; Wan, Mingxi; Insana, Michael F.
2018-03-01
Interpretation of experimental data from micro- and nano-scale indentation testing is highly dependent on the constitutive model selected to relate measurements to mechanical properties. The Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model (KVFD) offers a compact set of viscoelastic features appropriate for characterizing soft biological materials. This paper provides a set of KVFD solutions for converting indentation testing data acquired for different geometries and scales into viscoelastic properties of soft materials. These solutions, which are mostly in closed-form, apply to ramp-hold relaxation, load-unload and ramp-load creep-testing protocols. We report on applications of these model solutions to macro- and nano-indentation testing of hydrogels, gastric cancer cells and ex vivo breast tissue samples using an atomic force microscope (AFM). We also applied KVFD models to clinical ultrasonic breast data using a compression plate as required for elasticity imaging. Together the results show that KVFD models fit a broad range of experimental data with a correlation coefficient typically R 2 > 0.99. For hydrogel samples, estimation of KVFD model parameters from test data using spherical indentation versus plate compression as well as ramp relaxation versus load-unload compression all agree within one standard deviation. Results from measurements made using macro- and nano-scale indentation agree in trend. For gastric cell and ex vivo breast tissue measurements, KVFD moduli are, respectively, 1/3-1/2 and 1/6 of the elasticity modulus found from the Sneddon model. In vivo breast tissue measurements yield model parameters consistent with literature results. The consistency of results found for a broad range of experimental parameters suggest the KVFD model is a reliable tool for exploring intrinsic features of the cell/tissue microenvironments.
Kuldeep, B; Singh, V K; Kumar, A; Singh, G K
2015-01-01
In this article, a novel approach for 2-channel linear phase quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank design based on a hybrid of gradient based optimization and optimization of fractional derivative constraints is introduced. For the purpose of this work, recently proposed nature inspired optimization techniques such as cuckoo search (CS), modified cuckoo search (MCS) and wind driven optimization (WDO) are explored for the design of QMF bank. 2-Channel QMF is also designed with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) nature inspired optimization techniques. The design problem is formulated in frequency domain as sum of L2 norm of error in passband, stopband and transition band at quadrature frequency. The contribution of this work is the novel hybrid combination of gradient based optimization (Lagrange multiplier method) and nature inspired optimization (CS, MCS, WDO, PSO and ABC) and its usage for optimizing the design problem. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (ϕp), stopband error (ϕs), transition band error (ϕt), peak reconstruction error (PRE), stopband attenuation (As) and computational time. The design examples illustrate the ingenuity of the proposed method. Results are also compared with the other existing algorithms, and it was found that the proposed method gives best result in terms of peak reconstruction error and transition band error while it is comparable in terms of passband and stopband error. Results show that the proposed method is successful for both lower and higher order 2-channel QMF bank design. A comparative study of various nature inspired optimization techniques is also presented, and the study singles out CS as a best QMF optimization technique. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gleyce Alves Machado
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse Taenia solium metacestode antigens that were derived from the unbound fraction of jacalin affinity chromatography and subsequent tert-octylphenoxy poly (oxyethylene ethanol Triton X-114 (TX-114 partitioning in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis (NCC. Immunoassays were designed to detect T. solium-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA and immunoblot. Serum samples were collected from 132 individuals who were categorised as follows: 40 had NCC, 62 presented Taenia spp or other parasitic diseases and 30 were healthy individuals. The jacalin-unbound (J unbound fraction presented higher sensitivity and specificity rates than the jacalin-bound fraction and only this fraction was subjected to subsequent TX-114 partitioning, resulting in detergent (DJ unbound and aqueous (AJ unbound fractions. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 84.8% for J unbound , 92.5% and 93.5% for DJ unbound and 82.5% and 82.6% for AJ unbound . By immunoblot, the DJ unbound fraction showed 100% sensitivity and specificity and only serum samples from patients with NCC recognised the 50-70 kDa T. solium-specific components. We conclude that the DJ unbound fraction can serve as a useful tool for the differential immunodiagnosis of NCC by immunoblot.
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Hossein Jafari
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The non-differentiable solution of the linear and non-linear partial differential equations on Cantor sets is implemented in this article. The reduced differential transform method is considered in the local fractional operator sense. The four illustrative examples are given to show the efficiency and accuracy features of the presented technique to solve local fractional partial differential equations.
World Health Organization
2017-10-13
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of fractional doses of yellow fever vaccines excerpted from the "Yellow fever vaccine: WHO position on the use of fractional doses - June 2017, Addendum to Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever WHO: Position Paper - June 2013″, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1,2]. This addendum to the 2013 position paper pertains specifically to use of fractional dose YF (fYF) vaccination (fractional dose yellow fever vaccination refers to administration of a reduced volume of vaccine dose, which has been reconstituted as usual per manufacturer recommendations) in the context of YF vaccine supply shortages beyond the capacity of the global stockpile. The current WHO position on the use of yellow fever (YF) vaccine is set out in the 2013 WHO position paper on vaccines and vaccination against YF and those recommendations are unchanged. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence-to-recommendation table. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. Recommendations on the use of Yellow Fever vaccines were discussed by SAGE in October 2016; evidence presented at these meetings can be accessed at: www.who.int/immunization/sage/meetings/2016/October/presentations_background_docs/en/. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Linking the fractional derivative and the Lomnitz creep law to non-Newtonian time-varying viscosity
Pandey, Vikash; Holm, Sverre
2016-09-01
Many of the most interesting complex media are non-Newtonian and exhibit time-dependent behavior of thixotropy and rheopecty. They may also have temporal responses described by power laws. The material behavior is represented by the relaxation modulus and the creep compliance. On the one hand, it is shown that in the special case of a Maxwell model characterized by a linearly time-varying viscosity, the medium's relaxation modulus is a power law which is similar to that of a fractional derivative element often called a springpot. On the other hand, the creep compliance of the time-varying Maxwell model is identified as Lomnitz's logarithmic creep law, making this possibly its first direct derivation. In this way both fractional derivatives and Lomnitz's creep law are linked to time-varying viscosity. A mechanism which yields fractional viscoelasticity and logarithmic creep behavior has therefore been found. Further, as a result of this linking, the curve-fitting parameters involved in the fractional viscoelastic modeling, and the Lomnitz law gain physical interpretation.
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Azizollah Babakhani
2006-10-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we discuss the existence of positive solutions in the case of multi-term non-autonomous fractional differential equations with polynomial coefficients; the constant coefficient case has been studied in [2]. We consider the equation $$ Big(D^{alpha_n} -sum_{j = 1}^{n - 1} p_j(xD^{alpha_{n - j}}Bigy = f(x, y. $$ We state various conditions on $f$ and $p_j$'s under which this equation has: positive solutions, a unique solution which is positive, and a unique solution which may not be positive.
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K.R. Prasad
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we establish the existence of at least three positive solutions for a system of (p,q-Laplacian fractional order two-point boundary value problems by applying five functionals fixed point theorem under suitable conditions on a cone in a Banach space.
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Ahmed M. A. El-Sayed
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of positive nondecreasing solutions for a multi-term fractional-order functional differential equations. We consider Cauchy boundary problems with: nonlocal conditions, two-point boundary conditions, integral conditions, and deviated arguments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Shasha [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Yuanrong, E-mail: zhuyuanrong07@mails.ucas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Fengchang, E-mail: wufengchang@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); He, Zhongqi [USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E Lee Blvd, New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Giesy, John P. [State Key Laboratory of Environment Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)
2016-10-01
Although debris from aquatic macrophytes is one of the most important endogenous sources of organic matter (OM) and nutrients in lakes, its biogeochemical cycling and contribution to internal load of nutrients in eutrophic lakes are still poorly understood. In this study, sequential fractionation by H{sub 2}O, 0.1 M NaOH and 1.0 M HCl, combined with {sup 13}C and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, was developed and used to characterize organic carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) in six aquatic plants collected from Tai Lake (Ch: Taihu), China. Organic matter, determined by total organic carbon (TOC), was unequally distributed in H{sub 2}O (21.2%), NaOH (29.9%), HCl (3.5%) and residual (45.3%) fractions. For P in debris of aquatic plants, 53.3% was extracted by H{sub 2}O, 31.9% by NaOH, and 11% by HCl, with 3.8% in residual fractions. Predominant OM components extracted by H{sub 2}O and NaOH were carbohydrates, proteins and aliphatic acids. Inorganic P (P{sub i}) was the primary form of P in H{sub 2}O fractions, whereas organic P (P{sub o}) was the primary form of P in NaOH fractions. The subsequent HCl fractions extracted fewer species of C and P. Some non-extractable carbohydrates, aromatics and metal phytate compounds remained in residual fractions. Based on sequential extraction and NMR analysis, it was proposed that those forms of C (54.7% of TOC) and P (96.2% of TP) in H{sub 2}O, NaOH and HCl fractions are potentially released to overlying water as labile components, while those in residues are stable and likely preserved in sediments of lakes. These results will be helpful in understanding internal loading of nutrients from debris of aquatic macrophytes and their recycling in lakes. - Highlights: • Sequential fractionation combined with NMR analysis was applied on aquatic plants. • Labile and stable C and P forms in aquatic plants were characterized. • 54.7% of OM and 96.2% of P in aquatic plants are potentially available. • 45.3% of OM and 3.8% of P in aquatic
Antioxidant Potential of the Extracts, Fractions and Oils Derived from Oilseeds
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Shagufta Ishtiaque
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The polyphenolic extracts and oils were obtained from ajwain, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds. The extracts were partitioned into acidic and neutral polyphenolic fractions and following estimation of total phenolics in the crude extract, acidic and neutral fractions and oil, all were analyzed for their DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging potential, ferric reducing ability and chelating power. The highest amount of polyphenols was found in ajwain (8330 ± 107, then in mustard seeds (2844 ± 56.00 and in fenugreek (1130 ± 29.00, and least in poppy seeds (937 ± 18.52. The higher amounts of polyphenols were estimated in neutral fraction compared to acidic (p fenugreek and least by poppy seed extracts (p < 0.05. The reducing power and the chelating effect of the oilseeds followed the same order as DPPH, but higher % chelation was shown by neutral than acidic fraction (p < 0.05. Though low in polyphenols, the oil fractions were as strong antioxidants as the acidic one. Though oilseeds are used in very small quantity in food, they are potential sources of natural antioxidants and may replace synthetic ones.
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Ehab Malkawi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The classical free Lagrangian admitting a constant of motion, in one- and two-dimensional space, is generalized using the Caputo derivative of fractional calculus. The corresponding metric is obtained and the fractional Christoffel symbols, Killing vectors, and Killing-Yano tensors are derived. Some exact solutions of these quantities are reported.
Ali Abro, Kashif; Hussain, Mukkarum; Mahmood Baig, Mirza
2017-10-01
The significance of the different shapes of molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles contained in ethylene glycol has recently attracted researchers, because of the numerical or experimental analyses on the shapes of molybdenum disulfide and the lack of fractionalized analytic approaches. This work is dedicated to examining the shape impacts of molybdenum disulfide nanofluids in the mixed convection flow with magnetic field and a porous medium. Ethylene glycol is chosen as the base fluid in which molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles are suspended. Non-spherically shaped molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles, namely, platelet, blade, cylinder and brick, are utilized in this analysis. The modeling of the problem is characterized by employing the modern approach of Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives and the governing partial differential equations are solved via Laplace transforms with inversion. Solutions are obtained for temperature distribution and velocity field and expressed in terms of compact form of M-function, Mba(T) . In the end, a figures are drawn to compare the different non-spherically shaped molybdenum disulfide nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Atangana-Baleanu fractional derivatives model has been compared with ordinary derivatives models and discussed graphically by setting various rheological parameters.
Existence and Estimates of Positive Solutions for Some Singular Fractional Boundary Value Problems
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Habib Mâagli
2014-01-01
fractional boundary value problem:Dαu(x=−a(xuσ(x, x∈(0,1 with the conditions limx→0+x2−αu(x=0, u(1=0, where 1<α≤2, σ∈(−1,1, and a is a nonnegative continuous function on (0,1 that may be singular at x=0 or x=1. We also give the global behavior of such a solution.
Time Study of Harvesting Equipment Using GPS-Derived Positional Data
Tim McDonald
1999-01-01
The objectives in this study were to develop and test a data analysis system for calculating machine productivity from GPS-derived positional information alone. A technique was used where positions were `filtered' initially to locate specific events that were independent of what actually traveled the path, then these events were combined using user-specified rules...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunet, G.; Delpon, G.; Bardet, E.; Bourdin, S.; Gaudaire, S.; Munos, C.; Preuvel, P.; Mahe, M.A.; Lisbona, A.
2006-01-01
The differences of daily positioning have been quantified and the precision of this king of contention has been evaluated. The buccal support improves the positioning precision. The daily use of the entrained image is feasible in routine and allows a measurable improvement of the treatment precision. (N.C.)
Seng, G. T.; Otterson, D. A.
1983-01-01
Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods have been developed for the determination of saturates, olefins and aromatics in petroleum and shale derived mid-distillate fuels. In one method the fuel to be analyzed is reacted with sulfuric acid, to remove a substantial portion of the aromatics, which provides a reacted fuel fraction for use in group type quantitation. The second involves the removal of a substantial portion of the saturates fraction from the HPLC system to permit the determination of olefin concentrations as low as 0.3 volume percent, and to improve the accuracy and precision of olefins determinations. Each method was evaluated using model compound mixtures and real fuel samples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio
2015-01-15
Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO 2 kg V S −1 h −1 . Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13 C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Xiao-Jun; Srivastava, H.M.; He, Ji-Huan; Baleanu, Dumitru
2013-01-01
In this Letter, we propose to use the Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate method in order to investigate a family of local fractional differential operators on Cantor sets. Some testing examples are given to illustrate the capability of the proposed method for the heat-conduction equation on a Cantor set and the damped wave equation in fractal strings. It is seen to be a powerful tool to convert differential equations on Cantor sets from Cantorian-coordinate systems to Cantor-type cylindrical-coordinate systems.
Grazzini, Giuliano; Ceccarelli, Anna; Calteri, Deanna; Catalano, Liviana; Calizzani, Gabriele; Cicchetti, Americo
2013-09-01
In Italy, the financial reimbursement for labile blood components exchanged between Regions is regulated by national tariffs defined in 1991 and updated in 1993-2003. Over the last five years, the need for establishing standard costs of healthcare services has arisen critically. In this perspective, the present study is aimed at defining both the costs of production of blood components and the related prices, as well as the prices of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, to be used for interregional financial reimbursement. In order to analyse the costs of production of blood components, 12 out 318 blood establishments were selected in 8 Italian Regions. For each step of the production process, driving costs were identified and production costs were. To define the costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, industrial costs currently sustained by National Health Service for contract fractionation were taken into account. The production costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma showed a huge variability among blood establishments, which was much lower after standardization. The new suggested plasma tariffs were quite similar to those currently in force. Comparing the overall costs theoretically sustained by the National Health Service for plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma to current commercial costs, demonstrates that the national blood system could gain a 10% cost saving if it were able to produce plasma for fractionation within the standard costs defined in this study. Achieving national self-sufficiency through the production of plasma-derived medicinal products from national plasma, is a strategic goal of the National Health Service which must comply not only with quality, safety and availability requirements but also with the increasingly pressing need for economic sustainability.
Mutagenicity of basic fractions derived from lamb and beef cooked by common household methods.
Barrington, P J; Baker, R S; Truswell, A S; Bonin, A M; Ryan, A J; Paulin, A P
1990-03-01
Mutagen production was examined in lamb and beef in relation to certain common household cooking methods. Mutagenicity was assessed, after extraction of the basic fraction of cooked meat samples, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1538 with added rat-liver S-9 homogenate. Little or no mutagenicity was found in barbecued lamb chops, in microwave-cooked lamb chops, sirloin steak, leg of lamb, or rolled beef loaf, in roasted leg of lamb or rolled beef loaf, in stewed blade steak or in boiled chuck steak. However, the basic fraction from well-done, edible fried or grilled meat contained mutagenic activity equivalent to approximately 30,000 TA1538 revertants/100 g cooked meat. It was found tht the mutagenic activity of grilled lamb chops, sirloin and rump steaks was directly related to the average surface temperatures attained during cooking. Use of butter as a frying medium was particularly associated with higher mutagenicity in meat samples. Fried meats (rump and fillet steaks) generally yielded higher mutagenic activity than did grilled meats (rump steak, lamb chops) at comparable temperatures of the cooking medium. Using similar cooking procedures, lamb did not differ markedly from beef in mutagenic activity.
Best Approximation of the Fractional Semi-Derivative Operator by Exponential Series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir D. Zakharchenko
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A significant reduction in the time required to obtain an estimate of the mean frequency of the spectrum of Doppler signals when seeking to measure the instantaneous velocity of dangerous near-Earth cosmic objects (NEO is an important task being developed to counter the threat from asteroids. Spectral analysis methods have shown that the coordinate of the centroid of the Doppler signal spectrum can be found by using operations in the time domain without spectral processing. At the same time, an increase in the speed of resolving the algorithm for estimating the mean frequency of the spectrum is achieved by using fractional differentiation without spectral processing. Thus, an accurate estimate of location of the centroid for the spectrum of Doppler signals can be obtained in the time domain as the signal arrives. This paper considers the implementation of a fractional-differentiating filter of the order of ½ by a set of automation astatic transfer elements, which greatly simplifies practical implementation. Real technical devices have the ultimate time delay, albeit small in comparison with the duration of the signal. As a result, the real filter will process the signal with some error. In accordance with this, this paper introduces and uses the concept of a “pre-derivative” of ½ of magnitude. An optimal algorithm for realizing the structure of the filter is proposed based on the criterion of minimum mean square error. Relations are obtained for the quadrature coefficients that determine the structure of the filter.
Oliveira, M.C.; Di Ceglie, I.; Arntz, O.J.; Berg, W.B. van den; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Ferreira, A.V.; Lent, P.L.E.M. van; Loo, F.A.J. van de
2017-01-01
The general consensus is that milk promotes bone growth and density because is a source of calcium and contains components that enhance intestinal calcium uptake or directly affect bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effect of bovine-derived milk 100,000 g pellet (P100), which
Tan, Xiao Wei; Zheng, Qishi; Shi, Luming; Gao, Fei; Allen, John Carson; Coenen, Adriaan; Baumann, Stefan; Schoepf, U Joseph; Kassab, Ghassan S; Lim, Soo Teik; Wong, Aaron Sung Lung; Tan, Jack Wei Chieh; Yeo, Khung Keong; Chin, Chee Tang; Ho, Kay Woon; Tan, Swee Yaw; Chua, Terrance Siang Jin; Chan, Edwin Shih Yen; Tan, Ru San; Zhong, Liang
2017-06-01
To evaluate the combined diagnostic accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and computed tomography derived fractional flow reserve (FFRct) in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD). PubMed, The Cochrane library, Embase and OpenGray were searched to identify studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of CCTA and FFRct. Diagnostic test measurements of FFRct were either extracted directly from the published papers or calculated from provided information. Bivariate models were conducted to synthesize the diagnostic performance of combined CCTA and FFRct at both "per-vessel" and "per-patient" levels. 7 articles were included for analysis. The combined diagnostic outcomes from "both positive" strategy, i.e. a subject was considered as "positive" only when both CCTA and FFRct were "positive", demonstrated relative high specificity (per-vessel: 0.91; per-patient: 0.81), high positive likelihood ratio (LR+, per-vessel: 7.93; per-patient: 4.26), high negative likelihood ratio (LR-, per-vessel: 0.30; per patient: 0.24) and high accuracy (per-vessel: 0.91; per-patient: 0.81) while "either positive" strategy, i.e. a subject was considered as "positive" when either CCTA or FFRct was "positive", demonstrated relative high sensitivity (per-vessel: 0.97; per-patient: 0.98), low LR+ (per-vessel: 1.50; per-patient: 1.17), low LR- (per-vessel: 0.07; per-patient: 0.09) and low accuracy (per-vessel: 0.57; per-patient: 0.54). "Both positive" strategy showed better diagnostic performance to rule in patients with non-significant stenosis compared to "either positive" strategy, as it efficiently reduces the proportion of testing false positive subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Slip effects on a generalized Burgers’ fluid flow between two side walls with fractional derivative
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shihao Han
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a research for the 3D flow of a generalized Burgers’ fluid between two side walls generated by an exponential accelerating plate and a constant pressure gradient, where the no-slip assumption between the exponential accelerating plate and the Burgers’ fluid is no longer valid. The governing equations of the generalized Burgers’ fluid flow are established by using the fractional calculus approach. Exact analytic solutions for the 3D flow are established by employing the Laplace transform and the finite Fourier sine transform. Furthermore, some 3D and 2D figures for the fluid velocity and shear stress are plotted to analyze and discuss the effects of various parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jumarie, Guy
2006-01-01
The (complex-valued) Brownian motion of order n is defined as the limit of a random walk on the complex roots of the unity. Real-valued fractional noises are obtained as fractional derivatives of the Gaussian white noise (or order two). Here one combines these two approaches and one considers the new class of fractional noises obtained as fractional derivative of the complex-valued Brownian motion of order n. The key of the approach is the relation between differential and fractional differential provided by the fractional Taylor's series of analytic function f(z+h)=E α (h α D z α ).f(z), where E α is the Mittag-Leffler function on the one hand, and the generalized Maruyama's notation, on the other hand. Some questions are revisited such as the definition of fractional Brownian motion as integral w.r.t. (dt) α , and the exponential growth equation driven by fractional Brownian motion, to which a new solution is proposed. As a first illustrative example of application, in mathematical finance, one proposes a new approach to the optimal management of a stochastic portfolio of fractional order via the Lagrange variational technique applied to the state moment dynamical equations. In the second example, one deals with non-random Lagrangian mechanics of fractional order. The last example proposes a new approach to fractional stochastic mechanics, and the solution so obtained gives rise to the question as to whether physical systems would not have their own internal random times
Novel route to 5-position vinyl derivatives of thiolactomycin: Olefination vs. deformylation
Kim, Pilho; Barry, Clifton E.; Dowd*, Cynthia S.
2006-01-01
Vinyl and diene derivatives of thiolactomycin have been prepared via Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination from protected 5-formyl-3,5-dimethylthiotetronic acid. Several 4-position protecting groups and a variety of phosphonates were evaluated, with MOM protection and β-ketophosphonates yielding the highest ratio of desired product to deformylated product. PMID:16699591
Generalized relations among N-dimensional Coulomb Green's functions using fractional derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blinder, S.M.; Pollock, E.L.
1989-01-01
Hostler [J. Math. Phys. 11, 2966 (1970)] has shown that Coulomb Green's functions of different dimensionality N are related by G (N+2) =OG (N) , where O is a first-order derivative operator in the variables x and y. Thus all the even-dimensional functions are connected, as are analogously the odd-dimensional functions. It is shown that the operations of functional differentiation and integration can further connect the even- to the odd-dimensional functions, so that Hostler's relation can be extended to give G (N+1) =O 1/2 G (N)
Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hommer, E.
1981-01-01
An attempt has been made to develop formulas to determine cardiac pressures in an undisturbed flow in patients without valvular or shunt diseases. These are based entirely on the results of left ventricular ejection fraction rates, permitting pressure analysis of several compartments at the same tine. According to BORER et al. they also enable determination of left ventricular 'Functional Reserve' after bycycle exercise as well as left ventricular 'Relaxation Reserve'. They support the views of NYHA in determining the grades of cardiac insufficiency proving the system- and low-pressure participation. A single formula for pulmonary flow can determine the pulmonary arterial pressure. The left ventricular enddiastolic pressure can also be exclusively calculated by values of left ventricular functions, thus both formulas may be used in disorders of the mitral valves. The possibility to calculate pressures of all the compartments of the heart from left ventricular ejection rate shows, that in undisturbed flow global heart function depends on left ventricular function. Therefore the mutual dependence of these formulas presents an intercompartimental pressure regulation of the heart through pulmonary flow and pulmonary vascular pressure, which leaves an aspect of autonomous cardiac regulation open to discussion. (orig.) [de
Analytical Solutions of a Space-Time Fractional Derivative of Groundwater Flow Equation
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Abdon Atangana
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The classical Darcy law is generalized by regarding the water flow as a function of a noninteger order derivative of the piezometric head. This generalized law and the law of conservation of mass are then used to derive a new equation for groundwater flow. Two methods including Frobenius and Adomian decomposition method are used to obtain an asymptotic analytical solution to the generalized groundwater flow equation. The solution obtained via Frobenius method is valid in the vicinity of the borehole. This solution is in perfect agreement with the data observed from the pumping test performed by the institute for groundwater study on one of their boreholes settled on the test site of the University of the Free State. The test consisted of the pumping of the borehole at the constant discharge rate Q and monitoring the piezometric head for 350 minutes. Numerical solutions obtained via Adomian method are compared with the Barker generalized radial flow model for which a fractal dimension for the flow is assumed. Proposition for uncertainties in groundwater studies was given.
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Hong-Ru Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the position regulation problem of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM subject to parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. A novel fractional second-order nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (F2NTSMC is proposed and the finite time stability of the closed-loop system is ensured. A sliding mode disturbance observer (SMDO is developed to estimate and make feedforward compensation for the lumped disturbances of the PMSM system. Moreover, the finite-time convergence of estimation errors can be guaranteed. The control scheme combining F2NTSMC and SMDO can not only improve performance of the closed-loop system and attenuate disturbances, but also reduce chattering effectively. Simulation results show that the proposed control method can obtain satisfactory position tracking performance and strong robustness.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helm, H.
1984-01-01
An inverted, first-order perturbation approach is used to derive potential energy curves for diatomic molecules from experimental line positions of molecular bands. The concept adopted here is based on the inverted perturbation analysis (IPA) proposed by Kozman and Hinze, but uses radial eigenfunctions of the trial potential energy curves as basis sets for the perturbation correction. Using molecular linepositions rather than molecular energy levels we circumvent the necessity of defining molecular constants for the molecule prior to the derivation of the potential energy curves. (Author)
Donor-derived HLA antibody production in patients undergoing SCT from HLA antibody-positive donors.
Taniguchi, K; Yoshihara, S; Maruya, E; Ikegame, K; Kaida, K; Hayashi, K; Kato, R; Inoue, T; Fujioka, T; Tamaki, H; Okada, M; Onuma, T; Fujii, N; Kusunoki, Y; Soma, T; Saji, H; Ogawa, H
2012-10-01
Pre-existing donor-specific HLA antibodies in patients undergoing HLA-mismatched SCT have increasingly been recognized as a risk factor for primary graft failure. However, the clinical implications of the presence of HLA antibodies in donors remain unknown. We prospectively examined 123 related donors for the presence of HLA antibodies by using a Luminex-based single antigen assay. Of these, 1/57 (1.8%) male, 6/27 (22%) parous female and 0/39 (0%) nonparous female donors were HLA antibody-positive. Then, we determined the presence of HLA antibodies in seven patients who received SCT from antibody-positive donors. Of these, four became HLA antibody-positive after SCT. The specificities of the antibodies that emerged in the patients closely resembled those of the antibodies found in the donors, indicating their production by donor-derived plasma cells. Moreover, the kinetics of the HLA antibody levels were similar in all four patients: levels started increasing within 1 week after SCT and peaked at days 10-21, followed by a gradual decrease. These results suggest that donor-derived HLA antibody production frequently occurs in patients undergoing SCT from antibody-positive donors. Further studies are warranted for clarifying the clinical significance of donor-derived HLA antibodies, including the role of these antibodies in post transplant platelet transfusion refractoriness.
Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata
2016-03-01
A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index.
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Des Field
Full Text Available Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G, with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
Field, Des; Begley, Maire; O’Connor, Paula M.; Daly, Karen M.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul
2012-01-01
Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G), with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E) with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. PMID:23056510
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zachau Anne C
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of motoneuron cells in anterior spinal horns. There is a need for early and accurate diagnosis with this condition. In this case report we used two complementary methods: scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. This is the first report to our knowledge of microparticles in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Case presentation An 80-year-old Swedish man of Caucasian ethnicity presented to our facility with symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis starting a year before his first hospital examination, such as muscle weakness and twitching in his right hand progressing to arms, body and leg muscles. Electromyography showed classical neurophysiological findings of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Routine blood sample results were normal. A lumbar puncture was performed as a routine investigation and his cerebrospinal fluid was normal with regard to cell count and protein levels, and there were no signs of inflammation. However, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting showed pronounced abnormalities compared to healthy controls. Flow cytometry analysis of two fractions of cerebrospinal fluid from our patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was used to measure the specific binding of antibodies to CD42a, CD144 and CD45, and of phosphatidylserine to lactadherin. Our patient displayed over 100 times more phosphatidylserine-positive microparticles and over 400 times more cell-derived microparticles of leukocyte origin in his cerebrospinal fluid compared to healthy control subjects. The first cerebrospinal fluid fraction contained about 50% more microparticles than the second fraction. The scanning electron microscopy filters used with cerebrospinal fluid from our patient were filled with compact aggregates of spherical particles of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N; Yartsev, S
2014-01-01
Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S 2 in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S 2 and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S 2 for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S 2 reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S 2 can be reconstructed from the tumor volume variation curves measured
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adailton S. Borges
Full Text Available Abstract A broad class of engineering systems can be satisfactory modeled under the assumptions of small deformations and linear material properties. However, many mechanical systems used in modern applications, like structural elements typical of aerospace and petroleum industries, have been characterized by increased slenderness and high static and dynamic loads. In such situations, it becomes indispensable to consider the nonlinear geometric effects and/or material nonlinear behavior. At the same time, in many cases involving dynamic loads, there comes the need for attenuation of vibration levels. In this context, this paper describes the development and validation of numerical models of viscoelastic slender beam-like structures undergoing large displacements. The numerical approach is based on the combination of the nonlinear Cosserat beam theory and a viscoelastic model based on Fractional Derivatives. Such combination enables to derive nonlinear equations of motion that, upon finite element discretization, can be used for predicting the dynamic behavior of the structure in the time domain, accounting for geometric nonlinearity and viscoelastic damping. The modeling methodology is illustrated and validated by numerical simulations, the results of which are compared to others available in the literature.
