WorldWideScience

Sample records for positive effects including

  1. The NASA competitive placement plan for positions GS-15 and below (including trades and labor positions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This plan provides the framework for selection based on merit from among the best qualified candidates available. Selections will be made without regard to political, religious, or labor organization affiliation or nonaffiliation, marital status, race, color, sex, national origin, nondisqualifying disability, or age. This plan does not guarantee promotion but rather ensures that all qualified available candidates receive fair and equitable consideration for positions filled under these competitive procedures. Announcing a vacancy under this plan is only one method of locating applicants for a position and can be used in conjunction with other methods. Subject to applicable law and regulation, selection of an individual to fill a position is the decision of management, as is the decision as to the method(s) to be used in identifying candidates. This plan is applicable to all NASA Installations. It covers all positions in the competitive service at (and below) the GS/GM-15 level (including all trades and labor positions), except positions in the Office of the Inspector General. The requirements herein are not intended to, nor should they be construed to limit in any way, the independent personnel authority of the Inspector General under the Inspector General Act, as Amended.

  2. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF INCLUDING DIFFERENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biologic and economic effects of including three agro-industrial by-products as ingredients in turkey poult diets were investigated using 48 turkey poults in a completely randomised design experiment. Diets were formulated to contain the three by-products – wheat offal, rice husk and palm kernel meal, each at 20% level ...

  3. MOS modeling hierarchy including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.R.; Turfler, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A hierarchy of modeling procedures has been developed for MOS transistors, circuit blocks, and integrated circuits which include the effects of total dose radiation and photocurrent response. The models were developed for use with the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program, but the techniques are suitable for other modern computer aided analysis programs. The modeling hierarchy permits the designer or analyst to select the level of modeling complexity consistent with circuit size, parametric information, and accuracy requirements. Improvements have been made in the implementation of important second order effects in the transistor MOS model, in the definition of MOS building block models, and in the development of composite terminal models for MOS integrated circuits

  4. Processing negative valence of word pairs that include a positive word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkes, Oksana; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that cognitive performance is interrupted by negative relative to neutral or positive stimuli. We examined whether negative valence affects performance at the word or phrase level. Participants performed a semantic decision task on word pairs that included either a negative or a positive target word. In Experiment 1, the valence of the target word was congruent with the overall valence conveyed by the word pair (e.g., fat kid). As expected, response times were slower in the negative condition relative to the positive condition. Experiment 2 included target words that were incongruent with the overall valence of the word pair (e.g., fat salary). Response times were longer for word pairs whose overall valence was negative relative to positive, even though these word pairs included a positive word. Our findings support the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, according to which emotional valence is extracted after conceptual processing is complete.

  5. Vibration of Piezoelectric Nanowires Including Surface Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, surface and piezoelectric effects on the vibration behavior of nanowires (NWs are investigated by using a Timoshenko beam model. The electric field equations and the governing equations of motion for the piezoelectric NWs are derived with the consideration of surface effects. By the exact solution of the governing equations, an expression for the natural frequencies of NWs with simply-supported boundary conditions is obtained. The effects of piezoelectricity and surface effects on the vibrational behavior of Timoshenko NWs are graphically illustrated. A comparison is also made between the predictions of Timoshenko beam model and those of its Euler-Bernoulli counterpart. Additionally, the present results are validated through comparison with the available data in the literature.

  6. Trinucleon asymptotic normalization constants including Coulomb effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Lehman, D.R.; Payne, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    Exact theoretical expressions for calculating the trinucleon S- and D-wave asymptotic normalization constants, with and without Coulomb effects, are presented. Coordinate-space Faddeev-type equations are used to generate the trinucleon wave functions, and integral relations for the asymptotic norms are derived within this framework. The definition of the asymptotic norms in the presence of the Coulomb interaction is emphasized. Numerical calculations are carried out for the s-wave NN interaction models of Malfliet and Tjon and the tensor force model of Reid. Comparison with previously published results is made. The first estimate of Coulomb effects for the D-wave asymptotic norm is given. All theoretical values are carefully compared with experiment and suggestions are made for improving the experimental situation. We find that Coulomb effects increase the 3 He S-wave asymptotic norm by less than 1% relative to that of 3 H, that Coulomb effects decrease the 3 He D-wave asymptotic norm by approximately 8% relative to that of 3 H, and that the distorted-wave Born approximation D-state parameter, D 2 , is only 1% smaller in magnitude for 3 He than for 3 H due to compensating Coulomb effects

  7. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics

  8. Electrochemical reduction of oxygen catalyzed by a wide range of bacteria including Gram-positive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cournet, Amandine [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion Bacterienne et Formation de Biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31 062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse cedex 04 (France); Delia, Marie-Line; Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS, Universite de Toulouse, 4 allee Emile Monso, BP 84234, 31432 Toulouse cedex 04 (France); Roques, Christine; Berge, Mathieu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, LU49, Adhesion Bacterienne et Formation de Biofilms, 35 chemin des Maraichers, 31 062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France)

    2010-04-15

    Most bacteria known to be electrochemically active have been harvested in the anodic compartments of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and are able to use electrodes as electron acceptors. The reverse phenomenon, i.e. using solid electrodes as electron donors, is not so widely studied. To our knowledge, most of the electrochemically active bacteria are Gram-negative. The present study implements a transitory electrochemical technique (cyclic voltammetry) to study the microbial catalysis of the electrochemical reduction of oxygen. It is demonstrated that a wide range of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria are able to catalyze oxygen reduction. Among these electroactive bacteria, several were Gram-positive. The transfer of electrons was direct since no activity was obtained with the filtrate. These findings, showing a widespread property among bacteria including Gram-positive ones, open new and interesting routes in the field of electroactive bacteria research. (author)

  9. IGUN-A program for the simulation of positive ion extraction including magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    IGUN is a program for the simulation of positive ion extraction from plasmas. It is based on the well known program EGUN for the calculation of electron and ion trajectories in electron guns and lenses. The mathematical treatment of the plasma sheath is based on a simple analytical model, which provides a numerically stable calculation of the sheath potentials. In contrast to other ion extraction programs, IGUN is able to determine the extracted ion current in succeeding cycles of iteration by itself. However, it is also possible to set values of current, plasma density, or ion current density. Either axisymmetric or rectangular coordinates can be used, including axisymmetric or transverse magnetic fields

  10. igun - A program for the simulation of positive ion extraction including magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W. B.

    1992-04-01

    igun is a program for the simulation of positive ion extraction from plasmas. It is based on the well known program egun for the calculation of electron and ion trajectories in electron guns and lenses. The mathematical treatment of the plasma sheath is based on a simple analytical model, which provides a numerically stable calculation of the sheath potentials. In contrast to other ion extraction programs, igun is able to determine the extracted ion current in succeeding cycles of iteration by itself. However, it is also possible to set values of current, plasma density, or ion current density. Either axisymmetric or rectangular coordinates can be used, including axisymmetric or transverse magnetic fields.

  11. Exploring the Rationales Expressed for Including a CSR Position to the Top Management Team

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    Recently, a number of positions with corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the position title have been introduced to the top management teams (TMTs) of some of the world’s largest corporations. I explore this phenomenon. I revisit 10 such positions identified in a previous study to add...

  12. Performance of muon reconstruction including Alignment Position Errors for 2016 Collision Data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    From 2016 Run muon reconstruction is using non-zero Alignment Position Errors to account for the residual uncertainties of muon chambers' positions. Significant improvements are obtained in particular for the startup phase after opening/closing the muon detector. Performance results are presented for real data and MC simulations, related to both the offline reconstruction and the High-Level Trigger.

  13. Community Work Programme has positive and negative effects on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... ... has positive and negative effects on social bonds in South African communities ... to contribute to positive social cohesion and to prevent violence. ... including shared values and identity, feelings of belonging, civic pa.

  14. Able but unintelligent: including positively stereotyped black subgroups in the stereotype content model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.

  15. Positive effects of creating mandalas

    OpenAIRE

    Toroš, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present master’s thesis is to examine the psychological effects of creating mandalas and to give recommendations for a better use of the mandalas in the practice of art assistance in order to help in this way others and oneself. Mandalas are sacred symbols, used in Hinduism and Buddhist religion practices as tools for meditation and concentration. They are geometrical representations of the creation of the cosmos and schemas of all that was created. Jung sat the foundations...

  16. Total binding energy of heavy positive ions including density treatment of Darwin and Breit corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.H.; Grout, P.J.; March, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work on the relativistic Thomas-Fermi treatment of total energies of neutral atoms is first generalised to heavy positive ions. To facilitate quantitative contact with the numerical predictions of Dirac-Fock theory, Darwin and Breit corrections are expressed in terms of electron density, and computed using input again from relativistic Thomas-Fermi theory. These corrections significantly improve the agreement between the two seemingly very different theories. (author)

  17. Proof of the positive energy theorem including the angular momentum contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingfei; Chee, G.Y.; Guo Yongxin

    2005-01-01

    A proof of the positive energy theorem of general relativity is given. In this proof the gravitational Lagrangian is identified with that of Lau and is equivalent to the teleparallel Lagrangian modulo, a boundary term. The approach adopted in this proof uses the two-spinor method and the extended Witten identities and then combines the Brown-York and the Nester-Witten approaches. At the same time the proof is extended to the case involving the contribution of angular momentum by choosing a special shift vector

  18. De-novo discovery of differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites including their positional preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilwagen, Jens; Grau, Jan; Paponov, Ivan A; Posch, Stefan; Strickert, Marc; Grosse, Ivo

    2011-02-10

    Transcription factors are a main component of gene regulation as they activate or repress gene expression by binding to specific binding sites in promoters. The de-novo discovery of transcription factor binding sites in target regions obtained by wet-lab experiments is a challenging problem in computational biology, which has not been fully solved yet. Here, we present a de-novo motif discovery tool called Dispom for finding differentially abundant transcription factor binding sites that models existing positional preferences of binding sites and adjusts the length of the motif in the learning process. Evaluating Dispom, we find that its prediction performance is superior to existing tools for de-novo motif discovery for 18 benchmark data sets with planted binding sites, and for a metazoan compendium based on experimental data from micro-array, ChIP-chip, ChIP-DSL, and DamID as well as Gene Ontology data. Finally, we apply Dispom to find binding sites differentially abundant in promoters of auxin-responsive genes extracted from Arabidopsis thaliana microarray data, and we find a motif that can be interpreted as a refined auxin responsive element predominately positioned in the 250-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Using an independent data set of auxin-responsive genes, we find in genome-wide predictions that the refined motif is more specific for auxin-responsive genes than the canonical auxin-responsive element. In general, Dispom can be used to find differentially abundant motifs in sequences of any origin. However, the positional distribution learned by Dispom is especially beneficial if all sequences are aligned to some anchor point like the transcription start site in case of promoter sequences. We demonstrate that the combination of searching for differentially abundant motifs and inferring a position distribution from the data is beneficial for de-novo motif discovery. Hence, we make the tool freely available as a component of the open

  19. Relativistic effects in local inertial frames including PPN effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid-Saless, B.

    1986-01-01

    In this dissertation they use the concept of a generalized Fermi frame to describe the relativistic effects on a body placed in a local inertial frame of reference due to local and distant sources of gravitation. They have considered, in particular, a model, consisted of two spherically symmetric gravitating sources, moving in circular orbits around a common barycenter where one of the bodies is chosen to be the local and the other the distant one. This has been done in the Parametrized-Post-Newtonian formalism using the slow motion, weak field approximation. The PPN parameters used are γ, β, zeta 1 and zeta 2 . They show that the main relativistic effect on a local satellite is described by the Schwarzchild field of the local body and the nonlinear term corresponding to the self-interaction of the local source itself. There are also much smaller terms that are proportional to the product of the potentials of local and distant bodies and distant body's self interactions. The spatial axis of the local frame undergoes Geodetic precession. Effects involving the parameters zeta 1 and zeta 2 seem to be slightly too small to be observable at the present time. In addition they have found accelerations that vanish in the general relativity limit

  20. Position paper on the impact of including methane number in natural gas regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    GIIGNL has developed a position paper to describe methane number and the possible impact on the LNG market of a future regulation/specification for this parameter which is linked to natural gas quality. Currently, there are several standards describing calculation methods of natural gas methane number, but there are doubts about their reliability and the results differ from each other. No official regulation which states a minimum value for methane number of natural gas has been identified. A methane number of 80, as recommended by some organisations in Europe, would endanger the LNG supply to the market, limiting acceptable LNG sources, or would require expensive gas treatment. In the long term, if there is a market for high methane number natural gas, this may be an opportunity for LNG terminals able to adjust or manage supplies to the desired methane number

  1. Control rod calibration including the rod coupling effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilard, R.; Nelson, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    In a reactor containing more than one control rod, which includes all reactors licensed in the United States, there will be a 'coupling' or 'shadowing' of control rod flux at the location of a control rod as a result of the flux depression caused by another control rod. It was decided to investigate this phenomenon further, and eventually to put calibration table data or formulae in a small computer in the control room, so once could insert the positions of the three control rods and receive the excess reactivity without referring to separate tables. For this to be accomplished, a 'three control- rod reactivity function' would be used which would include the flux coupling between the rods. The function is design and measured data was fitted into it to determine the calibration constants. The input data for fitting the trial functions consisted of 254 data points, each consisting of the position of the reg, shim, and transient rods, and the total excess reactivity. (About 200 of these points were 'critical balance points', that is the rod positions for which reactor was critical, and the remainder were determined by positive period measurements.) Although this may be unrealistic from a physical viewpoint, the function derived gave a very accurate recalculation of the input data, and thus would faithfully give the excess reactivity for any possible combination of the locations of the three control rods. The next step, incorporation of the three-rod function into the minicomputer, will be pursued in the summer and fall of 1984

  2. Subjective Response to Foot-Fall Noise, Including Localization of the Source Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a nonmoving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  3. Emotional Effects of Positive Forms of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Валентиновна Ионова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of emotional significance of a positive form of speech. Based on the methodology of emotions linguistics, linguoecology, communicative linguistics and the methods of description, comparison and discourse analysis, the author distinguishes some types of speech situations that demonstrate visible differences between positive expression of emotions and their content and the pragmatic effect. The difference between the notions of “positive communication” and “positive form of communication” is demonstrated. Special attention is given to the following types of positive emotional communication: tolerant emotional communication, emotional emphasis, emotional neglect, and emotional tabooing. The utterances in situations of real and textual communication demonstrate negative effects of statements expressed in a positive form and identify the specifics of positive forms of emotional communication in comparison with rational communication.

  4. Emotional Effects of Positive Forms of Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Светлана Валентиновна Ионова

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the problem of emotional significance of a positive form of speech. Based on the methodology of emotions linguistics, linguoecology, communicative linguistics and the methods of description, comparison and discourse analysis, the author distinguishes some types of speech situations that demonstrate visible differences between positive expression of emotions and their content and the pragmatic effect. The difference between the notions of “positive communication” and “pos...

  5. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  6. LTRACK: Beam-transport calculation including wakefield effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.D.; Cooper, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    LTRACK is a first-order beam-transport code that includes wakefield effects up to quadrupole modes. This paper will introduce the readers to this computer code by describing the history, the method of calculations, and a brief summary of the input/output information. Future plans for the code will also be described

  7. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  8. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ludlow, J A [AUBURN UNIV; Lee, Teck - Ghee [AUBURN UNIV; Pindzola, M S [AUBURN UNIV; Robicheaux, F [AUBURN UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  9. Aerodynamic analysis of the Darrieus rotor including secondary effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Delclaux, F.; Fraunie, P.; Beguier, C.

    1983-10-01

    An aerodynamic analysis is made of two variants of the two-actuator-disk theory for modeling the Darrieus wind turbine. The double-multiple-streamtube model with constant and variable interference factors, including secondary effects, is examined for a Darrieus rotor. The influence of the secondary effects, namely, the blade geometry and profile type, the rotating tower, and the presence of struts and aerodynamic spoilers, is relatively significant, especially at high tip-speed ratios. Variation of the induced velocity as a function of the azimuthal angle allows a more accurate calculation of the aerodynamic loads on the downwind zone of the rotor with respect to the assumed constant interference factors. The theoretical results were compared with available experimental data for the Magdalen Islands wind turbine and Sandia-type machines (straight-line/circular-arc shape).

  10. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  11. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  12. Numerical optimization of conical flow waveriders including detailed viscous effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowcutt, Kevin G.; Anderson, John D., Jr.; Capriotti, Diego

    1987-01-01

    A family of optimized hypersonic waveriders is generated and studied wherein detailed viscous effects are included within the optimization process itself. This is in contrast to previous optimized waverider work, wherein purely inviscid flow is used to obtain the waverider shapes. For the present waveriders, the undersurface is a streamsurface of an inviscid conical flowfield, the upper surface is a streamsurface of the inviscid flow over a tapered cylinder (calculated by the axisymmetric method of characteristics), and the viscous effects are treated by integral solutions of the boundary layer equations. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow is included within the viscous calculations. The optimization is carried out using a nonlinear simplex method. The resulting family of viscous hypersonic waveriders yields predicted high values of lift/drag, high enough to break the L/D barrier based on experience with other hypersonic configurations. Moreover, the numerical optimization process for the viscous waveriders results in distinctly different shapes compared to previous work with inviscid-designed waveriders. Also, the fine details of the viscous solution, such as how the shear stress is distributed over the surface, and the location of transition, are crucial to the details of the resulting waverider geometry. Finally, the moment coefficient variations and heat transfer distributions associated with the viscous optimized waveriders are studied.

  13. Thermodynamics of strong coupling superconductors including the effect of anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daams, J. M.; Carbotte, J. P.

    1981-05-01

    The thermodynamics of several elemental superconductors is computed from isotropic Eliashberg theory formulated on the imaginary frequency axis. A symmary of the available experimental literature is presented and a comparison with theory is given. The small disagreements that are found are all in the direction expected from anisotropy effects. We calculate the effect of a small amount of model anisotropy on the critical temperature, critical field, and high-temperature specific heat from an exact solution of the anisotropic Eliashberg equations. These are the first such results below the critical temperature; unlike previous analytical work, we include retardation, anisotropy in the mass enhancement, and the effect of the Coulomb repulsion in enhancing anisotropy, all of which are significant. We derive a new formula independent of any model anisotropy for the rate of decrease with impurity lifetime of the critical temperature. Finally we demonstrate how the commonly used formulas of Markowitz and Kadanoff and of Clem may give entirely misleading estimates of the gap anisotropy when used to interpret certain experiments.

  14. Positional Accuracy Assessment for Effective Shoreline Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... as backdrop in GIS environment. Positional error of ... integrated dataset obviously bore the cumulative effect of the input datasets. ... change. The shoreline, which is the interface between land ... modelling, which enables future shoreline change trend to ..... as gaps due to cloud cover and limitation of the.

  15. Mechanical behaviour of cracked welded structures including mismatch effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornet, P.

    2002-01-01

    The most important parameters for predicting more precisely the fracture behaviour of welded structures have been identified. In particular, the plasticity development at the crack tip in the ligament appeared as a major parameter to evaluate the yield load of such a complex structure. In this way defect assessments procedures have been developed or modified to take into account the mismatch effect that is to say the mechanical properties of the different material constituting the weld joint. This paper is a synthesis of the work done in the past at Electricite de France on this topic in regards with other work done in France or around the World. The most important parameters which control the plasticity development at the crack tip and so mainly influence the fracture behaviour of welded structures are underlined: the mismatch ratio (weld to base metal yield strength ratio), the mismatch ratio (weld to base metal yield strength ratio), the ligament size and the weld width. Moreover, commonly used fracture toughness testing procedures developed in case of homogeneous specimens cannot be used in a straight forward manner and so has to be modified to take into account the mismatch effect. Number or defect assessment procedures taking into account the mismatch effect by considering the yield load of the welded structure are shortly described. Then, the 'Equivalent Material Method' developed at EDF which allows a good prediction of the applied J-Integral at the crack tip is more detailed. This procedure includes not only both weld and base metal yield strength, the structure geometry, the crack size and the weld dimension using the yield load of the real structures but also includes the effect of both weld and base metal strain hardening exponents. Some validations of this method are proposed. Finally, the ability of finite element modelling to predict the behaviour of such welded structures is demonstrated by modelling real experiments: crack located in the middle of

  16. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  17. [Effectiveness of mental health training including active listening for managers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Kazunori; Tagawa, Yoshimasa; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori; Nagata, Shoji

    2008-07-01

    significant increases post-training in "Job demands", "Worksite support by supervisor" and "Worksite support by co-worker", subscales of the BJSQ 12 items version. Particularly, the "Worksite support by supervisor" subscale increased significantly in 8 of the 47 sections in a comparison among sections. In this present study, we investigated the effectiveness of mental health training including Active Listening for managers, and suggest that to train Active Listening and use it at the worksite possibly strengthens "Worksite support by supervisor".

  18. Positive mood effects on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Guindon, Alex; Morisano, Dominique; Peterson, Jordan B

    2010-10-01

    Delay discounting is the process by which the value of an expected reward decreases as the delay to obtaining that reward increases. Individuals with higher discounting rates tend to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Previous research has indicated that personality can influence an individual's discounting rates, with higher levels of Extraversion predicting a preference for immediate gratification. The current study examined how this relationship would be influenced by situational mood inductions. While main effects were observed for both Extraversion and cognitive ability in the prediction of discounting rates, a significant interaction was also observed between Extraversion and positive affect. Extraverted individuals were more likely to prefer an immediate reward when first put in a positive mood. Extraverts thus appear particularly sensitive to impulsive, incentive-reward-driven behavior by temperament and by situational factors heightening positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  20. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFotis, G.C., E-mail: gxdefo@wm.edu [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Van Dongen, M.J.; Hampton, A.S.; Komatsu, C.H.; Trowell, K.T.; Havas, K.C.; Davis, C.M.; DeSanto, C.L. [Chemistry Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA, 23187 United States (United States); Hays, K.; Wagner, M.J. [Chemistry Department, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 20052 United States (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported. Results include locations and sizes of susceptibility maxima, T{sub max} and χ{sub max}, ordering temperatures T{sub c}, Curie constants and Weiss theta in the paramagnetic regime, and primary and secondary exchange interactions from analysis of low temperature data. For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2.00 K are also obtained. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. Trends are apparent, primarily that T{sub max} of each bromide hydrate is less than for the corresponding chloride, and that for a given halide nD{sub 2}O (n=1 or 2) deuterates exhibit lesser T{sub max} than do nH{sub 2}O hydrates. A monoclinic unit cell determined from powder X-ray diffraction data on NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these. - Highlights: • The magnetism of Ni(II) chloride and bromide dihydrates and monohydrates is studied. • Effects of replacing H{sub 2}O by D{sub 2}O are examined for both hydration states and both halides. • Exchange interactions in bromides are weaker than in corresponding chlorides. • Exchange interactions are weaker in D{sub 2}O than in corresponding H{sub 2}O containing systems. • The unit cell of NiBr{sub 2}·2D{sub 2}O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O.

  1. Photoelectric effect photon beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Stability of the electron orbit is of critical importance at the NSLS. Many experimenters utilizing the NSLS photon beams can take full advantage of the small transverse dimensions of the source only if the electron orbit variation is kept below 10 to 20% of the transverse electron bunch size. Clearly the first step in a program to stabilize the orbit is to develop position monitors with the required sensitivity, reliability and dynamic range. Of great importance are monitors detecting the photon beams themselves, and also monitors measuring the position of the electron beam. In this section the authors discuss photon beam position monitors utilizing the photoelectric effects, and in the following section the use of capacitively coupled pick-up electrodes to detect electron beam position will be described. In what follows they shall proceed to consider two generic types of monitor geometries (1) Gap monitors, which are designed with the idea that the fringes of the synchrotron radiation will be measured, and the hot or fundamental beam will pass through the monitor unimpeded. (2) Area monitors, which are comprised of two triangular elements nested together similar to the electrodes of a split ion chamber or the diodes described by Siddons and Kraner or Mitsuhashi et al

  2. Relativistic many-body XMCD theory including core degenerate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Takashi

    2009-11-01

    A many-body relativistic theory to analyze X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) spectra has been developed on the basis of relativistic quantum electrodynamic (QED) Keldysh Green's function approach. This theoretical framework enables us to handle relativistic many-body effects in terms of correlated nonrelativistic Green's function and relativistic correction operator Q, which naturally incorporates radiation field screening and other optical field effects in addition to electron-electron interactions. The former can describe the intensity ratio of L2/L3 which deviates from the statistical weight (branching ratio) 1/2. In addition to these effects, we consider the degenerate or nearly degenerate effects of core levels from which photoelectrons are excited. In XPS spectra, for example in Rh 3d sub level excitations, their peak shapes are quite different: This interesting behavior is explained by core-hole moving after the core excitation. We discuss similar problems in X-ray absorption spectra in particular excitation from deep 2p sub levels which are degenerate in each sub levels and nearly degenerate to each other in light elements: The hole left behind is not frozen there. We derive practical multiple scattering formulas which incorporate all those effects.

  3. Explosive instabilities of reaction-diffusion equations including pinch effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsson, H.

    1992-01-01

    Particular solutions of reaction-diffusion equations for temperature are obtained for explosively unstable situations. As a result of the interplay between inertial, diffusion, pinch and source processes certain 'bell-shaped' distributions may grow explosively in time with preserved shape of the spatial distribution. The effect of the pinch, which requires a density inhomogeneity, is found to diminish the effect of diffusion, or inversely to support the inertial and source processes in creating the explosion. The results may be described in terms of elliptic integrals or. more simply, by means of expansions in the spatial coordinate. An application is the temperature evolution of a burning fusion plasma. (au) (18 refs.)

  4. Malingering, coaching, and the serial position effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    The normal pattern of performance on list-learning tasks is to recall more words from the beginning (primacy) and end (recency) of the list. This pattern is also seen in patients with closed head injury, but malingerers tend to recall less words from the beginning of word lists, leading to a suppressed primacy effect. The present study examined this pattern on both learning trials and delayed recall of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) in 34 persons performing with normal effort, 38 naive malingerers, 33 warned malingerers, and 29 head-injured patients. Both malingering groups had lower scores on the primacy portion of the list during learning trials, while normals and head-injured patients had normal serial position curves. During delayed recall, normals and head-injured patients did better than the two malingering groups on middle and recency portions of the list. Findings suggest that the serial position effect during learning trials may be a useful pattern of performance to watch for when suspicious of malingering.

  5. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating rates ...

  6. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating ratesto the ...

  7. Thermally activated dislocation motion including inertial effects in solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Dislocation motion through an array of obstacles is considered in terms of the potential energy of the dislocation as it moves through the array. The obstacles form a series of potential wells and barriers which can trap the dislocations. The effect of thermal fluctuations and of a viscous drag on the motion of the dislocation is investigated by analogy with Brownian motion in a field of force. The rate of escape of a trapped dislocation is found to depend on the damping coefficient only for a large viscous drag. The probability that a dislocation will be trapped by a well or barrier is found to depend on the damping coefficient for a small viscous drag. This inertial effect determines how far a dislocation will travel after breaking away from an obstacle

  8. Free vibration of elastically supported thin cylinders including gyroscopic effects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    1998-10-29

    Full Text Available [ The equations D[R[ 747723 JSV 106:2 "Issue# MS 1560 VIBRATION OF THIN CYLINDERS 442 required for this procedure\\ including the gyroscopic terms\\ are included in Appendix A[ The displacement functions can then be written as follows] W"x# C0 cosh a0xa C1 sinh a0... xa C2 cos g1xa C3 sin g1xa epx:a0C4 cos qxa C5 sin qxa 1 e px:a0C6 cos qxa C7 sin qxa 1 "6a# V"x# A0C0 cosh a0xa A0C1 sinh a0xa A2C2 cos g1xa A2C3 sin g1xa epx:a$"A4C4 A5C5# cos qxa "A4C5 A5C4# sin qxa % e px:a$"A4C6 A5C7# cos...

  9. Climate implications of including albedo effects in terrestrial carbon policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Torn, M. S.; Calvin, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    Proposed strategies for managing terrestrial carbon in order to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, such as financial incentives for afforestation, soil carbon sequestration, or biofuel production, largely ignore the direct effects of land use change on climate via biophysical processes that alter surface energy and water budgets. Subsequent influences on temperature, hydrology, and atmospheric circulation at regional and global scales could potentially help or hinder climate stabilization efforts. Because these policies often rely on payments or credits expressed in units of CO2-equivalents, accounting for biophysical effects would require a metric for comparing the strength of biophysical climate perturbation from land use change to that of emitting CO2. One such candidate metric that has been suggested in the literature on land use impacts is radiative forcing, which underlies the global warming potential metric used to compare the climate effects of various greenhouse gases with one another. Expressing land use change in units of radiative forcing is possible because albedo change results in a net top-of-atmosphere radiative flux change. However, this approach has also been critiqued on theoretical grounds because not all climatic changes associated with land use change are principally radiative in nature, e.g. changes in hydrology or the vertical distribution of heat within the atmosphere, and because the spatial scale of land use change forcing differs from that of well-mixed greenhouse gases. To explore the potential magnitude of this discrepancy in the context of plausible scenarios of future land use change, we conduct three simulations with the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) utilizing a slab ocean model. Each simulation examines the effect of a stepwise change in forcing relative to a pre-industrial control simulation: 1) widespread conversion of forest land to crops resulting in approximately 1 W/m2 global-mean radiative forcing from albedo

  10. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization...

  11. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...... for symmetric and asymmetric multi-species electrolytes and is not limited to a range of surface potentials. Numerical simulations are presented, for the case of a CaCO3 electrolyte solution in contact with a surface with rate-controlled protonation/deprotonation reactions. The surface charge and potential...... are determined by the surface reactions, and therefore they depends on the bulk solution composition and concentration...

  12. Development of realistic concrete models including scaling effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpinteri, A.

    1989-09-01

    Progressive cracking in structural elements of concrete is considered. Two simple models are applied, which, even though different, lead to similar predictions for the fracture behaviour. Both Virtual Crack Propagation Model and Cohesive Limit Analysis (Section 2), show a trend towards brittle behaviour and catastrophical events for large structural sizes. A numerical Cohesive Crack Model is proposed (Section 3) to describe strain softening and strain localization in concrete. Such a model is able to predict the size effects of fracture mechanics accurately. Whereas for Mode I, only untieing of the finite element nodes is applied to simulate crack growth, for Mixed Mode a topological variation is required at each step (Section 4). In the case of the four point shear specimen, the load vs. deflection diagrams reveal snap-back instability for large sizes. By increasing the specimen sizes, such instability tends to reproduce the classical LEFM instability. Remarkable size effects are theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed also for reinforced concrete (Section 5). The brittleness of the flexural members increases by increasing size and/or decreasing steel content. On the basis of these results, the empirical code rules regarding the minimum amount of reinforcement could be considerably revised

  13. Professionals' positive perceptions of fathers are associated with more favourable attitudes towards including them in family interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montigny, Francine; Gervais, Christine; Meunier, Sophie; Dubeau, Diane

    2017-12-01

    This Université du Québec en Outaouais study examined professionals' attitudes towards fathers, their perceived self-efficacy when working with them and their perceptions of the importance of including fathers in family interventions. Professionals in Québec, Canada, working in childcare fields such as education, social services, health, community services and management answered a self-report questionnaire between 2013 and 2015. The 296 respondents (90% females) had a mean age of 39 (20-65), were from urban, semi-urban and rural settings and provided services to families with children up to five years of age. Social service professionals perceived fathers more negatively than did other professionals. Even though male professionals perceived fathers more negatively, they felt more confident working with them than did their female counterparts. Positive perceptions of fathers were associated with more favourable attitudes towards including them in family interventions, and this association was mediated by the professionals' perceptions of their own self-efficacy. The most negative attitudes were reported by social service professionals. Male professionals viewed fathers more negatively but were more confident working with them than were female colleagues. Improving professionals' perceptions of fathers could help to promote their inclusion in family interventions. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.

  15. Relativistic effects in local inertial frames including parametrized-post-Newtonian effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid-Saless, B.; Ashby, N.

    1988-01-01

    We use the concept of a generalized Fermi frame to describe relativistic effects, due to local and distant sources of gravitation, on a body placed in a local inertial frame of reference. In particular we have considered a model of two spherically symmetric gravitating point sources, moving in circular orbits around a common barycenter where one of the bodies is chosen to be the local and the other the distant one. This has been done using the slow-motion, weak-field approximation and including four of the parametrized-post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. The position of the classical center of mass must be modified when the PPN parameter zeta 2 is included. We show that the main relativistic effect on a local satellite is described by the Schwarzschild field of the local body and the nonlinear term corresponding to the self-interaction of the local source with itself. There are also much smaller terms that are proportional, respectively, to the product of the potentials of local and distant bodies and to the distant body's self-interactions. The spatial axes of the local frame undergo geodetic precession. In addition we have an acceleration of the order of 10/sup -11/ cm sec -2 that vanish in the case of general relativity, which is discussed in detail

  16. Aeroelastic modal dynamics of wind turbines including anisotropic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisker Skjoldan, P.

    2011-03-15

    Several methods for aeroelastic modal analysis of a rotating wind turbine are developed and used to analyse the modal dynamics of two simplified models and a complex model in isotropic and anisotropic conditions. The Coleman transformation is used to enable extraction of the modal frequencies, damping, and periodic mode shapes of a rotating wind turbine by describing the rotor degrees of freedom in the inertial frame. This approach is valid only for an isotropic system. Anisotropic systems, e.g., with an unbalanced rotor or operating in wind shear, are treated with the general approaches of Floquet analysis or Hill's method which do not provide a unique reference frame for observing the modal frequency, to which any multiple of the rotor speed can be added. This indeterminacy is resolved by requiring that the periodic mode shape be as constant as possible in the inertial frame. The modal frequency is thus identified as the dominant frequency in the response of a pure excitation of the mode observed in the inertial frame. A modal analysis tool based directly on the complex aeroelastic wind turbine code BHawC is presented. It uses the Coleman approach in isotropic conditions and the computationally efficient implicit Floquet analysis in anisotropic conditions. The tool is validated against system identifications with the partial Floquet method on the nonlinear BHawC model of a 2.3 MW wind turbine. System identification results show that nonlinear effects on the 2.3 MW turbine in most cases are small, but indicate that the controller creates nonlinear damping. In isotropic conditions the periodic mode shape contains up to three harmonic components, but in anisotropic conditions it can contain an infinite number of harmonic components with frequencies that are multiples of the rotor speed. These harmonics appear in calculated frequency responses of the turbine. Extreme wind shear changes the modal damping when the flow is separated due to an interaction between

  17. Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing

  18. Single-position Hall effect measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A method for determining a distance (Y) between a first position on and an electrical boundary (34) of a test sample by a multi-point probe comprising four contact elements, comprising: contacting the test sample with the four contact elements (20,22,24,26) at the first position, applying a magne...

  19. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function. PMID:26075234

  20. Chewing and Attention: A Positive Effect on Sustained Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hirano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  1. Chewing and attention: a positive effect on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.

  2. Interim staff position on environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment: including staff responses to public comments. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    This document provides the NRC staff positions regarding selected areas of environmental qualification of safety-related electrical equipment, in the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-24, 'Qualification of Class IE Safety-Related Equipment.' The positions herein are applicable to plants that are or will be in the construction permit (CP) or operating license (OL) review process and that are required to satisfy the requirements set forth in either the 1971 or the 1974 version of IEEE-323 standard

  3. Spectral interferometry including the effect of transparent thin films to measure distances and displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubina, P.

    2004-01-01

    A spectral-domain interferometric technique is applied for measuring mirror distances and displacements in a dispersive Michelson interferometer when the effect of transparent thin films coated onto the interferometer beam splitter and compensator is known. We employ a low-resolution spectrometer in two experiments with different amounts of dispersion in a Michelson interferometer that includes fused-silica optical sample. Knowing the thickness of the optical sample and the nonlinear phase function of the thin films, the positions of the interferometer mirror are determined precisely by a least-squares fitting of the theoretical spectral interferograms to the recorded ones. We compare the results of the processing that include and do not include the effect of transparent thin films (Author)

  4. Positional Accuracy Assessment for Effective Shoreline Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Mining Journal ... Data quality may be expressed in terms of several indicators such as attributes, temporal or positional accuracies. ... It is concluded that for the purpose of shoreline change analysis, such as shoreline change trends, large scale data sources should be used where possible for accurate ...

  5. Factors associated with a clinician's offer of screening HIV-positive patients for sexually transmitted infections, including syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R; Fernando, I; MacDougall, M

    2011-06-01

    This retrospective study assessed whether Quality Improvement Scotland national standards for the sexual health care offered to HIV-positive individuals are being met by the Edinburgh genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic; specifically whether HIV-positive patients are offered: (a) sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening annually and (b) syphilis testing six-monthly. The study also reviewed what factors were associated with a clinician's offer of STI screening and syphilis testing. Of the 509 patients seen within the study period, case notes documented that 64% were offered STI screens, and 69% were offered syphilis testing, results consistent with audits of services elsewhere. Sexual orientation (P offer of STI screening, while gender (P offer of syphilis testing. Our results suggest that one explanation for clinicians failing to offer STI screens and syphilis serology testing is their (implicit) risk assessment that STI testing is not required in individual patients.

  6. Method effects: the problem with negatively versus positively keyed items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Magnus; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio; Raudsepp, Lennart; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    Using confirmatory factor analyses, we examined method effects on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) in a sample of older European adults. Nine hundred forty nine community-dwelling adults 60 years of age or older from 5 European countries completed the RSES as well as measures of depression and life satisfaction. The 2 models that had an acceptable fit with the data included method effects. The method effects were associated with both positively and negatively worded items. Method effects models were invariant across gender and age, but not across countries. Both depression and life satisfaction predicted method effects. Individuals with higher depression scores and lower life satisfaction scores were more likely to endorse negatively phrased items.

  7. Challenges of including nitrogen effects on decomposition in earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the importance of litter decomposition for ecosystem fertility and carbon balance, key uncertainties remain about how this fundamental process is affected by nitrogen (N) availability. Nevertheless, resolving such uncertainties is critical for mechanistic inclusion of such processes in earth system models, towards predicting the ecosystem consequences of increased anthropogenic reactive N. Towards that end, we have conducted a series of experiments examining nitrogen effects on litter decomposition. We found that both substrate N and externally supplied N (regardless of form) accelerated the initial decomposition rate. Faster initial decomposition rates were linked to the higher activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes associated with externally supplied N and the greater relative abundances of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria associated with green leaves and externally supplied organic N (assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA). By contrast, later in decomposition, externally supplied N slowed decomposition, increasing the fraction of slowly decomposing litter and reducing lignin-degrading enzyme activity and relative abundances of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Our results suggest that elevated atmospheric N deposition may have contrasting effects on the dynamics of different soil carbon pools, decreasing mean residence times of active fractions comprising very fresh litter, while increasing those of more slowly decomposing fractions including more processed litter. Incorporating these contrasting effects of N on decomposition processes into models is complicated by lingering uncertainties about how these effects generalize across ecosystems and substrates.

  8. Positive effects of radiation on forest production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, J.; De la Cruz O, A.; Aguilar, M. A.; Caxnajoy, P. A.; Salceda S, V.

    2009-10-01

    The deforestation is a world problem and due to of increment of seed demand and seedling of good quality, was realized a work about the production improvement on commercial or forest trees for the Mexico State. It was combined the use of two techniques: the plant tissue culture and ionizing application. It was utilized seed of Pinus hartwegii collected and valued previously by ProBosque, with them were formed homogeneous lots that were irradiated to dose of 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 Gy into irradiator Gammacel-220 and later were decontaminated and cultivated in vitro. The seeds-planting were placed in a growth room with temperature and controlled light. After 10 cultivation days was obtained germination among 87-100% without observing the induction of negative changes in none of treatments. After 21 days already developed the embryos completely, modifications were presented in some structures. With these was possible to determine the lethal dose mean that oscillates between 100 and 105 Gy; since to dose bigger than 100 Gy more of 75% of individuals or seedlings present the phenols formation inducing the material lost by oxidation starting from day 32. Also, it is observed that applied doses between the 30 and 90 Gy do not affect or modify the embryogenesis in Pinus hartwegii but if the structures formation and seedling size since after 12 development days it is possible to appreciate to dose of 90, 75 and 45 Gy the presence of a primary radicular system, same that is observed after 22 development days in the witness. Another observation was that to dose of 45 and 90 Gy the leafs presents bigger elongation increasing the seedlings size on 22% in comparison with the witness. We can say that the doses understood between 45 and 90 Gy affect in a positive way the hormonal production of Pinus hartwegii seedlings and that the dose of 90 Gy accelerates the rhizogenes process and it increases the seedling size allowing to diminish the production time of Pinus hartwegii

  9. Positioning the Co-op Program for Maximum Marketing Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ronald R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the concept of positioning, which is the way that individuals perceive and are made aware of a program and believe in its benefit to them and its application to cooperative education programs. Includes a five-step plan for assessing the position of cooperative programs and six ways to implement a positioning strategy. (JOW)

  10. A new wall function boundary condition including heat release effect for supersonic combustion flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen-Xun; Jiang, Chong-Wen; Lee, Chun-Hian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new wall function including heat release effect is theoretically derived. • The new wall function is a unified form holding for flows with/without combustion. • The new wall function shows good results for a supersonic combustion case. - Abstract: A new wall function boundary condition considering combustion heat release effect (denoted as CWFBC) is proposed, for efficient predictions of skin friction and heat transfer in supersonic combustion flows. Based on a standard flow model including boundary-layer combustion, the Shvab–Zeldovich coupling parameters are introduced to derive a new velocity law-of-the-wall including the influence of combustion. For the temperature law-of-the-wall, it is proposed to use the enthalpy–velocity relation, instead of the Crocco–Busemann equation, to eliminate explicit influence of chemical reactions. The obtained velocity and temperature law-of-the-walls constitute the CWFBC, which is a unified form simultaneously holding for single-species, multi-species mixing and multi-species reactive flows. The subsequent numerical simulations using this CWFBC on an experimental case indicate that the CWFBC could accurately reflect the influences on the skin friction and heat transfer by the chemical reactions and heat release, and show large improvements compared to previous WFBC. Moreover, the CWFBC can give accurate skin friction and heat flux for a coarse mesh with y"+ up to 200 for the experimental case, except for slightly larger discrepancy of the wall heat flux around ignition position.

  11. The Impact of a Community-Based Intervention Including a Monthly Food Ration on Food Insecurity Among HIV-Positive Adults During the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica; Kayigamba, Felix; Hills, Victoria; Gupta, Neil; Machara, Faustin; Niyigena, Peter; Franke, Molly F

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how food insecurity changed among HIV-positive adults during the first 12 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and whether any change differed according to the receipt of food support, which was provided in the context of a comprehensive community-based intervention. We conducted secondary data analyses of data from a prospective cohort study of the effectiveness of a community-based cART delivery model when added to clinic-based cART delivery in Rwanda. We included patients from four health centers that implemented a clinic-based cART delivery model alone and five health centers that additionally implemented the intervention, which included 10 months of food support. We compared food insecurity at 3, 6, and 12 months, relative to baseline, and stratified by receipt of the intervention. Relative to baseline, median food insecurity score decreased after 3, 6, and 12 months (p value insecurity scores remained unchanged at 3 and 12 months and were significantly higher after 6 months. In adjusted analyses, participants enrolled in the community-based intervention with a food ration had a lower risk of severe food insecurity and a lower risk of moderate or severe food insecurity after 12 months. A comprehensive community-based HIV program including a food ration likely contributes to an alleviation of food insecurity among adults newly initiating cART.

  12. Positive effects of massage therapy on a patient with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robyn; Baskwill, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to investigate the effects of massage therapy on the sleep patterns of a woman with narcolepsy. The 23-year-old woman's primary symptoms included excessive daytime sleepiness and periodic leg movements (PLM), which were associated with her diagnoses of both narcolepsy and cataplexy. Five 45-minute massage therapy treatments were administered over a five-week period. The patient's sleep patterns were recorded each week before the treatment. A final measurement was recorded in the sixth week. The sleep patterns were monitored using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire, which included ten visual analogue scales. The results of this case report included an improvement in getting to sleep by 148%, an improvement in quality of sleep by 1100%, an improvement in awake following sleep by 121%, and an improvement in behaviour following wakening by 28% using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. This case report suggests that massage therapy had a positive effect on this patient with narcolepsy. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of massage therapy on narcolepsy and sleep patterns.

  13. Effect of Positive Training on Positive Psychological States (Character Strengths of Female High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farnam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available psychological states of female students in second and third grades of high school. The research method was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and follow-up. The sample consisted of forty students selected randomly in two groups (twenty students in each group. To collect data, Positive Psychological State Inventory (Rajaei, Khuy Nzhad and Nesaei was used. The experimental group received ninety minute positive training sessions (for two months and the control group did not receive treatment. The results of analysis  of covariance showed that positive training had positive effects on positive psychological states (trust in God, optimism, self-efficacy, duty, sense of control, targeted, hope, satisfaction with life, meaningful life, pleasant, sociability, self-esteem and self-worth, sense of peace, gratitude, and forgiveness among adolescents  both in the post  and follow-up tests

  14. False Positive and False Negative Effects on Network Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2018-01-01

    Robustness against attacks serves as evidence for complex network structures and failure mechanisms that lie behind them. Most often, due to detection capability limitation or good disguises, attacks on networks are subject to false positives and false negatives, meaning that functional nodes may be falsely regarded as compromised by the attacker and vice versa. In this work, we initiate a study of false positive/negative effects on network robustness against three fundamental types of attack strategies, namely, random attacks (RA), localized attacks (LA), and targeted attack (TA). By developing a general mathematical framework based upon the percolation model, we investigate analytically and by numerical simulations of attack robustness with false positive/negative rate (FPR/FNR) on three benchmark models including Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks, random regular (RR) networks, and scale-free (SF) networks. We show that ER networks are equivalently robust against RA and LA only when FPR equals zero or the initial network is intact. We find several interesting crossovers in RR and SF networks when FPR is taken into consideration. By defining the cost of attack, we observe diminishing marginal attack efficiency for RA, LA, and TA. Our finding highlights the potential risk of underestimating or ignoring FPR in understanding attack robustness. The results may provide insights into ways of enhancing robustness of network architecture and improve the level of protection of critical infrastructures.

  15. Wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Pitts, Elizabeth G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary wheel running on the positive reinforcing effects of heroin in rats with an established history of drug self-administration. Rats were assigned to sedentary (no wheel) and exercise (wheel) conditions and trained to self-administer cocaine under positive reinforcement contingencies. Rats acquiring cocaine self-administration were then tested with various doses of heroin during daily test sessions. Sedentary rats self-administered more heroin than exercising rats, and this effect was greatest at low and moderate doses of heroin. These data suggest that voluntary wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

  16. Positive expiratory pressure - Common clinical applications and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagevik Olsén, Monika; Lannefors, Louise; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    Breathing out against resistance, in order to achieve positive expiratory pressure (PEP), is applied by many patient groups. Pursed lips breathing and a variety of devices can be used to create the resistance giving the increased expiratory pressure. Effects on pulmonary outcomes have been discussed in several publications, but the expected underlying physiology of the effect is seldom discussed. The aim of this article is to describe the purpose, performance, clinical application and underlying physiology of PEP when it is used to increase lung volumes, decrease hyperinflation or improve airway clearance. In clinical practice, the instruction how to use an expiratory resistance is of major importance since it varies. Different breathing patterns during PEP increase or reduce expiratory flow, result in movement of EPP centrally or peripherally and can increase or decrease lung volume. It is therefore necessary to give the right instructions to obtain the desired effects. As the different PEP techniques are being used by diverse patient groups it is not possible to give standard instructions. Based on the information given in this article the instructions have to be adjusted to give the optimal effect. There is no consensus regarding optimal treatment frequency and number of cycles included in each treatment session and must also be individualized. In future research, more precise descriptions are needed about physiological aims and specific instructions of how the treatments have been performed to assure as good treatment quality as possible and to be able to evaluate and compare treatment effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiosensitization effect by combination with paclitaxel in vivo, including the effect on intratumor quiescent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao; Hori, Hitoshi; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Izumi; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Murayama, Chieko

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiosensitization effect on solid tumors upon combination treatment with paclitaxel (TXL), including the effect on intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing SCC VII or EL4 solid tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days to label all proliferating (P) cells. The mice then received γ-irradiation with or without tirapazamine (TPZ) at various time points after TXL administration. Another group of mice received a series of test doses of γ-rays while alive or after tumor clamping to obtain hypoxic fractions (HFs) in the tumors at various time points after TXL administration. Immediately after irradiation, the tumor cells were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 h after irradiation, the tumor cells were isolated from the solid tumors in another group of mice, and the apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequency in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. For the measurement of the HFs, the MN or apoptosis frequency of Q cells was then used to calculate the surviving fraction of Q cells from the regression line for the relationship between the MN or apoptosis frequency and the surviving fraction of total tumor cells. Results: In both SCC VII and EL4 tumors, maximum values of mitotic index (MI) and apoptosis frequency were observed 9 and 24 h after TXL administration, respectively. However, on the whole, the apoptosis frequency for SCC VII was very low. γ-Irradiation 9 h after TXL administration induced significant radiosensitization effects on the total cells of both tumors. Irradiation at 60 h had a more significant effect on total cells of EL4 tumor, but no significant effect on total cells of SCC VII

  18. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saibo Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE, longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone.

  19. Positivity Effect Specific to Older Adults with Subclinical Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Noche, Jessica A.; Murray, Elizabeth A.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that older adults preferentially remember positive information ("positivity effect"), however others have reported mixed results. One potential source of conflict is that aging is not a unitary phenomenon and individual differences exist. We modified a standard neuropsychological test to vary emotional…

  20. Effective orbital volume and eyeball position: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detorakis, Efstathios T; Drakonaki, Eleni; Papadaki, Efrosini; Pallikaris, Ioannis G; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have examined factors affecting the position of the eyeball to the orbit. This study examined the role of effective orbital volume (EOV), defined as the difference between orbital and eyeball volume, as a determinant of eyeball position, using MRI scans. Forty-six patients were recruited from the Department of Ophthalmology of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete Greece. Patients with a history of orbital disease were excluded. Distances between eyeball poles and orbital landmarks were measured in T1 weighted transverse, sagittal and coronal orbital images. The protrusion of the eyeball in the sagittal and transverse planes was recorded. The volume of the eyeball and bony orbit, the EOV, the volume of the extraocular muscles as well as clinical information (age, gender, Hertel exophthalmometry) were also recorded. EOV was significantly associated with orbital volume but not with eyeball volume. EOV was also significantly associated with transverse and sagittal globe protrusions. Females displayed significantly lower orbital and eyeball volumes as well as EOV than males but higher transverse globe protrusion than males. Variations in EOV are associated with orbital volume rather than with eyeball volume. EOV is associated with globe protrusion and may be taken into account in the planning of various procedures, including orbital decompression, treatment of enophthalmos or the size of orbital implants following enucleation.

  1. Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding for ESL learners struggling with reading. ... are intended to open up for debate a topic of critical importance to the country's education system. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Going positive: The effects of negative and positive advertising on candidate success and voter turnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam C Malloy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the depth of research on negative advertising in campaigns, scholars have wondered why candidates continue to attack their opponents. We build on this research by considering real-world campaign contexts in which candidates are working in competition with each other and have to react to the decisions of the opposing campaign. Our results suggest that it is never efficacious for candidates to run attack ads, but running positive ads can increase a candidate’s margin of victory. These results are conditioned by two factors: candidates must both stay positive and out-advertise their opponent. Second, the effects of positive advertising are strongest in areas where the candidate is losing or winning by a large margin—areas where they might be tempted to not advertise at all.

  3. Investigating the effects of strategic positioning for development of modern banking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Anvar Keivi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous changes on banking services and many bank customers are able to do their daily banking activities using recent advances of technology such as internet banking, telephone banking, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation on the effects of strategic positioning for development of modern banking services. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some 385 randomly selected people who live in Tehran in 2013. The questionnaire consists of seven factors including property positioning, advantage positioning, consumer positioning, user positioning, competitive advantage positioning, quality positioning and merchandise category positioning. Using Spearman correlation as well as stepwise regression technique, the study has determined positive and meaningful relationships between different components of strategy positioning development of modern banking services.

  4. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-01-01

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals’ direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people. PMID:24591627

  5. Contextual effect of positive intergroup contact on outgroup prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Swart, Hermann; Stolle, Dietlind; Tausch, Nicole; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Wagner, Ulrich; Vertovec, Steven; Hewstone, Miles

    2014-03-18

    We assessed evidence for a contextual effect of positive intergroup contact, whereby the effect of intergroup contact between social contexts (the between-level effect) on outgroup prejudice is greater than the effect of individual-level contact within contexts (the within-level effect). Across seven large-scale surveys (five cross-sectional and two longitudinal), using multilevel analyses, we found a reliable contextual effect. This effect was found in multiple countries, operationalizing context at multiple levels (regions, districts, and neighborhoods), and with and without controlling for a range of demographic and context variables. In four studies (three cross-sectional and one longitudinal) we showed that the association between context-level contact and prejudice was largely mediated by more tolerant norms. In social contexts where positive contact with outgroups was more commonplace, norms supported such positive interactions between members of different groups. Thus, positive contact reduces prejudice on a macrolevel, whereby people are influenced by the behavior of others in their social context, not merely on a microscale, via individuals' direct experience of positive contact with outgroup members. These findings reinforce the view that contact has a significant role to play in prejudice reduction, and has great policy potential as a means to improve intergroup relations, because it can simultaneously impact large numbers of people.

  6. Incremental Yield of Including Determine-TB LAM Assay in Diagnostic Algorithms for Hospitalized and Ambulatory HIV-Positive Patients in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerga, Helena; Ferlazzo, Gabriella; Bevilacqua, Paolo; Kirubi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Wanjala, Stephen; Sitienei, Joseph; Bonnet, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    Determine-TB LAM assay is a urine point-of-care test useful for TB diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. We assessed the incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM to algorithms based on clinical signs, sputum smear-microscopy, chest X-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with symptoms of pulmonary TB (PTB). Prospective observational cohort of ambulatory (either severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl or with Body Mass Index<17Kg/m2) and hospitalized symptomatic HIV-positive adults in Kenya. Incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM was the difference in the proportion of confirmed TB patients (positive Xpert or MTB culture) diagnosed by the algorithm with LAM compared to the algorithm without LAM. The multivariable mortality model was adjusted for age, sex, clinical severity, BMI, CD4, ART initiation, LAM result and TB confirmation. Among 474 patients included, 44.1% were severely ill, 69.6% had CD4<200cells/μl, 59.9% had initiated ART, 23.2% could not produce sputum. LAM, smear-microscopy, Xpert and culture in sputum were positive in 39.0% (185/474), 21.6% (76/352), 29.1% (102/350) and 39.7% (92/232) of the patients tested, respectively. Of 156 patients with confirmed TB, 65.4% were LAM positive. Of those classified as non-TB, 84.0% were LAM negative. Adding LAM increased the diagnostic yield of the algorithms by 36.6%, from 47.4% (95%CI:39.4-55.6) to 84.0% (95%CI:77.3-89.4%), when using clinical signs and X-ray; by 19.9%, from 62.2% (95%CI:54.1-69.8) to 82.1% (95%CI:75.1-87.7), when using clinical signs and microscopy; and by 13.4%, from 74.4% (95%CI:66.8-81.0) to 87.8% (95%CI:81.6-92.5), when using clinical signs and Xpert. LAM positive patients had an increased risk of 2-months mortality (aOR:2.7; 95%CI:1.5-4.9). LAM should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms in parallel to microscopy or Xpert request for HIV-positive patients either ambulatory (severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl) or hospitalized. LAM allows same day treatment initiation in patients at

  7. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K Sasse

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  8. Selective control of attention supports the positivity effect in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Laura K; Gamer, Matthias; Büchel, Christian; Brassen, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence for a positivity effect in healthy aging, which describes an age-specific increased focus on positive compared to negative information. Life-span researchers have attributed this effect to the selective allocation of cognitive resources in the service of prioritized emotional goals. We explored the basic principles of this assumption by assessing selective attention and memory for visual stimuli, differing in emotional content and self-relevance, in young and old participants. To specifically address the impact of cognitive control, voluntary attentional selection during the presentation of multiple-item displays was analyzed and linked to participants' general ability of cognitive control. Results revealed a positivity effect in older adults' selective attention and memory, which was particularly pronounced for self-relevant stimuli. Focusing on positive and ignoring negative information was most evident in older participants with a generally higher ability to exert top-down control during visual search. Our findings highlight the role of controlled selectivity in the occurrence of a positivity effect in aging. Since the effect has been related to well-being in later life, we suggest that the ability to selectively allocate top-down control might represent a resilience factor for emotional health in aging.

  9. Time perspective and positivity effects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Linzy; Kwong See, Sheree T; Fung, Helene H

    2016-09-01

    This study tested whether time perspective, a central tenant of socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, 2006), moderates positivity effects in emotional memory. To provide measures of time perspective, young (YA; M = 22.48 years), young-old (YO; M = 67.56 years), old-old adults (OO; M = 80.24 years), and participants with moderate severity Alzheimer's disease (PAD; M = 84.28 years) completed a line task and reported subjective age. As expected, YA, YO, and OO reported successively more constrained future time perspectives. PAD showed distortion in time perspective, envisioning a future comparable with the YO, although closer matched in chronological age to OO adults. To evince positivity effects, participants were oriented to pairs of emotional images and were then tested for memory (recall and recognition) of the images. Recall and recognition memory for the images indicated an age-related advantage for positive over negative material (positivity effects). Time perspective, however, did not moderate these age effects. In memory performance, PAD were more comparable with OO adults with whom they shared a similar chronological age, rather than YO adults, who had a corresponding time perspective. These results suggest that age correlates that are shared by PAD and OO, such as reduced processing resources, rather than time perspective, may drive the age associated positivity effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Position-dependent Effects of Polylysine on Sec Protein Transport*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K.; Musser, Siegfried M.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or “pause sites,” were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport. PMID:22367204

  11. Position-dependent effects of polylysine on Sec protein transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Cheng; Bageshwar, Umesh K; Musser, Siegfried M

    2012-04-13

    The bacterial Sec protein translocation system catalyzes the transport of unfolded precursor proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane. Using a recently developed real time fluorescence-based transport assay, the effects of the number and distribution of positive charges on the transport time and transport efficiency of proOmpA were examined. As expected, an increase in the number of lysine residues generally increased transport time and decreased transport efficiency. However, the observed effects were highly dependent on the polylysine position in the mature domain. In addition, a string of consecutive positive charges generally had a more significant effect on transport time and efficiency than separating the charges into two or more charged segments. Thirty positive charges distributed throughout the mature domain resulted in effects similar to 10 consecutive charges near the N terminus of the mature domain. These data support a model in which the local effects of positive charge on the translocation kinetics dominate over total thermodynamic constraints. The rapid translocation kinetics of some highly charged proOmpA mutants suggest that the charge is partially shielded from the electric field gradient during transport, possibly by the co-migration of counter ions. The transport times of precursors with multiple positively charged sequences, or "pause sites," were fairly well predicted by a local effect model. However, the kinetic profile predicted by this local effect model was not observed. Instead, the transport kinetics observed for precursors with multiple polylysine segments support a model in which translocation through the SecYEG pore is not the rate-limiting step of transport.

  12. Positive emotions and the social broadening effects of Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Anthony D; Burrow, Anthony L; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E

    2012-10-01

    Past experiments have demonstrated that the cognitive broadening produced by positive emotions may extend to social contexts. Building on this evidence, we hypothesized that positive emotions triggered by thinking about Barack Obama may broaden and expand people's sense of self to include others. Results from an expressive-writing study demonstrated that African American college students prompted to write about Obama immediately prior to and after the 2008 presidential election used more plural self-references, fewer other-references, and more social references. Mediation analyses revealed that writing about Obama increased positive emotions, which in turn increased the likelihood that people thought in terms of more-inclusive superordinate categories (we and us rather than they and them). Implications of these findings for the role of positive emotions in perspective-taking and intergroup relations are considered.

  13. Viewing-position effects in the Stroop task: Initial fixation position modulates Stroop effects in fully colored words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Patrick; Ducrot, Stéphanie

    2010-08-01

    In two experiments that we conducted with adult (Experiment 1) and child (Experiment 2) participants, we experimentally controlled the eyes' first fixation in the word using a variable viewing-position technique in a classical all-letter-coloring Stroop procedure. We explored the impact of initial-fixation position (optimal viewing position [OVP] vs. end of the word) on the magnitude of Stroop effects (both interference and facilitation). The results showed that both interference and facilitation effects were reduced when the first fixation was located at the end of the word rather than at the OVP. These data make a new contribution to the study of the role of low-level processes in Stroop effects and add support to the growing body of research indicating that oculomotor processes can act as moderators of cognitive processes in the determination of Stroop effects.

  14. Endocarditis : Effects of routine echocardiography during Gram-positive bacteraemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, F J; Bleeker-Rovers, C P; Sturm, P D; Krabbe, P F M; van Dijk, A P J; Oyen, W J G; Kullberg, B J

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite firm recommendations to perform echocardiography in high-risk patients with Gram-positive bacteraemia, routine echocardiography is not embedded in daily practice in many settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a regime including routine echocardiography results in

  15. Improvement of prediction ability for genomic selection of dairy cattle by including dominance effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Sun

    Full Text Available Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both

  16. The Coo Effect in the International Brand Positioning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kobuszewski Volles

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: This study aims to develop a model in order to understand how Chinese companies strategically position their brands, considering the causes of the country of origin (COO effect, when going through the process of internationalization. Design/methodology/approach: The study approach a qualitative case study that incorporates two different Chinese companies with subsidiaries settled in Brazil. It was conducted depth interviews with different components of the studied firms. Findings: In this way, it was developed a model that try to explain the positive and/or negative effect of general attributes from China (labor market, institution framework and education on the brand positioning divers (value preposition, points of leverage, primary target and image reinforcement, which influences on the cost-benefit strategy approach of the brands when positioning internationally. Research limitations/implications: Considering that this research is a qualitative study of two Chinese companies, further qualitative and quantitative studies would be fruitful to the validity of the presented model. Originality/value: In order to contribute to the academic field, it was found that this research present a unique model considering different causes of the COO effect that might affect the international branding positioning.

  17. The theory behind the age-related positivity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The positivity effect refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather & Carstensen, 2005 scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision-making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.

  18. Effects of workload on teachers' functioning: A moderated mediation model including sleeping problems and overcommitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghebaert, Tiphaine; Gillet, Nicolas; Beltou, Nicolas; Tellier, Fanny; Fouquereau, Evelyne

    2018-06-14

    This study investigated the mediating role of sleeping problems in the relationship between workload and outcomes (emotional exhaustion, presenteeism, job satisfaction, and performance), and overcommitment was examined as a moderator in the relationship between workload and sleeping problems. We conducted an empirical study using a sample of 884 teachers. Consistent with our predictions, results revealed that the positive indirect effects of workload on emotional exhaustion and presenteeism, and the negative indirect effects of workload on job satisfaction and performance, through sleeping problems, were only significant among overcommitted teachers. Workload and overcommitment were also directly related to all four outcomes, precisely, they both positively related to emotional exhaustion and presenteeism and negatively related to job satisfaction and performance. Theoretical contributions and perspectives and implications for practice are discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Effectiveness of CASAs in Achieving Positive Outcomes for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelfelner, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of court-appointed special advocates (CASAs) in achieving positive outcomes for children in the child welfare system, using data from court and CASA program files on 200 children. Found that CASAs may have reduced the number of placements and court continuances children experienced. More services were provided to children…

  20. The Positive Effects of Cognitive Learning Styles in ELT Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagcioglu, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted.…

  1. Divergent Effects of Different Positive Emotions on Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohminger, Nina; Lewis, Richard L.; Meyer, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Positive emotions are often treated as relatively similar in their cognitive-behavioral effects, and as having unambiguously beneficial consequences. For example, Valdesolo and DeSteno (2006) reported that a humorous video made people more prone to choose a utilitarian solution to a moral dilemma. They attributed this finding to increased positive…

  2. Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of

  3. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS ANALYSIS IN ABUSE OF DOMINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai MĂRGINEAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of a dominant position is a threat to the functioning of the free market. This is the reason why we have proposed to highlight the impact of this particular anti-competitive practice in the European Union area. The aim of this paper is to present, from a theoretical and practical approach, the implications and the effects of this type of behavior and also to highlight the main actors in this process. In order to achieve these goals, we will use the content analysis to compress the effects of the abuse of dominant position in two categories: positive and negative effects. The historical method to emphasize the historical origins of the concepts and institutions involved. The comparative method will be used to nominate specific features, concepts or institutions that we will analyze and also it will help us to analyze the evolution that have occurred over time in terms of their development and to highlight certain advantages or disadvantages in terms of choice of competition policy on the abuse of a dominant position. In this paper we will notice that both the companies and the market itself are facing with companies that use anti-competitive since 1900. These kind of practices are harmful both for competition and for consumers, so that should not be allowed to expand. In this context, the European Commission imposed a set of rules that all operators must comply in order to protect, maintain and stimulate competition in the Single Market and to promote fair competition.

  4. Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anandan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resistance shows significant improvement as the channel length decreases. The effects of thermal noise including self-heating of the device are explored. Moreover, significant reduction in noise with respect to channel thermal resistance, gate length, and biasing is analyzed.

  5. ZP Domain Proteins in the Abalone Egg Coat Include a Paralog of VERL under Positive Selection That Binds Lysin and 18-kDa Sperm Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Vacquier, Victor D.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying fertilization molecules is key to our understanding of reproductive biology, yet only a few examples of interacting sperm and egg proteins are known. One of the best characterized comes from the invertebrate archeogastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.), where sperm lysin mediates passage through the protective egg vitelline envelope (VE) by binding to the VE protein vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL). Rapid adaptive divergence of abalone lysin and VERL are an example of positive selection on interacting fertilization proteins contributing to reproductive isolation. Previously, we characterized a subset of the abalone VE proteins that share a structural feature, the zona pellucida (ZP) domain, which is common to VERL and the egg envelopes of vertebrates. Here, we use additional expressed sequence tag sequencing and shotgun proteomics to characterize this family of proteins in the abalone egg VE. We expand 3-fold the number of known ZP domain proteins present within the VE (now 30 in total) and identify a paralog of VERL (vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein [VEZP] 14) that contains a putative lysin-binding motif. We find that, like VERL, the divergence of VEZP14 among abalone species is driven by positive selection on the lysin-binding motif alone and that these paralogous egg VE proteins bind a similar set of sperm proteins including a rapidly evolving 18-kDa paralog of lysin, which may mediate sperm–egg fusion. This work identifies an egg coat paralog of VERL under positive selection and the candidate sperm proteins with which it may interact during abalone fertilization. PMID:19767347

  6. A Positive Generation Effect on Memory for Auditory Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Amy A; Richard, Alison G; Stephens, Joseph D W

    2017-06-01

    Self-generation of information during memory encoding has large positive effects on subsequent memory for items, but mixed effects on memory for contextual information associated with items. A processing account of generation effects on context memory (Mulligan in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 30(4), 838-855, 2004; Mulligan, Lozito, & Rosner in Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32(4), 836-846, 2006) proposes that these effects depend on whether the generation task causes any shift in processing of the type of context features for which memory is being tested. Mulligan and colleagues have used this account to predict various negative effects of generation on context memory, but the account also predicts positive generation effects under certain circumstances. The present experiment provided a critical test of the processing account by examining how generation affected memory for auditory rather than visual context. Based on the processing account, we predicted that generation of rhyme words should enhance processing of auditory information associated with the words (i.e., voice gender), whereas generation of antonym words should have no effect. These predictions were confirmed, providing support to the processing account.

  7. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.

  8. Effect of intrauterine position on the radiosensitivity of rat embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.F.; Aceto, H. Jr.; Karp, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Rats were exposed to gamma rays or helium ions on one of days 4 to 9 of gestation. Embryonic survival was recorded as a function of intrauterine position at autopsy on day 20 of gestation. Embryos located at the ovarian and cervical ends of the uterus experienced higher rates of mortality than did their littermates located at the middle of the uterine horn. This effect was observed in litters exposed to both radiation modalities on all days studied. The influence of intrauterine position on embryonic survival was directly proportional to radiation dose and to the number of fetuses occupying the uterus horn. Under the least advantageous conditions (i.e., a crowded uterine horn exposed to a moderately high radiation dose), the cervical embryo's probability of survival was less than half that of the litter as a whole. A disproportionately high rate of embryonic mortality at the cervical position was also observed in litters irradiated under hypoxic conditions, suggesting that the non-random distribution of radiation effect was not the result of variations in oxygen concentration within the uterus. In contrast, there was no indication that intrauterine position influenced the distribution of gross morphologic abnormalities in irradiated litters

  9. A Faraday effect position sensor for interventional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, M; Umathum, R; Sikora, J; Brenner, S; Aguor, E N; Semmler, W

    2006-02-21

    An optical sensor is presented which determines the position and one degree of orientation within a magnetic resonance tomograph. The sensor utilizes the Faraday effect to measure the local magnetic field, which is modulated by switching additional linear magnetic fields, the gradients. Existing methods for instrument localization during an interventional MR procedure often use electrically conducting structures at the instruments that can heat up excessively during MRI and are thus a significant danger for the patient. The proposed optical Faraday effect position sensor consists of non-magnetic and electrically non-conducting components only so that heating is avoided and the sensor could be applied safely even within the human body. With a non-magnetic prototype set-up, experiments were performed to demonstrate the possibility of measuring both the localization and the orientation in a magnetic resonance tomograph. In a 30 mT m(-1) gradient field, a localization uncertainty of 1.5 cm could be achieved.

  10. Deformation integrity monitoring for GNSS positioning services including local, regional and large scale hazard monitoring - the Karlsruhe approach and software(MONIKA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, R.

    2007-05-01

    GNSS-positioning services like SAPOS/ascos in Germany and many others in Europe, America and worldwide, usually yield in a short time their interdisciplinary and country-wide use for precise geo-referencing, replacing traditional low order geodetic networks. So it becomes necessary that possible changes of the reference stations' coordinates are detected ad hoc. The GNSS-reference-station MONitoring by the KArlsruhe approach and software (MONIKA) are designed for that task. The developments at Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences in cooperation with the State Survey of Baden-Württemberg are further motivated by a the official resolution of the German state survey departments' association (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen Deutschland (AdV)) 2006 on coordinate monitoring as a quality-control duty of the GNSS-positioning service provider. The presented approach can - besides the coordinate control of GNSS-positioning services - also be used to set up any GNSS-service for the tasks of an area-wide geodynamical and natural disaster-prevention service. The mathematical model of approach, which enables a multivariate and multi-epochal design approach, is based on the GNSS-observations input of the RINEX-data of the GNSS service, followed by fully automatic processing of baselines and/or session, and a near-online setting up of epoch-state vectors and their covariance-matrices in a rigorous 3D network adjustment. In case of large scale and long-term monitoring situations, geodynamical standard trends (datum-drift, plate-movements etc.) are accordingly considered and included in the mathematical model of MONIKA. The coordinate-based deformation monitoring approach, as third step of the stepwise adjustments, is based on the above epoch-state vectors, and - splitting off geodynamics trends - hereby on a multivariate and multi-epochal congruency testing. So far, that no other information exists, all points are assumed as being stable and congruent reference

  11. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnberg, P O; de Villota, E D; Eklund, J; Granberg, P O

    1978-01-01

    The effects were studied positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on renal function in eight patients with acute respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation. On application of PEEP + 10 cm H2O, central venous pressure increased, systolic blood pressure decreased, urine flow and PAH-clearance were reduced, while inulin clearance remained stable. There was a marked increase in fractional sodium reabsorption and a concurrent decrease in fractional osmolal excretion. Fractional free-water clearance and the ratio UOsm/POsm did change.

  12. THE POSITIVE EFFECTS OF COGNITIVE LEARNING STYLES IN ELT CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Yagcioglu

    2016-01-01

    In the EFL, ESL, ESP and in the ELT classes, students are taught their courses with different kinds of methods and approaches. Cognitive learning styles are the most essential styles in foreign language education. In this paper, the positive effects of cognitive learning styles will be handled. The benefits of these styles will be highlighted. Games on cognitive learning styles will be explained. Sample classroom activities will be shared. Useful books, videos and websites on cognitive learni...

  13. EFFECT OF BODY POSITIONS ON INTRA OCULAR PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP can be altered by changing body position. Very few studies are available in the Indian subjects. AIM: To study the effect of changes in the body position from upright posture to supine to head down tilt of - 60 0 . MATERIALS AND M ETHODS: The study group consisted of 60 subjects, 35 boys and 25 girls in the age group of 18 to 24 years, with no ocular pathology were chosen. Independent measurements of the IOP of each eye were obtained. Keelar Pulsair air impulse tonometer was used in all the subjects for IOP measurement. IOP was measured in the department of Ophthalmology, Teaching Hospital between 10AM to 12 Noon. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : were done using Student’s paired ‘t’ test. RESULTS: The change of IOP (Increased induced by the change of position between the means of IOP’s for the sitting and supine positions was 2.789±1.03 mm Hg of all subjects, 2.825±0.226 mm Hg in males and 2.739±0.089 mm Hg in females and between the supine and in clined - 60 ⁰ position was 4.971±0.914 mm Hg of all subjects, 4.703±0.816mm Hg in males and 5.346±1.098 mm Hg in females. CONCLUSION: It is apparent that, the IOP is significantly higher in the supine than in the sitting and in the inclined than in the supin e positions. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001.

  14. Patient position alters attenuation effects in multipinhole cardiac SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Rachel; Ruddy, Terrence D; Wells, R Glenn

    2015-03-01

    Dedicated cardiac cameras offer improved sensitivity over conventional SPECT cameras. Sensitivity gains are obtained by large numbers of detectors and novel collimator arrangements such as an array of multiple pinholes that focus on the heart. Pinholes lead to variable amounts of attenuation as a source is moved within the camera field of view. This study evaluated the effects of this variable attenuation on myocardial SPECT images. Computer simulations were performed for a set of nine point sources distributed in the left ventricular wall (LV). Sources were placed at the location of the heart in both an anthropomorphic and a water-cylinder computer phantom. Sources were translated in x, y, and z by up to 5 cm from the center. Projections were simulated with and without attenuation and the changes in attenuation were compared. A LV with an inferior wall defect was also simulated in both phantoms over the same range of positions. Real camera data were acquired on a Discovery NM530c camera (GE Healthcare, Haifa, Israel) for five min in list-mode using an anthropomorphic phantom (DataSpectrum, Durham, NC) with 100 MBq of Tc-99m in the LV. Images were taken over the same range of positions as the simulations and were compared based on the summed perfusion score (SPS), defect width, and apparent defect uptake for each position. Point sources in the water phantom showed absolute changes in attenuation of ≤8% over the range of positions and relative changes of ≤5% compared to the apex. In the anthropomorphic computer simulations, absolute change increased to 20%. The changes in relative attenuation caused a change in SPS of position-dependent changes were removed with attenuation correction. Translation of a source relative to a multipinhole camera caused only small changes in homogeneous phantoms with SPS changing position-dependent changes in attenuation.

  15. Study of a diffusion flamelet model, with preferential diffusion effects included

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delhaye, S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Bongers, H.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Dias, V.

    2005-01-01

    The non-premixed flamelet model of Peters [1] (model1), which does not include preferential diffusion effects is investigated. Two similar models are presented, but without the assumption of unity Lewis numbers. One of these models was derived by Peters & Pitsch [2] (model2), while the other one was

  16. Positive effects of vegetation: Urban heat island and green roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susca, T.; Gaffin, S.R.; Dell'Osso, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the positive effects of vegetation with a multi-scale approach: an urban and a building scale. Monitoring the urban heat island in four areas of New York City, we have found an average of 2 deg. C difference of temperatures between the most and the least vegetated areas, ascribable to the substitution of vegetation with man-made building materials. At micro-scale, we have assessed the effect of surface albedo on climate through the use of a climatological model. Then, using the CO 2 equivalents as indicators of the impact on climate, we have compared the surface albedo, and the construction, replacement and use phase of a black, a white and a green roof. By our analyses, we found that both the white and the green roofs are less impactive than the black one; with the thermal resistance, the biological activity of plants and the surface albedo playing a crucial role. - Highlights: → The local morphology and the scarcity of vegetation in NYC core determines its UHI. → We introduce the evaluation of the effects of the surface albedo on climate change. → We use it to compare a black roof with a white and a green one. → Surface albedo has a crucial role in the evaluation of the environmental loads of the roofs. → Vegetation has positive effects on both the urban and the building scale. - Vegetation has positive effects both on an urban scale, mitigating the urban heat island effect; and on a building scale, where albedo, thermal insulation and biological activity of plants play a crucial role.

  17. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  18. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Idsart; Bosch, Tim; Bruins, Louis; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2004-10-22

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined with an EMG assisted trunk muscle model to quantify kinematics and low back loading in 10 subjects performing 19 different lifting movements, using 10.5 kg boxes without handles. When lifting from a 0.05 m height with the feet behind the box, squat lifting resulted in 19.9% (SD 8.7%) higher net moments (p squat and stoop lifts, as well as the interaction with lifting height, could to a large extent be explained by changes in the horizontal L5/S1 intervertebral joint position relative to the load, the upper body acceleration, and lumbar flexion. Rotating the knees outward during squat lifts resulted in moments and compression forces that were smaller than in squat lifting but larger than in stoop lifting. Shear forces were small ( < 300 N) at the L4/L5 joint and substantial (1100 - 1400 N) but unaffected by lifting technique at the L5/S1 joint. The present results show that the effects of lifting technique on low back loading depend on the task context.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of positive contrast and nuclear arthrography in patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swan, J.S.; Braunstein, E.M.; Capello, W.; Wellman, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have compared the cost effectiveness of contrast arthrography (CA) and nuclear arthrography (NA), in which In-111 chloride is injected with the contrast material, of total hip arthroplasties. Their series included 48 cases of surgically proved loose femoral components. The cost per true-positive result was obtained by taking the total cost of the examinations in surgically proved cases and dividing by the number of true-position cases. The cost of CA was $297 and the cost of NA was $335. For CA, the cost per true positive was $1,018, and for the NA the cost per true positive was $946. In spite of higher initial cost, NA is more cost effective than CA on a cost per true-positive case basis. NA is cost effective in evaluating hip arthroplasties in which there is suspicion of a loose femoral component

  20. Epidemic spreading in scale-free networks including the effect of individual vigilance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yong-Wang; Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the epidemic spreading in scale-free networks and propose a new susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model that includes the effect of individual vigilance. In our model, the effective spreading rate is dynamically adjusted with the time evolution at the vigilance period. Using the mean-field theory, an analytical result is derived. It shows that individual vigilance has no effect on the epidemic threshold. The numerical simulations agree well with the analytical result. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of individual vigilance on the epidemic spreading speed. It is shown that individual vigilance can slow the epidemic spreading speed effectively and delay the arrival of peak epidemic infection. (general)

  1. A thermal conductivity model for nanofluids including effect of the temperature-dependent interfacial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitprasert, Chatcharin; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Juntasaro, Varangrat

    2009-01-01

    The interfacial layer of nanoparticles has been recently shown to have an effect on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. There is, however, still no thermal conductivity model that includes the effects of temperature and nanoparticle size variations on the thickness and consequently on the thermal conductivity of the interfacial layer. In the present work, the stationary model developed by Leong et al. (J Nanopart Res 8:245-254, 2006) is initially modified to include the thermal dispersion effect due to the Brownian motion of nanoparticles. This model is called the 'Leong et al.'s dynamic model'. However, the Leong et al.'s dynamic model over-predicts the thermal conductivity of nanofluids in the case of the flowing fluid. This suggests that the enhancement in the thermal conductivity of the flowing nanofluids due to the increase in temperature does not come from the thermal dispersion effect. It is more likely that the enhancement in heat transfer of the flowing nanofluids comes from the temperature-dependent interfacial layer effect. Therefore, the Leong et al.'s stationary model is again modified to include the effect of temperature variation on the thermal conductivity of the interfacial layer for different sizes of nanoparticles. This present model is then evaluated and compared with the other thermal conductivity models for the turbulent convective heat transfer in nanofluids along a uniformly heated tube. The results show that the present model is more general than the other models in the sense that it can predict both the temperature and the volume fraction dependence of the thermal conductivity of nanofluids for both non-flowing and flowing fluids. Also, it is found to be more accurate than the other models due to the inclusion of the effect of the temperature-dependent interfacial layer. In conclusion, the present model can accurately predict the changes in thermal conductivity of nanofluids due to the changes in volume fraction and temperature for

  2. Invisible Support: Effects on the Provider's Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Claudia; Stadler, Gertraud; Knoll, Nina; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2016-07-01

    Social support that goes unnoticed by receivers (i.e. invisible support) seems to be most beneficial for the receivers' well-being. The providers' well-being, however, has been neglected so far. This study examines how invisible support is related to the providers' well-being and whether this association is dependent on the providers' relationship satisfaction. Overall, 97 non-smoking partners of smokers who were about to quit smoking were examined. Invisible support was assessed dyadically: partners' reports on smoking-specific provided social support together with smokers' reports on received support were assessed at baseline. Partners' relationship satisfaction was also assessed at baseline. Partners' positive and negative affect were measured at baseline and six-week follow-up. No main effects of invisible instrumental or emotional support occurred. However, partners' relationship satisfaction moderated the association between invisible instrumental support and change in partners' negative and positive affect: For partners with lower relationship satisfaction more invisible instrumental support was related to increased negative affect and decreased positive affect, whereas for partners with higher relationship satisfaction the inverse effects occurred. The study's results emphasise that invisible instrumental support might have emotional costs for the providers. Relationship satisfaction seems to serve as a protective factor. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. A technique of including the effect of aging of passive components in probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) being developed at most nuclear power plants to calculate the risk of core damage generally focus on the possible failure of active components. The possible failure of passive components is given little consideration. We are developing methods for selecting risk-significant passive components and including them in PRAS. These methods provide effective ways to prioritize passive components for inspection, and where inspection reveals aging damage, mitigation or repair can be employed to reduce the likelihood of component failure. We demonstrated a method by selecting a weld in the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system, basing our selection on expert judgement of the likelihood of failure and on an estimate of the consequence of component failure to plant safety. We then modified and used the Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events (PRAISE) computer code to perform a probabilistic structural analysis to calculate the probability that crack growth due to aging would cause the weld to fail. The PRAISE code was modified to include the effects of changing design material properties with age and changing stress cycles. The calculation included the effects of mechanical loads and thermal transients typical of the service loads for this piping design and the effects of thermal cycling caused by a leaking check valve. However, this particular calculation showed little change in low component failure probability and plant risk for 48 years of service. However, sensitivity studies showed that if the probability of component failure is high, the effect on plant risk is significant. The success of this demonstration shows that this method could be applied to nuclear power plants. The demonstration showed the method is too involved (PRAISE takes a long time to perform the calculation and the input information is extensive) for handling a large number of passive components and therefore simpler methods are needed

  4. Positive emotional change: mediating effects of forgiveness and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Michael R; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Yancura, Loriena

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of an emotional education program that seeks to reduce the intergenerational transmission of negative interaction patterns by increasing forgiveness and spirituality. We examined both reduction of psychological symptoms and increase in positive psychological outcomes over the course of a year, as well as the mediators of this change. At baseline, the sample consisted of 99 participants and 47 waiting list controls. Comparisons of scores from baseline (Time 1) to one week after the Hoffman Quadrinity Process (Time 2) showed large declines in negative affect (depressive symptoms) and increases in both positive outcomes (mastery, empathy, emotional intelligence, life satisfaction, forgiveness, and spiritual experience) and health and well-being. Over the course of a year, most of these gains were sustained, in comparison with the control group. Further, increases in forgiveness and spirituality mediated the effect of program participation on depressive symptoms.

  5. Regulation of positive and negative emotion: Effects of sociocultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Snyder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the use of emotion regulation strategies can vary by sociocultural context. In a previous study, we reported changes in the use of two different emotion regulation strategies at an annual alternative cultural event, Burning Man (McRae, Heller, John, & Gross, 2011. In this sociocultural context, as compared to home, participants reported less use of expressive suppression (a strategy generally associated with maladaptive outcomes, and greater use of cognitive reappraisal (a strategy associated with adaptive outcomes. What remained unclear was whether these changes in self-reported emotion regulation strategy use were characterized by changes in the regulation of positive emotion, negative emotion, or both. We addressed this issue in the current study by asking Burning Man participants separate questions about positive and negative emotion. Using multiple datasets, we not only replicated our previous findings, but also found that the decreased use of suppression is primarily driven by reports of decreased suppression of positive emotion at Burning Man. By contrast, the reported increased use of reappraisal is not characterized by differential reappraisal of positive and negative emotion at Burning Man. Moreover, we observed novel individual differences in the magnitude of these effects. The contextual changes in self-reported suppression that we report are strongest for men and younger participants. For those who had previously attended Burning Man, we observed lower levels of self-reported suppression in both sociocultural contexts: Burning Man and home. These findings have implications for understanding the ways in which certain sociocultural contexts may decrease suppression, and possibly minimize its associated maladaptive effects.

  6. Unified theory of dislocation motion including thermal activation and inertial effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, R.D.; Granato, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Transition-state rate theory has generally been used to explain the temperature dependence of the flow stress of a crystal. However, the existence of a change in the flow stress during the superconducting transition indicates the presence of inertial effects in which dislocations overcome obstacles mechanically rather than thermally. It is shown here that the thermally activated and the inertial overcoming of obstacles are not unrelated but can both be derived from principles of stochastic motion. This leads to a theory of dislocation motion that includes both thermal activation and inertial effects. It is also shown that a distribution of activation energies must be considered to account for the experimental data

  7. Comparison of approaches to Total Quality Management. Including an examination of the Department of Energy`s position on quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of several qualitatively different approaches to Total Quality Management (TQM). The continuum ranges from management approaches that are primarily standards -- with specific guidelines, but few theoretical concepts -- to approaches that are primarily philosophical, with few specific guidelines. The approaches to TQM discussed in this paper include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 Standard, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, Senge`s the Learning Organization, Watkins and Marsick`s approach to organizational learning, Covey`s Seven Habits of Highly Successful People, and Deming`s Fourteen Points for Management. Some of these approaches (Deming and ISO 9000) are then compared to the DOE`s official position on quality management and conduct of operations (DOE Orders 5700.6C and 5480.19). Using a tabular format, it is shown that while 5700.6C (Quality Assurance) maps well to many of the current approaches to TQM, DOE`s principle guide to management Order 5419.80 (Conduct of Operations) has many significant conflicts with some of the modern approaches to continuous quality improvement.

  8. Finite element modeling of contaminant transport in soils including the effect of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, A A; Al-Najjar, M M

    2007-05-17

    The movement of chemicals through soils to the groundwater is a major cause of degradation of water resources. In many cases, serious human and stock health implications are associated with this form of pollution. Recent studies have shown that the current models and methods are not able to adequately describe the leaching of nutrients through soils, often underestimating the risk of groundwater contamination by surface-applied chemicals, and overestimating the concentration of resident solutes. Furthermore, the effect of chemical reactions on the fate and transport of contaminants is not included in many of the existing numerical models for contaminant transport. In this paper a numerical model is presented for simulation of the flow of water and air and contaminant transport through unsaturated soils with the main focus being on the effects of chemical reactions. The governing equations of miscible contaminant transport including advection, dispersion-diffusion and adsorption effects together with the effect of chemical reactions are presented. The mathematical framework and the numerical implementation of the model are described in detail. The model is validated by application to a number of test cases from the literature and is then applied to the simulation of a physical model test involving transport of contaminants in a block of soil with particular reference to the effects of chemical reactions. Comparison of the results of the numerical model with the experimental results shows that the model is capable of predicting the effects of chemical reactions with very high accuracy. The importance of consideration of the effects of chemical reactions is highlighted.

  9. Heat transfer behavior including thermal wake effects in forced air cooling of arrays of rectangular blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, S.; Faghri, M.; Lessmann, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study thermal wake effects in arrays of rectangular blocks encountered in electronic equipment. Data were obtained for a series of channel heights and flow velocities. The temperature rise due to wake effects behind a single heated module was found to be fairly independent of the channel height and the position of the heated block, for a given approach velocity. The adiabatic temperature rise data for a module due to a heated element immediately upstream of it for different inter-module spacings were found to correlate well in terms of a new parameter called the surface packing density. This paper reports that it was reported by the authors in an earlier paper that both the adiabatic heat transfer coefficient nd pressure-drop data for regular in-line arrays correlated well in terms of a composite geometric parameter called the column packing density. These experiments have been extended to a higher Reynolds number. Empirical correlations are presented here for friction factor and Nusselt number in terms of the volume packing density, and for the thermal wake effects in terms of the surface packing density. Data from literature for arrays with widely different geometric parameters are shown to agree with these correlations

  10. [Evaluation of Cellular Effects Caused by Lunar Regolith Simulant Including Fine Particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has announced a plan to establish a manned colony on the surface of the moon, and our country, Japan, has declared its participation. The surface of the moon is covered with soil called lunar regolith, which includes fine particles. It is possible that humans will inhale lunar regolith if it is brought into the spaceship. Therefore, an evaluation of the pulmonary effects caused by lunar regolith is important for exploration of the moon. In the present study, we examine the cellular effects of lunar regolith simulant, whose components are similar to those of lunar regolith. We focused on the chemical component and particle size in particular. The regolith simulant was fractionated to lunar regolith simulant such as cell membrane damage, induction of oxidative stress and proinflammatory effect.

  11. Patient position alters attenuation effects in multipinhole cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmins, Rachel; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dedicated cardiac cameras offer improved sensitivity over conventional SPECT cameras. Sensitivity gains are obtained by large numbers of detectors and novel collimator arrangements such as an array of multiple pinholes that focus on the heart. Pinholes lead to variable amounts of attenuation as a source is moved within the camera field of view. This study evaluated the effects of this variable attenuation on myocardial SPECT images. Methods: Computer simulations were performed for a set of nine point sources distributed in the left ventricular wall (LV). Sources were placed at the location of the heart in both an anthropomorphic and a water-cylinder computer phantom. Sources were translated in x, y, and z by up to 5 cm from the center. Projections were simulated with and without attenuation and the changes in attenuation were compared. A LV with an inferior wall defect was also simulated in both phantoms over the same range of positions. Real camera data were acquired on a Discovery NM530c camera (GE Healthcare, Haifa, Israel) for five min in list-mode using an anthropomorphic phantom (DataSpectrum, Durham, NC) with 100 MBq of Tc-99m in the LV. Images were taken over the same range of positions as the simulations and were compared based on the summed perfusion score (SPS), defect width, and apparent defect uptake for each position. Results: Point sources in the water phantom showed absolute changes in attenuation of ≤8% over the range of positions and relative changes of ≤5% compared to the apex. In the anthropomorphic computer simulations, absolute change increased to 20%. The changes in relative attenuation caused a change in SPS of <1.5 for the water phantom but up to 4.2 in the anthropomorphic phantom. Changes were larger for axial than for transverse translations. These results were supported by SPS changes of up to six seen in the physical anthropomorphic phantom for axial translations. Defect width was also seen to significantly increase. The

  12. Aerobic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Schmidt, Karl T; Iordanou, Jordan C; Mustroph, Martina L

    2008-11-01

    Aerobic exercise can serve as an alternative, non-drug reinforcer in laboratory animals and has been recommended as a potential intervention for substance abusing populations. Unfortunately, relatively little empirical data have been collected that specifically address the possible protective effects of voluntary, long-term exercise on measures of drug self-administration. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic exercise on sensitivity to the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine in the drug self-administration procedure. Female rats were obtained at weaning and immediately divided into two groups. Sedentary rats were housed individually in standard laboratory cages that permitted no exercise beyond normal cage ambulation; exercising rats were housed individually in modified cages equipped with a running wheel. After 6 weeks under these conditions, rats were surgically implanted with venous catheters and trained to self-administer cocaine on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Once self-administration was acquired, cocaine was made available on a progressive ratio schedule and breakpoints were obtained for various doses of cocaine. Sedentary and exercising rats did not differ in the time to acquire cocaine self-administration or responding on the fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. However, on the progressive ratio schedule, breakpoints were significantly lower in exercising rats than sedentary rats when responding was maintained by both low (0.3mg/kg/infusion) and high (1.0mg/kg/infusion) doses of cocaine. In exercising rats, greater exercise output prior to catheter implantation was associated with lower breakpoints at the high dose of cocaine. These data indicate that chronic exercise decreases the positive-reinforcing effects of cocaine and support the possibility that exercise may be an effective intervention in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  13. Transient Response Dynamic Module Modifications to Include Static and Kinetic Friction Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misel, J. E.; Nenno, S. B.; Takahashi, D.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology that supports forced transient response dynamic solutions when both static and kinetic friction effects are included in a structural system model is described. Modifications that support this type of nonlinear transient response solution are summarized for the transient response dynamics (TRD) NASTRAN module. An overview of specific modifications for the NASTRAN processing subroutines, INITL, TRD1C, and TRD1D, are described with further details regarding inspection of nonlinear input definitions to define the type of nonlinear solution required, along with additional initialization requirements and specific calculation subroutines to successfully solve the transient response problem. The extension of the basic NASTRAN nonlinear methodology is presented through several stages of development to the point where constraint equations and residual flexibility effects are introduced into the finite difference Newmark-Beta recurrsion formulas. Particular emphasis is placed on cost effective solutions for large finite element models such as the Space Shuttle with friction degrees of freedom between the orbiter and payloads mounted in the cargo bay. An alteration to the dynamic finite difference equations of motion is discussed, which allows one to include friction effects at reasonable cost for large structural systems such as the Space Shuttle. Data are presented to indicate the possible impact of transient friction loads to the payload designer for the Space Shuttle. Transient response solution data are also included, which compare solutions without friction forces and those with friction forces for payloads mounted in the Space Shuttle cargo bay. These data indicate that payload components can be sensitive to friction induced loads.

  14. Including nonadditive genetic effects in mating programs to maximize dairy farm profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliloo, H; Pryce, J E; González-Recio, O; Cocks, B G; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J

    2017-02-01

    We compared the outcome of mating programs based on different evaluation models that included nonadditive genetic effects (dominance and heterozygosity) in addition to additive effects. The additive and dominance marker effects and the values of regression on average heterozygosity were estimated using 632,003 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 7,902 and 7,510 Holstein cows with calving interval and production (milk, fat, and protein yields) records, respectively. Expected progeny values were computed based on the estimated genetic effects and genotype probabilities of hypothetical progeny from matings between the available genotyped cows and the top 50 young genomic bulls. An index combining the traits based on their economic values was developed and used to evaluate the performance of different mating scenarios in terms of dollar profit. We observed that mating programs with nonadditive genetic effects performed better than a model with only additive effects. Mating programs with dominance and heterozygosity effects increased milk, fat, and protein yields by up to 38, 1.57, and 1.21 kg, respectively. The inclusion of dominance and heterozygosity effects decreased calving interval by up to 0.70 d compared with random mating. The average reduction in progeny inbreeding by the inclusion of nonadditive genetic effects in matings compared with random mating was between 0.25 to 1.57 and 0.64 to 1.57 percentage points for calving interval and production traits, respectively. The reduction in inbreeding was accompanied by an average of A$8.42 (Australian dollars) more profit per mating for a model with additive, dominance, and heterozygosity effects compared with random mating. Mate allocations that benefit from nonadditive genetic effects can improve progeny performance only in the generation where it is being implemented, and the gain from specific combining abilities cannot be accumulated over generations. Continuous updating of genomic predictions and mate

  15. The Effect of Body Position on Pain Due to Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP in Premature Neonates: A Cross-Over Clinical Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common cause of admission to neonatal intensive care units (NICU is respiratory distress syndrome. One of the respiratory assistance methods is using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. Regarding the importance of pain control which is one of the major priorities in neonatal nursing care, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of body position on pain due to nasal CPAP in premature neonates. Materials and Methods In this cross-over clinical trial, 50 premature neonates who were receiving nasal CPAP admitted to the NICU of Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, were included. The neonates were randomly placed at three body positions (fetal, supine, and prone positions. Pain was measured by Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital Pain Scale Neonates (ALPS-Neo pain assessment scale. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software (Version 22.0. Results Significant difference existed regarding pain of nasal CPAP among body positions (p< 0.001. Mean (SD pain was 5.15 (0.822 in fetal position, 6.260 (0.747 in prone position and 7.326 (0.792 in supine position. Conclusion Body positioning in premature neonates under nasal CPAP in NICU can be effective as a non-pharmacologic method in alleviating pain due to nasal CPAP. Among the studied positions, the lowest pain score was seen in fetal position.

  16. CFD simulations and reduced order modeling of a refrigerator compartment including radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ozgur; Oskay, Ruknettin; Paksoy, Akin; Aradag, Selin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Free convection in a refrigerator is simulated including radiation effects. ► Heat rates are affected drastically when radiation effects are considered. ► 95% of the flow energy can be represented by using one spatial POD mode. - Abstract: Considering the engineering problem of natural convection in domestic refrigerator applications, this study aims to simulate the fluid flow and temperature distribution in a single commercial refrigerator compartment by using the experimentally determined temperature values as the specified constant wall temperature boundary conditions. The free convection in refrigerator applications is evaluated as a three-dimensional (3D), turbulent, transient and coupled non-linear flow problem. Radiation heat transfer mode is also included in the analysis. According to the results, taking radiation effects into consideration does not change the temperature distribution inside the refrigerator significantly; however the heat rates are affected drastically. The flow inside the compartment is further analyzed with a reduced order modeling method called Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and the energy contents of several spatial and temporal modes that exist in the flow are examined. The results show that approximately 95% of all the flow energy can be represented by only using one spatial mode

  17. Cellular effects of curcumin on Plasmodium falciparum include disruption of microtubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimi Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Curcumin has been widely investigated for its myriad cellular effects resulting in reduced proliferation of various eukaryotic cells including cancer cells and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Studies with human cancer cell lines HT-29, Caco-2, and MCF-7 suggest that curcumin can bind to tubulin and induce alterations in microtubule structure. Based on this finding, we investigated whether curcumin has any effect on P. falciparum microtubules, considering that mammalian and parasite tubulin are 83% identical. IC50 of curcumin was found to be 5 µM as compared to 20 µM reported before. Immunofluorescence images of parasites treated with 5 or 20 µM curcumin showed a concentration-dependent effect on parasite microtubules resulting in diffuse staining contrasting with the discrete hemispindles and subpellicular microtubules observed in untreated parasites. The effect on P. falciparum microtubules was evident only in the second cycle for both concentrations tested. This diffuse pattern of tubulin fluorescence in curcumin treated parasites was similar to the effect of a microtubule destabilizing drug vinblastine on P. falciparum. Molecular docking predicted the binding site of curcumin at the interface of alpha and beta tubulin, similar to another destabilizing drug colchicine. Data from predicted drug binding is supported by results from drug combination assays showing antagonistic interactions between curcumin and colchicine, sharing a similar binding site, and additive/synergistic interactions of curcumin with paclitaxel and vinblastine, having different binding sites. This evidence suggests that cellular effects of curcumin are at least, in part, due to its perturbing effect on P. falciparum microtubules. The action of curcumin, both direct and indirect, on P. falciparum microtubules is discussed.

  18. Enduring effects of severe developmental adversity, including nutritional deprivation, on cortisol metabolism in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Andrew, Ruth; Schmeidler, James; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2009-06-01

    In animal models, early life exposure to major environmental challenges such as malnutrition and stress results in persisting cardiometabolic, neuroendocrine and affective effects. While such effects have been associated with pathogenesis, the widespread occurrence of 'developmental programming' suggests it has adaptive function. Glucocorticoids may mediate 'programming' and their metabolism is known to be affected by early life events in rodents. To examine these relationships in humans, cortisol metabolism and cardiometabolic disease manifestations were examined in Holocaust survivors in relation to age at exposure and affective dysfunction, notably lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-one Holocaust survivors and 22 controls without Axis I disorder collected 24-h urine samples and were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and cardiometabolic diagnoses. Corticosteroids and their metabolites were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS); cortisol was also measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Holocaust survivors showed reduced cortisol by RIA, and decreased levels of 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol (5alpha-THF) and total glucocorticoid production by GC-MS. The latter was associated with lower cortisol metabolism by 5alpha-reductase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type-2. The greatest decrements were associated with earliest age of Holocaust exposure and less severe PTSD symptomatology. Cardiometabolic manifestations were associated with decreased 11beta-HSD-2 activity. In controls, 5alpha-reductase was positively associated with trauma-related symptoms (i.e., to traumatic exposures unrelated to the Holocaust). Extreme malnutrition and related stress during development is associated with long-lived alterations in specific pathways of glucocorticoid metabolism. These effects may be adaptive and link with lower risks of cardiometabolic and stress-related disorders in later life.