Bian, Weishuai; Chen, Wei; Chao, Yangong; Wang, Lan; Li, Liming; Guan, Jian; Zang, Xuefeng; Zhen, Jie; Sheng, Bo; Zhu, Xi
2017-04-01
This study aimed to apply the dead space fraction [ratio of dead space to tidal volume (VD/VT)] to titrate the optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in a swine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Twelve swine models of ARDS were constructed. A lung recruitment maneuver was then conducted and the PEEP was set at 20 cm H 2 O. The PEEP was reduced by 2 cm H 2 O every 10 min until 0 cm H 2 O was reached, and VD/VT was measured after each decrement step. VD/VT was measured using single-breath analysis of CO 2 , and calculated from arterial CO 2 partial pressure (PaCO 2 ) and mixed expired CO 2 (PeCO 2 ) using the following formula: VD/VT = (PaCO 2 - PeCO 2 )/PaCO 2 . The optimal PEEP was identified by the lowest VD/VT method. Respiration and hemodynamic parameters were recorded during the periods of pre-injury and injury, and at 4 and 2 cm H 2 O below and above the optimal PEEP (Po). The optimal PEEP in this study was found to be 13.25±1.36 cm H 2 O. During the Po period, VD/VT decreased to a lower value (0.44±0.08) compared with that during the injury period (0.68±0.10) (P<0.05), while the intrapulmonary shunt fraction reached its lowest value. In addition, a significant change of dynamic tidal respiratory compliance and oxygenation index was induced by PEEP titration. These results indicate that minimal VD/VT can be used for PEEP titration in ARDS.
Sagar, Sunil
2014-01-31
Plumbagin [5-hydroxy- 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthaquinone] is a well-known plant derived anticancer lead compound. Several efforts have been made to synthesize its analogs and derivatives in order to increase its anticancer potential. In the present study, plumbagin and its five derivatives have been evaluated for their antiproliferative potential in one normal and four human cancer cell lines. Treatment with derivatives resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of various cancer cell lines. Prescreening of compounds led us to focus our further investigations on acetyl plumbagin, which showed remarkably low toxicity towards normal BJ cells and HepG2 cells. The mechanisms of apoptosis induction were determined by APOPercentage staining, caspase-3/7 activation, reactive oxygen species production and cell cycle analysis. The modulation of apoptotic genes (p53, Mdm2, NF-kB, Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Casp-7) was also measured using real time PCR. The positive staining using APOPercentage dye, increased caspase-3/7 activity, increased ROS production and enhanced mRNA expression of proapoptotic genes suggested that acetyl plumbagin exhibits anticancer effects on MCF-7 cells through its apoptosis-inducing property. A key highlighting point of the study is low toxicity of acetyl plumbagin towards normal BJ cells and negligible hepatotoxicity (data based on HepG2 cell line). Overall results showed that acetyl plumbagin with reduced toxicity might have the potential to be a new lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer. 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.
Sagar, Sunil; Esau, Luke; Moosa, Basem; Khashab, Niveen M.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Kaur, Mandeep
2014-01-01
Plumbagin [5-hydroxy- 2-methyl-1, 4-naphthaquinone] is a well-known plant derived anticancer lead compound. Several efforts have been made to synthesize its analogs and derivatives in order to increase its anticancer potential. In the present study, plumbagin and its five derivatives have been evaluated for their antiproliferative potential in one normal and four human cancer cell lines. Treatment with derivatives resulted in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of growth of various cancer cell lines. Prescreening of compounds led us to focus our further investigations on acetyl plumbagin, which showed remarkably low toxicity towards normal BJ cells and HepG2 cells. The mechanisms of apoptosis induction were determined by APOPercentage staining, caspase-3/7 activation, reactive oxygen species production and cell cycle analysis. The modulation of apoptotic genes (p53, Mdm2, NF-kB, Bad, Bax, Bcl-2 and Casp-7) was also measured using real time PCR. The positive staining using APOPercentage dye, increased caspase-3/7 activity, increased ROS production and enhanced mRNA expression of proapoptotic genes suggested that acetyl plumbagin exhibits anticancer effects on MCF-7 cells through its apoptosis-inducing property. A key highlighting point of the study is low toxicity of acetyl plumbagin towards normal BJ cells and negligible hepatotoxicity (data based on HepG2 cell line). Overall results showed that acetyl plumbagin with reduced toxicity might have the potential to be a new lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer. 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alamri, Iqbal; Faria, Sergio; Gluszko, Jessica; Patrocinio, Horacio [McGill University Health Centre (Canada)
2016-08-15
Purpose: To assess intra-fraction positional stability of lung cancer tumours in patients treated by kilo-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) without the use of customized immobilization devices. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients underwent 4D-CT in the supine position with the arms in a wing board but without customized immobilization. The PTV was the internal target volume based on maximum intensity projections and a 5mm symmetric setup margin. Treatments were planned using 7–9 static fields or two volumetric modulated arcs. At treatment, the patient position was adjusted using pre-treatment CBCT. A post-treatment CBCT was taken immediately after the treatment ended. The 41 CBCT pairs were automatically matched and the transitional shifts between the two CBCTs recorded. The mean values and standard deviations were calculated for these displacements. Results and conclusions: The mean time between CBCTs (treatment time) was 16.5 ± 6 minutes (range: 10 to 34 minutes). In all cases the tumour remained inside the PTV in the post-treatment CBCT. The mean shifts between pre and post-treatment CBCTs were −0.7 ± 1.6 mm (range −5.0 to 3.0 mm) vertically, −0.3 ± 1.7 mm (range −4.8 to 3.0 mm) longitudinally, and −0.4 ± 1.5 mm (range −4.0 to 2.0 mm) laterally. Our results suggest little systematic shifting during treatment, and standard deviations that are consistent with another published report for treatments where customized immobilization was used. This result is encouraging for SBRT programs in clinics with limited resources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alamri, Iqbal; Faria, Sergio; Gluszko, Jessica; Patrocinio, Horacio
2016-01-01
Purpose: To assess intra-fraction positional stability of lung cancer tumours in patients treated by kilo-voltage cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) without the use of customized immobilization devices. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients underwent 4D-CT in the supine position with the arms in a wing board but without customized immobilization. The PTV was the internal target volume based on maximum intensity projections and a 5mm symmetric setup margin. Treatments were planned using 7–9 static fields or two volumetric modulated arcs. At treatment, the patient position was adjusted using pre-treatment CBCT. A post-treatment CBCT was taken immediately after the treatment ended. The 41 CBCT pairs were automatically matched and the transitional shifts between the two CBCTs recorded. The mean values and standard deviations were calculated for these displacements. Results and conclusions: The mean time between CBCTs (treatment time) was 16.5 ± 6 minutes (range: 10 to 34 minutes). In all cases the tumour remained inside the PTV in the post-treatment CBCT. The mean shifts between pre and post-treatment CBCTs were −0.7 ± 1.6 mm (range −5.0 to 3.0 mm) vertically, −0.3 ± 1.7 mm (range −4.8 to 3.0 mm) longitudinally, and −0.4 ± 1.5 mm (range −4.0 to 2.0 mm) laterally. Our results suggest little systematic shifting during treatment, and standard deviations that are consistent with another published report for treatments where customized immobilization was used. This result is encouraging for SBRT programs in clinics with limited resources.
Derivation of the point spread function for zero-crossing-demodulated position-sensitive detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowlin, C.H.
1976-07-01
This work is a mathematical derivation of a high-quality approximation to the point spread function for position-sensitive detectors (PSDs) that use pulse-shape modulation and crossover-time demodulation. The approximation is determined as a general function of the input signals to the crossover detectors so as to enable later determination of optimum position-decoding filters for PSDs. This work is precisely applicable to PSDs that use either RC or LC transmission line encoders. The effects of random variables, such as charge collection time, in the encoding process are included. In addition, this work presents a new, rigorous method for the determination of upper and lower bounds for conditional crossover-time distribution functions (closely related to first-passage-time distribution functions) for arbitrary signals and arbitrary noise covariance functions
Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.
1993-08-10
A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, N.; Shinwari, Z.K.
2016-01-01
The extracts and its derived fractions from three medicinal plants species Nepeta leavigata, Nepeta kurramensis and Rhynchosia reniformis were tested for insecticidal activities and preliminary phytochemical evaluation with the intention of standardization and proper manage of bioactive principles in such heterogonous botanicals and to encourage drug finding work with plants. The crude extracts and fractions from Nepeta plants showed moderate to strong insecticidal activity. Among the fractions from Nepeta kurramensis the n-butanol fraction showed strongest insecticidal activity with 89% mortality rate against Tribolium castaneum followed by methanol extract with 88% mortality ratio and in case of Nepeta leavigata the potential activity was showed by methanol extracts with 93% mortality rate against the tested insect. Surprisingly none of the extract / fractions obtained from Rhynchosia reniformis plant exhibited any insecticidal activity. The phytochemicals screening results revealed that both species of Nepeta showed similar phytochemicals profile. The group of chemicals terpenes, flavonoids and glycosides were observed in all the extracts/fractions of Nepeta plants. While phenolic compounds, acidic compounds and alkaloids were found in methanolic extracts, chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate fraction. The Rhynchosia reniformis was observed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids and fats. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: sabzika2@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: mcubed@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: cjhdzdz@163.com [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)
2015-07-15
Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.
Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua
2015-07-01
Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua
2015-01-01
Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series
Morales-Delgado, V. F.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Taneco-Hernandez, M. A.
2017-12-01
In this work we propose fractional differential equations for the motion of a charged particle in electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Exact solutions are obtained for the fractional differential equations by employing the Laplace transform method. The temporal fractional differential equations are considered in the Caputo-Fabrizio-Caputo and Atangana-Baleanu-Caputo sense. Application examples consider constant, ramp and harmonic fields. In addition, we present numerical results for different values of the fractional order. In all cases, when α = 1, we recover the standard electrodynamics.
Biomass-derived carbonaceous positive electrodes for sustainable lithium-ion storage
Liu, Tianyuan; Kavian, Reza; Chen, Zhongming; Cruz, Samuel S.; Noda, Suguru; Lee, Seung Woo
2016-02-01
Biomass derived carbon materials have been widely used as electrode materials; however, in most cases, only electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC) is utilized and therefore, only low energy density can be achieved. Herein, we report on redox-active carbon spheres that can be simply synthesized from earth-abundant glucose via a hydrothermal process. These carbon spheres exhibit a specific capacity of ~210 mA h gCS-1, with high redox potentials in the voltage range of 2.2-3.7 V vs. Li, when used as positive electrode in lithium cells. Free-standing, flexible composite films consisting of the carbon spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes deliver high specific capacities up to ~155 mA h gelectrode-1 with no obvious capacity fading up to 10 000 cycles, proposing to be promising positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries or capacitors. Furthermore, considering that the carbon spheres were obtained in an aqueous glucose solution and no toxic or hazardous reagents were used, this process opens up a green and sustainable method for designing high performance, environmentally-friendly energy storage devices.Biomass derived carbon materials have been widely used as electrode materials; however, in most cases, only electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC) is utilized and therefore, only low energy density can be achieved. Herein, we report on redox-active carbon spheres that can be simply synthesized from earth-abundant glucose via a hydrothermal process. These carbon spheres exhibit a specific capacity of ~210 mA h gCS-1, with high redox potentials in the voltage range of 2.2-3.7 V vs. Li, when used as positive electrode in lithium cells. Free-standing, flexible composite films consisting of the carbon spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes deliver high specific capacities up to ~155 mA h gelectrode-1 with no obvious capacity fading up to 10 000 cycles, proposing to be promising positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries or capacitors. Furthermore, considering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurata, Akira [Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Toon, Ehime (Japan); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Coenen, Adriaan; Lubbers, Marisa M.; Nieman, Koen [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Departmenet of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kido, Teruhito; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Toon, Ehime (Japan); Kido, Tomoyuki [Matsuyama Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Radiology, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Yamashita, Natsumi [Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Division of Clinical Biostatistics, Section of Cancer Prevention and Epidemiology, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Watanabe, Kouki [Matsuyama Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Krestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)
2017-04-15
The aim of this study is to assess the effect of blood pressure (BP) on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) derived computational fractional flow reserve (CTA-FFR). Twenty-one patients who underwent coronary CTA and invasive FFR were retrospectively identified. Ischemia was defined as invasive FFR ≤0.80. Using a work-in-progress computational fluid dynamics algorithm, CTA-FFR was computed with BP measured before CTA, and simulated BPs of 60/50, 90/60, 110/70, 130/80, 150/90, and 180/100 mmHg respectively. Correlation between CTA-FFR and invasive FFR was assessed using Pearson test. The repeated measuring test was used for multiple comparisons of CTA-FFR values by simulated BP inputs. Twenty-nine vessels (14 with invasive FFR ≤0.80) were assessed. The average CTA-FFR for measured BP (134 ± 20/73 ± 12 mmHg) was 0.77 ± 0.12. Correlation between CTA-FFR by measured BP and invasive FFR was good (r = 0.735, P < 0.001). For simulated BPs of 60/50, 90/60, 110/70, 130/80, 150/90, and 180/100 mmHg, the CTA-FFR increased: 0.69 ± 0.13, 0.73 ± 0.12, 0.75 ± 0.12, 0.77 ± 0.11, 0.79 ± 0.11, and 0.81 ± 0.10 respectively (P < 0.05). Measurement of the BP just before CTA is preferred for accurate CTA-FFR simulation. BP variations in the common range slightly affect CTA-FFR. However, inaccurate BP assumptions differing from the patient-specific BP could cause misinterpretation of borderline significant lesions. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurata, Akira; Coenen, Adriaan; Lubbers, Marisa M.; Nieman, Koen; Kido, Teruhito; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Kido, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Natsumi; Watanabe, Kouki; Krestin, Gabriel P.
2017-01-01
The aim of this study is to assess the effect of blood pressure (BP) on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) derived computational fractional flow reserve (CTA-FFR). Twenty-one patients who underwent coronary CTA and invasive FFR were retrospectively identified. Ischemia was defined as invasive FFR ≤0.80. Using a work-in-progress computational fluid dynamics algorithm, CTA-FFR was computed with BP measured before CTA, and simulated BPs of 60/50, 90/60, 110/70, 130/80, 150/90, and 180/100 mmHg respectively. Correlation between CTA-FFR and invasive FFR was assessed using Pearson test. The repeated measuring test was used for multiple comparisons of CTA-FFR values by simulated BP inputs. Twenty-nine vessels (14 with invasive FFR ≤0.80) were assessed. The average CTA-FFR for measured BP (134 ± 20/73 ± 12 mmHg) was 0.77 ± 0.12. Correlation between CTA-FFR by measured BP and invasive FFR was good (r = 0.735, P < 0.001). For simulated BPs of 60/50, 90/60, 110/70, 130/80, 150/90, and 180/100 mmHg, the CTA-FFR increased: 0.69 ± 0.13, 0.73 ± 0.12, 0.75 ± 0.12, 0.77 ± 0.11, 0.79 ± 0.11, and 0.81 ± 0.10 respectively (P < 0.05). Measurement of the BP just before CTA is preferred for accurate CTA-FFR simulation. BP variations in the common range slightly affect CTA-FFR. However, inaccurate BP assumptions differing from the patient-specific BP could cause misinterpretation of borderline significant lesions. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Josipovic, Mirjana; Fredberg Persson, Gitte; Logadottir, Aashildur; Smulders, Bob; Westmann, Gunnar; Bangsgaard, Jens Peter
2012-01-01
Background. Implementation of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in frameless stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of lung tumours enables setup correction based on tumour position. The aim of this study was to compare setup accuracy with daily soft tissue matching to bony anatomy matching and evaluate intra- and inter-fractional translational and rotational errors in patient and target positions. Material and methods. Fifteen consecutive SBRT patients were included in the study. Vacuum cushions were used for immobilisation. SBRT plans were based on midventilation phase of four-dimensional (4D)-CT or three-dimensional (3D)-CT from PET/CT. Margins of 5 mm in the transversal plane and 10 mm in the cranio-caudal (CC) direction were applied. SBRT was delivered in three fractions within a week. At each fraction, CBCT was performed before and after the treatment. Setup accuracy comparison between soft tissue matching and bony anatomy matching was evaluated on pretreatment CBCTs. From differences in pre- and post-treatment CBCTs, we evaluated the extent of translational and rotational intra-fractional changes in patient position, tumour position and tumour baseline shift. All image registration was rigid with six degrees of freedom. Results. The median 3D difference between patient position based on bony anatomy matching and soft tissue matching was 3.0 mm (0-8.3 mm). The median 3D intra-fractional change in patient position was 1.4 mm (0-12.2 mm) and 2.2 mm (0-13.2 mm) in tumour position. The median 3D intra-fractional baseline shift was 2.2 mm (0-4.7 mm). With correction of translational errors, the remaining systematic and random errors were approximately 1deg. Conclusion. Soft tissue tumour matching improved precision of treatment delivery in frameless SBRT of lung tumours compared to image guidance using bone matching. The intra-fractional displacement of the target position was affected by both translational and rotational changes in tumour baseline position
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Yartsev, S [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} can be reconstructed from the tumor volume
Matar, Fadi A; Falasiri, Shayan; Glover, Charles B; Khaliq, Asma; Leung, Calvin C; Mroue, Jad; Ebra, George
2016-11-01
To derive a simplified scoring system (SSS) that can assist in selecting patients who would benefit from the application of fractional flow reserve (FFR). Angiographers base decisions to perform FFR on their interpretation of % diameter stenosis (DS), which is subject to variability. Recent studies have shown that the amount of myocardium at jeopardy is an important factor in determining the degree of hemodynamic compromise. We conducted a retrospective multivariable analysis to identify independent predictors of hemodynamic compromise in 289 patients with 317 coronary vessels undergoing FFR. A SSS was derived using the odds ratios as a weighted factor. The receiver operator characteristics curve was used to identify the optimal cutoff (≥3) to discern a functionally significant lesion (FFR≤0.8). Male gender, left anterior descending artery apical wrap, disease proximal to lesion, minimal lumen diameter and % DS predicted abnormal FFR (≤0.8) and lesion location in the left circumflex predicted a normal FFR. Using a cutoff score of ≥3 on the SSS, a specificity of 90.4% (95% CI: 83.0-95.3) and a sensitivity of 38.0% (95% CI: 31.5-44.9) was generated with a positive predictive value of 89.0% (95% CI: 80.7%-94.6%) and negative predictive value of 41.6% (95% CI: 35.1%-48.3%). The decision to use FFR should be based not only on the % DS but also the size of the myocardial mass jeopardized. A score of ≥3 on the SSS should prompt further investigation with a pressure wire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Julien, Maxime; Parinet, Julien; Nun, Pierrick; Bayle, Kevin; Höhener, Patrick; Robins, Richard J.; Remaud, Gérald S.
2015-01-01
Isotopic fractionation of pollutants in terrestrial or aqueous environments is a well-recognized means by which to track different processes during remediation. As a complement to the common practice of measuring the change in isotope ratio for the whole molecule using isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry (irm-MS), position-specific isotope analysis (PSIA) can provide further information that can be exploited to investigate source and remediation of soil and water pollutants. Position-specific fractionation originates from either degradative or partitioning processes. We show that isotope ratio monitoring by 13 C NMR (irm- 13 C NMR) spectrometry can be effectively applied to methyl tert-butylether, toluene, ethanol and trichloroethene to obtain this position-specific data for partitioning. It is found that each compound exhibits characteristic position-specific isotope fractionation patterns, and that these are modulated by the type of evaporative process occurring. Such data should help refine models of how remediation is taking place, hence back-tracking to identify pollutant sources. - Highlights: • Position-Specific Isotope Analysis (PSIA) by 13 C NMR spectrometry. • PSIA on isotope fractionation during several vaporization processes. • PSIA for isotope profiling in environment pollutants. • Intramolecular 13 C reveal normal and inverse effects, bulk values being unchanged. - PSIA in pollutants during evaporation processes shows more detailed information for discerning the nature of the process involved than does bulk isotope measurements
Fractional vector calculus for fractional advection dispersion
Meerschaert, Mark M.; Mortensen, Jeff; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.
2006-07-01
We develop the basic tools of fractional vector calculus including a fractional derivative version of the gradient, divergence, and curl, and a fractional divergence theorem and Stokes theorem. These basic tools are then applied to provide a physical explanation for the fractional advection-dispersion equation for flow in heterogeneous porous media.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumann, Stefan; Wang, Rui; Schoepf, U.J.; Steinberg, Daniel H.; Spearman, James V.; Bayer, Richard R.; Hamm, Christian W.; Renker, Matthias
2015-01-01
The present study aimed to determine the feasibility of a novel fractional flow reserve (FFR) algorithm based on coronary CT angiography (cCTA) that permits point-of-care assessment, without data transfer to core laboratories, for the evaluation of potentially ischemia-causing stenoses. To obtain CT-based FFR, anatomical coronary information and ventricular mass extracted from cCTA datasets were integrated with haemodynamic parameters. CT-based FFR was assessed for 36 coronary artery stenoses in 28 patients in a blinded fashion and compared to catheter-based FFR. Haemodynamically relevant stenoses were defined by an invasive FFR ≤0.80. Time was measured for the processing of each cCTA dataset and CT-based FFR computation. Assessment of cCTA image quality was performed using a 5-point scale. Mean total time for CT-based FFR determination was 51.9 ± 9.0 min. Per-vessel analysis for the identification of lesion-specific myocardial ischemia demonstrated good correlation (Pearson's product-moment r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) between the prototype CT-based FFR algorithm and invasive FFR. Subjective image quality analysis resulted in a median score of 4 (interquartile ranges, 3-4). Our initial data suggest that the CT-based FFR method for the detection of haemodynamically significant stenoses evaluated in the selected population correlates well with invasive FFR and renders time-efficient point-of-care assessment possible. (orig.)
Progesterone radioimmunoassay with the use of progesterone derivative substituted at 12α position
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kula, E.; Stupnicka, R.
1981-01-01
A direct (non-extraction) radioimmunoassay method for progesterone determination in blood plasma has been presented. A new progesterone derivative substituted at 12α position was used as antigen for production of antibody. Cheap and easily accessible substrate -deoxycholic acid - was used as starting material for 9 step degradation procedure yielding 12α-hydroxy-progesterone. The latter compound was subsequently esterified with succinic anhydrine and conjugated with bovine serum albumin. The conjugate was then used for the immunization of rabbits to obtain immune antisera. After the detailed characterization, the obtained antibodies have been used for the determination of progesterone in human and cattle blood plasma. Transcortin present in samples used for the determinations was saturated with the excess of cortisol. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 5 pg in a sample, which corresponds to the concentration of about 0.25 ng/ml in blood plasma, in as much as the volume of plasma used for analysis was 20 ml. The within-series error was 7% when progesterone concentration in plasma samples was higher than 2.5 ng/ml. (author)
Nascimento, Paulo Cicero; Gobo, Luciana Assis; Bohrer, Denise; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Cravo, Margareth Coutinho; Leite, Leni Figueiredo Mathias
2015-12-01
Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives, the oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formed in asphalt fractions. Two different methods have been developed for the determination of five oxygenated and seven nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are characterized by having two or more condensed aromatic rings and present mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. The parameters of the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface were optimized to obtain the highest possible sensitivity for all compounds. The detection limits of the methods ranged from 0.1 to 57.3 μg/L for nitrated and from 0.1 to 6.6 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The limits of quantification were in the range of 4.6-191 μg/L for nitrated and 0.3-8.9 μg/L for oxygenated derivatives. The methods were validated against a diesel particulate extract standard reference material (National Institute of Standards and Technology SRM 1975), and the obtained concentrations (two nitrated derivatives) agreed with the certified values. The methods were applied in the analysis of asphalt samples after their fractionation into asphaltenes and maltenes, according to American Society for Testing and Material D4124, where the maltenic fraction was further separated into its basic, acidic, and neutral parts following the method of Green. Only two nitrated derivatives were found in the asphalt sample, quinoline and 2-nitrofluorene, with concentrations of 9.26 and 2146 mg/kg, respectively, whereas no oxygenated derivatives were detected. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Mossawy, Mohammed Idrees; Demiral, Birol; Raja, D M Anwar
2013-01-01
Foam is used in enhanced oil recovery to improve the sweep efficiency by controlling the gas mobility. The surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) foam process is used as an alternative to the water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection. In the WAG technique, the high mobility and the low density of the gas lead the gas to flow in channels through the high permeability zones of the reservoir and to rise to the top of the reservoir by gravity segregation. As a result, the sweep efficiency decreases and there will be more residual oil in the reservoir. The foam can trap the gas in liquid films and reduces the gas mobility. The fractional-flow method describes the physics of immiscible displacements in porous media. Finding the water fractional flow theoretically or experimentally as a function of the water saturation represents the heart of this method. The relative permeability function is the conventional way to derive the fractional-flow function. This study presents an improved relative permeability model to derive the fractional-flow functions for WAG and SAG foam core-floods. The SAG flow regimes are characterized into weak foam, strong foam without a shock front and strong foam with a shock front. (paper)
Folic acid derivatives for PET imaging and therapy addressing folate receptor positive tumors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schieferstein, Hanno
2013-07-01
Folic acid, also known as vitamin B9, is the oxidized form of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate, which serves as methyl- or methylene donor (C1-building blocks) during DNA synthesis. Under physiological conditions the required amount of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate for survival of the cell is accomplished through the reduced folate carrier (RFC). In contrast, the supply of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate is insufficient under pathophysiological conditions of tumors due to an increased proliferation rate. Consequently, many tumor cells exhibit an (over)expression of the folate receptor. This phenomenon has been applied to diagnostics (PET, SPECT, MR) to image FR-positive tumors and on the other hand to treat malignancies related to a FR (over)expression. Based on this concept, a new {sup 18}F-labeled folate for PET imaging has been developed and was evaluated in vivo using tumor-bearing mice. The incorporation of oligoethylene spacers into the molecular structure led to a significant enhancement of the pharmacokinetics in comparison to previously developed {sup 18}F-folates. The liver uptake could be reduced by one sixth by remaining a tumor uptake of 3%ID/g leading to better contrast ratios. Encouraged by these results, a clickable {sup 18}F-labeled serine-based prosthetic group has been synthesized, again with the idea to improve the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of hydrophilic radiotracers. Therefore, an alkyne-carrying azido-functionalized serine derivative for coupling to biomolecules was synthesized and a chlorine leaving group for {sup 18}F-labeling, which could be accomplished using a microwave-assisted synthesis, a [K is contained in 2.2.2]{sup +}/carbonate system in DMSO. Radiochemical yields of 77±6% could be achieved. The promising results obtained from the FR-targeting concept in the diagnostic field have been transferred to the boron neutron capture therapy. Therefore, a folate derivative was coupled to different boron clusters and cell uptake studies were
Folic acid derivatives for PET imaging and therapy addressing folate receptor positive tumors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schieferstein, Hanno
2013-01-01
Folic acid, also known as vitamin B9, is the oxidized form of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate, which serves as methyl- or methylene donor (C1-building blocks) during DNA synthesis. Under physiological conditions the required amount of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate for survival of the cell is accomplished through the reduced folate carrier (RFC). In contrast, the supply of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate is insufficient under pathophysiological conditions of tumors due to an increased proliferation rate. Consequently, many tumor cells exhibit an (over)expression of the folate receptor. This phenomenon has been applied to diagnostics (PET, SPECT, MR) to image FR-positive tumors and on the other hand to treat malignancies related to a FR (over)expression. Based on this concept, a new 18 F-labeled folate for PET imaging has been developed and was evaluated in vivo using tumor-bearing mice. The incorporation of oligoethylene spacers into the molecular structure led to a significant enhancement of the pharmacokinetics in comparison to previously developed 18 F-folates. The liver uptake could be reduced by one sixth by remaining a tumor uptake of 3%ID/g leading to better contrast ratios. Encouraged by these results, a clickable 18 F-labeled serine-based prosthetic group has been synthesized, again with the idea to improve the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of hydrophilic radiotracers. Therefore, an alkyne-carrying azido-functionalized serine derivative for coupling to biomolecules was synthesized and a chlorine leaving group for 18 F-labeling, which could be accomplished using a microwave-assisted synthesis, a [K is contained in 2.2.2] + /carbonate system in DMSO. Radiochemical yields of 77±6% could be achieved. The promising results obtained from the FR-targeting concept in the diagnostic field have been transferred to the boron neutron capture therapy. Therefore, a folate derivative was coupled to different boron clusters and cell uptake studies were conducted. The synthesis of
Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas
2014-01-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In- Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. Tests were performed within NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 at background pressure levels that were six times lower than what has previously been attained in other vacuum facilities. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the cathode-to-anode flow fraction and cathode position on the performance and operational characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster. In addition, the impact of injecting additional xenon propellant in the vicinity of the cathode was also assessed. Cathode-to-anode flow fraction sensitivity tests were performed for power levels between 1.0 and 3.9 kW. It was found that varying the cathode flow fraction from 5 to approximately 10% of the anode flow resulted in the cathode-to-ground voltage becoming more positive. For an operating condition of 3.8 kW and 500 V, varying the cathode position from a distance of closest approach to 600 mm away did not result in any substantial variation in thrust but resulted in the cathode-to-ground changing from -17 to -4 V. The change in the cathode-to-ground voltage along with visual observations indicated a change in how the cathode plume was coupling to the thruster discharge. Finally, the injection of secondary xenon flow in the vicinity of the cathode had an impact similar to increasing the cathode-to-anode flow fraction, where the cathode-to-ground voltage became more positive and discharge current and thrust increased slightly. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned with a centrally mounted cathode in order to further assess the impact of cathode position on thruster performance.