  19. Modeling of the Direct Current Generator Including the Magnetic Saturation and Temperature Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Mercado-Samur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the inclusion of temperature effect on the field resistance on the direct current generator model DC1A, which is valid to stability studies is proposed. First, the linear generator model is presented, after the effect of magnetic saturation and the change in the resistance value due to temperature produced by the field current are included. The comparison of experimental results and model simulations to validate the model is used. A direct current generator model which is a better representation of the generator is obtained. Visual comparison between simulations and experimental results shows the success of the proposed model, because it presents the lowest error of the compared models. The accuracy of the proposed model is observed via Modified Normalized Sum of Squared Errors index equal to 3.8979%.

  20. Non-kinematic Flux-transport Dynamos Including the Effects of Diffusivity Quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimura, Chiaki; Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    Turbulent magnetic diffusivity is quenched when strong magnetic fields suppress turbulent motion in a phenomenon known as diffusivity quenching. Diffusivity quenching can provide a mechanism for amplifying magnetic field and influencing global velocity fields through Lorentz force feedback. To investigate this effect, we conducted mean field flux-transport dynamo simulations that included the effects of diffusivity quenching in a non-kinematic regime. We found that toroidal magnetic field strength is amplified by up to approximately 1.5 times in the convection zone as a result of diffusivity quenching. This amplification is much weaker than that in kinematic cases as a result of Lorentz force feedback on the system’s differential rotation. While amplified toroidal fields lead to the suppression of equatorward meridional flow locally near the base of the convection zone, large-scale equatorward transport of magnetic flux via meridional flow, which is the essential process of the flux-transport dynamo, is sustainable in our calculations.

  1. 3-D FEM Modeling of fiber/matrix interface debonding in UD composites including surface effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupurs, A; Varna, J

    2012-01-01

    Fiber/matrix interface debond growth is one of the main mechanisms of damage evolution in unidirectional (UD) polymer composites. Because for polymer composites the fiber strain to failure is smaller than for the matrix multiple fiber breaks occur at random positions when high mechanical stress is applied to the composite. The energy released due to each fiber break is usually larger than necessary for the creation of a fiber break therefore a partial debonding of fiber/matrix interface is typically observed. Thus the stiffness reduction of UD composite is contributed both from the fiber breaks and from the interface debonds. The aim of this paper is to analyze the debond growth in carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/epoxy UD composites using fracture mechanics principles by calculation of energy release rate G II . A 3-D FEM model is developed for calculation of energy release rate for fiber/matrix interface debonds at different locations in the composite including the composite surface region where the stress state differs from the one in the bulk composite. In the model individual partially debonded fiber is surrounded by matrix region and embedded in a homogenized composite.

  2. Should Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Include the Cost of Consumption Activities? AN Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Sadoghi, Amirhossein; Gandjour, Afschin

    2016-02-01

    There has been a debate on whether cost-effectiveness analysis should consider the cost of consumption and leisure time activities when using the quality-adjusted life year as a measure of health outcome under a societal perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of ill health on consumptive activities are spontaneously considered in a health state valuation exercise and how much this matters. The survey enrolled patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Germany (n = 104). Patients were randomized to explicit and no explicit instruction for the consideration of consumption and leisure effects in a time trade-off (TTO) exercise. Explicit instruction to consider non-health-related utility in TTO exercises did not influence TTO scores. However, spontaneous consideration of non-health-related utility in patients without explicit instruction (60% of respondents) led to significantly lower TTO scores. Results suggest an inclusion of consumption costs in the numerator of the cost-effectiveness ratio, at least for those respondents who spontaneously consider non-health-related utility from treatment. Results also suggest that exercises eliciting health valuations from the general public may include a description of the impact of disease on consumptive activities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effects of Low Light on Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Rice Including Grain Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hua LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the basic characteristics of rice development. However, continuously cloudy weather or rainfall, especially during the grain-filling stage, induces a significant loss in yield and results in poor grain quality. Stress caused by low light often creates severe meteorological disasters in some rice-growing regions worldwide. This review was based on our previous research and related research regarding the effects of low light on rice growth, yield and quality as well as the formation of grain, and mainly reviewed the physiological metabolism of rice plants, including characteristics of photosynthesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes in rice leaves and key enzymes involved in starch synthesis in grains, as well as the translocations of carbohydrate and nitrogen. These characteristics include various grain yield and rice quality components (milling and appearance as well as cooking, eating and nutritional qualities under different rates of shading imposed at the vegetative or reproductive stages of rice plants. Furthermore, we discussed why grain yield and quality are reduced under the low light environment. Next, we summarized the need for future research that emphasizes methods can effectively improve rice grain yield and quality under low light stress. These research findings can provide a beneficial reference for rice cultivation management and breeding program in low light environments.

  4. Path-integral isomorphic Hamiltonian for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xuecheng; Shushkov, Philip; Miller, Thomas F.

    2018-03-01

    We describe a path-integral approach for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic chemical dynamics simulations. For a general physical system with multiple electronic energy levels, a corresponding isomorphic Hamiltonian is introduced such that Boltzmann sampling of the isomorphic Hamiltonian with classical nuclear degrees of freedom yields the exact quantum Boltzmann distribution for the original physical system. In the limit of a single electronic energy level, the isomorphic Hamiltonian reduces to the familiar cases of either ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) or centroid molecular dynamics Hamiltonians, depending on the implementation. An advantage of the isomorphic Hamiltonian is that it can easily be combined with existing mixed quantum-classical dynamics methods, such as surface hopping or Ehrenfest dynamics, to enable the simulation of electronically non-adiabatic processes with nuclear quantum effects. We present numerical applications of the isomorphic Hamiltonian to model two- and three-level systems, with encouraging results that include improvement upon a previously reported combination of RPMD with surface hopping in the deep-tunneling regime.

  5. Impact analysis and testing of tritiated heavy water transportation packages including hydrodynamic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, R.G.; Tulk, J.D.; Gavin, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has recently designed a new Type B(M) Tritiated Heavy Water Transportation Package (THWTP) for the road transportation of tritiated heavy water from its operating nuclear stations to the Tritium Removal Facility in Ontario. These packages must demonstrate the ability to withstand severe shock and impact scenarios such as those prescribed by IAEA standards. The package, shown in figure 1, comprises an inner container filled with tritiated heavy water, and a 19 lb/ft 3 polyurethane foam-filled overpack. The overpack is of sandwich construction with 304L stainless steel liners and 10.5 inch thick nominal foam walls. The outer shell is 0.75 inch thick and the inner shell is 0.25 inch thick. The primary containment boundary consists of the overpack inner liner, the containment lid and outer containment seals in the lid region. The total weight of the container including the 12,000 lb. payload is 36,700 lb. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the hydrodynamic effect of the tritiated heavy water payload on the structural integrity of the THWTP during a flat end drop from a height of 9 m. The study consisted of three phases: (i) developing an analytical model to simulate the hydrodynamic effects of the heavy water payload during impact; (ii) performing an impact analysis for a 9 m flat end drop of the THWTP including fluid structure interaction; (iii) verification of the analytical models by experiment

  6. [Effects of a Positive Psychotherapy Program on Positive Affect, Interpersonal Relations, Resilience, and Mental Health Recovery in Community-Dwelling People with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Na, Hyunjoo

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the interest in positive psychotherapy is growing, which can help to encourage positive relationships and develop strengths of people. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a positive psychotherapy program on positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery in community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. The research was conducted using a randomized control group pretest-posttest design. A total of 57 adults with schizophrenia participated in this study. The study participants in experimental group received a positive psychotherapy program (n=28) and the participants in control group received only the usual treatment in community centers (n=29). The positive psychotherapy program was provided for 5 weeks (of 10 sessions, held twice/week, for 60 minutes). The study outcomes included positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery. The collected data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for examining study hypothesis. Results showed that interpersonal relations (F=11.83, p=.001) and resilience (F=9.62, p=.003) significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. Although experimental group showed a slight increase in positive affect, it was not significant. The study findings confirm that the positive psychotherapy program is effective for improving interpersonal relations and resilience of community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. Based on the findings, we believe that the positive psychotherapy program would be acceptable and helpful to improve recovery of mental health in schizophrenia. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  7. Negative index effects from a homogeneous positive index prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sherman W.; Epstein, Ariel

    2017-12-01

    Cellular structured negative index metamaterials in the form of a right triangular prism have often been tested by observing the refraction of a beam across the prism hypotenuse which is serrated in order to conform to the cell walls. We show that not only can this negative index effect be obtained from a homogeneous dielectric prism having a positive index of refraction, but in addition, for sampling at the walls of the cellular structure, the phase in the material has the illusory appearance of moving in a negative direction. Although many previous reports relied on refraction direction and phase velocity of prism structures to verify negative index design, our investigation indicates that to unambiguously demonstrate material negativity additional empirical evidence is required.

  8. Applicability of a panel method, which includes nonlinear effects, to a forward-swept-wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of a lower order panel method VSAERO, to accurately predict the lift and pitching moment of a complete forward-swept-wing/canard configuration was investigated. The program can simulate nonlinear effects including boundary-layer displacement thickness, wake roll up, and to a limited extent, separated wakes. The predictions were compared with experimental data obtained using a small-scale model in the 7- by 10- Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. For the particular configuration under investigation, wake roll up had only a small effect on the force and moment predictions. The effect of the displacement thickness modeling was to reduce the lift curve slope slightly, thus bringing the predicted lift into good agreement with the measured value. Pitching moment predictions were also improved by the boundary-layer simulation. The separation modeling was found to be sensitive to user inputs, but appears to give a reasonable representation of a separated wake. In general, the nonlinear capabilities of the code were found to improve the agreement with experimental data. The usefullness of the code would be enhanced by improving the reliability of the separated wake modeling and by the addition of a leading edge separation model.

  9. Effect of postharvest practices including degreening on citrus carpoplane microbial biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomba, A; Chidamba, L; Korsten, L

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of commercial citrus packhouse processing steps on the fruit surface microbiome of Clementines and Palmer navel oranges. Viable bacteria, yeast and fungi counts, and the pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA and ITS were used to evaluate the community structure and population dynamics of phylloepiphytic bacteria and fungi associated with commercial postharvest processing. Drenching significantly reduced microbial counts in all cases except for yeasts on navels, while the extent of degreening effects varied between the citrus varieties. Pyrosequencing analysis showed a total of 4409 bacteria and 5792 fungi nonchimeric unique sequences with an average of 1102 bacteria and 1448 fungi reads per sample. Dominant phyla on the citrus carpoplane were Proteobacteria (53·5%), Actinobacteria (19·9%), Bacteroidetes (5·6%) and Deinococcus-Thermus (5·4%) for bacteria and Ascomycota (80·5%) and Basidiomycota (9·8%) for fungi. Beginning with freshly harvested fruit fungal diversity declined significantly after drenching, but had little effect on bacteria and populations recovered during degreening treatments, including those for Penicillium sp. Packhouse processing greatly influences microbial communities on the citrus carpoplane. A broad orange biome was described with pyrosequencing and gave insight into the likely survival and persistence of pathogens, especially as they may affect the quality and safety of the packed product. A close examination of the microbiota of fruit and the impact of intervention strategies on the ecological balance may provide a more durable approach to reduce losses and spoilage. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. The effect of surface electrical stimulation on vocal fold position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Poletto, Christopher J; Saxon, Keith G; Kearney, Pamela R; Ludlow, Christy L

    2008-01-01

    Closure of the true and false vocal folds is a normal part of airway protection during swallowing. Individuals with reduced or delayed true vocal fold closure can be at risk for aspiration and may benefit from intervention to ameliorate the problem. Surface electrical stimulation is currently used during therapy for dysphagia, despite limited knowledge of its physiological effects. Prospective single effects study. The immediate physiological effect of surface stimulation on true vocal fold angle was examined at rest in 27 healthy adults using 10 different electrode placements on the submental and neck regions. Fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopic recordings during passive inspiration were used to measure change in true vocal fold angle with stimulation. Vocal fold angles changed only to a small extent during two electrode placements (P vocal fold abduction was 2.4 degrees; while horizontal placements of electrodes in the submental region produced a mean adduction of 2.8 degrees (P = .03). Surface electrical stimulation to the submental and neck regions does not produce immediate true vocal fold adduction adequate for airway protection during swallowing, and one position may produce a slight increase in true vocal fold opening.

  11. Effects of Varying Entry Points and Trendelenburg Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... ... made in superior and inferior entry points at supine position at 0° .... Trendelenburg degree, taking all risks into consideration. As a result of our .... patient's position influences the incidence of dysrhythmias during pulmonary.

  12. Practical Calculational Scheme Implementing the Wilsonian RG Results for Nuclear Effective Field Theory Including Pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, H.; Harada, K.; Sakaeda, T.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the Wilsonian renormalization group (WRG) analysis of nuclear effective field theory (NEFT) including pions, we propose a practical calculational scheme in which the short-distance part of one-pion exchange (S-OPE) is removed and represented as contact terms. The long-distance part of one-pion exchange (L-OPE) is treated as perturbation. The use of dimensional regularization (DR) for diagrams consisting only of contact interactions considerably simplifies the calculation of scattering amplitude and the renormalization group equations. NLO results for nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering in the S-waves are obtained and compared with experiments. A brief comment on NNLO calculations is given. (author)

  13. Triple Active Antiretroviral Regimen Including Enfuvirtide Via the Biojector is Effective and Safe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Loutfy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For full HIV virological suppression, three fully active antiretroviral agents are required. New drug classes should be included to ensure that agents are fully active. The addition of enfuvirtide and efavirenz to the present patient’s new antiretroviral regimen ensured that two fully active agents were in use in the setting of a moderate degree of nucleoside resistance and a high level of protease resistance, and where non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were still fully active. Both viral load and CD4 count responded favourably to this regimen. The patient received support from physicians and clinic staff in the introduction and use of enfuvirtide. To reduce injection site reactions, a needle-free injection system (Biojector proved effective.

  14. Modeling of cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs including the fringing field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Baishya, Srimanta

    2013-01-01

    A physically based analytical model for surface potential and threshold voltage including the fringing gate capacitances in cylindrical surround gate (CSG) MOSFETs has been developed. Based on this a subthreshold drain current model has also been derived. This model first computes the charge induced in the drain/source region due to the fringing capacitances and considers an effective charge distribution in the cylindrically extended source/drain region for the development of a simple and compact model. The fringing gate capacitances taken into account are outer fringe capacitance, inner fringe capacitance, overlap capacitance, and sidewall capacitance. The model has been verified with the data extracted from 3D TCAD simulations of CSG MOSFETs and was found to be working satisfactorily. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Thermal histories of chondrules in solar nebula shocks, including the effect of molecular line cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melissa A.

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized, silicate (mostly ferromagnesian) igneous spheres found within chondritic meteorites. They are some of the oldest materials in our Solar System, having formed within a few million years of its birth. Chondrules were melted at high temperature (over 1800 K), while they were free-floating objects in the early solar nebula. Their petrology and chemistry constrain their formation, especially their thermal histories. Chondrules provide some of the most powerful constraints on conditions in the solar nebula. Models in which chondrule precursors melted by passage through solar nebula shocks are very promising, and meet most constraints on chondrule formation in broad brush. However, these models have been lacking in some of the relevant physics. Previous shock models have used incorrect approximations to the input radiation boundary condition, and the opacity of solids has been treated simply. Most important, a proper treatment of cooling due to molecular line emission has not been included. In this thesis, the shock model is significantly improved in order to determine if it remains consistent with observational constraints. The appropriate boundary condition for the input radiation and the proper method for calculation of the opacity of solids are determined, and a complete treatment of molecular line cooling due to water is included. Previous estimates of the effect of line cooling predicted chondrule cooling rates in excess of 10,000 K per hour. However, once molecular line cooling due to water was incorporated into the full shock model, it was found that line cooling has a minimal effect on the thermal histories of gas and chondrules. This behavior is attributed mostly to the thermal buffering of the gas due to hydrogen dissociation and recombination, which tends to keep the gas temperature at approximately 2000 K until the column densities of water become optically thick to line emission. Chondrule cooling rates in the range of 10

  16. Stress analysis of fuel claddings with axial fins including creep effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1977-01-01

    For LMFBR fuel claddings with axial fins the stress and strain fields are calculated which may be caused by internal pressure, differential thermal expansion and irradiation induced differential swelling. To provide an appropriate description of the cladding material it is assumed that the total strain is the sum of a linear elastic and a creep term, where the latter one includes the thermal as well as the irradiation induced creep. First the linear elastic problem is treated by a semi-analytical method leading to a bipotential equation for Airys' stress function. Solving this equation analytically means that the field equations valid within the cladding are satisfied exactly. By applying a combined point matching- least square-method the boundary conditions could be satisfied approximately such that in most cases the remaining error is within the uncertainty range of the loading conditions. Then the nonlinear problem which includes creep is approximated by a sequence of linear elastic solutions with time as parameter. The accumulated creep strain is treated here as an imposed strain field. To study the influence of different effects such as fin shape, temperature region, irradiation induced creep and swelling or internal pressure, a total of eleven cases with various parameter variations are investigated. The results are presented graphically in the following forms: stress and strain distributions over the cladding cross section for end of life conditions and boundary stresses and strains versus time. (Auth.)

  17. Matrix formulations of radiative transfer including the polarization effect in a coupled atmosphere-ocean system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Yoshifumi; Higurashi, Akiko; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    A vector radiative transfer model has been developed for a coupled atmosphere-ocean system. The radiative transfer scheme is based on the discrete ordinate and matrix operator methods. The reflection/transmission matrices and source vectors are obtained for each atmospheric or oceanic layer through the discrete ordinate solution. The vertically inhomogeneous system is constructed using the matrix operator method, which combines the radiative interaction between the layers. This radiative transfer scheme is flexible for a vertically inhomogeneous system including the oceanic layers as well as the ocean surface. Compared with the benchmark results, the computational error attributable to the radiative transfer scheme has been less than 0.1% in the case of eight discrete ordinate directions. Furthermore, increasing the number of discrete ordinate directions has produced computations with higher accuracy. Based on our radiative transfer scheme, simulations of sun glint radiation have been presented for wavelengths of 670 nm and 1.6 μm. Results of simulations have shown reasonable characteristics of the sun glint radiation such as the strongly peaked, but slightly smoothed radiation by the rough ocean surface and depolarization through multiple scattering by the aerosol-loaded atmosphere. The radiative transfer scheme of this paper has been implemented to the numerical model named Pstar as one of the OpenCLASTR/STAR radiative transfer code systems, which are widely applied to many radiative transfer problems, including the polarization effect.

  18. Double-gate junctionless transistor model including short-channel effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, B C; Pavanello, M A; Ávila-Herrera, F; Cerdeira, A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a physically based model for double-gate junctionless transistors (JLTs), continuous in all operation regimes. To describe short-channel transistors, short-channel effects (SCEs), such as increase of the channel potential due to drain bias, carrier velocity saturation and mobility degradation due to vertical and longitudinal electric fields, are included in a previous model developed for long-channel double-gate JLTs. To validate the model, an analysis is made by using three-dimensional numerical simulations performed in a Sentaurus Device Simulator from Synopsys. Different doping concentrations, channel widths and channel lengths are considered in this work. Besides that, the series resistance influence is numerically included and validated for a wide range of source and drain extensions. In order to check if the SCEs are appropriately described, besides drain current, transconductance and output conductance characteristics, the following parameters are analyzed to demonstrate the good agreement between model and simulation and the SCEs occurrence in this technology: threshold voltage (V TH ), subthreshold slope (S) and drain induced barrier lowering. (paper)

  19. Effectiveness of palliative care including physiotherapy in hiv patients a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uwimana

    2007-01-01

    (UNAIDS 2004.  The HIV/AIDS epidemic is devastating the African continent.In Africa poorly resourced health care infrastructure further impairs the quality of life in HIV sufferers. Palliative care is an approach that aims to improve the quality of life of people living with threatening diseases such as cancer and HIV/AIDS. This review aimed to determine the efficacy of palliative care. Complementary therapies such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, peer/counselling group therapy, massage  therapy, and exercise therapy constitute palliative care. Seventeen articles published in peer reviewed journals during the period 1990-2005 were reviewed. The findings of our review demonstrate that there are indications that palliative care can be effective in improving the quality of life in patients with life threatening diseases such HIV/AIDS. Research in this field is complicated by the heterogeneity of study samples, difficulty in patient recruitment, and death before the end of the intervention period. Future research in this area should aim to include larger study samples, using valid tools to assess quality of life and to employ qualitative methods in studies to assess the effectiveness of palliative care.

  20. Peptide-Mediated Liposome Fusion: The Effect of Anchor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niek S. A. Crone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A minimal model system for membrane fusion, comprising two complementary peptides dubbed “E” and “K” joined to a cholesterol anchor via a polyethyleneglycol spacer, has previously been developed in our group. This system promotes the fusion of large unilamellar vesicles and facilitates liposome-cell fusion both in vitro and in vivo. Whilst several aspects of the system have previously been investigated to provide an insight as to how fusion is facilitated, anchor positioning has not yet been considered. In this study, the effects of placing the anchor at either the N-terminus or in the center of the peptide are investigated using a combination of circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence assays. It was discovered that anchoring the “K” peptide in the center of the sequence had no effect on its structure, its ability to interact with membranes, or its ability to promote fusion, whereas anchoring the ‘E’ peptide in the middle of the sequence dramatically decreases fusion efficiency. We postulate that anchoring the ‘E’ peptide in the middle of the sequence disrupts its ability to form homodimers with peptides on the same membrane, leading to aggregation and content leakage.

  1. A new model for including the effect of fly ash on biochemical methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, Pablo; Huiliñir, César; Pinto-Villegas, Paula; Castillo, Alejandra; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna

    2017-10-01

    The modelling of the effect of trace elements on anaerobic digestion, and specifically the effect of fly ash, has been scarcely studied. Thus, the present work was aimed at the development of a new function that allows accumulated methane models to predict the effect of FA on the volume of methane accumulation. For this, purpose five fly ash concentrations (10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) using raw and pre-treated sewage sludge were used to calibrate the new function, while three fly ash concentrations were used (40, 150 and 350mg/L) for validation. Three models for accumulated methane volume (the modified Gompertz equation, the logistic function, and the transfer function) were evaluated. The results showed that methane production increased in the presence of FA when the sewage sludge was not pre-treated, while with pretreated sludge there is inhibition of methane production at FA concentrations higher than 50mg/L. In the calibration of the proposed function, it fits well with the experimental data under all the conditions, including the inhibition and stimulating zones, with the values of the parameters of the methane production models falling in the range of those reported in the literature. For validation experiments, the model succeeded in representing the behavior of new experiments in both the stimulating and inhibiting zones, with NRMSE and R 2 ranging from 0.3577 to 0.03714 and 0.2209 to 0.9911, respectively. Thus, the proposed model is robust and valid for the studied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A surplus production model including environmental effects: Application to the Senegalese white shrimp stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaw, Modou; Gascuel, Didier; Jouffre, Didier; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2009-12-01

    In Senegal, two stocks of white shrimp ( Penaeusnotialis) are intensively exploited, one in the north and another in the south. We used surplus production models including environmental effects to analyse their changes in abundance over the past 10 years and to estimate their Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the related fishing effort ( EMSY). First, yearly abundance indices were estimated from commercial statistics using GLM techniques. Then, two environmental indices were alternatively tested in the model: the coastal upwelling intensity from wind speeds provided by the SeaWifs database and the primary production derived from satellite infrared images of chlorophyll a. Models were fitted, with or without the environmental effect, to the 1996-2005 time series. They express stock abundance and catches as functions of the fishing effort and the environmental index (when considered). For the northern stock, fishing effort and abundance fluctuate over the period without any clear trends. The model based on the upwelling index explains 64.9% of the year-to-year variability. It shows that the stock was slightly overexploited in 2002-2003 and is now close to full exploitation. Stock abundance strongly depends on environmental conditions; consequently, the MSY estimate varies from 300 to 900 tons according to the upwelling intensity. For the southern stock, fishing effort has strongly increased over the past 10 years, while abundance has been reduced 4-fold. The environment has a significant effect on abundance but only explains a small part of the year-to-year variability. The best fit is obtained using the primary production index ( R2 = 0.75), and the stock is now significantly overfished regardless of environmental conditions. MSY varies from 1200 to 1800 tons according to environmental conditions. Finally, in northern Senegal, the upwelling is highly variable from year to year and constitutes the major factor determining productivity. In the south, hydrodynamic

  3. Prioritizing Positivity: An Effective Approach to Pursuing Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalino, Lahnna I.; Algoe, Sara B.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2017-01-01

    A decade of research reveals the benefits of positive emotions for mental and physical health; however, recent empirical work suggests the explicit pursuit of happiness may backfire. The present study hypothesized that the pursuit of happiness is not inherently self-defeating; in particular, individuals who seek positivity, as exemplified by how they make decisions about how to organize their day-to-day lives, may be happier. This individual difference is labeled prioritizing positivity. In a community sample of young to older adults (N = 233), prioritizing positivity predicted a host of well-being outcomes (positive emotions, depressive symptomology). In addition, people high in prioritizing positivity have greater resources, and these links are explained by more frequent experiences of positive emotions. In sum, the present study suggests that seeking happiness, although a delicate art, may be a worthwhile pursuit. PMID:25401290

  4. Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment Including Effects of Deposition and Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bons, Jeffrey [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The Department of Energy has goals to move land based gas turbine systems to alternate fuels including coal derived synthetic gas and hydrogen. Coal is the most abundant energy resource in the US and in the world and it is economically advantageous to develop power systems which can use coal. Integrated gasification combined cycles are (IGCC) expected to allow the clean use of coal derived fuels while improving the ability to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. These cycles will need to maintain or increase turbine entry temperatures to develop competitive efficiencies. The use of coal derived syngas introduces a range of potential contaminants into the hot section of the gas turbine including sulfur, iron, calcium, and various alkali metals. Depending on the effectiveness of the gas clean up processes, there exists significant likelihood that the remaining materials will become molten in the combustion process and potentially deposit on downstream turbine surfaces. Past evidence suggests that deposition will be a strong function of increasing temperature. Currently, even with the best gas cleanup processes a small level of particulate matter in the syngas is expected. Consequently, particulate deposition is expected to be an important consideration in the design of turbine components. The leading edge region of first stage vanes most often have higher deposition rates than other areas due to strong fluid acceleration and streamline curvature in the vicinity of the surface. This region remains one of the most difficult areas in a turbine nozzle to cool due to high inlet temperatures and only a small pressure ratio for cooling. The leading edge of a vane often has relatively high heat transfer coefficients and is often cooled using showerhead film cooling arrays. The throat of the first stage nozzle is another area where deposition potentially has a strongly adverse effect on turbine performance as this region meters the turbine inlet flow. Based on roughness

  5. In vitro effectiveness of Castellani solution including various ingredients against different microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran Çopur

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the external auditory canal is a moisturearea, it facilitates the growth of bacteria and fungi. Infectionsand inflammation due to Staphylococcus aureus,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus spp. and Candidaalbicans can develop in this area. Classical Castellanisolution including boric acid, fenol, fucsin, resorcinol, acetone,and alcohol is used for external ear tract infectionsdue to fungi and bacteria, and also for the superficial dermatophytoses,and eczematous dermatitis of the externalear tract infections.The purpose of this study is to investigate of the in vitroeffectiveness of classical Castellani solution and its differentformulations with different dilutions against the standardyeast and bacteria strains.Methods: C. albicans ATCC 10231, C. krusei ATCC6258, C. dubliniensis CD 36, C. guilliermondii ATCC6260, C. parapsilosis ATCC22019, E. coli ATCC 25922,P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, MRSA ATCC 43300, Staphylococcusaureus ATCC 25923, and S. epidermidis ATCC12228 strains were included in the study. Broth microdilutionmethod was used for each microorganism and Castellaniformulation. The tests are repeated at least twice.Results: The inhibitory concentration of classical Castellanisolution against bacteria and fungi is 1/64-1/256,1/32-1/64 for fuchsin free solution, 1/32-1/128 for boricacid-free solution and, 1/64-1/128 for resorcinol-free solution.Conclusions: As a conclusion we think that the classicalCastellani solution and its different formulations at variousdilutions may be effective antimicrobial agents for differentpatient populations. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3:302-305Key words: Castellani solution, antimicrobial activity, in vitro

  6. SU-F-J-86: Method to Include Tissue Dose Response Effect in Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J; Liang, J; Chen, S; Qin, A; Yan, D [Beaumont Health Systeml, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    . Without including this effect in DIR, treatment dose in normal organ could be underestimated affecting treatment evaluation and planning modification. Acknowledgement: Partially Supported by Elekta Research Grant.

  7. Sample positioning effects in x-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.

    Instrument error due to variation in sample position in a crystal x-ray spectrometer can easily exceed the total instrumental error. Lack of reproducibility in sample position in the x-ray optics is the single largest source of system error. The factors that account for sample positioning error are described, and many of the details of flat crystal x-ray optics are discussed

  8. Social anxiety and the ironic effects of positive interviewer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnick, Christopher J; Kowal, Marta; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-01-01

    Positive interviewer feedback should encourage positive experiences and outcomes for interviewees. Yet, positive feedback is inconsistent with socially anxious interviewees' negative self-views. Socially anxious interviewees might experience increased self-focus while attempting to reconcile the inconsistency between their self-perceptions and that feedback. This could interfere with successful interview performance. This study used a 3 (feedback: positive, negative, no) × 2 (social anxiety: high, low) between-subjects design. Undergraduate students (N = 88) completed a measure of dispositional social anxiety. They then engaged in a simulated interview with a White confederate trained to adhere to a standardized script. Interviewees received positive, negative, or no interviewer feedback. Each interview was video recorded to code anxiety displays, impression management tactics, and interview success. Following positive feedback, socially anxious interviewees displayed more anxiety, less assertiveness, and received lower success ratings. Among anxious interviewees, increased self-focus provided an indirect path between positive feedback and lower success. Consistent with self-verification theory, anxious interviewees had poorer interview performance following positive feedback that contradicted their negative self-views. Thus, socially anxious interviewees might be at a disadvantage when interviewing, especially following positive feedback. Implications for interviewees and interviewers are discussed.

  9. Modeling of in-vessel fission product release including fuel morphology effects for severe accident analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.Y.

    1989-10-01

    A new in-vessel fission product release model has been developed and implemented to perform best-estimate calculations of realistic source terms including fuel morphology effects. The proposed bulk mass transfer correlation determines the product of fission product release and equiaxed grain size as a function of the inverse fuel temperature. The model accounts for the fuel-cladding interaction over the temperature range between 770 K and 3000 K in the steam environment. A separate driver has been developed for the in-vessel thermal hydraulic and fission product behavior models that were developed by the Department of Energy for the Modular Accident Analysis Package (MAAP). Calculational results of these models have been compared to the results of the Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests. The code predictions utilizing the mass transfer correlation agreed with the experimentally determined fractional release rates during the course of the heatup, power hold, and cooldown phases of the high temperature transients. Compared to such conventional literature correlations as the steam oxidation model and the NUREG-0956 correlation, the mass transfer correlation resulted in lower and less rapid releases in closer agreement with the on-line and grab sample data from the Severe Fuel Damage tests. The proposed mass transfer correlation can be applied for best-estimate calculations of fission products release from the UO 2 fuel in both nominal and severe accident conditions. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Fatigue evaluation including environmental effects for primary circuit components in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seichter, Johannes; Reese, Sven H.; Klucke, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    The influence of LWR coolant environment to the lifetime of materials in Nuclear Power Plants is in discussion internationally. Environmental phenomena were investigated in laboratory tests and published in recent years. The discussion is mainly focused both on the transition from laboratory to real plant components and on numerical calculation procedures. Since publishing of the NUREG/CR-6909 report in 2007, formulae for calculating the Fen factors have been modified several times. Various calculation procedures like the so called 'Strain-integrated Method' and 'Simplified Approach' have been published while each approach yields to different results. The recent revision of the calculation procedure, proposed by ANL in 2012, is presented and discussed with regard to possible variations in the results depending on the assumptions made. In German KTA Rules the effect of environmentally assisted fatigue (EAF) is taken into account by means of so called attention thresholds. If the threshold value is exceeded, further measures like NDT, in-service inspections including fracture mechanical evaluations or detailed assessment procedures have to be performed. One way to handle those measures is to apply sophisticated procedures and to show that the calculated CUF is below the defined attention thresholds. On the basis of a practical example, methods and approaches will be discussed and recommendations in terms of avoiding over-conservatism and misinterpretation will be presented.

  11. Fatigue evaluation including environmental effects for primary circuit components in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seichter, Johannes [Siempelkamp Pruef- und Gutachter-Gesellschaft mbH, Dresden (Germany); Reese, Sven H.; Klucke, Dietmar [Component Technology Global Unit Generation, E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The influence of LWR coolant environment to the lifetime of materials in Nuclear Power Plants is in discussion internationally. Environmental phenomena were investigated in laboratory tests and published in recent years. The discussion is mainly focused both on the transition from laboratory to real plant components and on numerical calculation procedures. Since publishing of the NUREG/CR-6909 report in 2007, formulae for calculating the Fen factors have been modified several times. Various calculation procedures like the so called 'Strain-integrated Method' and 'Simplified Approach' have been published while each approach yields to different results. The recent revision of the calculation procedure, proposed by ANL in 2012, is presented and discussed with regard to possible variations in the results depending on the assumptions made. In German KTA Rules the effect of environmentally assisted fatigue (EAF) is taken into account by means of so called attention thresholds. If the threshold value is exceeded, further measures like NDT, in-service inspections including fracture mechanical evaluations or detailed assessment procedures have to be performed. One way to handle those measures is to apply sophisticated procedures and to show that the calculated CUF is below the defined attention thresholds. On the basis of a practical example, methods and approaches will be discussed and recommendations in terms of avoiding over-conservatism and misinterpretation will be presented.

  12. Representation-free description of light-pulse atom interferometry including non-inertial effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.kleinert@uni-ulm.de [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Kajari, Endre; Roura, Albert [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut für Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Texas A& M University Institute for Advanced Study (TIAS), Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering (IQSE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)

    2015-12-30

    Light-pulse atom interferometers rely on the wave nature of matter and its manipulation with coherent laser pulses. They are used for precise gravimetry and inertial sensing as well as for accurate measurements of fundamental constants. Reaching higher precision requires longer interferometer times which are naturally encountered in microgravity environments such as drop-tower facilities, sounding rockets and dedicated satellite missions aiming at fundamental quantum physics in space. In all those cases, it is necessary to consider arbitrary trajectories and varying orientations of the interferometer set-up in non-inertial frames of reference. Here we provide a versatile representation-free description of atom interferometry entirely based on operator algebra to address this general situation. We show how to analytically determine the phase shift as well as the visibility of interferometers with an arbitrary number of pulses including the effects of local gravitational accelerations, gravity gradients, the rotation of the lasers and non-inertial frames of reference. Our method conveniently unifies previous results and facilitates the investigation of novel interferometer geometries.

  13. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in a quintessence cosmological model: Including anisotropic stress of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the ΛCDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex s 2 ) and that of δ de /δ m with the variation of c-circumflex s 2 .

  14. Management of demand in the NHS, including the effects of queues and pensioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groocock, J

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the methods used in the NHS to bring demand into balance with supply. People with minor illnesses try self-treatments and alternative medicine. Systematic programs to identify ill people are applied to only a few illnesses. Waiting lists for elective surgery cause some richer people to take their demand to private hospitals. An analysis of such waiting lists shows that, other than this, queues are not a method of rationing but are just the effect of bad management of the actual methods, which are then discussed. The same methods are used to ration access to specialist physicians. Providing extra resources would eliminate queues only if another condition was satisfied. It is argued that providing fully adequate medical care for patients of working age, although expensive, might produce a net economic gain, whereas all care for pensioners, including medical care, gives a net economic loss. Therefore it may not be sensible for people to have inadequate medical care for the first 65 years of their lives just because it is economically impracticable for them to have fully adequate medical care when they are pensioners.

  15. Optional contributions have positive effects for volunteering public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi-Qing; Li, Zhen-Peng; Fu, Chang-He; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Public goods (PG) games with the volunteering mechanism are referred to as volunteering public goods (VPG) games, in which loners are introduced to the PG games, and a loner obtains a constant payoff but not participating the game. Considering that small contributions may have positive effects to encourage more players with bounded rationality to contribute, this paper introduces optional contributions (high value or low value) to these typical VPG games-a cooperator can contribute a high or low payoff to the public pools. With the low contribution, the logit dynamics show that cooperation can be promoted in a well mixed population comparing to the typical VPG games, furthermore, as the multiplication factor is greater than a threshold, the average payoff of the population is also enhanced. In spatial VPG games, we introduce a new adjusting mechanism that is an approximation to best response. Some results in agreement with the prediction of the logit dynamics are found. These simulation results reveal that for VPG games the option of low contributions may be a better method to stimulate the growth of cooperation frequency and the average payoff of the population.

  16. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Stein E., E-mail: stein.johansen@svt.ntnu.no [Institute for Basic Research, Division of Physics, Palm Harbor, Florida, USA and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Social Anthropology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-12-10

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems.

  17. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Stein E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems

  18. Effect of position of blades in the treatment of IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Azorin, J. F.; Ramos Garcia, L. I.; Ortiz de Zarate Vivanco, R.; Trueba Garayo, I.; Cacicedo, J.; Hoyo, O. del

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method of calculation of the positions of each blade measures during treatment for all segments and the subsequent reconstruction of these positions in the planning system on the patient's physical and anatomical data. (Author)

  19. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; Bosch, T.; Bruins, L.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined

  20. 3-D MDT with spherical targets by bilinear interpolation for determining blood velocity profiles including the vessel wall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choomphon-anomakhun, Natthaphon; Natenapit, Mayuree

    2018-02-01

    A numerical simulation of three-dimensional (3-D) implant assisted-magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT) using ferromagnetic spherical targets, including the effect from the vessel wall on the blood flow, is presented. The targets were implanted within arterioles and subjected to an externally uniform applied magnetic field in order to increase the effectiveness of targeting magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs). The capture area (As) of the MDCPs was determined by inspection of the particle trajectories simulated from the particle equations of motion. The blood flow velocities at any particle position around the target were obtained by applying bilinear interpolation to the numerical blood velocity data. The effects on As of the type of ferromagnetic materials in the targets and MDCPs, average blood flow rates, mass fraction of the ferromagnetic material in the MDCPs, average radii of MDCPs (Rp) and the externally applied magnetic field strength (μ0H0) were evaluated. Furthermore, the appropriate μ0H0 and Rp for the IA-MDT design is suggested. In the case of the SS409 target and magnetite MDCPs, dimensionless capture areas ranging from 4.1- to 12.4 and corresponding to particle capture efficiencies of 31-94% were obtained with Rp ranging from 100- to 500 nm, weight fraction of 80%, μ0H0 of 0.6 T and an average blood flow rate of 0.01 ms-1. In addition, the more general 3-D modelling of IA-MDT in this work is applicable to IA-MDT using spherical targets implanted within blood vessels for both laminar and potential blood flows including the wall effect.

  1. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading

    OpenAIRE

    Kingma, I.; Bosch, T.; Bruins, L.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined with an EMG assisted trunk muscle model to quantify kinematics and low back loading in 10 subjects performing 19 different lifting movements, using 10.5 kg boxes without handles. When lifting from...

  2. Partial Sleep Deprivation Attenuates the Positive Affective System: Effects Across Multiple Measurement Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Patrick H; Quartana, Phillip J; Remeniuk, Bethany; Garland, Eric L; Rhudy, Jamie L; Hand, Matthew; Irwin, Michael R; Smith, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Ample behavioral and neurobiological evidence links sleep and affective functioning. Recent self-report evidence suggests that the affective problems associated with sleep loss may be stronger for positive versus negative affective state and that those effects may be mediated by changes in electroencepholographically measured slow wave sleep (SWS). In the present study, we extend those preliminary findings using multiple measures of affective functioning. In a within-subject randomized crossover experiment, we tested the effects of one night of sleep continuity disruption via forced awakenings (FA) compared to one night of uninterrupted sleep (US) on three measures of positive and negative affective functioning: self-reported affective state, affective pain modulation, and affect-biased attention. The study was set in an inpatient clinical research suite. Healthy, good sleeping adults (N = 45) were included. Results indicated that a single night of sleep continuity disruption attenuated positive affective state via FA-induced reductions in SWS. Additionally, sleep continuity disruption attenuated the inhibition of pain by positive affect as well as attention bias to positive affective stimuli. Negative affective state, negative affective pain facilitation, nor negative attention bias were altered by sleep continuity disruption. The present findings, observed across multiple measures of affective function, suggest that sleep continuity disruption has a stronger influence on the positive affective system relative to the negative affective affective system. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effect of socioeconomic position on patient outcome after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Cesaroni, Giulia; Ottesen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between socioeconomic position (assessed by education, employment and income) and complications following hysterectomy and assess the role of lifestyle, co-morbidity and clinical conditions on the relationship. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study. SETTING...... significantly higher odds of complications following hysterectomy compared with women with a high socioeconomic position. Unhealthy lifestyle and presence of co-morbidity in women with low socioeconomic position partially explains the differences in complications.......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between socioeconomic position (assessed by education, employment and income) and complications following hysterectomy and assess the role of lifestyle, co-morbidity and clinical conditions on the relationship. DESIGN: Register-based cohort study. SETTING...... and employed women. Furthermore, unemployed women had higher odds of hospitalization >4 days than women in employment. Lifestyle factors (smoking and body mass index) and co-morbidity status seemed to explain most of the social differences. However, an association between women with less than high school...

  4. Effects of nursing position on transformational leadership practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Susan; Gish, Mary; Rosenblum, Ruth

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to identify significant differences in nursing leadership strengths by position title. Recent reports show aspects of transformational leadership (TL) related to position, age, and educational level. This study focuses on differentiating the strength of leadership practices across the range of nursing management positions. The Leadership Practices Inventory-Self-assessment survey, and a variety of demographic questions, were used to anonymously poll voluntary members of the Association of California Nurse Leaders. Nursing positions of director level and above were strongest in leadership practices. Those at manager and below were identified as needing additional leadership development. LPI-S subscales Enable Others to Act and Model the Way were strongest. Those at the manager level and below will benefit most from additional education and training. Even upper levels of management would gain from enhancing the LPI practices of Challenge the Process and Inspire a Shared Vision.

  5. Occurrence and characterization of stx and/or eae-positive Escherichia coli isolated from wildlife, including a typical EPEC strain from a wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carla Andrea; Mora, Azucena; Díaz, Dafne; Blanco, Miguel; González-Barrio, David; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Simón, Carmen; Blanco, Jorge; Torres, Carmen

    2017-08-01

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains are food-borne pathogens associated with acute diarrhea. Haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is often a complication of STEC infection. In order to examine the occurrence, serotypes, virulence and antimicrobial-resistance profiles of STEC and EPEC in wildlife, 326 faecal E. coli strains from 304 clinically healthy animals were analyzed. For this approach stx 1 , stx 2 and eae genes, as well as accessory virulence determinants (ehx, hlyA, saa, tia, bfp, subAB) were PCR-screened and sequenced. Serotyping was performed employing all available O (O1-O185) and H (H1-H56) antisera. Genetic diversity was analyzed by XbaI-PFGE and phylotyping. Thirteen STEC (4.3%) and 10 EPEC (3.3%) were identified among 12 deer, 3 mouflon, 6 wild boars and 2 birds. Nine STEC showed seropathotypes B (O145:[H28]) and C (O22:H8, O128:[H2]) associated with HUS, and D (O110:H28, O146:H21, O146:[H28], ONT:H8) associated with human diarrhea. Although most isolates harbored stx 2b and stx 1c variants, stx 2a and stx 1a (related with severe disease) were also detected. Additionally, the eae gene was present in one stx 2a -positive O145:[H28] STEC from a deer and 11 STEC harbored subAB genes (mainly the subAB 2 variant). EPEC isolates showed 7 different intimin variants (β1, β2, γ1, ε1, ζ1, ι1-A, κ). Interestingly, the O49:[H10] eae-κ EPEC isolated from a wild boar was bfpA-positive showing a combination of serotype/virulence profile previously detected among human clinical tEPEC. Based on present results, wild ruminants, wild boars and to a lesser extent birds would be carriers of potentially pathogenic STEC and EPEC strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Trojan-Horse Strategy Including a Bacterial Suicide Action for the Efficient Use of a Specific Gram-Positive Antibiotic on Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Isabelle J

    2018-05-10

    In the alarming context of rising bacterial antibiotic resistance, there is an urgent need to discover new antibiotics or increase and/or enlarge the activity of those currently in use. The need for new antibiotics is even more urgent in the case of Gram-negative bacteria, such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteria, which have become resistant to many antibiotics and have an outer membrane with very low permeability to drugs. Vectorization of antibiotics using siderophores may be a solution to bypass such a bacterial wall: the drugs use the iron transporters of the outer membrane as gates to enter bacteria in a Trojan-horse strategy. Designing siderophore-antibiotics that can cross outer membranes has become almost routine, but their transport across the inner membrane is still a limiting step, as well as a strategy that allows dissociation of the antibiotic from the siderophore once inside the bacteria. Liu et al. ( J. Med. Chem. 2018 , DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00218 ) report the synthesis of a siderophore-cephalosporin compound and demonstrate that β-lactams, such as cephalosporins, can serve as β-lactamase-triggered releasable linkers to allow intracellular delivery of Gram-positive antibiotics to Gram-negative bacteria.

  7. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  8. Orthodontic informed consent considering information load and serial position effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Caroline E; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that current methods of informed consent are relatively ineffective as shown by poor recall and comprehension by adolescent patients and their parents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adding a short videotape presentation reiterating the issues related to informed consent to a modified informed consent document that emphasizes a limited number of core and patient-specific custom "chunks" at the beginning of an informed consent presentation improved the recall and comprehension of the risks, benefits, and alternatives of orthodontic treatment. A second objective was to evaluate the current related data for recommendable practices. Seventy patient-parent pairs were randomly divided into 2 groups. The intervention group (group A) patients and parents together reviewed a customized slide show and a short videotape presentation describing the key risks of orthodontic treatment. Group B followed the same protocol without viewing the videotape. All patients and parents were interviewed independently by research assistants using an established measurement tool with open-ended questions. Interviews were transcribed and scored for the appropriateness of responses using a previously established codebook. Lastly, the patients and parents were given 2 reading literacy tests, 1 related to health and 1 with general content followed by the self-administered demographic and psychological state questionnaires. There were no significant differences between the groups for sociodemographic variables. There were no significant differences between the groups for overall recall and comprehension; recall and comprehension for the domains of treatment, risk, and responsibility; and recall and comprehension for core, general, and custom items. The positional effects were limited in impact. When compared with previous studies, these data further demonstrate the benefit of improved readability and audiovisual supplementation with the

  9. The Effect of Positive Affect on the Memory of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąbel, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the memory of experimentally induced pain and the affect that accompanies experimentally induced pain. Sixty-two healthy female volunteers participated in the study. In the first phase of the study, the participants received three pain stimuli and rated pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, state anxiety, and their positive and negative affect. About a month later, in the second phase of the study, the participants were asked to rate the pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, state anxiety, and the emotions they had felt during the first phase of the study. Both recalled pain intensity and recalled pain unpleasantness were found to be underestimated. Although the positive affect that accompanied pain was remembered accurately, recalled negative affect was overestimated and recalled state anxiety was underestimated. Experienced pain, recalled state anxiety, and recalled positive affect accounted for 44% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain intensity and 61% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain unpleasantness. Together with recent research findings on the memory of other types of pain, the present study supports the idea that pain is accompanied by positive as well as negative emotions, and that positive affect influences the memory of pain. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented

  11. Transient performances analysis of wind turbine system with induction generator including flux saturation and skin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Zhao, B.; Han, L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze correctly the effect of different models for induction generators on the transient performances of large wind power generation, Wind turbine driven squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) models taking into account both main and leakage flux saturation and skin effect were...

  12. Cardiac effects of electrical stun guns: does position of barbs contact make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Wallick, Donald; Verma, Atul; Ryschon, Kay; Kowalewski, William; Wazni, Oussama; Butany, Jagdish; Martin, David; Tchou, Patrick J

    2008-04-01

    The use of electrical stun guns has been rising among law enforcement authorities for subduing violent subjects. Multiple reports have raised concerns over their safety. The cardiovascular safety profile of these devices in relationship to the position of delivery on the torso has not been well studied. We tested 13 adult pigs using a custom device built to deliver neuromuscular incapacitating (NMI) discharge of increasing intensity that matched the waveform of a commercially available stun gun (TASER(R) X-26, TASER International, Scottsdale, AZ, USA). Discharges with increasing multiples of output capacitances were applied in a step-up and step-down fashion, using two-tethered barbs at five locations: (1) Sternal notch to cardiac apex (position-1), (2) sternal notch to supraumbilical area (position-2), (3) sternal notch to infraumbilical area (position-3), (4) side to side on the chest (position-4), and (5) upper to lower mid-posterior torso (position-5). Endpoints included determination of maximum safe multiple (MaxSM), ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT), and minimum ventricular fibrillation induction multiple (MinVFIM). Standard TASER discharges repeated three times did not cause ventricular fibrillation (VF) at any of the five locations. When the barbs were applied in the axis of the heart (position-1), MaxSM and MinVFIM were significantly lower than when applied away from the heart, on the dorsum (position-5) (4.31 +/- 1.11 vs 40.77 +/- 9.54, P< 0.001 and 8.31 +/- 2.69 vs 50.77 +/- 9.54, P< 0.001, respectively). The values of these endpoints at position-2, position-3, and position-4 were progressively higher and ranged in between those of position-1 and position-5. Presence of ventricular capture at a 2:1 ratio to the delivered TASER impulses correlated with induction of VF. No significant metabolic changes were seen after standard NMI TASER discharge. There was no evidence of myocardial damage based on serum cardiac markers, electrocardiography

  13. Thermodynamic Analysis of TEG-TEC Device Including Influence of Thomson Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanli; Chen, Lingen; Meng, Fankai; Sun, Fengrui

    2018-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of a thermoelectric cooler driven by thermoelectric generator (TEG-TEC) device is established considering Thomson effect. The performance is analyzed and optimized using numerical calculation based on non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory. The influence characteristics of Thomson effect on the optimal performance and variable selection are investigated by comparing the condition with and without Thomson effect. The results show that Thomson effect degrades the performance of TEG-TEC device, it decreases the cooling capacity by 27 %, decreases the coefficient of performance (COP) by 19 %, decreases the maximum cooling temperature difference by 11 % when the ratio of thermoelectric elements number is 0.6, the cold junction temperature of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is 285 K and the hot junction temperature of thermoelectric generator (TEG) is 450 K. Thomson effect degrades the optimal performance of TEG-TEC device, it decreases the maximum cooling capacity by 28 % and decreases the maximum COP by 28 % under the same junction temperatures. Thomson effect narrows the optimal variable range and optimal working range. In the design of the devices, limited-number thermoelectric elements should be more allocated appropriately to TEG when consider Thomson effect. The results may provide some guidelines for the design of TEG-TEC devices.