Joel W. Homan; Charles H. Luce; James P. McNamara; Nancy F. Glenn
2011-01-01
Describing the spatial variability of heterogeneous snowpacks at a watershed or mountain-front scale is important for improvements in large-scale snowmelt modelling. Snowmelt depletion curves, which relate fractional decreases in snowcovered area (SCA) against normalized decreases in snow water equivalent (SWE), are a common approach to scale-up snowmelt models....
Yoshioka, M; Konno, S
1970-05-01
The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an alpha(2)-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III(0), whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate.
Yoshioka, Morimasa; Konno, Seishi
1970-01-01
The endotoxin-altering activity of fractions isolated from normal horse serum was examined by incubation of Salmonella typhosa strain 0-901 endotoxin (Boivin) in a solution of the fraction, and subsequent quantitation of any diminution in the capacity of endotoxin to be precipitated by specific anti-endotoxin antiserum. The horse serum fraction isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration between 1.6 and 2.7 m was incubated with Pronase PA and then with trypsin. When this partly digested fraction was passed twice through a Sephadex G-200 column and eluted with 0.2 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, most of the endotoxinaltering activity was found in the first protein peak designated F-1a. F-1a was found to be homogeneous and corresponded to an α2-macroglobulin by the techniques of electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and ultracentrifugation. Approximately 100-fold more F-1a than endotoxin was needed to reduce the antigenicity of the endotoxin by one-half. Alteration was increased when F-1a was incubated with the endotoxin at acid pH or at 45 C rather than at 37 C and was lost after heating F-1a at 56 C for 30 min. N-ethylmaleimide increased the endotoxin-altering activity of horse serum, F-1a, and human plasma fraction III0, whereas p-chloromercuribenzoate did not. On the other hand, diazonium-1-H-tetrazole, iodoacetic acid, and benzylchloride suppressed the activity of F-1a. When the interaction of endotoxin and F-1a was examined by immunodiffusion techniques, depolymerization of the endotoxin molecule was indicated. The endotoxin-altering factor of horse serum is discussed in relation to the mechanisms of other known reagents, such as deoxycholate and sodium lauryl sulfate. Images PMID:16557754
SU-E-T-429: Uncertainties of Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation Curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chvetsov, A
2014-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate uncertainties of cell surviving fraction reconstructed from tumor-volume variation curves during radiation therapy using sensitivity analysis based on linear perturbation theory. Methods: The time dependent tumor-volume functions V(t) have been calculated using a twolevel cell population model which is based on the separation of entire tumor cell population in two subpopulations: oxygenated viable and lethally damaged cells. The sensitivity function is defined as S(t)=[δV(t)/V(t)]/[δx/x] where δV(t)/V(t) is the time dependent relative variation of the volume V(t) and δx/x is the relative variation of the radiobiological parameter x. The sensitivity analysis was performed using direct perturbation method where the radiobiological parameter x was changed by a certain error and the tumor-volume was recalculated to evaluate the corresponding tumor-volume variation. Tumor volume variation curves and sensitivity functions have been computed for different values of cell surviving fractions from the practically important interval S 2 =0.1-0.7 using the two-level cell population model. Results: The sensitivity functions of tumor-volume to cell surviving fractions achieved a relatively large value of 2.7 for S 2 =0.7 and then approached zero as S 2 is approaching zero Assuming a systematic error of 3-4% we obtain that the relative error in S 2 is less that 20% in the range S2=0.4-0.7. This Resultis important because the large values of S 2 are associated with poor treatment outcome should be measured with relatively small uncertainties. For the very small values of S2<0.3, the relative error can be larger than 20%; however, the absolute error does not increase significantly. Conclusion: Tumor-volume curves measured during radiotherapy can be used for evaluation of cell surviving fractions usually observed in radiation therapy with conventional fractionation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ojima, Koichi; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Satoru; Morita, Yohei; Fukase, Akiko; Hattori, Akihito; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi
2004-01-01
Recent studies have shown that bone marrow (BM) cells, including the BM side population (BM-SP) cells that enrich hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), are incorporated into skeletal muscle during regeneration, but it is not clear how and what kinds of BM cells contribute to muscle fiber regeneration. We found that a large number of SP cells migrated from BM to muscles following injury in BM-transplanted mice. These BM-derived SP cells in regenerating muscles expressed different surface markers from those of HSCs and could not reconstitute the mouse blood system. BM-derived SP/Mac-1 low cells increased in number in regenerating muscles following injury. Importantly, our co-culture studies with activated satellite cells revealed that this fraction carried significant potential for myogenic differentiation. By contrast, mature inflammatory (Mac-1 high ) cells showed negligible myogenic activities. Further, these BM-derived SP/Mac-1 low cells gave rise to mononucleate myocytes, indicating that their myogenesis was not caused by stochastic fusion with host myogenic cells, although they required cell-to-cell contact with myogenic cells for muscle differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that neither HSCs nor mature inflammatory cells, but Mac-1 low early myeloid cells in the BM-derived SP fraction, play an important role in regenerating skeletal muscles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaofei Jiang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Jatrorrhizine was considered as one of the active constituents of Coptis chinensis Franch. Herein, jatrorrhizine derivatives with substituted amino groups linked at the 3-position were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. Jatrorrhizine derivatives inhibited the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE to a greater extent than the lead compound jatrorrhizine. All these jatrorrhizine derivatives were proved to be potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE with submicromolar IC50 values, but less sensitive to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, which suggests that these jatrorrhizine derivatives are selective for AChE/BuChE. Compound 3g gave the most potent inhibitor activity for AChE (IC50 = 0.301 μM, which is greater than the lead compound jatrorrhizine. All these results demonstrated that these jatrorrhizine derivatives are potential inhibitors for AChE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murillo Mejia, Mario Humberto
2006-01-01
The objective was to evaluate the data obtained by sensor MODIS onboard the EOS terra satellite land cover units. The study area is the republic of Colombia in South America. The methodology consisted of analyzing the multitemporal (vegetation, soil and shade-water) fraction images and vegetation indices (NDVI) apply the lineal spectral mixture model to products derived from derived images by sensor MODIS data obtained in years 2001 and 2003. The mosaics of the original and the transformed vegetation (soil and shade-water) bands were generated for the whole study area using SPRING 4. 0 software, developed by INPE then these mosaics were segmented, classified, mapped, and edited to obtain a moderate resolution land cover map. The results derived from MODIS analysis were compared with Landsat ETM+ data acquire for a single test site. The results of the project showed the usefulness of MODIS images for large-scale land cover mapping and monitoring studies
Ping, Bonnie Tay Yen; Aziz, Haliza Abdul; Idris, Zainab
2018-01-01
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods via evaporative light scattering (ELS) and refractive index (RI) detectors are used by the local palm oil industry to monitor the TAG profiles of palm oil and its fractions. The quantitation method used is based on area normalization of the TAG components and expressed as percentage area. Although not frequently used, peak-area ratios based on TAG profiles are a possible qualitative method for characterizing the TAG of palm oil and its fractions. This paper aims to compare these two detectors in terms of peak-area ratio, percentage peak area composition, and TAG elution profiles. The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition for palm oil and its fractions were analysed under similar HPLC conditions i.e. mobile phase and column. However, different sample concentrations were used for the detectors while remaining within the linearity limits of the detectors. These concentrations also gave a good baseline resolved separation for all the TAGs components. The results of the ELSD method's percentage area composition for the TAGs of palm oil and its fractions differed from those of RID. This indicates an unequal response of TAGs for palm oil and its fractions using the ELSD, also affecting the peak area ratios. They were found not to be equivalent to those obtained using the HPLC-RID. The ELSD method showed a better baseline separation for the TAGs components, with a more stable baseline as compared with the corresponding HPLC-RID. In conclusion, the percentage area compositions and peak-area ratios for palm oil and its fractions as derived from HPLC-ELSD and RID were not equivalent due to different responses of TAG components to the ELSD detector. The HPLC-RID has a better accuracy for percentage area composition and peak-area ratio because the TAG components response equally to the detector.
Kumar, Devendra; Singh, Jagdev; Baleanu, Dumitru
2018-02-01
The mathematical model of breaking of non-linear dispersive water waves with memory effect is very important in mathematical physics. In the present article, we examine a novel fractional extension of the non-linear Fornberg-Whitham equation occurring in wave breaking. We consider the most recent theory of differentiation involving the non-singular kernel based on the extended Mittag-Leffler-type function to modify the Fornberg-Whitham equation. We examine the existence of the solution of the non-linear Fornberg-Whitham equation of fractional order. Further, we show the uniqueness of the solution. We obtain the numerical solution of the new arbitrary order model of the non-linear Fornberg-Whitham equation with the aid of the Laplace decomposition technique. The numerical outcomes are displayed in the form of graphs and tables. The results indicate that the Laplace decomposition algorithm is a very user-friendly and reliable scheme for handling such type of non-linear problems of fractional order.
de Jesus Pereira, Nathália Cristina; Régis, Wiliam César Bento; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; de Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; da Silva, Alanna Gomes; Martins, Vivian Tamietti; Duarte, Mariana Costa; de Souza, José Roberto Rodrigues; Lage, Paula Sousa; Schneider, Mônica Santos; Melo, Maria Norma; Soto, Manuel; Soares, Sandra Aguiar; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz
2015-06-01
The development of effective prophylactic strategies to prevent leishmaniasis has become a high priority. No less important than the choice of an antigen, the association of an appropriate adjuvant is necessary to achieve a successful vaccination, as the majority of the tested antigens contain limited immunogenic properties, and need to be supplemented with immune response adjuvants in order to boost their immunogenicity. However, few effective adjuvants that can be used against leishmaniasis exist on the market today; therefore, it is possible to speculate that the research aiming to identify new adjuvants could be considered relevant. Recently, Agaricus blazei extracts have proved to be useful in enhancing the immune response to DNA vaccines against some diseases. This was based on the Th1 adjuvant activity of the polysaccharide-rich fractions from this mushroom. In this context, the present study evaluated purified fractions derived from Agaricus blazei as Th1 adjuvants through in vitro assays of their immune stimulation of spleen cells derived from naive BALB/c mice. Two of the tested six fractions (namely F2 and F4) were characterized as polysaccharide-rich fractions, and were able to induce high levels of IFN-γ, and low levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in the spleen cells. The efficacy of adjuvant action against L. infantum was evaluated in BALB/c mice, with these fractions being administered together with a recombinant antigen, LiHyp1, which was previously evaluated as a vaccine candidate, associated with saponin, against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The associations between LiHyp1/F2 and LiHyp1/F4 were able to induce an in vivo Th1 response, which was primed by high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF, by low levels of IL-4 and IL-10; as well as by a predominance of IgG2a antibodies in the vaccinated animals. After infection, the immune profile was maintained, and the vaccines proved to be effective against L. infantum. The immune stimulatory effects in the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, Baosen; /Wisconsin U., Madison
2006-03-07
We present the preliminary results on the search for B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}. The data sample comprises 122.7 million B{bar B} pairs in the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation through the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance collected during 1999-2003 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We obtain an upper limit of the branching ratio at 90% confidence level as {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}) < 17.2 x 10{sup -6}. The fitted result on the polarization fraction shows no evidence that the decay is longitudinally dominated as predicted by various theoretical models.
Linking the fractional derivative and the Lomnitz creep law to non-Newtonian time-varying viscosity
Pandey, Vikash; Holm, Sverre
2016-01-01
Many of the most interesting complex media are non-Newtonian and exhibit time-dependent behavior of thixotropy and rheopecty. They may also have temporal responses described by power laws. The material behavior is represented by the relaxation modulus and the creep compliance. On the one hand, it is shown that in the special case of a Maxwell model characterized by a linearly time-varying viscosity, the medium's relaxation modulus is a power law which is similar to that of a fractional deriva...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric Pei Ping Pang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Background and purpose: During radiotherapy, prostate motion changes over time. Quantifying and accounting for this motion is essential. This study aimed to assess intra-fraction prostate motion and derive duration-dependent planning margins for two treatment techniques. Material and methods: A four-dimension (4D transperineal ultrasound Clarity® system was used to track prostate motion. We analysed 1913 fractions from 60 patients undergoing volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT to the prostate. The mean VMAT treatment duration was 3.4 min. Extended monitoring was conducted weekly to simulate motion during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT treatment (an additional seven minutes. A motion-time trend analysis was conducted and the mean intra-fraction motion between VMAT and IMRT treatments compared. Duration-dependent margins were calculated and anisotropic margins for VMAT and IMRT treatments were derived. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the mean intra-fraction motion between VMAT and the simulated IMRT duration in the inferior (0.1 mm versus 0.3 mm and posterior (−0.2 versus −0.4 mm directions respectively (p ≪ 0.01. An intra-fraction motion trend inferiorly and posteriorly was observed. The recommended minimum anisotropic margins are 1.7 mm/2.7 mm (superior/inferior; 0.8 mm (left/right, 1.7 mm/2.9 mm (anterior/posterior for VMAT treatments and 2.9 mm/4.3 mm (superior/inferior, 1.5 mm (left/right, 2.8 mm/4.8 mm (anterior/posterior for IMRT treatments. Smaller anisotropic margins were required for VMAT compared to IMRT (differences ranging from 1.2 to 1.6 mm superiorly/inferiorly, 0.7 mm laterally and 1.1–1.9 mm anteriorly/posteriorly. Conclusions: VMAT treatment is preferred over IMRT as prostate motion increases with time. Larger margins should be employed in the inferior and posterior directions for both treatment durations. Duration-dependent margins should
New Approach for the Analysis of Damped Vibrations of Fractional Oscillators
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Yuriy A. Rossikhin
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of linear and nonlinear mechanical oscillators with constitutive equations involving fractional derivatives defined as a fractional power of the operator of conventional time-derivative is considered. Such a definition of the fractional derivative enables one to analyse approximately vibratory regimes of the oscillator without considering the drift of its position of equilibrium. The assumption of small fractional derivative terms allows one to use the method of multiple time scales whereby a comparative analysis of the solutions obtained for different orders of low-level fractional derivatives and nonlinear elastic terms is possible to be carried out. The interrelationship of the fractional parameter (order of the fractional operator and nonlinearity manifests itself in full measure when orders of the small fractional derivative term and of the cubic nonlinearity entering in the oscillator's constitutive equation coincide.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hugo, Geoffrey D; Di Yan; Jian Liang
2007-01-01
In this work, five 4D image-guidance strategies (two population, an offline adaptive and two online strategies) were evaluated that compensated for both inter- and intra-fraction variability such as changes to the baseline tumour position and respiratory pattern. None of the strategies required active motion compensation such as gating or tracking; all strategies simulated a free-breathing-based treatment technique. Online kilovoltage fluoroscopy was acquired for eight patients with lung tumours, and used to construct inter- and intra-fraction tumour position variability models. Planning was performed on a mid-ventilation image acquired from a respiration-correlated CT scan. The blurring effect of tumour position variability was included in the dose calculation by convolution. CTV to PTV margins were calculated for variability in the cranio-caudal direction. A population margin of 9.0 ± 0.7 mm was required to account for setup error and respiration in the study population without the use of image-guidance. The greatest mean margin reduction was introduced by the offline adaptive strategy. A daily online correction strategy produced a small reduction (1.6 mm) in the mean margin from the offline strategy. Adaptively correcting for an inter-fraction change in the respiratory pattern had little effect on margin size due to most patients having only small daily changes in the respiratory pattern. A daily online correction strategy would be useful for patients who exhibit large variations in the daily mean tumour position, while an offline adaptive strategy is more applicable to patients with less variation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noergaard, B.L.; Jensen, J.M.; Leipsic, J.
2015-01-01
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured during invasive coronary angiography is the gold standard for lesion-specific decisions on coronary revascularization in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Current guidelines recommend non-invasive functional or anatomic testing as a gatekeeper to the catheterization laboratory. However, the ''holy grail'' in non-invasive testing of CAD is to establish a single test that quantifies both coronary lesion severity and the associated ischemia. Most evidence to date of such a test is based on the addition of computational analysis of FFR to the anatomic information obtained from standard-acquired coronary CTA data sets at rest (FFR CT ). This review summarizes the clinical evidence for the use of FFR CT in stable CAD in context to the diagnostic performance of other non-invasive testing modalities. (orig.)
Yu, Min; He, Shudong; Tang, Mingming; Zhang, Zuoyong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Sun, Hanju
2018-03-15
Four peptide fractions PF1 (>5;kDa), PF2 (3-5;kDa), PF3 (1-3;kDa), PF4 (Maillard reaction products (MRPF1, MRPF2, MRPF3 and MRPF4) were evaluated, respectively. Peptides with low molecular weight showed higher contribution to the changes of pH, colour and browning intensity during Maillard reaction. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of PF4 was significantly improved after Maillard reaction. Aroma volatiles and PLSR analysis suggested MRPF3 had the best sensory characteristics with higher contents of umami amino acids and lower of bitter amino acids, therefore it could be deduced that the umami and meaty characteristics were correlated with the peptides of 1-3;kDa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yakubovich, O. V.; Massa, W.; Pekov, I. V.; Gavrilenko, P. G.
2007-01-01
The crystal structure of the mineral tveitite-(Y) (Y 0.883 Na 0.106 ) (Ca 0.841 LREE 0.159 )(Ca 0.716 Na 0.204 HREE 0.080 )(Ca 0.092 Na 0.074 )F 6.952 from amazonite pegmatites of Rov-Gora Mountain (Keivy, Kola Peninsula) is determined using X-ray diffraction (Stoe IPDS diffractometer, λMoK α , graphite monochromator, 2θ max = 63.5 o , R = 0.051 for 1542 reflections). The main crystal data are as follows: a = 17.020(2) A, c = 9.679(2) A, V = 2428.2(4) A 3 , space group R3-bar, Z = 18, and ρ calcd = 4.00 g/cm 3 . The idealized structural formula of the mineral is represented as (Y,Na) 6 (Ca,LREE) 6 (Ca,Na,HREE) 6 (Ca,Na)F 42 (Z = 3). The defect structure of the mineral manifests itself in a mixed occupation of all four independent cation positions and in a randomly disordered distribution of fluorine atoms over the majority of anion positions. It is shown that the crystal structure of tveitite-(Y) fulfills the function of an 'Eratosthenes sieve' for yttrium cations and two groups of lanthanide cations, so that these cations are distributed over three different positions.
CD13-positive bone marrow-derived myeloid cells promote angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis.
Dondossola, Eleonora; Rangel, Roberto; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Barbu, Elena M; Hosoya, Hitomi; St John, Lisa S; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata
2013-12-17
Angiogenesis is fundamental to tumorigenesis and an attractive target for therapeutic intervention against cancer. We have recently demonstrated that CD13 (aminopeptidase N) expressed by nonmalignant host cells of unspecified types regulate tumor blood vessel development. Here, we compare CD13 wild-type and null bone marrow-transplanted tumor-bearing mice to show that host CD13(+) bone marrow-derived cells promote cancer progression via their effect on angiogenesis. Furthermore, we have identified CD11b(+)CD13(+) myeloid cells as the immune subpopulation directly regulating tumor blood vessel development. Finally, we show that these cells are specifically localized within the tumor microenvironment and produce proangiogenic soluble factors. Thus, CD11b(+)CD13(+) myeloid cells constitute a population of bone marrow-derived cells that promote tumor progression and metastasis and are potential candidates for the development of targeted antiangiogenic drugs.
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Abigail O. Ojo
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Phosphorus inputs to the soil are primarily from the application of fertilizer P and organic resources. A ten week incubation study was carried out to determine the effects of organic and inorganic P sources on phosphorus fractions in three derived savanna soils. Poultry manure was applied at 0, 0.75g, 1.5g, 2.25g and 3g per 300g weight of soil while single superphosphate was applied at 0.0023g, 0.0046g, 0.0069g and 0.0092g per 300g of soil. Sampling was done at two weeks interval. At 0 week of the incubation study, Ekiti series had the largest amount of P fractions i.e. Fe-P, Al-P, residual P, reductant soluble P, occluded P, organic P and occluded P while Ca-P was high in Apomu series. However, increases in Fe-P, Al-P, Ca-P and organic P were observed in the three soil series evaluated and poultry manure was notably effective in reducing P occlusion. In conclusion, it was observed that irrespective of the soil series at different stages of the incubation studies, poultry manure and the combined application of poultry manure and Single superphosphate was highly effective in increasing P fractions.
Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa
2011-04-01
Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.
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A. Devasthale
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR instruments onboard the series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA satellites offer the longest available meteorological data records from space. These satellites have drifted in orbit resulting in shifts in the local time sampling during the life span of the sensors onboard. Depending upon the amplitude of the diurnal cycle of the geophysical parameters derived, orbital drift may cause spurious trends in their time series. We investigate tropical deep convective clouds, which show pronounced diurnal cycle amplitude, to estimate an upper bound of the impact of orbital drift on their time series. We carry out a rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis (REOF and show that the REOFs are useful in delineating orbital drift signal and, more importantly, in subtracting this signal in the time series of convective cloud amount. These results will help facilitate the derivation of homogenized data series of cloud amount from NOAA satellite sensors and ultimately analyzing trends from them. However, we suggest detailed comparison of various methods and rigorous testing thereof applying final orbital drift corrections.
McCormick, Ernest J.; And Others
The study deals with the job component method of establishing compensation rates. The basic job analysis questionnaire used in the study was the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) (Form B). On the basis of a principal components analysis of PAQ data for a large sample (2,688) of jobs, a number of principal components (job dimensions) were…
Vo, Tam D. L.; Chung, Duy T. M.; Doan, Kien T.; Le, Duy T.; Trinh, Hung V.
2017-09-01
In this study, the antioxidant capacity of peptide fractions isolated from the Tra Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) by-product-derived proteolysate using ultrafiltration centrifugal devices with 5 distinct molecular-weight cutoffs (MWCOs) of 1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, 10 kDa, and 30 kDa was investigated. Firstly, the chemical composition of the Tra Catfish by-products was analyzed. The result showed that the Tra Catfish by-products contained 58.5% moisture, 33.9% crude protein, 50.1% crude lipid and 15.8% ash (on dry weight basis). Secondly, the effects of hydrolysis time, enzyme content on the antioxidant potential of the proteolysate were studied using DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging method (DPPH• SM) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential) method. Alcalase® 2.4 L FG was used for hydrolysis. The result of antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate showed that the 50% DPPH• inhibition concentration (IC50) of the hydrolysate reached about 6775 µg/mL which was 1645-fold higher than that of vitamin C and 17-fold higher than that of BHT (ButylatedHydroxytoluene) with the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of the hydrolysate of 14.6% when hydrolysis time was 5 hours, enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratio was 30 U/g protein, hydrolysis temperature was 55°C, and pH was 7.5. The antioxidant potential of hydrolysate using FRAP method reached about 52.12 µM Trolox equivalent which was 53-fold and 18-fold lower than those of vitamin C and BHT, respectively, when the hydrolysis time was 5 h, enzyme/substrate ratio was 30 U/g protein, temperature was 500C, and pH level was 8. Next, the proteolysate was further fractionated using MWCOs of 1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, 10 kDa, and 30 kDa and the peptide fractions were investigated for their antioxidant activity. The result showed that the <1 kDa fraction showed strongest antioxidant activity with the IC50 of 1313.31 ± 50.65 µg/mL and FRAP value of 906.90 ± 44.32 µM Trolox equivalent. The second strongest fraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGee, Kiaran P.; Fein, Douglas A.; Hanlon, Alex L.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Fowble, Barbara L.
1997-01-01
Purpose: To determine if portal setup films are an accurate representation of a patient's position throughout the course of fractionated tangential breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients undergoing external beam irradiation for T1-T2 infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast following excisional biopsy and axillary dissection were imaged using an on-line portal imaging device attached to a 6 MV linear accelerator. Medial and lateral tangential fields were imaged and a total of 139 fractions, 225 portal fields, and 4450 images were obtained. Interfractional and intrafractional variations for anatomical parameters including the central lung distance (CLD), central flash distance (CFD), and inferior central margin (ICM) were calculated from these images. A pooled estimate of the random error associated with a given treatment was determined by adding the interfractional and intrafractional standard deviations in quadrature. A 95% confidence level assigned a value of two standard deviations of the random error estimate. Central lung distance, CFD, and ICM distances were then measured for all portal setup films. Significant differences were defined as occurring when the simulation-setup difference was greater than the 95% confidence value. Results: Differences between setup portal and simulation films were less than their 95% confidence values in 70 instances indicating that in 90% of the time these differences are a result of random differences in daily treatment positioning. Conclusions: In 90% of cases tested, initial portal setup films are an accurate representation of a patients daily treatment setup
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Škugor Stanko
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive fat deposition is one of the largest problems faced by salmon aquaculture industries, leading to production losses due to high volume of adipose tissue offal. In addition, increased lipid accumulation may impose considerable stress on adipocytes leading to adipocyte activation and production and secretion of inflammatory mediators, as observed in mammals. Results Microarray and qPCR analyses were performed to follow transcriptome changes during adipogenesis in the primary culture of adipose stromo-vascular fraction (aSVF of Atlantic salmon. Cellular heterogeneity decreased by confluence as evidenced by the down-regulation of markers of osteo/chondrogenic, myogenic, immune and vasculature lineages. Transgelin (TAGLN, a marker of the multipotent pericyte, was prominently expressed around confluence while adipogenic PPARγ was up-regulated already in subconfluent cells. Proliferative activity and subsequent cell cycle arrest were reflected in the fluctuations of pro- and anti-mitotic regulators. Marked regulation of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and pathways producing NADPH and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P was seen during the terminal differentiation, also characterised by diverse stress responses. Activation of the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems and changes in the iron metabolism suggested the need for protection against oxidative stress. Signs of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR occured in parallel with the increased lipid droplet (LD formation and production of secretory proteins (adipsin, visfatin. The UPR markers XBP1 and ATF6 were induced together with genes involved in ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal proteolysis. Concurrently, translation was suppressed as evidenced by the down-regulation of genes encoding elongation factors and components of the ribosomal machinery. Notably, expression changes of a panel of genes that belong to different
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wubulikasimu, Reyila; Yang, Yanbing; Xue, Fei; Luo, Xianjin; Shao, Dongping; Li, Yuhuan; Gao, Rongmei; Ye, Weidong
2013-01-01
A series of novel benzimidazole derivatives bearing a heterocyclic ring as oxadiazole (21-32), thiadiazole (33-34), triazole (35-36) were synthesized and evaluated for their activities against Coxsackie virus B3 and B6 in Vero cells. Compounds 21-26, 31-36 with moieties of 2'-pyridyl, 3'-pyridyl and 4'-pyridyl at the 2-position and oxadiazoles, thiadiazole, or triazole substituent at the 4- or 5-position generally displayed activities against CVB3 and CVB6. Especially compound 24 (IC 50 = 1.08 μg/mL, SI = 61.7 against CVB3) was the promising candidate as lead compound for anti-enteroviral drug. It was observed in the incorporation of heterocyclic rings in benzimidazole at the 5-position could enhance their biological activities
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Heiner Falkenberg
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Ex vivo expansion of haematopoetic cells by application of specific cytokines is one approach to overcome boundaries in cord blood transplantation due to limited numbers of haematopoetic stem cells. While many protocols describe an effective increase of total cell numbers and the amount of CD34-positive cells, it still remains unclear if and how the procedure actually affects the cells’ properties. In the presented publications, CD34-positive cells were isolated from cord blood and expanded for up to 7 days in media supplemented with stem cell factor (SCF, thrombopoietin (THPO, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3lg. At days 3 and 7, expanded cells were harvested and analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative proteomics. 2970 proteins were identified, whereof proteomic analysis showed 440 proteins significantly changed in abundance during ex vivo expansion. Despite the fact that haematopoetic cells still expressed CD34 on the surface after 3 days, major changes in regard to the protein profile were observed, while further expansion showed less effect on the proteome level. Enrichment analysis of biological processes clearly showed a proteomic change toward a protein biosynthesis phenotype already within the first three days of expression.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yanagisawa, Hidefumi; Chikamori, Taishiro; Tanaka, Nobuhiro
2002-01-01
Although a relationship between the coronary pressure-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) and the presence of myocardial ischemia as demonstrated by radionuclide imaging has been reported in a select group of patients, it remains to be established whether this relation also holds true in actual clinical settings with a heterogeneous group of patients. Accordingly, 194 coronary vessels and their supply territories were evaluated in 165 consecutive patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. An FFR 201 Tl (p 201 Tl reversibility score (r=-0.62; p<0.0001). These results suggest that the FFR has a significant relationship with scintigraphic evidence of myocardial ischemia and can be regarded as a marker of its presence or absence in patients in actual clinical settings. (author)
Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan
2013-01-01
Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in leaf-off conditions for applications such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) leaf-off and leaf-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during leaf off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple leaf or deciduous compound leaf) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during leaf-on periods, but are underestimated during leaf-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that leaf-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when leaf-on lidar data are not available. PMID:23382966
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Romain Gallet, MD
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The pathogenesis of heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF is unclear. Myocardial fibrosis, inflammation, and cardiac hypertrophy have been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of HFpEF. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs are heart-derived cell products with antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties. This study tested whether rat CDCs were sufficient to decrease manifestations of HFpEF in hypertensive rats. Starting at 7 weeks of age, Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-salt diet for 6 to 7 weeks and randomized to receive intracoronary CDCs or placebo. Dahl rats fed normal chow served as controls. High-salt rats developed hypertension, left ventricular (LV hypertrophy, and diastolic dysfunction, without impairment of ejection fraction. Four weeks after treatment, diastolic dysfunction resolved in CDC-treated rats but not in placebo. The improved LV relaxation was associated with lower LV end-diastolic pressure, decreased lung congestion, and enhanced survival in CDC-treated rats. Histology and echocardiography revealed no decrease in cardiac hypertrophy after CDC treatment, consistent with the finding of sustained, equally-elevated blood pressure in CDC- and placebo-treated rats. Nevertheless, CDC treatment decreased LV fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates. Serum inflammatory cytokines were likewise decreased after CDC treatment. Whole-transcriptome analysis revealed that CDCs reversed changes in numerous transcripts associated with HFpEF, including many involved in inflammation and/or fibrosis. These studies suggest that CDCs normalized LV relaxation and LV diastolic pressure while improving survival in a rat model of HFpEF. The benefits of CDCs occurred despite persistent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. By selectively reversing inflammation and fibrosis, CDCs may be beneficial in the treatment of HFpEF.