  14. Microwave effective surface impedance of structures including a high-Tc superconducting film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartemann, P.

    1992-01-01

    The microwave effective surface impedances of different stacks made of high-temperature superconducting films, dielectric materials and bulk normal metals were computed. The calculations were based on the two-fluid model of superconductors and the conventional transmission line theory. These effective impedances are compared to the calculated intrinsic surface impedances of the stacked superconducting films. The considered superconducting material has been the oxide YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 epitaxially grown on crystalline substrates (MgO, LaAlO 3 , SrTiO 3 ), the film thickness ranging from a few nm to 1μm. Discrepancies between the effective surface resistances or reactances and the corresponding intrinsic values were determined at 10 GHz for non resonant or resonant structures. At resonance the surface resistance discrepancy exhibits a sharp peak which reaches 10 4 or more in relative value according to the geometry and the used materials. Obviously the effective surface reactance shows also huge variations about the resonance and may be negative. Moreover geometries allowing to obtain an effective resistance smaller than the film intrinsic value have been found. The effects of the resonance phenomenon on the electromagnetic wave reflectivity and reflection phase shift are investigated. Therefore the reported theoretical results demonstrate that the effective surface impedance of YBCO films with a thickness smaller than 500 nm can be very different from the intrinsic film impedance according to the structures. (Author). 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects including introduction and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the heat transfer rate through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20% to 50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15% to 20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: the effect of initial boundary layer thickness, the effect of freestream velocity, the effect of freestream acceleration, the effect of unheated starting length, and the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. An existing curvature prediction model was tested against this broad heat transfer data base to determine where it could appropriately be used for heat transfer predictions.

  16. Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Patients: Effects on Vaginal Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vallone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high proportion of HIV-infected pregnant women present pathogenic organisms in their lower genital tract. This has been associated with the development of postpartum morbility, HIV transmission to the partner and offspring, and other gynaecological conditions, such as cervical dysplasia or cancer. Vaginal flora alterations can range from 47% in Western countries to 89% in Africa in pregnant HIV-positive patients, much higher than about 20% of the general population. Pathogen organism retrieval is high. As peripartum complications due to vaginal infections seem higher in HIV-positive patients, accurate investigation and treatment of such infections are strongly mandatory.

  17. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus starvation on the polyunsaturated triacylglycerol composition, including positional isomer distribution, in the alga Trachydiscus minutus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Lukavský, Jaromír; Nedbalová, Linda; Sigler, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 18 (2011), s. 2342-2351 ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215; GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Trachydiscus minutus * Eustigmatophyceae * RP-HPLC/MS-APCI Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.351, year: 2011

  18. Positive Effekte eines Kuraufenthaltes auf menopausale Beschwerden // Positive Effects of Health Cure on Menopausal Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foisner W

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients in menopause were recruited in an open duo-centre study during a health cure for musculoskeletal system to investigate if health cure is able to achieve additive effects on menopausal afflictions. Patients were differentiated in pre-, periand postmenopausal stadium due to their hormonal state (TSH, estradiol, LH, FSH. Survey dates were admission, discharge, 3, 6, 9, 12 months. MRS (Menopause Rating Scale and HADS-D (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – German version were used as main outcome parameters.brThe analysis revealed that beside the total score also the subscale of both questionnaires improved during the cure. This “success of cure” lasted over a period of 6 months. Afterwards the values approached to the initial situation. Indeed all subscales stayed beyond baseline during the whole study.brThe results of the present investigation may be concluded as a temporary improvement of discomforts, life quality and psyche of peri- and postmenopausal women due to inpatient health cure. p bKurzfassung/b: Während eines Kurheilverfahrens zu Beschwerden des Stütz- und Bewegungsapparates wurden in einer offenen Duo-Center-Studie 100 Patientinnen in der Menopause rekrutiert, um zu untersuchen, ob der Kuraufenthalt additive Effekte auf menopausale Beschwerden besitzt. Anhand eines Hormonstatus (TSH, Estradiol, LH, FSH wurden die Patientinnen in die Menopause-Stadien prä-, peri- und postmenopausal eingeteilt. Erhebungszeitpunkte: Aufnahme, Entlassung, 3, 6, 9 und 12 Monate. Die „Menopause Rating Scale“ (MRS und die „Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – deutsche Version“ (HADS-D wurden als Haupt-Outcomeparameter herangezogen.brDie Auswertung ergab, dass sich neben dem Gesamtscore auch die Teilskalen der beiden Fragebögen während des Kuraufenthaltes verbesserten. Dieser „Kurerfolg“ hielt über einen Zeitraum von 6 Monaten an, danach näherten sich die Werte wieder der Ausgangssituation. Alle Teilscores blieben über dem

  19. Changes and variations in online and offline communication patterns : Including peer effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, Eveline; Noseleit, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The impact of online communication on offline communication has received considerable research attention. Yet predominantly single level studies yield conflicting research findings and lack theoretical foundation. This study deviates from previous studies by developing a peer effect model rooted in

  20. Effect of pressurized water reactor environment on fatigue crack propagation, including hole times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental program being conducted to investigate the effects of pressurized water reactor environment on the fatigue crack growth rate of pressure vessel steels. Tests were conducted on precracked WOL type specimens under load controlled conditions. The effects of R ratio, loading rates, and loading wave form are evaluated, and the results are compared for both forging and plate material, as well as weldments

  1. Effects of Negative and Positive Evidence on Adult Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapp, Chehalis M.; Helmick, Augusta L.; Tonkovich, Hayley M.; Bleakney, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared negative and positive evidence in adult word learning, predicting that adults would learn more forms following negative evidence. Ninety-two native English speakers (32 men and 60 women [M[subscript age] = 20.38 years, SD = 2.80]), learned nonsense nouns and verbs provided within English frames. Later, participants produced…

  2. Effects of micronutrients on oxidative stress in HIV positive patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrient supplementation was therefore shown to reduce oxidative stress in HIV positive patients on HAART and could possibly be very helpful as an adjunct in the treatment of this disease. Key Words: Antiretroviral, micronutrients, malondialdehyde, ART naïve, reactive oxygen species, supplementation.

  3. Lack of immunomodulating effect of disulfiram on HIV positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørding, M; Gøtzsche, P C; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1990-01-01

    Disulfiram (Antabuse (R)) is metabolized to two molecules of diethyldithiocarbamate, which has been reported to be an immunomodulating agent. In a double blind trial, 15 HIV antibody positive homosexual men were given daily doses of 100 mg or 400 mg of disulfiram or placebo, for 4 weeks. All had...

  4. Calculations of environmental benefits from using geothermal energy must include the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    and energy production patterns are simulated using data from countries with similar environmental conditions but do not use geothermal or hydropower to the same extent as Iceland. Because of the rapid shift towards renewable energy and exclusion of external energy provision, the country is considered......When considering the environmental benefits from converting to renewable energy sources, the rebound effect is often omitted. In this study, the aim is to investigate greenhouse gas emission reduction inclusive of the rebound effect. We use Iceland as a case study where alternative consumption...

  5. Effect of parental family history of Alzheimer's disease on serial position profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce; Jones, Jana E; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A

    2008-07-01

    An exaggerated recency effect (ie, disproportionate recall of last-presented items) has been consistently observed in the word list learning of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our study sought to determine whether there were similar alterations in serial position learning among asymptomatic persons at risk for AD as a result of parental family history. Subjects included 623 asymptomatic middle-aged children of patients with AD (median, 53 years) and 157 control participants whose parents survived to at least age 70 without AD or other memory disorders. All participants were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, which requires learning and recall of 15 unrelated nouns. There was no significant difference in total words recalled between the AD children and control groups. However, compared with controls, AD children exhibited a significantly greater tendency to recall words from the end (recency) versus beginning (primacy) of the list. Serial position effects were unrelated to apolipoprotein allele epsilon 4 or depressive symptoms. Asymptomatic persons at risk for AD by virtue of family history do not show a difference in total words recalled compared with controls, but they exhibit a distinctly different serial position curve, suggesting greater reliance on immediate as opposed to episodic memory. This is the same serial position pattern observed in mild AD, seen here in reduced severity. Longitudinal follow-up is planned to determine whether changes in serial position patterns are a meaningful marker for preclinical detection of AD.

  6. Quantified, Interactive Simulation of AMCW ToF Camera Including Multipath Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulczak, David; Lambers, Martin; Kolb, Andreas

    2017-12-22

    In the last decade, Time-of-Flight (ToF) range cameras have gained increasing popularity in robotics, automotive industry, and home entertainment. Despite technological developments, ToF cameras still suffer from error sources such as multipath interference or motion artifacts. Thus, simulation of ToF cameras, including these artifacts, is important to improve camera and algorithm development. This paper presents a physically-based, interactive simulation technique for amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) ToF cameras, which, among other error sources, includes single bounce indirect multipath interference based on an enhanced image-space approach. The simulation accounts for physical units down to the charge level accumulated in sensor pixels. Furthermore, we present the first quantified comparison for ToF camera simulators. We present bidirectional reference distribution function (BRDF) measurements for selected, purchasable materials in the near-infrared (NIR) range, craft real and synthetic scenes out of these materials and quantitatively compare the range sensor data.

  7. Quantum Effect in a Diode Included Nonlinear Inductance-Capacitance Mesoscopic Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhanyuan; Zhang Xiaohong; Ma Jinying

    2009-01-01

    The mesoscopic nonlinear inductance-capacitance circuit is a typical anharmonic oscillator, due to diodes included in the circuit. In this paper, using the advanced quantum theory of mesoscopic circuits, which based on the fundamental fact that the electric charge takes discrete value, the diode included mesoscopic circuit is firstly studied. Schroedinger equation of the system is a four-order difference equation in p-circumflex representation. Using the extended perturbative method, the detail energy spectrum and wave functions are obtained and verified, as an application of the results, the current quantum fluctuation in the ground state is calculated. Diode is a basis component in a circuit, its quantization would popularize the quantum theory of mesoscopic circuits. The methods to solve the high order difference equation are helpful to the application of mesoscopic quantum theory.

  8. Development of calculation method for one-dimensional kinetic analysis in fission reactors, including feedback effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paixao, S.B.; Marzo, M.A.S.; Alvim, A.C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The calculation method used in WIGLE code is studied. Because of the non availability of such a praiseworthy solution, expounding the method minutely has been tried. This developed method has been applied for the solution of the one-dimensional, two-group, diffusion equations in slab, axial analysis, including non-boiling heat transfer, accountig for feedback. A steady-state program (CITER-1D), written in FORTRAN 4, has been implemented, providing excellent results, ratifying the developed work quality. (Author) [pt

  9. Including Effects of Water Stress on Dead Organic Matter Decay to a Forest Carbon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Decay of dead organic matter is a key process of carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems. The change in decay rate depends on temperature sensitivity and moisture conditions. The Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC) model includes a decay sub-model considering temperature sensitivity, yet does not consider moisture conditions as drivers of the decay rate change. This study aimed to improve the FBDC model by including a water stress function to the decay sub-model. Also, soil C sequestration under climate change with the FBDC model including the water stress function was simulated. The water stress functions were determined with data from decomposition study on Quercus variabilis forests and Pinus densiflora forests of Korea, and adjustment parameters of the functions were determined for both species. The water stress functions were based on the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Including the water stress function increased the explained variances of the decay rate by 19% for the Q. variabilis forests and 7% for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The increase of the explained variances resulted from large difference in temperature range and precipitation range across the decomposition study plots. During the period of experiment, the mean annual temperature range was less than 3°C, while the annual precipitation ranged from 720mm to 1466mm. Application of the water stress functions to the FBDC model constrained increasing trend of temperature sensitivity under climate change, and thus increased the model-estimated soil C sequestration (Mg C ha-1) by 6.6 for the Q. variabilis forests and by 3.1 for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The addition of water stress functions increased reliability of the decay rate estimation and could contribute to reducing the bias in estimating soil C sequestration under varying moisture condition. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01)

  10. Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.

  11. The effect of including an opt-out option in discrete choice experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Veldwijk (Jorien); M.S. Lambooij (Mattijs); E.W. de Bekker-Grob (Esther); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); G.A. De Wit (G. Ardine)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractObjective: to determine to what extent the inclusion of an opt-out option in a DCE may have an effect on choice behaviour and therefore might influence the attribute level estimates, the relative importance of the attributes and calculated tradeoffs. Methods: 781 Dutch Type 2

  12. Psychophysiological effects of an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge including participants with spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzon, S; Deppermann, S; Fallgatter, A; Diemer, J; Kroczek, A; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Ehlis, A-C

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as a form of TMS on acute anxiety provoked by a virtual reality (VR) scenario. Participants with spider phobia (n=41) and healthy controls (n=42) were exposed to a spider scenario in VR after one session of iTBS over the prefrontal cortex or sham treatment. Participants with spider phobia reacted with more anxiety compared to healthy controls. Their heart rate and skin conductance increased compared to baseline. Contrary to expectations, iTBS did not influence these reactions, but modulated heart rate variability (HRV). Sympathetic influence on HRV showed an increase in the active iTBS group only. This study does not support the idea of beneficial effects of a single session of iTBS on anxiety, although other protocols or repeated sessions might be effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electron density in reasonably real metallic surfaces, including interchange and correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga, L.A.; Martinez, G.

    1981-01-01

    By means of a new method, the electron density in a jellium surface is calculated taking in account interchange and correlation effects; reproducing, in this way, the Lang and Kohn results. The new method is self-consistent but not iterative and hence is possible extend it to the solution of the same problem in more reasonably real metallic surfaces. (L.C.) [pt

  14. The cost-effectiveness of gestational diabetes screening including prevention of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marseille, Elliot; Lohse, Nicolai; Jiwani, Aliya

    2013-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with elevated risks of perinatal complications and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and screening and intervention can reduce these risks. We quantified the cost, health impact and cost-effectiveness of GDM screening and intervention in India and Israel,...

  15. Evaluation of plant-wide WWTP control strategies including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.S.; Rodríguez Roda, I.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of filamentous bulking sludge on the predicted performance of simulated plant-wide WWTP control strategies. First, as a reference case, several control strategies are implemented, simulated and evaluated using the IWA Benchmark Simulation...

  16. Proceedings of the second US-USSR symposium: air pollution effects on vegetation including forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginald D. Noble; Juri L Martin; Keith F., eds. Jensen; Keith F. Jensen

    1989-01-01

    To commemorate the 10th year of cooperation between the US-USSR in the field of environmental protection, a symposium was organized, the major objectives of which were to acquaint US-USSR scientists with project accomplishments; to promote understanding of the nature of environmental problems that relate to air pollution effect on vegetation on a more global scale; to...

  17. [Effect of complex sanatorium treatment including magnetotherapy on hemodynamics in patients with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremushkin, G G; Duruda, N V

    2003-01-01

    Forty nine patients with arterial hypertension of stage I-II received combined sanatorium treatment. Of them, 21 had adjuvant total magnetotherapy. All the patients were examined for parameters of central, cerebral hemodynamics and microcirculation. The adjuvant magnetotherapy produced a beneficial effect on hypertension: clinical symptoms attenuated, arterial pressure became more stable, hemodynamics improved, duration of hospitalization reduced, requirement in hypotensive drugs diminished.

  18. Design, building and test of one prototype and four final position sensor assemblies: Hall effect position sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This report covers the development of a three channel Hall effect position sensing system for the commutation of a three phase dc torquer motor. The effort consisted of the evaluation, modification and re-packaging of a commercial position sensor and the design of a target configuration unique to this application. The resulting design meets the contract requirements and, furthermore, the test results indicate not only the practicality and versatility of the design, but also that there may be higher limits of resolution and accuracy achievable.

  19. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  20. Neural effects of positive and negative incentives during marijuana withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Filbey

    Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.

  1. Dilepton Yields from Brown-Rho Scaled Vector Mesons Including Memory Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenke, Bjoern; Greiner, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Scenarios with dropping vector meson masses, motivated by the work of Brown and Rho, have been strongly discussed after recent NA60 Collaboration data were presented. In this Letter they are investigated within a nonequilibrium field theoretical description that includes quantum mechanical memory. Dimuon yields are calculated by application of a model for the fireball, and strong modifications are found in the comparison to quasiequilibrium calculations, which assume instantaneous adjustment of all meson properties to the surrounding medium. In addition, results for the situation of very broad excitations are presented

  2. Renovation and Strengthening of Wooden Beams With CFRP Bands Including the Rheological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kula Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a work analysis of wooden beams reinforced with glued composite bands from the top and resin inclusions, taking into account the rheology of materials. The paper presents numerical model of the multimaterial beam work including rheological phenomena described by linear equations of viscoelasticity. For the construction of this model one used MES SIMULIA ABAQUS environment in which were prepared its own procedures containing rheological models. The calculation results were compared with the literature data. One has done an analysis of the advisability of the use of CFRP reinforcements bands in terms of rheological phenomena.

  3. Taylor Series Trajectory Calculations Including Oblateness Effects and Variable Atmospheric Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in NASA Glenn's Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program, and compared head-to-head with the code's existing 8th- order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. This paper focuses on trajectory problems that include oblateness and/or variable atmospheric density. Taylor series is shown to be significantly faster and more accurate for oblateness problems up through a 4x4 field, with speedups ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. For problems with variable atmospheric density, speedups average 24 for atmospheric density alone, and average 1.6 to 8.2 when density and oblateness are combined.

  4. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan; Heitzinger, Clemens; Vacic, Aleksandar; Reed, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan

    2013-05-03

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Dynamic behavior of a rotating delaminated composite beam including rotary inertia and shear deformation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan-Ali Jafari-Talookolaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A finite element (FE model is developed to study the free vibration of a rotating laminated composite beam with a single delamination. The rotary inertia and shear deformation effects, as well as the bending–extension, bending–twist and extension–twist coupling terms are taken into account in the FE model. Comparison between the numerical results of the present model and the results published in the literature verifies the validity of the present model. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as delamination size and location, fiber orientation, hub radius, material anisotropy and rotating speed, on the vibration of the beam are studied in detail. These results provide useful information in the study of the free vibration of rotating delaminated composite beams.

  7. pH-Free Measurement of Relative Acidities, Including Isotope Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    A powerful pH-free multicomponent NMR titration method can measure relative acidities, even of closely related compounds, with excellent accuracy. The history of the method is presented, along with details of its implementation and a comparison with earlier NMR titrations using a pH electrode. Many of its areas of applicability are described, especially equilibrium isotope effects. The advantages of the method, some practical considerations, and potential pitfalls are considered. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Including the Effect of Shielding in Prediction of Weather Window for Offshore Lifting Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Camilla Waldum

    2015-01-01

    The offshore industry is constantly seeking to operate in more extreme conditions. DeepOcean is a subsea service company, where offshore lifts is a part of every day operations. To remain competitive, it is important to reduce operational downtime, where time spent waiting on weather is one of the main contributors. The main goal of this thesis is to investigate how shielding effects influence the operational limit for offshore lifting operations at different heading angles. Common practice i...

  9. Quantified, Interactive Simulation of AMCW ToF Camera Including Multipath Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bulczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, Time-of-Flight (ToF range cameras have gained increasing popularity in robotics, automotive industry, and home entertainment. Despite technological developments, ToF cameras still suffer from error sources such as multipath interference or motion artifacts. Thus, simulation of ToF cameras, including these artifacts, is important to improve camera and algorithm development. This paper presents a physically-based, interactive simulation technique for amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW ToF cameras, which, among other error sources, includes single bounce indirect multipath interference based on an enhanced image-space approach. The simulation accounts for physical units down to the charge level accumulated in sensor pixels. Furthermore, we present the first quantified comparison for ToF camera simulators. We present bidirectional reference distribution function (BRDF measurements for selected, purchasable materials in the near-infrared (NIR range, craft real and synthetic scenes out of these materials and quantitatively compare the range sensor data.

  10. Ab initio effective core potentials including relativistic effects. II. Potential energy curves for Xe2, Xe+2, and Xe*2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermler, W.C.; Lee, Y.S.; Pitzer, K.S.; Winter, N.W.

    1978-01-01

    Potential energy curves for the ground 1 Σ + /sub g/ state of Xe 2 , the first four states of the Xe + 2 ions, and the eight Xe* 2 excimer states corresponding to the addition of a 6ssigma/sub g/ Rydberg electron to these ion cores have been computed using averaged relativistic effective core potentials (AREP) and the self-consistent field approximation for the valence electrons. The calculations were carried out using the LS-coupling scheme with the effects of spin--orbit coupling included in the resulting potential energy curves using an empirical procedure. A comparison of nonrelativistic and averaged relativistic EP's and subsequent molecular calculations indicates that relativistic effects arising from the mass--velocity and Darwin terms are not important for these properties of Xe 2 molecules. Spectroscopic constants for Xe + 2 are in good agreement with all electron CI calculations suggesting that the computed values for Xe* 2 excimers should be reliable. The lifetime for the O/sub u/ + state of the Xe 2 * is computed to be 5.6 nsec which is in the range of the experimentally determined values

  11. Specialists meeting on properties of primary circuit structural materials including environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-07-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Properties of Primary Circuit Structural Materials of LMFBRs covered the following topics: overview of materials program in different countries; mechanical properties of materials in air; fracture mechanics studies - component related activities; impact of environmental influences on mechanical properties; relationship of material properties and design methods. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on structural materials behaviour in primary circuit of fast breeder reactors. Special emphasis was placed on environmental effects such as influence of sodium and irradiation on mechanical properties of reactor materials.

  12. Specialists meeting on properties of primary circuit structural materials including environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Properties of Primary Circuit Structural Materials of LMFBRs covered the following topics: overview of materials program in different countries; mechanical properties of materials in air; fracture mechanics studies - component related activities; impact of environmental influences on mechanical properties; relationship of material properties and design methods. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on structural materials behaviour in primary circuit of fast breeder reactors. Special emphasis was placed on environmental effects such as influence of sodium and irradiation on mechanical properties of reactor materials

  13. Effect of including decay chains on predictions of equilibrium-type terrestrial food chain models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Equilibrium-type food chain models are commonly used for assessing the radiological impact to man from environmental releases of radionuclides. Usually these do not take into account build-up of radioactive decay products during environmental transport. This may be a potential source of underprediction. For estimating consequences of this simplification, the equations of an internationally recognised terrestrial food chain model have been extended to include decay chains of variable length. Example calculations show that for releases from light water reactors as expected both during routine operation and in the case of severe accidents, the build-up of decay products during environmental transport is generally of minor importance. However, a considerable number of radionuclides of potential radiological significance have been identified which show marked contributions of decay products to calculated contamination of human food and resulting radiation dose rates. (author)

  14. PTAC: a computer program for pressure-transient analysis, including the effects of cavitation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kot, C A; Youngdahl, C K

    1978-09-01

    PTAC was developed to predict pressure transients in nuclear-power-plant piping systems in which the possibility of cavitation must be considered. The program performs linear or nonlinear fluid-hammer calculations, using a fixed-grid method-of-characteristics solution procedure. In addition to pipe friction and elasticity, the program can treat a variety of flow components, pipe junctions, and boundary conditions, including arbitrary pressure sources and a sodium/water reaction. Essential features of transient cavitation are modeled by a modified column-separation technique. Comparisons of calculated results with available experimental data, for a simple piping arrangement, show good agreement and provide validation of the computational cavitation model. Calculations for a variety of piping networks, containing either liquid sodium or water, demonstrate the versatility of PTAC and clearly show that neglecting cavitation leads to erroneous predictions of pressure-time histories.

  15. Structural and functional effects of heavy metals on the nervous system, including sense organs, of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, E

    1991-01-01

    metals are well known pollutants in the aquatic environment. Their interaction with relevant chemical stimuli may interfere with the communication between fish and environment. 5. The affinity for a number of ligands and macromolecules makes heavy metals most potent neurotoxins. 6. The present Mini......1. Today, fish in the environment are inevitably exposed to chemical pollution. Although most hazardous substances are present at concentrations far below the lethal level, they may still cause serious damage to the life processes of these animals. 2. Fish depend on an intact nervous system......, including their sense organs, for mediating relevant behaviour such as food search, predator recognition, communication and orientation. 3. Unfortunately, the nervous system is most vulnerable and injuries to its elements may dramatically change the behaviour and consequently the survival of fish. 4. Heavy...

  16. Simulation of thermal reset transitions in resistive switching memories including quantum effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villena, M. A.; Jiménez-Molinos, F.; Roldán, J. B. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Ciencias, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); González, M. B.; Campabadal, F. [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Suñé, J.; Miranda, E. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193 (Spain); Romera, E. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2014-06-07

    An in-depth study of reset processes in RRAMs (Resistive Random Access Memories) based on Ni/HfO{sub 2}/Si-n{sup +} structures has been performed. To do so, we have developed a physically based simulator where both ohmic and tunneling based conduction regimes are considered along with the thermal description of the devices. The devices under study have been successfully fabricated and measured. The experimental data are correctly reproduced with the simulator for devices with a single conductive filament as well as for devices including several conductive filaments. The contribution of each conduction regime has been explained as well as the operation regimes where these ohmic and tunneling conduction processes dominate.

  17. Kinetic model of water disinfection using peracetic acid including synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Marina J; Brandi, Rodolfo J; Cassano, Alberto E; Labas, Marisol D

    2016-01-01

    The disinfection efficiencies of a commercial mixture of peracetic acid against Escherichia coli were studied in laboratory scale experiments. The joint and separate action of two disinfectant agents, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, were evaluated in order to observe synergistic effects. A kinetic model for each component of the mixture and for the commercial mixture was proposed. Through simple mathematical equations, the model describes different stages of attack by disinfectants during the inactivation process. Based on the experiments and the kinetic parameters obtained, it could be established that the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide was much lower than that of peracetic acid alone. However, the contribution of hydrogen peroxide was very important in the commercial mixture. It should be noted that this improvement occurred only after peracetic acid had initiated the attack on the cell. This synergistic effect was successfully explained by the proposed scheme and was verified by experimental results. Besides providing a clearer mechanistic understanding of water disinfection, such models may improve our ability to design reactors.

  18. Supernova equations of state including full nuclear ensemble with in-medium effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Shun; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    We construct new equations of state for baryons at sub-nuclear densities for the use in core-collapse supernova simulations. The abundance of various nuclei is obtained together with thermodynamic quantities. The formulation is an extension of the previous model, in which we adopted the relativistic mean field theory with the TM1 parameter set for nucleons, the quantum approach for d, t, h and α as well as the liquid drop model for the other nuclei under the nuclear statistical equilibrium. We reformulate the model of the light nuclei other than d, t, h and α based on the quasi-particle description. Furthermore, we modify the model so that the temperature dependences of surface and shell energies of heavy nuclei could be taken into account. The pasta phases for heavy nuclei and the Pauli- and self-energy shifts for d, t, h and α are taken into account in the same way as in the previous model. We find that nuclear composition is considerably affected by the modifications in this work, whereas thermodynamical quantities are not changed much. In particular, the washout of shell effect has a great impact on the mass distribution above T ∼ 1 MeV. This improvement may have an important effect on the rates of electron captures and coherent neutrino scatterings on nuclei in supernova cores.

  19. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  20. Seismic response and fragility evaluation for an Eastern US NPP including soil-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiocel, Dan M.; Wilson, Paul R.; Thomas, Gary G.; Stevenson, John D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses methodological aspects involved in a probabilistic seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis for a Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) review. An example of an Eastern US nuclear power plant (NPP) is presented. The approach presented herein follows the current practice of the Individual Plant Examination for External Events (IPEEE) program in the US. The NPP is founded on a relatively soft soil deposit, and thus the SSI effects on seismic responses are significant. Probabilistic models used for the idealization of the seismic excitation and the surrounding soil deposit are described. Using a lognormal format, computed random variability effects were combined with those proposed in the SPRA methodology guidelines. Probabilistic floor response spectra and structural fragilities for different NPP buildings were computed. Structural capacities were determined following the current practice which assumes independent median safety factors for strength and inelastic absorption. Limitations of the IPEEE practice for performing SPRA are discussed and alternate procedures, more rigorous and simple to implement, are suggested

  1. Environmental impact assessment including indirect effects--a case study using input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Murray, Shauna A.; Korte, Britta; Dey, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a process covered by several international standards, dictating that as many environmental aspects as possible should be identified in a project appraisal. While the ISO 14011 standard stipulates a broad-ranging study, off-site, indirect impacts are not specifically required for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The reasons for this may relate to the perceived difficulty of measuring off-site impacts, or the assumption that these are a relatively insignificant component of the total impact. In this work, we describe a method that uses input-output analysis to calculate the indirect effects of a development proposal in terms of several indicator variables. The results of our case study of a Second Sydney Airport show that the total impacts are considerably higher than the on-site impacts for the indicators land disturbance, greenhouse gas emissions, water use, emissions of NO x and SO 2 , and employment. We conclude that employing input-output analysis enhances conventional EIA, as it allows for national and international effects to be taken into account in the decision-making process

  2. Two phase formation of massive elliptical galaxies: study through cross-correlation including spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Soumita; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Area of study is the formation mechanism of the present-day population of elliptical galaxies, in the context of hierarchical cosmological models accompanied by accretion and minor mergers. The present work investigates the formation and evolution of several components of the nearby massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) through cross-correlation function (CCF), using the spatial parameters right ascension (RA) and declination (DEC), and the intrinsic parameters mass (M_{*}) and size. According to the astrophysical terminology, here these variables, namely mass, size, RA and DEC are termed as parameters, whereas the unknown constants involved in the kernel function are called hyperparameters. Throughout this paper, the parameter size is used to represent the effective radius (Re). Following Huang et al. (2013a), each nearby ETG is divided into three parts on the basis of its Re value. We study the CCF between each of these three components of nearby massive ETGs and the ETGs in the high redshift range, 0.5conflict raised in a previous work (De et al. 2014) suggesting other possibilities for the formation of the outermost part. A probable cause of this improvement is the inclusion of the spatial effects in addition to the other parameters in the study.

  3. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness.

  4. Effects of positive and negative delusional ideation on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between levels of delusional ideation (whether positive or negative delusions) and the activation and distortion of memory by using pairs of positive and negative adjectives describing personality traits where those adjectives had similar meanings. We presented one of each pair of adjectives in the learning phase. Immediately after the learning phase in Experiment 1, we asked whether each adjective had been presented. Participants with high (positive or negative) delusional ideation were more likely to indicate that they had learned adjectives that they had not actually learned. This finding suggested that non-learned positive (or negative) adjectives that were associated with learned negative (or positive) adjectives were more likely to be activated in participants prone to positive (or negative) delusional ideation. However, in Experiment 2, two forced-choice tests were conducted immediately after the learning phase. In this context, participants, regardless of their proneness to delusional ideation, could almost always correctly distinguish what had and had not been presented, suggesting that the activation of learned items was still stronger than that for non-learned items in the immediate test. As time passed, the proportion of false alarms for positive or negative adjectives was higher in the two forced-choice tests among those with high proneness to (positive or negative) delusional ideation, suggesting that participants with delusional ideation were increasingly likely to depend on internal conditions for retrieval over time. Nous avons examiné la relation entre les niveaux d'idéation illusoire (qu'elle soit positive ou négative) et l'activation et la distorsion de la mémoire, en utilisant des paires d'adjectifs positifs et négatifs à significations similaires décrivant des traits de personnalité. Nous avons présenté un membre de chaque paire d'adjectifs lors d'une phase d'apprentissage. Dans une première exp

  5. Positive effects of Religious and Spiritual Coping on Bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Yoffe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonovsky (1987 coined the term “salutogenesis” in opposition to “pathogenesis”, with the intention to point out to cientific researchers ways and mechanisms that could promote health, well -being and life satisfaction. The area of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality began both in Europe and in the United States at the beginning of the twenth century. The research done in this field -since the last two decades- has focused on the relationships between religion, spirituality and health; and on the ways in which religious people cope with negative life events. We could think this area as a complementary one to the Positive Psychology; as both share certain common points of view about health, coping and well-being. In the field of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Pargament and Koenig (1997 used the term “coping” -coined by Lazarus and Folkman (1986- referring to different styles of “religious coping” as “ways and mechanism by which religious people apply their religious beliefs and behaviours to prevent and /or moderate negative consequences of stressful life events, in order to solve their problems as well”. Each religion promotes ways to overcome negative life events, such as the death of loved ones. By using faith, prayers, meditations, religious rituals and beliefs about life, death and afterlife, religious persons try to cope with their grief and enhance positive feelings of emotional ,mental and spiritual well-being. Clergy of different religions are trained in religious practices, knowledge and skills to provide social support to those ones who face pain and loss. Religious groups can provide different types of emotional, practical, intelectual and spiritual support that can help diminish feelings of loneliness and grief. Being and feeling part of a religious community can promote ways to reconect to life and positive feelings that can help to overcome the grief of the death of loved ones and make

  6. Multiple Crack Growth Prediction in AA2024-T3 Friction Stir Welded Joints, Including Manufacturing Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Citarella, Roberto; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of attention is currently paid by several industries toward the friction stir welding process to realize lightweight structures. Within this aim, the realistic prediction of fatigue behavior of welded assemblies is a key factor. In this work an integrated finite element method - dual...... boundary element method (FEM-DBEM) procedure, coupling the welding process simulation to the subsequent crack growth assessment, is proposed and applied to simulate multiple crack propagation, with allowance for manufacturing effects. The friction stir butt welding process of the precipitation hardened AA...... on a notched specimen. The whole procedure was finally tested comparing simulation outcomes with experimental data. The good agreement obtained highlights the predictive capability of the method. The influence of the residual stress distribution on crack growth and the mutual interaction between propagating...

  7. Theory of tunneling ionization of molecules: Weak-field asymptotics including dipole effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstikhin, Oleg I.; Morishita, Toru; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    The formulation of the parabolic adiabatic expansion approach to the problem of ionization of atomic systems in a static electric field, originally developed for the axially symmetric case [ Phys. Rev. A 82 023416 (2010)], is generalized to arbitrary potentials. This approach is used to rederive...... the asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization in the weak-field limit. In the atomic case, the resulting formulas for the ionization rate coincide with previously known results. In addition, the present theory accounts for the possible existence of a permanent dipole moment of the unperturbed system and, hence......, applies to polar molecules. Accounting for dipole effects constitutes an important difference of the present theory from the so-called molecular Ammosov-Delone-Krainov theory. The theory is illustrated by comparing exact and asymptotic results for a set of model polar molecules and a realistic molecular...

  8. Bifurcation of space-charge wave in a plasma waveguide including the wake potential effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588, South Korea and Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The wake potential effects on the propagation of the space-charge dust ion-acoustic wave are investigated in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma with the ion flow. The results show that the wake potential would generate the double frequency modes in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma. It is found that the upper mode of the wave frequency with the root of higher-order is smaller than that with the root of lower-order in intermediate wave number domains. However, the lower mode of the scaled wave frequency with the root of higher-order is found to be greater than that with the root of lower-order. It is found that the influence in the order of the root of the Bessel function on the wave frequency of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave in a cylindrically confined dusty plasma decreases with an increase in the propagation wave number. It is also found that the double frequency modes increase with increasing Mach number due to the ion flow in a cylindrical dusty plasma. In addition, it is found that the upper mode of the group velocity decreases with an increase in the scaled radius of the plasma cylinder. However, it is shown that the lower mode of the scaled group velocity of the space-charge dust ion acoustic wave increases with an increase in the radius of the plasma cylinder. The variation of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave due to the wake potential and geometric effects is also discussed.

  9. A methodology for including wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.; Pucciarelli, A.; Borroni, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model for taking into account wall roughness in low-Reynolds k-ε models is presented. • The model is subjected to a first validation to show its potential in general applications. • The application of the model in predicting heat transfer to supercritical fluids is also discussed. - Abstract: A model accounting for wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models is described in the present paper. In particular, the introduction in the transport equations of k and ε of additional source terms related to roughness, based on simple assumptions and dimensional relationships, is proposed. An objective of the present paper, in addition to obtaining more realistic predictions of wall friction, is the application of the proposed model to the study of heat transfer to supercritical fluids. A first validation of the model is reported. The model shows the capability of predicting, at least qualitatively, some of the most important trends observed when dealing with rough pipes in very different flow conditions. Qualitative comparisons with some DNS data available in literature are also performed. Further analyses provided promising results concerning the ability of the model in reproducing the trend of friction factor when varying the flow conditions, though improvements are necessary for achieving better quantitative accuracy. First applications of the model in simulating heat transfer to supercritical fluids are also described, showing the capability of the model to affect the predictions of these heat transfer phenomena, in particular in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical conditions. A more extended application of the model to relevant deteriorated heat transfer conditions will clarify the usefulness of this modelling methodology in improving predictions of these difficult phenomena. Whatever the possible success in this particular application that motivated its development, this approach suggests a general methodology for accounting

  10. Building trust in e-banking and its effect on positive word-of-mouth advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shaemi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, new technologies have changed the way of serving customers in many service organizations including banking industry. The importance of websites and their exclusive characteristics in presenting various kinds of services to the bank customers has increased. This paper presents a compound model to investigate the effect of traditional and online elements on customers' trust in electronic banking and word of mouth advertisement. For this purpose, a standard questionnaire based on Likert segmentation has been used and 384 customers of Shiraz Mellat bank branches have been tested, randomly. Using structural equation modeling, the study shows that both traditional characteristics of bank and website characteristics rather have positive effects on customers’ trust in electronic banking, which increase word of mouth advertising, positively.

  11. Light reflection from a rough liquid surface including wind-wave effects in a scattering atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, Santo V.; Liew, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Visible and near-IR images of the ocean surface, taken from remote satellites, often contain important information of near-surface or sub-surface processes, which occur on, or over the ocean. Remote measurements of near surface winds, sea surface temperature and salinity, ocean color and underwater bathymetry, all, one way or another, depend on how well we understand sea surface roughness. However, in order to extract useful information from our remote measurements, we need to construct accurate models of the transfer of solar radiation inside the atmosphere as well as, its reflection from the sea surface. To approach this problem, we numerically solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) by implementing a model for the atmosphere-ocean system. A one-dimensional atmospheric radiation model is solved via the widely known doubling and adding method and the ocean body is treated as a boundary condition to the problem. The ocean surface is modeled as a rough liquid surface which includes wind interaction and wave states, such as wave age. The model can have possible applications to the retrieval of wind and wave states, such as wave age, near a Sun glint region

  12. An Expanded UV Irradiance Database from TOMS Including the Effects of Ozone, Clouds, and Aerosol Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J.; Krotkov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The TOMS UV irradiance database (1978 to 2003) has been expanded to include five new products (noon irradiance at 305,310,324, and 380 nm, and noon erythemal-weighted irradiance), in addition to the existing erythemal daily exposure, that permit direct comparisons with ground-based measurements from spectrometers and broadband instruments. The new data are available on http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/>http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. Comparisons of the TOMS estimated irradiances with ground-based instruments are given along with a review of the sources of known errors, especially the recent improvements in accounting for aerosol attenuation. Trend estimations from the new TOMS irradiances permit the clear separation of changes caused by ozone and those caused by aerosols and clouds. Systematic differences in cloud cover are shown to be the most important factor in determining regional differences in UV radiation reaching the ground for locations at the same latitude (e.g., the summertime differences between Australia and the US southwest).

  13. A new simple parameterization of daily clear-sky global solar radiation including horizon effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Gabriel; Javier Batlles, F.; Tovar-Pescador, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Estimation of clear-sky global solar radiation is usually an important previous stage for calculating global solar radiation under all sky conditions. This is, for instance, a common procedure to derive incoming solar radiation from remote sensing or by using digital elevation models. In this work, we present a new model to calculate daily values of clear-sky global solar irradiation. The main goal is the simple parameterization in terms of atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, Angstroem's turbidity coefficient, ground albedo and site elevation, including a factor to take into account horizon obstructions. This allows us to obtain estimates even though a free horizon is not present as is the case of mountainous locations. Comparisons of calculated daily values with measured data show that this model is able to provide a good level of accurate estimates using either daily or mean monthly values of the input parameters. This new model has also been shown to improve daily estimates against those obtained using the clear-sky model from the European Solar Radiation Atlas and other accurate parameterized daily irradiation models. The introduction of Angstroem's turbidity coefficient and ground albedo should allow us to use the increasing worldwide aerosol information available and to consider those sites affected by snow covers in an easy and fast way. In addition, the proposed model is intended to be a useful tool to select clear-sky conditions

  14. Isogeometric analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams including the nonlinear effects of large deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Farhad; Hashemian, Ali; Moetakef-Imani, Behnam; Hadidimoud, Saied

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the isogeometric analysis (IGA) of free-form planar curved beams is formulated based on the nonlinear Timoshenko beam theory to investigate the large deformation of beams with variable curvature. Based on the isoparametric concept, the shape functions of the field variables (displacement and rotation) in a finite element analysis are considered to be the same as the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) basis functions defining the geometry. The validity of the presented formulation is tested in five case studies covering a wide range of engineering curved structures including from straight and constant curvature to variable curvature beams. The nonlinear deformation results obtained by the presented method are compared to well-established benchmark examples and also compared to the results of linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. As the nonlinear load-deflection behavior of Timoshenko beams is the main topic of this article, the results strongly show the applicability of the IGA method to the large deformation analysis of free-form curved beams. Finally, it is interesting to notice that, until very recently, the large deformations analysis of free-form Timoshenko curved beams has not been considered in IGA by researchers.

  15. Effects of Adiponectin Including Reduction of Androstenedione Secretion and Ovarian Oxidative Stress Parameters In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V Comim

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is the most abundantly produced human adipokine with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and insulin-sensitizing properties. Evidence from in vitro studies has indicated that adiponectin has a potential role in reproduction because it reduces the production of androstenedione in bovine theca cells in vitro. However, this effect on androgen production has not yet been observed in vivo. The current study evaluated the effect of adiponectin on androstenedione secretion and oxidative stress parameters in a rodent model. Seven-week-old female Balb/c mice (n = 33, previously treated with equine gonadotropin chorionic, were assigned to one of four different treatments: Group 1, control (phosphate-buffered saline; Group 2, adiponectin 0.1 μg/mL; Group 3, adiponectin 1.0 μg/mL; Group 4, adiponectin 5.0 μg/mL. After 24 h, all animals were euthanized and androstenedione levels were measured in the serum while oxidative stress markers were quantified in whole ovary tissue. Female mice treated with adiponectin exhibited a significant reduction (about 60% in serum androstenedione levels in comparison to controls. Androstenedione levels decreased from 0.78 ± 0.4 ng/mL (mean ± SD in controls to 0.28 ± 0.06 ng/mL after adiponectin (5 μg/mL treatment (P = 0.01. This change in androgen secretion after 24 hours of treatment was associated with a significant reduction in the expression of CYP11A1 and STAR (but not CYP17A1. In addition, ovarian AOPP product levels, a direct product of protein oxidation, decreased significantly in adiponectin-treated mice (5 μg/mL; AOPP (mean ± SD decreased to 4.3 ± 2.1 μmol/L in comparison with that of the controls (11.5 ± 1.7 μmol/L; P = 0.0003. Our results demonstrated for the first time that acute treatment with adiponectin reduced the levels of a direct oxidative stress marker in the ovary as well as decreased androstenedione serum levels in vivo after 24 h.

  16. Optimization of piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesters including non-linear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R; McWilliam, S; Popov, A A

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a versatile non-linear model for predicting piezoelectric energy harvester performance. The presented model includes (i) material non-linearity, for both substrate and piezoelectric layers, and (ii) geometric non-linearity incorporated by assuming inextensibility and accurately representing beam curvature. The addition of a sub-model, which utilizes the transfer matrix method to predict eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors for segmented beams, allows for accurate optimization of piezoelectric layer coverage. A validation of the overall theoretical model is performed through experimental testing on both uniform and non-uniform samples manufactured in-house. For the harvester composition used in this work, the magnitude of material non-linearity exhibited by the piezoelectric layer is 35 times greater than that of the substrate layer. It is also observed that material non-linearity, responsible for reductions in resonant frequency with increases in base acceleration, is dominant over geometric non-linearity for standard piezoelectric harvesting devices. Finally, over the tested range, energy loss due to damping is found to increase in a quasi-linear fashion with base acceleration. During an optimization study on piezoelectric layer coverage, results from the developed model were compared with those from a linear model. Unbiased comparisons between harvesters were realized by using devices with identical natural frequencies—created by adjusting the device substrate thickness. Results from three studies, each with a different assumption on mechanical damping variations, are presented. Findings showed that, depending on damping variation, a non-linear model is essential for such optimization studies with each model predicting vastly differing optimum configurations. (paper)

  17. Investigation on plasmonic responses in multilayered nanospheres including asymmetry and spatial nonlocal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tianyu; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hui; Chen, Feng; Ma, Xikui; Mittra, Raj

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a rigorous approach for analyzing the optical response of multilayered spherical nano-particles comprised of either plasmonic metal or dielectric, when there is no longer radial symmetry and when nonlocality is included. The Lorenz-Mie theory is applied, and a linearized hydrodynamic Drude model as well as the general nonlocal optical response model for the metals are employed. Additional boundary conditions, viz., the continuity of normal components of polarization current density and the continuity of first-order pressure of free electron density, respectively, are incorporated when handling interfaces involving metals. The application of spherical addition theorems, enables us to express a spherical harmonic about one origin to spherical harmonics about a different origin, and leads to a linear system of equations for the inward- and outward-field modal coefficients for all the layers in the nanoparticle. Scattering matrices at interfaces are obtained and cascaded to obtain the expansion coefficients, to yield the final solution. Through extensive modelling of stratified concentric and eccentric metal-involved spherical nanoshells illuminating by a plane wave, we show that, within a nonlocal description, significant modifications of plasmonic response appear, e.g. a blue-shift in the extinction / scattering spectrum and a broadening spectrum of the resonance. In addition, it has been demonstrated that core-shell nanostructures provide an option for tunable Fano-resonance generators. The proposed method shows its capability and flexibility to analyze the nonlocal response of eccentric hybrid metal-dielectric multilayer structures as well as adjoined metal-involved nanoparticles, even when the number of layers is large.

  18. ATEFlap aerodynamic model, a dynamic stall model including the effects of trailing edge flap deflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergami, L.; Gaunaa, M.

    2012-02-15

    The report presents the ATEFlap aerodynamic model, which computes the unsteady lift, drag and moment on a 2D airfoil section equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap. The model captures the unsteady response related to the effects of the vorticity shed into the wake, and the dynamics of flow separation a thin-airfoil potential flow model is merged with a dynamic stall model of the Beddoes-Leishmann type. The inputs required by the model are steady data for lift, drag, and moment coefficients as function of angle of attack and flap deflection. Further steady data used by the Beddoes- Leishmann dynamic stall model are computed in an external preprocessor application, which gives the user the possibility to verify, and eventually correct, the steady data passed to the aerodynamic model. The ATEFlap aerodynamic model is integrated in the aeroelastic simulation tool HAWC2, thus al- lowing to simulate the response of a wind turbine with trailing edge flaps on the rotor. The algorithms used by the preprocessor, and by aerodynamic model are presented, and modifications to previous implementations of the aerodynamic model are briefly discussed. The performance and the validity of the model are verified by comparing the dynamic response computed by the ATEFlap with solutions from CFD simulations. (Author)

  19. Effects of embedment including slip and separation on seismic SSI response of a nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Navjeev; Paul, D.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Both the slip and separation of reactor base reduce with increase in embedment. ► The slip and separation become insignificant beyond 1/4 and 1/2 embedment respectively. ► The stresses in reactor reduce significantly upto 1/4 embedment. ► The stress reduction with embedment is more pronounced in case of tensile stresses. ► The modeling of interface is important beyond 1/8 embedment as stresses are underestimated otherwise. - Abstract: The seismic response of nuclear reactor containment building considering the effects of embedment, slip and separation at soil–structure interface requires modeling of the soil, structure and interface altogether. Slip and separation at the interface causes stress redistribution in the soil and the structure around the interface. The embedment changes the dynamic characteristics of the soil–structure system. Consideration of these aspects allows capturing the realistic response of the structure, which has been a research gap and presented here individually as well as taken together. Finite element analysis has been carried out in time domain to attempt the highly nonlinear problem. The study draws important conclusions useful for design of nuclear reactor containment building.

  20. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of framed structures including soil-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, M.N.; Ahmed, S.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The role of oil-structure interaction on seismic behavior of reinforced concrete structures is investigated in this paper. A finite element approach has been adopted to model the interaction system that consists of the reinforced concrete plane frame, soil deposit and interface which represents the frictional between foundation of the structure and subsoil. The analysis is based on the elasto-plastic behavior of the frame members (beams and columns) that is defined by the ultimate axial force-bending moment interaction curve, while the cap model is adopted to govern the elasto-plastic behavior of the soil material. Mohr-Coulomb failure law is used to determine the initiation of slippage at the interface, while the separation is assumed to determine the initiation of slippage at the interface, while the separation is assumed to occur when the stresses at the interface becomes tension stresses. New-Mark's Predictor-Corrector algorithm is adopted for nonlinear dynamic analysis. The main aim of present work is to evaluate the sensitivity of structures to different behavior of the soil and interface layer when subjected to an earthquake excitation. Predicted results of the dynamic analysis of the interaction system indicate that the soil-structure interaction problem can have beneficial effects on the structural behavior when different soil models (elastic and elasto-plastic) and interface conditions (perfect bond and permitted slip)are considered. (author)

  1. North american natural gas supply forecast: the Hubbert method including the effects of institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D. B.; Kolodziej, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the U.S. and southern Canadian natural gas supply market is considered. An important model for oil and natural gas supply is the Hubbert curve. Not all regions of the world are producing oil or natural gas following a Hubbert curve, even when price and market conditions are accounted for. One reason is that institutions are affecting supply. We investigate the possible effects of oil and gas market institutions in North America on natural gas supply. A multi-cycle Hubbert curve with inflection points similar to the Soviet Union's oil production multi-cycle Hubbert curve is used to determine North American natural gas discovery rates and to analyze how market specific institutions caused the inflection points. In addition, we analyze the latest shale natural gas projections critically. While currently, unconventional resources of natural gas suggest that North American natural gas production will increase without bound, the model here suggests a peak in North American natural gas supplies could happen in 2013. (author)

  2. Effect of two Spanish breeds and diet on beef quality including consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Guillermo; Blanco, Mireia; Albertí, Pere; Panea, Begoña; Joy, Margalida; Casasús, Isabel

    2014-03-30

    Farmers in dry mountain areas are changing their management strategies to improve livestock farming efficiency, by using different forages or different breeds. The effect of breed (Parda de Montaña vs. Pirenaica) and finishing diet (grazing on meadows vs. a total mixed ration (50% alfalfa, 40% maize grain, 10% straw)) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of steers was studied. Parda de Montaña had a greater (P < 0.01) amount of intramuscular fat than Pirenaica. The finishing diet did not influence carcass fat color, but fatty acid composition was slightly affected. Finishing steers on a total mixed ration increased the percentage of fat of the 10th rib (P < 0.001). Supplementation with concentrates increased the diet energy concentration and also increased the dressing percentage. Both breeds had similar carcass characteristics. Consumers preferred beef from the Pirenaica breed because of its greater tenderness. Consumers did not differentiate between beef from animals fed different finishing diets. However, consumers who like meat very much preferred meat aged in a cooler at 4 °C for 15 days rather than 8 days. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Development of Extended Ray-tracing method including diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Kota; Kubo, Shin; Dodin, Ilya; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Tsujimura, Toru

    2017-10-01

    Geometrical Optics Ray-tracing is a reasonable numerical analytic approach for describing the Electron Cyclotron resonance Wave (ECW) in slowly varying spatially inhomogeneous plasma. It is well known that the result with this conventional method is adequate in most cases. However, in the case of Helical fusion plasma which has complicated magnetic structure, strong magnetic shear with a large scale length of density can cause a mode coupling of waves outside the last closed flux surface, and complicated absorption structure requires a strong focused wave for ECH. Since conventional Ray Equations to describe ECW do not have any terms to describe the diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects, we can not describe accurately a mode coupling of waves, strong focus waves, behavior of waves in inhomogeneous absorption region and so on. For fundamental solution of these problems, we consider the extension of the Ray-tracing method. Specific process is planned as follows. First, calculate the reference ray by conventional method, and define the local ray-base coordinate system along the reference ray. Then, calculate the evolution of the distributions of amplitude and phase on ray-base coordinate step by step. The progress of our extended method will be presented.