CD90 (Thy-1)-positive selection enhances osteogenic capacity of human adipose-derived stromal cells.
Chung, Michael T; Liu, Chunjun; Hyun, Jeong S; Lo, David D; Montoro, Daniel T; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Li, Shuli; Sorkin, Michael; Rennert, Robert; Keeney, Michael; Yang, Fan; Quarto, Natalina; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C
2013-04-01
Stem cell-based bone tissue engineering with adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) has shown great promise for revolutionizing treatment of large bone deficits. However, there is still a lack of consensus on cell surface markers identifying osteoprogenitors. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting has identified a subpopulation of CD105(low) cells with enhanced osteogenic differentiation. The purpose of the present study was to compare the ability of CD90 (Thy-1) to identify osteoprogenitors relative to CD(105). Unsorted cells, CD90(+), CD90(-), CD105(high), and CD105(low) cells were treated with an osteogenic differentiation medium. For evaluation of in vitro osteogenesis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and alizarin red staining were performed at 7 days and 14 days, respectively. RNA was harvested after 7 and 14 days of differentiation, and osteogenic gene expression was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. For evaluation of in vivo osteogenesis, critical-sized (4-mm) calvarial defects in nude mice were treated with the hydroxyapatite-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold seeded with the above-mentioned subpopulations. Healing was followed using micro-CT scans for 8 weeks. Calvaria were harvested at 8 weeks postoperatively, and sections were stained with Movat's Pentachrome. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the CD90(+) subpopulation was enriched for a more osteogenic subtype relative to the CD105(low) subpopulation. Staining at day 7 for ALP was greatest in the CD90(+) cells, followed by the CD105(low) cells. Staining at day 14 for alizarin red demonstrated the greatest amount of mineralized extracellular matrix in the CD90(+) cells, again followed by the CD105(low) cells. Quantification of in vivo healing at 2, 4, 6, and 8weeks postoperatively demonstrated increased bone formation in defects treated with CD90(+) ASCs relative to all other groups. On Movat's Pentachrome-stained sections, defects treated with CD90(+) cells showed the
The fractional oscillator process with two indices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, S C; Teo, L P
2009-01-01
We introduce a new fractional oscillator process which can be obtained as a solution of a stochastic differential equation with two fractional orders. Basic properties such as fractal dimension and short-range dependence of the process are studied by considering the asymptotic properties of its covariance function. By considering the fractional oscillator process as the velocity of a diffusion process, we derive the corresponding diffusion constant, fluctuation-dissipation relation and mean-square displacement. The fractional oscillator process can also be regarded as a one-dimensional fractional Euclidean Klein-Gordon field, which can be obtained by applying the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization method to a nonlocal Euclidean action. The Casimir energy associated with the fractional field at positive temperature is calculated by using the zeta function regularization technique
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Emerence Crompot
Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs, also called microvesicles (MVs are plasma membrane-derived fragments with sizes ranging from 0.1 to 1μm. Characterization of these MPs is often performed by flow cytometry but there is no consensus on the appropriate negative control to use that can lead to false positive results.We analyzed MPs from platelets, B-cells, T-cells, NK-cells, monocytes, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL B-cells. Cells were purified by positive magnetic-separation and cultured for 48h. Cells and MPs were characterized using the following monoclonal antibodies (CD19,20 for B-cells, CD3,8,5,27 for T-cells, CD16,56 for NK-cells, CD14,11c for monocytes, CD41,61 for platelets. Isolated MPs were stained with annexin-V-FITC and gated between 300nm and 900nm. The latex bead technique was then performed for easy detection of MPs. Samples were analyzed by Transmission (TEM and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM.Annexin-V positive events within a gate of 300-900nm were detected and defined as MPs. Our results confirmed that the characteristic antigens CD41/CD61 were found on platelet-derived-MPs validating our technique. However, for MPs derived from other cell types, we were unable to detect any antigen, although they were clearly expressed on the MP-producing cells in the contrary of several data published in the literature. Using the latex bead technique, we confirmed detection of CD41,61. However, the apparent expression of other antigens (already deemed positive in several studies was determined to be false positive, indicated by negative controls (same labeling was used on MPs from different origins.We observed that mother cell antigens were not always detected on corresponding MPs by direct flow cytometry or latex bead cytometry. Our data highlighted that false positive results could be generated due to antibody aspecificity and that phenotypic characterization of MPs is a difficult field requiring the use of several negative controls.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keeling, V; Jin, H; Ali, I; Ahmad, S
2014-01-01
Purpose: To determine dosimetric impact of positioning errors in the stereotactic hypo-fractionated treatment of intracranial lesions using 3Dtransaltional and 3D-rotational corrections (6D) frameless BrainLAB ExacTrac X-Ray system. Methods: 20 cranial lesions, treated in 3 or 5 fractions, were selected. An infrared (IR) optical positioning system was employed for initial patient setup followed by stereoscopic kV X-ray radiographs for position verification. 6D-translational and rotational shifts were determined to correct patient position. If these shifts were above tolerance (0.7 mm translational and 1° rotational), corrections were applied and another set of X-rays was taken to verify patient position. Dosimetric impact (D95, Dmin, Dmax, and Dmean of planning target volume (PTV) compared to original plans) of positioning errors for initial IR setup (XC: Xray Correction) and post-correction (XV: X-ray Verification) was determined in a treatment planning system using a method proposed by Yue et al. (Med. Phys. 33, 21-31 (2006)) with 3D-translational errors only and 6D-translational and rotational errors. Results: Absolute mean translational errors (±standard deviation) for total 92 fractions (XC/XV) were 0.79±0.88/0.19±0.15 mm (lateral), 1.66±1.71/0.18 ±0.16 mm (longitudinal), 1.95±1.18/0.15±0.14 mm (vertical) and rotational errors were 0.61±0.47/0.17±0.15° (pitch), 0.55±0.49/0.16±0.24° (roll), and 0.68±0.73/0.16±0.15° (yaw). The average changes (loss of coverage) in D95, Dmin, Dmax, and Dmean were 4.5±7.3/0.1±0.2%, 17.8±22.5/1.1±2.5%, 0.4±1.4/0.1±0.3%, and 0.9±1.7/0.0±0.1% using 6Dshifts and 3.1±5.5/0.0±0.1%, 14.2±20.3/0.8±1.7%, 0.0±1.2/0.1±0.3%, and 0.7±1.4/0.0±0.1% using 3D-translational shifts only. The setup corrections (XC-XV) improved the PTV coverage by 4.4±7.3% (D95) and 16.7±23.5% (Dmin) using 6D adjustment. Strong correlations were observed between translation errors and deviations in dose coverage for XC. Conclusion
Seltzer, S. M.
1976-01-01
The problem discussed is to design a digital controller for a typical satellite. The controlled plant is considered to be a rigid body acting in a plane. The controller is assumed to be a digital computer which, when combined with the proposed control algorithm, can be represented as a sampled-data system. The objective is to present a design strategy and technique for selecting numerical values for the control gains (assuming position, integral, and derivative feedback) and the sample rate. The technique is based on the parameter plane method and requires that the system be amenable to z-transform analysis.
Sharma, Preeti; Melkania, Uma
2017-09-01
In the present study, the effect of furan derivatives (furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) and phenolic compounds (vanillin and syringaldehyde) on hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was investigated using co-culture of facultative anaerobes Enterobacter aerogenes and E. coli. The inhibitors were applied in the concentration ranges of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5g/L each. Inhibition coefficients of phenolic compounds were higher than those of furan derivatives and vanillin exhibited maximum inhibition coefficients correspondingly lowest hydrogen yield among all inhibitors. Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural addition resulted in an average decrease of 26.99% and 37.16% in hydrogen yield respectively, while vanillin and syringaldehyde resulted in 49.40% and 42.26% average decrease in hydrogen yield respectively. Further analysis revealed that Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural were completely degraded up to concentrations of 1g/L, while vanillin and syringaldehyde were degraded completely up to the concentration of 0.5g/L. Volatile fatty acid generation decreased with inhibitors addition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Coşkun Yakar
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The qualitative behavior of a perturbed fractional-order differential equation with Caputo's derivative that differs in initial position and initial time with respect to the unperturbed fractional-order differential equation with Caputo's derivative has been investigated. We compare the classical notion of stability to the notion of initial time difference stability for fractional-order differential equations in Caputo's sense. We present a comparison result which again gives the null solution a central role in the comparison fractional-order differential equation when establishing initial time difference stability of the perturbed fractional-order differential equation with respect to the unperturbed fractional-order differential equation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Yanan; Zeng, Xibai; Lu, Yahai; Su, Shiming; Bai, Lingyu; Li, Lianfang; Wu, Cuixia
2015-01-01
The effects of aging time and soil parent materials on the bioavailability and fractionations of arsenic (As) in five red soils were studied. The results indicated that As bioavailability in all soils decreased during aging, especially with a sharp decline occurring in the first 30 days. After aging for 360 days, the highest available As concentration, which accounted for 12.3% of the total, was observed in soils derived from purple sandy shale. While 2.67% was the lowest proportion of the available As in soils derived from quaternary red clay. Furthermore, the best fit of the available As changing with aging time was obtained using the pseudo-second-order model (R"2 = 0.939–0.998, P < 0.05). Notably, Al oxides played a more crucial role (R"2 = 0.89, P<0.05) than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging. The non-specially and specially absorbed As constituted the primary forms of available As. - Highlights: • The soil derived from purple sandy shale had a relatively higher risk of As toxicity for agricultural production. • The best fit of the variations of available As during the aging time was obtained using the pseudo-second-order model. • Al oxides played a more crucial role than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging. - Al oxides played a more crucial role than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging in these red soils.
Smarandache Continued Fractions
Ibstedt, H.
2001-01-01
The theory of general continued fractions is developed to the extent required in order to calculate Smarandache continued fractions to a given number of decimal places. Proof is given for the fact that Smarandache general continued fractions built with positive integer Smarandache sequences baving only a finite number of terms equal to 1 is convergent. A few numerical results are given.
Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations
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Tarasov, Vasily E.
2008-01-01
The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered
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Kropf Siegfried
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess brachytherapy catheter positioning accuracy and to evaluate the effects of prolonged irradiation time on the tolerance dose of normal liver parenchyma following single-fraction irradiation with 192 Ir. Materials and methods Fifty patients with 76 malignant liver tumors treated by computed tomography (CT-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT were included in the study. The prescribed radiation dose was delivered by 1 - 11 catheters with exposure times in the range of 844 - 4432 seconds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI datasets for assessing irradiation effects on normal liver tissue, edema, and hepatocyte dysfunction, obtained 6 and 12 weeks after HDR-BT, were merged with 3D dosimetry data. The isodose of the treatment plan covering the same volume as the irradiation effect was taken as a surrogate for the liver tissue tolerance dose. Catheter positioning accuracy was assessed by calculating the shift between the 3D center coordinates of the irradiation effect volume and the tolerance dose volume for 38 irradiation effects in 30 patients induced by catheters implanted in nearly parallel arrangement. Effects of prolonged irradiation were assessed in areas where the irradiation effect volume and tolerance dose volume did not overlap (mismatch areas by using a catheter contribution index. This index was calculated for 48 irradiation effects induced by at least two catheters in 44 patients. Results Positioning accuracy of the brachytherapy catheters was 5-6 mm. The orthogonal and axial shifts between the center coordinates of the irradiation effect volume and the tolerance dose volume in relation to the direction vector of catheter implantation were highly correlated and in first approximation identically in the T1-w and T2-w MRI sequences (p = 0.003 and p p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively. There was a significant shift of the irradiation effect towards the catheter entry site compared with the planned dose
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bitarafan, A.; Rajabi, H.
2008-01-01
There are different protocols of reconstruction in myocardial gated imaging that produce different values of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). We attempted to determine how the parameters of reconstruction affect the calculated EF. The results were statistically compared with the values obtained from angiography and echocardiography. In this retrospective study, the data from 23 patients were used. All the patients had the angiographic and the echocardiographic data within 2 weeks before the test. Imaging was performed using a single-head gamma camera using technetium-99 methoxyisobutylisonitrile. The image data were reconstructed using 50 different combinations of the ramp, Hanning, Butterworth, Wiener, and Metz filters. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) technique was also examined using 12 combinations of iteration and subset. The calculated EF values were analyzed and compared with the echocardiographic and angiographic results. The backprojection technique produced higher values of EF than those derived from echocardiography and angiography. The OSEM on the other hand produced lower values when compared with echocardiography and angiography. On using the backprojection technique, the maximum correlation between the values derived from gated single-photon emission tomography and echocardiography (r=0.88, P<0.01) and angiography (r=0.81, P<0.01) was observed when using the Metz filter (full width at half maximum=5 mm and order=9) and the Gaussian filter (α=3), respectively. In the case of the OSEM technique, the maximum correlation with both angiography and echocardiography was observed when using the iteration=2 and the subset=12. On the average, the backprojection technique produces higher values, and iteration technique produces lower estimation of the EF when compared with angiography and echocardiography. (author)
Ntsinjana, Hopewell N; Chung, Robin; Ciliberti, Paolo; Muthurangu, Vivek; Schievano, Silvia; Marek, Jan; Parker, Kim H; Taylor, Andrew M; Biglino, Giovanni
2017-01-01
This study sought to explore the diagnostic insight of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived wave intensity analysis to better study systolic dysfunction in young patients with chronic diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction (EF), comparing it against other echocardiographic and CMR parameters. Evaluating systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in children is challenging, and a gold standard method is currently lacking. Patients with presumed diastolic dysfunction [ n = 18; nine aortic stenosis (AS), five hypertrophic, and four restrictive cardiomyopathies] were compared with age-matched control subjects ( n = 18). All patients had no mitral or aortic incompetence, significant AS, or reduced systolic EF. E / A ratio, E / E ' ratio, deceleration time, and isovolumetric contraction time were assessed on echocardiography, and indexed left atrial volume (LAVi), acceleration time (AT), ejection time (ET), and wave intensity analyses were calculated from CMR. The latter was performed on CMR phase-contrast flow sequences, defining a ratio of the peaks of the early systolic forward compression wave (FCW) and the end-systolic forward expansion wave (FEW). Significant differences between patients and controls were seen in the E / E ' ratio (8.7 ± 4.0 vs. 5.1 ± 1.3, p = 0.001) and FCW/FEW ratio (2.5 ± 1.6 vs. 7.2 ± 4.2 × 10 -5 m/s, p wave intensity-derived ratio summarizing systolic and diastolic function could provide insight into ventricular function in children, on top of CMR and echocardiography, and it was here able to identify an element of ventricular dysfunction with preserved EF in a small group of young patients.
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Taylor, P R; Baker, R E; Yates, C A
2015-01-01
In this paper we explore lattice-based position-jump models of diffusion, and the implications of introducing non-local jumping; particles can jump to a range of nearby boxes rather than only to their nearest neighbours. We begin by deriving conditions for equivalence with traditional local jumping models in the continuum limit. We then generalize a previously postulated implementation of the Robin boundary condition for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length, and present a novel implementation of flux boundary conditions, again generalized for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length. In both these cases we validate our results using stochastic simulation. We then proceed to consider two variations on the basic diffusion model: a hybrid local/non-local scheme suitable for models involving sharp concentration gradients, and the implementation of biased jumping. In all cases we show that non-local jumping can deliver substantial time savings for stochastic simulations. (paper)
Fractional gradient and its application to the fractional advection equation
D'Ovidio, M.; Garra, R.
2013-01-01
In this paper we provide a definition of fractional gradient operators, related to directional derivatives. We develop a fractional vector calculus, providing a probabilistic interpretation and mathematical tools to treat multidimensional fractional differential equations. A first application is discussed in relation to the d-dimensional fractional advection-dispersion equation. We also study the connection with multidimensional L\\'evy processes.
Zhou, Bing-Rong; Zhang, Ting; Bin Jameel, Afzaal Ahmed; Xu, Yang; Xu, Yan; Guo, Shi-Lei; Wang, Ying; Permatasari, Felicia; Luo, Dan
2016-06-01
To evaluate the effects of conditioned medium of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC-CM) on efficacy and side effects after fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing (FxCR) when treating subjects with facial atrophic acne scars or with skin rejuvenation needs. Twenty-two subjects were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups. Nine subjects were included in skin rejuvenation group and thirteen subjects were included in acne scar group, and all subjects underwent three sessions of FxCR. ADSC-CM was applied on FxCR site of one randomly selected face side. Evaluations were done at baseline, 1 week after first treatment, and 1 month after each treatment. The outcome assessments included subjective satisfaction scale; blinded clinical assessment; and the biophysical parameters of roughness, elasticity, skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the erythema and melanin index. Biopsies taken from one subject in skin rejuvenation group were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Gomori's aldehyde fuchsin staining. ADSC-CM combined with FxCR increased subject satisfaction, elasticity, skin hydration, and skin elasticity and decreased TEWL, roughness, and the melanin index in both acne scars and skin rejuvenation groups. Histologic analysis showed that ADSC-CM increased dermal collagen density, elastin density, and arranged them in order. ADSC-CM with FxCR is a good combination therapy for treating atrophic acne scars and skin rejuvenation. JSPH2012-082 - Registered 14 Feb 2012.
Zhou, Bing-Rong; Xu, Yang; Guo, Shi-Lei; Xu, Yan; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Fen; Wu, Di; Yin, Zhi-Qiang; Luo, Dan
2013-01-01
Objective. To evaluate the benefits of conditioned medium of Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC-CM) on wound healing after fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing (FxCR) on human skin. Materials and Methods. Nineteen subjects were treated with FxCR on the bilateral inner arms. ADSC-CM was applied on FxCR site of one randomly selected arm. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin color, and gross-elasticity of FxCR site on both arms were measured. Skin samples were taken by biopsy from three subjects 3 weeks after treatment for histopathological manifestations and mRNA expressions of procollagen types I and III, elastin genes were noted. Results. The index of erythema, melanin, and TEWL of the ADSC-CM-treated skin were significantly lower than those of the control side. The mRNA expression of type III procollagen in ADSC-CM-treated group at 3 weeks posttreatment was 2.6 times of that of the control group. Conclusion. Application of allograft ADSC-CM is an effective method for enhancing wound healing after FxCR, by reducing transient adverse effects such as erythema, hyperpigmentation, and increased TEWL. PMID:24381938
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zarzycki, Pawel K., E-mail: pawel_k_z@hotmail.com [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland); Slaczka, Magdalena M.; Zarzycka, Magdalena B.; Wlodarczyk, Elzbieta; Baran, Michal J. [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland)
2011-03-04
The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple one step liquid extraction protocols of complex materials without multi-steps sample pre-purification. In the present studies target components (cyanobacteria pigments, lipids and fullerenes) were isolated from heavy loading complex matrices including spirulina dried cells, birds' feathers and fatty oils as well as soot samples derived from biomass fuel and fossils-fired home heating systems. In each case isocratic separation protocol involving less that 1 mL of one component or binary mixture mobile phases can be completed within time of 5-8 min. Sensitive detection of components of interest was performed via fluorescence or staining techniques using iodine or phosphomolybdic acid. Described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in raw biological or environmental samples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zarzycki, Pawel K., E-mail: pawel_k_z@hotmail.com [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland); Slaczka, Magdalena M.; Zarzycka, Magdalena B.; Wlodarczyk, Elzbieta; Baran, Michal J. [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland)
2012-02-24
The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple one step liquid extraction protocols of complex materials without multi-steps sample pre-purification. In the present studies target components (cyanobacteria pigments, lipids and fullerenes) were isolated from heavy loading complex matrices including spirulina dried cells, birds' feathers and fatty oils as well as soot samples derived from biomass fuel and fossils-fired home heating systems. In each case isocratic separation protocol involving less that 1 mL of one component or binary mixture mobile phases can be completed within time of 5-8 min. Sensitive detection of components of interest was performed via fluorescence or staining techniques using iodine or phosphomolybdic acid. Described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in raw biological or environmental samples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarzycki, Paweł K.; Ślączka, Magdalena M.; Zarzycka, Magdalena B.; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J.
2012-01-01
The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple one step liquid extraction protocols of complex materials without multi-steps sample pre-purification. In the present studies target components (cyanobacteria pigments, lipids and fullerenes) were isolated from heavy loading complex matrices including spirulina dried cells, birds’ feathers and fatty oils as well as soot samples derived from biomass fuel and fossils-fired home heating systems. In each case isocratic separation protocol involving less that 1 mL of one component or binary mixture mobile phases can be completed within time of 5–8 min. Sensitive detection of components of interest was performed via fluorescence or staining techniques using iodine or phosphomolybdic acid. Described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in raw biological or environmental samples.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zarzycki, Pawel K.; Slaczka, Magdalena M.; Zarzycka, Magdalena B.; Wlodarczyk, Elzbieta; Baran, Michal J.
2011-01-01
The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple one step liquid extraction protocols of complex materials without multi-steps sample pre-purification. In the present studies target components (cyanobacteria pigments, lipids and fullerenes) were isolated from heavy loading complex matrices including spirulina dried cells, birds' feathers and fatty oils as well as soot samples derived from biomass fuel and fossils-fired home heating systems. In each case isocratic separation protocol involving less that 1 mL of one component or binary mixture mobile phases can be completed within time of 5-8 min. Sensitive detection of components of interest was performed via fluorescence or staining techniques using iodine or phosphomolybdic acid. Described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in raw biological or environmental samples.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bing-Rong Zhou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the benefits of conditioned medium of Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC-CM on wound healing after fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing (FxCR on human skin. Materials and Methods. Nineteen subjects were treated with FxCR on the bilateral inner arms. ADSC-CM was applied on FxCR site of one randomly selected arm. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL, skin color, and gross-elasticity of FxCR site on both arms were measured. Skin samples were taken by biopsy from three subjects 3 weeks after treatment for histopathological manifestations and mRNA expressions of procollagen types I and III, elastin genes were noted. Results. The index of erythema, melanin, and TEWL of the ADSC-CM-treated skin were significantly lower than those of the control side. The mRNA expression of type III procollagen in ADSC-CM-treated group at 3 weeks posttreatment was 2.6 times of that of the control group. Conclusion. Application of allograft ADSC-CM is an effective method for enhancing wound healing after FxCR, by reducing transient adverse effects such as erythema, hyperpigmentation, and increased TEWL.
Torres, Cristian Gabriel; Pino, Ana María; Sierralta, Walter Daniel
2009-06-01
The effects of estradiol (E2) and of an AFP-derived cyclized peptide (cP) on the proliferation of primary cultures of cancer cells isolated from spontaneous canine mammary tumors were studied. The cellular response to E2 and cP was related to the expression of estradiol receptor (isoforms alpha and beta). In ER-positive cells, 2 nM estradiol increased cell proliferation and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2; 2 microg/ml cP inhibited all these effects. Estradiol also increased HER2 immunoreactivity in ER-positive cells, an effect that was reverted to its basal values by cP. Estradiol stimulated in these cells the release of MMP2 and MMP9 and the shedding of HB-EGF, effects that the cP did not affect. ER-negative cells were refractory to estradiol or cP. All canine mammary tumor cells in culture responded to treatments analogously to human mammary cancer cells. Our results support the proposal of cP as a new, potentially effective therapeutic agent for the management of mammary cancer.
Butt, A. R.; Abdullah, M.; Raza, N.; Imran, M. A.
2017-10-01
In this work, semi analytical solutions for the heat and mass transfer of a fractional MHD Jeffery fluid over an infinite oscillating vertical plate with exponentially heating and constant mass diffusion via the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative are obtained. The governing equations are transformed into dimensionless form by introducing dimensionless variables. A modern definition of the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative has been used to develop the fractional model for a Jeffery fluid. The expressions for temperature, concentration and velocity fields are obtained in the Laplace transformed domain. We have used the Stehfest's and Tzou's algorithm for the inverse Laplace transform to obtain the semi analytical solutions for temperature, concentration and velocity fields. In the end, in order to check the physical impact of flow parameters on temperature, concentration and velocity fields, results are presented graphically and in tabular forms.
Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara; Stewart, Randy; Vaughan, Ronald D.
2006-01-01
This Rapid Prototyping Capability study explores the potential to use atmospheric profiles derived from GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation measurements and by AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) onboard the Aqua satellite to improve surface temperature retrieval from remotely sensed thermal imagery. This study demonstrates an example of a cross-cutting decision support technology whereby NASA data or models are shown to improve a wide number of observation systems or models. The ability to use one data source to improve others will be critical to the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) where a large number of potentially useful systems will require auxiliary datasets as input for decision support. Atmospheric correction of thermal imagery decouples TOA radiance and separates surface emission from atmospheric emission and absorption. Surface temperature can then be estimated from the surface emission with knowledge of its emissivity. Traditionally, radiosonde sounders or atmospheric models based on radiosonde sounders, such as the NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) READY (Real-time Environmental Application and Display sYstem), provide the atmospheric profiles required to perform atmospheric correction. Unfortunately, these types of data are too spatially sparse and too infrequently taken. The advent of high accuracy, global coverage, atmospheric data using GPS radio occultation and AIRS may provide a new avenue for filling data input gaps. In this study, AIRS and GPS radio occultation derived atmospheric profiles from the German Aerospace Center CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload), the Argentinean Commission on Space Activities SAC-C (Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas-C), and the pair of NASA GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are used as input data in atmospheric radiative transport modeling based on the MODTRAN (MODerate resolution atmospheric
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jammaz, I. Al, E-mail: jammaz@kfshrc.edu.sa; Al-Otaibi, B.; Amer, S.; Okarvi, S.M.
2011-10-15
In an attempt to visualize folate receptors that overexpress on many cancers, [{sup 18}F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazide-folate/methotrexate conjugates ([{sup 18}F]-1, [{sup 18}F]-2-folates and [{sup 18}F]-8, [{sup 18}F]-9-MTXs) were synthesized by the nucleophilic displacement reactions using ethyl-trimethylammonium-benzoate and pyridinecarboxylate precursors. The intermediates ethyl [{sup 18}F]-fluorinated benzene and pyridine esters were reacted with hydrazine to produce the [{sup 18}F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazides, followed by coupling with N-hydroxysuccinimide-folate/MTX. Radiochemical yields were greater than 80% (decay corrected), with total synthesis time of less than 45 min. Radiochemical purities were always greater than 97% without high-performance liquid chromatography purification. These synthetic approaches hold considerable promise as rapid and simple method for the radiofluorination of folate derivatives with high radiochemical yield in short synthesis time. In vitro tests on KB cell line showed that significant amount of the radioconjugates were associated with cell fractions, and in vivo characterization in normal Balb/c mice revealed rapid blood clearance of these radioconjugates with excretion predominantly by the urinary and partially by the hepatobiliary systems. Biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts demonstrated significant tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution profile for [{sup 18}F]-2-folate over the other conjugates. The uptake in the tumors was blocked by excess coinjection of folic acid, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. Micro-positron emission tomography images of nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts confirmed these observations. These results demonstrate that [{sup 18}F]-2-folate may be useful as molecular probe for detecting and staging of folate receptor-positive cancers, such as ovarian cancer and their metastasis as well as monitoring tumor response
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jammaz, I. Al; Al-Otaibi, B.; Amer, S.; Okarvi, S.M.
2011-01-01
In an attempt to visualize folate receptors that overexpress on many cancers, [ 18 F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazide-folate/methotrexate conjugates ([ 18 F]-1, [ 18 F]-2-folates and [ 18 F]-8, [ 18 F]-9-MTXs) were synthesized by the nucleophilic displacement reactions using ethyl-trimethylammonium-benzoate and pyridinecarboxylate precursors. The intermediates ethyl [ 18 F]-fluorinated benzene and pyridine esters were reacted with hydrazine to produce the [ 18 F]-fluorobenzene and pyridinecarbohydrazides, followed by coupling with N-hydroxysuccinimide-folate/MTX. Radiochemical yields were greater than 80% (decay corrected), with total synthesis time of less than 45 min. Radiochemical purities were always greater than 97% without high-performance liquid chromatography purification. These synthetic approaches hold considerable promise as rapid and simple method for the radiofluorination of folate derivatives with high radiochemical yield in short synthesis time. In vitro tests on KB cell line showed that significant amount of the radioconjugates were associated with cell fractions, and in vivo characterization in normal Balb/c mice revealed rapid blood clearance of these radioconjugates with excretion predominantly by the urinary and partially by the hepatobiliary systems. Biodistribution studies in nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts demonstrated significant tumor uptake and favorable biodistribution profile for [ 18 F]-2-folate over the other conjugates. The uptake in the tumors was blocked by excess coinjection of folic acid, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. Micro-positron emission tomography images of nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts confirmed these observations. These results demonstrate that [ 18 F]-2-folate may be useful as molecular probe for detecting and staging of folate receptor-positive cancers, such as ovarian cancer and their metastasis as well as monitoring tumor response to treatment.
Pal, Dilipkumar; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Gupta, Malaya
2012-06-01
Celsia coromandelina Vahl (Scrophulariaceae) is a shrub found throughout Bangladesh and India, and it is distributed widely in the plains of West Bengal. It is used by the tribal people to treat diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, skin eruption, fever, syphilis, helminthes infection, and to control fertility. The objective of this study was to fractionate stigmasterol derivative and to investigate the effects of petroleum ether extract of C. coromandelina (PECC) aerial parts on the onset of reproductive maturity and the ovarian steroidogenesis in immature female mice. PECC was prepared by hot extraction process and one compound was isolated by preparative TLC from it. PECC was completely freed from solvent and administered in immature female mice intraperitoneally once on every alternate day for nine doses. The sexual maturity was observed by means of vaginal opening, first estrus (days), rate of body growth, changes in weight of ovary, uterus and pituitary. The content of ascorbic acid, cholesterol, Δ⁵-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (Δ⁵-3β-HSD) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G 6-PDH) activities in ovaries and carbonic anhydrase activity in uterus were measured by means of biochemical technique in control and treated mice. The activity of PECC was compared with standard marker compound ethinyl estradiol. The isolated compound was characterized as stigmasterol derivative. PECC treatment caused a remarkable delay (30.27 and 18.56%, respectively, by low dose) in sexual maturity compared to vehicle control as evidenced by the age of vaginal opening and appearance of first estrus (cornified smear). PECC treatment also caused a significant fall (58.6 and 50.0%, respectively, by low dose) in Δ⁵-3β-HSD and G 6-PDH activities involved in ovarian steroidogenesis compared to vehicle control. Total cholesterol and ascorbic acid content in ovaries and carbonic anhydrase activity in uterus were increased significantly (low dose by 49.3, 424.6 and 82
Upchurch, David A; Renberg, Walter C; Roush, James K; Milliken, George A; Weiss, Mark L
2016-09-01
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of simultaneous intra-articular and IV injection of autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints. ANIMALS 22 client-owned dogs (12 placebo-treated [control] dogs and 10 treated dogs). PROCEDURES Dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints that caused signs of lameness or discomfort were characterized on the basis of results of orthopedic examination, goniometry, lameness score, the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), a visual analogue scale, and results obtained by use of a pressure-sensing walkway at week 0 (baseline). Dogs received a simultaneous intraarticular and IV injection of SVF and PRP or a placebo. Dogs were examined again 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after injection. RESULTS CBPI scores were significantly lower for the treatment group at week 24, compared with scores for the control group. Mean visual analogue scale score for the treatment group was significantly higher at week 0 than at weeks 4, 8, or 24. Dogs with baseline peak vertical force (PVF) in the lowest 25th percentile were compared, and the treatment group had a significantly higher PVF than did the control group. After the SVF-PRP injection, fewer dogs in the treated group than in the control group had lameness confirmed during examination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints treated with SVF and PRP, improvements in CBPI and PVF were evident at some time points, compared with results for the control group.
Bourin, Philippe; Bunnell, Bruce A; Casteilla, Louis; Dominici, Massimo; Katz, Adam J; March, Keith L; Redl, Heinz; Rubin, J Peter; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Gimble, Jeffrey M
2013-06-01
Adipose tissue is a rich and very convenient source of cells for regenerative medicine therapeutic approaches. However, a characterization of the population of adipose-derived stromal and stem cells (ASCs) with the greatest therapeutic potential remains unclear. Under the authority of International Federation of Adipose Therapeutics and International Society for Cellular Therapy, this paper sets out to establish minimal definitions of stromal cells both as uncultured stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and as an adherent stromal/stem cells population. Phenotypic and functional criteria for the identification of adipose-derived cells were drawn from the literature. In the SVF, cells are identified phenotypically by the following markers: CD45-CD235a-CD31-CD34+. Added value may be provided by both a viability marker and the following surface antigens: CD13, CD73, CD90 and CD105. The fibroblastoid colony-forming unit assay permits the evaluation of progenitor frequency in the SVF population. In culture, ASCs retain markers in common with other mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs), including CD90, CD73, CD105, and CD44 and remain negative for CD45 and CD31. They can be distinguished from bone-marrow-derived MSCs by their positivity for CD36 and negativity for CD106. The CFU-F assay is recommended to calculate population doublings capacity of ASCs. The adipocytic, chondroblastic and osteoblastic differentiation assays serve to complete the cell identification and potency assessment in conjunction with a quantitative evaluation of the differentiation either biochemically or by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The goal of this paper is to provide initial guidance for the scientific community working with adipose-derived cells and to facilitate development of international standards based on reproducible parameters. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. All rights reserved.
On matrix fractional differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adem Kılıçman
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objective of this article is to discuss the Laplace transform method based on operational matrices of fractional derivatives for solving several kinds of linear fractional differential equations. Moreover, we present the operational matrices of fractional derivatives with Laplace transform in many applications of various engineering systems as control system. We present the analytical technique for solving fractional-order, multi-term fractional differential equation. In other words, we propose an efficient algorithm for solving fractional matrix equation.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from bathymetry from four sources: Multibeam...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from bathymetry from two sources: Multibeam...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from two sources: Multibeam bathymetry...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from bathymetry from four sources:...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Turcotte
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Prostate-derived Ets transcription factor (PDEF has recently been associated with invasive breast cancer, but no expression profile has been defined in clinical specimens. We undertook a comprehensive PDEF transcriptional expression study of 86 breast cancer clinical specimens, several cell lines, normal tissues. PDEF expression profile was analyzed according to standard clinicopathologic parameters, compared with hormonal receptor, HER-2/neu status, to the expression of the new tumor biomarker Dikkopf-1 (DKK1. Wide ranging PDEF overexpression was observed in 74% of tested tumors, at higher levels than the average expression found in normal breasts. High PDEF expression was associated with hormone receptor positivity (P < .001, moderate to good differentiation (less than grade III, P = .01, dissemination to axillary lymph nodes (P = .002. PDEF was an independent risk factor for nodal involvement (multivariate analysis, odds ratio 1.250, P = .002. It was expressed in a different subgroup compared to DKK1-expressing tumors (P < .001. Our data imply that PDEF mRNA expression could be useful in breast cancer molecular staging. Further insights into PDEF functions at the protein level, possible links with hormone receptors biology, bear great potential for new therapeutic avenues.
Fractional Calculus and Shannon Wavelet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlo Cattani
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An explicit analytical formula for the any order fractional derivative of Shannon wavelet is given as wavelet series based on connection coefficients. So that for any 2(ℝ function, reconstructed by Shannon wavelets, we can easily define its fractional derivative. The approximation error is explicitly computed, and the wavelet series is compared with Grünwald fractional derivative by focusing on the many advantages of the wavelet method, in terms of rate of convergence.
Gubs'kyî, Iu I; Goriushko, G G; Belenichev, I F; Kovalenko, S I; Litvinova, N V; Marchenko, O M; Kurapova, T M; Babenko, L P; Velychko, O M
2010-01-01
Using biochemical and physicochemical methods of investigation in vivo, the effect of the substance NC-224, N-, S-chinasolone-derivative, on the lipoperoxidation activity in rat liver endoplasmatic reticulum membranes and nuclear chromatin fractions under tetrachloromethane intoxication have been studied. It was shown that NC-224 has pronounced antioxidant activity which is the biochemical basis of the substance membrane- and genome-protective effects and its ability to restore physicochemical properties of the surface and hydrophobic zones of hepatocyte membranes and structural parameter nuclear chromatin fractions in the conditions of chemical liver injury.
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2014-09-01
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kao, C.-L.; Huang, P.-I; Tsai, P.-H.; Tsai, M.-L.; Lo, J.-F.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Chen, Y.-J.; Chen, Y.-W.; Chiou, S.-H.
2009-01-01
Purpose: CD133 has recently been proposed as a marker for cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in brain tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of resveratrol (RV) in radiosensitivity of CD133-positive/-negative cells derived from atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT-CD133 +/- ). Materials and Methods: AT/RT-CD133 +/- were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and then treated with RV at different doses. Migratory ability, colony formation, apoptotic activity, and xenotransplantation were assessed for RV alone, ionizing radiation (IR) alone, and IR with RV conditions. Results: AT/RT-CD133 + displayed enhanced self-renewal and highly coexpressed 'stem cell' genes and drug-resistant genes, in addition to showing significant resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy as compared with CD133 - cells. After treatment with 200 μM RV, the in vitro proliferation rates and in vivo tumor restoration abilities of ATRT-CD133 + were dramatically inhibited. Importantly, treatment with 150 μM RV can effectively inhibit the expression of drug-resistant genes in AT/RT-CD133 + , and further facilitate to the differentiation of CD133 + into CD133 - . In addition, treatment with 150 μM RV could significantly enhance the radiosensitivity and IR-mediated apoptosis in RV-treated ATRT-CD133 +/- . Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the mean survival rate of mice with ATRT-CD133 + that were treated with IR could be significantly improved when IR was combined with 150 μM RV treatment. Conclusions: AT/RT-CD133 + exhibit CSC properties and are refractory to IR treatment. Our results suggest that RV treatment plays crucial roles in antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and radiosensitizing effects on treated-CD133 +/- ; RV may therefore improve the clinical treatment of AT/RT.
-Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. A. Abd El-Salam
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.
Safdar, Rabia; Imran, M.; Khalique, Chaudry Masood
2018-06-01
Exact solutions for velocity field and tangential stress for rotational flow of a generalized Burgers' fluid within an infinite circular pipe are derived by using the methods of Laplace and finite Hankel transformations. Firstly we take the position of fluid at rest and then the fluid flow due to the rotation of the pipe around the axis of flow having time dependant angular velocity. The exact solutions are presented in terms of the generalized Ga,b,c (., t) -functions. The corresponding results can be freely specified for the same results of Burgers', Oldroyd B, Maxwell, second grade and Newtonian fluids (performing the same motion) as particular cases of the results obtained earlier. The impact of the different parameters, individually and in comparison, are represented by graphical demonstrations. Secondly the numerical solutions for velocity and stress are also obtained with the help of Laplace transformation, Gaver Stehfest's algorithm and MATHCAD. Finally a comparison of both methods for the same problem is done and shows the consistency of results.
Maria Klimikova
2010-01-01
Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Frohlich, J.; Dobiášová, Milada
2003-01-01
Roč. 49, č. 11 (2003), s. 1873-1880 ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA MZd NA6590 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : fractional esterification rate of cholesterol (FERHDL) * coronary angiography * markers of atherosclerotic lesions Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.538, year: 2003
On fractional Fourier transform moments
Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.
2000-01-01
Based on the relation between the ambiguity function represented in a quasi-polar coordinate system and the fractional power spectra, the fractional Fourier transform moments are introduced. Important equalities for the global second-order fractional Fourier transform moments are derived and their
Povstenko, Yuriy
2015-01-01
This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research. The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators. This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...
Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske
2011-01-01
Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.
Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)
2011-09-26
Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (60 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from gridded (40 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. BPI Zones was created using the Benthic...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from gridded (40 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. BPI Zones was created using the...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (60 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (60 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (60 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...
Fractional Stochastic Field Theory
Honkonen, Juha
2018-02-01
Models describing evolution of physical, chemical, biological, social and financial processes are often formulated as differential equations with the understanding that they are large-scale equations for averages of quantities describing intrinsically random processes. Explicit account of randomness may lead to significant changes in the asymptotic behaviour (anomalous scaling) in such models especially in low spatial dimensions, which in many cases may be captured with the use of the renormalization group. Anomalous scaling and memory effects may also be introduced with the use of fractional derivatives and fractional noise. Construction of renormalized stochastic field theory with fractional derivatives and fractional noise in the underlying stochastic differential equations and master equations and the interplay between fluctuation-induced and built-in anomalous scaling behaviour is reviewed and discussed.
Juarez-Orozco, Luis Eduardo; Slart, Riemer; Tio, Rene A.; Inarra-Talboy, Fernando; Monroy, Andrea; Ayala-German, AnaGabriela; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Rosas, Erick Alexanderson
2016-01-01
Background: PET myocardial perfusion allows myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) quantification as well as left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and synchrony estimation through phase analysis. There is a relationship between MPR and LVEF and both have proven prognostic value in coronary artery
Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields
Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske
2011-09-01
Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sobolewski, D.; Prahl, A.; Slaninová, Jiřina; Lammek, B.
2009-01-01
Roč. 611, - (2009), s. 503-504 ISSN 0065-2598. [American Peptide Society Symposium /20./. 26.06.2007-30.06.2007, Montreal] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : vasopressin * proline derivatives * oxytocin antagonists Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bingqing Lu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Fractional calculus provides efficient physical models to quantify non-Fickian dynamics broadly observed within the Earth system. The potential advantages of using fractional partial differential equations (fPDEs for real-world problems are often limited by the current lack of understanding of how earth system properties influence observed non-Fickian dynamics. This study explores non-Fickian dynamics for pollutant transport in field-scale discrete fracture networks (DFNs, by investigating how fracture and rock matrix properties influence the leading and tailing edges of pollutant breakthrough curves (BTCs. Fractured reservoirs exhibit erratic internal structures and multi-scale heterogeneity, resulting in complex non-Fickian dynamics. A Monte Carlo approach is used to simulate pollutant transport through DFNs with a systematic variation of system properties, and the resultant non-Fickian transport is upscaled using a tempered-stable fractional in time advection–dispersion equation. Numerical results serve as a basis for determining both qualitative and quantitative relationships between BTC characteristics and model parameters, in addition to the impacts of fracture density, orientation, and rock matrix permeability on non-Fickian dynamics. The observed impacts of medium heterogeneity on tracer transport at late times tend to enhance the applicability of fPDEs that may be parameterized using measurable fracture–matrix characteristics.
Patra, Asim
2018-03-01
This paper displays the approach of the time-splitting Fourier spectral (TSFS) technique for the linear Riesz fractional Schrödinger equation (RFSE) in the semi-classical regime. The splitting technique is shown to be unconditionally stable. Further a suitable implicit finite difference discretization of second order has been manifested for the RFSE where the Riesz derivative has been discretized via an approach of fractional centered difference. Moreover the stability analysis for the implicit scheme has also been presented here via von Neumann analysis. The L2-norm and L^{∞}-norm errors are calculated for \\vert u(x,t)\\vert2, Re(u(x,t)) and Im(u(x,t)) for various cases. The results obtained by the methods are further tabulated for the absolute errors for \\vert u(x,t)\\vert2. Furthermore the graphs are depicted showing comparison of \\vert u(x,t)\\vert2 by both techniques. The derivatives are taken here in the context of the Riesz fractional sense. Apart from that, the comparative study put forth in the following section via tables and graphs between the implicit second-order finite difference method (IFDM) and the TSFS method is for the purpose of investigating the efficiency of the results obtained. Moreover the stability analysis of the presented techniques manifesting their unconditional stability makes the proposed approach more competing and accurate.
Fractional hydrodynamic equations for fractal media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2005-01-01
We use the fractional integrals in order to describe dynamical processes in the fractal medium. We consider the 'fractional' continuous medium model for the fractal media and derive the fractional generalization of the equations of balance of mass density, momentum density, and internal energy. The fractional generalization of Navier-Stokes and Euler equations are considered. We derive the equilibrium equation for fractal media. The sound waves in the continuous medium model for fractional media are considered
Farid, Yousef; Majd, Vahid Johari; Ehsani-Seresht, Abbas
2018-05-01
In this paper, a novel fault accommodation strategy is proposed for the legged robots subject to the actuator faults including actuation bias and effective gain degradation as well as the actuator saturation. First, the combined dynamics of two coupled subsystems consisting of the dynamics of the legs subsystem and the body subsystem are developed. Then, the interaction of the robot with the environment is formulated as the contact force optimization problem with equality and inequality constraints. The desired force is obtained by a dynamic model. A robust super twisting fault estimator is proposed to precisely estimate the defective torque amplitude of the faulty actuator in finite time. Defining a novel fractional sliding surface, a fractional nonsingular terminal sliding mode control law is developed. Moreover, by introducing a suitable auxiliary system and using its state vector in the designed controller, the proposed fault-tolerant control (FTC) scheme guarantees the finite-time stability of the closed-loop control system. The robustness and finite-time convergence of the proposed control law is established using the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, numerical simulations are performed on a quadruped robot to demonstrate the stable walking of the robot with and without actuator faults, and actuator saturation constraints, and the results are compared to results with an integer order fault-tolerant controller.
Chaos in a fractional-order Roessler system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Weiwei; Zhou Shangbo; Li Hua; Zhu Hao
2009-01-01
The dynamic behaviors in the fractional-order Roessler equations were numerically studied. Basic properties of the system have been analyzed by means of Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams. The parameter and the derivative order ranges used were relatively broad. Regular motions (including period-3 motion) and chaotic motions were examined. The chaotic motion identified was validated by the positive Lyapunov exponent.
How Weird Are Weird Fractions?
Stuffelbeam, Ryan
2013-01-01
A positive rational is a weird fraction if its value is unchanged by an illegitimate, digit-based reduction. In this article, we prove that each weird fraction is uniquely weird and initiate a discussion of the prevalence of weird fractions.
Sareen, Nishtha; Baber, Usman; Kezbor, Safwan; Sayseng, Sonny; Aquino, Melissa; Mehran, Roxana; Sweeny, Joseph; Barman, Nitin; Kini, Annapoorna; Sharma, Samin K
2017-04-07
Coronary revascularisation based upon physiological evaluation of lesions improves clinical outcomes. Angiographic or visual stenosis assessment alone is insufficient in predicting haemodynamic stenosis severity by fractional flow reserve (FFR) and therefore cannot be used to guide revascularisation, particularly in the lesion subset system formulated. Of 1,023 consecutive lesions (883 patients), 314 (31%) were haemodynamically significant. Characteristics associated with FFR ≤0.8 include male gender, higher SYNTAX score, lesions ≥20 mm, stenosis >50%, bifurcation, calcification, absence of tortuosity and smaller reference diameter. A user-friendly integer score was developed with the five variables demonstrating the strongest association. On prospective validation (in 279 distinct lesions), the increasing value of the score correlated well with increasing haemodynamic significance (C-statistic 0.85). We identified several clinical and angiographic characteristics and formulated a scoring system to guide the approach to intermediate lesions. This may translate into cost savings. Larger studies with prospective validation are required to confirm our results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xue-Kun Liu
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In an attempt to search for more potent positive inotropic agents, two series of [1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a] quinoxaline derivatives bearing substituted benzylpiperazine and benzoylpiperazine moieties were synthesized and their positive inotropic activities evaluated by measuring left atrial stroke volume in isolated rabbit heart preparations. Several compounds showed favorable activities compared with the standard drug, milrinone. Compound 6c was the most potent agent, with an increased stroke volume of 12.53% ± 0.30% (milrinone: 2.46% ± 0.07% at 3 × 10−5 M. The chronotropic effects of compounds having considerable inotropic effects were also evaluated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saminadayar, L.
2001-01-01
20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)
Discrete fractional solutions of a Legendre equation
Yılmazer, Resat
2018-01-01
One of the most popular research interests of science and engineering is the fractional calculus theory in recent times. Discrete fractional calculus has also an important position in fractional calculus. In this work, we acquire new discrete fractional solutions of the homogeneous and non homogeneous Legendre differential equation by using discrete fractional nabla operator.
Mellows, Ben; Mitchell, Robert; Antonioli, Manuela; Kretz, Oliver; Chambers, David; Zeuner, Marie-Theres; Denecke, Bernd; Musante, Luca; Ramachandra, Durrgah L; Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Holthofer, Harry; Joch, Barbara; Ray, Steve; Widera, Darius; David, Anna L; Huber, Tobias B; Dengjel, Joern; De Coppi, Paolo; Patel, Ketan
2017-09-15
The secretome of human amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) has great potential as a therapeutic agent in regenerative medicine. However, it must be produced in a clinically compliant manner before it can be used in humans. In this study, we developed a means of producing a biologically active secretome from AFSCs that is free of all exogenous molecules. We demonstrate that the full secretome is capable of promoting stem cell proliferation, migration, and protection of cells against senescence. Furthermore, it has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Most importantly, we show that it promotes tissue regeneration in a model of muscle damage. We then demonstrate that the secretome contains extracellular vesicles (EVs) that harbor much, but not all, of the biological activity of the whole secretome. Proteomic characterization of the EV and free secretome fraction shows the presence of numerous molecules specific to each fraction that could be key regulators of tissue regeneration. Intriguingly, we show that the EVs only contain miRNA and not mRNA. This suggests that tissue regeneration in the host is mediated by the action of EVs modifying existing, rather than imposing new, signaling pathways. The EVs harbor significant anti-inflammatory activity as well as promote angiogenesis, the latter may be the mechanistic explanation for their ability to promote muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin injury.
Fractional Differential Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moustafa El-Shahed
2007-01-01
where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results.
Creemers, L. B.; Meng, X.; den Ouden, K.; van Pelt, A. M. M.; Izadyar, F.; Santoro, M.; Sariola, H.; de rooij, D. G.
2002-01-01
With a novel method of eliminating spermatogenesis in host animals, male germ cells isolated from mice with targeted overexpression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were transplanted to evaluate their ability to reproduce the phenotype previously found in the transgenic animals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackiw, R.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge
1984-01-01
The theory of fermion fractionization due to topologically generated fermion ground states is presented. Applications to one-dimensional conductors, to the MIT bag, and to the Hall effect are reviewed. (author)
El-Sayed, Wael M; Hussin, Warda A; Al-Faiyz, Yasair S; Ismail, Mohamed A
2013-09-05
The antimutagenic activity of eight novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives (I-VIII) against sodium azide (NaN3) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was evaluated using the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. At non-toxic concentrations (12.5-50 µM), imidazopyridines I, II, III, and V with a terminal imidazopyridine group were mutagenic, while derivatives VII and VIII with a central imidazopyridine group were not mutagenic. Compounds IV, VII, and VIII exerted a moderate antimutagenic activity against NaN3 under pre-exposure conditions, and a strong activity (>40%) against B[a]P in the presence of S9 under both pre- and co-exposure conditions and mostly independent on the dose. Imidazopyridines possibly inhibited the microsomal-dependent activation of B[a]P. The demethylated derivative VII was the most active antimutagen. All imidazopyridines had a low to moderate antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity of imidazopyridines was sporadic and moderate probably due to the failure of bacteria to convert imidazopyridines into active metabolites. The position of imidazopyridine was a pivotal factor in the mutagenic/antimutagenic activity. The strong antimutagenic compounds were dicationic planar compounds with a centered imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine spacer. With LD50 of 60 mg/kg in mice for both derivatives VII and VIII, it is safe to investigate the anticancer activity of these derivatives in animal models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Advances in robust fractional control
Padula, Fabrizio
2015-01-01
This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Josipovic, Mirjana; Persson, Gitte Fredberg; Logadottir, Ashildur
2012-01-01
Implementation of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in frameless stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of lung tumours enables setup correction based on tumour position. The aim of this study was to compare setup accuracy with daily soft tissue matching to bony anatomy matching and evaluate...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick M Long
Full Text Available Cancer is associated with globally hypoacetylated chromatin and considerable attention has recently been focused on epigenetic therapies. N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA, the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA, the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate and ultimately acetyl-Coenzyme A for histone acetylation, are reduced in oligodendroglioma. The short chain triglyceride glyceryl triacetate (GTA, which increases histone acetylation and inhibits histone deacetylase expression, has been safely used for acetate supplementation in Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation. We demonstrate that GTA induces cytostatic G0 growth arrest of oligodendroglioma-derived cells in vitro, without affecting normal cells. Sodium acetate, at doses comparable to that generated by complete GTA catalysis, but not glycerol also promoted growth arrest, whereas long chain triglycerides promoted cell growth. To begin to elucidate its mechanism of action, the effects of GTA on ASPA and acetyl-CoA synthetase protein levels and differentiation of established human oligodendroglioma cells (HOG and Hs683 and primary tumor-derived oligodendroglioma cells that exhibit some features of cancer stem cells (grade II OG33 and grade III OG35 relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu were examined. The nuclear localization of ASPA and acetyl-CoA synthetase-1 in untreated cells was regulated during the cell cycle. GTA-mediated growth arrest was not associated with apoptosis or differentiation, but increased expression of acetylated proteins. Thus, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a safe, novel epigenetic therapy to reduce the growth of oligodendroglioma cells without affecting normal neural stem or oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation or differentiation.
On the fractional calculus of Besicovitch function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Yongshun
2009-01-01
Relationship between fractional calculus and fractal functions has been explored. Based on prior investigations dealing with certain fractal functions, fractal dimensions including Hausdorff dimension, Box dimension, K-dimension and Packing dimension is shown to be a linear function of order of fractional calculus. Both Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus and Weyl-Marchaud fractional derivative of Besicovitch function have been discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salvatore Savino
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The first Pt(IV derivative of oxaliplatin carrying a ligand for TSPO (the 18-kDa mitochondrial translocator protein has been developed. The expression of the translocator protein in the brain and liver of healthy humans is usually low, oppositely to steroid-synthesizing and rapidly proliferating tissues, where TSPO is much more abundant. The novel Pt(IV complex, cis,trans,cis-[Pt(ethanedioatoCl{2-(2-(4-(6,8-dichloro-3-(2-(dipropylamino-2-oxoethylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-2-ylphenoxyacetate-ethanolato}(1R,2R-DACH] (DACH = diaminocyclohexane, has been fully characterized by spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques and tested in vitro against human MCF7 breast carcinoma, U87 glioblastoma, and LoVo colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. In addition, affinity for TSPO (IC50 = 18.64 nM, cellular uptake (ca. 2 times greater than that of oxaliplatin in LoVo cancer cells, after 24 h treatment, and perturbation of cell cycle progression were investigated. Although the new compound was less active than oxaliplatin and did not exploit a synergistic proapoptotic effect due to the presence of the TSPO ligand, it appears to be promising in a receptor-mediated drug targeting context towards TSPO-overexpressing tumors, in particular colorectal cancer (IC50 = 2.31 μM after 72 h treatment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bourne Philip E
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The tree of life is usually rooted between archaea and bacteria. We have previously presented three arguments that support placing the root of the tree of life in bacteria. The data have been dismissed because those who support the canonical rooting between the prokaryotic superkingdoms cannot imagine how the vast divide between the prokaryotic superkingdoms could be crossed. Results We review the evidence that archaea are derived, as well as their biggest differences with bacteria. We argue that using novel data the gap between the superkingdoms is not insurmountable. We consider whether archaea are holophyletic or paraphyletic; essential to understanding their origin. Finally, we review several hypotheses on the origins of archaea and, where possible, evaluate each hypothesis using bioinformatics tools. As a result we argue for a firmicute ancestry for archaea over proposals for an actinobacterial ancestry. Conclusion We believe a synthesis of the hypotheses of Lake, Gupta, and Cavalier-Smith is possible where a combination of antibiotic warfare and viral endosymbiosis in the bacilli led to dramatic changes in a bacterium that resulted in the birth of archaea and eukaryotes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Patrick Forterre, Eugene Koonin, and Gáspár Jékely
Nguyen, Minh Binh; Cohen, Idan; Kumar, Vinod; Xu, Zijian; Bar, Carmit; Dauber-Decker, Katherine L; Tsai, Pai-Chi; Marangoni, Pauline; Klein, Ophir D; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Chen, Ting; Mikkola, Marja L; Ezhkova, Elena
2018-06-13
Merkel cells are innervated mechanosensory cells responsible for light-touch sensations. In murine dorsal skin, Merkel cells are located in touch domes and found in the epidermis around primary hairs. While it has been shown that Merkel cells are skin epithelial cells, the progenitor cell population that gives rise to these cells is unknown. Here, we show that during embryogenesis, SOX9-positive (+) cells inside hair follicles, which were previously known to give rise to hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) and cells of the hair follicle lineage, can also give rise to Merkel Cells. Interestingly, while SOX9 is critical for HFSC specification, it is dispensable for Merkel cell formation. Conversely, FGFR2 is required for Merkel cell formation but is dispensable for HFSCs. Together, our studies uncover SOX9(+) cells as precursors of Merkel cells and show the requirement for FGFR2-mediated epithelial signalling in Merkel cell specification.