  4. Interpretation of vector magnetograph data including magneto-optic effects. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, E.A.; Hagyard, J.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the presence of Faraday rotation in measurements of orientation of a sunspot's transvese magnetic field is investigated. Using observations obtained with the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) vector magnetograph, the derived vector magnetic field of a simple, symmetric sunspot is used to calculate the degree of Faraday rotation in the azimuth of the transverse field as a function of wavelength from analytical expressions for the Stokes parameters. These results are then compared with the observed rotation of the field's azimuth which is derived from observations at different wavelengths within the Fe sub(I) 5250 A spectral line. From these comparisons, we find: the observed rotation of the azimuth is simulated to a reasonable degree by the theoretical formulations if the line-formation parameter eta 0 is varied over the sunspot; these variations in eta 0 are substantiated by the line-intensity data; for the MSFC system, Faraday rotation can be neglected for field strengths less than 1800 G and field inclinations greater than 45 0 ; to minimize the effects of Faraday rotation in sunspot umbrae, MSFC magnetograph measurements must be made in the far wings of the Zeeman-sensitive spectral line. (orig.)

  5. Optical potentials derived from microscopic separable interactions including binding and recoil effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, E.R.; Walker, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    We first consider a projectile scattering from a nucleon bound in a fixed potential. A separable Galilean invariant projectile-nucleon interaction is adopted. Without using the fixed scatterer approximation or using closure on the intermediate target nucleon states we obtain various forms for the projectile-bound nucleon t matrix. Effects due to intermediate target excitation and nucleon recoil are discussed. By making the further approximations of closure and fixed scatterers we make connection with the work of previous authors. By generalizing to projectile interaction with several bound nucleons and examining the appropriate multiple scattering series we identify the optical potential for projectile elastic scattering from the many-body system. Different optical potentials are obtained for different projectile-bound nucleon t matrices, and we study the differences predicted by these dissimilar optical potentials for elastic scattering. In a model problem, we study pion-nucleus elastic scattering and compare the predictions obtained by adopting procedures used by (1) Landau, Phatak, and Tabakin and (2) Piepho-Walker to the predictions obtained in a less restrictive, but computationally difficult treatment

  6. Sensitivity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in Detecting Treatment Effects via Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahlani, Farnaz Zamani; Sayama, Hiroki; Visser, Katherine Frost; Strauss, Gregory P

    2017-12-01

    Objective: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale is a primary outcome measure in clinical trials examining the efficacy of antipsychotic medications. Although the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale has demonstrated sensitivity as a measure of treatment change in studies using traditional univariate statistical approaches, its sensitivity to detecting network-level changes in dynamic relationships among symptoms has yet to be demonstrated using more sophisticated multivariate analyses. In the current study, we examined the sensitivity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale to detecting antipsychotic treatment effects as revealed through network analysis. Design: Participants included 1,049 individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders from the Phase I portion of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study. Of these participants, 733 were clinically determined to be treatment-responsive and 316 were found to be treatment-resistant. Item level data from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were submitted to network analysis, and macroscopic, mesoscopic, and microscopic network properties were evaluated for the treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant groups at baseline and post-phase I antipsychotic treatment. Results: Network analysis indicated that treatment-responsive patients had more densely connected symptom networks after antipsychotic treatment than did treatment-responsive patients at baseline, and that symptom centralities increased following treatment. In contrast, symptom networks of treatment-resistant patients behaved more randomly before and after treatment. Conclusions: These results suggest that the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale is sensitive to detecting treatment effects as revealed through network analysis. Its findings also provide compelling new evidence that strongly interconnected symptom networks confer an overall greater probability of treatment responsiveness in patients with

  7. Probabilistic and deterministic soil structure interaction analysis including ground motion incoherency effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhoraibi, T.; Hashemi, A.; Ostadan, F.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) is a major step for seismic design of massive and stiff structures typical of the nuclear facilities and civil infrastructures such as tunnels, underground stations, dams and lock head structures. Currently most SSI analyses are performed deterministically, incorporating limited range of variation in soil and structural properties and without consideration of the ground motion incoherency effects. This often leads to overestimation of the seismic response particularly the In-Structure-Response Spectra (ISRS) with significant impositions of design and equipment qualification costs, especially in the case of high-frequency sensitive equipment at stiff soil or rock sites. The reluctance to incorporate a more comprehensive probabilistic approach is mainly due to the fact that the computational cost of performing probabilistic SSI analysis even without incoherency function considerations has been prohibitive. As such, bounding deterministic approaches have been preferred by the industry and accepted by the regulatory agencies. However, given the recently available and growing computing capabilities, the need for a probabilistic-based approach to the SSI analysis is becoming clear with the advances in performance-based engineering and the utilization of fragility analysis in the decision making process whether by the owners or the regulatory agencies. This paper demonstrates the use of both probabilistic and deterministic SSI analysis techniques to identify important engineering demand parameters in the structure. A typical nuclear industry structure is used as an example for this study. The system is analyzed for two different site conditions: rock and deep soil. Both deterministic and probabilistic SSI analysis approaches are performed, using the program SASSI, with and without ground motion incoherency considerations. In both approaches, the analysis begins at the hard rock level using the low frequency and high frequency hard rock

  8. Probabilistic and deterministic soil structure interaction analysis including ground motion incoherency effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkhoraibi, T., E-mail: telkhora@bechtel.com; Hashemi, A.; Ostadan, F.

    2014-04-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) is a major step for seismic design of massive and stiff structures typical of the nuclear facilities and civil infrastructures such as tunnels, underground stations, dams and lock head structures. Currently most SSI analyses are performed deterministically, incorporating limited range of variation in soil and structural properties and without consideration of the ground motion incoherency effects. This often leads to overestimation of the seismic response particularly the In-Structure-Response Spectra (ISRS) with significant impositions of design and equipment qualification costs, especially in the case of high-frequency sensitive equipment at stiff soil or rock sites. The reluctance to incorporate a more comprehensive probabilistic approach is mainly due to the fact that the computational cost of performing probabilistic SSI analysis even without incoherency function considerations has been prohibitive. As such, bounding deterministic approaches have been preferred by the industry and accepted by the regulatory agencies. However, given the recently available and growing computing capabilities, the need for a probabilistic-based approach to the SSI analysis is becoming clear with the advances in performance-based engineering and the utilization of fragility analysis in the decision making process whether by the owners or the regulatory agencies. This paper demonstrates the use of both probabilistic and deterministic SSI analysis techniques to identify important engineering demand parameters in the structure. A typical nuclear industry structure is used as an example for this study. The system is analyzed for two different site conditions: rock and deep soil. Both deterministic and probabilistic SSI analysis approaches are performed, using the program SASSI, with and without ground motion incoherency considerations. In both approaches, the analysis begins at the hard rock level using the low frequency and high frequency hard rock

  9. The Effect of Fatigued External Rotator Muscles of the Shoulder on the Shoulder Position Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Iida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of fatigue in shoulder external rotator muscles on position sense of shoulder abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. The study included 10 healthy subjects. Shoulder position sense was measured before and after a fatigue task involving shoulder external rotator muscles. The fatigue task was performed using an isokinetic machine. To confirm the muscle fatigue, electromyography (EMG was recorded, and an integrated EMG and median power frequency (MDF during 3 sec performed target torque were calculated. After the fatigue task, the MDF of the infraspinatus muscle significantly decreased. This indicates that the infraspinatus muscle was involved in the fatigue task. In addition, the shoulder position sense of internal and external rotation significantly decreased after the fatigue task. These results suggest that the fatigue reduced the accuracy of sensory input from muscle spindles. However, no significant difference was observed in shoulder position sense of abduction before and after the fatigue task. This may be due to the fact that infraspinatus muscle did not act as prime movers in shoulder abduction. These results suggest that muscle fatigue decreased position sense during movements in which the affected muscles acted as prime movers.

  10. Effect of Pelvic Tilt and Rotation on Cup Orientation in Both Supine and Standing Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hohyun; Murphy, William S; Ward, Daniel M; Zheng, Guoyan; Hayden, Brett L; Murphy, Stephen B

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of pelvic tilt and rotation on radiographic measurement of cup orientation. A total of 68 patients (79 hips) were included in this study. The patients had a computed tomography study and approximately 3 months of postoperative standing anteroposterior pelvic radiographs in both supine and standing positions. We used 2-dimensional (2D)/3-dimensional (3D) matching to measure pelvic tilt and rotation, and cup orientation. There was a wide range of pelvic tilt between individuals in both supine and standing positions. Supine pelvic tilt was different from standing pelvic tilt (P cup anteversion before and after 2D/3D matching in both supine and standing positions (P cup anteversion before and after 2D/3D matching. When all 79 hips were separated into right and left side, pelvic rotation inversely correlated with the pelvic tilt-adjusted difference in anteversion before and after 2D/3D matching of the right side but directly correlated with that of the left side in both supine and standing positions. This study demonstrated that the measurement of cup anteversion on anteroposterior radiographs is significantly affected by both pelvic tilt and pelvic rotation (depending on the side). Improved understanding of pelvic orientation and improved ability to measure pelvic orientation may eventually allow for desired cup positioning to potentially protect against complications associated with malposition of the cup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 30. effects of anxiety on neurocognitive performance in hiv positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    poor treatment compliance, disease progression leading. 1 ... deficits associated with HIV related anxiety and determine effects of ..... And Boys With And Without Attention Deficit. Hyperactivity Disorder Differ Neuropsychologically. In Preteen ...

  12. Evaluation of negative and positive health effects of n-3 fatty acids as constituents of food supplements and fortified foods

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2011-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has on request from The Norwegian Food Safety Authority evaluated negative and positive human health effects from intake of n-3 fatty acids from food supplements and fortified foods. The evidence presented in this evaluation show that it is possible to obtain positive health effects in the Norwegian population from intake of EPA and DHA, including from food supplements, without any appreciable risk of negative or adverse health ...

  13. Effects of body position and sex group on tongue pressure generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Angela M; Cirstea, Carmen M; Auer, Ed T; Searl, Jeff P

    2013-11-01

    Fine control of orofacial musculature is necessary to precisely accelerate and decelerate the articulators across exact distances for functional speech and coordinated swallows (Amerman & Parnell, 1990; Benjamin, 1997; Kent, Duffy, Slama, Kent, & Clift, 2001). Enhanced understanding of neural control for such movements could clarify the nature of and potential remediation for some dysarthrias and other orofacial myofunctional impairments. Numerous studies have measured orolingual force and accuracy during speech and nonspeech tasks, but have focused on young adults, maximum linguapalatal pressures, and upright positioning (O'Day, Frank, Montgomery, Nichols, & McDade, 2005; Solomon & Munson, 2004; Somodi, Robin, & Luschei, 1995; Youmans, Youmans, & Stierwalt, 2009). Patients' medical conditions or testing procedures such as concurrent neuroimaging may preclude fully upright positioning during oral motor assessments in some cases. Since judgments about lingual strength and coordination can influence clinical decisions regarding the functionality of swallowing and speech, it is imperative to understand any effects of body positioning differences. In addition, sex differences in the control of such tasks are not well defined. Therefore, this study evaluated whether pressures exerted during tongue movements differ in upright vs. supine body position in healthy middle-aged men and women. Twenty healthy middle-aged adults compressed small air-filled plastic bulbs in the oral cavity at predetermined fractions of task-specific peak pressure in a randomized block design. Tasks including phoneme repetitions and nonspeech isometric contractions were executed in upright and supine positions. Participants received continuous visual feedback regarding targets and actual exerted pressures. Analyses compared average pressure values for each subject, task, position, and effort level. Speech-like and nonspeech tongue pressures did not differ significantly across body position or sex

  14. Fatigue Behavior under Multiaxial Stress States Including Notch Effects and Variable Amplitude Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Nicholas R.

    The central objective of the research performed in this study was to be able to better understand and predict fatigue crack initiation and growth from stress concentrations subjected to complex service loading histories. As such, major areas of focus were related to the understanding and modeling of material deformation behavior, fatigue damage quantification, notch effects, cycle counting, damage accumulation, and crack growth behavior under multiaxial nominal loading conditions. To support the analytical work, a wide variety of deformation and fatigue tests were also performed using tubular and plate specimens made from 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, with and without the inclusion of a circular through-thickness hole. However, the analysis procedures implemented were meant to be general in nature, and applicable to a wide variety of materials and component geometries. As a result, experimental data from literature were also used, when appropriate, to supplement the findings of various analyses. Popular approaches currently used for multiaxial fatigue life analysis are based on the idea of computing an equivalent stress/strain quantity through the extension of static yield criteria. This equivalent stress/strain is then considered to be equal, in terms of fatigue damage, to a uniaxial loading of the same magnitude. However, it has often been shown, and was shown again in this study, that although equivalent stress- and strain-based analysis approaches may work well in certain situations, they lack a general robustness and offer little room for improvement. More advanced analysis techniques, on the other hand, provide an opportunity to more accurately account for various aspects of the fatigue failure process under both constant and variable amplitude loading conditions. As a result, such techniques were of primary interest in the investigations performed. By implementing more advanced life prediction methodologies, both the overall accuracy and the correlation of fatigue

  15. Positioning for Effectiveness: Applying Marketing Concepts to Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenburg, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates how colleges can use distance education to attract and retain a "critical mass" of learners for distance programs. Explores alternative ways to view distance education market opportunities and determine which avenues to pursue. Suggests how to be more effective in all aspects of distance education programs. (13 citations) (YKH)

  16. Effects of window position on natural cross ventilation in vernacular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the most effective architectures is vernacular architecture of Mazandaran whose incorporation in nature is so delicate that appears to be an essential part of it. Paying more attention to vernacular architecture and promoting it can be helpful in reducing energy consumption. Increasing use of fossil fuels in heating and ...

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of brand-positioning strategies from a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christoph; Diamantopoulos, Adamantios

    2010-01-01

    - The findings should guide brand managers in selecting the most appropriate positioning strategies for their brands in high-involvement markets such as the automobile market. Originality/value - The study sheds initial light on the overall relative effectiveness of major positioning strategies. The study......Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to explore empirically the overall relative effectiveness of alternative positioning strategies from a consumer perspective. Design/methodology/approach - Two studies (within- and between-subjects design) are conducted aimed at evaluating the positioning...... of positioning strategy used affects the positioning success of a brand. More specifically, the study confirms normative arguments about the overall relative effectiveness of main positioning strategies by revealing that benefit-based positioning and surrogate (user) positioning generally outperform feature...

  18. Growth hormone positive effects on craniofacial complex in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juloski, Jovana; Dumančić, Jelena; Šćepan, Ivana; Lauc, Tomislav; Milašin, Jelena; Kaić, Zvonimir; Dumić, Miroslav; Babić, Marko

    2016-11-01

    Turner syndrome occurs in phenotypic females with complete or partial absence of X chromosome. The leading symptom is short stature, while numerous but mild stigmata manifest in the craniofacial region. These patients are commonly treated with growth hormone to improve their final height. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term growth hormone therapy on craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients. In this cross-sectional study cephalometric analysis was performed on 13 lateral cephalograms of patients with 45,X karyotype and the average age of 17.3 years, who have received growth hormone for at least two years. The control group consisted of 13 Turner syndrome patients naive to growth hormone treatment, matched to study group by age and karyotype. Sixteen linear and angular measurements were obtained from standard lateral cephalograms. Standard deviation scores were calculated in order to evaluate influence of growth hormone therapy on craniofacial components. In Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone most of linear measurements were significantly larger compared to untreated patients. Growth hormone therapy mainly influenced posterior face height, mandibular ramus height, total mandibular length, anterior face height and maxillary length. While the increase in linear measurements was evident, angular measurements and facial height ratio did not show statistically significant difference. Acromegalic features were not found. Long-term growth hormone therapy has positive influence on craniofacial development in Turner syndrome patients, with the greatest impact on posterior facial height and mandibular ramus. However, it could not compensate X chromosome deficiency and normalize craniofacial features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Algebraic solutions of shape-invariant position-dependent effective mass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amir, Naila, E-mail: naila.amir@live.com, E-mail: naila.amir@seecs.edu.pk [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iqbal, Shahid, E-mail: sic80@hotmail.com, E-mail: siqbal@sns.nust.edu.pk [School of Natural Sciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-06-15

    Keeping in view the ordering ambiguity that arises due to the presence of position-dependent effective mass in the kinetic energy term of the Hamiltonian, a general scheme for obtaining algebraic solutions of quantum mechanical systems with position-dependent effective mass is discussed. We quantize the Hamiltonian of the pertaining system by using symmetric ordering of the operators concerning momentum and the spatially varying mass, initially proposed by von Roos and Lévy-Leblond. The algebraic method, used to obtain the solutions, is based on the concepts of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and shape invariance. In order to exemplify the general formalism a class of non-linear oscillators has been considered. This class includes the particular example of a one-dimensional oscillator with different position-dependent effective mass profiles. Explicit expressions for the eigenenergies and eigenfunctions in terms of generalized Hermite polynomials are presented. Moreover, properties of these modified Hermite polynomials, like existence of generating function and recurrence relations among the polynomials have also been studied. Furthermore, it has been shown that in the harmonic limit, all the results for the linear harmonic oscillator are recovered.

  20. Does Subjective Left-Right Position Have a Causal Effect on Support for Redistribution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    characteristics as instruments for left-right position, can be used to estimate the causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution. I analyze data on Sweden, Germany, and Norway from the two first waves of the European Social Survey and find first that left-right position is endogenous...... to support for redistribution, and second consistent with theory, that a causal effect of left-right position on support for redistribution exists which is stronger than previously shown....

  1. Effects contributing to positive coolant void reactivity in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.J.; Garland, W.J.; Milgram, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The lattice cell code WIMS-AECL (Ref. 3) is used to model a typical CANDU lattice cell, using nominal geometric bucklings, the PIJ option, and 69-group Winfrith library. The effect of cell voiding is modeled as a 100% instantaneous removal of coolant from the lattice. This is conservative because of the neglect of time dependence and partial core voiding, considered more plausible in CANDU. Results are grouped into three spectral groups: fast neutrons (0.821 to 10 MeV), epithermal neutrons (0.625 eV to 0.821 MeV), and thermal neutrons (<0.625 eV)

  2. Temperature effects on interaction of positive ions with plastic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Anaya, D.

    1992-01-01

    The range of heavy charged particles in matter is dependent mainly on two groups of parameters, one related to the particle characteristics (charge z, mass m, energy E) and the other characterized by the stopping medium (charge z, density ρ). Those two groups are enough to describe the particle energy lost, which is related to the residual range. Research on charge particles registration using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), probe that environmental parameters affect the stabilization and formation of the tracks. One of those, is the temperature detector which shows an important effect during the irradiation on the characteristics of the tracks produced. In order to study the dependence of track geometry as a function of irradiation temperature, some SSNTD (CR 39 type) were irradiated with α particles and fission fragments. Results of this work show the existence of irradiation temperature effect on the track geometry. It is observed a reduction of length and diameters, as temperature increases. For low irradiation temperatures, there is a reduction of the track geometry, as compared with environmental temperature. (Author)

  3. Combined effects of positive and negative affectivity and job satisfaction on job performance and turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Raja, Usman; Butt, Arif Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Capturing data from employee-supervisor dyads (N = 321) from eight organizations in Pakistan, including human service organizations, an electronics assembly plant, a packaging material manufacturing company, and a small food processing plant, we used moderated regression analysis to examine whether the relationships between trait affect (positive affectivity [PA] and negative affectivity [NA]) and two key work outcome variables (job performance and turnover) are contingent upon the level of job satisfaction. We applied the Trait Activation Theory to explain the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between affect and performance and between affect and turnover. Overall, the data supported our hypotheses. Positive and negative affectivity influenced performance and the intention to quit, and job satisfaction moderated these relationships. We discuss in detail the results of these findings and their implications for research and practice.

  4. EFFECT OF POSTURAL DRAINAGE POSITIONS ON VITAL PARAMETERS IN ASYMPTOMATIC HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Hazari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural drainage is used exclusively or in combination with other airway clearance techniques in the management of chronic pulmonary diseases. Postural drainage therapy helps to prevent accumulation of secretions in patients who are at high risk for pulmonary complications. It also helps to remove accumulated secretions from the lungs.The role of body positioning on lung function and the clinical implications of postural drainage has been identified in a variety of settings including intensive care units. There is dearth in literature on effects on postural drainage on vital parameters. Thus the objective of the study was to measure the vital parameters at different postural drainage positions in healthy asymptomatic adults. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects participated in the study. The instruments used in the current study included a Pulse oximeter, Sphygmomanometer, Stethoscope, Postural drainage table.The outcome measures of interest were heart rate, respiratoryrate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure and Borg’s scale of rate of perceived exertion. The changes in the vital signs were recorded at different head down titling position of 0°, 15° & 30° in both supine and prone lying positions Results: Statistical significant difference was found for Systolic Blood Pressure in prone lying at different degrees of tilt (p=0.001 and Diastolic Blood Pressure in prone lying (p=0.000. Conclusion: Postural drainage positioning should be given with caution and under proper monitoring as there is a risk of change in the blood pressure even in asymptomatic elderly population. The monitoring of vital signs should be done during the therapy to decrease the risk of complications.

  5. Effects of particle's off-axis position, shape, orientation and entry position on resistance changes of micro Coulter counting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhenpeng; Zhe, Jiang; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    With the recent advance in micro/nano-fabrication technology, micro Coulter counters have been widely used in detecting and characterizing micro- and nanoscale objects. In this paper, the electrical resistance change during translocation of a non-conducting particle through a channel is studied numerically. The numerical results are validated by proven analytical results available in the literature. The effects of particle's off-axis position, shape and orientation, and entry position are studied for particles with a large dynamic range. From the numerical results, a new fitted correlation is proposed that can accurately predict the resistance change caused by off-axis spherical particles regardless of their size. The shape and orientation effects of the electrical resistance change are studied by changing the axis ratio of spheroid particles and their orientation angles. Results show that a particle's shape and orientation have a significant influence on the resistance change. Simulation of an entry effect indicates that a particle starts to induce a resistance change before it enters the channel and still causes a resistance change even after the particle exits the channel completely. This study will offer some guidelines in designing and implementing Coulter counting devices and experiments, and provide insights into explaining experimental results

  6. Effects of screening and partner notification on Chlamydia positivity in the United States: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Satterwhite, Catherine; Leichliter, Jami; Berman, Stuart

    2012-05-01

    Model impact of increasing screening and partner notification (PN) on chlamydia positivity. We used a stochastic simulation model describing pair formation and dissolution in an age-structured heterosexual population. The model accounts for steady, casual, and concurrent partnerships and a highly sexually active core group. The model used existing sexual behavior data from the United States and was validated using chlamydia positivity data from Region X (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington). A screening program with a coverage rate of 20% was implemented among women aged 15 to 24 years. After 10 years, we increased screening coverage to 35%, 50%, and 65% and partner treatment rates from 20% to 40% and 55%. Finally, we included male screening (aged 15-24, screening coverage: 20% and 35%, partner treatment: 25% and 40%). We analyzed the effects on chlamydia positivity in women and the frequency of reinfection 6 months after treatment. The model described the decline in positivity observed from 1988 to 1997 in Region X, given screening coverage of 20% and a 25% partner treatment rate. Increasing screening coverage from 35% to 65% resulted in incremental decreases in positivity as did increasing the PN rate; a 23% reduction in positivity was achieved by either increasing screening by 3-fold or PN by 2-fold. Adding male screening to the program had less impact than increasing screening coverage or PN among women. Increased PN and treatment reduced reinfection rates considerably. Increasing efforts in PN may contribute at least as much to control of chlamydia infection as increasing screening coverage rates.

  7. Effectiveness of a Positive Youth Development Program for Secondary 1 Students in Macau: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Luk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid change to society after the opening of the gaming licensure by the government and the potential attraction to youth caused by the casinos, a well-tested and comprehensive adolescent development program previously established in Hong Kong was adopted and modified to be used in Macau. It is expected to help our adolescents achieve positive growth and be better prepared for future challenges. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the modified positive youth development program for Secondary 1 Students in Macau. Specifically, two research questions will be asked: (1 How does the positive youth development program affect positive growth for youth in Macau?; and (2 Is youth growth related to different factors such as gender, age, family financial condition, and parents' marital status? A mixed research method with a quantitative approach using a pre- and post-test pre-experimental design, and a qualitative approach using a focus group for the participants is carried out. The study sample included 232 Secondary 1 Students in two schools. The objective outcome evaluation showed that, overall, 123 (53% of the participants had significant improvement on the total scores of the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale (CPYDS and the two composite scores. However, there were some increases in the behavioral intention of alcohol drinking and participation in gambling activities. The “happiness of the family life” was found to have significant differences in the score of the CPYDS, which was shown to be the factor related to youth growth. The focus group interviews revealed that both positive and negative feedback was obtained from the discussion; however, the majority of the participants perceived benefits to themselves from the program. With reference to the principle of triangulation, the present study suggests that, based on both quantitative and qualitative evaluation findings, it should be concluded that there is

  8. Barriers to condom purchasing: Effects of product positioning on reactions to condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Glasford, Demis E; Marsh, Kerry L; Lust, Sarah A

    2006-12-01

    Correct and consistent condom use has been promoted as a method to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Yet research has repeatedly shown that people fail to use condoms consistently. One influence on the pervasive lack of condom use that has received relatively little attention is the context in which consumers are exposed to condoms (i.e., how condoms are displayed in retail settings). In this paper we present two studies explored variations in condom shelf placement and its effects on people's condom attitudes and acquisition. Study 1 explored the shelf placement of condoms in 59 retail outlets in Connecticut, USA and found that condoms were typically located in areas of high visibility (e.g., next to the pharmacy counter) and on shelves adjacent to feminine hygiene and disease treatment products. In Study 2, 120 heterosexual undergraduate students at the University of Connecticut were randomly assigned to evaluate condoms adjacent to sensual, positive, neutral, or negative products and found that overall men reported more positive attitudes and acquired more condoms when exposed to condoms in a sensual context compared to women in the same condition. Among women, condom attitudes were more positive in the context of neutral products; condom acquisition was strongest for women exposed to condoms in the positive aisles. These results suggest a gender-specific approach to condom promotion. Implications of these studies for HIV prevention, public health, and condom marketing strategies are discussed.

  9. The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events. Participants and procedure Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%, women who had experienced domestic violence (39.20%, and medical rescue workers exposed to traumatic events at work (29.50%. The age of participants ranged from 19 to 67 years (M = 40.12, SD = 13.28. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was used to measure positive changes, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory was used to assess the two types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate. Results Both types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate were positively correlated with the level of posttraumatic growth in the group of cancer patients, and deliberate ruminations were associated with posttraumatic growth in the group of women who had experienced domestic violence and in the medical rescue workers. The results of regression analysis confirmed a significant role of deliberate rumination. Conclusions The study of ruminations allows us to better explain the mechanisms underlying the consequences of traumatic experiences.

  10. Effects on resilience of women family caregivers of adults with serious mental illness: the role of positive cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Bekhet, Abir K; Suresky, M Jane

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the effects of risk and protective factors on resilience in 60 women family members of adults with serious mental illness. Both the risk factors constituting caregiver burden (strain, stigma, client dependence, and family disruption) and protective factors, including eight positive cognitions were found to predict two indicators of resilience: resourcefulness and sense of coherence. The effects of caregiver burden on resourcefulness and sense of coherence were mediated by positive cognitions, lending support to resilience theory and suggesting the need to develop interventions to encourage positive thinking among women caregivers of adults with mental illness.

  11. Potential Positive Effects of Pesticides Application on (Walker (Lepidoptera: Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the pink stem borer (PSB Sesamia inferens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae has become a rice pest in some rice-producing regions. The cause of this shift from secondary to major pest is unknown. The major purpose of this study was to examine the effect of five commonly used pesticides in rice fields on reproduction of PSB and on biochemical substances of rice plants. The results showed that the weight of pupae developed from 1st instar larvae treated with 2 mg/L triazophos and the number of eggs laid by emerged females from the treatment were significantly greater than those of the control, increasing by 26.2% and 47%, respectively. In addition, a nontarget insecticide, pymetrozine 100 mg/L, and a target insecticide, chlorantraniliprole 2 mg/L, stimulated reproduction of PSB. Biochemical measurement showed that foliar sprays of these pesticides resulted in significant reductions of contents of resistant substances, flavonoids and phenolic acids, in rice plants. For example, flavonoids and phenolic acids of rice plants treated with triazophos reduced by 48.5% and 22.4%, respectively, compared to the control. Therefore, we predicted that the application of some pesticides, eg triazophos and chlorantraniliprole, may be the cause of the increase in the population numbers of PSB in rice fields.

  12. The Positive Effect of Realia in EFL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bala

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways generated by the linguists to teach the language items in EFL classroom; however, bringing ̳realia‘ into the classroom is one of the most effective ways to create an enjoyable class atmosphere and acquire the target language efficiently. Especially, low-level students may suffer from obtaining what teacher presents because they have no chance to synthesize what they learn in the class with real life situations. Using real objects and materials gives students opportunity to experience real life in the class atmosphere and this may facilitate and accelerate their learning process. Accordingly, using visuals stimulates students to maintain studying on the language because practicing the topic with visuals assists students to get involved in more powerful learning. This study illustrates an investigation based on a 20-question exam paper whether getting support from realia augments the students‘ success in the examination or not. Two elementary-level EFL classes took part in this project. Looking at the results, the students who were taught with realia showed more success compared to the others who were not taught with visuals during teaching.

  13. A reanalysis of a behavioral intervention to prevent incident HIV infections: Including indirect effects in modeling outcomes of Project EXPLORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Kenny, David A.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Background Project EXPLORE -- a large-scale, behavioral intervention tested among men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for HIV infection --was generally deemed as ineffective in reducing HIV incidence. Using novel and more precise data analytic techniques we reanalyzed Project EXPLORE by including both direct and indirect paths of intervention effects. Methods Data from 4,296 HIV negative MSM who participated in Project EXPLORE, which included ten sessions of behavioral risk reduction counseling completed from 1999-2005, were included in the analysis. We reanalyzed the data to include parameters that estimate the overtime effects of the intervention on unprotected anal sex and the over-time effects of the intervention on HIV status mediated by unprotected anal sex simultaneously in a single model. Results We found the indirect effect of intervention on HIV infection through unprotected anal sex to be statistically significant up through 12 months post-intervention, OR=.83, 95% CI=.72-.95. Furthermore, the intervention significantly reduced unprotected anal sex up through 18 months post-intervention, OR=.79, 95% CI=.63-.99. Discussion Our results reveal effects not tested in the original model that offer new insight into the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for reducing HIV incidence. Project EXPLORE demonstrated that when tested against an evidence-based, effective control condition can result in reductions in rates of HIV acquisition at one year follow-up. Findings highlight the critical role of addressing behavioral risk reduction counseling in HIV prevention. PMID:23245226

  14. The company you keep: Effects of leader and teams network position on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernet, A; Deichmann, D.; Moser, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we argue that leaders positively influence team performance through their positions in a collaboration network. We propose also that the leader’s effect on team performance is moderated by the position of the team in the larger collaboration network. We distinguish between brokerage

  15. Investigating the effects of tea, water and a positive affect induction on mood and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einöther, S.J.L.; Baas, M.; Rowson, M.; Giesbrecht, T.

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has been shown to be predictive of improved creativity. This study investigated the immediate effect of the tea experience on positive affect and creativity, compared to both a neutral and positive control condition. Regular tea drinkers (N = 150) were allocated to three conditions:

  16. The Upward Spiral of Adolescents' Positive School Experiences and Happiness: Investigating Reciprocal Effects over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Gnambs, Timo; Gamsjager, Manuela; Batinic, Bernad

    2013-01-01

    In line with self-determination theory and Fredrickson's (2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, this study adopts a positive perspective on students' school experiences and their general psychological functioning. The reciprocal effects of positive school experiences and happiness, a dimension of affective well-being, are examined…

  17. Gender moderates valence effects on the late positive potential to emotional distracters

    OpenAIRE

    Syrjänen, Elmeri

    2013-01-01

    Attention is captured more strongly by emotional pictures than by neutral pictures. This allocation of attention to emotional pictures is commonly indexed by the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential (ERP) that is larger for negative and positive pictures than for neutral pictures. However, findings are mixed in regards to valence effects, that is, whether the LPP is larger for negative pictures than for positive pictures (negativity bias) or vice versa (positivity bias). ...

  18. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Fahey, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O'Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-03-27

    The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and the federal income tax T1 Family Files. Separate logistic models were used to quantify the association between socioeconomic position, clinical risk factors and spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth. The study population included 132,714 singleton deliveries and the rate of preterm birth was 5.5%. Preterm birth rates were significantly higher among the women in the lowest (versus the highest) family income group for spontaneous (rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.25) but not iatrogenic preterm birth (rate ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.75, 1.19). Adjustment for maternal characteristics attenuated the family income-spontaneous preterm birth relationship but strengthened the relationship with iatrogenic preterm birth. Clinical risk factors such as hypertension were differentially associated with spontaneous (rate ratio 3.92, 95% CI 3.47, 4.44) and iatrogenic preterm (rate ratio 14.1, 95% CI 11.4, 17.4) but factors such as diabetes mellitus were not (rate ratio 4.38, 95% CI 3.21, 5.99 for spontaneous and 4.02, 95% CI 2.07, 7.80 for iatrogenic preterm birth). Socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors have different effects on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm. Recent temporal increases in iatrogenic preterm birth appear to be responsible for the inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth.

  19. Health Information Technology Continues to Show Positive Effect on Medical Outcomes: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Beane, Amanda

    2018-02-05

    Health information technology (HIT) has been introduced into the health care industry since the 1960s when mainframes assisted with financial transactions, but questions remained about HIT's contribution to medical outcomes. Several systematic reviews since the 1990s have focused on this relationship. This review updates the literature. The purpose of this review was to analyze the current literature for the impact of HIT on medical outcomes. We hypothesized that there is a positive association between the adoption of HIT and medical outcomes. We queried the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) by PubMed databases for peer-reviewed publications in the last 5 years that defined an HIT intervention and an effect on medical outcomes in terms of efficiency or effectiveness. We structured the review from the Primary Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA), and we conducted the review in accordance with the Assessment for Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). We narrowed our search from 3636 papers to 37 for final analysis. At least one improved medical outcome as a result of HIT adoption was identified in 81% (25/37) of research studies that met inclusion criteria, thus strongly supporting our hypothesis. No statistical difference in outcomes was identified as a result of HIT in 19% of included studies. Twelve categories of HIT and three categories of outcomes occurred 38 and 65 times, respectively. A strong majority of the literature shows positive effects of HIT on the effectiveness of medical outcomes, which positively supports efforts that prepare for stage 3 of meaningful use. This aligns with previous reviews in other time frames. ©Clemens Scott Kruse, Amanda Beane. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 05.02.2018.

  20. Technology addiction's contribution to mental wellbeing: The positive effect of online social capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Billotte-Verhoff, China; Greene, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the effect of online social capital and Internet use on the normally negative effects of technology addiction, especially for individuals prone to self-concealment. Self-concealment is a personality trait that describes individuals who are more likely to withhold personal and private information, inhibiting catharsis and wellbeing. Addiction, in any context, is also typically associated with negative outcomes. However, we investigate the hypothesis that communication technology addiction may positively affect wellbeing for self-concealing individuals when online interaction is positive, builds relationships, or fosters a sense of community. Within these parameters, increased communication through mediated channels (and even addiction) may reverse the otherwise negative effects of self-concealment on wellbeing. Overall, the proposed model offers qualified support for the continued analysis of mediated communication as a potential source for improving the wellbeing for particular individuals. This study is important because we know that healthy communication in relationships, including disclosure, is important to wellbeing. This study recognizes that not all people are comfortable communicating in face-to-face settings. Our findings offer evidence that the presence of computers in human behaviors (e.g., mediated channels of communication and NCTs) enables some individuals to communicate and fos ter beneficial interpersonal relationships, and improve their wellbeing. PMID:25568591

  1. Technology addiction's contribution to mental wellbeing: The positive effect of online social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Billotte-Verhoff, China; Greene, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    This research examines the effect of online social capital and Internet use on the normally negative effects of technology addiction, especially for individuals prone to self-concealment. Self-concealment is a personality trait that describes individuals who are more likely to withhold personal and private information, inhibiting catharsis and wellbeing. Addiction, in any context, is also typically associated with negative outcomes. However, we investigate the hypothesis that communication technology addiction may positively affect wellbeing for self-concealing individuals when online interaction is positive, builds relationships, or fosters a sense of community. Within these parameters, increased communication through mediated channels (and even addiction) may reverse the otherwise negative effects of self-concealment on wellbeing. Overall, the proposed model offers qualified support for the continued analysis of mediated communication as a potential source for improving the wellbeing for particular individuals. This study is important because we know that healthy communication in relationships, including disclosure, is important to wellbeing. This study recognizes that not all people are comfortable communicating in face-to-face settings. Our findings offer evidence that the presence of computers in human behaviors (e.g., mediated channels of communication and NCTs) enables some individuals to communicate and fos ter beneficial interpersonal relationships, and improve their wellbeing.

  2. Including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge during the simulation of wastewater treatment plants using a risk assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodriquez-Roda, I.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how including the occurrence of filamentous bulking sludge in a secondary clarifier model will affect the predicted process performance during the simulation of WWTPs. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) is hereby used as a simulation...... are automatically changed during the simulation by modifying the settling model parameters to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria. The simulation results demonstrate that including effects of filamentous bulking in the secondary clarifier model results in a more realistic plant performance...

  3. The Institution Image and Trust and Their Effect on the Positive Word of Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Harsono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In marketing, it is important to see how competitive a university is. Among public universities (PTN and private universities (PTS, it shows a very competitive situation recently. To overcome this problem, it requires shaping up the institution image and trust for increasing the positive word of mouth among students. This study aims to determine the effect of the institution image, trust both partially and simultaneously on the positive word of mouth by the students of private universities in Surabaya with their accreditation levels of A, B and C. The sample consists of students from six colleges with accreditation ratings A, B, and C totaling 125 students. Accidental sampling technique was done using a sampling technique of multiple regression analysis with SPSS version 17. It shows, for the college with accreditation category C, the image of the institution both partially and simulta-neously has significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth. For the college accreditation category B, the image of the institution and trust simultaneously has significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth and, finally, trust in accreditation category A has significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth and the institution image and trust simultaneously have significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth.

  4. The Role of Mediators in the Indirect Effects of Religiosity on Therapeutic Compliance in African Migrant HIV-Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambet Doue, Constance; Roussiau, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    This research investigates the indirect effects of religiosity (practice and belief) on therapeutic compliance in 81 HIV-positive patients who are migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (23 men and 58 women). Using analyses of mediation and standard multiple regression, including a resampling procedure by bootstrapping, the role of these mediators (magical-religious beliefs and nonuse of toxic substances) was tested. The results show that, through magical-religious beliefs, religiosity has a negative indirect effect, while with the nonuse of toxic substances, religious practice has a positive indirect effect. Beyond religiosity, the role of mediators is highlighted in the interaction with therapeutic compliance.

  5. Differential Effects of Positive versus Negative Self-Involving Counselor Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Pam; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effects of positive and negative counselor disclosure using typescripts of hypothetical counseling interviews. Results indicated impact of condition was mixed, with each having some desirable effects. (PAS)

  6. Positive or negative Poynting effect? The role of adscititious inequalities in hyperelastic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mihai, L. A.; Goriely, A.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on biopolymer gels whereby the reverse of the usual (positive) Poynting effect was observed, we investigate the effect of the so-called 'adscititious inequalities' on the behaviour of hyperelastic materials subject

  7. The effects of an edgeline on speed and lateral position: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Driel, Cornelie J.G.; Davidse, Ragnhild J.; van Maarseveen, Martin F.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of studies that have evaluated the effects of an edgeline on speed and lateral position of motorised road users. Together with many other study characteristics, 41 estimates of the effects of an edgeline on speed and 65 on lateral position were extracted from the

  8. The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on pulse pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on pulse pressure variation. FJ Smith, M Geyser, I Schreuder, PJ Becker. Abstract. Objectives: To determine the effect of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on pulse pressure variation (PPV). Design: An observational study. Setting: Operating theatres of a ...

  9. The effect of obesity prevention interventions according to socioeconomic position: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, A; Backholer, K; Magliano, D; Peeters, A

    2014-07-01

    Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. It is important that all groups benefit from measures to prevent obesity, but we know little about the differential effectiveness of such interventions within particular population subgroups. This review aimed to identify interventions for obesity prevention that evaluated a change in adiposity according to socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine the effectiveness of these interventions across different socioeconomic groups. A systematic search of published and grey literature was conducted. Studies that described an obesity prevention intervention and reported anthropometric outcomes according to a measure of SEP were included. Evidence was synthesized using narrative analysis. A total of 14 studies were analysed, representing a range of study designs and settings. All studies were from developed countries, with eight conducted among children. Three studies were shown to have no effect on anthropometric outcomes and were not further analysed. Interventions shown to be ineffective in lower SEP participants were primarily based on information provision directed at individual behaviour change. Studies that were shown to be effective in lower SEP participants primarily included community-based strategies or policies aimed at structural changes to the environment. Interventions targeting individual-level behaviour change may be less successful in lower SEP populations. It is essential that our efforts to prevent obesity do not leave behind the most disadvantaged members of society. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. The Effects of Life Events and Socioeconomic Position in Childhood and Adulthood on Successful Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Almar A L; Aartsen, Marja J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Huisman, Martijn

    2017-03-01

    Building on social stress theory, this study has 2 aims. First, we aim to estimate the effects of stressful life events in childhood and adulthood on Successful Aging (SA). Second, we examine how unequal exposure to such life events between individuals with different socioeconomic position (SEP) contributes to socioeconomic inequalities in SA. We used 16-year longitudinal data from 2,185 respondents aged 55-85 years in 1992 in the Dutch nationally representative Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Measurement of SA was based on earlier work, in which we integrated trajectories in 9 indicators of functioning into an index of SA. Using path analysis, we investigated direct and indirect effects of parental and adulthood SEP as well as of self-reported childhood and adulthood life events on SA. Almost all included life events had negative direct effects on SA. Parental SEP had no direct effect on SA, whereas adulthood SEP had. Higher Parental SEP increased the likelihood of parental problems and parental death in childhood, resulting in negative indirect effects on SA. Higher adulthood SEP had both positive and negative indirect effects on SA, through increasing the likelihood of divorce and unemployment, but decreasing the likelihood of occupational disability. SEP and particular stressful life events are largely, but not entirely independent predictors of SA. We found that high and low SEP may increase exposure to particular events that negatively affect SA. Findings suggest that low (childhood) SEP and stressful life events are interrelated factors that may limit individual opportunities to age successfully. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Analysis of the effects of Eye-Tracker performance on the pulse positioning errors during refractive surgery☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Aslanides, Ioannis M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the effects of Eye-Tracker performance on the pulse positioning errors during refractive surgery. Methods A comprehensive model, which directly considers eye movements, including saccades, vestibular, optokinetic, vergence, and miniature, as well as, eye-tracker acquisition rate, eye-tracker latency time, scanner positioning time, laser firing rate, and laser trigger delay have been developed. Results Eye-tracker acquisition rates below 100 Hz correspond to pulse positioning errors above 1.5 mm. Eye-tracker latency times to about 15 ms correspond to pulse positioning errors of up to 3.5 mm. Scanner positioning times to about 9 ms correspond to pulse positioning errors of up to 2 mm. Laser firing rates faster than eye-tracker acquisition rates basically duplicate pulse-positioning errors. Laser trigger delays to about 300 μs have minor to no impact on pulse-positioning errors. Conclusions The proposed model can be used for comparison of laser systems used for ablation processes. Due to the pseudo-random nature of eye movements, positioning errors of single pulses are much larger than observed decentrations in the clinical settings. There is no single parameter that ‘alone’ minimizes the positioning error. It is the optimal combination of the several parameters that minimizes the error. The results of this analysis are important to understand the limitations of correcting very irregular ablation patterns.

  12. Eddy Effects in the General Circulation, Spanning Mean Currents, Mesoscale Eddies, and Topographic Generation, Including Submesoscale Nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    alongshore winds favoring upwelling circulation. As for the other EBUS (e.g., Humboldt, Benguela, and Canary Currents ), equatorward winds drive...Eddy Effects in the General Circulation, Spanning Mean Currents , Mesoscale Eddies, and Topographic Generation, Including Submesoscale Nests...environments OBJECTIVES The central scientific questions are how the eddies control the persistent currents by their eddy-induced momentum and buoyancy fluxes

  13. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  14. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P K; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P S; Leung, Freedom Y K

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations.

  15. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong eZENG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759 on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1 medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2 small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1 interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2 the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations.

  16. Effect of patient position on the lordosis and scoliosis of patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Han; Li, Wei-Shi; Sun, Zhuo-Ran; Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Zhong-Qiang

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of patient positions on the lordosis and scoliosis of patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS).Seventy-seven patients with DLS were retrospectively analyzed. We measured lordosis and Cobb's angle on preoperative upright x-rays and magnetic resonance imagings in supine position. The lordosis and scoliosis of surgical segments in intraoperative prone position were measured on intraoperative radiographs of 20 patients to compare with that in standing position. Paired t tests were performed to investigate the parameters of the sample.From standing to supine position the whole lordosis increased (29.2 ± 15.7 degree vs. 34.9 ± 11.2 degree), and the whole scoliosis decreased (24.3 ± 11.8 degree vs. 19.0 ± 10.5 degree); 53 of 77 (68.8%) cases had increased lordosis, and 67 of 77 (87%) cases had decreased scoliosis. The lordosis of surgical segments in standing position had no difference with that in intraoprerative prone position. But in changing from supine/standing position to intraoprerative prone position, the scoliosis of surgical segments decreased (14.7 ± 9.4 degree vs. 11.4 ± 7.0 degree; 19.0 ± 11.8 degree vs. 11.4 ± 7.0 degree, respectively), and 18 of 20 (90%) cases had decreased scoliosis in intraoperative prone position than that in standing position.Compared with standing position in DLS patients, supine position increased lordosis and reduced scoliosis, and intraoperative prone position reduced scoliosis significantly. When evaluating the severity of DLS and making preoperative surgical plans, lumbar lordosis in supine position should also be evaluated in addition to upright x-ray, and the effects of different positions should be taken into consideration to reduce deviation.

  17. The effect of mechanical stress on lateral-effect position-sensitive detector characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, H.A. [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)]. E-mail: Henrik.Andersson@miun.se; Mattsson, C.G. [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Thungstroem, G. [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden); Lundgren, A. [SiTek Electro Optics, Ogaerdesvaegen 13A 433 30 Partille (Sweden); Nilsson, H.-E. [Department of Information Technology and Media, Mid-Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used in noncontact measurement systems. In order to minimize the size of such systems, interest has increased in mounting the PSD chip directly onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). Stress may be induced in the PSD because of the large differences in thermal expansion coefficients, as well as the long-term geometrical stability of the chip packaging. Mechanical stress has previously been shown to have an effect on the performance of semiconductors. The accuracy, or linearity, of a lateral effect PSD is largely dependent on the homogeneity of the resistive layer. Variations of the resistivity over the active area of the PSD will result in an uneven distribution of photo-generated current, and hence an error in the readout position. In this work experiments were performed to investigate the influence of anisotropic mechanical stress in terms of nonlinearity. PSD chips of 60x3 mm active area were subjected, respectively, to different amounts of compressive and tensile stress to determine the influence on the linearity.

  18. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables. Solutions for M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1 tidal constituents neglecting the effects of ocean loading and self-gravitation and a converged M2, solution including ocean loading and self-gravitation effects are presented in the form of cotidal and corange maps.