Rao, Joshi Laxmikanth; Bhanuprakash, Kotamarthi
2011-12-01
The molecular structures of the ground (S(0)) and first singlet excited (S(1)) states of Alq3 derivatives in which pyrazolyl and 3-methylpyrazolyl groups are substituted at the C4 positions of the 8-hydroxyquinolate ligands as electron acceptors, and piperidinyl and N-methylpiperazinyl groups are substituted at the same positions as electron donors, have been optimized using the B3LYP/6-31G and CIS/6-31G methods, respectively. In order to analyze the electronic transitions in these derivatives, the frontier molecular orbital characteristics were analyzed systematically, and it was found that the highest occupied molecular orbital is localized on the A ligand while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital is localized on the B ligand in their ground states, similar to what is seen for mer-Alq3. The absorption and emission spectra were evaluated at the TD-PBE0/6-31G level, and it was observed that electron acceptor substitution causes a red-shift in the emission spectra, which is also seen experimentally. The reorganization energies were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G level and the results show that acceptor/donor substitution has a significant effect on the intrinsic charge mobilities of these derivatives as compared to mer-Alq3.
Deryabin, Dmitry G; Efremova, Ludmila V; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Saidakova, Evgeniya V; Sizova, Elena A; Troshin, Pavel A; Zhilenkov, Alexander V; Khakina, Ekaterina A; Khakina, Ekaterina E
2015-08-08
The cause-effect relationships between physicochemical properties of amphiphilic [60]fullerene derivatives and their toxicity against bacterial cells have not yet been clarified. In this study, we report how the differences in the chemical structure of organic addends in 10 originally synthesized penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives modulate their zeta potential and aggregate's size in salt-free and salt-added aqueous suspensions as well as how these physicochemical characteristics affect the bioenergetics of freshwater Escherichia coli and marine Photobacterium phosphoreum bacteria. Dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler micro-electrophoresis, agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy, and bioluminescence inhibition assay were used to characterize the fullerene aggregation behavior in aqueous solution and their interaction with the bacterial cell surface, following zeta potential changes and toxic effects. Dynamic light scattering results indicated the formation of self-assembled [60]fullerene aggregates in aqueous suspensions. The measurement of the zeta potential of the particles revealed that they have different surface charges. The relationship between these physicochemical characteristics was presented as an exponential regression that correctly described the dependence of the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in salt-free aqueous suspension from zeta potential value. The prevalence of DLVO-related effects was shown in salt-added aqueous suspension that decreased zeta potential values and affected the aggregation of [60]fullerene derivatives expressed differently for individual compounds. A bioluminescence inhibition assay demonstrated that the toxic effect of [60]fullerene derivatives against E. coli cells was strictly determined by their positive zeta potential charge value being weakened against P. phosphoreum cells in an aquatic system of high salinity. Atomic force microscopy data suggested that the
Matveyenko, Aleksey V; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil; Butler, Peter C
2010-11-01
Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in development of viable glucose-responsive pancreatic endocrine tissue. Athymic nude rats were implanted with PE derived from hESC either via implantation into the epididymal fat pads or by subcutaneous implantation into TheraCyte encapsulation devices for 20 wk. Blood glucose, weight, and human insulin/C-peptide secretion were monitored by weekly blood draws. Graft β-cell function was assessed by a glucose tolerance test, and graft morphology was assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. At 20 wk postimplantation, epididymal fat-implanted PE progressed to develop islet-like structures in 50% of implants, with a mean β-cell fractional area of 0.8 ± 0.3%. Human C-peptide and insulin were detectable, but at very low levels (C-peptide = 50 ± 26 pmol/l and insulin = 15 ± 7 pmol/l); however, there was no increase in human C-peptide/insulin levels after glucose challenge. There was no development of viable pancreatic tissue or meaningful secretory function when human PE was implanted in the TheraCyte encapsulation devices. These data confirm that islet-like structures develop from hESC differentiated to PE by the protocol developed by NovoCell. However, the extent of endocrine cell formation and secretory function is not yet sufficient to be clinically relevant.
Hosseinabadi, Abdolali Neamaty; Nategh, Mehdi
2014-01-01
This work, dealt with the classical mean value theorem and took advantage of it in the fractional calculus. The concept of a fractional critical point is introduced. Some sufficient conditions for the existence of a critical point is studied and an illustrative example rele- vant to the concept of the time dilation effect is given. The present paper also includes, some connections between convexity (and monotonicity) with fractional derivative in the Riemann-Liouville sense.
Gentile, Pietro; De Angelis, Barbara; Pasin, Methap; Cervelli, Giulio; Curcio, Cristiano B; Floris, Micol; Di Pasquali, Camilla; Bocchini, Ilaria; Balzani, Alberto; Nicoli, Fabio; Insalaco, Chiara; Tati, Eleonora; Lucarini, Lucilla; Palla, Ludovico; Pascali, Michele; De Logu, Pamela; Di Segni, Chiara; Bottini, Davide J; Cervelli, Valerio
2014-01-01
Actually, autologous fat grafts have many clinical applications in breast surgery, facial rejuvenation, buttock augmentation, and Romberg syndrome as well as a treatment of liposuction sequelae. The aim of this article was to describe the preparation and isolation procedures for stromal vascular fraction (SVF), the preparation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and the clinical application in the treatment of the scar on the face. Ten patients with burns sequelae (n = 6) and post-traumatic scars (n = 4) were treated with SVF-enhanced autologous fat grafts obtained by the Celution System. Another 10 patients with burns sequelae (n = 5) and post-traumatic scars (n = 5) were treated with fat grafting based on the Coleman technique mixed with 0.5 mL of PRP.To assess the effects of their treatment, the authors compared their results with those of a control group consisting of 10 patients treated with centrifuged fat. In the patients treated with SVF-enhanced autologous fat grafts, we observed a 63% maintenance of contour restoring after 1 year compared with only 39% of the control group (n = 10) treated with centrifuged fat graft (P < 0.0001). In the patients treated with fat grafting and PRP, we observed a 69% maintenance of contour restoring after 1 year compared with that of the control group (n = 10). Autologous fat grafting is a good method for the correction of scars on the face instead of the traditional scar surgical excision.
On generalized fractional vibration equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The paper presents a generalized fractional vibration equation for arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. • Some classical vibration equations can be derived from the developed equation. • The analytic solution of developed equation is derived under some special cases. • The generalized equation is particularly useful for developing new fractional equivalent linearization method. - Abstract: In this paper, a generalized fractional vibration equation with multi-terms of fractional dissipation is developed to describe the dynamical response of an arbitrary viscoelastically damped system. It is shown that many classical equations of motion, e.g., the Bagley–Torvik equation, can be derived from the developed equation. The Laplace transform is utilized to solve the generalized equation and the analytic solution under some special cases is derived. Example demonstrates the generalized transfer function of an arbitrary viscoelastic system.
Distributed-order fractional diffusions on bounded domains
Meerschaert, Mark M.; Nane, Erkan; Vellaisamy, P.
2011-01-01
In a fractional Cauchy problem, the usual first order time derivative is replaced by a fractional derivative. The fractional derivative models time delays in a diffusion process. The order of the fractional derivative can be distributed over the unit interval, to model a mixture of delay sources. In this paper, we provide explicit strong solutions and stochastic analogues for distributed-order fractional Cauchy problems on bounded domains with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Stochastic solutio...
Fermion fractionization and index theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirayama, Minoru; Torii, Tatsuo
1982-01-01
The relation between the fermion fractionization and the Callias-Bott-Seeley index theorem for the Dirac operator in the open space of odd dimension is clarified. Only the case of one spatial dimension is discussed in detail. Sum rules for the expectation values of various quantities in fermion-fractionized configurations are derived. (author)
Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F
2017-10-01
There is ample evidence for supporting the positive impact of aerobic fitness on cognitive function, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the positive cognitive impact of aerobic fitness is associated with inflammatory and neurotrophic peripheral biomarkers in young adults aged 18 to 29years (n=87). For the objective assessment of aerobic fitness, we measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) as a parametric measure of cardiorespiratory capacity. We demonstrated that young adults with the higher levels of VO 2 max performed better on computerized cognitive tasks assessing sustained attention and working memory. This positive VO 2 max-cognitive performance association existed independently of confounders (e.g., years of education, intelligence scores) but was significantly dependent on resting peripheral blood levels of inflammatory (C-reactive protein, CRP) and neurotrophic (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) biomarkers. Statistical models showed that CRP was a mediator of the effect of VO 2 max on working memory. Further, BDNF was a moderator of the effect of VO 2 max on working memory. These mediating and moderating effects occurred in individuals with higher levels of aerobic fitness. The results suggest that higher aerobic fitness, as measured by VO 2 max, is associated with enhanced cognitive functioning and favorable resting peripheral levels of inflammatory and brain-derived neurotrophic biomarkers in young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fractional neutron point kinetics equations for nuclear reactor dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Polo-Labarrios, Marco-A.; Espinosa-Martinez, Erick-G.; Valle-Gallegos, Edmundo del
2011-01-01
The fractional point-neutron kinetics model for the dynamic behavior in a nuclear reactor is derived and analyzed in this paper. The fractional model retains the main dynamic characteristics of the neutron motion in which the relaxation time associated with a rapid variation in the neutron flux contains a fractional order, acting as exponent of the relaxation time, to obtain the best representation of a nuclear reactor dynamics. The physical interpretation of the fractional order is related with non-Fickian effects from the neutron diffusion equation point of view. The numerical approximation to the solution of the fractional neutron point kinetics model, which can be represented as a multi-term high-order linear fractional differential equation, is calculated by reducing the problem to a system of ordinary and fractional differential equations. The numerical stability of the fractional scheme is investigated in this work. Results for neutron dynamic behavior for both positive and negative reactivity and for different values of fractional order are shown and compared with the classic neutron point kinetic equations. Additionally, a related review with the neutron point kinetics equations is presented, which encompasses papers written in English about this research topic (as well as some books and technical reports) published since 1940 up to 2010.
Mobin, Lubna; Saeed, Syed Asad; Ali, Rashida; Saeed, Syed Ghufran; Ahmed, Rahil
2017-09-26
Crude seed coat extracts from Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista were purified into four different fractions namely phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanin which were then examined for their polyphenol contents and antimicrobial potentials. The fractions derived from seed coat of A. precatorius were found more potent with high phenolic and flavonoid contents as compared to C. crista fractions. The significant antibacterial activity was observed against all strain tested by the fractions of both samples apart from anthocyanin fraction. It was interesting to note that the phenolic acid fractions of both samples was found more active against gram-negative bacteria, while gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive towards flavonol fractions. The phenolic acid and flavonol fractions being potent antibacterial were selected to demonstrate the antifungal capacity of two samples. Among them, phenolic acid fraction of both samples was found active towards all the fungal strain.
Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max
2016-01-01
Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espinoza, Jeannette; Fuentes, Edwar [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Olivos 1007, Casilla 233, Santiago (Chile); Baez, Maria E., E-mail: mbaez@ciq.uchile.c [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Chile, Olivos 1007, Casilla 233, Santiago (Chile)
2009-12-15
Bensulfuron-methyl sorption was studied in Andisol and Ultisol soils in view of their characteristic physical and chemical properties, presenting acidic pH and variable charge. Humic and fulvic acids (HA and FA) and humin (HUM) contributions were established. Sorption was studied by using two synthetic sorbents, an aluminum-silicate with iron oxide coverage and the same sorbent coated with humic acid. Freundlich model described Bensulfuron-methyl behavior in all sorbents (R{sup 2} 0.969-0.998). K{sub f} for soils (8.3-20.7 mug{sup 1-1/n} mL{sup 1/n} g{sup -1}) were higher than those reported in the literature. Organic matter, halloysite or kaolinite, and specific surface area contributed to the global process. The highest K{sub f} for HA, FA and HUM were 539.5, 82.9, and 98.7 mug{sup 1-1/n} mL{sup 1/n} g{sup -1}. Model sorbents described the participation of variable charge materials with high adsorption capacity. The constant capacitance model was used to assess effects of Bensulfuron-methyl adsorption on the distribution of SOH, SOH{sub 2}{sup +} and SO{sup -} sites of sorbents. - Organic matter, phyllosilicates, variable charge minerals and organo-mineral complexes contribute to bensulfuron-methyl sorption on volcanic ash-derived soils.
Fractional Order Models of Industrial Pneumatic Controllers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abolhassan Razminia
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses a new approach for modeling of versatile controllers in industrial automation and process control systems such as pneumatic controllers. Some fractional order dynamical models are developed for pressure and pneumatic systems with bellows-nozzle-flapper configuration. In the light of fractional calculus, a fractional order derivative-derivative (FrDD controller and integral-derivative (FrID are remodeled. Numerical simulations illustrate the application of the obtained theoretical results in simple examples.
Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions
Carley, Holly
2011-01-01
This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E
2014-01-01
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)
Fractional diffusion models of nonlocal transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castillo-Negrete, D. del
2006-01-01
A class of nonlocal models based on the use of fractional derivatives (FDs) is proposed to describe nondiffusive transport in magnetically confined plasmas. FDs are integro-differential operators that incorporate in a unified framework asymmetric non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian ('memory') effects, and nondiffusive scaling. To overcome the limitations of fractional models in unbounded domains, we use regularized FDs that allow the incorporation of finite-size domain effects, boundary conditions, and variable diffusivities. We present an α-weighted explicit/implicit numerical integration scheme based on the Grunwald-Letnikov representation of the regularized fractional diffusion operator in flux conserving form. In sharp contrast with the standard diffusive model, the strong nonlocality of fractional diffusion leads to a linear in time response for a decaying pulse at short times. In addition, an anomalous fractional pinch is observed, accompanied by the development of an uphill transport region where the 'effective' diffusivity becomes negative. The fractional flux is in general asymmetric and, for steady states, it has a negative (toward the core) component that enhances confinement and a positive component that increases toward the edge and leads to poor confinement. The model exhibits the characteristic anomalous scaling of the confinement time, τ, with the system's size, L, τ∼L α , of low-confinement mode plasma where 1<α<2 is the order of the FD operator. Numerical solutions of the model with an off-axis source show that the fractional inward transport gives rise to profile peaking reminiscent of what is observed in tokamak discharges with auxiliary off-axis heating. Also, cold-pulse perturbations to steady sates in the model exhibit fast, nondiffusive propagation phenomena that resemble perturbative experiments
Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Kennedy, Aaron; Minnis, Patrick; Wood, Robert
2013-01-01
A 19-month record of total, and single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high (> 6 km) cloud fractions (CFs), and the single-layered marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties has been generated from ground-based measurements taken at the ARM Azores site between June 2009 and December 2010. It documents the most comprehensive and longest dataset on marine cloud fraction and MBL cloud properties to date. The annual means of total CF, and single-layered low, middle, and high CFs derived from ARM radar-lidar observations are 0.702, 0.271, 0.01 and 0.106, respectively. More total and single-layered high CFs occurred during winter, while single-layered low CFs were greatest during summer. The diurnal cycles for both total and low CFs are stronger during summer than during winter. The CFs are bimodally distributed in the vertical with a lower peak at approx. 1 km and higher one between 8 and 11 km during all seasons, except summer, when only the low peak occurs. The persistent high pressure and dry conditions produce more single-layered MBL clouds and fewer total clouds during summer, while the low pressure and moist air masses during winter generate more total and multilayered-clouds, and deep frontal clouds associated with midlatitude cyclones.
Fractional vector calculus and fluid mechanics
Lazopoulos, Konstantinos A.; Lazopoulos, Anastasios K.
2017-04-01
Basic fluid mechanics equations are studied and revised under the prism of fractional continuum mechanics (FCM), a very promising research field that satisfies both experimental and theoretical demands. The geometry of the fractional differential has been clarified corrected and the geometry of the fractional tangent spaces of a manifold has been studied in Lazopoulos and Lazopoulos (Lazopoulos KA, Lazopoulos AK. Progr. Fract. Differ. Appl. 2016, 2, 85-104), providing the bases of the missing fractional differential geometry. Therefore, a lot can be contributed to fractional hydrodynamics: the basic fractional fluid equations (Navier Stokes, Euler and Bernoulli) are derived and fractional Darcy's flow in porous media is studied.
Gorter, Thomas M; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Bauersachs, Johann; Borlaug, Barry A; Celutkiene, Jelena; Coats, Andrew J S; Crespo-Leiro, Marisa G; Guazzi, Marco; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Heymans, Stephane; Hill, Loreena; Lainscak, Mitja; Lam, Carolyn S P; Lund, Lars H; Lyon, Alexander R; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Mueller, Christian; Paulus, Walter J; Pieske, Burkert; Piepoli, Massimo F; Ruschitzka, Frank; Rutten, Frans H; Seferovic, Petar M; Solomon, Scott D; Shah, Sanjiv J; Triposkiadis, Filippos; Wachter, Rolf; Tschöpe, Carsten; de Boer, Rudolf A
2018-01-01
There is an unmet need for effective treatment strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Until recently, attention in patients with HFpEF was almost exclusively focused on the left side. However, it is now increasingly recognized that right heart dysfunction is common and contributes importantly to poor prognosis in HFpEF. More insights into the development of right heart dysfunction in HFpEF may aid to our knowledge about this complex disease and may eventually lead to better treatments to improve outcomes in these patients. In this position paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the Committee on Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of right heart dysfunction and failure in patients with HFpEF. Finally, potential treatment strategies, important knowledge gaps and future directions regarding the right side in HFpEF are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.
Semianalytic Solution of Space-Time Fractional Diffusion Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Elsaid
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the space-time fractional diffusion equation with spatial Riesz-Feller fractional derivative and Caputo fractional time derivative. The continuation of the solution of this fractional equation to the solution of the corresponding integer order equation is proved. The series solution of this problem is obtained via the optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the method and to show the effect of changing the fractional derivative parameters on the solution behavior.
Calculus of variations involving Caputo-Fabrizio fractional differentiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nuno R. O. Bastos
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to study some variational problems with functionals containing the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative, that is a fractional derivative with a non-singular kernel.
Exact solutions of time-fractional heat conduction equation by the fractional complex transform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Zheng-Biao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The Fractional Complex Transform is extended to solve exactly time-fractional differential equations with the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative. How to incorporate suitable boundary/initial conditions is also discussed.
Bruno, Elizabeth A.; Guthrie, James W.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Clements, Dylan N.
2015-01-01
Objective To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS) derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1) different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2) healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3) osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia. Design Prospective study. Animals Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs). Procedure Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball) whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar. Results GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation. PMID:25692761
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Elizabeth A Bruno
Full Text Available To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1 different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2 healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3 osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia.Prospective study.Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs.Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar.GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed.GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation.
Kumar, Sanjay
2018-01-01
In this paper, a new variant to fractional signal processing is proposed known as the Reduced Order Fractional Fourier Transform. Various properties satisfied by its transformation kernel is derived. The properties associated with the proposed Reduced Order Fractional Fourier Transform like shift, modulation, time-frequency shift property are also derived and it is shown mathematically that when the rotation angle of Reduced Order Fractional Fourier Transform approaches 90 degrees, the propos...
Fractional Complex Transform and exp-Function Methods for Fractional Differential Equations
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Ahmet Bekir
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The exp-function method is presented for finding the exact solutions of nonlinear fractional equations. New solutions are constructed in fractional complex transform to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The fractional derivatives are described in Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville sense. We apply the exp-function method to both the nonlinear time and space fractional differential equations. As a result, some new exact solutions for them are successfully established.
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Wei Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Based on a general fractional Riccati equation and with Jumarie’s modified Riemann-Liouville derivative to an extended fractional Riccati expansion method for solving the time fractional Burgers equation and the space-time fractional Cahn-Hilliard equation, the exact solutions expressed by the hyperbolic functions and trigonometric functions are obtained. The obtained results show that the presented method is effective and appropriate for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations.
Multivariate fractional Poisson processes and compound sums
Beghin, Luisa; Macci, Claudio
2015-01-01
In this paper we present multivariate space-time fractional Poisson processes by considering common random time-changes of a (finite-dimensional) vector of independent classical (non-fractional) Poisson processes. In some cases we also consider compound processes. We obtain some equations in terms of some suitable fractional derivatives and fractional difference operators, which provides the extension of known equations for the univariate processes.
Ravenelle, Rebecca; Berman, Ariel K; La, Jeffrey; Mason, Briana; Asumadu, Evans; Yelleswarapu, Chandra; Donaldson, S Tiffany
2018-04-01
In humans and animal models, sex differences are reported for anxiety-like behavior and response to anxiogenic stimuli. In the current work, we studied anxiety-like behavior and response to the prototypical anti-anxiety drug, diazepam. We used 6th generation outbred lines of adult Long Evans rats with high and low anxiety-like behavior phenotypes to investigate the impact of proestrus on the baseline and diazepam-induced behavior. At three doses of diazepam (0, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), we measured anxiogenic responses on the elevated plus maze of adult male and female rats. We assessed parvalbumin and brain-derived neurotrophin protein levels in forebrain and limbic structures implicated in anxiety/stress using immunohistochemistry. At baseline, we saw significant differences between anxiety lines, with high anxiety lines displaying less time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and less open arm entries, regardless of sex. During proestrus, high anxiety females showed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 mg/kg, while low anxiety females displayed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 and 1.0 doses, relative to males. Brain-derived neurotrophin protein was elevated in females in the medial prefrontal cortex and central amygdala, while parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were greater in males in the medial prefrontal cortex. Parvalbumin-positive cells in high anxiety females were higher in CA2 and dentate gyrus relative to males from the same line. In sum, when tested in proestrus, females showed greater anxiolytic effects of diazepam relative to males, and this correlated with increases in neurotrophin and parvalbumin neuron density in corticolimbic structures. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors
Agambayev, Agamyrat
2017-07-25
Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.
Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors
Agambayev, Agamyrat; Patole, Shashikant P.; Farhat, Mohamed; Elwakil, Ahmed; Bagci, Hakan; Salama, Khaled N.
2017-01-01
Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.
On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals
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Hamid A. Jalab
2013-01-01
Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.
A fractional Dirac equation and its solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muslih, Sami I; Agrawal, Om P; Baleanu, Dumitru
2010-01-01
This paper presents a fractional Dirac equation and its solution. The fractional Dirac equation may be obtained using a fractional variational principle and a fractional Klein-Gordon equation; both methods are considered here. We extend the variational formulations for fractional discrete systems to fractional field systems defined in terms of Caputo derivatives. By applying the variational principle to a fractional action S, we obtain the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. We present a Lagrangian and a Hamiltonian for the fractional Dirac equation of order α. We also use a fractional Klein-Gordon equation to obtain the fractional Dirac equation which is the same as that obtained using the fractional variational principle. Eigensolutions of this equation are presented which follow the same approach as that for the solution of the standard Dirac equation. We also provide expressions for the path integral quantization for the fractional Dirac field which, in the limit α → 1, approaches to the path integral for the regular Dirac field. It is hoped that the fractional Dirac equation and the path integral quantization of the fractional field will allow further development of fractional relativistic quantum mechanics.
Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Condines, Ximena; Magraner, Emma; Roth, Irene; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Arranz, Sara; Casas, Rosa; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Quifer-Rada, Paola; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon
2014-04-01
Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular risk, but fermented beverages seem to confer greater cardiovascular protection due to their polyphenolic content. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are bone-marrow-derived stem cells with the ability to repair and maintain endothelial integrity and function and are considered as a surrogate marker of vascular function and cumulative cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, no study has been carried out on the effects of moderate beer consumption on the number of circulating EPC in high cardiovascular risk patients. To compare the effects of moderate consumption of beer, non-alcoholic beer and gin on the number of circulating EPC and EPC-mobilizing factors. In this crossover trial, 33 men at high cardiovascular risk were randomized to receive beer (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of polyphenols in the form of non-alcoholic beer, or gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 weeks. Diet and physical exercise were carefully monitored. The number of circulating EPC and EPC-mobilizing factors were determined at baseline and after each intervention. After the beer and non-alcoholic beer interventions, the number of circulating EPC significantly increased by 8 and 5 units, respectively, while no significant differences were observed after the gin period. In correlation, stromal cell derived factor 1 increased significantly after the non-alcoholic and the beer interventions. The non-alcoholic fraction of beer increases the number of circulating EPC in peripheral blood from high cardiovascular risk subjects. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN95345245 ISRCTN95345245. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Yukihiko Hiroshima
Full Text Available We have previously developed mouse models of HER-2-positive cervical cancer. Tumors in nude mice had histological structures similar to the original tumor and were stained by anti-HER-2 antibody in the same pattern as the patient's cancer. We have also previously developed tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R and have demonstrated its efficacy against patient-derived tumor mouse models, both alone and in combination. In the current study, we determined the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R in combination with trastuzumab on a patient-cancer nude-mouse model of HER-2 positive cervical cancer. Mice were randomized to 5 groups and treated as follows: (1 no treatment; (2 carboplatinum (30 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks; (3 trastuzumab (20 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks; (4 S. typhimurium A1-R (5 × 107 CFU/body, ip, weekly, 5 weeks; (5 S. typhimurium A1-R (5 × 107 CFU/body, ip, weekly, 5 weeks + trastuzumab (20 mg/kg, ip, weekly, 5 weeks. All regimens had significant efficacy compared to the untreated mice. The relative tumor volume of S. typhimurium A1-R + trastuzumab-treated mice was smaller compared to trastuzumab alone (p = 0.007 and S. typhimurium A1-R alone (p = 0.039. No significant body weight loss was found compared to the no treatment group except for carboplatinum-treated mice (p = 0.021. Upon histological examination, viable tumor cells were not detected, and replaced by stromal cells in the tumors treated with S. typhimurium A1-R + trastuzumab. The results of the present study suggest that S. typhimurium A1-R and trastuzumab in combination are highly effective against HER-2-expressing cervical cancer.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from bathymetry from three sources:...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry and was created using the...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The bathymetry grid (5 m cell size) is derived from bathymetry from three sources:...
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Francesco Pirotti
2010-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an assessment of a method using a correlation filter over a lidar-derived digital canopy height model (CHM is presented. The objective of the procedure is to obtain stem density, position, and height values, on a stand with the following characteristics: ellipsoidal canopy shape (Pinus pinaster, even-aged and single-layer structure. The process consists of three steps: extracting a correlation map from CHM by applying a template whose size and shape resembles the canopy to be detected, applying a threshold mask to the correlation map to keep a subset of candidate-pixels, and then applying a local maximum filter to the remaining pixel groups. The method performs satisfactorily considering the experimental conditions. The mean tree extraction percentage is 65% with a coefficient of agreement of 0.4. The mean absolute error of height is ~0.5 m for all plots except one. It can be considered a valid approach for extracting tree density and height in regularly spaced stands (i.e., poplar plantations which are fundamental for extracting related forest parameters such as volume and biomass.
Marini, Juan C
2011-05-15
The enteral metabolisms of glutamine and citrulline are intertwined because, while glutamine is one of the main fuel sources for the enterocyte, citrulline is one of its products. It has been shown that the administration of (15)N-labeled glutamine results in the incorporation of the (15)N label into citrulline, but it is not clear which of the three nitrogen groups of citrulline is actually labeled. To determine the (15)N-enrichment of the positional isomers of glutamine and citrulline, a rapid liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed. The amino acids were analyzed as their dansyl derivatives. The product ion resulting from the loss of NH(3) from the omega carbon allows for the determination of the enrichment of the ureido (citrulline) or amido groups (glutamine). The protonated pyrrolidine (citrulline) or 5-oxopyrrolidine (glutamine) product ion contains the 2-N (amino group) and is used to determine its enrichment. The method described showed no ion suppression and a wide dynamic range ranging from 1.3 picomoles to 2 nanomoles for citrulline. Background samples and standards resulted in enrichments not different from those theoretically expected. The enrichment curves for the different glutamine and citrulline isotopomers were linear (R(2) > 0.998) over the range of enrichments studied. The method developed provides an additional insight into the metabolism of glutamine and citrulline tracing the precursor-product relationship between these two amino acids. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qi Jun; Chen Anmin; You Hongbo; Li Kunpeng; Zhang Di; Guo Fengjing
2011-01-01
Stem cell-based tissue engineering has provided an alternative strategy to treat cartilage lesions, and synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) are considered as a promising cell source for cartilage repair. In this study, the SMSCs were isolated from rat synovium, and CD105-positive (CD105 + ) cells were enriched using magnetic activated cell sorting. Sorted cells were subsequently seeded onto the chitosan-alginate composite three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds and cultured in chondrogenic culture medium in the presence of TGF-β 3 and BMP-2 for 2 weeks in vitro. After 2 weeks in culture, scanning electron microscopy results showed that cells attached and proliferated well on scaffolds, and secreted extracellular matrix were also observed. From day 7 to day 14, the total DNA and glucosaminoglycan content of the cells cultured in scaffolds were found to have increased significantly, and cell cycle analyses revealed that the percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phases increased and the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase decreased. Compared with non-sorted cells, the sorted cells cultured in scaffolds underwent more chondrogenic differentiation, as evidenced by higher expression of type II collagen and Sox9 at the protein and mRNA levels. The results suggest that CD105 + enriched SMSCs may be a potential cell source for cartilage tissue engineering, and the chitosan-alginate composite 3D porous scaffold could provide a favorable microenvironment for supporting proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of cells.