  19. Legacy of road salt: Apparent positive larval effects counteracted by negative postmetamorphic effects in wood frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dananay, Kacey L; Krynak, Katherine L; Krynak, Timothy J; Benard, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Road salt runoff has potentially large effects on wetland communities, but is typically investigated in short-term laboratory trials. The authors investigated effects of road salt contamination on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) by combining a field survey with 2 separate experiments. The field survey tested whether wood frog larval traits were associated with road salt contamination in natural wetlands. As conductivity increased, wood frog larvae were less abundant, but those found were larger. In the first experiment of the present study, the authors raised larvae in outdoor artificial ponds under 4 salt concentrations and measured larval vital rates, algal biomass, and zooplankton abundance. Salt significantly increased larval growth, algal biomass, and decreased zooplankton abundance. In the second experiment, the authors raised larvae to metamorphosis in the presence and absence of salt contamination and followed resulting juvenile frogs in terrestrial pens at high and low densities. Exposure to road salt as larvae caused juvenile frogs to have greater mortality in low-density terrestrial environments, possibly because of altered energy allocation, changes in behavior, or reduced immune defenses. The present study suggests that low concentrations of road salt can have positive effects on larval growth yet negative effects on juvenile survival. These results emphasize the importance of testing for effects of contaminants acting through food webs and across multiple life stages as well as the potential for population-level consequences in natural environments. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. The effects of landscape position on plant species density: Evidence of past environmental effects in a coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Here we propose that an important cause of variation in species density may be prior environmental conditions that continue to influence current patterns. In this paper we investigated the degree to which species density varies with location within the landscape, independent of contemporaneous environmental conditions. The area studied was a coastal marsh landscape subject to periodic storm events. To evaluate the impact of historical effects, it was assumed that the landscape position of a plot relative to the river's mouth ('distance from sea') and to the edge of a stream channel ('distance from shore') would correlate with the impact of prior storm events, an assumption supported by previous studies. To evaluate the importance of spatial location on species density, data were collected from five sites located at increasing distances from the river's mouth along the Middle Pearl River in Louisiana. At each site, plots were established systematically along transects perpendicular to the shoreline. For each of the 175 Plots, we measured elevation, soil salinity, percent of plot recently disturbed, percent of sunlight captured by the plant canopy (as a measure of plant abundance), and plant species density. Structural equation analysis ascertained the degree to which landscape position variables explained variation in species density that could not be explained by current environmental indicators. Without considering landscape variables, 54% of the variation in species density could be explained by the effects of salinity, flooding, and plant abundance. When landscape variables were included, distance from shore was unimportant but distance from sea explained an additional 12% of the variance in species density (R2 of final model = 66%). Based on these results it appears that at least some of the otherwise unexplained variation in species density can be attributed to landscape position, and presumably previous storm events. We suggest that future studies may gain

  1. Positional accommodative intraocular lens power error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Piñero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the predictability of the refractive correction achieved with a positional accommodating intraocular lenses (IOL and to develop a potential optimization of it by minimizing the error associated with the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and by developing a predictive formula for the effective lens position (ELP. Materials and Methods: Clinical data from 25 eyes of 14 patients (age range, 52-77 years and undergoing cataract surgery with implantation of the accommodating IOL Crystalens HD (Bausch and Lomb were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases, the calculation of an adjusted IOL power (P IOLadj based on Gaussian optics considering the residual refractive error was done using a variable keratometric index value (n kadj for corneal power estimation with and without using an estimation algorithm for ELP obtained by multiple regression analysis (ELP adj . P IOLadj was compared to the real IOL power implanted (P IOLReal , calculated with the SRK-T formula and also to the values estimated by the Haigis, HofferQ, and Holladay I formulas. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between P IOLReal and P IOLadj when ELP adj was used (P = 0.10, with a range of agreement between calculations of 1.23 D. In contrast, P IOLReal was significantly higher when compared to P IOLadj without using ELP adj and also compared to the values estimated by the other formulas. Conclusions: Predictable refractive outcomes can be obtained with the accommodating IOL Crystalens HD using a variable keratometric index for corneal power estimation and by estimating ELP with an algorithm dependent on anatomical factors and age.

  2. Computerized working memory training has positive long-term effect in very low birthweight preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunewaldt, Kristine Hermansen; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Lähaugen, Gro C C

    2016-02-01

    Working memory deficits are frequently found in children born preterm and have been linked to learning disabilities, and cognitive and behavioural problems. Our aim was to evaluate if a computerized working memory training program has long-term positive effects on memory, learning, and behaviour in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) children at age 5 to 6 years. This prospective, intervention study included 20 VLBW preschool children in the intervention group and 17 age-matched, non-training VLBW children in the comparison group. The intervention group trained with the Cogmed JM working memory training program daily for 5 weeks (25 training sessions). Extensive neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaires were performed 4 weeks after intervention and at follow-up 7 months later. For most of the statistical analyses, general linear models were applied. At follow-up, higher scores and increased or equal performance gain were found in the intervention group than the comparison group on memory for faces (p=0.012), narrative memory (p=0.002), and spatial span (p=0.003). No group differences in performance gain were found for attention and behaviour. Computerized working memory training seems to have positive and persisting effects on working memory, and visual and verbal learning, at 7-month follow-up in VLBW preschool children. We speculate that such training is beneficial by improving the ability to learn from the teaching at school and for further cognitive development. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  3. The facilitating effect of positive emotions during an emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingyu; Yang, Yisheng; Jiang, Songxiu; Li, Jie

    2018-05-08

    Prior research has shown that negative emotions, even though task irrelevant, are capable of delaying a participant's response to the color in which a negative emotional word is presented, a phenomenon known as the 'emotional Stroop effect'. However, relatively little is known about whether positive emotions have a similar or an opposite effect. The current study sets out to confirm the facilitating effect of positive emotions on color naming, which is predicted by Barbara Fredrickson's 'broaden and build' theory. Our results indicate that positive emotions did facilitate such processing in both of the study's experiments. We also found a significant difference in early posterior negativity amplitudes between positive and neutral stimuli, which was related to the 'fast effect'. Overall, the study's findings suggest that positive emotions can be detected quickly and automatically, and that this kind of prioritizing facilitates the ongoing cognitive processing.

  4. Short-term effects of positive expiratory airway pressure in patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Mello Rieder

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and the cardiorespiratory effects of using positive expiratory airway pressure, a physiotherapeutic tool, in comparison with a T-tube, to wean patients from mechanical ventilation. METHODS/DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, cross-over study. SETTING: Two intensive care units. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: We evaluated forty patients who met weaning criteria and had been mechanically-ventilated for more than 48 hours, mean age 59 years, including 23 males. All patients were submitted to the T-tube and Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure devices, at 7 cm H2O, during a 30-minute period. Cardiorespiratory variables including work of breathing, respiratory rate (rr, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2, heart rate (hr, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP, MAP were measured in the first and thirtieth minutes. The condition was analyzed as an entire sample set (n=40 and was also divided into subconditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=14 and non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (non- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=26 categories. Comparisons were made using a t-test and Analysis of Variance. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: Our data showed an increase in work of breathing in the first and thirtieth minutes in the EPAP condition (0.86+ 0.43 and 1.02+1.3 as compared with the T-tube condition (0.25+0.26 and 0.26+0.35 (p<0.05, verified by the flow-sensor monitor (values in J/L. No statistical differences were observed when comparing the Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure and T-tube conditions with regard to cardiorespiratory measurements. The same result was observed for both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and non- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subconditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that, in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation, the use of a fixed level of Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure caused an increase in work of

  5. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Shoshani; Michelle Slone

    2017-01-01

    Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention co...

  6. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-05-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin-Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  7. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  8. Nonlocal continuum-based modeling of breathing mode of nanowires including surface stress and surface inertia effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal, E-mail: ghavanloo@shirazu.ac.ir [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafii-Tabar, Hashem [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.

  9. The effect of including tensor forces in nucleon-nucleon interaction on three-nucleon binding energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.; Ramadan, S.

    1986-01-01

    Separable two-body interactions are used in considering the three-nucleon problem. The nucleon-nucleon potentials are taken to include attraction and repulsion as well as tensor forces. The separable approximation is used in order to investigate the effect of the tensor forces. The separable expansion is introduced in the three-nucleon problem, by which the Faddeev equations are reduced to a well-behaved set of coupled integral equations. Numerical calculations are carried out for the obtained integral equations using potential functions of the Yamaguchi, Gaussian, Takabin, Mongan and Reid forms. The present calculated values of the binding energies of the 3 H and 3 He nuclei are in good agreement with the experimental values. The effect of including the tensor forces in the nucleon-nucleon interactions is found to improve the three-nucleon binding energy by about 4.490% to 8.324%. 37 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  10. The Positive Effects of Hydrophobic Fluoropolymers on the Electrical Properties of MoS2 Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Rahimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the improvement of the electrical performance of field effect transistors (FETs fabricated on monolayer chemical vapor deposited (CVD MoS2, by applying an interacting fluoropolymer capping layer (Teflon-AF. The electrical characterizations of more than 60 FETs, after applying Teflon-AF cap, show significant improvement of the device properties and reduced device to device variation. The improvement includes: 50% reduction of the average gate hysteresis, 30% reduction of the subthreshold swing and about an order of magnitude increase of the current on-off ratio. These favorable changes in device performance are attributed to the reduced exposure of MoS2 channels to the adsorbates in the ambient which can be explained by the polar nature of Teflon-AF cap. A positive shift in the threshold voltage of all the measured FETs is observed, which translates to the more desirable enhancement mode transistor characteristics.

  11. An experimental study of the effect of green positioning on brand attitude

    OpenAIRE

    PATRIK HARTMANN; VANESSA APAOLAZA IBÁÑEZ; F. JAVIER FORCADA SAIZ

    2004-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of a product or its manufacturing process not necessarily limits the company’s activities. In the context of a green branding strategy, it might as well open new business opportunities. Ecological positioning provides a strategic tool for the active implementation of green brands. The empirical study shows that more positive attitudes are developed towards a brand positioned by environmental attributes and that these effects vary as a result of the implementa...

  12. Automatic beam position control at Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.; Pillai, C.; Zumbro, M.

    1997-01-01

    Historically the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has used manual methods to control the position of the 800 kW, 800 MeV proton beam on targets. New experiments, however, require more stringent position control more frequently than can be done manually for long periods of time. Data from an existing harp is used to automatically adjust steering magnets to maintain beam position to required tolerances

  13. The effect on climate change impacts for building products when including the timing of greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) trap infrared radiation emitting from the Earth’s surface to generate the “greenhouse effect” thus keeping the planet warm. Many natural activities including rotting vegetation emit GHGs such as carbon dioxide to produce this natural affect. However, in the last 200 years or so, human activity has increased the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs...

  14. Feedback enhances the positive effects and reduces the negative effects of multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew C; Roediger, Henry L

    2008-04-01

    Multiple-choice tests are used frequently in higher education without much consideration of the impact this form of assessment has on learning. Multiple-choice testing enhances retention of the material tested (the testing effect); however, unlike other tests, multiple-choice can also be detrimental because it exposes students to misinformation in the form of lures. The selection of lures can lead students to acquire false knowledge (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). The present research investigated whether feedback could be used to boost the positive effects and reduce the negative effects of multiple-choice testing. Subjects studied passages and then received a multiple-choice test with immediate feedback, delayed feedback, or no feedback. In comparison with the no-feedback condition, both immediate and delayed feedback increased the proportion of correct responses and reduced the proportion of intrusions (i.e., lure responses from the initial multiple-choice test) on a delayed cued recall test. Educators should provide feedback when using multiple-choice tests.

  15. Three-dimensional imaging of absolute blood flow velocity and blood vessel position under low blood flow velocity based on Doppler signal information included in scattered light from red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Tajiri, Tomoki; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Hachiga, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    The development of a system for in vivo visualization of occluded distal blood vessels for diabetic patients is the main target of our research. We herein describe two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry (MLDV), which measures the instantaneous multipoint flow velocity and can be used to observe the blood flow velocity in peripheral blood vessels. By including a motorized stage to shift the measurement points horizontally and in the depth direction while measuring the velocity, the path of the blood vessel in the skin could be observed using blood flow velocity in three-dimensional space. The relationship of the signal power density between the blood vessel and the surrounding tissues was shown and helped us identify the position of the blood vessel. Two-beam MLDV can be used to simultaneously determine the absolute blood flow velocity distribution and identify the blood vessel position in skin.

  16. The effect of emphasis and position on word identification by adult cochlear implant listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, David Jackson; Magnusson, Lennart; Jönsson, Radoslava

    2013-01-01

    sentence framework. It was found that emphasised stimuli were not identified more accurately than unemphasised stimuli. A regression analysis revealed a significant main effect for words drawn from the initial position in a sentence, however there was no interaction between original word position...

  17. Serial Position Effects in the Identification of Letters, Digits, and Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tydgat, Ilse; Grainger, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated the form of serial position functions for identification of letters, digits, and symbols presented in strings. The results replicated findings obtained with the target search paradigm, showing an interaction between the effects of serial position and type of stimulus, with symbols generating a distinct…

  18. The Effects of Positive and Negative Mood on Cognition and Motivation in Multimedia Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Tze Wei; Tan, Su-Mae

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Theory of Learning with Media framework posits that the multimedia learning process is mediated by the learner's mood. Recent studies have shown that positive mood has a facilitating effect on multimedia learning. Though literature has shown that negative mood encourages an individual to engage in a more systematic,…

  19. Effect of upright position on tonsillar level in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan K.L.; Leung, Joyce H.Y.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Griffith, James F. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Lam, T.P.; Ng, Bobby K.W.; Cheng, Jack C.Y. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an upright position on cerebellar tonsillar level in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Twenty-five patients with clinically diagnosed AIS and 18 normal controls were examined in both supine and upright positions using 0.25T MRI. The position of the inferior cerebellar tonsil tip relative to a reference line connecting the basion to the opisthion (BO line) was measured in millimetres. None of the 18 normal control subjects had cerebellar tonsillar descent below the BO line in either supine or the upright position. Forty-eight percent of AIS patients had tonsillar descent in the upright position, compared to 28 % in the supine position. In the upright position, cerebellar tonsillar position was lower in AIS patients than in normal subjects (mean -0.7 ± 1.5 vs. +2.1 ± 1.7, p < 0.00001). AIS patients also had a large degree of tonsillar excursion between upright and supine positions compared to normal subjects (mean -1.9 ± 2.3 vs. -0.1 ± 0.2, p < 0.00001). When considering the theoretical likelihood that a low tonsillar position may affect spinal cord function, one should bear in mind that tonsillar descent in AIS is significantly greater in the upright position. (orig.)

  20. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  1. An effective immunotherapy regimen for VGKC antibody-positive limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S H; Saunders, M D; Larner, A J; Das, K; Hart, I K

    2010-10-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-positive limbic encephalitis (VGKC+LE) frequently improves with immunotherapy, although the optimum regimen is unknown. The effectiveness of a combination immunomodulatory regimen was tested in consecutive VGKC+LE patients. This was an open-label prospective study of nine VGKC+LE patients. All patients had plasma exchange (50 ml/kg), intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and intravenous methylprednisolone (1 g×3), followed by maintenance oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day). Mycophenolate (2 g/day) was used in the first three patients. Assessments included serial clinical, cognitive, brain MRI and VGKC antibody testing. Within 1 week, seizures and hyponatraemia remitted in all affected patients. Cognitive function improved in all patients within 3 months. MRI appearances improved substantially within 9 months, with remission of inflammation in the majority of patients. All achieved immunological remission with normal VGKC antibody titres within 1-4 months. Major adverse events of therapy included one septicaemia and one thrombosis on plasma exchange and one death from sepsis after incidental bowel surgery. One patient remains in remission after 40 months of follow up, 26 months after being off all treatment. Our immunotherapy regimen was effective for the treatment of the clinical, cognitive and immunological features of VGKC+LE. Radiological improvement was seen in the majority. Pending randomised controlled trials, this regimen is proposed for the treatment of VGKC+LE.

  2. PTA-1 computer program for treating pressure transients in hydraulic networks including the effect of pipe plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Pressure pulses in the intermediate sodium system of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, such as may originate from a sodium/water reaction in a steam generator, are propagated through the complex sodium piping network to system components such as the pump and intermediate heat exchanger. To assess the effects of such pulses on continued reliable operation of these components and to contribute to system designs which result in the mitigation of these effects, Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) computer codes are being developed for accurately computing the transmission of pressure pulses through a complicated fluid transport system, consisting of piping, fittings and junctions, and components. PTA-1 provides an extension of the well-accepted and verified fluid hammer formulation for computing hydraulic transients in elastic or rigid piping systems to include plastic deformation effects. The accuracy of the modeling of pipe plasticity effects on transient propagation has been validated using results from two sets of Stanford Research Institute experiments. Validation of PTA-1 using the latter set of experiments is described briefly. The comparisons of PTA-1 computations with experiments show that (1) elastic-plastic deformation of LMFBR-type piping can have a significant qualitative and quantitative effect on pressure pulse propagation, even in simple systems; (2) classical fluid-hammer theory gives erroneous results when applied to situations where piping deforms plastically; and (3) the computational model incorporated in PTA-1 for predicting plastic deformation and its effect on transient propagation is accurate

  3. Eyewitness identification in simultaneous and sequential lineups: an investigation of position effects using receiver operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisters, Julia; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2018-04-20

    For decades, sequential lineups have been considered superior to simultaneous lineups in the context of eyewitness identification. However, most of the research leading to this conclusion was based on the analysis of diagnosticity ratios that do not control for the respondent's response criterion. Recent research based on the analysis of ROC curves has found either equal discriminability for sequential and simultaneous lineups, or higher discriminability for simultaneous lineups. Some evidence for potential position effects and for criterion shifts in sequential lineups has also been reported. Using ROC curve analysis, we investigated the effects of the suspect's position on discriminability and response criteria in both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We found that sequential lineups suffered from an unwanted position effect. Respondents employed a strict criterion for the earliest lineup positions, and shifted to a more liberal criterion for later positions. No position effects and no criterion shifts were observed in simultaneous lineups. This result suggests that sequential lineups are not superior to simultaneous lineups, and may give rise to unwanted position effects that have to be considered when conducting police lineups.

  4. A FALSE POSITIVE FOR OCEAN GLINT ON EXOPLANETS: THE LATITUDE-ALBEDO EFFECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Abbot, Dorian S.; Voigt, Aiko

    2012-01-01

    Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ('glint'), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected light curves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: (1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice; and (2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this 'latitude-albedo effect' will operate even for large obliquities: in that case the equator receives less orbit-averaged flux than the poles, and the equator is preferentially sampled at crescent phase. Using rotational and orbital color variations to map the surfaces of directly imaged planets and estimate their obliquity will therefore be a necessary pre-condition for properly interpreting their reflected phase variations. The latitude-albedo effect is a particularly convincing glint false positive for zero-obliquity planets, and such worlds are not amenable to latitudinal mapping. This effect severely limits the utility of specular reflection for detecting oceans on exoplanets.

  5. Positive emotion in distress as a potentially effective emotion regulation strategy for depression: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Ito, Masaya; Takebayashi, Yoshitake

    2018-03-12

    Emotion regulation utilizing positive emotion during negative emotional states might be one of the effective ways to alleviate depression and anxiety problems among people with emotional disorders. This study examined the psychometric properties and incremental validity of the Positive Emotion In Distress Scale (PEIDS), a newly developed self-report scale, in a sample of university students in Japan. To examine the psychometric properties of the PEIDS, the scale was completed by Japanese university students (396 men and 363 women; mean age of 19.92). Participants additionally answered the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Rumination and Reflection Questionnaire - Shorter Version, Affective Style Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Affective Schedule, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The survey was conducted at two time points separated by 1 month to assess test-retest reliability and validity of the PEIDS. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed a one-factor structure. Reliability was confirmed by high internal consistency and test-retest stability; the convergent and discriminant validity was confirmed by correlations with related and unrelated variables. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that positive emotion in distress might predict depression above and beyond the effect of baseline depression and other common emotion regulation strategies. The PEIDS showed acceptable reliability and validity within young adults and a non-clinical population in Japan. Further research will be needed to examine the effect of positive emotion among clinical populations. Previous research suggests that positive emotions play a key role in recovery from depression and anxiety problems through some forms of psychotherapy. The Positive Emotion In Distress Scale (PEIDS) measures individual differences regarding the extent to which people can experience positive emotions in negative emotional states. Results suggested that the

  6. Position displacement effect on the doses in the peripheral head regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortesniemi, M.; Seppaelae, T.; Bjugg, H.; Seren, T.; Kotiluoto, P.; Auterinen, I.; Parkkinen, R.; Savolainen, S.

    2000-01-01

    Patient positioning is a challenging task in BNCT-treatments due to the use of multiple fields and a static horizontal beam construction. Positioning accuracy of 5 mm is required for acceptable dose delivery within appropriate limits of dose uncertainty (up to 10% of point dose in target volume). The aim of this study was to determine if a patient head position creating a clear gap between the beam port and the head would have a significant effect on the doses to the peripheral regions of the head, e.g. to the eyes. The gamma dose rates were measured in a water filled ellipsoidal phantom with an ionisation chamber (IC). Mn activation wires were used to determine the Mn-55(n, γ) reaction rates. Twelve measurement points were chosen in the phantom and two phantom positions were applied. According to this study the 35 mm position change and the resulting gap has an obvious effect on the peripheral doses in BNCT. The Mn activation reaction rates were on the average 80% higher in the deviation position than in the reference position. Increasing depth from the surface inside the phantom diminished the gamma dose difference between the two positions. Scattering environment changes with position displacement and resulting gap causes differences in neutron fluences and gamma doses. (author)

  7. The effect of nesting positions on pain, stress and comfort during heel lance in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Ayşe; Başbakkal, Zümrüt; Yalaz, Mehmet; Sözmen, Eser Y

    2017-11-13

    Nesting positions are commonly used in procedural analgesic administration in premature neonates. The effectiveness of nesting positions is questioned. The aim of the this study was to assess the pain, stress, comfort and salivary cortisol and melatonin values in nesting positions during the heel lance procedure in premature infants at the NICU. Experimental research; repeated measurement design. The sample comprised 33 premature neonates with gestational age of 31-35 weeks who had been hospitalized in the NICU. Nesting positions were given using linen or towels. The procedure of heel lance was recorded on camera. The camera recordings were evaluated according to the NIPS and the COMFORTneo scale. Saliva samples were obtained five minutes prior to and 30 min after the heel lance procedure. Salivary Cortisol and Melatonin were measured using the Salimetrics Cortisol Elisa Kit and the Salimetrics Melatonin Elisa Kit. The crying time, the mean NIPS score, the COMFORTneo score, the COMFORTneo NRS-pain scores and the COMFORTneo NRS-distress scores for premature neonates who were in the prone position during the procedure were significantly lower than the scores in the supine position (p lance procedure had significantly decreased in the prone position; however, there were insignificant differences in the mean levels of salivary melatonin between the positions. Nesting in the prone position has a pain reducing effect, enhancing comfort and reducing stress in premature infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Wind-induced response analysis of a wind turbine tower including the blade-tower coupling effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-bo CHEN; Jing LI; Jian-yun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    To analyze wind-induced response characteristics of a wind turbine tower more accurately, the blade-tower coupling effect was investigated. The mean wind velocity of the rotating blades and tower was simulated according to wind shear effects,and the fluctuating wind velocity time series of the wind turbine were simulated by a harmony superposition method. A dynamic finite element method (FEM) was used to calculate the wind-induced response of the blades and tower. Wind-induced responses of the tower were calculated in two cases (one included the blade-tower coupling effect, and the other only added the mass of blades and the hub at the top of the tower), and then the maximal displacements at the top of the tower of the tow cases were compared with each other. As a result of the influence of the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades, the maximal displacement of the first case increased nearly by 300% compared to the second case. To obtain more precise analysis, the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades should be considered simultaneously in the design of wind turbine towers.

  9. Earth tide effects on kinematic/static GPS positioning in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.C.; Knudsen, Per

    2000-01-01

    A detailed Study of the Earth tide effects on the GPS kinematic/static positioning is presented in this paper by using theoretical Earth tide computation and practical GPS data processing. Tidal effects could reach up to 30 cm in Denmark and Greenland depending on the measuring time...... and the position of reference station. With a baseline less than 80 km, the difference of the Earth tide effects could reach more than 5 mm. So, in precise applications of GPS positioning, the Earth tide effect has to be taken into account even for a relative small local GPS network. Several examples are given...... for demonstrating that the Earth tide effects can be viewed by GPS surveying. They are given through static GPS data static processing, static GPS data kinematic processing, and airborne kinematic GPS data processing. In these cases, the Earth tide effects can be subtracted from the GPS results. The determination...

  10. Attentional control mediates the effect of social anxiety on positive affect☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Amanda S.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present studies was to examine whether attentional control, a self-regulatory attentional mechanism, mediates the effect of social anxiety on positive affect. We tested this mediation in two studies using undergraduate students selected to represent a broad range of severity of social anxiety. Self-report assessments of social anxiety, attentional control, and positive affect were collected in a cross-sectional design (Study 1) and in a longitudinal design with three assessment points (Study 2). Results of both studies supported the hypothesized mediational model. Specifically, social anxiety was inversely related to attentional control, which itself positively predicted positive affect. This mediation remained significant even when statistically controlling for the effects of depression. Additionally, the hypothesized model provided superior model fit to theoretically-grounded equivalent models in both studies. Implications of these findings for understanding diminished positive affect in social anxiety are discussed. PMID:23254261

  11. Effects on resilience of caregivers of persons with autism spectrum disorder: the role of positive cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; Johnson, Norah L; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 2.8 million people in the United States are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Family caregivers manage many aspects of their care, which is demanding, overwhelming, and can affect their mental health. This study examined the effects of caregiver burden (risk factor) and positive cognitions (protective factors) on resourcefulness (resilience indicator) in 95 caregivers of persons with ASD. Descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional. Positive cognitions explained 32% of the variance in resourcefulness, F(1, 93) = 44.49, p caregivers' resourcefulness increased. A substantial drop in the beta weight of caregiver burden from B = -.36 to -.04 when positive cognitions was entered the equation suggested that positive cognitions mediated the effect of caregiver burden on resourcefulness. The results support resilience theory and suggest a need for developing interventions to strengthen positive thinking among caregivers of persons with ASD.

  12. The Effects of L2C Signal Tracking on High-Precision Carrier Phase GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, H.; Blume, F.; Estey, L. H.; Borsa, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    (Larson et al, 2010). We use several different methods to determine the effect that tracking and logging L2C has on carrier phase measurements and positioning for various receiver models and configurations. Our analyses use GAMIT and TRACK to calculate positions and baseline lengths including zero-length baselines, position time series from a subset of 10 PBO stations that have been L2C enabled, phase residual comparisons and direct comparisons of the L2 phase observable. Twenty-four hour zero-length baseline solutions using L2 show sub-millimeter differences in the mean positions for both the horizontal and vertical components. Direct comparisons of the L2 phase observable from RINEX (2.11) files with and without the L2C observable show sub-millicycle differences over a 24 hour mean with variations up to ~±0.06 cycles for satellites that broadcast L2C. Our results show that the magnitude of the variations increased at low elevations. Separate correlation of the L2 and L2C signals may explain this difference. The number of L2 observations increased when the L2C observable was recorded, while the number of cycle slips above 10 degrees in elevation decreased when L2C was recorded. The behavior of the L2P(Y) phase observations or positions from a given receiver was not affected by the enabling of L2C tracking.

  13. Effect of Positive Psychotherapy in Depression Symptoms and Character Strengths in Cancer Affected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khodabakhash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of positive psychotherapy on depression symptoms and character strengths in cancer affected patients. Based on a quasi-experimental design by available sampling, 58 cancer patients were investigated. 30 patients were assigned in two groups: 15 patients in positive psychotherapy group (treatment and 15 patients as control group. In the present research, Oxford Happiness-Depression Questionnaire (OHDQ and Values In Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS were used. The results showed that the positive psychotherapy was effective in reducing depression, increasing the character strengths and virtues, improving meaningful, pleasant and engaged life of cancer patients.

  14. Third-order transfer matrices calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser including fringing-field effects

    CERN Document Server

    Mordik, S N

    2002-01-01

    The third-order transfer matrices are calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser using a rigorously conserved matrix method that implies the conservation of the beam phase volume at each step in the calculations. The transfer matrices (matrizants) obtained, include the fringing-field effect due to the stray fields. In the case of a rectangular distribution of the field components along the optical axis, the analytical expressions for all aberration coefficients, including the dispersion ones, are derived accurate to the third-order terms. In simulations of real fields with the stray field width other than zero, a smooth distribution of the field components is used for which similar aberration coefficients were calculated by means of the conserved numerical method . It has been found that for a smooth model, as the stray field width tends to zero, the aberration coefficients approach the corresponding aberration values in the rectangular model.

  15. Third-order transfer matrices calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser including fringing-field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordik, S.N.; Ponomarev, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    The third-order transfer matrices are calculated for an electrostatic toroidal sector condenser using a rigorously conserved matrix method that implies the conservation of the beam phase volume at each step in the calculations. The transfer matrices (matrizants) obtained, include the fringing-field effect due to the stray fields. In the case of a rectangular distribution of the field components along the optical axis, the analytical expressions for all aberration coefficients, including the dispersion ones, are derived accurate to the third-order terms. In simulations of real fields with the stray field width other than zero, a smooth distribution of the field components is used for which similar aberration coefficients were calculated by means of the conserved numerical method . It has been found that for a smooth model, as the stray field width tends to zero, the aberration coefficients approach the corresponding aberration values in the rectangular model

  16. The Older Adult Positivity Effect in Evaluations of Trustworthiness: Emotion Regulation or Cognitive Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Boshyan, Jasmine; Ward, Noreen; Gutchess, Angela; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2017-01-01

    An older adult positivity effect, i.e., the tendency for older adults to favor positive over negative stimulus information more than do younger adults, has been previously shown in attention, memory, and evaluations. This effect has been attributed to greater emotion regulation in older adults. In the case of attention and memory, this explanation has been supported by some evidence that the older adult positivity effect is most pronounced for negative stimuli, which would motivate emotion regulation, and that it is reduced by cognitive load, which would impede emotion regulation. We investigated whether greater older adult positivity in the case of evaluative responses to faces is also enhanced for negative stimuli and attenuated by cognitive load, as an emotion regulation explanation would predict. In two studies, younger and older adults rated trustworthiness of faces that varied in valence both under low and high cognitive load, with the latter manipulated by a distracting backwards counting task. In Study 1, face valence was manipulated by attractiveness (low /disfigured faces, medium, high/fashion models' faces). In Study 2, face valence was manipulated by trustworthiness (low, medium, high). Both studies revealed a significant older adult positivity effect. However, contrary to an emotion regulation account, this effect was not stronger for more negative faces, and cognitive load increased rather than decreased the rated trustworthiness of negatively valenced faces. Although inconsistent with emotion regulation, the latter effect is consistent with theory and research arguing that more cognitive resources are required to process negative stimuli, because they are more cognitively elaborated than positive ones. The finding that increased age and increased cognitive load both enhanced the positivity of trustworthy ratings suggests that the older adult positivity effect in evaluative ratings of faces may reflect age-related declines in cognitive capacity rather

  17. Variationally stable treatment of two- and three-photon detachment of H- including electron-correlation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Gao, B.; Starace, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    A variationally stable, adiabatic hyperspherical treatment of two- and three-photon detachment of H - is presented. Results are compared with analytic predictions of a zero-range potential model of H - . Detailed comparisions are made also with other theoretical results which include the effects of electron correlations. We predict analytically (and demonstrate numerically) an extreme sensitivity of the theoretical predictions to any errors in the value of the electron affinity employed. In an Appendix we show that the low-intensity limit of the Keldysh treatment [Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965)] of detachment of an electron bound in a zero-range potential agrees with the results of a perturbative treatment

  18. Unsteady free surface flow in porous media: One-dimensional model equations including vertical effects and seepage face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nucci, Carmine

    2018-05-01

    This note examines the two-dimensional unsteady isothermal free surface flow of an incompressible fluid in a non-deformable, homogeneous, isotropic, and saturated porous medium (with zero recharge and neglecting capillary effects). Coupling a Boussinesq-type model for nonlinear water waves with Darcy's law, the two-dimensional flow problem is solved using one-dimensional model equations including vertical effects and seepage face. In order to take into account the seepage face development, the system equations (given by the continuity and momentum equations) are completed by an integral relation (deduced from the Cauchy theorem). After testing the model against data sets available in the literature, some numerical simulations, concerning the unsteady flow through a rectangular dam (with an impermeable horizontal bottom), are presented and discussed.

  19. Seismic evaluation of a cooling water reservoir facility including fluid-structure and soil-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, A.F.; Maryak, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Seismic analyses and structural evaluations were performed for a cooling water reservoir of a nuclear reactor facility. The horizontal input seismic motion was the NRC Reg. guide 1.60 spectrum shape anchored at 0.20g zero period acceleration. Vertical input was taken as two-thirds of the horizontal input. Soil structure interaction and hydrodynamic effects were addressed in the seismic analyses. Uncertainties in the soil properties were accounted for by considering three soil profiles. Two 2-dimensional SSI models and a 3-dimensional static model. Representing different areas of the reservoir structures were developed and analyzed to obtain seismic forces and moments, and accelerations at various locations. The results included in this paper indicated that both hydrodynamic and soil-structure interaction effects are significant contributors to the seismic responses of the water-retaining walls of the reservoir

  20. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Coudeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior economic evaluations of adult and adolescent vaccination strategies against pertussis have reached disparate conclusions. Using static approaches only, previous studies failed to analytically include the indirect benefits derived from herd immunity as well as the impact of vaccination on the evolution of disease incidence over time. METHODS: We assessed the impact of different pertussis vaccination strategies using a dynamic compartmental model able to consider pertussis transmission. We then combined the results with economic data to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of pertussis immunization strategies for adolescents and adults in the US. The analysis compares combinations of programs targeting adolescents, parents of newborns (i.e. cocoon strategy, or adults of various ages. RESULTS: In the absence of adolescent or adult vaccination, pertussis incidence among adults is predicted to more than double in 20 years. Implementing an adult program in addition to childhood and adolescent vaccination either based on 1 a cocoon strategy and a single booster dose or 2 a decennial routine vaccination would maintain a low level of pertussis incidence in the long run for all age groups (respectively 30 and 20 cases per 100,000 person years. These strategies would also result in significant reductions of pertussis costs (between -77% and -80% including additional vaccination costs. The cocoon strategy complemented by a single booster dose is the most cost-effective one, whereas the decennial adult vaccination is slightly more effective in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: By providing a high level of disease control, the implementation of an adult vaccination program against pertussis appears to be highly cost-effective and often cost-saving.

  1. Development of LLNA:DAE: a new local lymph node assay that includes the elicitation phase, discriminates borderline-positive chemicals, and is useful for cross-sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    We developed a new local lymph node assay (LLNA) that includes the elicitation phase termed LLNA:DAE for discrimination of borderline-positive chemicals as classified by the LLNA modified by Daicel based on ATP content (LLNA:DA) and for cross-sensitization testing. Although the LLNA:DA method could help identify skin sensitizers, some skin irritants classified as non-sensitizers by the LLNA were classified as borderline positive. In addition, the evaluation for the cross-sensitization potential between chemicals was impossible. In the LLNA:DAE procedure, test group of mice received four applications of chemicals on the dorsum of the right ear for induction and one application on the dorsum of the left ear for elicitation. Control group of mice received one chemical application on the dorsum of the left ear. We evaluated the sensitizing potential by comparing the weights of the lymph nodes from the left ears between the two groups. The results of using the LLNA:DAE method to examine 24 chemicals, which contained borderline-positive chemicals, were consistent with those from the LLNA method, except for nickel chloride (NiCl2). Two chemical pairs, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and hydroquinone (HQ) with p-benzoquinone (p-BQ), showed clear cross-sensitization with each other, while another chemical pair, DNFB with hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA) did not. Taken together, our results suggest that the LLNA:DAE method is useful for discriminating borderline-positive chemicals and for determining chemical cross-sensitization.

  2. Effectiveness of the Positioning Statement: Experimental Test on Brand Awareness in Competitive Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barreiros Porto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Good positioning statements have an effect on consumer brand awareness. However, the competitive context formed by the novelty of the category and the brand market structure may hinder the assimilation of positioning and its association with the pre-existing image. This study assesses the effectiveness of positioning statements in the generation of brand awareness, considering its competitive context. Using an experimental design, with a group of control, the exposure of brands and their competitive contexts were manipulated and the positioning statement remained constant for a sample of consumers. The results show the positioning statement had an effect on both assimilation of the message and valence of image association, which adds awareness for the brand, but only for the traditional category. The effectiveness on the message assimilation occurred within the weak brand and within the less known median brand. For the image valence, it occurred only between the weak brand and the strong one from the traditional category. These findings are distinct among consumer segments. The research brings up a classic theme, but presents a new methodological approach to measure the effectiveness of brand positioning.

  3. The Effect of Positive Mood on Flexible Processing of Affective Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Maud; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-07-17

    Recent efforts have been made to understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying psychological resilience. Cognitive flexibility in the context of affective information has been related to individual differences in resilience. However, it is unclear whether flexible affective processing is sensitive to mood fluctuations. Furthermore, it remains to be investigated how effects on flexible affective processing interact with the affective valence of information that is presented. To fill this gap, we tested the effects of positive mood and individual differences in self-reported resilience on affective flexibility, using a task switching paradigm (N = 80). The main findings showed that positive mood was related to lower task switching costs, reflecting increased flexibility, in line with previous findings. In line with this effect of positive mood, we showed that greater resilience levels, specifically levels of acceptance of self and life, also facilitated task set switching in the context of affective information. However, the effects of resilience on affective flexibility seem more complex. Resilience tended to relate to more efficient task switching when negative information was preceded by positive information, possibly because the presentation of positive information, as well as positive mood, can facilitate task set switching. Positive mood also influenced costs associated with switching affective valence of the presented information. This latter effect was indicative of a reduced impact of no longer relevant negative information and more impact of no longer relevant positive information. Future research should confirm these effects of individual differences in resilience on affective flexibility, considering the affective valence of the presented information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (pmind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Humanizing HIV/AIDS and its (re)stigmatizing effects: HIV public 'positive' speaking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Mark; Sarangi, Srikant

    2009-01-01

    Social stigma has been inextricably linked with HIV and AIDS since the epidemic erupted in the early 1980s. The stigma that has built up around HIV and AIDS is generally regarded as having a negative impact on the quality of life of HIV-positive people and on general prevention efforts. Current attempts to combat HIV-related stigma focus on increasing the acceptance of HIV among the stigmatizing public and stigmatized individuals alike. In this, the global HIV-positive community is being increasingly called upon to ;humanize' the virus, not least through public displays of HIV 'positive' health and public ;positive' speaking. This article critically explores the constitutive effects and inherent power relations of HIV Positive Speakers' Bureaus (PSBs) as a platform for such a display. Adopting a post-structuralist discourse analytic approach, we explore accounts of positive-speaking and HIV health from HIV-related non-government organizations in India and in PSB training manuals. In particular, we highlight ways in which positive-speaking in India can be seen to have significant (re)stigmatizing effects by way of ambivalent and hyper-real configurations of HIV 'positive' identity and life.

  6. PEPTIDE SOLUBILITY, STRUCTURE AND CHARGE POSITION EFFECT ON ADSORPTION BY ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Trujillo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Solubility, structure and position of charges in a peptide antigen sequence can be mentioned as being amongst the basic features of adsorption. In order to study their effect on adsorption, seven analogue series were synthesized from a MSP-1 peptide sequence by systematically replacing each one of the positions in the peptide sequence by aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, alanine, asparagine, glutamine or lysine. Such modifications in analogue peptide sequences showed a non-regular tendency regarding solubility and adsorption data. Aspartic acid and Glutamic acid analogue series showed great improvements in adsorption, especially in peptides where Lysine in position 6 and Arginine in position 13 were replaced. Solubility of position 5 analogue was greater than the position 6 analogue in Aspartic acid series; however, the position 6 analogue showed best adsorption results whilst the Aspartic acid in position 5 analogue showed no adsorption in the same conditions. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance structural analysis revealed differences in the -helical structureextension between these analogues. The Aspartic acid in position 6, located in the polar side of the helix, may allow this analogueto fit better onto the adsorption regions suggesting that the local electrostatic charge is responsible for this behavior.

  7. The effect of psychotherapeutic interventions on positive and negative affect in depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumparis, Nikolaos; Karyotaki, Eirini; Kleiboer, Annet; Hofmann, Stefan G; Cuijpers, Pim

    2016-09-15

    Depression is a mental disorder characterized by high and dysregulated negative affect in addition to diminished positive affect. To our knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the impact of psychotherapeutic interventions on these affective dimensions. Two comprehensive literature searches for all randomized controlled trials of psychotherapy in adults with depression were performed. The first from 1996 to December 31, 2014 and the second from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015. The primary outcome was the mean score of positive and negative affect. Depressive symptoms were measured to be included as a predictor in the meta-regression analyses. Ten studies with 793 adults with depression were included. All studies assessed positive and negative affect. Psychotherapeutic interventions resulted in significantly increased positive affect (g=0.41; 95% CI: 0.16-0.66 p=0.001), and significantly decreased negative affect (g=0.32; 95% CI: 0.15-0.78, p=0.001) in depressed adults. Because of the small number and substantial heterogeneity of the existing studies the meta-regression analyses produced conflicting results. As a consequence, we were unable to sufficiently demonstrate whether NA and depressive symptoms are in fact correlated or not. Given the small number and heterogeneity of the included studies, the findings should be considered with caution. Psychotherapeutic interventions demonstrate low to moderate effects in enhancing positive and reducing negative affect in depressed adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in preterm (⩽29 weeks; risk ratio (RR)=0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.71) and term neonates (RR=0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.96). No significant reduction in neonatal mortality or morbidity was found; however, the studies were underpowered for these outcomes. For neonates, especially preterm, plastic wraps combined with other environmental heat sources are effective in reducing hypothermia during stabilization and transfer within hospital. Further research is needed to quantify the effects on mortality or morbidity, and investigate the use of plastic coverings outside hospital settings or without additional heat sources.

  9. Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformation in a solution: Including mass transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqshenas, S R; Ford, I J; Saffari, N

    2018-01-14

    Effects of acoustic waves on a phase transformation in a metastable phase were investigated in our previous work [S. R. Haqshenas, I. J. Ford, and N. Saffari, "Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on nucleation," J. Chem. Phys. 145, 024315 (2016)]. We developed a non-equimolar dividing surface cluster model and employed it to determine the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallisation induced by an acoustic field in a mass-conserved system. In the present work, we developed a master equation based on a hybrid Szilard-Fokker-Planck model, which accounts for mass transportation due to acoustic waves. This model can determine the kinetics of nucleation and the early stage of growth of clusters including the Ostwald ripening phenomenon. It was solved numerically to calculate the kinetics of an isothermal sonocrystallisation process in a system with mass transportation. The simulation results show that the effect of mass transportation for different excitations depends on the waveform as well as the imposed boundary conditions and tends to be noticeable in the case of shock waves. The derivations are generic and can be used with any acoustic source and waveform.

  10. The effectiveness of CPI model to improve positive attitude toward science (PATS) for pre-service physics teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarti, T.; Wasis; Madlazim; Suyidno; Prahani, B. K.

    2018-03-01

    In the previous research, learning material based Construction, Production, and Implementation (CPI) model has been developed to improve scientific literacy and positive attitude toward science for pre-service physics teacher. CPI model has 4 phases, included: 1) Motivation; 2) Construction (Cycle I); 3) Production (Cycle II); and 4) Evaluation. This research is aimed to analyze the effectiveness of CPI model towards the improvement Positive Attitude toward Science (PATS) for pre-service physics teacher. This research used one group pre-test and post-test design on 160 pre-service physics teacher divided into 4 groups at Lambung Mangkurat University and Surabaya State University (Indonesia), academic year 2016/2017. Data collection was conducted through questioner, observation, and interview. Positive attitude toward science for pre-service physics teacher measurement were conducted through Positive Attitude toward Science Evaluation Sheet (PATSES). The data analysis technique was done by using Wilcoxon test and n-gain. The results showed that there was a significant increase in positive attitude toward science for pre-service physics teacher at α = 5%, with n-gain average of high category. Thus, the CPI model is effective for improving positive attitude toward science for pre-service physics teacher.

  11. The positive effect of oxygenated solvents for the synthetic use of electroregenerated ytterbium(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A.; Little, R. Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The addition of an oxygen based solvent, THF for example, to classical electrochemical media (DMF or ACN) improved the electrochemical behavior of the Yb(III)/Yb(II) couple. Two highlights of using 2:1 THF-DMF include the diminishing of the passivation at the carbon vitreous electrode when successive cycles are recorded and the almost totally reversible response of the system. The complexing effect of THF positively affects the electron-transfer kinetics of the redox couple, being faster in DMF-THF than in ACN-THF. A similar complexation effect was confirmed using tetraglyme as a cosolvent. The use of 2:1 THF-DMF allowed us to successfully substitute reticulated vitreous carbon in place of mercury as the working electrode for the Yb(II) electrogeneration experiments. Due to the stability of the alcoholate-Yb(III) complex, the recycling of Yb(III) to Yb(II) could not be achieved in the pinacolization reactions that were attempted

  12. Serial position learning effects in patients with aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Elka; Kostic, Vladimir S; Ziropadja, Ljubomir; Markovic, Milan; Ocic, Gordana

    2002-08-01

    Ruptured and repaired Anterior Communicating Artery (ACoA) aneurysm can result in devastating impairments involving memory, executive function, confabulation, and personality changes. This study tested serial position learning effects (SPEs) in patients following repaired and ruptured ACoA aneurysm, using results on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Thirty patients with ruptured aneurysms of the ACoA and 31 matched controls were included in the study. The primacy-recency effects were maintained during five learning trials in ACoA group, albeit at an overall lower level than in the controls. There was no difference in primacy-recency relation across five learning trials in ACoA group. On the delayed recall trial the patient group demonstrated neither a primacy, nor a recency phenomenon, reflecting a lack of recall of any parts of the word list. This kind of primacy-recency profile across learning trials in ACoA group has no similarity with SPE results in frontal lesion groups, or with SPE distributions in other amnesic disorders, despite the fact that memory and executive deficits were evident in our ACoA group.

  13. Effects of insertion speed and trocar stiffness on the accuracy of needle position for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, Carl S.; Schwartz, Jonathon A.; Moore, Jason Z.; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Shih, Albert J. [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 and Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: In prostate brachytherapy, accurate positioning of the needle tip to place radioactive seeds at its target site is critical for successful radiation treatment. During the procedure, needle deflection leads to seed misplacement and suboptimal radiation dose to cancerous cells. In practice, radiation oncologists commonly use high-speed hand needle insertion to minimize displacement of the prostate as well as the needle deflection. Effects of speed during needle insertion and stiffness of trocar (a solid rod inside the hollow cannula) on needle deflection are studied. Methods: Needle insertion experiments into phantom were performed using a 2{sup 2} factorial design (2 parameters at 2 levels), with each condition having replicates. Analysis of the deflection data included calculating the average, standard deviation, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find significant single and two-way interaction factors. Results: The stiffer tungsten carbide trocar is effective in reducing the average and standard deviation of needle deflection. The fast insertion speed together with the stiffer trocar generated the smallest average and standard deviation for needle deflection for almost all cases. Conclusions: The combination of stiff tungsten carbide trocar and fast needle insertion speed are important to decreasing needle deflection. The knowledge gained from this study can be used to improve the accuracy of needle insertion during brachytherapy procedures.

  14. Effects of the positioning force of electrostatic levitators on viscosity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Paradis, Paul-Francois; Koike, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Yuki

    2009-01-01

    Electrostatic levitators use strong electric fields to levitate and accurately position a sample against gravity. In this study, the effects of the electric field are investigated with regard to viscosity measurements conducted with the oscillating drop method. The effects of the external field on viscosity measurements are experimentally confirmed by changing the sample size. Moreover, a numerical simulation based on a simple mass-spring-damper system can reproduce the experimental observations. Based on the above results, measurement procedures are improved. These help to minimize the effect of the positioning force and to increase the accuracy of the viscosity measurements.

  15. The 3-year disease management effect: understanding the positive return on investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, John A; Jeffery, Molly Moore; Abraham, Jean M; Jutkowitz, Eric; Dowd, Bryan E

    2013-11-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that health promotion programs yield a positive return on investment (ROI) in year 3. In the case of the University of Minnesota's program, a positive ROI was achieved in the third year, but it was due entirely to the effectiveness of the disease management (DM) program. The objective of this study is to investigate why. Differences-in-differences regression equations were estimated to determine the effect of DM participation on spending (overall and service specific), hospitalizations, and avoidable hospitalizations. Disease management participation reduced expenditures overall, and especially in the third year for employees, and reduced hospitalizations and avoidable hospitalizations. The positive ROI at Minnesota was due to increased effectiveness of DM in the third year (mostly due to fewer hospitalizations) but also to the simple durability of the average DM effect.

  16. Suppressor Effects of Positive and Negative Religious Coping on Academic Burnout Among Korean Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyunkyung; Chang, Eunbi; Jang, Yoojin; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-02-01

    Statistical suppressor effects in prediction models can provide evidence of the interdependent relationship of independent variables. In this study, the suppressor effects of positive and negative religious coping on academic burnout were examined using longitudinal data. First, 388 middle school students reported their type of religion and use of positive and negative religious coping strategies. Four months later, they also reported their level of academic burnout. From structural equation modeling, significant suppressor effects were found among religious students. That is, the coefficients became larger when both positive and negative religious coping predicted academic burnout simultaneously, compared to when each religious coping predicted academic burnout alone. However, suppressor effects were not found among non-religious students.

  17. Effect of Randomness in Element Position on Performance of Communication Array Antennas in Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congsi Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a critical component for wireless communication, active phased array antennas face the restrictions of creating effective performance with the effect of randomness in the position of the array element, which are inevitably produced in the manufacturing and operating process of antenna. A new method for efficiently and effectively evaluating the statistic performance of antenna is presented, with consideration of randomness in element position. A coupled structural-electromagnetic statistic model for array antenna is proposed from the viewpoint of electromechanical coupling. Lastly, a 12×12 planar array is illustrated to evaluate the performance of antenna with the saddle-shaped distortion and random position error. The results show that the presented model can obtain the antenna performance quickly and effectively, providing an advantageous guidance for structural design and performance optimization for array antennas in wireless application.

  18. Financial Position and House Price Determination : An Empirical Study of Income and Wealth Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegmans, J.W.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377458708; Hassink, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090437411

    This paper examines the effect of the relative financial position of buyers and sellers on house prices, distinguishing between income and wealth effects. Using administrative data from the Netherlands (2006–2010) that combine transaction data, house characteristics, and household characteristics of

  19. The effect of altered road markings on speed and lateral position : a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidse, R.J. Driel, C.J.G. van & Goldenbeld, C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of a meta-analysis of a number of small-scale studies into the effects of changed road markings on the speed and lateral position of motor vehicles. It was examined whether predictions can be made about the general effects of altered road markings. Several kinds of

  20. Characterization of the positive and negative inotropic effects of acetylcholine in the human myocardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.Y. Du (Xiaoyi); R.G. Schoemaker (Regien); E. Bos (Egbert); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn the human isolated myocardium, acetylcholine (10−9 to 10−3 M) elicited a biphasic inotropic effect (a decrease in the lower and an increase in the higher concentration range) in atrial and a positive inotropic effect in ventricular trabeculae. However, under conditions of raised

  1. Whole-School Positive Behaviour Support: Effects on Student Discipline Problems and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, James K.; Putnam, Robert F.; Handler, Marcie W.; Feinberg, Adam B.