Xiang, Yun; Abliz, Zeper; Takayama, Mitsuo
2004-05-01
The dissociation reactions of the adduct ions derived from the four self-complementary deoxydinucleotides, d(ApT), d(TpA), d(CpG), d(GpC), and alkali-metal ions were studied in detail by positive ion electrospray ionization multiple-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). For the [M + H](+) ions of the four deoxydinucleotides, elimination of 5'-terminus base or loss of both of 5'-terminus base and a deoxyribose were the major dissociation pathway. The ESI-MS(n) spectra showed that Li(+), Na(+), and Cs(+) bind to deoxydinucleotides mainly by substituting the H(+) of phosphate group, and these alkali-metal ions preferred to bind to pyrimidine bases rather than purine bases. For a given deoxydinucleotide, the dissociation pathway of [M + K](+) ions differed clearly from that of [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), and [M + Cs](+) ions. Some interesting and characteristic cleavage reactions were observed in the product-ion spectra of [M + K](+) ions, including direct elimination of deoxyribose and HPO(3) from molecular ions. The fragmentation behavior of the [M + K](+) and [M + W](+) (W = Li, Na, Cs) adduct ions depend upon the sequence of bases, the interaction between alkali-metal ions and nucleobases, and the steric hindrance caused by bases.
Fractional Schroedinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laskin, Nick
2002-01-01
Some properties of the fractional Schroedinger equation are studied. We prove the Hermiticity of the fractional Hamilton operator and establish the parity conservation law for fractional quantum mechanics. As physical applications of the fractional Schroedinger equation we find the energy spectra of a hydrogenlike atom (fractional 'Bohr atom') and of a fractional oscillator in the semiclassical approximation. An equation for the fractional probability current density is developed and discussed. We also discuss the relationships between the fractional and standard Schroedinger equations
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Tapani Hovi
Full Text Available Partial sequences of 110 type 2 poliovirus strains isolated from sewage in Slovakia in 2003-2005, and most probably originating from a single dose of oral poliovirus vaccine, were subjected to a detailed genetic analysis. Evolutionary patterns of these vaccine derived poliovirus strains (SVK-aVDPV2 were compared to those of type 1 and type 3 wild poliovirus (WPV lineages considered to have a single seed strain origin, respectively. The 102 unique SVK-aVDPV VP1 sequences were monophyletic differing from that of the most likely parental poliovirus type 2/Sabin (PV2 Sabin by 12.5-15.6%. Judging from this difference and from the rate of accumulation of synonymous transversions during the 22 month observation period, the relevant oral poliovirus vaccine dose had been administered to an unknown recipient more than 12 years earlier. The patterns of nucleotide substitution during the observation period differed from those found in the studied lineages of WPV1 or 3, including a lower transition/transversion (Ts/Tv bias and strikingly lower Ts/Tv rate ratios at the 2(nd codon position for both purines and pyrimidines. A relatively low preference of transitions at the 2(nd codon position was also found in the large set of VP1 sequences of Nigerian circulating (cVDPV2, as well as in the smaller sets from the Hispaniola cVDPV1 and Egypt cVDPV2 outbreaks, and among aVDPV1and aVDPV2 strains recently isolated from sewage in Finland. Codon-wise analysis of synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates in the VP1 sequences suggested that in five codons, those coding for amino acids at sites 24, 144, 147, 221 and 222, there may have been positive selection during the observation period. We conclude that pattern of poliovirus VP1 evolution in prolonged infection may differ from that found in WPV epidemics. Further studies on sufficiently large independent datasets are needed to confirm this suggestion and to reveal its potential significance.
Fractional RC and LC Electrical Circuits
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Gómez-Aguilar José Francisco
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose a fractional differential equation for the electrical RC and LC circuit in terms of the fractional time derivatives of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 < ɣ ≤1. To keep the dimensionality of the physical parameters R, L, C the new parameter σ is introduced. This parameter characterizes the existence of fractional structures in the system. A relation between the fractional order time derivative ɣ and the new parameter σ is found. The numeric Laplace transform method was used for the simulation of the equations results. The results show that the fractional differential equations generalize the behavior of the charge, voltage and current depending of the values of ɣ. The classical cases are recovered by taking the limit when ɣ = 1. An analysis in the frequency domain of an RC circuit shows the application and use of fractional order differential equations.
Bergstra, Jan A.
2015-01-01
In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.
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Xiangbing Zhou
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We generalize a fixed point theorem in partially ordered complete metric spaces in the study of A. Amini-Harandi and H. Emami (2010. We also give an application on the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution of a multipoint boundary value problem with fractional derivatives.
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Sheng-Ping Yan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We perform a comparison between the local fractional Adomian decomposition and local fractional function decomposition methods applied to the Laplace equation. The operators are taken in the local sense. The results illustrate the significant features of the two methods which are both very effective and straightforward for solving the differential equations with local fractional derivative.
Generalized Multiparameters Fractional Variational Calculus
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Om Prakash Agrawal
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper builds upon our recent paper on generalized fractional variational calculus (FVC. Here, we briefly review some of the fractional derivatives (FDs that we considered in the past to develop FVC. We first introduce new one parameter generalized fractional derivatives (GFDs which depend on two functions, and show that many of the one-parameter FDs considered in the past are special cases of the proposed GFDs. We develop several parts of FVC in terms of one parameter GFDs. We point out how many other parts could be developed using the properties of the one-parameter GFDs. Subsequently, we introduce two new two- and three-parameter GFDs. We introduce some of their properties, and discuss how they can be used to develop FVC. In addition, we indicate how these formulations could be used in various fields, and how the generalizations presented here can be further extended.
Jin, Sun Hee; Choi, Dalwoong; Chun, Young-Jin; Noh, Minsoo
2014-10-15
Keratinocytes are the major cellular components of human epidermis and play a key role in the modulating cutaneous inflammation and toxic responses. In human chronic skin diseases, the common skin inflammatory phenotypes like skin barrier disruption and epidermal hyperplasia are manifested in epidermal keratinocytes by interactions with T helper (Th) cells. To find a common gene expression signature of human keratinocytes in chronic skin diseases, we performed a whole genome microarray analysis on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHKs) treated with IFNγ, IL-4, IL-17A or IL-22, major cytokines from Th1, Th2, Th17 or Th22 cells, respectively. The microarray results showed that the four genes, IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19 and filaggrin, had common expression profiles in NHKs exposed to Th cell cytokines. In addition, the acute phase pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα, also change the gene transcriptional profile of IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19, and filaggrin in NHKs as those of Th cytokines. Therefore, the signature gene set, consisting of IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19, and filaggrin, provides essential insights for understanding the process of cutaneous inflammation and toxic responses. We demonstrate that environmental toxic stressors, such as chemical irritants and ultraviolet irradiation stimulate the production of IL-24 in NHKs. IL-24 stimulates the JAK1-STAT3 and MAPK pathways in NHKs, and promotes the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-8, PGE2, and MMP-1. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived IL-24 participates in the positive feedback regulation of epidermal inflammation in response to both endogenous and environmental toxic stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi Jun; Chen Anmin; You Hongbo; Li Kunpeng; Zhang Di; Guo Fengjing, E-mail: fjguo@tjh.tjmu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China)
2011-02-15
Stem cell-based tissue engineering has provided an alternative strategy to treat cartilage lesions, and synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) are considered as a promising cell source for cartilage repair. In this study, the SMSCs were isolated from rat synovium, and CD105-positive (CD105{sup +}) cells were enriched using magnetic activated cell sorting. Sorted cells were subsequently seeded onto the chitosan-alginate composite three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds and cultured in chondrogenic culture medium in the presence of TGF-{beta}{sub 3} and BMP-2 for 2 weeks in vitro. After 2 weeks in culture, scanning electron microscopy results showed that cells attached and proliferated well on scaffolds, and secreted extracellular matrix were also observed. From day 7 to day 14, the total DNA and glucosaminoglycan content of the cells cultured in scaffolds were found to have increased significantly, and cell cycle analyses revealed that the percentage of cells in the S and G2/M phases increased and the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase decreased. Compared with non-sorted cells, the sorted cells cultured in scaffolds underwent more chondrogenic differentiation, as evidenced by higher expression of type II collagen and Sox9 at the protein and mRNA levels. The results suggest that CD105{sup +} enriched SMSCs may be a potential cell source for cartilage tissue engineering, and the chitosan-alginate composite 3D porous scaffold could provide a favorable microenvironment for supporting proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of cells.
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Abdurrahim Bakirhan
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the serum brain derived neurotropic factor (BNDF levels of patients with schizophrenia who had never received an antipsychotic treatment with those of a control group. Also, to analyze the relationship between the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS scores and BDNF levels of the patients during the period they were drug-naive.The sample of the study comprised patients who presentedto the Psychiatry Clinic and were admitted after a distinctive schizophrenia diagnosis was made in accordance with the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR diagnosis classification and who were not using and never had any antipsychotic medicine. A total of 160 participants were included in the study, 80 of whom had schizophrenia patients and 80 constituted the age- and sex-matched healthy control group. Before the start of the treatment, the serum samples to be checked for the BDNF levels were collected from the patients.The difference between the average BDNF levels of the groups were statistically significant (t = -5.25; p˂.001. An analysis as to whether there was a relation between the BDNF levels and the drug-naïve duration indicated no correlations. An examination of the relationship between PANSS scores and BDNF levels of the patients yielded no correlations.Serum BDNF levels seem to be one of the indicators of schizophrenia and its progress; nevertheless, we still do not have sufficient information about this neurotropic factor. In light of our study, the neurodevelopmental changes that occur at disease onset of the illness prominently affect the progress of the illness, which highlights the importance of the treatment in the early stages.
Bakirhan, Abdurrahim; Yalcin Sahiner, Safak; Sahiner, Ismail Volkan; Safak, Yasir; Goka, Erol
2017-01-01
The aim of this study was to compare the serum brain derived neurotropic factor (BNDF) levels of patients with schizophrenia who had never received an antipsychotic treatment with those of a control group. Also, to analyze the relationship between the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores and BDNF levels of the patients during the period they were drug-naive. The sample of the study comprised patients who presentedto the Psychiatry Clinic and were admitted after a distinctive schizophrenia diagnosis was made in accordance with the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis classification and who were not using and never had any antipsychotic medicine. A total of 160 participants were included in the study, 80 of whom had schizophrenia patients and 80 constituted the age- and sex-matched healthy control group. Before the start of the treatment, the serum samples to be checked for the BDNF levels were collected from the patients. The difference between the average BDNF levels of the groups were statistically significant (t = -5.25; p˂.001). An analysis as to whether there was a relation between the BDNF levels and the drug-naïve duration indicated no correlations. An examination of the relationship between PANSS scores and BDNF levels of the patients yielded no correlations. Serum BDNF levels seem to be one of the indicators of schizophrenia and its progress; nevertheless, we still do not have sufficient information about this neurotropic factor. In light of our study, the neurodevelopmental changes that occur at disease onset of the illness prominently affect the progress of the illness, which highlights the importance of the treatment in the early stages.
Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian
Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte
2014-09-01
This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.
Riesz potential versus fractional Laplacian
Ortigueira, Manuel Duarte; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Machado, José Antó nio Tenreiro
2014-01-01
This paper starts by introducing the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative, the Riesz potential and the problem of generalizing the Laplacian. Based on these ideas, the generalizations of the Laplacian for 1D and 2D cases are studied. It is presented as a fractional version of the Cauchy-Riemann conditions and, finally, it is discussed with the n-dimensional Laplacian.
Exact solutions of fractional mBBM equation and coupled system of fractional Boussinesq-Burgers
Javeed, Shumaila; Saif, Summaya; Waheed, Asif; Baleanu, Dumitru
2018-06-01
The new exact solutions of nonlinear fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs) are established by adopting first integral method (FIM). The Riemann-Liouville (R-L) derivative and the local conformable derivative definitions are used to deal with the fractional order derivatives. The proposed method is applied to get exact solutions for space-time fractional modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (mBBM) equation and coupled time-fractional Boussinesq-Burgers equation. The suggested technique is easily applicable and effectual which can be implemented successfully to obtain the solutions for different types of nonlinear FPDEs.
Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N
2017-07-01
In this paper, we investigated the thermal behavior in living biological tissues using time fractional dual-phase-lag bioheat transfer (DPLBHT) model subjected to Dirichelt boundary condition in presence of metabolic and electromagnetic heat sources during thermal therapy. We solved this bioheat transfer model using finite element Legendre wavelet Galerkin method (FELWGM) with help of block pulse function in sense of Caputo fractional order derivative. We compared the obtained results from FELWGM and exact method in a specific case, and found a high accuracy. Results are interpreted in the form of standard and anomalous cases for taking different order of time fractional DPLBHT model. The time to achieve hyperthermia position is discussed in both cases as standard and time fractional order derivative. The success of thermal therapy in the treatment of metastatic cancerous cell depends on time fractional order derivative to precise prediction and control of temperature. The effect of variability of parameters such as time fractional derivative, lagging times, blood perfusion coefficient, metabolic heat source and transmitted power on dimensionless temperature distribution in skin tissue is discussed in detail. The physiological parameters has been estimated, corresponding to the value of fractional order derivative for hyperthermia treatment therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fractional order differentiation by integration: An application to fractional linear systems
Liu, Dayan
2013-02-04
In this article, we propose a robust method to compute the output of a fractional linear system defined through a linear fractional differential equation (FDE) with time-varying coefficients, where the input can be noisy. We firstly introduce an estimator of the fractional derivative of an unknown signal, which is defined by an integral formula obtained by calculating the fractional derivative of a truncated Jacobi polynomial series expansion. We then approximate the FDE by applying to each fractional derivative this formal algebraic integral estimator. Consequently, the fractional derivatives of the solution are applied on the used Jacobi polynomials and then we need to identify the unknown coefficients of the truncated series expansion of the solution. Modulating functions method is used to estimate these coefficients by solving a linear system issued from the approximated FDE and some initial conditions. A numerical result is given to confirm the reliability of the proposed method. © 2013 IFAC.
Granel, Brigitte; Daumas, Aurélie; Jouve, Elisabeth; Harlé, Jean-Robert; Nguyen, Pierre-Sébastien; Chabannon, Christian; Colavolpe, Nathalie; Reynier, Jean-Charles; Truillet, Romain; Mallet, Stéphanie; Baiada, Antoine; Casanova, Dominique; Giraudo, Laurent; Arnaud, Laurent; Veran, Julie; Sabatier, Florence; Magalon, Guy
2015-12-01
In patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma, SSc), impaired hand function greatly contributes to disability and reduced quality of life, and is insufficiently relieved by currently available therapies. Adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is increasingly recognised as an easily accessible source of regenerative cells with therapeutic potential in ischaemic or autoimmune diseases. We aimed to measure for the first time the safety, tolerability and potential efficacy of autologous SVF cells local injections in patients with SSc with hand disability. We did an open-label, single arm, at one study site with 6-month follow-up among 12 female SSc patients with Cochin Hand Function Scale score >20/90. Autologous SVF was obtained from lipoaspirates, using an automated processing system, and subsequently injected into the subcutaneous tissue of each finger in contact with neurovascular pedicles. Primary outcome was the number and the severity of adverse events related to SVF-based therapy. Secondary endpoints were changes in hand disability and fibrosis, vascular manifestations, pain and quality of life from baseline to 2 and 6 months after cell therapy. All enrolled patients had surgery, and there were no dropouts or patients lost to follow-up. No severe adverse events occurred during the procedure and follow-up. Four minor adverse events were reported and resolved spontaneously. A significant improvement in hand disability and pain, Raynaud's phenomenon, finger oedema and quality of life was observed. This study outlines the safety of the autologous SVF cells injection in the hands of patients with SSc. Preliminary assessments at 6 months suggest potential efficacy needing confirmation in a randomised placebo-controlled trial on a larger population. GFRS (Groupe Francophone de Recherche sur la Sclérodermie). NCT01813279. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas
2012-01-01
Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...
Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Special Function
Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao
2010-01-01
Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions.
An efficient method for solving fractional Sturm-Liouville problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Mdallal, Qasem M.
2009-01-01
The numerical approximation of the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions of the fractional Sturm-Liouville problems, in which the second order derivative is replaced by a fractional derivative, is considered. The present results can be implemented on the numerical solution of the fractional diffusion-wave equation. The results show the simplicity and efficiency of the numerical method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goursky, Vsevolod
1975-01-01
A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goursky, V.
1975-05-01
This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr
The Initial Conditions of Fractional Calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trigeassou, J. C.; Maamri, N.
2011-01-01
During the past fifty years , Fractional Calculus has become an original and renowned mathematical tool for the modelling of diffusion Partial Differential Equations and the design of robust control algorithms. However, in spite of these celebrated results, some theoretical problems have not yet received a satisfying solution. The mastery of initial conditions, either for Fractional Differential Equations (FDEs) or for the Caputo and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives, remains an open research domain. The solution of this fundamental problem, also related to the long range memory property, is certainly the necessary prerequisite for a satisfying approach to modelling and control applications. The fractional integrator and its continuously frequency distributed differential model is a valuable tool for the simulation of fractional systems and the solution of initial condition problems. Indeed, the infinite dimensional state vector of fractional integrators allows the direct generalization to fractional calculus of the theoretical results of integer order systems. After a reminder of definitions and properties related to fractional derivatives and systems, this presentation is intended to show, based on the results of two recent publications [1,2], how the fractional integrator provides the solution of the initial condition problem of FDEs and of Caputo and Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. Numerical simulation examples illustrate and validate these new theoretical concepts.
Integral transform method for solving time fractional systems and fractional heat equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arman Aghili
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, time fractional partial differential equation is considered, where the fractional derivative is defined in the Caputo sense. Laplace transform method has been applied to obtain an exact solution. The authors solved certain homogeneous and nonhomogeneous time fractional heat equations using integral transform. Transform method is a powerful tool for solving fractional singular Integro - differential equations and PDEs. The result reveals that the transform method is very convenient and effective.
Fractional-order adaptive fault estimation for a class of nonlinear fractional-order systems
N'Doye, Ibrahima; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2015-01-01
This paper studies the problem of fractional-order adaptive fault estimation for a class of fractional-order Lipschitz nonlinear systems using fractional-order adaptive fault observer. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotical convergence of the fractional-order state estimation error, the conventional integer-order and the fractional-order faults estimation error are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) formulation by introducing a continuous frequency distributed equivalent model and using an indirect Lyapunov approach where the fractional-order α belongs to 0 < α < 1. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.
Fractional-order adaptive fault estimation for a class of nonlinear fractional-order systems
N'Doye, Ibrahima
2015-07-01
This paper studies the problem of fractional-order adaptive fault estimation for a class of fractional-order Lipschitz nonlinear systems using fractional-order adaptive fault observer. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotical convergence of the fractional-order state estimation error, the conventional integer-order and the fractional-order faults estimation error are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) formulation by introducing a continuous frequency distributed equivalent model and using an indirect Lyapunov approach where the fractional-order α belongs to 0 < α < 1. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.
Integrable coupling system of fractional soliton equation hierarchy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu Fajun, E-mail: yfajun@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)
2009-10-05
In this Letter, we consider the derivatives and integrals of fractional order and present a class of the integrable coupling system of the fractional order soliton equations. The fractional order coupled Boussinesq and KdV equations are the special cases of this class. Furthermore, the fractional AKNS soliton equation hierarchy is obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, Sun Hee; Choi, Dalwoong; Chun, Young-Jin; Noh, Minsoo
2014-01-01
Keratinocytes are the major cellular components of human epidermis and play a key role in the modulating cutaneous inflammation and toxic responses. In human chronic skin diseases, the common skin inflammatory phenotypes like skin barrier disruption and epidermal hyperplasia are manifested in epidermal keratinocytes by interactions with T helper (Th) cells. To find a common gene expression signature of human keratinocytes in chronic skin diseases, we performed a whole genome microarray analysis on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHKs) treated with IFNγ, IL-4, IL-17A or IL-22, major cytokines from Th1, Th2, Th17 or Th22 cells, respectively. The microarray results showed that the four genes, IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19 and filaggrin, had common expression profiles in NHKs exposed to Th cell cytokines. In addition, the acute phase pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα, also change the gene transcriptional profile of IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19, and filaggrin in NHKs as those of Th cytokines. Therefore, the signature gene set, consisting of IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19, and filaggrin, provides essential insights for understanding the process of cutaneous inflammation and toxic responses. We demonstrate that environmental toxic stressors, such as chemical irritants and ultraviolet irradiation stimulate the production of IL-24 in NHKs. IL-24 stimulates the JAK1-STAT3 and MAPK pathways in NHKs, and promotes the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-8, PGE2, and MMP-1. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived IL-24 participates in the positive feedback regulation of epidermal inflammation in response to both endogenous and environmental toxic stressors. - Highlights: • Cutaneous inflammatory gene signature consists of PDZK1IP1, IL-24, H19 and filaggrin. • Pro-inflammatory cytokines increase IL-24 production in human keratinocytes. • Environmental toxic stressors increase IL-24 production in human keratinocytes. • IL-24 stimulates human keratinocytes to
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Sun Hee [Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dalwoong [Department of Public Health Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Young-Jin [College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Minsoo, E-mail: minsoo@alum.mit.edu [Natural Products Research Institute, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
Keratinocytes are the major cellular components of human epidermis and play a key role in the modulating cutaneous inflammation and toxic responses. In human chronic skin diseases, the common skin inflammatory phenotypes like skin barrier disruption and epidermal hyperplasia are manifested in epidermal keratinocytes by interactions with T helper (Th) cells. To find a common gene expression signature of human keratinocytes in chronic skin diseases, we performed a whole genome microarray analysis on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHKs) treated with IFNγ, IL-4, IL-17A or IL-22, major cytokines from Th1, Th2, Th17 or Th22 cells, respectively. The microarray results showed that the four genes, IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19 and filaggrin, had common expression profiles in NHKs exposed to Th cell cytokines. In addition, the acute phase pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα, also change the gene transcriptional profile of IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19, and filaggrin in NHKs as those of Th cytokines. Therefore, the signature gene set, consisting of IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19, and filaggrin, provides essential insights for understanding the process of cutaneous inflammation and toxic responses. We demonstrate that environmental toxic stressors, such as chemical irritants and ultraviolet irradiation stimulate the production of IL-24 in NHKs. IL-24 stimulates the JAK1-STAT3 and MAPK pathways in NHKs, and promotes the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-8, PGE2, and MMP-1. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived IL-24 participates in the positive feedback regulation of epidermal inflammation in response to both endogenous and environmental toxic stressors. - Highlights: • Cutaneous inflammatory gene signature consists of PDZK1IP1, IL-24, H19 and filaggrin. • Pro-inflammatory cytokines increase IL-24 production in human keratinocytes. • Environmental toxic stressors increase IL-24 production in human keratinocytes. • IL-24 stimulates human keratinocytes to
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (40 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. BPI Zones was created using the Benthic...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. BPI Zones was created using the Benthic...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from gridded (40 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. BPI Zones was created using the Benthic...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry collected aboard NOAA...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (10 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Structures are derived from two scales of a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BPI Zones are derived from a focal mean analysis on bathymetry and slope. The grid is based on gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA...
On the Conformable Fractional Quantum Mechanics
Mozaffari, F. S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Sobhani, H.; Chung, W. S.
2018-05-01
In this paper, a conformable fractional quantum mechanic has been introduced using three postulates. Then in such a formalism, Schr¨odinger equation, probability density, probability flux and continuity equation have been derived. As an application of considered formalism, a fractional-radial harmonic oscillator has been considered. After obtaining its wave function and energy spectrum, effects of the conformable fractional parameter on some quantities have been investigated and plotted for different excited states.
On some fractional order hardy inequalities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kufner Alois
1997-01-01
Full Text Available Weighted inequalities for fractional derivatives ( fractional order Hardy-type inequalities have recently been proved in [4] and [1]. In this paper, new inequalities of this type are proved and applied. In particular, the general mixed norm case and a general twodimensional weight are considered. Moreover, an Orlicz norm version and a multidimensional fractional order Hardy inequality are proved. The connections to related results are pointed out.
On the Scaled Fractional Fourier Transformation Operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong-Yi, Fan; Li-Yun, Hu
2008-01-01
Based on our previous study [Chin. Phys. Lett. 24 (2007) 2238] in which the Fresnel operator corresponding to classical Fresnel transform was introduced, we derive the fractional Fourier transformation operator, and the optical operator method is then enriched
A Fractionally Integrated Wishart Stochastic Volatility Model
M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
2013-01-01
textabstractThere has recently been growing interest in modeling and estimating alternative continuous time multivariate stochastic volatility models. We propose a continuous time fractionally integrated Wishart stochastic volatility (FIWSV) process. We derive the conditional Laplace transform of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, R.E.
1984-01-01
A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included
On a fractional difference operator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Baliarsingh
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the present article, a set of new difference sequence spaces of fractional order has been introduced and subsequently, an application of these spaces, the notion of the derivatives and the integrals of a function to the case of non-integer order have been generalized. Certain results involving the unusual and non-uniform behavior of the corresponding difference operator have been investigated and also been verified by using some counter examples. We also verify these unusual and non-uniform behaviors by studying the geometry of fractional calculus.
On Fractional Order Hybrid Differential Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed A. E. Herzallah
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We develop the theory of fractional hybrid differential equations with linear and nonlinear perturbations involving the Caputo fractional derivative of order 0<α<1. Using some fixed point theorems we prove the existence of mild solutions for two types of hybrid equations. Examples are given to illustrate the obtained results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Comella K
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Kristin Comella,1 Walter Bell2 1US Stem Cell, Inc, Sunrise, FL, USA; 2South African Stem Cell Institute, Parys, South Africa Background: Stromal vascular fraction (SVF is a mixture of cells which can be isolated from a mini-lipoaspirate of fat tissue. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is a mixture of growth factors and other nutrients which can be obtained from peripheral blood. Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ADSCs can be isolated from fat tissue and expanded in culture. The SVF includes a variety of different cells such as ADSCs, pericytes, endothelial/progenitor cells, and a mix of different growth factors. The adipocytes (fat cells can be removed via centrifugation. Here, we describe the rationale and, to our knowledge, the first clinical implementation of SVF and PRP followed by repeat dosing of culture-expanded ADSCs into a patient with severe xerostomia postirradiation. Methods: Approximately 120 mLs of adipose tissue was removed via mini-lipoaspirate procedure under local anesthetic. The SVF was prepared from half of the fat and resuspended in PRP. The mixture was delivered via ultrasound directly into the submandibular and parotid glands on both the right and left sides. The remaining 60 mLs of fat was processed to culture-expand ADSCs. The patient received seven follow-up injections of the ADSCs plus PRP at 5, 8, 16, 18, 23, 28, and 31 months postliposuction. The subject was monitored over a period of 31 months for safety (adverse events, glandular size via ultrasound and saliva production. Results: Throughout the 31-month monitoring period, no safety events such as infection or severe adverse events were reported. The patient demonstrated an increase in gland size as measured by ultrasound which corresponded to increased saliva production. Conclusion: Overall, the patient reported improved quality of life and willingness to continue treatments. The strong safety profile and preliminary efficacy results warrant larger studies to determine
Fractional differential equation with the fuzzy initial condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadia Arshad
2011-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study the existence and uniqueness of the solution for a class of fractional differential equation with fuzzy initial value. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Riemann-Liouville sense.
Group formalism of Lie transformations to time-fractional partial ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Lie symmetry analysis; Fractional partial differential equation; Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative ... science and engineering. It is known that while ... differential equations occurring in different areas of applied science [11,14]. The Lie ...