    2005-01-01

    Many students attending public schools exhibit discipline problems such as disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, bullying, and violence. Establishing effective discipline practices is critical to ensure academic success and to provide a safe learning environment. In this article, we describe the effects of whole-school positive behaviour…

  2. Challenges Women Face in Leadership Positions and Organizational Effectiveness: An Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmuti, Dean; Jia, Heather; Davis, Henry H.

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to discover working public thoughts about roles of United States women in leadership positions and to test the relationship between managerial leadership styles and organizational effectiveness. A survey of perceptions of leadership roles and effectiveness distributed 700 randomly selected entities from industries in the…

  3. Processing Distracting Non-face Emotional Images: No Evidence of an Age-Related Positivity Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Mark; Murray, Janice E

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive aging may be accompanied by increased prioritization of social and emotional goals that enhance positive experiences and emotional states. The socioemotional selectivity theory suggests this may be achieved by giving preference to positive information and avoiding or suppressing negative information. Although there is some evidence of a positivity bias in controlled attention tasks, it remains unclear whether a positivity bias extends to the processing of affective stimuli presented outside focused attention. In two experiments, we investigated age-related differences in the effects of to-be-ignored non-face affective images on target processing. In Experiment 1, 27 older (64-90 years) and 25 young adults (19-29 years) made speeded valence judgments about centrally presented positive or negative target images taken from the International Affective Picture System. To-be-ignored distractor images were presented above and below the target image and were either positive, negative, or neutral in valence. The distractors were considered task relevant because they shared emotional characteristics with the target stimuli. Both older and young adults responded slower to targets when distractor valence was incongruent with target valence relative to when distractors were neutral. Older adults responded faster to positive than to negative targets but did not show increased interference effects from positive distractors. In Experiment 2, affective distractors were task irrelevant as the target was a three-digit array and did not share emotional characteristics with the distractors. Twenty-six older (63-84 years) and 30 young adults (18-30 years) gave speeded responses on a digit disparity task while ignoring the affective distractors positioned in the periphery. Task performance in either age group was not influenced by the task-irrelevant affective images. In keeping with the socioemotional selectivity theory, these findings suggest that older adults preferentially

  4. Positive Neighborhood Norms Buffer Ethnic Diversity Effects on Neighborhood Dissatisfaction, Perceived Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Moving Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Jasper; Asbrock, Frank; Roets, Arne; Kauff, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Positive neighborhood norms, such as strong local networks, are critical to people's satisfaction with, perceived disadvantage of, and intentions to stay in their neighborhood. At the same time, local ethnic diversity is said to be detrimental for these community outcomes. Integrating both frameworks, we tested whether the negative consequences of diversity occur even when perceived social norms are positive. Study 1 ( N = 1,760 German adults) showed that perceptions of positive neighborhood norms buffered against the effects of perceived diversity on moving intentions via neighborhood satisfaction and perceived neighborhood disadvantage. Study 2 ( N = 993 Dutch adults) replicated and extended this moderated mediation model using other characteristics of diversity (i.e., objective and estimated minority proportions). Multilevel analyses again revealed consistent buffering effects of positive neighborhood norms. Our findings are discussed in light of the ongoing public and political debate concerning diversity and social and communal life.

  5. The effects of positive emotion priming on self-reported reckless driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit

    2012-03-01

    Five studies examined the effects of positive emotion priming on the willingness to drive recklessly. In all five, young drivers were exposed to one of the following primes of positive affect: a positive mood story; happy memories; an exciting film; a relaxing film; or thoughts on the meaning in life. Following the prime, the participants were asked to report on their willingness to drive recklessly. The responses were compared to those of groups exposed either to neutral affect, another kind of positive affect, or negative affect priming. In two of the studies, participants were also asked to report on their driving styles (risky, anxious, angry, or careful) as a second dependent variable. Positive affect, especially in the form of arousal, was found to be related to higher willingness to drive recklessly. Although men tended to report higher intentions to drive recklessly, men and women did not react differently to the emotional induction. Most interestingly, positive emotions of a relaxing nature, as well as thinking about the meaning in life, lowered the willingness to engage in risky driving. The discussion emphasizes the importance of looking for new ways to use positive emotions effectively in road safety interventions, and considers the practical implications of the studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of positive electrical feedback in the oscillating Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction: Experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes both the experimental and numerical investigations on the effect of positive electrical feedback in the oscillating Belovsou-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction under batch conditions. Positive electrical feedback causes an increase in the amplitude and period of the oscillations with the corresponding increase of the feedback strength. Oregonator model with a positive feedback term suitably incorporated in one of the dynamical variables is used to account for these experimental observations. Further, the effect of positive feedback on the Hopf points are investigated numerically by constructing the bifurcation diagrams. In the absence of feedback, for a particular stoichiometric parameter, the model exhibits both supercritical and subcritical Hopf bifurcations with canard existing near the former Hopf point. In the presence of positive feedback it is observed that (i) both the Hopf points advances, (ii) the distance between the two Hopf points decreases linearly, while the period increases exponentially with the increase of feedback strength near the Hopf points, (iii) only supercritical Hopf point without canard survives for a very strong positive feedback strength and (iv) moderate feedback strength takes the system away from limit cycle to the canard regime. These observations are explained in terms of Field-Koeroes-Noyes mechanism of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. This may be the first instance where the advancement of Hopf points due to positive feedback is clearly shown

  7. Tracer experiment data sets for the verification of local and meso-scale atmospheric dispersion models including topographic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.; Schuler, W.

    1992-01-01

    Software and data for nuclear energy applications are acquired, tested and distributed by several information centres; in particular, relevant computer codes are distributed internationally by the OECD/NEA Data Bank (France) and by ESTSC and EPIC/RSIC (United States). This activity is coordinated among the centres and is extended outside the OECD area through an arrangement with the IAEA. This article proposes more specifically a scheme for acquiring, storing and distributing atmospheric tracer experiment data (ATE) required for verification of atmospheric dispersion models especially the most advanced ones including topographic effects and specific to the local and meso-scale. These well documented data sets will form a valuable complement to the set of atmospheric dispersion computer codes distributed internationally. Modellers will be able to gain confidence in the predictive power of their models or to verify their modelling skills. (au)

  8. Scattering Analysis of a Compact Dipole Array with Series and Parallel Feed Network including Mutual Coupling Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Sneha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current focus in defense arena is towards the stealth technology with an emphasis to control the radar cross-section (RCS. The scattering from the antennas mounted over the platform is of prime importance especially for a low-observable aerospace vehicle. This paper presents the analysis of the scattering cross section of a uniformly spaced linear dipole array. Two types of feed networks, that is, series and parallel feed networks, are considered. The total RCS of phased array with either kind of feed network is obtained by following the signal as it enters through the aperture and travels through the feed network. The RCS estimation of array is done including the mutual coupling effect between the dipole elements in three configurations, that is, side-by-side, collinear, and parallel-in-echelon. The results presented can be useful while designing a phased array with optimum performance towards low observability.

  9. Numerical simulation on the screw pinch by 2-D MHD pinch code 'topics' including impurities and neutrals effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, A.; Ashida, H.; Okamoto, M.; Hirano, K.

    1981-03-01

    Two dimentional fluid simulation code ''TOPICS'' is developed for the STP-2, the shock heated screw pinch at Nagoya. It involves the effects of impurity ions and neutral atoms. In order to estimate the radiation losses, the impurity continuity equations with ionizations and recombinations are solved simultaneously with the plasma fluid equations. The results are compared with the coronal equilibrium model. It is found that the coronal equilibrium model underestimates the radiation losses from shock heated pinch plasmas in its initial dynamic phase. The present calculations including impurities and neutrals show the importance of the radiation losses from the plasma of the STP-2. Introducing the anomalous resistivity caused by the ion acoustic instability, the observed magnetic field penetration is explained fairly well. (author)

  10. Effect of loose spring skirt mounting position on vibration damping in a multi segment hanging cantilever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazeer, M.M.; Khan, A.F.; Shah, R.H; Afzal, M.; Ahmed, N.

    2001-01-01

    The loose spring skirt clearance is the major factor effecting the damping and amplitude control of randomly excited vibrations in a vertically hanging cantilever. However, the spring's mounting position also has an important role to play. In this work, the results of computational model as well as that of experimental set-up for various spring mounting positions having optimum annular clearance between skirted member and the skirt are presented and their vibration damping response is analyzed. It is observed that lower is the mounting position, the better is the damping and its maximum value is attained when the bottom end of spring skirt and the hanging cantilever are mutually flushed. (author)

  11. Effect of mobilities and electric field on the stability of magnetized positive column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogra, V.K.; Uberoi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of ratio of the mobilities of electrons and ions and non-dimensional electric field, on the stability of magnetized positive column for all unstable modes is studied in a self-consistent formulation for the perturbations of plasma density and electric potential. The minimum non-dimensional electric field at which magnetized positive column becomes unstable for different ratios of the mobilities of electrons and ions is also investigated. (author)

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Including a Nurse Specialist in the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Primary Care in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Holtzer-Goor

    Full Text Available Incontinence is an important health problem. Effectively treating incontinence could lead to important health gains in patients and caregivers. Management of incontinence is currently suboptimal, especially in elderly patients. To optimise the provision of incontinence care a global optimum continence service specification (OCSS was developed. The current study evaluates the costs and effects of implementing this OCSS for community-dwelling patients older than 65 years with four or more chronic diseases in the Netherlands.A decision analytic model was developed comparing the current care pathway for urinary incontinence in the Netherlands with the pathway as described in the OCSS. The new care strategy was operationalised as the appointment of a continence nurse specialist (NS located with the general practitioner (GP. This was assumed to increase case detection and to include initial assessment and treatment by the NS. The analysis used a societal perspective, including medical costs, containment products (out-of-pocket and paid by insurer, home care, informal care, and implementation costs.With the new care strategy a QALY gain of 0.005 per patient is achieved while saving €402 per patient over a 3 year period from a societal perspective. In interpreting these findings it is important to realise that many patients are undetected, even in the new care situation (36%, or receive care for containment only. In both of these groups no health gains were achieved.Implementing the OCSS in the Netherlands by locating a NS in the GP practice is likely to reduce incontinence, improve quality of life, and reduce costs. Furthermore, the study also highlighted that various areas of the continence care process lack data, which would be valuable to collect through the introduction of the NS in a study setting.

  13. Evaluation of Effects of Warning Sign Position on Driving Behavior in Horizontal Sharp Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In present time, the guidelines on warning sign position in the China National Standard lack detailed and standard regulations of placing warning signs on sharp curves, which may cause road safety problems. Therefore, this paper briefly discussed how to optimize the position of a warning sign on a sharp curve through a driving simulator experiment. This study concluded that a warning sign placed at different positions prior to a sharp curve will have different influence ranges for drivers approaching and negotiating the curve. Meanwhile, different positions of a warning sign imposed different effect obviously on the adjustment of vehicle's lane position on sharp curves with the same radius, especially at the midpoint of a sharp curve. The evaluation results of five positions (0 m, 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m in advance showed that only when the warning signs were placed 100 m or 200 m prior to sharp curves, can they achieve positive influence on driving behavior. On this basis, the authors look forward to providing rationalization proposals in selecting the best position of a warning sign on a sharp curve for the engineering implementation and national standard.

  14. Serial-position effects on a free-recall task in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeewon; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined mechanisms that underlie free-recall performance in bilinguals' first language (L1) and second language (L2) through the prism of serial-position effects. On free-recall tasks, a typical pattern of performance follows a U-shaped serial-position curve, where items from the beginning of the list (the primacy effect) and items from the end of the list (the recency effect) are recalled with higher accuracy than items from the middle of the list. The present study contrasted serial-position effects on the free-recall task in Korean-English bilinguals' L1 vs. L2 and examined the relationship between an independent working memory (WM) measure and serial-position effects in bilinguals' two languages. Results revealed stronger pre-recency (primacy and middle) effects in L1 than in L2, but similar recency effects in the two languages. A close association was observed between WM and recall performance in the pre-recency region in the L1 but not in the L2. Together, these findings suggest that linguistic knowledge constrains free-recall performance in bilinguals, but only in the pre-recency region.

  15. A Theory for Stability and Buzz Pulsation Amplitude in Ram Jets and an Experimental Investigation Including Scale Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpi, Robert L

    1956-01-01

    From a theory developed on a quasi-one-dimensional-flow basis, it is found that the stability of the ram jet is dependent upon the instantaneous values of mass flow and total pressure recovery of the supersonic diffuser and immediate neighboring subsonic diffuser. Conditions for stable and unstable flow are presented. The theory developed in the report is in agreement with the experimental data of NACA-TN-3506 and NACA-RM-L50K30. A simple theory for predicting the approximate amplitude of small pressure pulsation in terms of mass-flow decrement from minimum-stable mass flow is developed and found to agree with experiments. Cold-flow tests at a Mach number of 1.94 of ram-jet models having scale factors of 3.15:1 and Reynolds number ratios of 4.75:1 with several supersonic diffuser configurations showed only small variations in performance between geometrically similar models. The predominant variation in steady-flow performance resulted from the larger boundary layer in the combustion chamber of the low Reynolds number models. The conditions at which buzz originated were nearly the same for the same supersonic diffuser (cowling-position angle) configurations in both large and small diameter models. There was no appreciable variation in stability limits of any of the models when the combustion-chamber length was increased by a factor of three. The unsteady-flow performance and wave patterns were also similar when considered on a reduced-frequency basis determined from the relative lengths of the model. The negligible effect of Reynolds number on stability of the off-design configurations was not anticipated in view of the importance of boundary layer to stability, and this result should not be construed to be generally applicable. (author)

  16. Sex moderates the effects of positive and negative affect on clinical pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Traci J; Richards, Jessica M; Finan, Patrick H; Smith, Michael T

    2017-07-01

    Sex differences in clinical pain severity and response to experimental pain are commonly reported, with women generally showing greater vulnerability. Affect, including state (a single rating) and stable (average daily ratings over two weeks) positive affect and negative affect has also been found to impact pain sensitivity and severity, and research suggests that affect may modulate pain differentially as a function of sex. The current study aimed to examine sex as a moderator of the relationships between affect and pain-related outcomes among participants with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). One hundred and seventy-nine participants (59 men) with KOA completed electronic diaries assessing clinical pain, positive affect, and negative affect. A subset of participants (n=120) underwent quantitative sensory testing, from which a single index of central sensitization to pain was derived. We used multiple regression models to test for the interactive effects of sex and affect (positive versus negative and stable versus state) on pain-related outcomes. We used mixed effects models to test for the moderating effects of sex on the relationships between state affect and pain over time. Sex differences in affect and pain were identified, with men reporting significantly higher stable positive affect and lower central sensitization to pain indexed by quantitative sensory testing, as well as marginally lower KOA-specific clinical pain compared to women. Moreover, there was an interaction between stable positive affect and sex on KOA-specific clinical pain and average daily non-specific pain ratings. Post hoc analyses revealed that men showed trends towards an inverse relationship between stable positive affect and pain outcomes, while women showed no relationship between positive affect and pain. There was also a significant interaction between sex and stable negative affect and sex on KOA-specific pain such that men showed a significantly stronger positive relationship between

  17. The effect of perceived and actual social support on the mental health of HIV-positive persons

    OpenAIRE

    MCDOWELL, T. L.; SEROVICH, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the ways in which perceived and actual social support affect the mental health of gay men, straight or bisexual men, and women living with HIV/AIDS. Participants included 125 women and 232 men with an HIV-positive or AIDS diagnosis involved in three larger investigations of HIV, disclosure and mental health. Results suggest each sub-group experienced perceived social support as significantly predictive of better mental health while the effect of actual ...

  18. The effect of positive and negative memory bias on anxiety and depression symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Cheng, Joseph; Dai, Darren Wai Tong; Tam, Titian; Hui, Otilia

    2018-02-28

    To examine the interaction effect of anxiety and depression on the intentional forgetting of positive and negative valence words. One hundred fifty-five grade 7 to grade 10 students participated in the study. The item-method directed forgetting paradigm was used to examine the intentional forgetting of positive-valence, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words. Negative-valence words were recognized better than either positive-valence or neutral-valence words. The results revealed an anxiety main effect (p = .01, LLCI = -.09, and ULCI = -.01) and a depression main effect (p = .04, LLCI = .00, and ULCI = .24). The anxiety score was negative, whereas the depression score was positively related to the directed forgetting of negative-valence words. Regression-based moderation analysis revealed a significant anxiety × depression interaction effect on the directed forgetting of positive-valence words (p = .02, LLCI = .00, and ULCI = .01). Greater anxiety was associated with more directed forgetting of positive-valance words only among participants with high depression scores. With negative-valence words, the anxiety × depression interaction effect was not significant (p = .15, LLCI = - .00, and ULCI = .01). Therapeutic strategies to increase positive memory bias may reduce anxiety symptoms only among those with high depression scores. Interventions to reduce negative memory bias may reduce anxiety symptoms irrespective of levels of depression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats

    2009-02-01

    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  20. Relativistic effects on complexity indexes in atoms in position and momentum spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, P.; Sarsa, A.; Buendia, E.; Galvez, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Three different statistical measures of complexity are explored for the atoms He to Ra. The measures are analysed in both position and momentum spaces. Relativistic effects on the complexity indexes are systematically studied. These effects are discussed in terms of the information content factor and the disorder terms of the complexity indexes. Relativistic and non-relativistic complexity indexes are calculated from Optimized Effective Potential densities.

  1. Muscarinic receptor M4 positive allosteric modulators attenuate central effects of cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Camilla; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction is a chronic brain disease affecting neurotransmission. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic signaling in the reward system, and muscarinic receptor stimulation can block direct reinforcing effects of cocaine. Here, we tested the hypothesis...... that specific muscarinic M4receptor stimulation can attenuate the discriminative stimulus effects and conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine, measures believed to predict the ability of cocaine and cocaine-associated cues to elicit relapse to drug taking. METHODS: We tested the M4-selective positive...

  2. The effects of intraoperative positioning on patients undergoing early definitive care for femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostle, K L; Lefaivre, K A; Guy, P; Broekhuyse, H M; Blachut, P A; O'Brien, P J; Meek, R N

    2009-10-01

    To determine if there is a difference in morbidity and mortality in orthopaedic trauma patients with femoral shaft fractures undergoing early definitive care with intramedullary (IM) nails in the supine versus the lateral position. Retrospective cohort study, single centered. One level 1 trauma center. Nine hundred eighty-eight patients representing 1027 femoral shaft fractures treated with IM nails were identified through a prospectively gathered database between 1987 and 2006. Antegrade IM nail insertion with reaming of the femoral canal in either the supine or lateral position. Mortality was the primary outcome. Admission to intensive care unit (ICU) was the secondary outcome measure and a surrogate measure of morbidity. Literature review was performed to identify factors shown to contribute to morbidity and mortality in orthopaedic trauma patients. Intraoperative position in either the supine or lateral position was added to this list. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the magnitude and effect of the independent variables on each of the study end points. To determine if a more significant trend toward less favorable outcomes was observed with increasing severity of injury, particularly injuries of the chest and thorax, subgroup analysis was performed for all those with a femur fracture and an Injury Severity Score > or =18 and all those with a femur fracture and an Abbreviated Injury Score chest > or =3. Intraoperative position in either the supine or lateral position was not a significant predictor of mortality or ICU admission for the original cohort or the subgroup of Injury Severity Score > or =18. However, for the subgroup of Abbreviated Injury Score chest > or =3, intraoperative positioning in the lateral position had a statistically significant protective effect against ICU admission (P = 0.044). For polytrauma patients with femoral shaft fractures, surgical stabilization using IM nails inserted with reaming of the femoral canal in

  3. [Longitudinal genetic effects on mandibular position of female twins from six to twelve years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-feng; Peng, Jing

    2013-06-01

    To find the longitudinal genetic effects on mandibular position in mixed dentition. The sample used in this study consisted of lateral cephalograms of eighty-nine pairs of female twins in Beijing. With a mixed longitudinal method, the effective twins were 183 pairs(monozygous 110 pairs and dizygous 73 ones). The genetic and environmental effects on mandibular position were analyzed by statistical methods in female twins from six to twelve years old. Statistical comparisons revealed significant (Pchin is the most subjective to environment change, then the mandibular angle, and the condyle is the least. Using N and S as references, the environmental influence on heights showed different order from the most to least changeable: The mandibular angle, the condyle and the chin. In later stage of our observation, the mandibular morphology and growth type might be family inherited. For environmental influences plays important roles on mandibular position, these findings can be used in orthodontic treatment planning.

  4. The Effect of Relaxation and Positive Self-Talk on Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiyaee Asadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is characterized by recurrent, moderate-to-severe affective, physical, and behavioral symptoms that develop during the luteal menstrual cycle and disappear within a few days of menstruation. Objectives This article aims to identify the effects of relaxation, positive self-talk, and a combination of relaxation and positive self-talk on premenstrual syndrome. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 80 women with PMS disorder were selected using a simple random sampling method, in Hamadan, west of Iran. They were randomly divided into four groups. The first and second groups underwent positive self-talk and relaxation, respectively. The third group experienced positive self-talk and relaxation at the same time. The fourth group did not receive any treatment. The duration of treatment was 8 one-hour sessions. Data were collected using a PMS symptom severity questionnaire. All groups were followed up for six months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS version 18 for ANCOVA and Bonferroni tests. Results The results showed that compared to the control group, relaxation (23.2 and positive self-talk (21.25 treatment methods alone can reduce PMS (P < 0.001. On the other hand, a combined (relaxation + positive self-talk treatment method (13.75 was more effective in reducing PMS compared to relaxation or positive self-talk alone. Conclusions It seems that psychological therapy based on relaxation and positive self-talk can be significantly effective in reducing PMS.

  5. Positive, negative, and bipolar questions: The effect of question polarity on ratings of text readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kamoen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For decades, survey researchers have known that respondents give different answers to attitude questions worded positively (X is good. Agree-Disagree, negatively (X is bad. Agree-Disagree or on a bipolar scale (X is bad-good. This makes survey answers hard to interpret, especially since findings on exactly how the answers are affected are conflicting. In the current paper, we present twelve studies in which the effect of question polarity was measured for a set of thirteen contrastive adjectives. In each study, the same adjectives were used so the generalizability of wording effects across studies could be examined for each word pair. Results show that for five of the word pairs an effect of question wording can be generalized. The direction of these effects are largely consistent: respondents generally give the same answers to positive and bipolar questions, but they are more likely to disagree with negative questions than to agree with positive questions or to choose the positive side of the bipolar scale. In other words, respondents express their opinions more positively when the question is worded negatively. Even though answers to the three wording alternatives sometimes differ, results also show that reliable answers can be obtained with all three wording alternatives. So, for survey practice, these results suggest that all three wording alternatives may be used for attitude measurement.

  6. Positive or negative Poynting effect? The role of adscititious inequalities in hyperelastic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mihai, L. A.

    2011-08-10

    Motivated by recent experiments on biopolymer gels whereby the reverse of the usual (positive) Poynting effect was observed, we investigate the effect of the so-called \\'adscititious inequalities\\' on the behaviour of hyperelastic materials subject to shear. We first demonstrate that for homogeneous isotropic materials subject to pure shear, the resulting deformation consists of a triaxial stretch combined with a simple shear in the direction of the shear force if and only if the Baker-Ericksen inequalities hold. Then for a cube deformed under pure shear, the positive Poynting effect occurs if the \\'sheared faces spread apart\\', whereas the negative Poynting effect is obtained if the \\'sheared faces draw together\\'. Similarly, under simple shear deformation, the positive Poynting effect is obtained if the \\'sheared faces tend to spread apart\\', whereas the negative Poynting effect occurs if the \\'sheared faces tend to draw together\\'. When the Poynting effect occurs under simple shear, it is reasonable to assume that the same sign Poynting effect is btained also under pure shear. Since the observation of the negative Poynting effect in semiflexible biopolymers implies that the (stronger) empirical inequalities may not hold, we conclude that these inequalities must not be imposed when such materials are described. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  7. Effect of upper body position on arterial stiffness: influence of hydrostatic pressure and autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Elizabeth C; Rosenberg, Alexander J; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; White, Daniel W; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate changes in arterial stiffness with positional change and whether the stiffness changes are due to hydrostatic pressure alone or if physiological changes in vasoconstriction of the conduit arteries play a role in the modulation of arterial stiffness. Thirty participants' (male = 15, 24 ± 4 years) upper bodies were positioned at 0, 45, and 72° angles. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), cardio-ankle vascular index, carotid beta-stiffness index, carotid blood pressure (cBP), and carotid diameters were measured at each position. A gravitational height correction was determined using the vertical fluid column distance (mmHg) between the heart and carotid artery. Carotid beta-stiffness was calibrated using three methods: nonheight corrected cBP of each position, height corrected cBP of each position, and height corrected cBP of the supine position (theoretical model). Low frequency systolic blood pressure variability (LFSAP) was analyzed as a marker of sympathetic activity. PWV and cardio-ankle vascular index increased with position (P hydrostatic pressure. Arterial stiffness indices based on Method 2 were not different from Method 3 (P = 0.65). LFSAP increased in more upright positions (P pressure did not (P > 0.05). Arterial stiffness increases with a more upright body position. Carotid beta-stiffness needs to be calibrated accounting for hydrostatic effects of gravity if measured in a seated position. It is unclear why PWV increased as this increase was independent of blood pressure. No difference between Methods 2 and 3 presumably indicates that the beta-stiffness increases are only pressure dependent, despite the increase in vascular sympathetic modulation.

  8. Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bons, Jeffrey [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Ameri, Ali [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling

  9. High-effective position time spectrometer in actual measurements of low intensity region of electron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenkov, M.I.; Zhdanov, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic position-time spectrometer was proposed in previous work, where not only electron coordinates in focal plane are measured by position sensitive detector (PSD) but places of their birth in beta source plane of a large area are fixed using another PSD, situated behind it, by quick effects, accompanying radioactive decay. PSD on the basis of macro-channel plates are used. It is succeeded in position-time spectrometer to combine beta sources of a large area with multichannel registration for a wide energy interval, that efficiency of measurements was two orders of magnitude increase d in comparison magnetic apparatus having PSD only in focal plane. Owing to two detectors' switching on coincidence the relation effect/background in increased minimum on two orders of magnitude in comparison with the same apparatus. At some complication of mathematical analysis it was obtained, that high characteristics of position-time spectrometer are kept during the use the magnetic field, providing double focusing. Owning to this focusing the gain the efficiency of measurements will make one more order of magnitude. Presented high-effective position-time spectrometer is supposed to use in the measurements of low-intensity region of electron spectra, which are important for development of fundamental physics. This is the first of all estimation of electron anti-neutrino mass by the form of beta spectrum of tritium in the region of boundary energy. Recently here there was problem of non physical negative values. This problem can be solved by using in measurement of different in principle high-effective spectrometers, which possess improved background properties. A position-time spectrometers belongs to these apparatus, which provides the best background conditions at very large effectiveness of the measurements of tritium beta spectrum in the region of boundary energy with acceptable high resolution. An important advantage of position-time spectrometer is the possibility of

  10. Defending or Challenging the Status Quo: Position Effects on Biased Intergroup Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma A. Bäck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The default ideological position is status quo maintaining, and challenging the status quo is associated with increased efforts and risks. Nonetheless, some people choose to challenge the status quo. Therefore, to challenge the status quo should imply a strong belief in one’s position as the correct one, and thus efforts may be undertaken to undermine the position of others. Study 1 (N = 311 showed that challengers undermined, by ascribing more externality and less rationality, the position of defenders to a larger extent than defenders did of challengers’ position. Studies 2 (N = 135 and 3 (N = 109 tested if these effects were driven by the implied minority status of the challenging position. Results revealed no effects of experimentally manipulated numerical status, but challengers were again more biased than defenders. Study 3 also revealed that challengers felt more negatively toward their opponents (possibly due to greater social identification with like-minded others, and these negative emotions in turn predicted biased attributions. Results are important as they add to the understanding of how intergroup conflict may arise, providing explanations for why challengers are less tolerant of others’ point of view.

  11. Positivity effect in healthy aging in observational but not active feedback-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellebaum, Christian; Rustemeier, Martina; Daum, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of healthy aging on the bias to learn from positive or negative performance feedback in observational and active feedback learning. In active learning, a previous study had already shown a negative learning bias in healthy seniors older than 75 years, while no bias was found for younger seniors. However, healthy aging is accompanied by a 'positivity effect', a tendency to primarily attend to stimuli with positive valence. Based on recent findings of dissociable neural mechanisms in active and observational feedback learning, the positivity effect was hypothesized to influence older participants' observational feedback learning in particular. In two separate experiments, groups of young (mean age 27) and older participants (mean age 60 years) completed an observational or active learning task designed to differentially assess positive and negative learning. Older but not younger observational learners showed a significant bias to learn better from positive than negative feedback. In accordance with previous findings, no bias was found for active learning. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of differences in the neural underpinnings of active and observational learning from performance feedback.

  12. Moderating effects of positive symptoms of psychosis in suicidal ideation among adults diagnosed with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornheimer, Lindsay A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Suicide is among the leading causes of death for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, with risk estimates being over eight folds greater than the general population. While the majority of research to date focuses on the role of symptoms of depression in suicide risk, there is a lack of consensus and understanding of the relationship between positive symptoms of psychosis and both suicidal ideation and attempt. The current study examined pathways of influence between symptoms of depression, positive symptoms of psychosis (i.e. hallucinations and delusions), hopelessness, and suicidal ideation among a population of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods Data were obtained from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE; n = 1460) at baseline. Suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and symptoms of depression were measured by the Calgary Depression Scale (CDRS) and hallucinations and delusions by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Data were analyzed with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using Mplus 7. Results Symptoms of depression, positive symptoms of psychosis, and hopelessness independently predicted suicidal ideation. Hopelessness significantly mediated the relationship between symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation. Lastly, positive symptoms of psychosis were found to moderate the relationship between symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation. Conclusions The current study provides evidence for the role that positive symptoms of psychosis (specifically hallucinations and delusions) play in suicidal ideation, pointing towards the implication that beyond symptoms of depression, positive symptoms must be evaluated for and treated. PMID:27450776

  13. Working memory load reduces the late positive potential and this effect is attenuated with increasing anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Ferri, Jamie; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-09-01

    Emotion regulation decreases the processing of arousing stimuli, as indexed by the late positive potential (LPP), an electrocortical component that varies in amplitude with emotional arousal. Emotion regulation increases activity in the prefrontal areas associated with cognitive control, including the dosolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The present study manipulated working memory load, known to activate the DLPFC, and recorded the LPP elicited by aversive and neutral IAPS pictures presented during the retention interval. The LPP was larger on low-load compared to high-load trials, and on trials with aversive compared to neutral pictures. These LPP data suggest that emotional content and working memory load have opposing effects on attention to distracting stimuli. State anxiety was associated with reduced modulation of the LPP by working memory load. Results are discussed in terms of competition for attention between emotion and cognition and suggest a relationship between DLPFC activation and the allocation of attentional resources to distracting visual stimuli-a relationship that may be disrupted with increasing anxiety.

  14. Effects of Positioning Aids on Understanding the Relationship Between a Mobile Map and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Kässi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning technologies such as GPS enable mobile map applications to display a symbol representing an estimation of a user’s location on a mobile map, therefore acting as a positioning aid. Previous research on the cognitive processes involved in map reading suggests that map readers need at least two map–environment points (objects that are visualized on the map and perceived in the environment for determining their location on a map. Hence, the positioning aid alone does not provide enough information for self-location. Using a field experiment, we assessed the effect of representing the user’s location on a map on the cognitive processes involved in self-location. The results show that positioning aids guide the search for map–environment points and narrow the area on the map that must be scanned for self-location.

  15. Effects of positive relative accommodation on adolescent pseudomyopia with visual training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the changes of the positive relative accommodation in adolescent pseudomyopia with visual training.METHODS: A total of 42 cases(84 eyeswere randomly divided into the visual training group and the control group. Visual acuity, average refraction of two groups 4wk after the training were measured, as well as positive relative accommodation(5mwere checked before the training and repeated 1, 2, 4wk after the training. Correlation analysis were given.RESULTS: There was statistically significant difference in visual acuity 4wk after the training between the two groups(PP>0.05. There was statistically significant difference in positive relative accommodation(5m1, 2, 4wk after the training between the two groups(PPCONCLUSION: Visual training has significant effect on the positive relative accommodation on adolescent pseudomyopia.

  16. Effect of the element substitutions in Cu position on positron annihilation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xianyi

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the element substitutions in Cu position on positron annihilation spectra was studied systematically by the measurement of one-dimensional angular correlation spectra of positron annihilation radiation for YBa 2 Cu 3-x M x O y (M = Sn, Al) samples. The results show that 1D ACPAR of YBaCuO superconductor is constituted by two Gaussian parts, corresponding to annihilation position sampled in the Cu-O plane and Cu-O chain respectively. The parabola like the positron annihilation with Fermi electron gas in metals and alloys is not found out. Positron annihilation spectra are sensitive to the element substitution in Cu positions, especially in Cu-chains, and could be used to probe the substituting positions in Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

  17. The Effectiveness of Positive Coping Program on Reduction of Addiction Potential in Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nematollahi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to study the effectiveness of positive coping program on reduction of addiction potential in dormitory girl students. Method: The research method was semi experimental method namely: pre test-post test with witness group. In selection of sample, first addiction potential scale administered among 160 dormitory girl students, and 20 of them who were scored higher than cutoff score on addiction potential scale selected and divided to two experimental and witness groups. Experimental group received 10 sessions training which each session was 90 minutes. Positive coping program was based on three components of Bob Murray’s theory namely: social relationships, goal setting and spirituality. After finishing of training Post test were administered in both experimental and witness groups. Results: The results showed positive coping training was significantly reduced students’ addiction potential. Conclusion: The training of positive coping can be affect on reduction of girl students’ addiction potential.

  18. The effect of the nuclear track detectors' position on the radon concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A.; Kuerkcueoglu, M. E.; Haner, B.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to determine the radon concentration values of the underground mines according to workers' health. For this purpose, to be able to measure radon concentrations by using passive nuclear etched track detectors, CR-39 detectors were placed into 66 points on the way of aeration galleries of Armutcuk, Amasra, Karadon, Kozlu and Uezuelmez bituminous coal mines which are known as the Carboniferous outcrops of the Western Black Sea Area in Turkey. In every measurement point, a pair of detectors, one of them is being perpendicular and the other one is parallel to air flow, were exposed to radon gases over 40 days for four seasons of the year 2008. The relationship between the readings of vertically and horizontally positioned detectors was investigated by evaluating the effect of the detectors' positions on the detected radon concentrations. It can be concluded that, the vertically positioned detectors, in general, recorded higher radon gases concentration values than that of the horizontally positioned ones.

  19. Effect on attendance by including focused information on spirometry in preventive health checks: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Løkke, Anders; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2016-12-01

    Early detection of lung diseases can help to reduce their severity. Lung diseases are among the most frequently occurring and serious diseases worldwide; nonetheless, many patients remain undiagnosed. Preventive health checks including spirometry can detect lung diseases at early stages; however, recruitment for health checks remains a challenge, and little is known about what motivates the attendance. The aim of the study is to examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation compared to general information will impact the attendance rate in preventive health checks. This randomized, controlled trial tests the effect of information on spirometry embedded in the Check your Health Preventive Program (CHPP). The CHPP is an open-label, household cluster-randomized, controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30- to -49-year-olds in a Danish municipality from 2012 to 2017 (n = 26,216). During 2015-2016, 4356 citizens aged 30-49 years will be randomized into two groups. The intervention group receives an invitation which highlights the value and contents of spirometry as part of a health check and information about lung diseases. The comparison group receives a standard invitation containing practical information and specifies the contents of the general health check. Outcomes are (1) differences in attendance rates measured by the proportion of citizens attending each of the two study groups and (2) proportion of persons at risk defined by smoking status and self-reported lung symptoms in the study groups. The proportion of participants with abnormal spirometry assessed at the preventive health check will be compared between the two study groups. The results from the present study will inform future recruitment strategies to health checks. The developed material on content, value, and information about lung disease is feasible and transferable to other populations, making it easy to implement if effective. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT

  20. The Evaporation and Survival of Cluster Galaxy Coronae. I. The Effectiveness of Isotropic Thermal Conduction Including Saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraghavan, Rukmani; Sarazin, Craig, E-mail: rukmani@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    We simulate the evolution of cluster galaxy hot interstellar medium (ISM) gas that is a result of the effects of ram pressure and thermal conduction in the intracluster medium (ICM). At the density and temperature of the ICM, the mean free paths of ICM electrons are comparable to the sizes of galaxies, therefore electrons can efficiently transport heat that is due to thermal conduction from the hot ICM to the cooler ISM. Galaxies consisting of dark matter halos and hot gas coronae are embedded in an ICM-like “wind tunnel” in our simulations. In this paper, we assume that thermal conduction is isotropic and include the effects of saturation. We find that as heat is transferred from the ICM to the ISM, the cooler denser ISM expands and evaporates. This process is significantly faster than gas loss due to ram pressure stripping; for our standard model galaxy, the evaporation time is 160 Myr, while the ram pressure stripping timescale is 2.5 Gyr. Thermal conduction also suppresses the formation of shear instabilities, and there are no stripped ISM tails since the ISM evaporates before tails can form. Observations of long-lived X-ray emitting coronae and ram pressure stripped X-ray tails in galaxies in group and cluster environments therefore require that thermal conduction is suppressed or offset by some additional physical process. The most likely process is anisotropic thermal conduction that is due to magnetic fields in the ISM and ICM, which we simulate and study in the next paper in this series.

  1. The Evaporation and Survival of Cluster Galaxy Coronae. I. The Effectiveness of Isotropic Thermal Conduction Including Saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Rukmani; Sarazin, Craig

    2017-01-01

    We simulate the evolution of cluster galaxy hot interstellar medium (ISM) gas that is a result of the effects of ram pressure and thermal conduction in the intracluster medium (ICM). At the density and temperature of the ICM, the mean free paths of ICM electrons are comparable to the sizes of galaxies, therefore electrons can efficiently transport heat that is due to thermal conduction from the hot ICM to the cooler ISM. Galaxies consisting of dark matter halos and hot gas coronae are embedded in an ICM-like “wind tunnel” in our simulations. In this paper, we assume that thermal conduction is isotropic and include the effects of saturation. We find that as heat is transferred from the ICM to the ISM, the cooler denser ISM expands and evaporates. This process is significantly faster than gas loss due to ram pressure stripping; for our standard model galaxy, the evaporation time is 160 Myr, while the ram pressure stripping timescale is 2.5 Gyr. Thermal conduction also suppresses the formation of shear instabilities, and there are no stripped ISM tails since the ISM evaporates before tails can form. Observations of long-lived X-ray emitting coronae and ram pressure stripped X-ray tails in galaxies in group and cluster environments therefore require that thermal conduction is suppressed or offset by some additional physical process. The most likely process is anisotropic thermal conduction that is due to magnetic fields in the ISM and ICM, which we simulate and study in the next paper in this series.

  2. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8-10 years, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program but only when mothers had strong preferences for education. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Preservation of the positive lusitropic effect of beta-adrenoceptors stimulation in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Loyer, Xavier; Michelet, Pierre; Birenbaum, Aurélie; Riou, Bruno; Heymes, Christophe

    2008-10-01

    In diabetic cardiomyopathy, diastolic dysfunction results in part from sarcoplasmic reticulum abnormalities affecting both phospholamban and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake (SERCA2a). Consequently, the positive lusitropic effect of beta-adrenoceptors stimulation could be altered, and beta3-adrenoceptor over-expression may play a role, as previously demonstrated with an altered positive inotropic effect. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the beta-adrenergic positive lusitropic effect is altered in diabetic cardiomyopathy, and that beta3-adrenoceptor over-expression is involved. beta-adrenergic responses were investigated in vivo (dobutamine-echocardiography) and in vitro (papillary muscle preparation) in healthy and diabetic rats killed 4 (4W) and 12 (12W) wk after IV streptozotocin injection. The effect of beta3-adrenoceptor pathway inhibition by S-cyanopindolol (selective beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist) or by NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (nonselective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) on the lusitropic response to isoproterenol (nonselective beta-adrenoceptors agonist) was studied in vitro. Western blots were performed to quantify the protein expressions of beta1- and beta3-adrenoceptors, phospholamban, and SERCA2a. Data are presented as mean percentages of baseline+/-sd. Despite the increased phospholamban/SERCA2a protein ratio and documented diastolic dysfunction, the positive lusitropic effect of beta-adrenoceptors stimulation was preserved in vivo (dobutamine) and in vitro (isoproterenol) in 4W and 12W diabetic, compared with healthy, rats. The beta3-adrenoceptor was up-regulated whereas beta1-adrenoceptor was down-regulated in 4W and 12W diabetic, compared with healthy, rats. Nevertheless, S-cyanopindolol or NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester had no lusitropic effect. The positive lusitropic effect of beta-adrenoceptor stimulation was preserved in diabetic cardiomyopathy. beta3-adrenoceptor over-expression does not seem to affect this process.

  4. Effects of Target Positioning Error on Motion Compensation for Airborne Interferometric SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yin-wei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement inaccuracies of Inertial Measurement Unit/Global Positioning System (IMU/GPS as well as the positioning error of the target may contribute to the residual uncompensated motion errors in the MOtion COmpensation (MOCO approach based on the measurement of IMU/GPS. Aiming at the effects of target positioning error on MOCO for airborne interferometric SAR, the paper firstly deduces a mathematical model of residual motion error bring out by target positioning error under the condition of squint. And the paper analyzes the effects on the residual motion error caused by system sampling delay error, the Doppler center frequency error and reference DEM error which result in target positioning error based on the model. Then, the paper discusses the effects of the reference DEM error on the interferometric SAR image quality, the interferometric phase and the coherent coefficient. The research provides theoretical bases for the MOCO precision in signal processing of airborne high precision SAR and airborne repeat-pass interferometric SAR.

  5. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions: body position effects with simultaneous presentation of tone pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R. Atcherson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of three different body positions on distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitude and noise levels with multiple primary tone pairs simultaneously-presented to 36 normal-hearing female human adults. Other studies have demonstrated that the simultaneously presented tone pairs method shows clinical promise as a screener, but the sequential method remains in widespread clinical use. Postural changes have been suggested to have an effect not only on DPOAEs, but also transient-evoked OAEs and stimulus- frequency OAEs. DPOAE amplitude and noise levels were recorded in seated, supine, and side-lying positions to the following order of simultaneously-presented tone pairs relative to the f2 frequencies: 1187, 2375, and 4812 Hz; 1500, 3000, and 6062 Hz; and 1875, 3812, and 7625 Hz. No DPOAE could be detected reliably at 7625 Hz as result of poor signal-to-noise ratio. For remaining DPOAEs, statistical analyses revealed that amplitudes were not significantly different among the three body positions. However, at 1500 Hz and below, body position did have a statistically significant effect on noise levels though they are likely clinically negligible. Except at 7625 Hz, results suggest that DPOAEs recorded using a simultaneously presented tone pairs appear to be comparably recorded regardless of an individual’s body position.

  6. An impedance function approach for soil-structure interaction analyses including structure-to-structure interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantayat, A.; Kamil, H.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic soil-structure and structure-to-structure interaction effects may be determined in one of the two ways: by modeling the entire soil-structure system by a finite-element model, or by using a frequency-dependent (or frequency-independent) impedance function approach. In seismic design of nuclear power plant structures, the normal practice is to use the first approach because of its simplicity and easy availability of computer codes to perform such analyses. However, in the finite-element approach, because of the size and cost restrictions, the three-dimensional behavior of the entire soil-structure system and the radiation damping in soil are only approximately included by using a two-dimensional finite-element mesh. In using the impedance function approach, the soil-structure analyses can be performed in four steps: (a) determination of the dynamic properties of the fixed base superstructure, (b) determination of foundation and structure impedance matrices and input motions, (c) evaluation of foundation motion, (d) analysis of the fixed base superstructure using computed foundation motion. (orig./RW)

  7. A quasi-static algorithm that includes effects of characteristic time scales for simulating failures in brittle materials

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxing

    2013-04-24

    When the brittle heterogeneous material is simulated via lattice models, the quasi-static failure depends on the relative magnitudes of Telem, the characteristic releasing time of the internal forces of the broken elements and Tlattice, the characteristic relaxation time of the lattice, both of which are infinitesimal compared with Tload, the characteristic loading period. The load-unload (L-U) method is used for one extreme, Telem << Tlattice, whereas the force-release (F-R) method is used for the other, Telem T lattice. For cases between the above two extremes, we develop a new algorithm by combining the L-U and the F-R trial displacement fields to construct the new trial field. As a result, our algorithm includes both L-U and F-R failure characteristics, which allows us to observe the influence of the ratio of Telem to Tlattice by adjusting their contributions in the trial displacement field. Therefore, the material dependence of the snap-back instabilities is implemented by introducing one snap-back parameter γ. Although in principle catastrophic failures can hardly be predicted accurately without knowing all microstructural information, effects of γ can be captured by numerical simulations conducted on samples with exactly the same microstructure but different γs. Such a same-specimen-based study shows how the lattice behaves along with the changing ratio of the L-U and F-R components. © 2013 The Author(s).

  8. Quality assurance (QA) training at Westinghouse including innovative approaches for achieving an effective QA programme and establishing constructive interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivers, J.H.; Scanga, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    Experience of the Westinghouse Water Reactors Division with indoctrination and training of quality engineers includes training of personnel from Westinghouse divisions in the USA and overseas as well as of customers' personnel. A written plan is prepared for each trainee in order to fit the training to the individual's needs, and to cover the full range of information and activities. The trainee is also given work assignments, working closely with experienced quality engineers. He may prepare inspection plans and audit check lists, assist in the preparation of QA training modules, write procedures, and perform supplier surveillance and data analyses, or make special studies of operating systems. The trainee attends seminars and special courses on work-related technical subjects. Throughout the training period, emphasis is placed on inculcating an attitude of team work in the trainee so that the result of the training is the achievement of both quality and productivity. Certification is extended (given that education/experience/skill requirements are met) to such functions as mechanical equipment quality engineering, electrical equipment quality engineering, and start-up and testing quality engineering. A well-trained quality engineer is equipped to provide technical assistance to other disciplines and, through effective co-operation with others, contributes to the success of the organization's endeavours. (author)

  9. The effect of the spatial positioning of items on the reliability of questionnaires measuring affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Leo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Extant research has shown that the relationship between spatial location and affect may have pervasive effects on evaluation. In particular, experimental findings on embodied cognition indicate that a person is spatially orientated to position what is positive at the top and what is negative at the bottom (vertical spatial orientation, and to a lesser extent, to position what is positive on the left and what is negative on the right (horizontal spatial orientation. It is therefore hypothesised, that when there is congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the spatial positioning (layout of a questionnaire, the reliability will be higher than in the case of incongruence. Research purpose: The principal objective of the two studies reported here was to ascertain the extent to which congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the layout of the questionnaire (spatial positioning of questionnaire items may impact on the reliability of a questionnaire measuring affect. Motivation for the study: The spatial position of items on a questionnaire measuring affect may indirectly impact on the reliability of the questionnaire. Research approach, design and method: In both studies, a controlled experimental research design was conducted using a sample of university students (n = 1825. Major findings: In both experiments, evidence was found to support the hypothesis that greater congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the spatial positioning (layout of a questionnaire leads to higher reliability on a questionnaire measuring affect. Practical implications: These findings may serve to create awareness of the influence of the spatial positioning of items as a confounding variable in questionnaire design. Contribution/value-add: Overall, this research complements previous studies by confirming the metaphorical representation of affect and

  10. Radiosensitivity and effect of hypoxia in HPV positive head and neck cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Busk, Morten; Olthof, Nadine; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Horsman, Michael R.; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: HPV associated Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a distinct subgroup of HNSCC characterized by a favorable prognosis and a distinct molecular biology. Previous data from the randomized DAHANCA 5 trial indicated that HPV positive tumors did not benefit from hypoxic modifications by Nimorazole during radiotherapy, whereas a significant benefit was observed in the HPV negative tumors. However, more studies have demonstrated equal frequencies of hypoxic tumors among HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors. The aim of the present study was to determine radiosensitivity, the impact of hypoxia and the effect of Nimorazole in HPV positive and HPV negative cell lines. Materials and method: The used cell lines were: UDSCC2, UMSCC47 and UPCISCC90 (HPV positive) and FaDu DD , UTSCC33 and UTSCC5 (HPV negative). Cells were cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions, and gene expression levels of previously established hypoxia induced genes were assessed by qPCR. Cells were irradiated with various doses under normoxia, hypoxia or hypoxia +1 mM Nimorazole, and the clonogenic survival was determined. Results: The HPV positive and HPV negative cell lines exhibited similar patterns of upregulation of hypoxia induced genes in response to hypoxia. The HPV positive cell lines were up to 2.4 times more radiation sensitive than HPV negative cell lines. However, all HPV positive cells displayed the same response to hypoxia in radiosensitivity, with an OER in the range 2.3–2.9, and a sensitizer effect of Nimorazole of 1.13–1.29, similar to HPV negative cells. Conclusions: Although HPV positive cells had a markedly higher radiosensitivity compared to HPV negative cells, they displayed the same relative radioresistance under hypoxia and the same relative sensitizer effect of Nimorazole. The clinical observation that HPV positive patients do not seem to benefit from Nimorazole treatment is not due to inherent differences in hypoxia sensitivity

  11. Perceived duration of emotional events: evidence for a positivity effect in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Jeffrey R; Tanner, Jessica; Clarke, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Arousal and negative affect modulate the effect of emotion on the subjective experience of the passage of time. Given that older adults are less aroused by negative emotional stimuli, and report lower levels of negative affect, compared with younger adults, the present study examined whether the effect of emotion on time perception differed in older and younger adults. Participants performed a temporal bisection task for emotional (i.e., angry, sad, happy) and neutral facial expressions presented at varying temporal intervals. Older adults perceived the duration of both positive and threatening events longer than neutral events, whereas younger adults only perceived threatening events longer than neutral events. The results, which are partially consistent with the positivity effect of aging postulated by the socioemotional selectivity theory, are the first to show how the effect of emotion on perceived duration affects older adults, and support previous research indicating that only threatening events prolong perceived duration in younger adults.

  12. The Positive Effect of Authoritarian Leadership on Employee Performance: The Moderating Role of Power Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Guan, Bichen

    2018-01-01

    Based on goal setting theory, this study explores the positive effect and influencing process of authoritarian leadership on employee performance, as well as the moderating role of individual power distance in this process. Data from 211 supervisor-subordinate dyads in Chinese organizations indicates that authoritarian leadership is positively associated with employee performance, and learning goal orientation mediates this relationship. Furthermore, power distance moderates the effect of authoritarian leadership on learning goal orientation, such that the effect was stronger when individual power distance was higher. The indirect effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance via learning goal orientation is also moderated by power distance. Theoretical and managerial implications and future directions are also discussed. PMID:29628902

  13. The Positive Effect of Authoritarian Leadership on Employee Performance: The Moderating Role of Power Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Guan, Bichen

    2018-01-01

    Based on goal setting theory, this study explores the positive effect and influencing process of authoritarian leadership on employee performance, as well as the moderating role of individual power distance in this process. Data from 211 supervisor-subordinate dyads in Chinese organizations indicates that authoritarian leadership is positively associated with employee performance, and learning goal orientation mediates this relationship. Furthermore, power distance moderates the effect of authoritarian leadership on learning goal orientation, such that the effect was stronger when individual power distance was higher. The indirect effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance via learning goal orientation is also moderated by power distance. Theoretical and managerial implications and future directions are also discussed.

  14. Combined effects of socioeconomic position, smoking, and hypertension on risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Helene; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combined effects of socioeconomic position and well-established risk factors on stroke incidence have not been formally investigated. METHODS: In a pooled cohort study of 68 643 men and women aged 30 to 70 years in Denmark, we examined the combined effect and interaction...... between socioeconomic position (ie, education), smoking, and hypertension on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence by the use of the additive hazards model. RESULTS: During 14 years of follow-up, 3613 ischemic strokes and 776 hemorrhagic strokes were observed. Current smoking and hypertension were...... more prevalent among those with low education. Low versus high education was associated with greater ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, stroke incidence. The combined effect of low education and current smoking was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic stroke incidence...

  15. Effects of rhodomyrtone on Gram-positive bacterial tubulin homologue FtsZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennapa Saeloh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhodomyrtone, a natural antimicrobial compound, displays potent activity against many Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, comparable to last-defence antibiotics including vancomycin and daptomycin. Our previous studies pointed towards effects of rhodomyrtone on the bacterial membrane and cell wall. In addition, a recent molecular docking study suggested that the compound could competitively bind to the main bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. In this study, we applied a computational approach (in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments to investigate molecular interactions of rhodomyrtone with FtsZ. Using molecular simulation, FtsZ conformational changes were observed in both (S- and (R-rhodomyrtone binding states, compared with the three natural states of FtsZ (ligand-free, GDP-, and GTP-binding states. Calculations of free binding energy showed a higher affinity of FtsZ to (S-rhodomyrtone (−35.92 ± 0.36 kcal mol−1 than the GDP substrate (−23.47 ± 0.25 kcal mol−1 while less affinity was observed in the case of (R-rhodomyrtone (−18.11 ± 0.11 kcal mol−1. In vitro experiments further revealed that rhodomyrtone reduced FtsZ polymerization by 36% and inhibited GTPase activity by up to 45%. However, the compound had no effect on FtsZ localization in Bacillus subtilis at inhibitory concentrations and cells also did not elongate after treatment. Higher concentrations of rhodomyrtone did affect localization of FtsZ and also affected localization of its membrane anchor proteins FtsA and SepF, showing that the compound did not specifically inhibit FtsZ but rather impaired multiple divisome proteins. Furthermore, a number of cells adopted a bean-like shape suggesting that rhodomyrtone possibly possesses further targets involved in cell envelope synthesis and/or maintenance.

  16. Positive effects of robotic exoskeleton training of upper limb reaching movements after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6 weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients’ group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0–66 points), Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0–60 pts) and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion) and clinical (4.6 ± 4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2 ± 2.1 decrease in MA) parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement) and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space). These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved interjoint coordination of

  17. Positive effects of robotic exoskeleton training of upper limb reaching movements after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisoli Antonio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6 weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients’ group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0–66 points, Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0–60 pts and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion and clinical (4.6 ± 4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2 ± 2.1 decrease in MA parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space. These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved

  18. Positive impact of circuit feedback by means of compensation effects. Energy saving lamps.; Positive Beeinflussung der Netzrueckwirkungen durch Kompensationseffekte. Energiesparlampen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadflieg, Dieter [Forum Netztechnik/Netzbetrieb im VDE, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-01-30

    The rectifier of modern energy saving lamps can have disturbing effects on the public power distribution network. An investigation by the Technical University of Dresden (Federal Republic of Germany) on behalf of the Forum Network Technology / Network Operation in VDE association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies (Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany) examined the compensation effects during the simultaneous operation of such lamps with other household appliances in a realistic scenario.

  19. Understanding the positive and negative effects of emotional expressions in organizations: EASI does it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions have a pervasive impact on organizational behavior. They do not just influence people’s own actions; when expressed, emotions may also exert influence on other organization members who perceive the expressions. Sometimes emotional expressions have ‘symmetrical’ effects, in that positive

  20. A Study to Determine the Effectiveness of a Positive Approach to Discipline System for Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sherwin

    To test the effectiveness of the Positive Approach to Discipline (PAD) System of classroom management, this study examined changes in the incidence of administrative disciplinary referrals, corporal punishment, and school suspensions in an urban Southwest public middle school. The 13-step PAD procedure--incorporating counseling, problem-solving,…

  1. Effects of Parent-Child Relationship on the Primary School Children's Non-Violence Position Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Kalimullin, Aydar M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to identify and test experimentally the impact of parent-child relationship on the formation of the primary school children non-violence position. During the research the effectiveness of the correctional and development program "Together with my mom" was verified to promote parent-child interaction, as well…

  2. The Effects of Different Drawing Materials on Children's Drawings of Positive and Negative Human Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Barrett, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Children tend to use certain drawing strategies differentially when asked to draw topics with positive and negative emotional characterisations. These effects have however only been established when children are asked to use standard drawing materials. The present study was designed to investigate whether the above pattern of children's response…

  3. Negativity and positivity effects in person perception and inference: Ability versus morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn, A.C.; Spears, R.; van der Pligt, J.; Jakobs, E.

    1992-01-01

    Examined, in 2 experiments involving 190 undergraduates, negativity and positivity effects in trait inferences and impression formation. In Exp 1, Ss made trait inferences of actors in different behavioral instances. Results support the prediction that negative behavior is more informative for

  4. Serial position effects scoring in the assessment of memory in Alzheimer's disease and major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Karel Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to validate serial position effects (SPE’S) scoring in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The RAVLT is a much used clinical method for assessing memory performance, but the method of scoring obfuscates that two memory processes underlie free recall. This

  5. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a

  6. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  7. NEGATIVITY AND POSITIVITY EFFECTS IN PERSON PERCEPTION AND INFERENCE : ABILITY VERSUS MORALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARTIJN, C; SPEARS, R; VAN DER PLIGT, J; JAKOBS, E

    1992-01-01

    The present paper deals with negativity and positivity effects in trait inferences and impression formation. In the first experiment we tested the suggestion of Skowronski and Carlston (1987) that in the domain of morality negative information is more diagnostic, will therefore receive more weight

  8. Imagined Positive Emotions and Inhibitory Control: The Differentiated Effect of Pride versus Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Maayan; Eyal, Tal; Meiran, Nachshon; Kessler, Yoav

    2010-01-01

    "Inhibitory control" is a cognitive mechanism that contributes to successful self-control (i.e., adherence to a long-term goal in the face of an interfering short-term goal). This research explored the effect of imagined positive emotional events on inhibition. The authors proposed that the influence of imagined emotions on inhibition…

  9. The positive and negative health effects of alcohol- and the public health implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Morten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the negative and the positive effects of alcohol on health are reviewed. It is first of all established facts that a high alcohol intake implies an increased risk of a large number of health outcomes, such as dementia, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cirrhosis, upper digestive tr...... good reasons therefore....

  10. Effects of angling and manual handling on pike behaviour investigated by high-resolution positional telemetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Aarestrup, Kim; Berg, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Human disturbances such as angling and manual handling may have long-term effects on the behaviour of pike, Esox lucius L., an ecologically important species. Using continuous high-resolution positional telemetry, this study compared the swimming activity of handled and unhandled pike in a small...

  11. The Five Cs of Positive Youth Development in a School Context; Gender and Mediator Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Elisabeth; Holsen, Ingrid; Diseth, Åge; Larsen, Torill

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of the Five Cs of Positive Youth Development (PYD) on the relationship between students' perceived school empowerment and school satisfaction, as well as gender differences in these relationships. The data stemmed from a cross-sectional survey of 997 adolescents from four upper secondary…

  12. Undermining position effects in choices from arrays, with implications for police lineups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew A; Sauer, James D; Holt, Glenys A

    2017-03-01

    Choices from arrays are often characterized by position effects, such as edge-aversion. We investigated position effects when participants attempted to pick a suspect from an array similar to a police photo lineup. A reanalysis of data from 2 large-scale field studies showed that choices made under realistic conditions-closely matching eyewitness identification decisions in police investigations-displayed edge-aversion and bias to choose from the top row (Study 1). In a series of experiments (Studies 2a-2c and 3), participants guessing the location of a suspect exhibited edge-aversion regardless of whether the lineup was constructed to maximize the chances of the suspect being picked, to ensure the suspect did not stand out, or randomly. Participants favored top locations only when the lineup was constructed to maximize the chances of the suspect being picked. In Studies 4 and 5, position effects disappeared when (a) response options were presented in an array with no obvious center, edges, or corners, and (b) instructions stated that the suspect was placed randomly. These findings show that position effects are influenced by a combination of task instructions and array shape. Randomizing the location of the suspect and modifying the shape of the lineup array may reduce misidentification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Disentangling the effects of reputation and network position on the evolution of alliance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses the panel data social network analysis program SIENA to estimate the effect of actor reputation derived from past performance on alliance formation, while controlling for other constant actor attributes and network position. The authors distinguish between individual reputation based

  14. Incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... HIV-positive treatment-naïve patients in public-sector ... current depression or other mental disorders would increase ... medication and the importance of adherence is discussed ..... neuropsychiatric side effects, substance abuse and emotional ... All authors contributed towards the conceptualisation and.

  15. The effect of feeding position and body size on the capacity of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding position and body size on the capacity of small ruminants to reach, for food when fed through barriers. ... The barrier allowed the neck to pass through, but not the shoulders. It was hypothesized that goats would have larger reach than sheep and that for each species, horizontal reach forwards, F, ...

  16. Effects of Signaled Positive Reinforcement on Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Romani, Patrick W.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of providing positive reinforcement for task completion, signaled via the presence of a tangible item, on escape-maintained problem behavior displayed by three typically developing children during one-time 90-min outpatient evaluations. Brief functional analyses of problem behavior, conducted within a multielement design,…

  17. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  18. Exploring subgroup effects by socioeconomic position of three effective school-based dietary interventions: the European TEENAGE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lien, N.; Haerens, L.; te Velde, S.J.; Mercken, L.; Klepp, K.I.; Moore, L.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Faggiano, F.; Lenthe, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore subgroup effects by high and low socioeconomic position (SEP) of three previously conducted, effective European interventions. Methods: Reanalyses stratified by SEP were conducted by the research groups of each study. All studies were school-based:

  19. Sentence-position effects on children's perception and production of English third person singular -s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Demuth, Katherine; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2011-02-01

    Two-year-olds produce third person singular -s more accurately on verbs in sentence-final position as compared with verbs in sentence-medial position. This study was designed to determine whether these sentence-position effects can be explained by perceptual factors. For this purpose, the authors compared 22- and 27-month-olds' perception and elicited production of third person singular -s in sentence-medial versus-final position. The authors assessed perception by measuring looking/listening times to a 1-screen display of a cartoon paired with a grammatical versus an ungrammatical sentence (e.g., She eats now vs. She eat now). Children at both ages demonstrated sensitivity to the presence/absence of this inflectional morpheme in sentence-final, but not sentence-medial, position. Children were also more accurate at producing third person singular -s sentence finally, and production accuracy was predicted by vocabulary measures as well as by performance on the perception task. These results indicate that children's more accurate production of third person singular -s in sentence-final position cannot be explained by articulatory factors alone but that perceptual factors play an important role in accounting for early patterns of production. The findings also indicate that perception and production of inflectional morphemes may be more closely related than previously thought.

  20. Effect of Positioning and Early Ambulation on Coronary Angiography Complications: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Ali Akbar; Mehranfard, Shahzad; Behnampour, Nasser; Kordnejad, Abdol Mohamad

    2015-06-01

    After coronary angiography to prevent potential complications, patients are restricted to 4-24 hours bed rest in the supine position due to the complications. This study was designed to assess the effect of changing position and early ambulation on low back pain, urinary retention, bleeding and hematoma after cardiac catheterization. In this clinical trial, 140 patients by using a convenience sampling randomly divided into four 35-individual groups. The patients in the control group were in the supine position for 6 hours without a movement. Change position was applied to the second group (based on a specific protocol), early ambulation was applied to the third group and both early ambulation and change position were applied to the fourth group. Then, severity of bleeding, hematoma, back pain and urinary retention were measured at zero, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours after angiography. The data was collected through an individual data questionnaire, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) of pain and Kristin Swain's check list was applied to evaluate the severity of bleeding and hematoma. None of patients developed vascular complications. Incidence of urinary retention was higher in the control group, although this difference was not significant. The mean of pain intensity in the fourth and sixth hours showed a significant difference. Based on the findings of this study, changing patients' position can be safe and they can be ambulated early after angiography.

  1. Effect of Positioning and Early Ambulation on Coronary Angiography Complications: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Abdollahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After coronary angiography to prevent potential complications, patients are restricted to 4-24 hours bed rest in the supine position due to the complications. This study was designed to assess the effect of changing position and early ambulation on low back pain, urinary retention, bleeding and hematoma after cardiac catheterization. Methods: In this clinical trial, 140 patients by using a convenience sampling randomly divided into four 35-individual groups. The patients in the control group were in the supine position for 6 hours without a movement. Change position was applied to the second group (based on a specific protocol, early ambulation was applied to the third group and both early ambulation and change position were applied to the fourth group. Then, severity of bleeding, hematoma, back pain and urinary retention were measured at zero, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours after angiography. The data was collected through an individual data questionnaire, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS of pain and Kristin Swain’s check list was applied to evaluate the severity of bleeding and hematoma. Results: None of patients developed vascular complications. Incidence of urinary retention was higher in the control group, although this difference was not significant. The mean of pain intensity in the fourth and sixth hours showed a significant difference.Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, changing patients’ position can be safe and they can be ambulated early after angiography.

  2. The relevance of body positioning and its training effect on badminton smash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiming; Zhang, Zhao; Wan, Bingjun; Wilde, Brandie; Shan, Gongbing

    2017-02-01

    One of the dominant skills in badminton is the forehand overhead smash, which consists of 1/5 attacks during games. Empirical evidences show that one has to adjust the body position in relation to the coming shuttlecock to produce a powerful and accurate smash. Therefore, positioning is a fundamental aspect influencing smash quality. Unfortunately, a search of literature has shown that there is a dearth/lack of study on this fundamental aspect. The goals of this study were to determine the influence of positioning and training experience on smash quality in order to discover information that could help learn/acquire the skill. Using 3D motion capture and full-body biomechanical modelling, 14 skilled and 15 novice players were analysed. Results have revealed that the body positioning has direct influence on shuttlecock release angle and clearance height of the offensive player. The results also suggest that, for training the positioning of beginners, one could conduct a self-selected comfort position towards a statically hanged shuttlecock and then step one foot back - a practical reference marker for learning. As one gains experience through repetitive training, improved limbs' coordination would increase smash quality further. We hope our findings will benefit practitioners for developing effective training programmes for beginners.

  3. Analysis of quantum ballistic electron transport in ultrasmall silicon devices including space-charge and geometric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, S. E.; Kumar, A.; Fischetti, M. V.

    2004-05-01

    A two-dimensional device simulation program which self consistently solves the Schrödinger and Poisson equations with current flow is described in detail. Significant approximations adopted in this work are the absence of scattering and a simple six-valley, parabolic band structure for silicon. A modified version of the quantum transmitting boundary method is used to describe open boundary conditions permitting current flow in device solutions far from equilibrium. The continuous energy spectrum of the system is discretized by temporarily imposing two different forms of closed boundary conditions, resulting in energies which sample the density-of-states and establish the wave function normalization conditions. These standing wave solutions ("normal modes") are decomposed into their traveling wave constituents, each of which represents injection from only one of the open boundary contacts ("traveling eigencomponents"). These current-carrying states are occupied by a drifted Fermi distribution associated with their injecting contact and summed to form the electron density in the device. Holes are neglected in this calculation. The Poisson equation is solved on the same finite element computational mesh as the Schrödinger equation; devices of arbitrary geometry can be modeled. Computational performance of the program including characterization of a "Broyden+Newton" algorithm employed in the iteration for self consistency is described. Device results are presented for a narrow silicon resonant tunneling diode (RTD) and many variants of idealized silicon double-gate field effect transistors (DGFETs). The RTD results show two resonant conduction peaks, each of which demonstrates hysteresis. Three 7.5 nm channel length DGFET structures with identical intrinsic device configurations but differing access geometries (straight, taper and "dog bone") are studied and found to have differing current flows owing to quantum-mechanical reflection in their access regions

  4. Method of improving heterogeneous oil reservoir polymer flooding effect by positively-charged gel profile control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Xia, Huifen

    2018-01-01

    The project of polymer flooding has achieved great success in Daqing oilfield, and the main oil reservoir recovery can be improved by more than 15%. But, for some strong oil reservoir heterogeneity carrying out polymer flooding, polymer solution will be inefficient and invalid loop problem in the high permeability layer, then cause the larger polymer volume, and a significant reduction in the polymer flooding efficiency. Aiming at this problem, it is studied the method that improves heterogeneous oil reservoir polymer flooding effect by positively-charged gel profile control. The research results show that the polymer physical and chemical reaction of positively-charged gel with the residual polymer in high permeability layer can generate three-dimensional network of polymer, plugging high permeable layer, and increase injection pressure gradient, then improve the effect of polymer flooding development. Under the condition of the same dosage, positively-charged gel profile control can improve the polymer flooding recovery factor by 2.3∼3.8 percentage points. Under the condition of the same polymer flooding recovery factor increase value, after positively-charged gel profile control, it can reduce the polymer volume by 50 %. Applying mechanism of positively-charged gel profile control technology is feasible, cost savings, simple construction, and no environmental pollution, therefore has good application prospect.

  5. Does the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall reflect differences in appraisal or memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Emily; Ross, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall is the result of age differences in appraisal and memory. In Study 1, older and younger participants reported 1 pleasant and 1 unpleasant event for 5 days. Participants attempted to recall those events a week later. In Study 2, older and younger participants imagined that positive, negative, and neutral hypothetical events had occurred either to themselves or to an acquaintance and were later asked to recall those events. In Study 1, younger adults reported a complete set of positive and negative events. Older adults reported a pleasant event each day, but 38% did not report an unpleasant event on at least 1 day. A week later, older and younger adults were equally likely to recall the events they had reported. In Study 2, older adults who imagined events happened to themselves rated events as more positive in valence than younger adults did. Older and younger adults were equally likely to remember pleasant and unpleasant events at the end of the study. The data suggest that the age-related positivity effect resides in the appraisal rather than the recall of autobiographical events. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Comparing the effects of positive and negative feedback in information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedberg, Michael; Glass, Brian; Filoteo, J Vincent; Hazeltine, Eliot; Maddox, W Todd

    2017-01-01

    Categorical learning is dependent on feedback. Here, we compare how positive and negative feedback affect information-integration (II) category learning. Ashby and O'Brien (2007) demonstrated that both positive and negative feedback are required to solve II category problems when feedback was not guaranteed on each trial, and reported no differences between positive-only and negative-only feedback in terms of their effectiveness. We followed up on these findings and conducted 3 experiments in which participants completed 2,400 II categorization trials across three days under 1 of 3 conditions: positive feedback only (PFB), negative feedback only (NFB), or both types of feedback (CP; control partial). An adaptive algorithm controlled the amount of feedback given to each group so that feedback was nearly equated. Using different feedback control procedures, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants in the NFB and CP group were able to engage II learning strategies, whereas the PFB group was not. Additionally, the NFB group was able to achieve significantly higher accuracy than the PFB group by Day 3. Experiment 3 revealed that these differences remained even when we equated the information received on feedback trials. Thus, negative feedback appears significantly more effective for learning II category structures. This suggests that the human implicit learning system may be capable of learning in the absence of positive feedback.

  7. The effect of scapular position on subacromial contact behavior: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Sperling, John W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cofield, Robert H; An, Kai-Nan

    2017-05-01

    Patients with subacromial impingement were reported to show abnormal scapular positions during shoulder elevation. However, the relationship between the scapular positions and subacromial impingement is unclear. The purpose of this study was to biomechanically determine the effect of scapular position on subacromial contact behavior by using fresh frozen cadavers. The peak contact pressure on the coracoacromial arch was measured with a flexible tactile force sensor in 9 fresh frozen cadaver shoulders. The measurement was performed during passive glenohumeral elevation in the scapular plane ranging from 30° to 75°. The scapular downward and internal rotations and anterior tilt were simulated by tilting the scapula in 5° increments up to 20°. The measurement was also performed with combination of scapular downward and internal rotations and anterior tilt positions. The peak contact pressure decreased linearly with anterior tilt, and a significant difference between neutral scapular position (1.06 ± 0.89 MPa) and anterior tilt by 20° (0.46 ± 0.18 MPa) was observed (P < .05). However, the scapular positioning in the other directions did not change the peak contact pressure significantly. Furthermore, any combination of abnormal scapular positions did not affect peak contact pressure significantly. Scapular anterior tilt decreased peak contact pressure during passive shoulder elevation. In addition, scapular downward and internal rotations had little effect on peak contact pressure. The abnormal scapular motion reported in previous studies might not be directly related to symptoms caused by subacromial impingement. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin eDuke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift towards a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

  9. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

  10. Comparison of photon organ and effective dose coefficients for PIMAL stylized phantom in bent positions in standard irradiation geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, Shaheen; Hiller, Mauritius [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, K.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Computational phantoms with articulated arms and legs have been constructed to enable the estimation of radiation dose in different postures. Through a graphical user interface, the Phantom wIth Moving Arms and Legs (PIMAL) version 4.1.0 software can be employed to articulate the posture of a phantom and generate a corresponding input deck for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code. In this work, photon fluence-to-dose coefficients were computed using PIMAL to compare organ and effective doses for a stylized phantom in the standard upright position with those for phantoms in realistic work postures. The articulated phantoms represent working positions including fully and half bent torsos with extended arms for both the male and female reference adults. Dose coefficients are compared for both the upright and bent positions across monoenergetic photon energies: 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 MeV. Additionally, the organ doses are compared across the International Commission on Radiological Protection's standard external radiation exposure geometries: antero-posterior, postero-anterior, left and right lateral, and isotropic (AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, and ISO). For the AP and PA irradiation geometries, differences in organ doses compared to the upright phantom become more profound with increasing bending angles and have doses largely overestimated for all organs except the brain in AP and bladder in PA. In LLAT and RLAT irradiation geometries, energy deposition for organs is more likely to be underestimated compared to the upright phantom, with no overall change despite increased bending angle. The ISO source geometry did not cause a significant difference in absorbed organ dose between the different phantoms, regardless of position. Organ and effective fluence-to-dose coefficients are tabulated. In the AP geometry, the effective dose at the 45 bent position is overestimated compared to the upright phantom below 1 MeV by as much as 27% and 82% in the

  11. Research on the Hysteresis Effect on Positioning the System with Flexible Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the hysteresis phenomenon of positioning systems with flexible elements for transmitting motion of which piezoelectric actuators are used. The article investigates the influence of hysteresis on the accuracy of positioning systems. A special test bench for conducting research and stand-up methodology for carrying out experimental researches have been used. The test bench includes a computer piezo controller, an inductive displacement sensor and a dynamic data collector used for gathering data and transmitting it to the software package. Mathematical modelling of hysteresis using Matlab/Simulink software package has been done. The performed research has shown that the hysteresis model of maximum dispersion error compared to experimental results makes less than 5%. Thus, it can be stated that the selected method for hysteresis modelling is suitable for precision positioning systems having deformable elements and controlled employing piezoelectric actuators to model hysteresis.

  12. Can positive social exchanges buffer the detrimental effects of negative social exchanges? Age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Katherine L; Windsor, Tim D; Pearson, Elissa L; Crisp, Dimity A

    2013-01-01

    Findings from existing research exploring whether positive social exchanges can help to offset (or 'buffer' against) the harmful effects of negative social exchanges on mental health have been inconsistent. This could be because the existing research is characterized by different approaches to studying various contexts of 'cross-domain' and 'within-domain' buffering, and/or because the nature of buffering effects varies according to sociodemographic characteristics that underlie different aspects of social network structure and function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the buffering effects of global perceptions of positive exchanges on the link between global negative exchanges and mental health varied as a function of age and gender. We used a series of regressions in a sample of 556 Australian older adults (ages 55-94) to test for three-way interactions among gender, positive social exchanges, and negative social exchanges, as well as age and positive and negative social exchanges, in predicting mental health, controlling for years of education, partner status, and physical functioning. We found that positive exchanges buffered against negative exchanges for younger old adults, but not for older old adults, and for women, but not for men. Our findings are interpreted in light of research on individual differences in coping responses and interpersonal goals among late middle-aged and older adults. Our findings are in line with gerontological theories (e.g., socioemotional selectivity theory), and imply that an intervention aimed at using positive social exchanges as a means of coping with negative social exchanges might be more successful among particular populations (i.e., women, 'younger' old adults). Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effects of positive emotion, extraversion, and dopamine on cognitive stability-flexibility and frontal EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The influence of positive emotions on the balance between cognitive stability and flexibility has been suggested to (a) differ among various positive emotional/motivational states (e.g., of varying approach motivation intensity), and (b) be mediated by brain dopamine (DA). Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry (ASY) is considered an indicator of approach motivational states and may be modulated by DA. The personality trait of extraversion is strongly linked to positive emotions and is now thought to reflect DA-based individual differences in incentive/approach motivation. The present study independently manipulated positive emotion (high approach wanting-expectancy [WE] vs. low approach warmth-liking [WL]) and dopamine (placebo vs. DA D2 blocker sulpiride) to examine their effects on both cognitive stability-flexibility and emotion-related ASY changes. The results showed numerically lower stability-flexibility in WE versus WL under placebo and a complete reversal of this effect under the D2 blocker, no differentiation between WE and WL groups in terms of emotion-related ASY change, but an association between self-reported WE and WL and ASY changes toward left and right frontal cortical activity, respectively. Finally, extraversion was positively associated with both stability-flexibility and ASY changes toward left frontal cortical activity under placebo, and these associations were completely reversed under the D2 blocker. The results (a) support a dopaminergic basis for frontal EEG asymmetry, extraversion, and the modulating effect of positive emotions on stability-flexibility, and (b) extend previous reports of cognitive differences between introverts and extraverts. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Positive Education for Young Children: Effects of a Positive Psychology Intervention for Preschool Children on Subjective Well Being and Learning Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the flourishing in recent years in applications of positive psychology in the field of education, there is a paucity of research investigating positive psychology interventions for preschool children. The present study examined the effects of a positive psychology-based intervention conducted in Israel on children’s subjective well-being, mental health and learning behaviors. Twelve preschool classrooms of 3–6.5 year-olds were randomly assigned to a positive psychology intervention condition or a wait-list control condition. In the intervention condition, during one school year, 160 children experienced eight modules of basic concepts in positive psychology that were adapted to the developmental characteristics of young children and were compared to 155 children in demographically similar control classrooms. Children were administered a pre-test and post-test of subjective well-being measures. In addition, children’s mental health and emotional well-being were measured by parental questionnaires. Preschool teachers completed questionnaires concerning children’s learning behaviors. The findings showed significant increases in subjective well-being and positive learning behaviors among the intervention participants, with no significant changes in the control group. The results highlight the potential of positive psychology interventions for increasing subjective well-being and a positive approach to learning at young ages.

  15. Study of the effect of temperature on the positioning accuracy of the pneumatic muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laski, Pawel Andrzej; Blasiak, Slawomir; Takosoglu, Jakub Emanuel; Pietrala, Dawid Sebastian; Bracha, Gabriel Filip; Zwierzchowski, Jaroslaw; Nowakowski, Lukasz; Borkowski, Krzysztof; Blasiak, Malgorzata

    The article concerns experimental studies of the effect of temperature on the positioning accuracy of pneumatic muscles. It presents results of experimental studies in the form of thermal images from thermal imaging camera. Pneumatic artificial muscles have unique operational characteristics and because of that they are used in industrial production processes, where classic drives do not work. During operation of muscles with large frequencies above 60 Hz, one can observe a significant increase in temperatures on the bladder surface. The article concerns a study aimed at the determination of the maximum temperature which can be achieved and whether it affects the accuracy of their positioning.

  16. Social Networks in Later Life: Weighing Positive and Negative Effects on Health and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Karen S

    2015-02-01

    Social networks provide a mix of positive and negative experiences. Network members can provide help in times of need and day-to-day companionship, but they can also behave in ways that are inconsiderate, hurtful, or intrusive. Researchers must grapple with these dualities in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how social network ties affect health and well-being. This article provides an overview of research that has examined the health-related effects of positive and negative aspects of social network involvement. If focuses on later life, a time when risks for declining health and for the loss or disruption of social relationships increase.

  17. The effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on stress response in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Liste, M.G; María, G. A.; García-Belenguer, S.; Chacón, G.; Gazzola, P.; Villarroel, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on physiological stress response of commercial rabbits in Aragón (Spain). A total of 156 animals were sampled in a 2x2x3 factorial design testing two transport times: short, 1 hour (1hT) and long, 7 hours (7hT), in two different seasons: hot, during summer (HT) and cold during winter (CT), and three different positions on the truck: upper, middle or lower decks in multi-floor cages on rolling stands (MFR...

  18. [Effects of recruitment maneuver in prone position on hemodynamics in patients with severe pulmonary infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuan-hua; Liu, Yuan-fei; Zhu, Hua-yong; Zhang, Min

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate effects of recruitment maneuver in prone position on hemodynamics in patients with severe pulmonary infection, based on the protective pulmonary ventilation strategy. Ninety-seven cases with severe pulmonary infection admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Ganzhou City People's Hospital undergoing mechanical ventilation were involved. Volume controlled ventilation mode with small tidal volume (8 ml/kg) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 6 cm H(2)O [1 cm H(2)O = 0.098 kPa] was conducted. Each patient underwent recruitment maneuver in supine position and then in prone position [PEEP 20 cm H(2)O+pressure control (PC) 20 cm H(2)O]. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse oxygen saturation [SpO(2)] and blood gas analysis data were recorded before and after recruitment maneuver in either position. A double-lumen venous catheter was inserted into internal jugular vein or subclavian vein, and a pulse index contour cardiac output (PiCCO) catheter was introduced into femoral artery. Cardiac index (CI), stroke volume index (SVI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), intra-thoracic blood volume index (ITBVI), extra vascular lung water index (EVLWI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI), global ejection fraction (GEF), stroke volume variation (SVV) and central vein pressure (CVP) were monitored. (1) Compared with data before recruitment maneuver, there were no significant differences in HR and MAP after supine position and prone position recruitment maneuver, but significant differences in SpO(2) were found between before and after recruitment maneuver when patients' position was changed (supine position: 0.954 ± 0.032 vs. 0.917 ± 0.025, P recruitment maneuver (P recruitment maneuver, CI [L×min(-1)×m(-2)], SVI (ml/m(2)), GEDVI (ml/m(2)) and GEF were decreased significantly during recruitment maneuver (supine position: CI 3.2 ± 0.4 vs. 3.8 ± 0.6, SVI 32.4 ± 5.6 vs. 38.8 ± 6.5, GEDVI 689 ± 44 vs. 766 ± 32, GEF 0.267 ± 0

  19. Mediating Effects of Positive Thinking and Social Support on Suicide Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matel-Anderson, Denise M; Bekhet, Abir K; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio

    2018-02-01

    Suicide has been the second leading cause of death for 18- to 24-year-olds in the United States since 2011. The stress experienced by undergraduate college students has the potential to increase one's risk for suicide. Resilience theory was used as a theoretical framework to examine the interplay between risk and protective factors. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used to assess the mediating effects of positive thinking and/or social support on suicide resilience in 131 college students 18 to 24 years old who completed an online survey. The study found an indirect effect of self-esteem on suicide resilience through positive thinking and social support indicating that as self-esteem increases, positive thinking and social support also increase, which leads to an increase in resilience. The study also found a direct effect of self-esteem, positive thinking, and social support on suicide resilience. The findings inform the development of tailored interventions to build suicide resilience in college students.

  20. Accuracy assessment of Precise Point Positioning with multi-constellation GNSS data under ionospheric scintillation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Haroldo Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available GPS and GLONASS are currently the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS with full operational capacity. The integration of GPS, GLONASS and future GNSS constellations can provide better accuracy and more reliability in geodetic positioning, in particular for kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP, where the satellite geometry is considered a limiting factor to achieve centimeter accuracy. The satellite geometry can change suddenly in kinematic positioning in urban areas or under conditions of strong atmospheric effects such as for instance ionospheric scintillation that may degrade satellite signal quality, causing cycle slips and even loss of lock. Scintillation is caused by small scale irregularities in the ionosphere and is characterized by rapid changes in amplitude and phase of the signal, which are more severe in equatorial and high latitudes geomagnetic regions. In this work, geodetic positioning through the PPP method was evaluated with integrated GPS and GLONASS data collected in the equatorial region under varied scintillation conditions. The GNSS data were processed in kinematic PPP mode and the analyses show accuracy improvements of up to 60% under conditions of strong scintillation when using multi-constellation data instead of GPS data alone. The concepts and analyses related to the ionospheric scintillation effects, the mathematical model involved in PPP with GPS and GLONASS data integration as well as accuracy assessment with data collected under ionospheric scintillation effects are presented.

  1. Accuracy assessment of Precise Point Positioning with multi-constellation GNSS data under ionospheric scintillation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo Antonio; Marques, Heloísa Alves Silva; Aquino, Marcio; Veettil, Sreeja Vadakke; Monico, João Francisco Galera

    2018-02-01

    GPS and GLONASS are currently the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with full operational capacity. The integration of GPS, GLONASS and future GNSS constellations can provide better accuracy and more reliability in geodetic positioning, in particular for kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP), where the satellite geometry is considered a limiting factor to achieve centimeter accuracy. The satellite geometry can change suddenly in kinematic positioning in urban areas or under conditions of strong atmospheric effects such as for instance ionospheric scintillation that may degrade satellite signal quality, causing cycle slips and even loss of lock. Scintillation is caused by small scale irregularities in the ionosphere and is characterized by rapid changes in amplitude and phase of the signal, which are more severe in equatorial and high latitudes geomagnetic regions. In this work, geodetic positioning through the PPP method was evaluated with integrated GPS and GLONASS data collected in the equatorial region under varied scintillation conditions. The GNSS data were processed in kinematic PPP mode and the analyses show accuracy improvements of up to 60% under conditions of strong scintillation when using multi-constellation data instead of GPS data alone. The concepts and analyses related to the ionospheric scintillation effects, the mathematical model involved in PPP with GPS and GLONASS data integration as well as accuracy assessment with data collected under ionospheric scintillation effects are presented.

  2. [Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive (posttraumatic growth - PTG) effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59%) who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy - positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5):635-644. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and positive (posttraumatic growth – PTG effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Material and Methods: Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59% who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73. Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale – Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. Results: The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy – positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. Conclusions: The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5:635–644

  4. The Positive Effects of Trait Emotional Intelligence during a Performance Review Discussion – A Psychophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Mikko; Ravaja, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Performance review discussions of real manager–subordinate pairs were examined in two studies to investigate the effects of trait emotional intelligence (EI) on dyad member’s felt and expressed emotions. Altogether there were 84 managers and 122 subordinates in two studies using 360 measured and self-reported trait EI. Facial electromyography, and frontal electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry were collected continuously. Manager’s high trait EI was related to increased positive valence emotional facial expressions in the dyad during the discussions. The managers also had more EEG frontal asymmetry indicating approach motivation, than the subordinates. In addition, actor and partner effects and actor × partner interactions, and interactions between the role and actor or partner effect of trait EI were observed. Both actor and partner trait EI were related to more positive self-reported emotional valence. The results imply that trait EI has a role in organizational social interaction. PMID:28400747

  5. Pilot study: Assessing the effect of continual position monitoring technology on compliance with patient turning protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, Suann Cirigliano; Tarver, Christine; Pezzani, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    The study aim was to evaluate if continual patient position monitoring, taking into account self-turns and clinician-assisted turns, would increase the percentage of time a patient's position changed at least every 2 hr. While patient turning has clinical benefits, current models to help staff remember to turn patients, such as "turn clocks" and timers, have not resulted in high compliance with turning protocols. In addition, reminders are based on arbitrary 2-hr windows (such as turning on "even" hours) rather than on individual patient activity, including self-turns. This is a first inpatient, non-randomized, pre-/postintervention study. Data collection occurred from May 2013-February 2014 on a 39-bed medical unit in a community hospital. Baseline patient turning data were recorded by a sensor; however, the patient data were not displayed at the nurses' station to establish compliance with the hospital's turning protocol. Postintervention, patient position information was wirelessly displayed on nurses' station computer monitors in real time. A Student t test was used to compare baseline to postintervention "mean time in compliance." Data from 138 patients ( N  =   7,854 hr of monitoring) were collected. The baseline phase yielded 4,322 hr of position monitoring data and the postintervention phase yielded 3,532 hr of data. Statistically significant improvement was demonstrated in the percentage of time a patient's position changed at least every 2 hr from baseline to postintervention.

  6. Self-management and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): The mediating effects of positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Roberto P; Abascal-Bolado, Beatriz; Dulohery, Megan M

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to increase our understanding of general self-management (SM) abilities in COPD by determining if SM can predict disease specific quality of life (QoL), by investigating whether specific SM domains are significant in COPD and by exploring the mediating effect of the positive/negative affect in the association between SM and QoL. Cross-sectional study based on 292 patients with COPD. Measures included demographics, lung function, gait speed, health care utilization, positive/negative affect, SM abilities, breathlessness and disease specific QoL. We performed, correlation, multiple regression models and mediation analysis (positive/negative affect being mediator between SM and QoL association). After controlling for breathlessness, living alone, marital status, hospitalization history, age and lung function, SM related to QoL (pnegative affect ratio completely mediates the relationship of SM with QoL. SM is independently associated with disease specific QoL in COPD after adjustment significant covariates but positive/negative affect ratio completely mediates the relationship of SM with QoL. Measuring positive/negative affect and addressing investment behavior and self-efficacy are important in implementing COPD-SM programs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy position on cranial tibial subluxation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaleski, Michael P; Apelt, Detlef; Mattoon, John S; Litsky, Alan S

    2005-01-01

    To compare centered versus distal tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) position on cranial tibial subluxation, postoperative tibial plateau angle (TPA), and tibial long axis shift (TLAS). In vitro biomechanical evaluation. Six pairs of canine cadaveric hind limbs. One limb of each pair was randomly assigned to the distal (TPLO-D) or centered (TPLO-C) osteotomy group. Cranial tibial subluxation (CTS) under load was quantified sequentially under 3 conditions: intact, after cranial cruciate ligament transection, and after TPLO; a corrected CTS value was also calculated. Postoperative TPA and TLAS were measured. Comparisons were made using 1-way repeated measures ANOVA with a Tukey's multiple comparison post hoc test for CTS, and a Wilcoxon's sign rank test for TPA and TLAS. Significance was set at Pcranial tibial thrust. The centered osteotomy position is geometrically more precise, and biomechanically more effective than the distal position.

  8. Pressure effect in the X-ray intrinsic position resolution in noble gases and mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Azevedo, C.D.R.

    2016-12-13

    A study of the gas pressure effect in the position resolution of an interacting X- or gamma-ray photon in a gas medium is performed. The intrinsic position resolution for pure noble gases (Argon and Xenon) and their mixtures with CO2 and CH4 were calculated for several gas pressures (1-10bar) and for photon energies between 5.4 and 60.0 keV, being possible to establish a linear match between the intrinsic position resolution and the inverse of the gas pressure in that energy range. In order to evaluate the quality of the method here described, a comparison between the available experimental data and the calculated one in this work, is done and discussed. In the majority of the cases, a strong agreement is observed.

  9. Does being attractive always help? Positive and negative effects of attractiveness on social decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agthe, Maria; Spörrle, Matthias; Maner, Jon K

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies of organizational decision making demonstrate an abundance of positive biases directed toward highly attractive individuals. The current research, in contrast, suggests that when the person being evaluated is of the same sex as the evaluator, attractiveness hurts, rather than helps. Three experiments assessing evaluations of potential job candidates (Studies 1 and 3) and university applicants (Study 2) demonstrated positive biases toward highly attractive other-sex targets but negative biases toward highly attractive same-sex targets. This pattern was mediated by variability in participants' desire to interact with versus avoid the target individual (Studies 1 and 2) and was moderated by participants' level of self-esteem (Study 3); the derogation of attractive same-sex targets was not observed among people with high self-esteem. Findings demonstrate an important exception to the positive effects of attractiveness in organizational settings and suggest that negative responses to attractive same-sex targets stem from perceptions of self-threat.

  10. Short alleles, bigger smiles? The effect of 5-HTTLPR on positive emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M; Beermann, Ursula; Saslow, Laura R; Shiota, Michelle N; Saturn, Sarina R; Lwi, Sandy J; Casey, James J; Nguyen, Nguyen K; Whalen, Patrick K; Keltner, Dacher; Levenson, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The present research examined the effect of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene on objectively coded positive emotional expressions (i.e., laughing and smiling behavior objectively coded using the Facial Action Coding System). Three studies with independent samples of participants were conducted. Study 1 examined young adults watching still cartoons. Study 2 examined young, middle-aged, and older adults watching a thematically ambiguous yet subtly amusing film clip. Study 3 examined middle-aged and older spouses discussing an area of marital conflict (that typically produces both positive and negative emotion). Aggregating data across studies, results showed that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR predicted heightened positive emotional expressions. Results remained stable when controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with the notion that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR functions as an emotion amplifier, which may confer heightened susceptibility to environmental conditions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effects of upright and supine position on cardiac rest and exercise response in aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W F; Roubin, G S; Fletcher, P J; Choong, C Y; Hutton, B F; Harris, P J; Kelly, D T

    1985-02-01

    The effects of upright and supine position on cardiac response to exercise were assessed by radionuclide ventriculography in 15 patients with moderate to severe aortic regurgitation (AR) and in 10 control subjects. In patients with AR, heart rate was higher during upright exercise, but systolic and diastolic blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) output were similar during both forms of exercise. LV stroke volume and end-diastolic volume were not altered during supine exercise. LV end-systolic volume increased and ejection fraction decreased during supine exercise, but both were unchanged during upright exercise. Of 15 patients, 5 in the upright and 12 in the supine position had an abnormal LV ejection fraction response to exercise (p less than 0.01). Right ventricular ejection fraction increased and regurgitant index decreased with both forms of exercise and was not significantly different between the 2 positions. Thus, posture is important in determining LV response to exercise in patients with moderate to severe AR.

  12. Characterization of the positive and negative inotropic effects of acetylcholine in the human myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xiaoyi; Schoemaker, Regien; Bos, Egbert; Saxena, Pramod Ranjan

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn the human isolated myocardium, acetylcholine (10−9 to 10−3 M) elicited a biphasic inotropic effect (a decrease in the lower and an increase in the higher concentration range) in atrial and a positive inotropic effect in ventricular trabeculae. However, under conditions of raised contractility achieved by exposure to noradrenaline (10−5 M), only negative inotropic effects were observed in both atria and ventricles. Atropine (10−6 M), but not propranolol (10−6 M), antagonized bot...

  13. Coopetition Effect Determinants: Competitor’s Size, Geographical Scope, Market and Technological Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cygler Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Goal: The article is aimed at conducting an empirical analysis of the value and significance of coopetitors’ attributes thanks to which coopetition, which is a combination of cooperation and competition between competitors, generates a substantial corporate profit. Four major competitors’ attributes have been analysed: its size, geographical scope, market and technological position. The research also includes the Porter’s value chain.

  14. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  15. Indirect Effects of Attributional Style for Positive Events on Depressive Symptoms Through Self-Esteem During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; George, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative events and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive events and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.2, SD = .70). The sample was ethnically/racially diverse, with 55 % White, 22 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian American, 3 % African American, and 10 % Biracial/Other. Correlational analyses indicated significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between an enhancing attributional style (internal, stable, global attributions for positive events), self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Further, prospective analyses using bootstrapping methodology demonstrated significant indirect effects of an enhancing attributional style on decreases in depressive symptoms through its effects on self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering attributional style for positive events as a protective factor in the developmental course of depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  16. The effect of motivation and positive affect on ego depletion: Replenishment versus release mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ze; Li, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Li, Ye; Zhang, Houcan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate whether motivation and positive affect can alleviate ego depletion and to elucidate their possible mechanisms. In Experiment 1, a crossing-out-letter task was adapted to reach an ego depletion state for Chinese participants. Participants were then randomly assigned to the extrinsic motivation group, the positive affect group or the depletion control group. After the experimental treatment, a dumbbell task was used to measure participants' remaining self-regulatory resources. The results showed that participants in the motivation and positive affect groups performed better on the dumbbell task than participants in the depletion control group. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants were asked to perform an additional unexpected dumbbell task after a neutral video following the above procedure. The results of Experiment 1 were replicated; however, participants' performance on the additional dumbbell task differed. The positive affect group performed better than the depletion control group, indicating an increase in self-regulatory resources and thus supporting the replenishment effect of positive affect. No significant difference was found between the motivation group and the depletion control group. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. Effect of pods' position on the protein content in soybean grains at low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Victor Gomes Sales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean grains have a high protein content, which can vary depending on various factors, as the pods' position throughout the plant. In this sense, aiming to study the effect of pods' position on the main stem of the plant for grades of soybean proteins, It has been accomplished in the years 2010 and 2011, a trial with ten soybean cultivars in the experimental area of the Federal University of Tocantins in Palmas. The experimental area was randomized blocks with 30 treatments and three replications. Treatments were arranged in one a split plot, being allocated in Ten cultivars plots (BRS Valuable, P98Y51, P98Y70, P99R03, M8527RR, M8925RR, M9144RR, M8867RR, and TMG103RR, and the sub plots In the pods' position on the plant (upper third, intermediate, and basal third. According to the results, we can conclude that there is variability among the pods' position. The grains located in the median and apical plant showed a trend of higher protein content. Cultivar P98Y70 showed the highest protein value. In the sampling grain for protein quantitation, it is recommended to use grains of pods located at the same position of the plant.

  18. Effect of quantum well position on the distortion characteristics of transistor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piramasubramanian, S.; Ganesh Madhan, M.; Radha, V.; Shajithaparveen, S. M. S.; Nivetha, G.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of quantum well position on the modulation and distortion characteristics of a 1300 nm transistor laser is analyzed in this paper. Standard three level rate equations are numerically solved to study this characteristics. Modulation depth, second order harmonic and third order intermodulation distortion of the transistor laser are evaluated for different quantum well positions for a 900 MHz RF signal modulation. From the DC analysis, it is observed that optical power is maximum, when the quantum well is positioned near base-emitter interface. The threshold current of the device is found to increase with increasing the distance between the quantum well and the base-emitter junction. A maximum modulation depth of 0.81 is predicted, when the quantum well is placed at 10 nm from the base-emitter junction, under RF modulation. The magnitude of harmonic and intermodulation distortion are found to decrease with increasing current and with an increase in quantum well distance from the emitter base junction. A minimum second harmonic distortion magnitude of -25.96 dBc is predicted for quantum well position (230 nm) near to the base-collector interface for 900 MHz modulation frequency at a bias current of 20 Ibth. Similarly, a minimum third order intermodulation distortion of -38.2 dBc is obtained for the same position and similar biasing conditions.

  19. Effect of body position changes on pulmonary gas exchange in Eisenmenger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, J; Alvarado, P; Martínez-Guerra, M L; Gómez, A; Palomar, A; Meza, S; Santos, E; Rosas, M

    1999-04-01

    Preliminary studies on sleep of patients with congenital heart disease and Eisenmenger's syndrome (ES) at our institution demonstrated nocturnal worsening arterial unsaturation, which appeared to be a body position-related phenomenon. To investigate the potential effect of body position on gas exchange in ES, we carried out a prospective study of 28 patients (mean age, 34.8 +/- 11.7 yr) with established ES due to congenital heart disease. In every patient, arterial blood gases were performed during both sitting and supine positions under three different conditions: room air, while breathing 100% oxygen, and after breathing oxygen at a flow rate of 3 L/min through nasal prongs. Alveolar oxygen pressure (PaO2) for the calculation of alveolar-arterial oxygen tension differences (AaPO2) was derived from the alveolar gas equation using PaCO2 and assuming R = 1. We used paired t test, repeated-measures two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's test, and regression analysis. From sitting to supine position on room air, there was a significant decrease in PaO2 (from 52.5 +/- 7.5 to 47.5 +/- 5.5 mm Hg; p position. A ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) distribution abnormality and/or a diffusion limitation phenomenon rather than an increase in true shunt may be the mechanisms responsible for this finding. The response to nasal O 2 we observed warrants a trial with long-term nocturnal oxygen therapy in these patients.

  20. The effect of positive and negative movie alcohol portrayals on transportation and attitude toward the movie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the effects of alcohol portrayals on transportation and attitude toward a movie. In addition, we examined whether positive and negative movie alcohol portrayals affect transportation into and attitude toward the movie. A within-subject design was used in which participants were exposed to 8 different movie clips containing alcohol (positive or negative context) or no alcohol portrayals in a controlled laboratory setting. A total of 159 college students (84 males and 75 females) ages 18 to 30 participated in the experiment. Transportation and attitude toward the movie were measured after each movie clip. Participants were more transported into and had a more positive attitude toward movie clips with alcohol portrayals compared to the same movie clips with no alcohol portrayal. In addition, participants were more transported into movie clips with negative alcohol (NA) portrayals compared to clips with positive alcohol (PA) portrayals. For attitude toward the movie, opposite results were found. Participants had a more positive attitudes toward clips with PA portrayals compared to clips with NA portrayals. The way alcohol is portrayed in movies may contribute to how people evaluate and get transported in movies. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.