Morishima, Y; Ohya, K; Ueda, R; Fukuda, T
1986-01-01
Adult T cell leukemia associated antibody (ATLA-Ab) positive persons were screened by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) testing. Their lymphocytes were collected from concentrated red blood cells (CRC), and cultured in vitro with and without phytohemagglutinin (PHA) for 10 days. The expression of ATL virus (ATLV) positive lymphocytes during the in vitro culture was then analyzed by IF assay using mouse monoclonal antibody ATL-19 reactive to p19 core protein of ATLV. 97% of ATLA-Ab positive CRC (36 cases) demonstrated ATLV positive lymphocytes after being cultured for more than 10 days with PHA, whereas, none of ATLA-Ab negative CRC (22 cases) demonstrated ATLV positive lymphocytes. All of the 10 ATLA-Ab positive CRC that were stored for 2, 4, and 7 days contained lymphocytes which expressed ATLV after in vitro culture, while 7 of 10 CRC stored for 14 days and only 1 of 10 CRCs stored for 20 days, expressed ATLV positive lymphocytes. This data indicates that almost all of the ATLA-Ab positive blood contained ATLV positive lymphocytes, and that the in vitro appearance of these ATLV positive lymphocytes was reduced by storing the CRC for more than 14 days.
Leigh, Annballaw Bridget; Cheung, Ho Pan; Lin, Li-Zhu; Ng, Tzi Bun; Lao, Lixing; Zhang, Yanbo; Zhang, Zhang-Jin; Tong, Yao; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing
2017-09-01
The Chinese medicine formula Tian Xian Liquid (TXL) has been used clinically for cancer therapy in China for more than 25 years. However, the comprehensive and holistic effects of its bioactive fractions for various antitumor therapeutic effects have not been unraveled. This is the first study to scientifically elucidate the holistic effect of Chinese medicine formula for treating colon cancer, hence allowing a better understanding of the essence of Chinese medicine formula, through the comparison of the actions of TXL and its functional constituent fractions, including ethyl acetate (EA), butanol (BU), and aqueous (WA) fractions. Tissue-specific proliferative/antiproliferative effects of these fractions on human colorectal carcinoma HT-29 cells and splenocytes were studied by using the MTT assay. Their modulations on the expression of markers of antiproliferation, antimetastasis, reversion of multidrug resistance in treated HT-29 cells were examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, and their modulations in a xenografted nude mouse model were examined by Western blot analysis. Results revealed that EA fraction slightly inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells, but tissue-specifically exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on splenocytes. On the contrary, only TXL and BU fraction tissue-specifically contributed to the proliferation of splenocytes, but inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells. WA fraction exerted the most potent antiproliferative effect on HT-29 cells and also the strongest inhibitory action on tumor size in the nude mouse model in our previous study. In the HT-29 model, TXL and WA fraction exerted the most pronounced effect on upregulation of p21 mRNA and protein; TXL, and EA and WA fractions exerted the effect on downregulation of G1 phase cell cycle protein, cyclin D1 mRNA and protein; EA and BU fractions exerted the most prominent anti-invasive effect on anti-invasion via downregulation of MMP-1 m
Laskin, Nick
2018-01-01
Fractional quantum mechanics is a recently emerged and rapidly developing field of quantum physics. This is the first monograph on fundamentals and physical applications of fractional quantum mechanics, written by its founder. The fractional Schrödinger equation and the fractional path integral are new fundamental physical concepts introduced and elaborated in the book. The fractional Schrödinger equation is a manifestation of fractional quantum mechanics. The fractional path integral is a new mathematical tool based on integration over Lévy flights. The fractional path integral method enhances the well-known Feynman path integral framework. Related topics covered in the text include time fractional quantum mechanics, fractional statistical mechanics, fractional classical mechanics and the α-stable Lévy random process. The book is well-suited for theorists, pure and applied mathematicians, solid-state physicists, chemists, and others working with the Schrödinger equation, the path integral technique...
The fractional dynamics of quantum systems
Lu, Longzhao; Yu, Xiangyang
2018-05-01
The fractional dynamic process of a quantum system is a novel and complicated problem. The establishment of a fractional dynamic model is a significant attempt that is expected to reveal the mechanism of fractional quantum system. In this paper, a generalized time fractional Schrödinger equation is proposed. To study the fractional dynamics of quantum systems, we take the two-level system as an example and derive the time fractional equations of motion. The basic properties of the system are investigated by solving this set of equations in the absence of light field analytically. Then, when the system is subject to the light field, the equations are solved numerically. It shows that the two-level system described by the time fractional Schrödinger equation we proposed is a confirmable system.
Analytical Approach to Space- and Time-Fractional Burgers Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yıldırım, Ahmet; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef
2010-01-01
A scheme is developed to study numerical solution of the space- and time-fractional Burgers equations under initial conditions by the homotopy analysis method. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. The solutions are given in the form of series with easily computable terms. Numerical solutions are calculated for the fractional Burgers equation to show the nature of solution as the fractional derivative parameter is changed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xiao; Wei, Chaozhen; Liu, Yingming; Luo, Maokang
2014-01-01
In this paper we use Dirac function to construct a fractional operator called fractional corresponding operator, which is the general form of momentum corresponding operator. Then we give a judging theorem for this operator and with this judging theorem we prove that R–L, G–L, Caputo, Riesz fractional derivative operator and fractional derivative operator based on generalized functions, which are the most popular ones, coincide with the fractional corresponding operator. As a typical application, we use the fractional corresponding operator to construct a new fractional quantization scheme and then derive a uniform fractional Schrödinger equation in form. Additionally, we find that the five forms of fractional Schrödinger equation belong to the particular cases. As another main result of this paper, we use fractional corresponding operator to generalize fractional quantization scheme by using Lévy path integral and use it to derive the corresponding general form of fractional Schrödinger equation, which consequently proves that these two quantization schemes are equivalent. Meanwhile, relations between the theory in fractional quantum mechanics and that in classic quantum mechanics are also discussed. As a physical example, we consider a particle in an infinite potential well. We give its wave functions and energy spectrums in two ways and find that both results are the same
Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.
1985-01-01
The authors suggest that the origin of the odd-denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which govern quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics do not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus, no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benedetta Maggio
2016-02-01
Full Text Available A FRET-based random screening assay was used to generate hit compounds as sortase A inhibitors that allowed us to identify ethyl 3-oxo-2-(2-phenylhydrazinylidenebutanoate as an example of a new class of sortase A inhibitors. Other analogues were generated by changing the ethoxycarbonyl function for a carboxy, cyano or amide group, or introducing substituents in the phenyl ring of the ester and acid derivatives. The most active derivative found was 3-oxo-2-(2-(3,4dichlorophenylhydrazinylidenebutanoic acid (2b, showing an IC50 value of 50 µM. For a preliminary assessment of their antivirulence properties the new derivatives were tested for their antibiofilm activity. The most active compound resulted 2a, which showed inhibition of about 60% against S. aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538 and S. epidermidis RP62A at a screening concentration of 100 µM.
Matveyenko, Aleksey V.; Georgia, Senta; Bhushan, Anil; Butler, Peter C.
2010-01-01
Embryonic stem cell therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to restore β-cell mass and function in T1DM. Recently, a group from Novocell (now ViaCyte) reported successful development of glucose-responsive islet-like structures after implantation of pancreatic endoderm (PE) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into immune-deficient mice. Our objective was to determine whether implantation of hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm from Novocell into athymic nude rats results in ...
A fractional spline collocation-Galerkin method for the time-fractional diffusion equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pezza L.
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to numerically solve a diffusion differential problem having time derivative of fractional order. To this end we propose a collocation-Galerkin method that uses the fractional splines as approximating functions. The main advantage is in that the derivatives of integer and fractional order of the fractional splines can be expressed in a closed form that involves just the generalized finite difference operator. This allows us to construct an accurate and efficient numerical method. Several numerical tests showing the effectiveness of the proposed method are presented.
Fractional equivalent Lagrangian densities for a fractional higher-order equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujioka, J
2014-01-01
In this communication we show that the equivalent Lagrangian densities (ELDs) of a fractional higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with stable soliton-like solutions can be related in a hitherto unknown way. This new relationship is described in terms of a new fractional operator that includes both left- and right-sided fractional derivatives. Using this operator it is possible to generate new ELDs that contain different fractional parts, in addition to the already known ELDs, which only differ by a sum of first-order partial derivatives of two arbitrary functions. (fast track communications)
Initialized Fractional Calculus
Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.
2000-01-01
This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.
Higher fractions theory of fractional hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostadinov, I.Z.; Popov, V.N.
1985-07-01
A theory of fractional quantum Hall effect is generalized to higher fractions. N-particle model interaction is used and the gap is expressed through n-particles wave function. The excitation spectrum in general and the mean field critical behaviour are determined. The Hall conductivity is calculated from first principles. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Qing-Hua
2014-01-01
In this paper, a new fractional projective Riccati equation method is proposed to establish exact solutions for fractional partial differential equations in the sense of modified Riemann—Liouville derivative. This method can be seen as the fractional version of the known projective Riccati equation method. For illustrating the validity of this method, we apply this method to solve the space-time fractional Whitham—Broer—Kaup (WBK) equations and the nonlinear fractional Sharma—Tasso—Olever (STO) equation, and as a result, some new exact solutions for them are obtained. (general)
Finite element method for time-space-fractional Schrodinger equation
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Xiaogang Zhu
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In this article, we develop a fully discrete finite element method for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS with time- and space-fractional derivatives. The time-fractional derivative is described in Caputo's sense and the space-fractional derivative in Riesz's sense. Its stability is well derived; the convergent estimate is discussed by an orthogonal operator. We also extend the method to the two-dimensional time-space-fractional NLS and to avoid the iterative solvers at each time step, a linearized scheme is further conducted. Several numerical examples are implemented finally, which confirm the theoretical results as well as illustrate the accuracy of our methods.
Mohamed, Hany M; Fouda, Ahmed M; Khattab, Essam S A E H; Agrody, Ahmed M El-; Afifi, Tarek H
2017-05-01
A series of 1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carbonitriles was synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG-2 cancer cells. The SAR studies reported that the substitution in the phenyl ring at 1-position of 1H-benzo[f]chromene nucleus with the specific group, H atom, or methoxy group at 9-position increases the ability of the molecule against the different cell lines.
Hengartner, Michael P; Graf, Markus; Schreiber, Marc
2017-05-01
There is increasing interest in the construct validity of higher-order domains of the Big Five personality traits. A total of 831 persons from the Swiss population completed the International Personality Item Pool and an adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales. Using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, we found evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) and the two meta-traits of positive emotionality (blend of low neuroticism and high extraversion) and constraint (blend of high agreeableness and conscientiousness). In association with positive affect, the explanatory power of the GFP (r = 0.43) and positive emotionality (r = 0.37) was largely superior to extraversion (r = 0.24), conscientiousness (r = 0.18), agreeableness (r = 0.09) and openness (r = 0.04), although not neuroticism (r = -0.34). In association with negative affect, neuroticism (r = 0.41), the GFP (r = -0.36) and positive emotionality (r = -0.35) were the most powerful single predictors. We conclude that the higher-order structure of personality is best explained by the meta-traits of positive emotionality and constraint, which correspond closely to the well-established superfactors of internalizing and externalizing. We further demonstrate that these have substantial criterion validity when broad positive and negative affect is the outcome of interest. These findings help to relate Big Five meta-traits to pathological personality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Generalized hydrodynamic correlations and fractional memory functions
Rodríguez, Rosalio F.; Fujioka, Jorge
2015-12-01
A fractional generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model of the longitudinal velocity fluctuations correlation, and its associated memory function, for a complex fluid is analyzed. The adiabatic elimination of fast variables introduces memory effects in the transport equations, and the dynamic of the fluctuations is described by a generalized Langevin equation with long-range noise correlations. These features motivate the introduction of Caputo time fractional derivatives and allows us to calculate analytic expressions for the fractional longitudinal velocity correlation function and its associated memory function. Our analysis eliminates a spurious constant term in the non-fractional memory function found in the non-fractional description. It also produces a significantly slower power-law decay of the memory function in the GH regime that reduces to the well-known exponential decay in the non-fractional Navier-Stokes limit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gafni Amiram
2005-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Biochemical testing for pheochromocytoma by measurement of fractionated plasma metanephrines is limited by false positive rates of up to 18% in people without known genetic predisposition to the disease. The plasma normetanephrine fraction is responsible for most false positives and plasma normetanephrine increases with age. The objective of this study was to determine if we could improve the specificity of fractionated plasma measurements, by statistically adjusting for age. Methods An age-adjusted metanephrine score was derived using logistic regression from 343 subjects (including 33 people with pheochromocytoma who underwent fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements as part of investigations for suspected pheochromocytoma at Mayo Clinic Rochester (derivation set. The performance of the age-adjusted score was validated in a dataset of 158 subjects (including patients 23 with pheochromocytoma that underwent measurements of fractionated plasma metanephrines at Mayo Clinic the following year (validation dataset. None of the participants in the validation dataset had known genetic predisposition to pheochromocytoma. Results The sensitivity of the age-adjusted metanephrine score was the same as that of traditional interpretation of fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements, yielding a sensitivity of 100% (23/23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 85.7%, 100%. However, the false positive rate with traditional interpretation of fractionated plasma metanephrine measurements was 16.3% (22/135, 95% CI, 11.0%, 23.4% and that of the age-adjusted score was significantly lower at 3.0% (4/135, 95% CI, 1.2%, 7.4% (p Conclusion An adjustment for age in the interpretation of results of fractionated plasma metanephrines may significantly decrease false positives when using this test to exclude sporadic pheochromocytoma. Such improvements in false positive rate may result in savings of expenditures related to confirmatory imaging.
Asphalt chemical fractionation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obando P, Klever N.
1998-01-01
Asphalt fractionation were carried out in the Esmeraldas Oil Refinery using n-pentane, SiO 2 and different mixture of benzene- methane. The fractions obtained were analyzed by Fourier's Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR)
On the solutions of fractional reaction-diffusion equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jagdev Singh
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain the solution of a fractional reaction-diffusion equation associated with the generalized Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative as the time derivative and Riesz-Feller fractional derivative as the space-derivative. The results are derived by the application of the Laplace and Fourier transforms in compact and elegant form in terms of Mittag-Leffler function and H-function. The results obtained here are of general nature and include the results investigated earlier by many authors.
A Tutorial Review on Fractal Spacetime and Fractional Calculus
He, Ji-Huan
2014-11-01
This tutorial review of fractal-Cantorian spacetime and fractional calculus begins with Leibniz's notation for derivative without limits which can be generalized to discontinuous media like fractal derivative and q-derivative of quantum calculus. Fractal spacetime is used to elucidate some basic properties of fractal which is the foundation of fractional calculus, and El Naschie's mass-energy equation for the dark energy. The variational iteration method is used to introduce the definition of fractional derivatives. Fractal derivative is explained geometrically and q-derivative is motivated by quantum mechanics. Some effective analytical approaches to fractional differential equations, e.g., the variational iteration method, the homotopy perturbation method, the exp-function method, the fractional complex transform, and Yang-Laplace transform, are outlined and the main solution processes are given.
Soil tension mediates isotope fractionation during soil water evaporation
Gaj, Marcel; McDonnell, Jeffrey
2017-04-01
Isotope tracing of the water cycle is increasing in its use and usefulness. Many new studies are extracting soil waters and relating these to streamflow, groundwater recharge and plant transpiration. Nevertheless, unlike isotope fractionation factors from open water bodies, soil water fractionation factors are poorly understood and until now, only empirically derived. In contrast to open water evaporation where temperature, humidity and vapor pressure gradient define fractionation (as codified in the well-known Craig and Gordon model), soil water evaporation includes additionally, fractionation by matrix effects. There is yet no physical explanation of kinetic and equilibrium fraction from soil water within the soil profile. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment with four admixtures of soil grain size (from sand to silt to clay). Oven-dried samples were spiked with water of known isotopic composition at different soil water contents. Soils were then stored in sealed bags and the headspace filled with dry air and allowed to equilibrate for 24hours. Isotopic analysis of the headspace vapor was done with a Los Gatos Inc. water vapor isotope analyzer. Soil water potential of subsamples were measured with a water potential meter. We show for the first time that soil tension controls isotope fractionation in the resident soil water. Below a Pf 3.5 the δ-values of 18O and 2H of the headspace vapor is more positive and increases with increasing soil water potential. Surprisingly, we find that the relationship between soil tension and equilibrium fractionation is independent of soil type. However, δ-values of each soil type plot along a distinct evaporation line. These results indicate that equilibrium fractionation is affected by soil tension in addition to temperature. Therefore, at high soil water tension (under dry conditions) equilibrium fractionation is not consistent with current empirical formulations that ignore these effects. These findings may have
Bounded fractional diffusion in geological media: Definition and Lagrangian approximation
Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; LaBolle, Eric M.; Neupauer, Roseanna M.; Sun, HongGuang
2016-01-01
Spatiotemporal Fractional-Derivative Models (FDMs) have been increasingly used to simulate non-Fickian diffusion, but methods have not been available to define boundary conditions for FDMs in bounded domains. This study defines boundary conditions and then develops a Lagrangian solver to approximate bounded, one-dimensional fractional diffusion. Both the zero-value and non-zero-value Dirichlet, Neumann, and mixed Robin boundary conditions are defined, where the sign of Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative (capturing non-zero-value spatial-nonlocal boundary conditions with directional super-diffusion) remains consistent with the sign of the fractional-diffusive flux term in the FDMs. New Lagrangian schemes are then proposed to track solute particles moving in bounded domains, where the solutions are checked against analytical or Eularian solutions available for simplified FDMs. Numerical experiments show that the particle-tracking algorithm for non-Fickian diffusion differs from Fickian diffusion in relocating the particle position around the reflective boundary, likely due to the non-local and non-symmetric fractional diffusion. For a non-zero-value Neumann or Robin boundary, a source cell with a reflective face can be applied to define the release rate of random-walking particles at the specified flux boundary. Mathematical definitions of physically meaningful nonlocal boundaries combined with bounded Lagrangian solvers in this study may provide the only viable techniques at present to quantify the impact of boundaries on anomalous diffusion, expanding the applicability of FDMs from infinite do mains to those with any size and boundary conditions.
A study of fractional Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we have derived the fractional-order Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative. The solution of this fractional-order Schrödinger equation is obtained in terms of Mittag–Leffler function with complex arguments, and fractional trigonometric functions. A few important properties of the ...
Jensen, Andrew R; Kelley, Benjamin V; Mosich, Gina M; Ariniello, Allison; Eliasberg, Claire D; Vu, Brandon; Shah, Paras; Devana, Sai K; Murray, Iain R; Péault, Bruno; Dar, Ayelet; Petrigliano, Frank A
2018-04-10
After massive tears, rotator cuff muscle often undergoes atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty degeneration. These changes can lead to high surgical failure rates and poor patient outcomes. The identity of the progenitor cells involved in these processes has not been fully elucidated. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) have previously been recognized as markers of cells involved in muscle fibroadipogenesis. We hypothesized that PDGFRα expression identifies a fibroadipogenic subset of PDGFRβ + progenitor cells that contribute to fibroadipogenesis of the rotator cuff. We created massive rotator cuff tears in a transgenic strain of mice that allows PDGFRβ + cells to be tracked via green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. We then harvested rotator cuff muscle tissues at multiple time points postoperatively and analyzed them for the presence and localization of GFP + PDGFRβ + PDGFRα + cells. We cultured, induced, and treated these cells with the molecular inhibitor CWHM-12 to assess fibrosis inhibition. GFP + PDGFRβ + PDGFRα + cells were present in rotator cuff muscle tissue and, after massive tears, localized to fibrotic and adipogenic tissues. The frequency of PDGFRβ + PDGFRα + cells increased at 5 days after massive cuff tears and decreased to basal levels within 2 weeks. PDGFRβ + PDGFRα + cells were highly adipogenic and significantly more fibrogenic than PDGFRβ + PDGFRα - cells in vitro and localized to adipogenic and fibrotic tissues in vivo. Treatment with CWHM-12 significantly decreased fibrogenesis from PDGFRβ + PDGFRα + cells. PDGFRβ + PDGFRα + cells directly contribute to fibrosis and fatty degeneration after massive rotator cuff tears in the mouse model. In addition, CWHM-12 treatment inhibits fibrogenesis from PDGFRβ + PDGFRα + cells in vitro. Clinically, perioperative PDGFRβ + PDGFRα + cell inhibition may limit rotator cuff tissue degeneration and, ultimately
Non-perturbative analytical solutions of the space- and time-fractional Burgers equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Momani, Shaher
2006-01-01
Non-perturbative analytical solutions for the generalized Burgers equation with time- and space-fractional derivatives of order α and β, 0 < α, β ≤ 1, are derived using Adomian decomposition method. The fractional derivatives are considered in the Caputo sense. The solutions are given in the form of series with easily computable terms. Numerical solutions are calculated for the fractional Burgers equation to show the nature of solution as the fractional derivative parameter is changed
On Solution of a Fractional Diffusion Equation by Homotopy Transform Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salah, A.; Hassan, S.S.A.
2012-01-01
The homotopy analysis transform method (HATM) is applied in this work in order to find the analytical solution of fractional diffusion equations (FDE). These equations are obtained from standard diffusion equations by replacing a second-order space derivative by a fractional derivative of order α and a first order time derivative by a fractional derivative. Furthermore, some examples are given. Numerical results show that the homotopy analysis transform method is easy to implement and accurate when applied to a fractional diffusion equations.
Syeda, Bonni; Höfer, Peter; Pichler, Philipp; Vertesich, Markus; Bergler-Klein, Jutta; Roedler, Susanne; Mahr, Stephane; Goliasch, Georg; Zuckermann, Andreas; Binder, Thomas
2011-07-01
Longitudinal strain determined by speckle tracking is a sensitive parameter to detect systolic left ventricular dysfunction. In this study, we assessed regional and global longitudinal strain values in long-term heart transplants and compared deformation indices with ejection fraction as determined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and multislice computed tomographic coronary angiography (MSCTA). TTE and MSCTA were prospectively performed in 31 transplant patients (10.6 years post-transplantation) and in 42 control subjects. Grey-scale apical views were recorded for speckle tracking (EchoPAC 7.0, GE) of the 16 segments of the left ventricle. The presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) was assessed by MSCTA. Strain analysis was performed in 1168 segments [496 in transplant patients (42.5%), 672 in control subjects (57.7%)]. Global longitudinal peak systolic strain was significantly lower in the transplant recipients than in the healthy population (-13.9 ± 4.2 vs. -17.4 ± 5.8%, PSimpsons method) was 60.7 ± 10.1%/60.2 ± 6.7% in transplant recipients vs. 64.7 ± 6.4%/63.0 ± 6.2% in the healthy population, P=ns. Even though 'healthy' heart transplants without CAD exhibit normal ejection fraction, deformation indices are reduced in this population when compared with control subjects. Our findings suggests that strain analysis is more sensitive than assessment of ejection fraction for the detection of abnormalities of systolic function.
Fractional-Order Variational Calculus with Generalized Boundary Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baleanu Dumitru
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for fractional variational problems involving the right and the left fractional integrals and fractional derivatives defined in the sense of Riemman-Liouville with a Lagrangian depending on the free end-points. To illustrate our approach, two examples are discussed in detail.
Stability analysis of a class of fractional delay differential equations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper we analyse stability of nonlinear fractional order delay differential equa- tions of the form Dα y(t) = af (y(t − τ )) − by(t), where Dα is a Caputo fractional derivative of order 0 < α ≤ 1. We describe stability regions using critical curves. To explain the proposed theory, we discuss fractional order logistic ...
Stability analysis of a class of fractional delay differential equations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we analyse stability of nonlinear fractional order delay differential equations of the form D y ( t ) = a f ( y ( t − ) ) − by ( t ) , where D is a Caputo fractional derivative of order 0 < ≤ 1. We describe stability regions using critical curves. To explain the proposed theory, we discuss fractional order logistic ...
Shamim, Atif
2011-03-01
For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.
Cunningham, Daniel J.; Shearer, David A.; Carter, Neil; Drawer, Scott; Pollard, Ben; Bennett, Mark; Eager, Robin; Cook, Christian J.; Farrell, John; Russell, Mark
2018-01-01
The assessment of competitive movement demands in team sports has traditionally relied upon global positioning system (GPS) analyses presented as fixed-time epochs (e.g., 5–40 min). More recently, presenting game data as a rolling average has become prevalent due to concerns over a loss of sampling resolution associated with the windowing of data over fixed periods. Accordingly, this study compared rolling average (ROLL) and fixed-time (FIXED) epochs for quantifying the peak movement demands of international rugby union match-play as a function of playing position. Elite players from three different squads (n = 119) were monitored using 10 Hz GPS during 36 matches played in the 2014–2017 seasons. Players categorised broadly as forwards and backs, and then by positional sub-group (FR: front row, SR: second row, BR: back row, HB: half back, MF: midfield, B3: back three) were monitored during match-play for peak values of high-speed running (>5 m·s-1; HSR) and relative distance covered (m·min-1) over 60–300 s using two types of sample-epoch (ROLL, FIXED). Irrespective of the method used, as the epoch length increased, values for the intensity of running actions decreased (e.g., For the backs using the ROLL method, distance covered decreased from 177.4 ± 20.6 m·min-1 in the 60 s epoch to 107.5 ± 13.3 m·min-1 for the 300 s epoch). For the team as a whole, and irrespective of position, estimates of fixed effects indicated significant between-method differences across all time-points for both relative distance covered and HSR. Movement demands were underestimated consistently by FIXED versus ROLL with differences being most pronounced using 60 s epochs (95% CI HSR: -6.05 to -4.70 m·min-1, 95% CI distance: -18.45 to -16.43 m·min-1). For all HSR time epochs except one, all backs groups increased more (p < 0.01) from FIXED to ROLL than the forward groups. Linear mixed modelling of ROLL data highlighted that for HSR (except 60 s epoch), SR was the only group not
Effect of cellulase treatment of long fiber fraction on strength ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
fiber and unbeaten short-fiber fractions. The obtained test results have indicate that the application of enzyme on appropriate fiber fraction have positive effects on the strength properties of the corrugated medium. The short span compression ...
Fractional Quantum Field Theory: From Lattice to Continuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasily E. Tarasov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An approach to formulate fractional field theories on unbounded lattice space-time is suggested. A fractional-order analog of the lattice quantum field theories is considered. Lattice analogs of the fractional-order 4-dimensional differential operators are proposed. We prove that continuum limit of the suggested lattice field theory gives a fractional field theory for the continuum 4-dimensional space-time. The fractional field equations, which are derived from equations for lattice space-time with long-range properties of power-law type, contain the Riesz type derivatives on noninteger orders with respect to space-time coordinates.
Dey, Aloke
2009-01-01
A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...
Fractional Dynamics and Control
Machado, José; Luo, Albert
2012-01-01
Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...
Fractional Calculus in Hydrologic Modeling: A Numerical Perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
David A. Benson; Mark M. Meerschaert; Jordan Revielle
2012-01-01
Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as a handy extension of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Levy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Levy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus.
On a Fractional Binomial Process
Cahoy, Dexter O.; Polito, Federico
2012-02-01
The classical binomial process has been studied by Jakeman (J. Phys. A 23:2815-2825, 1990) (and the references therein) and has been used to characterize a series of radiation states in quantum optics. In particular, he studied a classical birth-death process where the chance of birth is proportional to the difference between a larger fixed number and the number of individuals present. It is shown that at large times, an equilibrium is reached which follows a binomial process. In this paper, the classical binomial process is generalized using the techniques of fractional calculus and is called the fractional binomial process. The fractional binomial process is shown to preserve the binomial limit at large times while expanding the class of models that include non-binomial fluctuations (non-Markovian) at regular and small times. As a direct consequence, the generality of the fractional binomial model makes the proposed model more desirable than its classical counterpart in describing real physical processes. More statistical properties are also derived.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaomin Liu
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The alarming rise in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria poses a unique challenge for the development of effective therapeutic agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have attracted a great deal of attention as a possible solution to the increasing problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Marcin-18 was identified from the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii at both DNA and protein levels. The genomic sequence revealed that the marcin-18 coding gene contains a phase-I intron with a GT-AG splice junction located in the DNA region encoding the N-terminal part of signal peptide. The peptide marcin-18 was also isolated from scorpion venom. A protein sequence homology search revealed that marcin-18 shares extremely high sequence identity to the AMPs meucin-18 and megicin-18. In vitro, chemically synthetic marcin-18 and its homologs (meucin-18 and megicin-18 showed highly potent inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including some clinical antibiotic-resistant strains. Importantly, in a mouse acute peritonitis model, these peptides significantly decreased the bacterial load in ascites and rescued nearly all mice heavily infected with clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from lethal bacteremia. Peptides exerted antimicrobial activity via a bactericidal mechanism and killed bacteria through membrane disruption. Taken together, marcin-18 and its homologs have potential for development as therapeutic agents for treating antibiotic-resistant, Gram-positive bacterial infections.
Kovalenko, V M; Byshovets', T F; Hubs'kyĭ, Iu I; Levyts'kyĭ, Ie L; Shaiakhmetova, H M; Marchenko, O M; Voloshyna, O S; Saĭfetdinova, H A; Okhrimenko, V O; Donchenko, H V
2000-01-01
Embikhin causes activation of LPO processes in endoplasmic reticulum and in nuclear chromatine fractions of rat liver cells. The latter is accompanied by the impairment of repressive and active nuclear chromatine fractions structure. Derivate of vitamin E in these conditions renders correcting action on parameters of lipid peroxidation in the investigated subcellular structures, testifying its positive influence on the cell heredity apparatus state. The normalizing action of tocopherol derivative on cytochromes P450 and b5 levels is shown.
Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique
Lewis, Robert
2016-01-01
When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…